National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for organic carbon content

  1. Soil organic carbon and nutrient content in aggregate-size fractions of a subtropical rice soil under variable tillage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Soil organic carbon and nutrient content in aggregate-size fractions of a subtropical rice soil The effects of tillage on soil organic carbon (SOC) and nutrient content of soil aggregates can vary spatially and temporally, and for different soil types and cropping systems. We assessed SOC and nutrient levels within

  2. Stability and stabilisation of biochar and green manure in soil with different organic carbon contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    Stability and stabilisation of biochar and green manure in soil with different organic carbon-poor soil, whereas the difference was only 0.1 kg/m2 .year with Tithonia diversifolia green manure. Biochar of biochar exceeds that of a labile organic matter addition such as green manure. Additional keywords

  3. Hidden cycle of dissolved organic carbon in the deep ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Repeta, Daniel J.

    Marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a large (660 Pg C) reactive carbon reservoir that mediates the oceanic microbial food web and interacts with climate on both short and long timescales. Carbon isotopic content ...

  4. Carbon Mineralization and Labile Organic Carbon Pools in the Sandy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grunwald, Sabine

    Carbon Mineralization and Labile Organic Carbon Pools in the Sandy Soils of a North Florida mineralization were best explained by TOC (62%) and hot-water- extractable C (59%), whereas acid-hydrolyzable C mineralization and clay content were directly linearly correlated, indicating a possible stimulatory effect

  5. Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinke, P.J.; Stangenberger, A.G.; Post, W.M.; Emanual, W.R.; Olson, J.S.

    1986-09-01

    The objective of the research presented in this package was to identify data that could be used to estimate the size of the soil organic carbon pool under relatively undisturbed soil conditions. A subset of the data can be used to estimate amounts of soil carbon storage at equilibrium with natural soil-forming factors. The magnitude of soil properties so defined is a resulting nonequilibrium values for carbon storage. Variation in these values is due to differences in local and geographic soil-forming factors. Therefore, information is included on location, soil nitrogen content, climate, and vegetation along with carbon density and variation.

  6. Organic carbon-14 in the Amazon River system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedges, J.I.; Ertel, J.R.; Quay, P.D.; Grootes, P.M.; Richey, J.E.; Devol, A.H.; Farwell, G.W.; Schmidt, F.W.; Salati, E.

    1986-03-07

    Coarse and fine suspended particulate organic materials and dissolved humic and fulvic acids transported by the Amazon River all contain bomb-produced carbon-14, indicating relatively rapid turnover of the parent carbon pools. However, the carbon-14 contents of these coexisting carbon forms are measurably different and may reflect varying degrees of retention by soils in the drainage basin. 20 references, 1 table.

  7. TOC Total organic carbon MBC Microbial biomass carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    C Carbon TOC Total organic carbon MBC Microbial biomass carbon Active C Pool Indicated by Light, the relationship between carbon dynamics including total organic carbon (TOC) storage, microbial biomass carbon and microbial biomass carbon in subsoil 4 years after rehabilitation · Microbial biomass carbon had a positive

  8. ORGANIC CONTENT OF LAKE WATER By EDWARD A. BIRGE and CHANCEY JUDAY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORGANIC CONTENT OF LAKE WATER .:I- By EDWARD A. BIRGE and CHANCEY JUDAY Wisconsin Geological and Natural HistolY Sun'ey .:I- CONTENTS Page Introductlon; ~ - - _________ 185 I.-Data__u u n _ 186 Dissolved carbon; 194 n.-Discussion o(the data-Contd. Total organic content u _ Total organic matter, including

  9. Organic carbon burial forcing of the carbon cycle from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derry, Louis A.

    Organic carbon burial forcing of the carbon cycle from Himalayan erosion Christian France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weathering and erosion can affect the long-term ocean­atmo- sphere budget of carbon dioxide both through of Neogene Himalayan erosion on the carbon cycle is an increase in the amount of organic carbon

  10. 5, 11391174, 2008 Organic carbon and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    BGD 5, 1139­1174, 2008 Organic carbon and nutrient export from disturbed peatlands S. Waldron et al of Biogeosciences The significance of organic carbon and nutrient export from peatland-dominated landscapes subject Union. 1139 #12;BGD 5, 1139­1174, 2008 Organic carbon and nutrient export from disturbed peatlands S

  11. Table of Contents Division Organization 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Security and Forensics 33 NIST Cloud Computing Project 34 Policy Machine 35 Security for Grid#12;2002 Table of Contents Welcome 1 Division Organization 2 The Computer Security Division Implements the 3 Federal Information Security Management Act of Security Management and Assurance Group 4

  12. Protein carbon content evolves in response to carbon availability and may influence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Andreas

    Protein carbon content evolves in response to carbon availability and may influence the fate that ancestral yeast strains preferentially express proteins with low carbon content during carbon limitation, relative to strains selected in the laboratory under carbon limitation. The likely reason

  13. Registered Graduate Student Organization TABLE OF CONTENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raina, Ramesh

    Graduate Student Organizations 5 IV. New Graduate Student Organization Recognition Process 8 V. Funding prepare students for particular professions after graduation. d. Religious i. Any organization that has

  14. Modeling of thermally induced vibration of carbon Contents list

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Modeling of thermally induced vibration of carbon nanotubes ( ) #12;#12;Contents list 1 modeling ....................................................................... 6 1.3 Thermal-Mechanical vibration ...................................................................... 12 2.1.1 Cantilevered SWNT

  15. Optimizing Carbon Nanotube Contacts for Use in Organic Photovoltaics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, T. M.; Blackburn, J. L.; Tenent, R. C.; Morfa, A.; Heben, M.; Coutts, T. J.

    2008-05-01

    This report describes research on optimizing carbon nanotube networks for use as transparent electrical contacts (TCs) in organic photovoltaics (OPV).

  16. Research Article Connecting Soil Organic Carbon and Root Biomass with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debinski, Diane M.

    of Earth's terrestrial organic carbon but are sensitive to land-use. Rangelands are important to carbon. Introduction Soils constitute the greatest stock of terrestrial organic carbon [1] and soil properties can major pathways of organic matter input--root tissue and exudates--directly involve plants [22]. Roots

  17. Oxidation of atmospheric organic carbon : interconnecting volatile organic compounds, intermediate-volatility organic compounds, and organic aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunter, James Freeman

    2015-01-01

    .Organic molecules have many important roles in the atmosphere, acting as climate and biogeochemical forcers, and in some cases as toxic pollutants. The lifecycle of atmospheric organic carbon is extremely complex, with ...

  18. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  19. The dual influences of dissolved organic carbon on hypolimnetic metabolism: organic substrate and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Jonathan J.

    The dual influences of dissolved organic carbon on hypolimnetic metabolism: organic substrate investigated the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on hypolimnetic metabolism (accumulation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and methane (CH4)) in 21 lakes across a gradient of DOC concentrations (308 to 1540

  20. Soil Organic Carbon Degradation, Barrow, 2013-2014

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gu, Baohua; Yang, Ziming

    2015-03-30

    This dataset provides information about soil organic carbon decomposition in Barrow soil incubation studies. The soil cores were collected from low-center polygon (Area A) and were incubated in the laboratory at different temperatures for up to 60 days. Transformations of soil organic carbon were characterized by UV and FT-IR, and small organic acids in water-soluble carbons were quantified by ion chromatography during the incubation

  1. Soil Organic Carbon Degradation, Barrow, 2013-2014

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gu, Baohua; Yang, Ziming

    This dataset provides information about soil organic carbon decomposition in Barrow soil incubation studies. The soil cores were collected from low-center polygon (Area A) and were incubated in the laboratory at different temperatures for up to 60 days. Transformations of soil organic carbon were characterized by UV and FT-IR, and small organic acids in water-soluble carbons were quantified by ion chromatography during the incubation

  2. Researchers question published no-till soil organic carbon sequestration rates | EurekAlert ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ... published no-till soil organic carbon sequestration rates ... researchers have published soil organic carbon sequestration rates. Many of the ... have suggested that soil organic carbon can be sequestered by simply ...

  3. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Having Carbon Nanotube Anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, George

    , flexible anodes for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). For polymer-based OLEDs having the structure applications. Polymer and small molecule-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are rapidly approachingOrganic Light-Emitting Diodes Having Carbon Nanotube Anodes Jianfeng Li, Liangbing Hu, Lian Wang

  4. Maximum total organic carbon limit for DWPF melter feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A.S.

    1995-03-13

    DWPF recently decided to control the potential flammability of melter off-gas by limiting the total carbon content in the melter feed and maintaining adequate conditions for combustion in the melter plenum. With this new strategy, all the LFL analyzers and associated interlocks and alarms were removed from both the primary and backup melter off-gas systems. Subsequently, D. Iverson of DWPF- T{ampersand}E requested that SRTC determine the maximum allowable total organic carbon (TOC) content in the melter feed which can be implemented as part of the Process Requirements for melter feed preparation (PR-S04). The maximum TOC limit thus determined in this study was about 24,000 ppm on an aqueous slurry basis. At the TOC levels below this, the peak concentration of combustible components in the quenched off-gas will not exceed 60 percent of the LFL during off-gas surges of magnitudes up to three times nominal, provided that the melter plenum temperature and the air purge rate to the BUFC are monitored and controlled above 650 degrees C and 220 lb/hr, respectively. Appropriate interlocks should discontinue the feeding when one or both of these conditions are not met. Both the magnitude and duration of an off-gas surge have a major impact on the maximum TOC limit, since they directly affect the melter plenum temperature and combustion. Although the data obtained during recent DWPF melter startup tests showed that the peak magnitude of a surge can be greater than three times nominal, the observed duration was considerably shorter, on the order of several seconds. The long surge duration assumed in this study has a greater impact on the plenum temperature than the peak magnitude, thus making the maximum TOC estimate conservative. Two models were used to make the necessary calculations to determine the TOC limit.

  5. Carbon isotope ratios of organic compound fractions in oceanic suspended particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Jeomshik; Druffel, Ellen R. M

    2006-01-01

    Radiocarbon evidence of fossil-carbon cycling in sediments1968), Metabolic fractionation of carbon isotopes in marineof particulate organic carbon using bomb 14 C, Nature,

  6. Challenges for improving estimates of soil organic carbon stored...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Challenges for improving estimates of soil organic carbon stored in permafrost regions September 30, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint One of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st...

  7. Carbon aging mechanisms and effects on retention of organic iodides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyder, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The activated carbon used to treat the off-gas from the Savannah River Plant prodution reactor building was studied to determine the chemical changes occurring in this carbon during its service life. The carbon is a coconut-shell charcoal impregnated with 1% triethylenediamine (TEDA) and 2% KI. It was known that during its 30-month service life the carbon becomes more acidic and less effective for retaining iodine in organic form. The study showed that the most important change occurring in the carbon is the reaction of KI to give other chemical forms of iodine. The reacted iodine is unavailable for exchange with alkyl iodides. The results suggest that the carbon reacts with KI to form organic compounds, but small amounts of oxidized iodine may also be presnt. There is also evidence that some iodide is lost from the carbon altogether. The TEDA impregnant is lost from the carbon very quickly, and has no importance after a few months. The specific reactions by which the impregnant is lost have not been identified. However, mathematical analysis shows that the carbon performance data are consistent with the reaction of iodide impregnant with impurities in the air flowing through the carbon bed. Additional mathematical analysis, based on electron microscopic observation of the carbon particles, indicates that the external surfaces of the carbon are mainly responsible for their effectiveness in retaining iodine. Consequently, the condition of the impregnants on a relatively small fraction of the carbon surface can have a large effect on its performance. 4 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Impact of nitrogenous fertiliser-induced proton release on cultivated soils with contrasting carbonate contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailhes, Corinne

    carbonate contents: A column experiment Laure Gandois, Anne-Sophie Perrin, Anne Probst Universite´ de in car- bonated soils. Undisturbed soil columns containing different carbonate content were sampled includes leaching of NO3 to surface and ground water and eutrophication (e.g. Seitzinger and Kroeze, 1998

  9. Characterization of Siberian Arctic coastal sediments: Implications for terrestrial organic carbon export

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Laodong

    pyrolysis-GC/MS of the sedimentary organic carbon (SOC) indicated an increase in the freshness for carbon. As such, large quantities of soil organic carbon are stored in the region. It is estimated

  10. Management effects on labile organic carbon pools 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolodziej, Scott Michael

    2005-08-29

    Experimental Farm near College Station, TX prompted us to examine the effects of tillage and rotation on soil organic C (SOC), soil microbial biomass C (SMBC), 38-day cumulative C mineralization (38-day CMIN), hot-water extractable organic C (hot...

  11. Yucca Mountain Area Saturated Zone Dissolved Organic Carbon Isotopic Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, James; Decker, David; Patterson, Gary; Peterman, Zell; Mihevc, Todd; Larsen, Jessica; Hershey, Ronald

    2007-06-25

    Groundwater samples in the Yucca Mountain area were collected for chemical and isotopic analyses and measurements of water temperature, pH, specific conductivity, and alkalinity were obtained at the well or spring at the time of sampling. For this project, groundwater samples were analyzed for major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) performed all the fieldwork on this project including measurement of water chemistry field parameters and sample collection. The major ions dissolved in the groundwater, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were analyzed by the USGS. All preparation and processing of samples for DOC carbon isotopic analyses and geochemical modeling were performed by the Desert Research Institute (DRI). Analysis of the DOC carbon dioxide gas produced at DRI to obtain carbon-13 and carbon-14 values was conducted at the University of Arizona Accelerator Facility (a NSHE Yucca Mountain project QA qualified contract facility). The major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of DIC were used in geochemical modeling (NETPATH) to determine groundwater sources, flow paths, mixing, and ages. The carbon isotopes of DOC were used to calculate groundwater ages that are independent of DIC model corrected carbon-14 ages. The DIC model corrected carbon-14 calculated ages were used to evaluate groundwater travel times for mixtures of water including water beneath Yucca Mountain. When possible, groundwater travel times were calculated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient sample sites. DOC carbon-14 groundwater ages were also calculated for groundwaters in the Yucca Mountain area. When possible, groundwater travel times were estimated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient groundwater sample sites using the DOC calculated groundwater ages. The DIC calculated groundwater ages were compared with DOC calculated groundwater ages and both of these ages were compared to travel times developed in ground-water flow and transport models. If nuclear waste is stored in Yucca Mountain, the saturated zone is the final barrier against the release of radionuclides to the environment. The most recent rendition of the TSPA takes little credit for the presence of the saturated zone and is a testament to the inadequate understanding of this important barrier. If radionuclides reach the saturated zone beneath Yucca Mountain, then there is a travel time before they would leave the Yucca Mountain area and flow down gradient to the Amargosa Valley area. Knowing how long it takes groundwater in the saturated zone to flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient areas is critical information for potential radionuclide transport. Radionuclide transport in groundwater may be the quickest pathway for radionuclides in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository to reach land surface by way of groundwater pumped in Amargosa Valley. An alternative approach to ground-water flow and transport models to determine the travel time of radionuclides from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient areas in the saturated zone is by carbon-14 dating of both inorganic and organic carbon dissolved in the groundwater. A standard method of determining ground-water ages is to measure the carbon-13 and carbon-14 of DIC in the groundwater and then correct the measured carbon-14 along a flow path for geochemical reactions that involve carbon containing phases. These geochemical reactions are constrained by carbon-13 and isotopic fractionations. Without correcting for geochemical reactions, the ground-water ages calculated from only the differences in carbon-14 measured along a flow path (assuming the decrease in carbon-14 is due strictly to radioactive decay) could be tens of thousands of years too old. The computer program NETPATH, developed by the USGS, is the best geochemical program for correcting carbon-14 activities for geochemical r

  12. Determination of dissolved organic carbon in concentrated brine solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hannaker, P.; Buchanan, A.S.

    1983-10-01

    An absolute method is reported for the determination of soluble organic carbon in concentrated brine solutions. Wet oxidation with K/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 8/ is used in a sealed ampule at 130/sup 0/C, followed by hot CuO treatment of the gas stream, to fully oxidize organic species to CO/sub 2/. The CO/sub 2/ is measured gravimetrically after gas purification. Results are presented for a wide range of soluble organic species, both with and without NaCl present. This procedure now allows for the accurate determination of organic carbon in brines over a range from about 5 ppm to values in excess of 1000 ppm. The technique overcomes the difficulties of calibration curvature, catalytic clogging, and instrumental fogging, often encountered in modern instrumental methods, when applied to concentrated brine solutions. 1 figure, 3 tables.

  13. Glossary of Volatile Organic Compounds Ethylbenzene Carbon tetrachloride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glossary of Volatile Organic Compounds · Ethylbenzene · Carbon tetrachloride · Benzene · 1 and petroleum. It is also found in manufactured products such as inks, insecticides, and paints. Ethylbenzene, carpet glues, varnishes and paints, and use of tobacco. Some people are exposed to ethylbenzene at work

  14. Fates of Eroded Soil Organic Carbon: Mississippi Basin Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, S. V.; Sleezer, R. O.; Renwick, W. H.; Buddemeier, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a mass balance analysis of organic carbon (OC) across the five major river subsystems of the Mississippi (MS) Basin (an area of 3.2 3 106 km2). This largely agricultural landscape undergoes a bulk soil erosion rate of ;480 t·km22...

  15. Dissolved organic carbon export with North Pacific Intermediate Water formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansell, Dennis

    Dissolved organic carbon export with North Pacific Intermediate Water formation Dennis A. Hansell 2002. [1] An evaluation of DOC export with the formation of North Pacific Intermediate Water east of Japan. The new intermediate water, formed at a rate of 2­5 Sv, exports DOC at 13 ± 6 Tg DOC yr

  16. Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes in organic media for polymer:fullerene photovoltaic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Soon Hyung

    Highly dispersed carbon nanotubes in organic media for polymer:fullerene photovoltaic devices Gwang photovoltaic device are fabricated using homogeneously dispersed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a polymer. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials promise the production

  17. Soil organic carbon sequestration potential of cropland in China Zhangcai Qin,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    Soil organic carbon sequestration potential of cropland in China Zhangcai Qin,1,2 Yao Huang,1), Soil organic carbon sequestration potential of cropland in China, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 27, doi:10 carbon (SOC) in cropland is of great importance to the global carbon (C) balance and to agricultural

  18. Carbon-catalyzed gasification of organic feedstocks in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, X.; Matsumura, Y.; Stenberg, J.; Antal, M.J. Jr. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Natural Energy Inst.] [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Natural Energy Inst.

    1996-08-01

    Spruce wood charcoal, macadamia shell charcoal, coal activated carbon, and coconut shell activated carbon catalyze the gasification of organic compounds in supercritical water. Feedstocks studied in this paper include glycerol, glucose, cellobiose, whole biomass feedstocks (depithed bagasse liquid extract and sewage sludge), and representative Department of Defense (DoD) wastes (methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, ethylene glycol, acetic acid, and phenol). The effects of temperature, pressure, reactant concentration, weight hourly space velocity, and the type of catalyst on the gasification of glucose are reported. Complete conversion of glucose (22% by weight in water) to a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas was realized at a weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 22.2 h{sup {minus}1} in supercritical water at 600 C, 34.5 MPa. Complete conversions of the whole biomass feeds were also achieved at the same temperature and pressure. The destruction efficiencies for the representative DoD wastes were also high. Deactivation of the carbon catalyst was observed after 4 h of operation without swirl in the entrance region of the reactor, but the carbon gasification efficiency remained near 100% for more than 6 h when a swirl generator was employed in the entrance of the reactor.

  19. Mercury retention by fly ashes from coal combustion: Influence of the unburned carbon content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Anton, M.A.; Diaz-Somoano, M.; Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.

    2007-01-31

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of unburned carbon particles present in fly ashes produced by coal combustion on mercury retention. To achieve this objective, the work was divided into two parts. The aim of the first part of the study was to estimate the amount of mercury captured by the fly ashes during combustion in power stations and the relationship of this retention to the unburned carbon content. The second part was a laboratory-scale study aimed at evaluating the retention of mercury concentrations greater than those produced in power stations by fly ashes of different characteristics and by unburned carbon particles. From the results obtained it can be inferred that the unburned carbon content is not the only variable that controls mercury capture in fly ashes. The textural characteristics of these unburned particles and of other components of fly ashes also influence retention.

  20. Fractionation between inorganic and organic carbon during the Lomagundi (2.222.1 Ga) carbon isotope excursion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bekker, Andrey

    is poorly characterized. Because dissolved inorganic and organic carbon reservoirs were arguably larger deposition, a carbon isotope fractionation as large as ~37 appears to characterize the production of bulk was dominated by a large dissolved inorganic carbon reservoir during the Lomagundi excursion. Our study suggests

  1. Organized Research Unit (ORU) on Carbon Capture and Sequestration: Meeting the Needs of the Energy Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    Organized Research Unit (ORU) on Carbon Capture and Sequestration: Meeting the Needs of the Energy of an Organized Research Unit (ORU) on Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS). The purpose of this effort Frontier Research Center proposal: "Integrated Science of Geological Carbon Sequestration" to BES office

  2. Master/Diploma project Degradation of carbon dioxide by micro organisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    Master/Diploma project Degradation of carbon dioxide by micro organisms The accumulation of carbon of the carbon dioxide release is an important objective in the near future. Various strategies are discussed or storage of produced carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, applications based on fossil fuels cannot be improved

  3. Interaction effects of climate and land use/land cover change on soil organic carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grunwald, Sabine

    Interaction effects of climate and land use/land cover change on soil organic carbon sequestration carbon sequestration Climate change Soil carbon change Historically, Florida soils stored the largest in Florida (FL) have acted as a sink for carbon (C) over the last 40 years. · Climate interacting with land

  4. Sorption of organic carbon compounds to the fine fraction of surface and Subsurface Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jagadamma, Sindhu [ORNL; Mayes, Melanie [ORNL; Zinn, Yuri [Federal University of Lavras, Brazil; Gisladottir, Gudrun [University of Iceland; Ann, Russell [Iowa State University

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) transported from the soil surface is stabilized in deeper soil profiles by physicochemical sorption processes. However, it is unclear how different forms of organic carbon (OC) compounds common in soil organic matter interact with soil minerals in the surface (A) and subsurface (B) horizons. We added four compounds (glucose, starch, cinnamic acid and stearic acid) to the silt- and clay-sized fraction (fine fraction) of A and B horizons of eight soils from varying climates (3 temperate, 3 tropical, 1 arctic and 1 sub-arctic). Equilibriumbatch experiments were conducted using 0 to 100 mg C L 1 of 14C-labeled compounds for 8 h. Sorption parameters (maximum sorption capacity, Qmax and binding coefficient, k) calculated by fitting sorption data to the Langmuir equation showed that Qmax of A and B horizons was very similar for all compounds. Both Qmax and k values were related to sorbate properties, with Qmax being lowest for glucose (20 500 mg kg 1), highest for stearic acid (20,000 200,000 mg kg 1), and intermediate for both cinnamic acid (200 4000 mg kg 1) and starch (400 6000 mg kg 1). Simple linear regression analysis revealed that physicochemical properties of the sorbents influenced the Qmax of cinnamic acid and stearic acid, but not glucose and starch. The sorbent properties did not show predictive ability for binding coefficient k. By using the fine fraction as sorbent, we found that the mineral fractions of A horizons are equally reactive as the B horizons irrespective of soil organic carbon content.

  5. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM SUBCRITICAL WATER WITH ACTIVATED CARBON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven B. Hawthorne; Arnaud J. Lagadec

    1999-08-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has demonstrated that controlling the temperature (and to a lesser extent, the pressure) of water can dramatically change its ability to extract organics and inorganics from matrices ranging from soils and sediments to waste sludges and coal. The dielectric constant of water can be changed from about 80 (a very polar solvent) to <5 (similar to a nonpolar organic solvent) by controlling the temperature (from ambient to about 400 C) and pressure (from about 5 to 350 bar). The EERC has shown that hazardous organic pollutants such as pesticides, PACS (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) can be completely removed from soils, sludges, and sediments at temperatures (250 C) and pressures (<50 atm) that are much milder than typically used for supercritical water processes (temperature >374 C, pressure >221 atm). In addition, the process has been demonstrated to be particularly effective for samples containing very high levels of contaminants (e.g., part per thousand). Current projects include demonstrating the subcritical water remediation process at the pilot scale using an 8-liter system constructed under separate funding during 1997. To date, subcritical water has been shown to be an effective extraction fluid for removing a variety of organic pollutants from soils and sludges contaminated with fossil fuel products and waste products, including PACS from soil (e.g., town gas sites), refining catalysts, and petroleum tank bottom sludges; PCBs from soil and sediments; toxic gasoline components (e.g., benzene) from soil and waste sludge; and phenols from petroleum refinery sludges. The obvious need to clean the wastewater from subcritical water processes led to preliminary experiments with activated carbon placed in line after the extractor. Initial experiments were performed before and after cooling the extractant water (e.g., with water at 200 C and with water cooled to 25 C). Surprisingly, the ability of activated carbon to remove organics from the water is better at a high temperature than at room temperature. These initial results are opposite to those expected from chromatographic theory, since the solubility of the organics is about 100,000-fold higher in the hot water than in ambient water. At present, the physicochemical mechanism accounting for these results is unknown; however, it is possible that the lower surface tension and lower viscosity of subcritical water (compared to water at ambient conditions) greatly increases the available area of the carbon by several orders of magnitude. Regardless of the mechanism involved, the optimal use of activated carbon to clean the wastewater generated from subcritical water remediation will depend on obtaining a better understanding of the controlling parameters. While these investigations focused on the cleanup of wastewater generated from subcritical water remediation, the results also apply to cleanup of any wastewater contaminated with nonpolar and moderately polar organics such as wastewaters from coal and petroleum processing.

  6. Relationship between pyrite formation and organic sulfur content of coal as revealed by electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond, R. Jr.; Hagan, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    There are a large number of questions concerning the mode of occurrence of organic sulfur in peat, and what, if anything, alters its occurrence during and after coalification. The formation of pyrite during periods of peatification and coalification has been hypothesized to have a great effect on the organic sulfur content of organic material surrounding the pyrite. Measurement of organic sulfur contents at different distances from pyrite particles would serve as direct experimental proof for or against this pypothesis. A combination of in situ energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) line profiles, EDS x-ray maps, and WDS analyses across pyrite/coal interfaces in a variety of coals shows unequivocally that formation of pyrite does not alter the organic sulfur contents of the surrounding coal macerals.

  7. Dissolved organic carbon dynamics in anaerobic sediments of the Santa Monica Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    an organic-rich coastal sediment. Geochim. Cosmochim. Actaorganic carbon in sediments from the North Carolinaexchange between deep ocean sediments and sea water. Nature

  8. Reduction of carbon content in waste-tire combustion ashes by bio-thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.C.; Lee, W.J.; Shih, S.I.; Mou, J.L.

    2009-07-01

    Application of bio-catalyst (NOE-7F) in thermal treatment can adequately dispose dark-black fly ashes from co-combustion of both waste tires and coal. After thermal treatment of fly ashes by adding 10% NOE-7F, the carbon contents reduced by 37.6% and the weight losses increased by 405%, compared with the fly ashes without mixing with NOE-7F. The combustion behaviors of wasted tires combustion fly ashes with NOE-7F were also investigated by both thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results verify that NOE-7F has positive effects on the combustion of residual carbon and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enhance the energy release and reduce the toxicity during the process of thermal treatment. Furthermore, using NOE-7F to dispose high-carbon content fly ashes did improve the compressive strength of fly ashes and concrete mixtures. Therefore, NOE-7F is a promising additive which could decrease treatment cost of high-carbon content fly ashes and reduce the amount of survival toxic PAHs.

  9. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to minerals and low-organic-carbon aquifer sediments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimaldi, Gabriel Orlando

    1999-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms and major geochemical factors ics. controlling the sorption of nontoxic organic chemicals (NOC) to mineral surfaces in low-organic-carbon soils and sediments remain unclear. The objectives of this research were to study...

  10. Mobilization and Transport of Organic Compounds from Reservoir Rock and Caprock in Geological Carbon Sequestration Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Lirong; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Shewell, Jesse L.

    2014-05-06

    Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is an excellent solvent for organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX), phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Monitoring results from geological carbon sequestration (GCS) field tests has shown that organic compounds are mobilized following CO2 injection. Such results have raised concerns regarding the potential for groundwater contamination by toxic organic compounds mobilized during GCS. Knowledge of the mobilization mechanism of organic compounds and their transport and fate in the subsurface is essential for assessing risks associated with GCS. Extraction tests using scCO2 and methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) were conducted to study the mobilization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, including BTEX), the PAH naphthalene, and n-alkanes (n-C20 – n-C30) by scCO2 from representative reservoir rock and caprock obtained from depleted oil reservoirs and coal from an enhanced coal-bed methane recovery site. More VOCs and naphthalene were extractable by scCO2 compared to the CH2Cl2 extractions, while scCO2 extractable alkane concentrations were much lower than concentrations extractable by CH2Cl2. In addition, dry scCO2 was found to extract more VOCs than water saturated scCO2, but water saturated scCO2 mobilized more naphthalene than dry scCO2. In sand column experiments, moisture content was found to have an important influence on the transport of the organic compounds. In dry sand columns the majority of the compounds were retained in the column except benzene and toluene. In wet sand columns the mobility of the BTEX was much higher than that of naphthalene. Based upon results determined for the reservoir rock, caprock, and coal samples studied here, the risk to aquifers from contamination by organic compounds appears to be relatively low; however, further work is necessary to fully evaluate risks from depleted oil reservoirs.

  11. Highly efficient carbon dioxide capture with a porous organic polymer impregnated with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik Suh, Myunghyun

    Highly efficient carbon dioxide capture with a porous organic polymer impregnated environmental crises such as global warming and ocean acidication, efficient carbon dioxide (CO2) capture As CO2 capture mate- rials, numerous solid adsorbents such as silica5 and carbon materials,6 metal

  12. Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks for Clean Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks efficient systems to capture carbon dioxide. Additionally, we have a long-standing collaboration with BASF, and carbon dioxide isotherm measurements were performed at 1-85 bar and 77-298 K on the evacuated forms

  13. Doctoral Defense "Carbon Dioxide Capture on Elastic Layered Metal-Organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    Doctoral Defense "Carbon Dioxide Capture on Elastic Layered Metal-Organic Framework Adsorbents Professor, Civil & Environmental Engineering The steady rising level of atmospheric carbon dioxide resulting to the economy that is heavily relied on fossil fuels. Although the transition of the existing carbon

  14. Relationship between Compost Stability and Extractable Organic Carbon L. Wu and L. Q. Ma*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Relationship between Compost Stability and Extractable Organic Carbon L. Wu and L. Q. Ma* ABSTRACT to the factEstablishing a simple yet reliable compost stability test is essential that NaOH-extractable organic carbon (OC) containsfor a better compost quality control and utilization efficiency. The objective

  15. Thermoelectric Behavior of Flexible Organic Nanocomposites with Carbon Nanotubes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Kyung Who

    2013-12-03

    .3 Results and discussion …………………………………………….27 vi Page 3.4 Conclusions………………………………………………………..34 CHAPTER IV HIGHLY DOPED CARBON NANOTUBES WITH GOLD NANOPARTICLES AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY AND THERMOPOWER ………..36 4... with carbon nanotubes ………...76 7.3 Highly doped carbon nanotubes with gold nanoparticles and their influence on electric conductivity and thermopower……………………………………………………...77 7.4 N-type thermoelectric performance of functionalized carbon nanotube...

  16. Controls on black carbon storage in soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czimczik, Claudia I; Masiello, Caroline A

    2007-01-01

    Physical and chemical protection of soil organic carbonin three agricultural soils with different contents ofcalcium carbonate, Aust. J. Soil Res. , 38, 1005 – 1016.

  17. Carbon isotopes and lipid biomarkers from organic-rich facies of the Shuram Formation, Sultanate of Oman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Woodward

    carbon reservoir in seawater, release of methane from sediment-hosted clathrates, or water column of the observed time-series trends. We report carbon isotope data from bulk organic carbon, extracted bitumenCarbon isotopes and lipid biomarkers from organic-rich facies of the Shuram Formation, Sultanate

  18. Carbon Dioxide Separation with Novel Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Willis; Annabelle Benin; John Low; Ganesh Venimadhavan; Syed Faheem; David Lesch; Adam Matzger; Randy Snurr

    2008-02-04

    The goal of this program was to develop a low cost novel sorbent to remove carbon dioxide from flue gas and gasification streams in electric utilities. Porous materials named metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were found to have good capacity and selectivity for the capture of carbon dioxide. Several materials from the initial set of reference MOFs showed extremely high CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities and very desirable linear isotherm shapes. Sample preparation occurred at a high level, with a new family of materials suitable for intellectual property protection prepared and characterized. Raman spectroscopy was shown to be useful for the facile characterization of MOF materials during adsorption and especially, desorption. Further, the development of a Raman spectroscopic-based method of determining binary adsorption isotherms was initiated. It was discovered that a stronger base functionality will need to be added to MOF linkers in order to enhance CO{sub 2} selectivity over other gases via a chemisorption mechanism. A concentrated effort was expended on being able to accurately predict CO{sub 2} selectivities and on the calculation of predicted MOF surface area values from first principles. A method of modeling hydrolysis on MOF materials that correlates with experimental data was developed and refined. Complimentary experimental data were recorded via utilization of a combinatorial chemistry heat treatment unit and high-throughput X-ray diffractometer. The three main Deliverables for the project, namely (a) a MOF for pre-combustion (e.g., IGCC) CO{sub 2} capture, (b) a MOF for post-combustion (flue gas) CO{sub 2} capture, and (c) an assessment of commercial potential for a MOF in the IGCC application, were completed. The key properties for MOFs to work in this application - high CO{sub 2} capacity, good adsorption/desorption rates, high adsorption selectivity for CO{sub 2} over other gases such as methane and nitrogen, high stability to contaminants, namely moisture, and easy regenerability, were all addressed during this program. As predicted at the start of the program, MOFs have high potential for CO{sub 2} capture in the IGCC and flue gas applications.

  19. Spatial and temporal distributions of particulate matter and particulate organic carbon, Northeast Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernal, Christina Estefana

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of particulate matter (PM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) was determined during the Northeast Gulf of Mexico Chemical Oceanography and Hydro-graphy program (NEGOM). The hydrography and physical forcing ...

  20. Organic Carbon Cycling in East China Sea Shelf Sediments: Linkages with Hypoxia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinxin

    2013-01-03

    The Changjiang River provides the main source of sediment and terrestrial derived organic carbon (OC) to the Changjiang large delta-front estuary (LDE) in the East China Sea (ECS). This study analyzed bulk OC, biomarkers including lignin and plant...

  1. Polymer and carbon nanotube materials for chemical sensors and organic electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Fei, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    This thesis details the development of new materials for high-performance chemical sensing as well as organic electronic applications. In Chapter 2, we develop a chemiresistive material based on single-walled carbon nanotubes ...

  2. Quantification of soil organic carbon using mid- and near- DRIFT spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Misun

    2004-09-30

    ) and oxidizable organic carbon (OCWB) fraction were calibrated and predicted by mid- and near-DRIFT spectroscopy in combination with partial least squares (PLS) regression method. PLS regression is a multivariate calibration method that can decompose spectral data...

  3. Highly efficient separation of carbon dioxide by a metal-organic framework replete with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    media. carbon dioxide capture dynamic adsorption reticular chemistry Selective removal of CO2 fromHighly efficient separation of carbon dioxide by a metal-organic framework replete with open metal capture of CO2, which is essential for natural gas purifi- cation and CO2 sequestration, has been reported

  4. The effects of harvesting intensity on soil CO2 efflux and carbon content in an east Texas bottomland hardwood ecosystem 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Londo, Andrew James

    1995-01-01

    land. I examined the effects of harvest intensity on in situ and mineral soil respiration, along with total soil and soluble organic carbon, were examined in a bottomland hardwood forest. Treatments included a clearcut, a partial cut, and a non...

  5. Origin of particulate organic carbon in the marine atmosphere as indicated by it stable carbon isotopic composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesselet, R.; Fontugne, M.; Buat-Menard, P.; Ezat, U.; Lambert, C.E.

    1981-04-01

    Organic carbon concentration and isotopic composition were determined in samples of atmospheric particulate matter collected in 1979 at remote marine locations (Enewetak atoll, Sargasso Sea) during the SEAREX (Sea-Air Exchange) program field experiments. Atmospheric Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) concentrations were found to be in the range of 0.3 to 1.2 mg. m/sup -3/, in agreement with previous literature data. The major mass of POC was found on the smallest particles (r<0.5 mm). The /sup 13/C//sup 12/C of the small particles is close to the one expected (d/sup 13/C = 26 +- 2/sup 0///sub infinity/) for atmospheric POC of continental origin. For all the samples analysed so far, it appears that more than 80% of atmospheric POC over remote marine areas is of continental origin. This can be explained either by long-range transport of small sized continental organic aserosols or by the production of POC in the marine atmosphere from a vapor phase organic carbon pool of continental origin. The POC in the large size fraction of marine aerosols (<20% of the total concentration) is likely to have a direct marine origin since its carbon isotopic composition is close to the expected value (d/sup 13/C = -21 +- 2/sup 0///sub 00/) for POC associated with sea-salt droplets transported to the marine atmosphere.

  6. Metal-Containing Organic and Carbon Aerogels for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satcher, Jr., J H; Baumann, T F; Herberg, J L

    2005-01-10

    This document and the accompanying manuscript summarize the technical accomplishments of our one-year LDRD-ER effort. Hydrogen storage and hydrogen fuel cells are important components of the 2003 Hydrogen Fuel Initiative focused on the reduction of America's dependence on oil. To compete with oil as an energy source, however, one must be able to transport and utilize hydrogen at or above the target set by DOE (6 wt.% H{sub 2}) for the transportation sector. Other than liquid hydrogen, current technology falls well short of this DOE target. As a result, a variety of materials have recently been investigated to address this issue. Carbon nanostructures have received significant attention as hydrogen storage materials due to their low molecular weight, tunable microporosity and high specific surface areas. For example, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) achieved 5 to 10 wt.% H{sub 2} storage using metal-doped carbon nanotubes. That study showed that the intimate mix of metal nanoparticles with graphitic carbon resulted in the unanticipated hydrogen adsorption at near ambient conditions. The focus of our LDRD effort was the investigation of metal-doped carbon aerogels (MDCAs) as hydrogen storage materials. In addition to their low mass densities, continuous porosities and high surface areas, these materials are promising candidates for hydrogen storage because MDCAs contain a nanometric mix of metal nanoparticles and graphitic nanostructures. For FY04, our goals were to: (1) prepare a variety of metal-doped CAs (where the metal is cobalt, nickel or iron) at different densities and carbonization temperatures, (2) characterize the microstructure of these materials and (3) initiate hydrogen adsorption/desorption studies to determine H2 storage properties of these materials. Since the start of this effort, we have successfully prepared and characterized Ni- and Co-doped carbon aerogels at different densities and carbonization temperatures. The bulk of this work is described in the attached manuscript entitled 'Formation of Carbon Nanostructures in Cobalt- and Nickel- Doped Carbon Aerogels'. This one-year effort has lead to our incorporation into the DOE Carbon-based Hydrogen Storage Center of Excellence at NREL, with funding from DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Program starting in FY05.

  7. Organic solar cells with carbon nanotube network electrodes Michael W. Rowell,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Organic solar cells with carbon nanotube network electrodes Michael W. Rowell,a Mark A. Topinka for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS), Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenbergerstrasse 69, A-4040 Linz, Austria, flexible polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells. The printing method produces relatively smooth

  8. Anomalous Capacitance Maximum of the Glassy Carbon-Ionic Liquid Interface through Dilution with Organic Solvents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    with Organic Solvents David J. Bozym, Betul Uralcan, David T. Limmer, Michael A. Pope, Nicholas J. Szamreta liquid with miscible organic solvents on the differential capacitance of the glassy carbon,2-dichloroethane, a low- dielectric constant solvent, yield the largest gains in capacitance near the open circuit

  9. Improved Detection of Bed Boundaries for Petrophysical Evaluation with Well Logs: Applications to Carbonate and Organic-Shale Formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    : Applications to Carbonate and Organic-Shale Formations Zoya Heidari, SPE, Texas A&M University and Carlos of well logs acquired in organic shales and carbonates is challenging because of the presence of thin beds acquired in thinly bedded carbonates and in the Haynesville shale-gas formation. Estimates of petrophysical

  10. Transport of organic carbon from the California coast to the slope region: A study of Delta 14 C and delta 13 C signatures of organic compound classes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Jeomshik; Druffel, Ellen R. M; Komada, Tomoko

    2005-01-01

    Channel, California, in Shelf Sediment Transport: Processesthat lateral transport of OC on the California margin is an2005 Transport of organic carbon from the California coast

  11. 1 INTRODUCTION In many groundwater environments, organic carbon,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Jennifer A.

    - duced from metabolism of contaminating aromatic hydrocarbons corresponds to the increased dissolu- tion nutrients such as ni- trogen and phosphorus are scarce. When carbon in the form of a contaminant is added can alter silicate solubility directly when attached, by perturbing mineral-water equilibria

  12. Substrate and environmental controls on microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon: a framework for Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Schimel, Joshua; Thornton, Peter E; Song, Xia; Yuan, Fengming; Goswami, Santonu

    2014-01-01

    Microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon is one of the fundamental processes of global carbon cycling and it determines the magnitude of microbial biomass in soils. Mechanistic understanding of microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon and its controls is important for to improve Earth system models ability to simulate carbon-climate feedbacks. Although microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon is broadly considered to be an important parameter, it really comprises two separate physiological processes: one-time assimilation efficiency and time-dependent microbial maintenance energy. Representing of these two mechanisms is crucial to more accurately simulate carbon cycling in soils. In this study, a simple modeling framework was developed to evaluate the substrate and environmental controls on microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon using a new term: microbial annual active period (the length of microbes remaining active in one year). Substrate quality has a positive effect on microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon: higher substrate quality (lower C:N ratio) leads to higher ratio of microbial carbon to soil organic carbon and vice versa. Increases in microbial annual active period from zero stimulate microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon; however, when microbial annual active period is longer than an optimal threshold, increasing this period decreases microbial biomass. The simulated ratios of soil microbial biomass to soil organic carbon are reasonably consistent with a recently compiled global dataset at the biome-level. The modeling framework of microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon and its controls developed in this study offers an applicable ways to incorporate microbial contributions to the carbon cycling into Earth system models for simulating carbon-climate feedbacks and to explain global patterns of microbial biomass.

  13. Quantification of the Effects of Organic and Carbonate Buffers on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

    on a Goethite-Based Granular Porous Adsorbent M A S A K A Z U K A N E M A T S U , * , T H O M A S M . Y O U N G well characterized goethite-based adsorbent (Bayoxide E33 (E33)). All adsorption isotherms obtained calibrated using independent published carbonate adsorption data for pure goethite taking into consideration

  14. Method and apparatus for regenerating activated carbon containing an adsorbed volatile organic absorbate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiggelbeck, D.D.; Goyak, G.M.

    1993-07-27

    A method is described for regenerating spent activated carbon containing adsorbed volatile organic adsorbate comprising: establishing a confined downwardly moving bed of activated carbon; adding spent carbon to the top of said bed; introducing superheated steam into the bottom of said bed in contact with said carbon; recovering exit gas including predominantly superheated steam and volatilized adsorbate from the top of said bed; circulating a portion of said exit gas through a superheater and compressor to the bottom of said bed; withdrawing a portion of said exit gas through a cooler to condense steam and volatile adsorbate; continuously circulating superheated steam in a closed loop through said downwardly moving bed, said compressor and said superheater; recovering partially regenerated activated carbon containing residual volatile adsorbate from the bottom of said bed.

  15. Organic carbon flux and organic carbon to calcite flux ratio recorded in deep-sea carbonates: Demonstration and a new proxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oceanography: General: Equatorial oceanography; 4805 Oceanography: Biological and Chemical: Biogeochemical cycles (1615); 4806 Oceanography: Biological and Chemical: Carbon cycling; 4842 Oceanography: Biological

  16. Progress in Organic Coatings 75 (2012) 2027 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    2012-01-01

    Progress in Organic Coatings 75 (2012) 20­27 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Progress in Organic Coatings journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/porgcoat Tailoring the release of encapsulated corrosion inhibitors from damaged coatings: Controlled release kinetics by overlapping diffusion

  17. Sources and Fates of Dissolved Organic Carbon in Rural and Urban Watersheds in Brazos County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cioce, Danielle

    2012-10-19

    The Bryan/College Station (B/CS) region has been reported to have elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface water. Increased DOC concentrations are worrisome as DOC has been shown to be an energy source for the recovery...

  18. The Effect of Metal Salts on Quantification of Elemental and Organic Carbon in Diesel Exhaust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    The Effect of Metal Salts on Quantification of Elemental and Organic Carbon in Diesel Exhaust-loaded diesel samples. Estimated TC was calculated from the BC concentration measured by optical transmissometer and linear relationship between TC and BC, TC (µg)= 1.78 ×BC(µg) - 21.97, derived from diesel reference

  19. Seasonal changes in the age and structure of dissolved organic carbon in Siberian rivers and streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neff, Jason

    > 100%) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy techniques showed high concentration soils or other terrestrial sources of old, previously stabilized C. Citation: Neff, J. C., J. C. Finlay]. The resulting soil deposits contain organic carbon concentrations that average between 2­5% C with numerous

  20. Continuous Flow Analysis of Total Organic Carbon in Polar Ice Cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, Thomas

    Continuous Flow Analysis of Total Organic Carbon in Polar Ice Cores U R S F E D E R E R , * , , P, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, and British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom Received May 6, 2008. Revised manuscript

  1. Identification of Sediment Organic Carbon Location and Association with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Contaminated Sediment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Identification of Sediment Organic Carbon Location and Association with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Contaminated Sediment Upal Ghosh1 , Richard G. Luthy1 , J. Seb Gillette2 , and Richard N long-term issue confronting sediment bioremediation is the lack of understanding of contaminant-sediment

  2. Carbon allocation among tree organs: A review of basic processes and representation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    allocation coefficients; (ii) models based on growth rules, including functional balance or "goal allocation is a key component in function- al-structural tree models (FSTMs). In the short term, parReview Carbon allocation among tree organs: A review of basic processes and representation

  3. Seasonal and interannual changes in particulate organic carbon export and deposition in the Chukchi Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansell, Dennis

    Seasonal and interannual changes in particulate organic carbon export and deposition in the Chukchi) export fluxes were estimated in the shelf-slope region of the Chukchi Sea using measurements of 234 ThÀ238 U disequilibria and the POC/234 Th ratio in large (>53-mm) particles. These export fluxes were

  4. Optical Properties of Mixed Black Carbon, Inorganic and Secondary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulson, S E

    2012-05-30

    Summarizes the achievements of the project, which are divided into four areas: 1) Optical properties of secondary organic aerosols; 2) Development and of a polar nephelometer to measure aerosol optical properties and theoretical approaches to several optical analysis problems, 3) Studies on the accuracy of measurements of absorbing carbon by several methods, and 4) Environmental impacts of biodiesel.

  5. Mobilization pathways of organic carbon from permafrost to arctic rivers in a changing climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Laodong

    Mobilization pathways of organic carbon from permafrost to arctic rivers in a changing climate rivers and Arctic coastal regions. To elucidate the transport pathways of SOC, radiocarbon composition is more readily influenced by modern terrestrial biomass, especially in large river basins which also

  6. Differential support of lake food webs by three types of terrestrial organic carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Jonathan J.

    from the t-DOC to bacteria pathway. Terrestrial POC significantly subsidized the production of bothLETTER Differential support of lake food webs by three types of terrestrial organic carbon Jonathan whole-lake additions of dissolved inorganic 13 C were made to reveal the pathways of subsidies to lakes

  7. Role of large-scale soil structure in organic carbon turnover: Evidence from California grassland soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Role of large-scale soil structure in organic carbon turnover: Evidence from California grassland soils Stephanie A. Ewing,1 Jonathan Sanderman,1 W. Troy Baisden,2 Yang Wang,3 and Ronald Amundson1 characterized the effect of large-scale (>20 mm) soil physical structure on the age and recalcitrance of soil

  8. Relative Content of Black Carbon in Submicron Aerosol as a Sign of the Effect of Forest Fire Smokes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozlov, V.S.; Panchenko, M.V.; Yauscheva, E.P.

    2005-03-18

    Biomass burning occurs often in regions containing vast forest tracts and peat-bogs. These processes are accompanied by the emission of a large amount of aerosol particles and crystal carbon (black carbon [BC], soot). BC is the predominant source of solar absorption in atmospheric aerosol, which impacts climate. (Jacobson 2001; Rozenberg 1982). In this paper, we analyze the results of laboratory and field investigations that focused on the relative content of BC in aerosol particles. Main attention is given to the study of possibility using this parameter as an informative sign for estimating the effect of remote forest fire smokes on the near-ground aerosol composition.

  9. Study on removal of organic sulfur compound by modified activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan Huiling; Li Chunhu; Guo Hanxian [Taiyuan Univ. of Technology (China). Research Inst. for Chemical Engineering of Coal

    1997-12-31

    With the price of coal increasing in China, more and more small and medium scale chemical plants are turning to high sulfur coal as the raw material in order to cut cost. However, the major drawback is that the lifetime of the ammonia synthesis catalyst is then reduced greatly because of the high concentration of the sulfur compounds in the synthesis gas, especially organic sulfur, usually CS{sub 2} and COS. The effects of water vapor and experimental temperature on removal of organic sulfur compounds by using a modified activated carbon were studied in this paper. It was found that water vapor had a negative effect on removal of carbon disulfide by activated carbon impregnated with organic amine. The use of activated carbon impregnated with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for removal of carbonyl sulfide was also investigated over the temperature range 30--60, the results show a favorable temperature (40) existing for carbonyl sulfide removal. Fixed-bed breakthrough curves for the adsorbent bed were also offered in this paper.

  10. Effects of Retained Austenite Volume Fraction, Morphology, and Carbon Content on Strength and Ductility of Nanostructured TRIP-assisted Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Yongfeng; Qiu, LN; Sun, Xin; Zuo, Liang; Liaw, Peter K.; Raabe, Dierk

    2015-06-01

    With a suite of multi-modal and multi-scale characterization techniques, the present study unambiguously proves that a substantially-improved combination of ultrahigh strength and good ductility can be achieved by tailoring the volume fraction, morphology, and carbon content of the retained austenite (RA) in a transformation-induced-plasticity (TRIP) steel with the nominal chemical composition of 0.19C-0.30Si-1.76Mn-1.52Al (weight percent, wt.%). After intercritical annealing and bainitic holding, a combination ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 1,100 MPa and true strain of 50% has been obtained, as a result of the ultrafine RA lamellae, which are alternately arranged in the bainitic ferrite around junction regions of ferrite grains. For reference, specimens with a blocky RA, prepared without the bainitic holding, yield a low ductility (35%) and a low UTS (800 MPa). The volume fraction, morphology, and carbon content of RA have been characterized using various techniques, including magnetic probing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron-backscatter-diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Interrupted tensile tests, mapped using EBSD in conjunction with the kernel average misorientation (KAM) analysis, reveal that the lamellar RA is the governingmicrostructure component responsible for the higher mechanical stability, compared to the blocky one. By coupling these various techniques, we quantitatively demonstrate that in addition to the RA volume fraction, its morphology and carbon content are equally important in optimizing the strength and ductility of TRIP-assisted steels.

  11. Nanostructured electrodes for organic bulk heterojunction solar cells: Model study using carbon nanotube dispersed polythiophene-fullerene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanostructured electrodes for organic bulk heterojunction solar cells: Model study using carbon for organic pseudo-bilayer solar cells J. Appl. Phys. 112, 084511 (2012) Addition of regiorandom poly(3 (2012) Tunable open-circuit voltage in ternary organic solar cells Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 163302 (2012

  12. Electrosynthesis of Organic Compounds from Carbon Dioxide Is Catalyzed by a Diversity of Acetogenic Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nevin, KP; Hensley, SA; Franks, AE; Summers, ZM; Ou, JH; Woodard, TL; Snoeyenbos-West, OL; Lovley, DR

    2011-04-20

    Microbial electrosynthesis, a process in which microorganisms use electrons derived from electrodes to reduce carbon dioxide to multicarbon, extracellular organic compounds, is a potential strategy for capturing electrical energy in carbon-carbon bonds of readily stored and easily distributed products, such as transportation fuels. To date, only one organism, the acetogen Sporomusa ovata, has been shown to be capable of electrosynthesis. The purpose of this study was to determine if a wider range of microorganisms is capable of this process. Several other acetogenic bacteria, including two other Sporomusa species, Clostridium ljungdahlii, Clostridium aceticum, and Moorella thermoacetica, consumed current with the production of organic acids. In general acetate was the primary product, but 2-oxobutyrate and formate also were formed, with 2-oxobutyrate being the predominant identified product of electrosynthesis by C. aceticum. S. sphaeroides, C. ljungdahlii, and M. thermoacetica had high (> 80%) efficiencies of electrons consumed and recovered in identified products. The acetogen Acetobacterium woodii was unable to consume current. These results expand the known range of microorganisms capable of electrosynthesis, providing multiple options for the further optimization of this process.

  13. Improved thermoelectric power output from multilayered polyethylenimine doped carbon nanotube based organic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewitt, Corey A.; Montgomery, David S.; Barbalace, Ryan L.; Carlson, Rowland D.; Carroll, David L., E-mail: carroldl@wfu.edu [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Wake Forest University, 501 Deacon Blvd., Winston Salem, North Carolina 27105 (United States)

    2014-05-14

    By appropriately selecting the carbon nanotube type and n-type dopant for the conduction layers in a multilayered carbon nanotube composite, the total device thermoelectric power output can be increased significantly. The particular materials chosen in this study were raw single walled carbon nanotubes for the p-type layers and polyethylenimine doped single walled carbon nanotubes for the n-type layers. The combination of these two conduction layers leads to a single thermocouple Seebeck coefficient of 96 ± 4??VK{sup ?1}, which is 6.3 times higher than that previously reported. This improved Seebeck coefficient leads to a total power output of 14.7 nW per thermocouple at the maximum temperature difference of 50?K, which is 44 times the power output per thermocouple for the previously reported results. Ultimately, these thermoelectric power output improvements help to increase the potential use of these lightweight, flexible, and durable organic multilayered carbon nanotube based thermoelectric modules in low powered electronics applications, where waste heat is available.

  14. Partitioning Behavior of Organic Contaminants in Carbon Storage Environments: A Critical Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burant, Aniela; Lowry, Gregory V.; Karamalidis, Athanasios K.

    2013-01-13

    Carbon capture and storage is a promising strategy for mitigating the CO{sub 2} contribution to global climate change. The large scale implementation of the technology mandates better understanding of the risks associated with CO{sub 2} injection into geologic formations and the subsequent interactions with groundwater resources. The injected supercritical CO{sub 2} (sc-CO{sub 2}) is a nonpolar solvent that can potentially mobilize organic compounds that exist at residual saturation in the formation. Here, we review the partitioning behavior of selected organic compounds typically found in depleted oil reservoirs in the residual oil–brine–sc-CO{sub 2} system under carbon storage conditions. The solubility of pure phase organic compounds in sc-CO{sub 2} and partitioning of organic compounds between water and sc-CO{sub 2} follow trends predicted based on thermodynamics. Compounds with high volatility and low aqueous solubility have the highest potential to partition to sc-CO{sub 2}. The partitioning of low volatility compounds to sc-CO{sub 2} can be enhanced by cosolvency due to the presence of higher volatility compounds in the sc-CO{sub 2}. The effect of temperature, pressure, salinity, pH, and dissolution of water molecules into sc-CO{sub 2} on the partitioning behavior of organic compounds in the residual oil–brine–sc-CO{sub 2} system is discussed. Data gaps and research needs for models to predict the partitioning of organic compounds in brines and from complex mixtures of oils are presented. Models need to be able to better incorporate the effect of salinity and cosolvency, which will require more experimental data from key classes of organic compounds.

  15. Partitioning Behavior of Organic Contaminants in Carbon Storage Environments: A Critical Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burant, Aniela; Lowry, Gregory V.; Karamalidis, Athanasios K.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage is a promising strategy for mitigating the CO{sub 2} contribution to global climate change. The large scale implementation of the technology mandates better understanding of the risks associated with CO{sub 2} injection into geologic formations and the subsequent interactions with groundwater resources. The injected supercritical CO{sub 2} (sc-CO{sub 2}) is a nonpolar solvent that can potentially mobilize organic compounds that exist at residual saturation in the formation. Here, we review the partitioning behavior of selected organic compounds typically found in depleted oil reservoirs in the residual oil–brine–sc-CO{sub 2} system under carbon storage conditions. The solubility of pure phase organic compounds in sc-CO{sub 2} and partitioning of organic compounds between water and sc-CO{sub 2} follow trends predicted based on thermodynamics. Compounds with high volatility and low aqueous solubility have the highest potential to partition to sc-CO{sub 2}. The partitioning of low volatility compounds to sc-CO{sub 2} can be enhanced by co-solvency due to the presence of higher volatility compounds in the sc-CO{sub 2}. The effect of temperature, pressure, salinity, pH, and dissolution of water molecules into sc-CO{sub 2} on the partitioning behavior of organic compounds in the residual oil-brine-sc-CO{sub 2} system is discussed. Data gaps and research needs for models to predict the partitioning of organic compounds in brines and from complex mixtures of oils are presented. Models need to be able to better incorporate the effect of salinity and co-solvency, which will require more experimental data from key classes of organic compounds.

  16. Constraining the propagation of bomb-radiocarbon through the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool in the northeast Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaupré, Steven R; Druffel, Ellen R.M.

    2009-01-01

    dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool in the northeast Paci?c14 C has penetrated the DOC pool to depths of Z450 m, thoughDIC) suggest that the DOC pool in the CNP contains bomb- 14

  17. Determining Sources of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Nutrients in an Urban Basin Using Novel and Traditional Methods 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Govil, Krittika

    2014-01-03

    Water quality in urban ecosystems is sensitive to localized disturbances potentially affecting those mechanisms which influence nutrient cycles. The Carters Creek Basin has been reported to have elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon...

  18. Effects of organic carbon supply rates on mobility of previously bioreduced uranium in a contaminated sediment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, J.

    2008-01-01

    and formation of stable uranyl carbonate complexes, therebyformation of very stable uranyl carbonate complexes, thereby

  19. Dissolved organic carbon export and subsequent remineralization in the mesopelagic and bathypelagic realms of the North Atlantic basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khatiwala, Samar

    Dissolved organic carbon export and subsequent remineralization in the mesopelagic and bathypelagic December 2009 Available online 7 March 2010 Keywords: DOC CFC AOU Carbon export NADW a b s t r a c for the main thermocline and North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) indicate a net DOC export rate of 0.081 Pg C yrÀ1

  20. Transport of Organic Contaminants Mobilized from Coal through Sandstone Overlying a Geological Carbon Sequestration Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Lirong; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Bacon, Diana H.; Shewell, Jesse L.

    2014-02-01

    Column experiments were conducted using a wetted sandstone rock installed in a tri-axial core holder to study the flow and transport of organic compounds mobilized by scCO2 under simulated geologic carbon storage (GCS) conditions. The sandstone rock was collected from a formation overlying a deep saline reservoir at a GCS demonstration site. Rock core effluent pressures were set at 0, 500, or 1000 psig and the core temperature was set at 20 or 50°C to simulate the transport to different subsurface depths. The concentrations of the organic compounds in the column effluent and their distribution within the sandstone core were monitored. Results indicate that the mobility though the core sample was much higher for BTEX compounds than for naphthalene. Retention of organic compounds from the vapor phase to the core appeared to be primarily controlled by partitioning from the vapor phase to the aqueous phase. Adsorption to the surfaces of the wetted sandstone was also significant for naphthalene. Reduced temperature and elevated pressure resulted in greater partitioning of the mobilized organic contaminants into the water phase.

  1. Steady state estimation of soil organic carbon using satellite-derived canopy leaf area index

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fang, Yilin; Liu, Chongxuan; Huang, Maoyi; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-12-02

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a key role in the global carbon cycle that is important for decadal-to-century climate prediction. Estimation of soil organic carbon stock using model-based methods typically requires spin-up (time marching transient simulation) of the carbon-nitrogen (CN) models by performing hundreds to thousands years long simulations until the carbon-nitrogen pools reach dynamic steady-state. This has become a bottleneck for global modeling and analysis, especially when testing new physical and/or chemical mechanisms and evaluating parameter sensitivity. Here we report a new numerical approach to estimate global soil carbon stock that can avoid the long term spin-up of themore »CN model. The approach uses canopy leaf area index (LAI) from satellite data and takes advantage of a reaction-based biogeochemical module NGBGC (Next Generation BioGeoChemical Module) that was recently developed and incorporated in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4). Although NGBGC uses the same CN mechanisms as used in CLM4CN, it can be easily configured to run prognostic or steady state simulations. In this approach, monthly LAI from the multi-year Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was used to calculate potential annual average gross primary production (GPP) and leaf carbon for the period of the atmospheric forcing. The calculated potential annual average GPP and leaf C are then used by NGBGC to calculate the steady-state distributions of carbon and nitrogen in different vegetation and soil pools by solving the steady-state reaction-network in NGBGC using the Newton-Raphson method. The new approach was applied at point and global scales and compared with SOC derived from long spin-up by running NGBGC in prognostic mode, and SOC from the empirical data of the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). The steady-state solution is comparable to the spin-up value when the MODIS LAI is close to the LAI from the spin-up solution, and largely captured the variability of the HWSD SOC across the different dominant plant functional types (PFTs) at global scale. The numerical correlation between the calculated and HWSD SOC was, however, weak at both point and global scales, suggesting that the models used in describing biogeochemical processes in CLM needs improvements and/or HWSD needs updating as suggested by other studies. Besides SOC, the steady state solution also includes all other state variables simulated by a spin-up run, such as NPP, GPP, total vegetation C etc., which makes the developed approach a promising tool to efficiently estimate global SOC distribution and evaluate and compare different aspects simulated by different CN mechanisms in the model.« less

  2. Dialkylene carbonate-bridged polysilsesquioxanes. Hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gels with a thermally labile bridging group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loy, D.A.; Beach, J.V.; Baugher, B.M.; Assink, R.A.; Shea, K.J.; Tran, J.; Small, J.H.

    1999-11-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce a new approach for altering the properties of bridged polysilsesquioxane xerogels using postprocessing modification of the polymeric network. The bridging organic group contains latent functionalities that can be liberated thermally, photochemically, or chemically after the gel has been processed to a xerogel. These modifications can produce changes in density, solubility, porosity, and or chemical properties of the material. Since every monomer possesses two latent functional groups, the technique allows for the introduction of high levels of functionality in hybrid organic-inorganic materials. Dialkylene carbonate-bridged polysilsesquioxane gels were prepared by the sol-gel polymerization of bis(triethoxysilylpropyl) carbonate and bis(triethoxysilylisobutyl) carbonate. Thermal treatment of the resulting nonporous xerogels and aerogels at 300--350 C resulted in quantitative decarboxylation of the dialkylene carbonate bridging groups to give new hydroxyalkyl and olefinic substituted polysilsesquioxane monolithic xerogels and aerogels that cannot be directly prepared through direct sol-gel polymerization of organotrialkoxysilanes.

  3. Effects of solar radiation on organic matter cycling: Formation of carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide (Chapter 11). Book chapter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zepp, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of photoinduced processes on carbon cycling and the biospheric emission of two important trace carbon gases--carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide--are examined. Both of these gases are likely to play an important role in the biospheric feedbacks that may reinforce or attenuate future changes in climate. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that a significant fraction of the global sources of both of these gases derives from the photochemical fragmentation of decayed plant materials and other biogenic organic matter in terrestrial and marine environments.

  4. PIERS ONLINE, VOL. 5, NO. 7, 2009 637 Ventilation Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halgamuge, Malka N.

    PIERS ONLINE, VOL. 5, NO. 7, 2009 637 Ventilation Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Concentration complex organic molecules being broken down to simpler molecules, such as carbon dioxide and water. Carbon dioxide waste is removed from the body through respiration. Carbon dioxide content in fresh air

  5. Photocatalytic and chemical oxidation of organic compounds in supercritical carbon dioxide. Progress report for FY97

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.M.; Bryant, D.L.; Reinsch, V.

    1997-09-30

    'The background for the project is briefly reviewed and the work done during the nine months since funding was received is documented. Work began in January, 1997. A post doctoral fellow joined the team in April. The major activities completed this fiscal year were: staffing the project, design of the experimental system, procurement of components, assembly of the system. preparation of the Safe Operating Procedure and ES and H compliance, pressure testing, establishing data collection and storage methodology, and catalyst preparation. Objective The objective of the project is to develop new chemistry for the removal of organic contaminants from supercritical carbon dioxide. This has application in processes used for continuous cleaning and extraction of parts and waste materials. A secondary objective is to increase the fundamental understanding of photocatalytic chemistry. Cleaning and extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}) can be applied to the solution of a wide range of environmental and pollution prevention problems in the DOE complex. Work is being done that explores scCO{sub 2} in applications ranging from cleaning contaminated soil to cleaning components constructed from plutonium. The rationale for use of scCO{sub 2} are based on the benign nature, availability and low cost, attractive solvent properties, and energy efficient separation of the extracted solute from the solvent by moderate temperature or pressure changes. To date, R and D has focussed on the methods and applications of the extraction steps of the process. Little has been done that addresses methods to polish the scCO{sub 2} for recycle in the cleaning or extraction operations. In many applications it will be desirable to reduce the level of contamination from that which would occur at steady state operation of a process. This proposal addresses chemistry to achieve that. This would be an alternative to removing a fraction of the contaminated scCO{sub 2} for disposal and using makeup scCO{sub 2}. A chemical polishing operation can reduce the release of CO{sub 2} from the process. It can also reduce the consumption of reagents that may be used in the process to enhance extraction and cleaning. A polishing operation will also reduce or avoid formation of an additional waste stream. Photocatalytic and other photochemical oxidation chemistry have not been investigated in scCO{sub 2}. The large base of information for these reactions in water, organic solvents, or air suggest that the chemistry will work in carbon dioxide. There are compelling reasons to believe that the properties of scCO{sub 2} should increase the performance of photocatalytic chemistry over that found in more conventional fluid phases.'

  6. Distribution, Speciation, and Elemental Associations of Soil Organic Carbon under Varying Landscape Topographic Positions at the Molecular Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Distribution, Speciation, and Elemental Associations of Soil Organic Carbon under Varying Landscape spectra and maps were collected. Results: C Distribution and Associations with the Major Elements in Soil Clay Particles Fig.1. Relative elemental distribution maps (9µm×6µm) of clay fractions from the A

  7. Speciation of ambient fine organic carbon particles and source apportionment of PM2.5 in Indian cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Mei

    2007; published 7 August 2007. [1] Fine particle organic carbon in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata­36% in Mumbai, 37­57% in Kolkata, and 28% in Chandigarh. These figures can be compared to the biomass combustion contributions to ambient PM2.5 of 7­20% for Delhi, 7­20% for Mumbai, 13­18% for Kolkata, and 8% for Chandigarh

  8. Differential Support of Lake Food Webs by Three Types of Terrestrial Organic Carbon ELE 00670-2005 Revision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Notre Dame, University of

    of dissolved inorganic 13 C were made to reveal the pathways of subsidies to lakes from terrestrial dissolved pathway. Terrestrial POC significantly subsidized the production of both zooplankton and benthic1 Differential Support of Lake Food Webs by Three Types of Terrestrial Organic Carbon ELE 00670

  9. Chemical Composition of Gas-Phase Organic Carbon Emissions from Motor Vehicles and Implications for Ozone Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Chemical Composition of Gas-Phase Organic Carbon Emissions from Motor Vehicles and Implications gasoline and diesel vehicles via two methods. First we use speciated measurements of exhaust emissions from-based, single vehicle dynamometer testing, and on-road measurements in roadway tunnels.3-12 Emission factors

  10. Carbon Nanosheets and Nanostructured Electrodes in Organic Photovoltaic Devices: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-321

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, D.

    2012-04-01

    Carbon nanosheet thin films were employed as nanostructured electrodes in organic solar cells. Due to the nanostructured texture of the carbon nanosheet electrodes, there was an increase in performance over standard ITO electrodes with very thick active layers. ZnO deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used as a hole blocking layer to provide for carrier selectivity of the carbon nanosheets.

  11. Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    2002-05-10

    Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

  12. Adsorption and desorption of atrazine and deethylatrazine by low organic carbon geologic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, W.R.; Krapac, I.G. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The adsorption and desorption of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6- isopropylamino-s-triazine) and a primary metabolite, deethylatrazine (2-amino-4-chloro-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine; DEA), by low organic C ({le} 3.3 g kg{sup -1}) materials were measured by batch-equilibrium techniques. The adsorbents were samples of glacial outwash sand, till, and stream sediments. The adsorption of both atrazine and DEA conformed to linear isotherms. The adsorption of atrazine by most of the absorbents yielded apparent K, values that were in excess of those based on surface agricultural soils. Adsorption correlated with only the pH of the sand-water suspensions. The desorption of atrazine was hysteretic under the conditions of the measurement. DEA had a lower affinity for the same adsorbents; the mean ratio of Kd values of DEA to those of atrazine was 0.37 {+-} 0.20. DEA adsorption did not correlate with organic C, surface area, clay content of the adsorbents, or with the pH of the suspensions. DEA adsorption, unlike atrazine, tended to be reversible. There was a linear relationship between the adsorption constants of atrazine and those of DEA. 40 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Carbon dioxide effects research and assessment program: flux of organic carbon by rivers to the oceans. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-04-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 15 papers presented in this workshop report. The state of knowledge about the role of rivers in the transport, storage and oxidation of carbon is the subject of this report. (KRM)

  14. Black carbon in the Gulf of Maine : new insights into inputs and cycling of combustion-derived organic carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores Cervantes, Déborah Xanat, 1978-

    2008-01-01

    Emissions of black carbon (BC), the soot and char formed during incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass fuels, have increased over the last century and are estimated to be between 8 and 270 Tg BC/yr. BC may affect ...

  15. Low Power, Red, Green and Blue Carbon Nanotube Enabled Vertical Organic Light Emitting Transistors for Active Matrix OLED Displays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M. A. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Liu, B. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Donoghue, E. P. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL; Kim, D. Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville; So, Franky [University of Florida, Gainesville; Rinzler, A. G. [University of Florida, Gainesville

    2011-01-01

    Organic semiconductors are potential alternatives to polycrystalline silicon as the semiconductor used in the backplane of active matrix organic light emitting diode displays. Demonstrated here is a light-emitting transistor with an organic channel, operating with low power dissipation at low voltage, and high aperture ratio, in three colors: red, green and blue. The single-wall carbon nanotube network source electrode is responsible for the high level of performance demonstrated. A major benefit enabled by this architecture is the integration of the drive transistor, storage capacitor and light emitter into a single device. Performance comparable to commercialized polycrystalline-silicon TFT driven OLEDs is demonstrated.

  16. Limiting diffusion coefficients of heavy molecular weight organic contaminants in supercritical carbon dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orejuela, Mauricio

    1994-01-01

    Carbon Dioxide. 5. Measured Diffusion Coefficients of Hexachlorobenzene in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. 6. Measured Diffusion Coefficients of Pentachlorophenol in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. 7. Carbon Dioxide Parameters as Determined by Empirical..., and for polyatomic solute and solvent molecules, A?was set to 0. 70. Erkey (1989) determined the translational-rotational coupling parameters for binary n-Alkane systems from measured diffusivity data at a wide range of densities. It was shown...

  17. Composite Membranes for CO2 Capture: High Performance Metal Organic Frameworks/Polymer Composite Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: A team of six faculty members at Georgia Tech are developing an enhanced membrane by fitting metal organic frameworks, compounds that show great promise for improved carbon capture, into hollow fiber membranes. This new material would be highly efficient at removing CO2 from the flue gas produced at coal-fired power plants. The team is analyzing thousands of metal organic frameworks to identify those that are most suitable for carbon capture based both on their ability to allow coal exhaust to pass easily through them and their ability to select CO2 from that exhaust for capture and storage. The most suitable frameworks would be inserted into the walls of the hollow fiber membranes, making the technology readily scalable due to their high surface area. This composite membrane would be highly stable, withstanding the harsh gas environment found in coal exhaust.

  18. EVOLUTIONARY AND GEOLOGIC CONSEQUENCES OF ORGANIC CARBON FIXING IN THE PRIMITIVE ANOXIC OCEAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, W.B.N.

    2013-01-01

    fix carbon dioxide. The free source to energy relationshipsfree energy derived from use of hydrogen chemosynthesis sulfide as an energy source

  19. Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopic Signatures and Nitrogen Profile To Identify Adulteration in Organic Fertilizers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Asit

    growth regulators such as hormones, livestock antibiotics, food additives, genetically modified organisms

  20. Process for producing organic products containing silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and organic amines and products formed thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.

    1988-04-04

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity organic reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. The process comprises reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity reactive amine reactant in a liquid state at a temperature of from about O/degree/C up to about 300/degree/C. A high purity silicon carbide/silicon nitride ceramic product can be formed from this intermediate product, if desired, by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200-1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours or the organic reaction product may be employed in other chemical uses.

  1. Scaling impacts on environmental controls and spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon stocks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mishra, U.; Riley, W. J.

    2015-07-02

    The spatial heterogeneity of land surfaces affects energy, moisture, and greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. However, representing the heterogeneity of terrestrial hydrological and biogeochemical processes in Earth system models (ESMs) remains a critical scientific challenge. We report the impact of spatial scaling on environmental controls, spatial structure, and statistical properties of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across the US state of Alaska. We used soil profile observations and environmental factors such as topography, climate, land cover types, and surficial geology to predict the SOC stocks at a 50 m spatial scale. These spatially heterogeneous estimates provide a data setmore »with reasonable fidelity to the observations at a sufficiently high resolution to examine the environmental controls on the spatial structure of SOC stocks. We upscaled both the predicted SOC stocks and environmental variables from finer to coarser spatial scales (s = 100, 200, and 500 m and 1, 2, 5, and 10 km) and generated various statistical properties of SOC stock estimates. We found different environmental factors to be statistically significant predictors at different spatial scales. Only elevation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and scrub land cover types were significant predictors at all scales. The strengths of control (the median value of geographically weighted regression coefficients) of these four environmental variables on SOC stocks decreased with increasing scale and were accurately represented using mathematical functions (R2 = 0.83–0.97). The spatial structure of SOC stocks across Alaska changed with spatial scale. Although the variance (sill) and unstructured variability (nugget) of the calculated variograms of SOC stocks decreased exponentially with scale, the correlation length (range) remained relatively constant across scale. The variance of predicted SOC stocks decreased with spatial scale over the range of 50 m to ~ 500 m, and remained constant beyond this scale. The fitted exponential function accounted for 98 % of variability in the variance of SOC stocks. We found moderately accurate linear relationships between mean and higher-order moments of predicted SOC stocks (R2 ? 0.55–0.63). Current ESMs operate at coarse spatial scales (50–100 km), and are therefore unable to represent environmental controllers and spatial heterogeneity of high-latitude SOC stocks consistent with observations. We conclude that improved understanding of the scaling behavior of environmental controls and statistical properties of SOC stocks could improve ESM land model benchmarking and perhaps allow representation of spatial heterogeneity of biogeochemistry at scales finer than those currently resolved by ESMs.« less

  2. Scaling impacts on environmental controls and spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon stocks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mishra, U.; Riley, W. J.

    2015-01-27

    The spatial heterogeneity of land surfaces affects energy, moisture, and greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. However, representing heterogeneity of terrestrial hydrological and biogeochemical processes in earth system models (ESMs) remains a critical scientific challenge. We report the impact of spatial scaling on environmental controls, spatial structure, and statistical properties of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across the US state of Alaska. We used soil profile observations and environmental factors such as topography, climate, land cover types, and surficial geology to predict the SOC stocks at a 50 m spatial scale. These spatially heterogeneous estimates provide a dataset with reasonablemore »fidelity to the observations at a sufficiently high resolution to examine the environmental controls on the spatial structure of SOC stocks. We upscaled both the predicted SOC stocks and environmental variables from finer to coarser spatial scales (s = 100, 200, 500 m, 1, 2, 5, 10 km) and generated various statistical properties of SOC stock estimates. We found different environmental factors to be statistically significant predictors at different spatial scales. Only elevation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and scrub land cover types were significant predictors at all scales. The strengths of control (the median value of geographically weighted regression coefficients) of these four environmental variables on SOC stocks decreased with increasing scale and were accurately represented using mathematical functions (R2 = 0.83–0.97). The spatial structure of SOC stocks across Alaska changed with spatial scale. Although the variance (sill) and unstructured variability (nugget) of the calculated variograms of SOC stocks decreased exponentially with scale, the correlation length (range) remained relatively constant across scale. The variance of predicted SOC stocks decreased with spatial scale over the range of 50 to ~ 500 m, and remained constant beyond this scale. The fitted exponential function accounted for 98% of variability in the variance of SOC stocks. We found moderately-accurate linear relationships between mean and higher-order moments of predicted SOC stocks (R2 ~ 0.55–0.63). Current ESMs operate at coarse spatial scales (50–100 km), and are therefore unable to represent environmental controllers and spatial heterogeneity of high-latitude SOC stocks consistent with observations. We conclude that improved understanding of the scaling behavior of environmental controls and statistical properties of SOC stocks can improve ESM land model benchmarking and perhaps allow representation of spatial heterogeneity of biogeochemistry at scales finer than those currently resolved by ESMs.« less

  3. 1256 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL NETWORKS, VOL. 16, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2005 Web Content Management by Self-Organization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Hujun

    --We present a new method for content management and knowledge discovery using a topology-preserving neural to manually annotate electronic documents, e.g., webmas- ters and knowledge managers dealing with content-commerce, software contents management, doc- ument management and knowledge discovery [1]. Document management

  4. Changes in soil organic carbon storage predicted by Earth system models during the 21st century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    carbon changes in Earth system models K. E. O. Todd-Brown etcarbon changes in Earth system models K. E. O. Todd-Brown etDiscussion Paper CMIP5 Earth system models and comparison

  5. Changes in soil organic carbon storage predicted by Earth system models during the 21st century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    carbon changes in Earth system models K. E. O. Todd-Brown etcarbon changes in Earth system models K. E. O. Todd-Brown etcarbon changes in Earth system models K. E. O. Todd-Brown et

  6. Electrodeposited Manganese Oxides on Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanotube Substrate: Supercapacitive Behaviour in Aqueous and Organic Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam,K.W.; Yang,X.

    2009-03-01

    Thin amorphous manganese oxide layers with a thickness of 3-5nm are electrodeposited on a carbon nanotube (CNT) film substrate that has a three-dimensional nanoporous structure (denoted asMnO2/CNT electrode). For the purpose of comparison, manganese oxide films are also electrodeposited on a flat Pt-coated Si wafer substrate (denoted as MnO2 film electrode). The pseudocapacitive properties of the MnO2 film and MnO2/CNT electrodes are examined in both aqueous electrolyte (1.0M KCl) and nonaqueousorganic electrolyte (1.0M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate). While both types of electrode showpseudocapacitive behaviour in the aqueous electrolyte, only the MnO2/CNT electrode does so in the organic electrolyte, due to its high oxide/electrolyte interfacial area and improved electron conduction through the CNT substrate. Compared with the MnO2 film electrode, the MnO2/CNT electrode shows a much higher specific capacitance and better high-rate capability, regardless of the electrolyte used.Use of the organic electrolyte results in a ?6 times higher specific energy compared with that obtained with the aqueous electrolyte, while maintaining a similar specific power. The construction of a threedimensional nanoporous network structure consisting of a thin oxide layer on a CNT film substrate at the nm scale and the use of an organic electrolyte are promising approaches to improving the specific energyof supercapacitors.

  7. An investigation of groundwater organics, soil minerals, and activated carbon on the complexation, adsorption, and separation of technetium-99

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, B.; Dowlen, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes studies on the interactions of technetium-99 (Tc) with different organic compounds and soil minerals under both oxidizing and reducing conditions. The report is divided into four parts and includes (1) effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on the complexation and solubility of Tc, (2) complexation between Tc and trichloroethylene (TCE) in aqueous solutions, (3) adsorption of Tc on soil samples from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), and (4) adsorption and separation of Tc on activated carbon. Various experimental techniques were applied to characterize and identify Tc complexation with organic compounds and TCE, including liquid-liquid extraction, membrane filtration, size exclusion, and gel chromatography. Results indicate, within the experimental error, Tc (as pertechnetate, TcO{sub 4}) did not appear to form complexes with groundwater or natural organic matter under both atmospheric and reducing conditions. However, Tc can form complexes with certain organic compounds or specific functional groups such as salicylate. Tc did not appear to form complexes with TCE in aqueous solution.Both liquid-liquid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) gave no indication Tc was complexed with TCE. The correlations between Tc and TCE concentrations in monitoring wells at PGDP may be a coincidence because TCE was commonly used as a decontamination reagent. Once TCE and Tc entered the groundwater, they behaved similarly because both TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and TCE are poorly adsorbed by soils. An effective remediation technique to remove TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from PGDP contaminated groundwater is needed. One possibility is the use of an activated carbon adsorption technique developed in this study.

  8. Examining the coupling of carbon and nitrogen cycles in Southern Appalachian streams: Understanding the role of dissolved organic nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, Brian D [Duke University; Bernhardt, Emily [Duke University; Roberts, Brian [Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Although regional and global models of nitrogen (N) cycling typically focus on nitrate, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is the dominant form of nitrogen export from many watersheds and thus the dominant form of dissolved N in many streams. Our understanding of the processes controlling DON export from temperate forests is poor. In pristine systems, where biological N limitation is common, N contained in recalcitrant organic matter (OM) can dominate watershed N losses. This recalcitrant OM often has moderately constrained carbon:nitrogen (C:N) molar ratios ({approx}25-55) and therefore, greater DON losses should be observed in sites where there is greater total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loss. In regions where anthropogenic N pollution is high, it has been suggested that increased inorganic N availability can reduce biological demand for organic N and therefore increase watershed DON losses. This would result in a positive correlation between inorganic and organic N concentrations across sites with varying N availability. In four repeated synoptic surveys of stream water chemistry from forested watersheds along an N loading gradient in the southern Appalachians, we found surprisingly little correlation between DON and DOC concentrations. Further, we found that DON concentrations were always significantly correlated with watershed N loading and stream water [NO{sub 3}{sup -}] but that the direction of this relationship was negative in three of the four surveys. The C:N molar ratio of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in streams draining watersheds with high N deposition was very high relative to other freshwaters. This finding, together with results from bioavailability assays in which we directly manipulated C and N availabilities, suggests that heterotrophic demand for labile C can increase as a result of dissolved inorganic N (DIN) loading, and that heterotrophs can preferentially remove N-rich molecules from DOM. These results are inconsistent with the two prevailing hypotheses that dominate interpretations of watershed DON loss. Therefore, we propose a new hypothesis, the indirect carbon control hypothesis, which recognizes that heterotrophic demand for N-rich DOM can keep stream water DON concentrations low when N is not limiting and heterotrophic demand for labile C is high.

  9. Processes Affecting Agricultural Drainwater Quality and Organic Carbon Loads in California's Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deverel, Steven J.; Leighton, David A.; Finlay, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    data collection and processing, Sacramento, California. Wu,of organic soils, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California.CALFED Science Conference, Sacramento, California. Epstein,

  10. Precambrian Research 224 (2013) 169183 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

    2013-01-01

    Precambrian Research 224 (2013) 169­183 Contents lists available at SciVerse Science of autotrophic carbon fixation and aerobic decom- position in shallow-water environments, and increased remineralization by anaerobic heterotrophs in deeper-water environments. Correlation between organic carbon

  11. Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, Diana H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dai, Zhenxue [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zheng, Liange [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    An important risk at CO2 storage sites is the potential for groundwater quality impacts. As part of a system to assess the potential for these impacts a geochemical scaling function has been developed, based on a detailed reactive transport model of CO2 and brine leakage into an unconfined, oxidizing carbonate aquifer. Stochastic simulations varying a number of geochemical parameters were used to generate a response surface predicting the volume of aquifer that would be impacted with respect to regulated contaminants. The brine was assumed to contain several trace metals and organic contaminants. Aquifer pH and TDS were influenced by CO2 leakage, while trace metal concentrations were most influenced by the brine concentrations rather than adsorption or desorption on calcite. Organic plume sizes were found to be strongly influenced by biodegradation.

  12. Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Dai, Zhenxue; Zheng, Liange

    2014-12-31

    An important risk at CO2 storage sites is the potential for groundwater quality impacts. As part of a system to assess the potential for these impacts a geochemical scaling function has been developed, based on a detailed reactive transport model of CO2 and brine leakage into an unconfined, oxidizing carbonate aquifer. Stochastic simulations varying a number of geochemical parameters were used to generate a response surface predicting the volume of aquifer that would be impacted with respect to regulated contaminants. The brine was assumed to contain several trace metals and organic contaminants. Aquifer pH and TDS were influenced by CO2more »leakage, while trace metal concentrations were most influenced by the brine concentrations rather than adsorption or desorption on calcite. Organic plume sizes were found to be strongly influenced by biodegradation.« less

  13. Predicting pyrogenic organic matter mineralization from its initial properties and implications for carbon management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    for carbon management Thea Whitman, Kelly Hanley, Akio Enders, Johannes Lehmann Department of Crop and Soil to higher pyrolysis temperatures is more stable. Ó 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction combustion or pyrolysis (Bird and Ascough, 2012). While PyC can be degraded both chemically and biologically

  14. Carbon oxidation state as a metric for describing the chemistry of atmospheric organic aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroll, Jesse

    A detailed understanding of the sources, transformations and fates of organic species in the environment is crucial because of the central roles that they play in human health, biogeochemical cycles and the Earth's climate. ...

  15. The influence of organic carbon on oxygen dynamics and bacterial sulfate reduction in inland shrimp ponds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suplee, Michael Wayne

    1995-01-01

    Experiments conducted in saline aquaculture ponds demonstrated that organic matter was the primary factor influencing sediment sulfate reduction rates. Changes in sediment oxygen demand (SOD), sulfate reduction rates, and ...

  16. Organic carbon aerogels from the sol-gel polymerization of phenolic-furfural mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1998-04-28

    The sol-gel polymerization of a phenolic-furfural mixture in dilute solution leads to a highly cross-linked network that can be supercritically dried to form a high surface area foam. These porous materials have cell/pore sizes .ltoreq.1000 .ANG., and although they are dark brown in color, they can be classified as a new type of aerogel. The phenolic-furfural aerogel can be pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere at 1050.degree. C. to produce carbon aerogels. This new aerogel may be used for thermal insulation, chromatographic packing, water filtration, ion-exchange, and carbon electrodes for energy storage devices, such as batteries and double-layer capacitors.

  17. Organic carbon aerogels from the sol-gel polymerization of phenolic-furfural mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, R.W.

    1998-04-28

    The sol-gel polymerization of a phenolic-furfural mixture in dilute solution leads to a highly cross-linked network that can be supercritically dried to form a high surface area foam. These porous materials have cell/pore sizes {<=}1000 {angstrom}, and although they are dark brown in color, they can be classified as a new type of aerogel. The phenolic-furfural aerogel can be pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere at 1050 C to produce carbon aerogels. This new aerogel may be used for thermal insulation, chromatographic packing, water filtration, ion-exchange, and carbon electrodes for energy storage devices, such as batteries and double-layer capacitors. 8 figs.

  18. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile...

  19. Effect of an organic molecular coating on control over the conductance of carbon nanotube channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bobrinetskiy, I. I.; Emelianov, A. V.; Nevolin, V. K. Romashkin, A. V.

    2014-12-15

    It is shown that the coating of carbon nanotubes with molecules with a constant dipole moment changes the conductance of the tubes due to a variation in the structure of energy levels that participate in charge transport. The I–V characteristics of the investigated structures exhibit significant dependence of the channel conductance on the gate potential. The observed memory effect of conductance level can be explained by the rearrangement of polar groups and molecules as a whole in an electric field. The higher the dipole moment per unit length and the weaker the intermolecular interaction, the faster the rearrangement process is.

  20. Multiple-Input Data Acquisition System (MIDAS) for Measuring the Carbon Content in Soil Using Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warburton, William K.

    2014-01-24

    This report describes work funder under STTR grants Phase I and II and carried out jointly by XIA LLC and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The project goal was to develop a mobile nuclear activation analysis instrument that could be towed behind a tractor to document soil carbon levels in agricultural lands for carbon credit certification. XIA developed large NaI(Tl) detectors with integrated digital pulse processors controlled over USB 2.0 and delivered 16 of these units to BNL for integration into the prototype instrument, together with the necessary software to calibrate them and collect data. For reasons that are unknown to XIA, the BNL participants never completed the prototype vehicle, performed system integration, or carried out the proposed qualification and field tests, leaving the project incomplete.

  1. Widespread influence of resuspended sediments on oceanic particulate organic carbon: Insights from radiocarbon and aluminum contents in sinking particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Jeomshik; Druffel, Ellen R. M; Eglinton, Timothy I

    2010-01-01

    waters is from sediment resuspension and lateral particleand Hovan, 1995]. Resuspension of sediment and subsequentet al. , 2005]. If sediment resuspension was responsible for

  2. A New Organic Acid to Stimulate Deep Wells in Carbonate Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Douri, Ahmad F

    2014-05-28

    was obtained using both a phosphorous-based and iron-based catalyst. The rate of reaction of a 10 wt% solution of the new organic acid was measured using the rotating disk apparatus at temperatures up to 250°F. Low-permeability Indiana limestone (1-5 md...

  3. Paleoreconstruction of Particulate Organic Carbon Inputs to the High-Arctic Colville River Delta, Beaufort Sea, Alaska 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schreiner, Kathryn 1983-

    2013-01-09

    High Arctic permafrosted soils represent a massive sink in the global carbon cycle, accounting for twice as much carbon as what is currently stored as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. However, with current warming trends this sink is in danger...

  4. Contribution of gas phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds to atmospheric carbon monoxide levels in two areas of the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    - house gas, but also the hydroperoxide radical (HO2). HO2 converts nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxideContribution of gas phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds to atmospheric carbon monoxide. Chen, K. Carmody, S. Vutukuru, and D. Dabdub (2007), Contribution of gas phase oxidation of volatile

  5. PII S0016-7037(99)00335-X Sedimentary sources of old high molecular weight dissolved organic carbon from the ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Laodong

    terrestrial, autochthonous, and sedimentary organic carbon seem to be too young to be responsible for the old cross-flow ultrafiltration, it can hold clues to sources and pathways of DOC turnover in the ocean compounds with varying sources (Meybeck, 1982; Thurman, 1985; Hedges et al., 1997), degradation pathways

  6. Designer organisms for photosynthetic production of ethanol from carbon dioxide and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-07-05

    The present invention provides a revolutionary photosynthetic ethanol production technology based on designer transgenic plants, algae, or plant cells. The designer plants, designer algae, and designer plant cells are created such that the endogenous photosynthesis regulation mechanism is tamed, and the reducing power (NADPH) and energy (ATP) acquired from the photosynthetic water splitting and proton gradient-coupled electron transport process are used for immediate synthesis of ethanol (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH) directly from carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and water (H.sub.2O). The ethanol production methods of the present invention completely eliminate the problem of recalcitrant lignocellulosics by bypassing the bottleneck problem of the biomass technology. The photosynthetic ethanol-production technology of the present invention is expected to have a much higher solar-to-ethanol energy-conversion efficiency than the current technology and could also help protect the Earth's environment from the dangerous accumulation of CO.sub.2 in the atmosphere.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Removal from Flue Gas Using Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A Lesch

    2010-06-30

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, in collaboration with Professor Douglas LeVan at Vanderbilt University (VU), Professor Adam Matzger at the University of Michigan (UM), Professor Randall Snurr at Northwestern University (NU), and Professor Stefano Brandani at the University of Edinburgh (UE), supported by Honeywell's Specialty Materials business unit and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), have completed a three-year project to develop novel microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and an associated vacuum-pressure swing adsorption (vPSA) process for the removal of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas. The project leveraged the team's complementary capabilities: UOP's experience in materials development and manufacturing, adsorption process design and process commercialization; LeVan and Brandani's expertise in high-quality adsorption measurements; Matzger's experience in syntheis of MOFs and the organic components associated with MOFs; Snurr's expertise in molecular and other modeling; Honeywell's expertise in the manufacture of organic chemicals; and, EPRI's knowledge of power-generation technology and markets. The project was successful in that a selective CO{sub 2} adsorbent with good thermal stability and reasonable contaminant tolerance was discovered, and a low cost process for flue gas CO{sub 2} capture process ready to be evaluated further at the pilot scale was proposed. The team made significant progress toward the current DOE post-combustion research targets, as defined in a recent FOA issued by NETL: 90% CO{sub 2} removal with no more than a 35% increase in COE. The team discovered that favorable CO{sub 2} adsorption at more realistic flue gas conditions is dominated by one particular MOF structure type, M/DOBDC, where M designates Zn, Co, Ni, or Mg and DOBDC refers to the form of the organic linker in the resultant MOF structure, dioxybenzenedicarboxylate. The structure of the M/DOBDC MOFs consists of infinite-rod secondary building units bound by DOBDC resulting in 1D hexagonal pores about 11 angstroms in diameter. Surface areas range from 800 to 1500 sq m/g for the different MOFs. Mg/DOBDC outperformed all MOF and zeolite materials evaluated to date, with about 25 wt% CO{sub 2} captured by this MOF at flue gas conditions ({approx}0.13 atm CO{sub 2} pressure, 311K). In simulated flue gas without oxygen, the zero-length (ZLC) system was very useful in quickly simulating the effect of long term exposure to impurities on the MOFs. Detailed adsorption studies on MOF pellets have shown that water does not inhibit CO{sub 2} adsorption for MOFs as much as it does for typical zeolites. Moreover, some MOFs retain a substantial CO{sub 2} capacity even with a modest water loading at room temperature. Molecular modeling was a key activity in three areas of our earlier DOE/NETL-sponsored MOF-based research on CC. First, the team was able to effectively simulate CO{sub 2} and other gas adsorption isotherms for more than 20 MOFs, and the knowledge obtained was used to help predict new MOF structures that should be effective for CO{sub 2} adsorption at low pressure. The team also showed that molecular modeling could be utilized to predict the hydrothermal stability of a given MOF. Finally, the team showed that low moisture level exposure actually enhanced the CO{sub 2} adsorption performance of a particular MOF, HKUST-1.

  8. Climate policy and dependence on traded carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Robbie M; Davis, Steven J; Peters, Glen P

    2013-01-01

    embodied carbon content, apply rebates for emissions chargescarbon adjustments versus rebates J. Environ. Econom. Manag.

  9. On carbon footprints and growing energy use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    On carbon footprints and growing energy use Curtis M.reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organizationhis own organization's carbon footprint and answers this

  10. Characterization of low-VOC latex paints: Volatile organic compound content, VOC and aldehyde emissions, and paint performance. Final report, January 1997--January 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortmann, R.; Lao, H.C.; Ng, A.; Roache, N.

    1999-04-01

    The report gives results of laboratory tests to evaluate commercially available latex paints advertised as `low-odor,` `low-VOC (volatile organic compound),` or `no-VOC.` Measurements were performed to quantify the total content of VOCs in the paints and to identify the predominant VOCs and aldehydes in the emissions following application to test substrates. The performance of the paints was evaluated and compared to that of commonly used conventional latex paints by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard methods that measured parameters such as scrubbability, cleanability, and hiding power. The report describes the paints that were tested, the test methods, and the experimental data. Results are presented that can be used to evaluate the low-odor/low-VOC paints as alternatives to conventional latex wall paints that contain and emit higher concentrations of VOCs.

  11. This content has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text. Download details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    to address these challenges. Keywords: soil organic carbon, Earth system models, uncertainty, carbon

  12. Redistribution ofmulti-phase particulate organic carbon in a marine shelf and canyon system during an exceptional river flood: Effects of Typhoon Morakot on the Gaoping River–Canyon system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparkes, Robert B.; Lin, In-Tian; Hovius, Niels; Galy, Albert; Liu, James T.; Xu, Xiaomei; Yang, Rick

    2015-02-25

    Volumetrically, turbidity currents are the prime suppliers of sediment to the deep sea, and conveyors of organic carbon from the terrestrial biosphere and submarine shelf into marine depositional basins. They result from complex processes of erosion...

  13. Low Temperature Deposition of Metal Oxide Thin Films in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide using Metal-organic Precursors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gougousi, Theodosia

    Semiconductor (CMOS) devices, [1,2] magnetic tunnel junctions, [3] and optical coatings.[4] Conventional such as electroplating, [6,7] electroless deposition, [8,9] and in supercritical carbon dioxide for the deposition

  14. Investigation of vertical distribution and morphology of indigenous organic matter Sleeping Bear site, Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, C.C. [Environmental Protection Agency, Ada, OK (United States); Lyon, W.G.; Ross, D.L. [Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Lab., Ada, OK (United States)] [and others

    1994-11-01

    This study evaluates the nature and origin of particulate organic carbon and organic coatings on aquifer sands upgradient from a fuel spill site near the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in Michigan. The distribution of carbon was found to be highly complex due to the occurrence of high organic carbon horizons, bounded above and below by high carbonate sediments. The organic coatings on the sands were examined using white light and fluorescence microscopy and by scanning electron microscopy. Core samples were analyzed for organic and inorganic carbon, solution pH, humic/fulvic acid ratios, and insoluable organic matter content (that is, humin) as function of depth from the ground surface. The organic geochemistry of the soil profile at this site was found to be significantly influenced by the carbonates producing a sharp boundary of precipitated organic matter. This boundary was followed by coatings of predominantly fulvic acid salts on mineral grains deeper in the soil column. The coatings extended into the aquifer. The existence of native organic films on sand grains is well documented in the soils literature. The study reported here was greatly aided by this information and provides the framework for future studies concerning the influence of carbon distribution, chemical identity, and morphology on contaminant fate and transport processes. 56 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, Richard J. (6204 Shadow Mountain Dr., Austin, TX 78731)

    1998-01-01

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

  16. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, Richard J. (6204 Shadow Mountain Dr., Austin, TX 78731)

    1999-01-01

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

  17. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, R.J.

    1998-02-10

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein. 17 figs.

  18. 1 Fully Printed Separated Carbon Nanotube Thin Film Transistor Circuits 2 and Its Application in Organic Light Emitting Diode Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    attention. Recently, the 27 organic light emitting diode (OLED)3 has shed new light on this 28 realm in Organic Light Emitting Diode Control 3 Pochiang Chen,,|| Yue Fu,,|| Radnoosh Aminirad,,§ Chuan Wang, Jialu. Compared to LCD, OLED has lightweight, compatibility 29 with flexible plastic substrate, wide viewing

  19. Long-Term Trends in California Mobile Source Emissions and Ambient Concentrations of Black Carbon and Organic Aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    mobile source emissions of BC and OA (primary + secondary). Over time, as on-road engine emissions haveLong-Term Trends in California Mobile Source Emissions and Ambient Concentrations of Black Carbon, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1710, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: A fuel

  20. Thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrophobic organic compound sorption in natural sorbents and quantification of black carbon by electron microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuo, Dave Ta Fu, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    The sorption behaviors of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in sediments were investigated using pyrene. Native pyrene desorbed slowly, taking from weeks to months to equilibrate. The end-point data suggested that, at ...

  1. DENSITY OF STATES CALCULATIONS FOR CARBON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Joan

    DENSITY OF STATES CALCULATIONS FOR CARBON ALLOTROPES AND MIXTURES EDUARDO WARSZAWSKI #12;#12;DENSITY OF STATES CALCULATIONS FOR CARBON ALLOTROPES AND MIXTURES Research Thesis Submitted in Partial;#12;Contents Abstract xiii 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Carbon allotropes

  2. The Relationships of Particulate Matter and Particulate Organic Carbon with Hypoxic Conditions Along the Texas-Louisiana Shelf 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuck, Nicole A

    2014-08-06

    riverine influences along the Texas- Louisiana coast and determine the limits of coastal and marine water masses [Dorado, 2011]. Determination of the d13C and d15N values of POM can give us information about discrete carbon and nitrogen sources... to the northern Gulf of Mexico [Dorado, 2011]. As water flows through an estuary, the ?13C derived from PO13C generally increases from -30‰ to -20‰ as salinity increases, however the ?15N from PO15N tends 28 to stay stable between 4‰ and 6‰ nearest...

  3. DIVISION S-10--WETLAND SOILS Turnover of Detrital Organic Carbon in a Nutrient-Impacted Everglades Marsh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    of organic C in plant and soil detrital pools along a P enrichment gradient in an Everglades marsh-30 cmdepth)], potential C mineralization decreased down gradient from the source of nutrient loading to WCA-2 metabolism via denitrification, as well as through NH3 volatilization (Reddy and D'Angelo, 1994). In contrast

  4. Heterotrophic Soil Respiration in Warming Experiments: Using Microbial Indicators to Partition Contributions from Labile and Recalcitrant Soil Organic Carbon. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradford, M A; Melillo, J M; Reynolds, J F; Treseder, K K; Wallenstein, M D

    2010-06-10

    The central objective of the proposed work was to develop a genomic approach (nucleic acid-based) that elucidates the mechanistic basis for the observed impacts of experimental soil warming on forest soil respiration. The need to understand the mechanistic basis arises from the importance of such information for developing effective adaptation strategies for dealing with projected climate change. Specifically, robust predictions of future climate will permit the tailoring of the most effective adaptation efforts. And one of the greatest uncertainties in current global climate models is whether there will be a net loss of carbon from soils to the atmosphere as climate warms. Given that soils contain approximately 2.5 times as much carbon as the atmosphere, a net loss could lead to runaway climate warming. Indeed, most ecosystem models predict that climate warming will stimulate microbial decomposition of soil carbon, producing such a positive feedback to rising global temperatures. Yet the IPCC highlights the uncertainty regarding this projected feedback. The uncertainty arises because although warming-experiments document an initial increase in the loss of carbon from soils, the increase in respiration is short-lived, declining to control levels in a few years. This attenuation could result from changes in microbial physiology with temperature. We explored possible microbial responses to warming using experiments and modeling. Our work advances our understanding of how soil microbial communities and their activities are structured, generating insight into how soil carbon might respond to warming. We show the importance of resource partitioning in structuring microbial communities. Specifically, we quantified the relative abundance of fungal taxa that proliferated following the addition of organic substrates to soil. We added glycine, sucrose, cellulose, lignin, or tannin-protein to soils in conjunction with 3-bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU), a nucleotide analog. Active microbes absorb BrdU from the soil solution; if they multiply in response to substrate additions, they incorporate the BrdU into their DNA. After allowing soils to incubate, we extracted BrdU-labeled DNA and sequenced the ITS regions of fungal rDNA. Fungal taxa that proliferated following substrate addition were likely using the substrate as a resource for growth. We found that the structure of active fungal communities varied significantly among substrates. The active fungal community under glycine was significantly different from those under other conditions, while the active communities under sucrose and cellulose were marginally different from each other and the control. These results indicate that the overall community structure of active fungi was altered by the addition of glycine, sucrose, and cellulose and implies that some fungal taxa respond to changes in resource availability. The community composition of active fungi is also altered by experimental warming. We found that glycine-users tended to increase under warming, while lignin-, tannin/protein-, and sucrose-users declined. The latter group of substrates requires extracellular enzymes for use, but glycine does not. It is possible that warming selects for fungal species that target, in particular, labile substrates. Linking these changes in microbial communities and resource partitioning to soil carbon dynamics, we find that substrate mineralization rates are, in general, significantly lower in soils exposed to long-term warming. This suggests that microbial use of organic substrates is impaired by warming. Yet effects are dependent on substrate identity. There are fundamental differences in the metabolic capabilities of the communities in the control and warmed soils. These differences might relate to the changes in microbial community composition, which appeared to be associated with groups specialized on different resources. We also find that functional responses indicate temperature acclimation of the microbial community. There are distinct seasonal patterns and to long-term soil warming, with

  5. Highly efficient nonprecious metal catalyst prepared with metal–organic framework in a continuous carbon nanofibrous network

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shui, Jianglan; Chen, Chen; Grabstanowicz, Lauren; Zhao, Dan; Liu, Di -Jia

    2015-08-25

    Fuel cell vehicles, the only all-electric technology with a demonstrated >300 miles per fill travel range, use Pt as the electrode catalyst. The high price of Pt creates a major cost barrier for large-scale implementation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Nonprecious metal catalysts (NPMCs) represent attractive low-cost alternatives. However, a significantly lower turnover frequency at the individual catalytic site renders the traditional carbon-supported NPMCs inadequate in reaching the desired performance afforded by Pt. Unconventional catalyst design aiming at maximizing the active site density at much improved mass and charge transports is essential for the next-generation NPMC. We report heremore »a method of preparing highly efficient, nanofibrous NPMC for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction by electrospinning a polymer solution containing ferrous organometallics and zeolitic imidazolate framework followed by thermal activation. The catalyst offers a carbon nanonetwork architecture made of microporous nanofibers decorated by uniformly distributed high-density active sites. In a single-cell test, the membrane electrode containing such a catalyst delivered unprecedented volumetric activities of 3.3 A?cm-3 at 0.9 V or 450 A?cm-3 extrapolated at 0.8 V, representing the highest reported value in the literature. Improved fuel cell durability was also observed.« less

  6. Highly efficient nonprecious metal catalyst prepared with metal–organic framework in a continuous carbon nanofibrous network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shui, Jianglan; Chen, Chen; Grabstanowicz, Lauren; Zhao, Dan; Liu, Di -Jia

    2015-08-25

    Fuel cell vehicles, the only all-electric technology with a demonstrated >300 miles per fill travel range, use Pt as the electrode catalyst. The high price of Pt creates a major cost barrier for large-scale implementation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Nonprecious metal catalysts (NPMCs) represent attractive low-cost alternatives. However, a significantly lower turnover frequency at the individual catalytic site renders the traditional carbon-supported NPMCs inadequate in reaching the desired performance afforded by Pt. Unconventional catalyst design aiming at maximizing the active site density at much improved mass and charge transports is essential for the next-generation NPMC. We report here a method of preparing highly efficient, nanofibrous NPMC for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction by electrospinning a polymer solution containing ferrous organometallics and zeolitic imidazolate framework followed by thermal activation. The catalyst offers a carbon nanonetwork architecture made of microporous nanofibers decorated by uniformly distributed high-density active sites. In a single-cell test, the membrane electrode containing such a catalyst delivered unprecedented volumetric activities of 3.3 A?cm-3 at 0.9 V or 450 A?cm-3 extrapolated at 0.8 V, representing the highest reported value in the literature. Improved fuel cell durability was also observed.

  7. Tuning the Gate Opening Pressure of Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) for the Selective Separation of Hydro-carbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nijem, Nour; Canepa, Pieremanuele; Marti, Anne; Balkus,, Kenneth J; Thonhauser, T; Li, Jing; Chabal, Yves J; 10.1021/ja305754f

    2012-01-01

    Separation of hydrocarbons is one of the most energy demanding processes. The need to develop materials for the selective adsorption of hydrocarbons, under reasonable conditions, is therefore of paramount importance. This work unveils unexpected hydrocarbon selectivity in a flexible Metal Organic Framework (MOF), based on differences in their gate opening pressure. We show selectivity dependence on both chain length and specific framework-gas interaction. Combining Raman spectroscopy and theoretical van der Waals Density Functional (vdW-DF) calculations, the separation mechanisms governing this unexpected gate opening behavior are revealed.

  8. TABLE OF CONTENTS Content Page

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jiuyong "John"

    #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS Content Page Version 5.1 iii September 2012 Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1 1;TABLE OF CONTENTS Content Page Version 5.1 iv September 2012 3 PLANNING AND DESIGN GUIDELINES 3-1 3 Noise 3-25 3.3.15 Optimise Light 3-25 3.3.16 Save Water 3-25 3.3.17 Minimise Waste 3-25 3.4 Green Star

  9. Carbon Management Plan 1. Executive summary 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haase, Markus

    Carbon Management Plan June 2011 #12;2 #12;3 CONTENTS 1. Executive summary 5 2. Introduction 15 3. Background and context 16 4. Carbon management strategy 18 5. Carbon emissions baseline and projections 22 6. Past actions and achievements 30 7. Carbon Management Plan implementation 33 8. Carbon Management Plan

  10. Changes in soil organic carbon under biofuel crops K R I S T I N A J . A N D E R S O N -T E I X E I R A *, S A R A H C . D AV I S w , M I C H A E L D . M A S T E R S * and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    Changes in soil organic carbon under biofuel crops K R I S T I N A J . A N D E R S O N - T E I X E of growing biofuel crops will be the sequestration or release of carbon (C) in soil. Soil organic carbon (SOC) represents an important C sink in the lifecycle C balances of biofuels and strongly influences soil quality

  11. Carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus relations in oceanic Neogene sediments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mays, Linda Lowry

    1987-01-01

    of distinguishing paleoenvironments based on C/S ratios was also investigated. C/S ratios were found to have a previously unrecognized positive correlation with organic carbon concentration. They were frequently found to be unreliable indicators of depositional... to especially thank Saulwood Lin, Miguel Huerta-Diaz, and Takeshi Arakaki who assisted me in many ways throughout this project. vhl TABLL' Ol. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION. Page BACKGROUND. BASIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL INTERPRETATION FROM C/S RATIOS. STUDY AREA. 12...

  12. Global patterns and controls of soil organic carbon dynamics as simulated by multiple terrestrial biosphere models: Current status and future directions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Yang, Jia; Banger, Kamaljit; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Michalak, Anna M.; Cook, Robert; Ciais, Philippe; Hayes, Daniel; et al

    2015-06-05

    Soil is the largest organic carbon (C) pool of terrestrial ecosystems, and C loss from soil accounts for a large proportion of land-atmosphere C exchange. Therefore, a small change in soil organic C (SOC) can affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO?) concentration and climate change. In the past decades, a wide variety of studies have been conducted to quantify global SOC stocks and soil C exchange with the atmosphere through site measurements, inventories, and empirical/process-based modeling. However, these estimates are highly uncertain, and identifying major driving forces controlling soil C dynamics remains a key research challenge. This study has compiled century-longmore »(1901–2010) estimates of SOC storage and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) from 10 terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) in the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project and two observation-based data sets. The 10 TBM ensemble shows that global SOC estimate ranges from 425 to 2111 Pg C (1 Pg = 10¹? g) with a median value of 1158 Pg C in 2010. The models estimate a broad range of Rh from 35 to 69 Pg C yr?¹ with a median value of 51 Pg C yr?¹ during 2001–2010. The largest uncertainty in SOC stocks exists in the 40–65°N latitude whereas the largest cross-model divergence in Rh are in the tropics. The modeled SOC change during 1901–2010 ranges from –70 Pg C to 86 Pg C, but in some models the SOC change has a different sign from the change of total C stock, implying very different contribution of vegetation and soil pools in determining the terrestrial C budget among models. The model ensemble-estimated mean residence time of SOC shows a reduction of 3.4 years over the past century, which accelerate C cycling through the land biosphere. All the models agreed that climate and land use changes decreased SOC stocks, while elevated atmospheric CO? and nitrogen deposition over intact ecosystems increased SOC stocks—even though the responses varied significantly among models. Model representations of temperature and moisture sensitivity, nutrient limitation, and land use partially explain the divergent estimates of global SOC stocks and soil C fluxes in this study. In addition, a major source of systematic error in model estimations relates to nonmodeled SOC storage in wetlands and peatlands, as well as to old C storage in deep soil layers.« less

  13. Effect of Organic Capping Layers over Monodisperse Platinum Nanoparticles upon Activity for Ethylene Hydrogenation and Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhn, John N.; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2009-03-24

    The influence of oleylamine (OA), trimethyl tetradecyl ammonium bromide (TTAB), and polyvinlypyrrolidone (PVP) capping agents upon the catalytic properties of Pt/silica catalysts was evaluated. Pt nanoparticles that were 1.5 nm in size were synthesized by the same procedure (ethylene glycol reduction under basic conditions) with the various capping agents added afterward for stabilization. Before examining catalytic properties for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation, the Pt NPs were deposited onto mesoporous silica (SBA-15) supports and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), H{sub 2} chemisorption, and elemental analysis (ICP-MS). PVP- and TTAB-capped Pt yielded mass-normalized reaction rates that decreased with increasing pretreatment temperature, and this trend was attributed to the partial coverage of the Pt surface with decomposition products from the organic capping agent. Once normalized to the Pt surface area, similar intrinsic activities were obtained regardless of the pretreatment temperature, which indicated no influence on the nature of the active sites. Consequently, a chemical probe technique using intrinsic activity for ethylene hydrogenation was demonstrated as an acceptable method for estimating the metallic surface areas of Pt. Amine (OA) capping exhibited a detrimental influence on the catalytic properties as severe deactivation and low activity were observed for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation, respectively. These results were consistent with amine groups being strong poisons for Pt surfaces, and revealed the need to consider the effects of capping agents on the catalytic properties.

  14. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure...

  15. 4, 719745, 2007 Fluvial organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    changes and targets for carbon sequestration set by the Kyoto Protocol. In the UK the largest componentHESSD 4, 719­745, 2007 Fluvial organic carbon flux from an eroding peatland R. R. Pawson et al System Sciences Fluvial organic carbon flux from an eroding peatland catchment, southern Pennines, UK R

  16. Carbon-based Supercapacitors Produced by Activation of Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y Zhu; S Murali; M Stoller; K Ganesh; W Cai; P Ferreira; A Pirkle; R Wallace; K Cychosz; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Supercapacitors, also called ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, store electrical charge on high-surface-area conducting materials. Their widespread use is limited by their low energy storage density and relatively high effective series resistance. Using chemical activation of exfoliated graphite oxide, we synthesized a porous carbon with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of up to 3100 square meters per gram, a high electrical conductivity, and a low oxygen and hydrogen content. This sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon has a continuous three-dimensional network of highly curved, atom-thick walls that form primarily 0.6- to 5-nanometer-width pores. Two-electrode supercapacitor cells constructed with this carbon yielded high values of gravimetric capacitance and energy density with organic and ionic liquid electrolytes. The processes used to make this carbon are readily scalable to industrial levels.

  17. Carbon-Based Supercapacitors Produced by Activation of Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Y.; Su, D.; Murali, S.; Stoller, M.D.; Ganesh, K.J.; Cai, W.; Ferreira, P.J.; Pirkle, A.; Wallace, R.M.; Cychosz, K.A., Thommes, M.; Stach, E.A.; Ruoff, R.S.

    2011-06-24

    Supercapacitors, also called ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, store electrical charge on high-surface-area conducting materials. Their widespread use is limited by their low energy storage density and relatively high effective series resistance. Using chemical activation of exfoliated graphite oxide, we synthesized a porous carbon with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of up to 3100 square meters per gram, a high electrical conductivity, and a low oxygen and hydrogen content. This sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon has a continuous three-dimensional network of highly curved, atom-thick walls that form primarily 0.6- to 5-nanometer-width pores. Two-electrode supercapacitor cells constructed with this carbon yielded high values of gravimetric capacitance and energy density with organic and ionic liquid electrolytes. The processes used to make this carbon are readily scalable to industrial levels.

  18. 2011 Annual Report Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) ...................12 Smart Grid Cyber Security.....................................................13 ICT Supply ChainComputer Security Division 2011 Annual Report #12;Table of Contents Welcome ................................................................. 1 Division Organization .................................................2 The Computer Security

  19. Australian climatecarbon cycle feedback reduced by soil black carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    Annual emissions of carbon dioxide from soil organic carbon are an order of magnitude greater than all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions taken together1 . Global warming is likely to increase the decomposition of soil organic carbon, and thus the release of carbon dioxide from soils2­5 , creating a positive

  20. ARM - Measurement - Organic Carbon Concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticlecontent ARMgovMeasurementsNitrogen ARM

  1. Carbon Dioxide & Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Carbon Dioxide & Global Warming University of MiaMi rosenstiel sChool of Marine anD atMospheriC s , organic carbon, and other chemicals that contribute to global warming in a variety of studies. DownCienCe 4600 rickenbacker Causeway Miami, florida 33149 http://www.rsmas.miami.edu the Chemistry of Global

  2. Permafrost soils and carbon cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ping, C. L.; Jastrow, J. D.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Michaelson, G. J.; Shur, Y. L.

    2015-02-05

    Knowledge of soils in the permafrost region has advanced immensely in recent decades, despite the remoteness and inaccessibility of most of the region and the sampling limitations posed by the severe environment. These efforts significantly increased estimates of the amount of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils and improved understanding of how pedogenic processes unique to permafrost environments built enormous organic carbon stocks during the Quaternary. This knowledge has also called attention to the importance of permafrost-affected soils to the global carbon cycle and the potential vulnerability of the region's soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks to changing climatic conditions. Inmore »this review, we briefly introduce the permafrost characteristics, ice structures, and cryopedogenic processes that shape the development of permafrost-affected soils, and discuss their effects on soil structures and on organic matter distributions within the soil profile. We then examine the quantity of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils, as well as the characteristics, intrinsic decomposability, and potential vulnerability of this organic carbon to permafrost thaw under a warming climate. Overall, frozen conditions and cryopedogenic processes, such as cryoturbation, have slowed decomposition and enhanced the sequestration of organic carbon in permafrost-affected soils over millennial timescales. Due to the low temperatures, the organic matter in permafrost soils is often less humified than in more temperate soils, making some portion of this stored organic carbon relatively vulnerable to mineralization upon thawing of permafrost.« less

  3. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"10272015 9:02:05 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Crude Oil Production" "Sourcekey","MCRFPUS1","MCRFPP11","MCRFPFL1","MCRFPNY1","MCRFPPA1","MCRFPV...

  4. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"10272015 9:02:06 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Crude Oil Production" "Sourcekey","MCRFPUS1","MCRFPP11","MCRFPFL1","MCRFPNY1","MCRFPPA1","MCRFPV...

  5. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2122015 2:09:18 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use...

  6. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"6252015 11:11:13 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Crude Oil Production" "Sourcekey","MCRFPUS2","MCRFPP12","MCRFPFL2","MCRFPNY2","MCRFPPA2","MCRFPV...

  7. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"6272015 6:10:39 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Oil Wells (Summary) "...

  8. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"6272015 6:10:38 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Gas Wells (Summary) "...

  9. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"6272015 6:11:20 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Summary) "...

  10. An Organic Carbon Budget for the Mississippi River Turbidity Plume and Plume Contributions to Air-sea CO2 Fluxes and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breed, Greg A.

    are the primary interface between terrestrial and oceanic environments and play a central role in linking terrestrial and marine carbon cycles. Annually, rivers transport 1 Gt total carbon to the world's oceans (e.g., Cai et al. 2003). Despite the known importance of RiOMar, the export pathways of OC

  11. ORNL researchers improve soil carbon cycling models | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and releases carbon into the soil. Enzymes released by microbes in the soil degrade the organic matter, releasing carbon molecules, which the microbes absorb as food. Eventually,...

  12. Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes in Organic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube...

  13. Organic geochemical biosignatures in alkaline Hydrothermal ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradley, Alexander Smith

    2008-01-01

    The 13C content of microbial products are controlled by many factors, including the 13C content of the growth substrate, growth rate, the flux of carbon through various parts of the biochemical network, and the isotopic ...

  14. Vegetation succession and carbon sequestration in a coastal wetland in northwest Florida: Evidence from carbon isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vegetation succession and carbon sequestration in a coastal wetland in northwest Florida: Evidence from carbon isotopes Yonghoon Choi and Yang Wang Department of Geological Sciences, Florida State. Measurements of stable carbon isotopic ratios as well as carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) contents

  15. Role of added carbon in the transformation of surplus soil nitrate-nitrogen to organic forms in an intensively managed calcareous soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    effect of carbon substrates. Soil Biol. Biochem. 36: Myroldof bacteria and fungi in nitrate assimilation in soil.Soil Biol. Biochem. 39: 1737-1743. Stange CF, Spott O, Apelt

  16. The Importance of Carbon Footprint Estimation Boundaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    The Importance of Carbon Footprint Estimation Boundaries H . S C O T T M A T T H E W S , C H R I and organizations are pursuing "carbon footprint" projects to estimate their own contributions to global climate change. Protocol definitions from carbon registries help organizations analyze their footprints

  17. Original article Belowground biomass and nutrient content in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    useful when using estimates of the aerial biomass of a stand to calculate the carbon storage content of the belowground compartment. Douglas-fir / root system / C sequestration / nutrient content carbone dans le compartiment souterrain, connaissant la biomasse aérienne d'un peuplement. Pour ce qui

  18. EFFECTS of OIL MIXED with CARBONIZED SAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    m #12;#12;EFFECTS of OIL MIXED with CARBONIZED SAND on AQUATIC ANIMALS Marine Biological l Albert M. Day, Director Special Scientific Report - Fisheries No. 1 EFFECTS OF OIL MIXED WITH CARBONIZED CONTENT Pago Preface Introduction 1 Injury to aquatic life caused by oil. 2 Amount of carbonized sand

  19. Irradiation-induced phenomena in carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

    Chapter 1 Irradiation-induced phenomena in carbon nanotubes To appear in "Chemistry of Carbon@acclab.helsinki.fi 1 #12;2CHAPTER 1. IRRADIATION-INDUCED PHENOMENA IN CARBON NANOTUBES #12;Contents 1 Irradiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2 Interaction of energetic particles with solid targets . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.1 Ion irradiation

  20. The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huppert, Herbert

    with a potentially disastrous global problem owing to the current emission of 32 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Herbert E. Huppert1-3 and Jerome A. Neufeld4 1 FurtherANNUAL REVIEWS #12;1. INTRODUCTION Undeniably, the average global carbon dioxide (CO2) content

  1. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  2. Carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon sequestration is the process of capture and long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2).[1] Carbon sequestration describes long-term storage of carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to either mitigate or defer global warming and avoid ...

  3. Improving carbon fixation pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ducat, DC; Silver, PA

    2012-08-01

    A recent resurgence in basic and applied research on photosynthesis has been driven in part by recognition that fulfilling future food and energy requirements will necessitate improvements in crop carbon-fixation efficiencies. Photosynthesis in traditional terrestrial crops is being reexamined in light of molecular strategies employed by photosynthetic microbes to enhance the activity of the Calvin cycle. Synthetic biology is well-situated to provide original approaches for compartmentalizing and enhancing photosynthetic reactions in a species independent manner. Furthermore, the elucidation of alternative carbon-fixation routes distinct from the Calvin cycle raises possibilities that novel pathways and organisms can be utilized to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide into useful materials.

  4. Methods and systems for chemoautotrophic production of organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Curt R.; Che, Austin J.; Shetty, Reshma P.; Kelly, Jason R.

    2013-01-08

    The present disclosure identifies pathways, mechanisms, systems and methods to confer chemoautotrophic production of carbon-based products of interest, such as sugars, alcohols, chemicals, amino acids, polymers, fatty acids and their derivatives, hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, and intermediates thereof, in organisms such that these organisms efficiently convert inorganic carbon to organic carbon-based products of interest using inorganic energy, such as formate, and in particular the use of organisms for the commercial production of various carbon-based products of interest.

  5. Graphic values for some organic constituents of beneficiated coal samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohlenberger, L.B.

    1991-01-01

    The first objective of this one-year project is to obtain analytical data on a series of fractions of coal sample IBC-101 of widely varying ash content obtained via a froth flotation physical coal cleaning process. Froth flotation is the fractionation technique to be used rather than float/sink testing as in the Stansfield-Sutherland method because (1) most of the data in our files which were used in the development of these techniques were froth flotation tests and (2) as a way of showing that the fractionating is as effective by one technique as the other, so long as no chemical changes are effected. Analytical values will be obtained in the Coal Analysis Laboratory for moisture, ash, volatile matter, fixed carbon, total carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, total sulfur, sulfate sulfur, organic sulfur, and calorific value. The next objective will be to plot the various values of each of the analyzed species versus its corresponding ash values to obtain x/y plots for each as a function of ash. From the resulting curves, it should be possible to calculate for coal sample IBC-101 a precise measure of its mineral matter content, its dry or moist ,mineral-matter-free calorific value as used in determining the rank of the coal sample, calculate organic sulfur values corresponding to each ash value in cases where the relationship is linear, and possibly find other analyzed values which have a direct correlation with the mineral matter content of the coal.

  6. Hierarchical Classification Web Content Susan Dumais

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hao

    organizations. Since th century, librarians classification systems Dewey and Library Congress subject headings classification methods to supplement human effort in creating structured knowledge hierarchies. A wide rangeHierarchical Classification Web Content Susan Dumais Microsoft Research One Microsoft Way Redmond

  7. Carbon Management Plan for the Exeter Campuses 2010-2020

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bearhop, Stuart

    .6.6 Building Energy Management System (BEMS) 7.6.7 Carbon Management Plan Ownership, Reporting and Coordination ­ Energy Manager Carbon Management Plan 2010 - 2020 Contents 1 Forewords 1.1 Foreword from the Vice Owner ­ G Whitehouse ­ Energy Manager Carbon Management Plan 2010 - 2020 6.5 Target Chosen 7 Carbon

  8. Carbon dynamics in arctic vegetation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Street, Lorna Elizabeth

    2011-11-24

    Rapid climate change in Arctic regions is of concern due to important feedbacks between the Arctic land surface and the global climate system. A large amount of organic carbon (C) is currently stored in Arctic soils; if ...

  9. EERE Website Content Checklist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This checklist is a tool to guide EERE content developers and editors in creating and reviewing content for websites.

  10. The effect of organic carbon on fixed nitrogen loss in the eastern tropical South Pacific and Arabian Sea oxygen deficient zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Bess

    Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India Abstract The three major investigated the response of N loss in the ETSP and AS ODZs to additions of organic matter in the form). In the ETSP ODZ, the addition of glucose stimulated denitrification (1.6-fold increase after 5 d

  11. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-07-12

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  12. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-09-01

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  13. The Effects of The Content Enhancement Model in College Algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VanCleave, Janet Milleret

    2010-04-26

    , and Concept Anchoring. The topics used in these routines included function, domain, slope, linear functions, and quadratic functions. The Content Enhancement Organizers included Course, Unit, and Lesson. The organizers were used for an introductory function...

  14. Carbon-Based Materials, High-Surface-Area Sorbents, and New Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    technologies includes a range of carbon-based materials such as carbon nanotubes, aerogels, nanofibers (including metal-doped hybrids), as well as metal-organic frameworks,...

  15. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels| Departmentof Energy CaliforniaContentsForumCarbon Fiber

  16. Graphic values for some organic constitutents of beneficiated coal samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohlenberger, L.B. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Graphic techniques exist which can accurately predict values for calorific value, organic sulfur, and possibly other constituents of the organic portion of beneficiated coal sample fractions. These techniques also permit a determination of coal rank to be made without the use of the approximations required in the standard procedure. Fractions of IBC-101 with varying ash contents were produced by froth flotation. The various fractions were analyzed by the coal analysis laboratory and the particular data type was plotted in each case vs. the individual ash content of each fraction, using Lotus 123 and Freelace software packages. Such plots for calorific value and organic sulfur have, so far, been made. These curves and the information they contain are discussed in this report. A comparison of the graphic mineral matter value with the usual one calculated from the Parr approximation has been made. Eventually, the data may lead to an effective way to estimate inorganic carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and other organic constitents of coal. All data will be made available to researchers.

  17. Carbon stored in human settlements: the conterminous United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Daniel G.

    value for mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions, the organic carbon storage in human settlements has release of carbon dioxide and 76% of wood used for industrial purposes. By 2050 the proportion, and 5% to buildings. To offset rising urban emissions of carbon, regional and national governments

  18. Carbon K-edge Spectra of Carbonate Minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandes, J.; Wirick, S; Jacobsen, C

    2010-01-01

    Carbon K-edge X-ray spectroscopy has been applied to the study of a wide range of organic samples, from polymers and coals to interstellar dust particles. Identification of carbonaceous materials within these samples is accomplished by the pattern of resonances in the 280-320 eV energy region. Carbonate minerals are often encountered in the study of natural samples, and have been identified by a distinctive resonance at 290.3 eV. Here C K-edge and Ca L-edge spectra from a range of carbonate minerals are presented. Although all carbonates exhibit a sharp 290 eV resonance, both the precise position of this resonance and the positions of other resonances vary among minerals. The relative strengths of the different carbonate resonances also vary with crystal orientation to the linearly polarized X-ray beam. Intriguingly, several carbonate minerals also exhibit a strong 288.6 eV resonance, consistent with the position of a carbonyl resonance rather than carbonate. Calcite and aragonite, although indistinguishable spectrally at the C K-edge, exhibited significantly different spectra at the Ca L-edge. The distinctive spectral fingerprints of carbonates provide an identification tool, allowing for the examination of such processes as carbon sequestration in minerals, Mn substitution in marine calcium carbonates (dolomitization) and serpentinization of basalts.

  19. Tropical Africa: Land use, biomass, and carbon estimates for 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.; Gaston, G.; Daniels, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980 and describes a methodology that may be used to extend this data set to 1990 and beyond based on population and land cover data. The biomass data and carbon estimates are for woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with the possible magnitude of historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth`s land surface and includes those countries that for the most part are located in Tropical Africa. Countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea and in southern Africa (i.e., Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, and Western Sahara) have maximum potential biomass and land cover information but do not have biomass or carbon estimate. The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{sup TM} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass-carbon values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  20. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, D.; Lytle, J.; Hackley, K.; Dagamac, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Berger, R. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Schanche, G. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Pelletization of fine coal with calcium hydroxide, a sulfur capturing sorbent, represents a method to produce a fuel which will burn in compliance with the recently passed Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA`s). To harden the pellets, the reaction of carbon dioxide with calcium hydroxide, referred to as carbonation, is being studied. Carbonation forms a bonding matrix of calcium carbonate. This is a two-year research program. This report covers the second quarter of the second year. Research is indicating that 5 to 10 wt% calcium hydroxide pellets can be produced via a roller-and-die pellet mill and air cured to achieve sufficient quality for handling and transportation. This quarter, 1/2 inch-diameter pellets containing 10% calcium hydroxide were demonstrated to gradually react with atmospheric carbon dioxide (3 days) while air drying to achieve compressive strengths equivalent to those attained for fully dried pellets which had been carbonated for one-hour with 100% commercial grade carbon dioxide. It was also demonstrated that an organic, adhesive binder, corn starch, can be very effective at producing strong pellets but drying is required before appreciable pellet strength is attained. For pellets containing 2 wt% corn starch, it was determined that less than 50% of the ultimate strength was achieved as the pellets were dried from 20 wt% to 5 wt% moisture. Strength improved considerably as the pellet moisture content was reduced below 5 wt%.

  1. Carbon Based Nano-Materials Research, Development and Applications in Optoelectronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Feihu

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasmooth Graphene Nanoribbon Semiconductors. Sciencepristine graphene is not a semiconductor with a finite bandgraphene, carbon nanotubes, and organic semiconductors. The

  2. Method and apparatus for selective removal of carbon monoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borup, Rodney L. (East Rochester, NY); Skala, Glenn W. (Churchville, NY); Brundage, Mark A. (Pittsford, NY); LaBarge, William J. (Bay City, MI)

    2000-01-01

    There is provided a method and apparatus for treatment of a hydrogen-rich gas to reduce the carbon monoxide content thereof by reacting the carbon monoxide in the gas with an amount of oxygen sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalyst in a desired temperature range without substantial reaction of hydrogen. The catalyst is an iridium-based catalyst dispersed on, and supported on, a carrier. In the presence of the catalyst, carbon monoxide in a hydrogen-rich feed gas is selectively oxidized such that a product stream is produced with a very low carbon monoxide content.

  3. ContentsContents3399the normal distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vickers, James

    ContentsContents3399the normal distribution 1. The normal distribution 2. The normal approximation to the binomial distribution 3. Sums and differences of random variables Learning outcomes In a previous Workbook of a continuous random variables: the normal distribution. The probabilities of the normal distribution have

  4. ContentsContents4343Regression and correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vickers, James

    ContentsContents4343Regression and correlation 1. Regression 2. Correlation Learning outcomes You. 1 #12;Regression 43.1 Introduction Problems in engineering often involve the exploration of the relationship(s) between two or more variables. The technique of regression analysis is very useful and well

  5. ContentsContents1133integration integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vickers, James

    ContentsContents1133integration integration 1. Basic concepts of integration 2. Definite integrals 3. The area bounded by a curve 4. Integration by parts 5. Integration by substitution and using partial fractions 6. Integration of trigonometric functions Learning outcomes In this workbook you

  6. 2009 PILOT SCALE FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING TESTING USING THE THOR (THERMAL ORGANIC REDUCTION) PROCESS: ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR TANK 48H ORGANIC DESTRUCTION - 10408

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.; Jantzen, C.; Burket, P.; Crawford, C.; Daniel, G.; Aponte, C.; Johnson, C.

    2009-12-28

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) must empty the contents of Tank 48H, a 1.3 million gallon Type IIIA HLW storage tank, to return this tank to service. The tank contains organic compounds, mainly potassium tetraphenylborate that cannot be processed downstream until the organic components are destroyed. The THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) technology, herein after referred to as steam reforming, has been demonstrated to be a viable process to remove greater than 99.9% of the organics from Tank 48H during various bench scale and pilot scale tests. These demonstrations were supported by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) and the Department of Energy (DOE) has concurred with the SRR recommendation to proceed with the deployment of the FBSR technology to treat the contents of Tank 48H. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed and proved the concept with non-radioactive simulants for SRR beginning in 2003. By 2008, several pilot scale campaigns had been completed and extensive crucible testing and bench scale testing were performed in the SRNL Shielded Cells using Tank 48H radioactive sample. SRNL developed a Tank 48H non-radioactive simulant complete with organic compounds, salt, and metals characteristic of those measured in a sample of the radioactive contents of Tank 48H. FBSR Pilot Scaled Testing with the Tank 48H simulant has demonstrated the ability to remove greater than 98% of the nitrites and greater than 99.5% of the nitrates from the Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily alkali carbonate. The alkali carbonate is soluble and, thus, amenable to pumping as a liquid to downstream facilities for processing. The FBSR technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration (ESTD) pilot scale steam reformer at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. Additional ESTD tests were completed in 2008 and in 2009 that further demonstrated the TTT steam reforming process ability to destroy organics in the Tank 48 simulant and produce a soluble carbonate waste form. The ESTD was operated at varying feed rates and Denitration and Mineralization Reformer (DMR) temperatures, and at a constant Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) temperature of 950 C. The process produced a dissolvable carbonate product suitable for processing downstream. ESTD testing was performed in 2009 at the Hazen facility to demonstrate the long term operability of an integrated FBSR processing system with carbonate product and carbonate slurry handling capability. The final testing demonstrated the integrated TTT FBSR capability to process the Tank 48 simulant from a slurry feed into a greater than 99.9% organic free and primarily dissolved carbonate FBSR product slurry. This paper will discuss the SRNL analytical results of samples analyzed from the 2008 and 2009 THOR{reg_sign} steam reforming ESTD performed with Tank 48H simulant at HRI in Golden, Colorado. The final analytical results will be compared to prior analytical results from samples in terms of organic, nitrite, and nitrate destruction.

  7. The temporal dynamics of terrestrial organic matter transfer to the oceans : initial assessment and application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drenzek, Nicholas J

    2007-01-01

    This thesis employs compound-specific stable carbon and radiocarbon isotopic analysis of organic biomarkers to (a) resolve petrogenic from pre-aged vascular plant organic carbon (OC) in continental margin sediments, (b) ...

  8. Intermediate Temperature Carbon - Carbon Composite Structures. CRADA Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC (the "Contractor") and Synterials, Inc. (the "Participant") was to demonstrate promising processing methods, which can lead to producing Carbon-Carbon Composites (CCC), with tensile and interlaminar properties comparable to those of organic matrix composites and environmental stability at 1200 F for long periods of time. The participant synthesized carbon-carbon composites with two different fiber coatings and three different matrices. Both parties evaluated the tensile and interlaminar properties of these materials and characterized the microstructure of the matrices and interfaces. It was found that fiber coatings of carbon and boron carbide provided the best environmental protection and resulted in composites with high tensile strength.

  9. Recovery of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verser, Dan W. (Golden, CO); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  10. Recovery of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verser, Dan W. (Menlo Park, CA); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  11. Storage and turnover of organic matter in soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torn, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    of organic carbon from peat soils. Nature 412 , 785. Fried,Plant Litter. Standard Soil Methods for Long-Term Ecological2007). Role of proteins in soil carbon and nitrogen storage:

  12. CONTENT MODEL HOW-TO

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003241MLTPL00 Content Model Guidelines  https://github.com/usgin/usginspecs/wiki/Content-Model-Guidelines 

  13. Source(s) and cycling of the nonhydrolyzable organic fraction of oceanic particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, J; Druffel, ERM; Eglinton, TI; Repeta, DJ

    2006-01-01

    J.A. , Hedges, J.I. , 2001a. Demineralization of marine andthan these values. By demineralization, the organic carbon

  14. Indonesia-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Developing Asia Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth in Developing Asia AgencyCompany Organization Asian...

  15. Philippines-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Developing Asia Jump to: navigation, search Name Philippines-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth in Developing Asia AgencyCompany Organization Asian...

  16. Vietnam-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Growth in Developing Asia Jump to: navigation, search Name Vietnam-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth in Developing Asia AgencyCompany Organization Asian...

  17. Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth in Developing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Asia - Thailand Jump to: navigation, search Name Thailand-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth in Developing Asia AgencyCompany Organization Asian...

  18. Preliminary Study on Sustainable Low-Carbon Development Towards...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vietnam Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Preliminary Study on Sustainable Low-Carbon Development Towards 2030 in Vietnam AgencyCompany Organization:...

  19. Sorbents and Carbon-Based Materials for Hydrogen Storage Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for storing hydrogen in high-surface-area sorbents such as hybrid carbon nanotubes, aerogels, and nanofibers, as well as metal-organic frameworks and conducting polymers. A...

  20. Carbon films produced from ionic liquid carbon precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Lee, Je Seung

    2013-11-05

    The invention is directed to a method for producing a film of porous carbon, the method comprising carbonizing a film of an ionic liquid, wherein the ionic liquid has the general formula (X.sup.+a).sub.x(Y.sup.-b).sub.y, wherein the variables a and b are, independently, non-zero integers, and the subscript variables x and y are, independently, non-zero integers, such that ax=by, and at least one of X.sup.+ and Y.sup.- possesses at least one carbon-nitrogen unsaturated bond. The invention is also directed to a composition comprising a porous carbon film possessing a nitrogen content of at least 10 atom %.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide from the post-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be separated using the sorbent processes currently used to remove sulfur compounds from the synthesis gas is capable of separating up to 90 percent of the carbon dioxide content of raw synthesis gas. The carbon-intensive and would lower the thermal efficiency of coal gasification power plants. Selective separation membrane

  2. Aged black carbon identified in marine dissolved organic carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziolkowski, Lori A; Druffel, Ellen R.M.

    2010-01-01

    pool in the northeast Pacific Ocean, Deep Sea Res. , Part I,?445‰ in the deep NE Pacific Ocean (Table S1). The Suwanneein the northeast Pacific Ocean. If the BC in the Amazon

  3. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, Rafael A. (Chicago, IL); Hrdina, Kenneth E. (Glenview, IL); Remick, Robert J. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  4. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, R.A.; Hrdina, K.E.; Remick, R.J.

    1993-04-27

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process is described for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  5. Bioturbating animals control the mobility of redox-sensitive trace elements in organic-rich mudstone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harazim, Dario; McIlroy, Duncan; Edwards, Nicholas P.; Wogelius, Roy A.; Manning, Phillip L.; Poduska, Kristin M.; Layne, Graham D.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe

    2015-10-07

    Bioturbating animals modify the original mineralogy, porosity, organic content, and fabric of mud, thus affecting the burial diagenetic pathways of potential hydrocarbon source, seal, and reservoir rocks. High-sensitivity, synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping reveals that producers of phycosiphoniform burrows systematically partition redox-sensitive trace elements (i.e., Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and As) in fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. Systematic differences in organic carbon content (total organic carbon >1.5 wt%) and quality (?13Corg~0.6‰) are measured between the burrow core and host sediment. The relative enrichment of redox-sensitive elements in the burrow core does not correlate with significant neo-formation of early diagenetic pyrite (via trace metal pyritization), but is best explained by physical concentration of clay- and silt-sized components. A measured loss (~–15%) of the large-ionic-radius elements Sr and Ba from both burrow halo and core is most likely associated with the release of Sr and Ba to pore waters during biological (in vivo) weathering of silt- to clay-sized lithic components and feldspar. In conclusion, this newly documented effect has significant potential to inform the interpretation of geochemical proxy and rock property data, particularly from shales, where elemental analyses are commonly employed to predict reservoir quality and support paleoenvironmental analysis.

  6. Bioturbating animals control the mobility of redox-sensitive trace elements in organic-rich mudstone

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Harazim, Dario; McIlroy, Duncan; Edwards, Nicholas P.; Wogelius, Roy A.; Manning, Phillip L.; Poduska, Kristin M.; Layne, Graham D.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe

    2015-10-07

    Bioturbating animals modify the original mineralogy, porosity, organic content, and fabric of mud, thus affecting the burial diagenetic pathways of potential hydrocarbon source, seal, and reservoir rocks. High-sensitivity, synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping reveals that producers of phycosiphoniform burrows systematically partition redox-sensitive trace elements (i.e., Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and As) in fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. Systematic differences in organic carbon content (total organic carbon >1.5 wt%) and quality (?13Corg~0.6‰) are measured between the burrow core and host sediment. The relative enrichment of redox-sensitive elements in the burrow core does not correlate with significant neo-formation ofmore »early diagenetic pyrite (via trace metal pyritization), but is best explained by physical concentration of clay- and silt-sized components. A measured loss (~–15%) of the large-ionic-radius elements Sr and Ba from both burrow halo and core is most likely associated with the release of Sr and Ba to pore waters during biological (in vivo) weathering of silt- to clay-sized lithic components and feldspar. In conclusion, this newly documented effect has significant potential to inform the interpretation of geochemical proxy and rock property data, particularly from shales, where elemental analyses are commonly employed to predict reservoir quality and support paleoenvironmental analysis.« less

  7. Plant diversity increases soil microbial activity and soil carbon storage.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    B. The vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and itsA. S. & Whitmore, A. P. Soil organic matter turnover isorganic matter in a cultivated soil. Org. Geochem. 33, 357–

  8. Page 1 of 38 Estimating the permafrost-carbon feedback on2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levermann, Anders

    , the proportion of soil carbon that might be emitted as carbon dioxide via aerobic25 decomposition or as methane characterized regional heterogeneities in soil properties, carbon28 content, and hydrology. Here, we couple triggers a reaction from land biomass and soils49 that leads to carbon dioxide emissions, which in turn

  9. Fact #576: June 22, 2009 Carbon Dioxide from Gasoline and Diesel Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by a vehicle is primarily determined by the carbon content of the fuel. However, there is a small portion of the fuel that is not oxidized...

  10. Carbon Allocation in Underground Storage Organs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , oil, Solanum tuberosum, Beta vulgaris, Cyperus esculentus, Pastinaca sativa, GMO, transcription factor

  11. Influence of Loss-on-Ignition Temperature and Heating Time on Ash Content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selinger, Brent

    Influence of Loss-on-Ignition Temperature and Heating Time on Ash Content of Compost and Manure-on-ignition (LOI) is a simple method for determining ash content, and by reciprocation, organic matter content, 16, 20, and 24-h) on the ash content of a finished compost and a fresh manure. The experiment

  12. Weathering controls on mechanisms of carbon storage in grassland soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masiello, C.A.; Chadwick, O.A.; Southon, J.; Torn, M.S.; Harden, J.W.

    2004-09-01

    On a sequence of soils developed under similar vegetation, temperature, and precipitation conditions, but with variations in mineralogical properties, we use organic carbon and 14C inventories to examine mineral protection of soil organic carbon. In these soils, 14C data indicate that the creation of slow-cycling carbon can be modeled as occurring through reaction of organic ligands with Al3+ and Fe3+ cations in the upper horizons, followed by sorption to amorphous inorganic Al compounds at depth. Only one of these processes, the chelation of Al3+ and Fe3+ by organic ligands, is linked to large carbon stocks. Organic ligands stabilized by this process traverse the soil column as dissolved organic carbon (both from surface horizons and root exudates). At our moist grassland site, this chelation and transport process is very strongly correlated with the storage and long-term stabilization of soil organic carbon. Our 14C results show that the mechanisms of organic carbon transport and storage at this site follow a classic model previously believed to only be significant in a single soil order (Spodosols), and closely related to the presence of forests. The presence of this process in the grassland Alfisol, Inceptisol, and Mollisol soils of this chronosequence suggests that this process is a more significant control on organic carbon storage than previously thought.

  13. Were Moving to Phoenix Core Content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, Bruce

    WeÕre Moving to Phoenix Core Content 2.2 Life Science Diversity and Adaptations of Organisms good friend just told you that his family is moving to Phoenix, Arizona from Kentucky. Your friend. You need to find out if the same is true of Phoenix, Arizona. Preassessment 1. What kinds of plant

  14. Metabolic interdependencies between phylogenetically novel fermenters and respiratory organisms in an unconfined aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wrighton, Kelly C.; Castelle, Cindy; Wilkins, Michael J.; Hug, Laura A.; Sharon, I.; Thomas, Brian C.; Handley, Kim M.; Mullin, Sean W.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Singh, Andrea; Lipton, Mary S.; Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2014-07-08

    Fermentation-based metabolism is an important ecosystem function often associated with environments rich in organic carbon, such as wetlands, sewage sludge, and the mammalian gut. The diversity of microorganisms and pathways involved in carbon and hydrogen cycling in sediments and aquifers and the impacts of these processes on other biogeochemical cycles remain poorly understood. Here we used metagenomics and proteomics to characterize microbial communities sampled from an aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River at Rifle, Colorado, USA, and document interlinked microbial roles in geochemical cycling. The organic carbon content in the aquifer was elevated via two acetate-based biostimulation treatments. Samples were collected at three time points, with the objective of extensive genome recovery to enable metabolic reconstruction of the community. Fermentative community members include genomes from a new phylum (ACD20), phylogenetically novel members of the Chloroflexi and Bacteroidetes, as well as candidate phyla genomes (OD1, BD1-5, SR1, WWE3, ACD58, TM6, PER, and OP11). These organisms have the capacity to produce hydrogen, acetate, formate, ethanol, butyrate, and lactate, activities supported by proteomic data. The diversity and expression of hydrogenases suggests the importance of hydrogen currency in the subsurface. Our proteogenomic data further indicate the consumption of fermentation intermediates by Proteobacteria can be coupled to nitrate, sulfate, and iron reduction. Thus, fermentation carried out by previously unstudied members of sediment microbial communities may be an important driver of diverse subsurface biogeochemical cycles.

  15. Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-04-17

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  16. Carbon Fiber

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-07-23

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  17. Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-05-06

    Carbon Sequestration- the process of capturing the CO2 released by the burning of fossil fuels and storing it deep withing the Earth, trapped by a non-porous layer of rock.

  18. Global assessment of ocean carbon export by combining satellite observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, David A.

    Global assessment of ocean carbon export by combining satellite observations and food-web models D Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia Abstract The export of organic carbon from cycle. Here we introduce a mechanistic assessment of the global ocean carbon export using satellite

  19. Carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Jingfeng

    RESEARCH PAPER Carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau during the 20th tundra to evergreen tropics. Its soils are dominated by permafrost and are rich in organic carbon. Its, the carbon dynamics of the Tibetan Plateau have not been well quantified under changes of climate and per

  20. SCHOOLOFSCIENCE Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varela, Carlos

    SCHOOLOFSCIENCE Table of Contents Degrees Offered and Associated Departments 330 Overview Environmental Science 403 Interdisciplinary Science 407 Multidisciplinary Science 409 The Darrin Fresh Water

  1. Gas adsorption on metal-organic frameworks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willis, Richard R. (Cary, IL); Low, John J. (Schaumburg, IL), Faheem, Syed A. (Huntley, IL); Benin, Annabelle I. (Oak Forest, IL); Snurr, Randall Q. (Evanston, IL); Yazaydin, Ahmet Ozgur (Evanston, IL)

    2012-07-24

    The present invention involves the use of certain metal organic frameworks that have been treated with water or another metal titrant in the storage of carbon dioxide. The capacity of these frameworks is significantly increased through this treatment.

  2. Method for making carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, Ming X. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

  3. Method for making carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, M.X.

    1999-07-29

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area ([approx equal]1000 m[sup 2] /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160 C for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750 C in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750--850 C for between 1--6 hours. 2 figs.

  4. Protective effects of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid on oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breaks caused by ultrafine carbon black, ferrous sulphate and organic extract of diesel exhaust particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi [School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Yi-Ling; Lei, Yu-Chen [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hui-Hsien [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tsun-Jen, E-mail: tcheng@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-01

    Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the first substance to make contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and interacts chemically with PM components. The objective of this study was to determine the role of ELF in oxidative stress, DNA damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines following physicochemical exposure to PM. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 15 nm; a model carbonaceous core), ferrous sulphate (FeSO{sub 4}; a model transition metal) and a diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (a model organic compound) were used to examine the acellular oxidative potential of synthetic ELF and non-ELF systems. We compared the effects of exposure to ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract on human alveolar epithelial Type II (A549) cells to determine the levels of oxidative stress, DNA single-strand breaks and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in ELF and non-ELF systems. The effects of ufCB and FeSO{sub 4} on the acellular oxidative potential, cellular oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated significantly by the addition of ELF, whereas there was no decrease following treatment with the DEP extract. There was no significant effect on IL-8 production following exposure to samples that were suspended in ELF/non-ELF systems. The results of the present study indicate that ELF plays an important role in the initial defence against PM in the pulmonary environment. Experimental components, such as ufCB and FeSO{sub 4}, induced the production of oxidative stress and led to DNA single-strand breaks, which were moderately prevented by the addition of ELF. These findings suggest that ELF plays a protective role against PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA damage. -- Highlights: ? To determine the role of ELF in ROS, DNA damage and IL-8 after exposure to PM. ? ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract were used to examine the protective effects of ELF. ? PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated by ELF. ? The findings suggest that ELF has a protective role against PM. ? The synthetic ELF system could reduce the use of animals in PM-driven ROS testing.

  5. Method of stripping metals from organic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID); Herbst, R. Scott (Idaho Falls, ID); Romanovskiy, Valeriy N. (St. Petersburg, RU); Smirnov, Igor V. (St.-Petersburg, RU); Babain, Vasily A. (St-Petersburg, RU); Esimantovski, Vyatcheslav M. (St-Petersburg, RU)

    2009-02-24

    A new method to strip metals from organic solvents in a manner that allows for the recycle of the stripping agent. The method utilizes carbonate solutions of organic amines with complexants, in low concentrations, to strip metals from organic solvents. The method allows for the distillation and reuse of organic amines. The concentrated metal/complexant fraction from distillation is more amenable to immobilization than solutions resulting from current practice.

  6. Organic aerogel microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Kong, Fung-Ming (Pleasanton, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Organic aerogel microspheres which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonsticky gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  7. Organic aerogel microspheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, S.T.; Kong, F.M.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1999-06-01

    Organic aerogel microspheres are disclosed which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonstick gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  8. Changes in soil organic matter driven by shifts in co-dominant plant species in a grassland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of carbon sequestration. The quality and quantity of soil organic carbon is probably influenced. It is suggested that, in conservation projects based on higher carbon sequestration, the plant species with more sequestration, Plant species, Soil organic carbon, Vegetation type, Prangus uloptera stands. hal-00875310

  9. CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aslaksen, Helmer

    THE APPLICATIONS AND VALIDITY OF BODE'S LAW CAN WE EXPLAIN BODE'S LAW USING GRAVITY? 8 Law of Gravitation 8 Centre#12;#12;CONTENTS CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION WHO, HOW AND WHEN IS THE BODE'S LAW DISCOVERED? 1 THE BODE'S LAW HOW THE BODE'S LAW SATISFIED URANUS 3 HOW THE BODE'S LAW LED TO THE DISCOVERY OF CERES

  10. Graphic values for some organic constituents of beneficiated coal samples. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohlenberger, L.B.

    1991-12-31

    The first objective of this one-year project is to obtain analytical data on a series of fractions of coal sample IBC-101 of widely varying ash content obtained via a froth flotation physical coal cleaning process. Froth flotation is the fractionation technique to be used rather than float/sink testing as in the Stansfield-Sutherland method because (1) most of the data in our files which were used in the development of these techniques were froth flotation tests and (2) as a way of showing that the fractionating is as effective by one technique as the other, so long as no chemical changes are effected. Analytical values will be obtained in the Coal Analysis Laboratory for moisture, ash, volatile matter, fixed carbon, total carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, total sulfur, sulfate sulfur, organic sulfur, and calorific value. The next objective will be to plot the various values of each of the analyzed species versus its corresponding ash values to obtain x/y plots for each as a function of ash. From the resulting curves, it should be possible to calculate for coal sample IBC-101 a precise measure of its mineral matter content, its dry or moist ,mineral-matter-free calorific value as used in determining the rank of the coal sample, calculate organic sulfur values corresponding to each ash value in cases where the relationship is linear, and possibly find other analyzed values which have a direct correlation with the mineral matter content of the coal.

  11. Displacement of crude oil by carbon dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omole, Olusegun

    1980-01-01

    DISPLACEMENT OF CRUDE OIL BY CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by OLUSEGUN OMOLE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in part';al fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject...: Petroleum Engineering DISPLACEMENT OF CRUDE OIL BY CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by OLUSEGUN OMOLE Approved as to style and content by: hairman of Committee / (Member (Member (Member (Hea o Depart ent December 1980 ABSTRACT Displacement of Crude Oil...

  12. Carbon particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  13. Carbon supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, F.M.

    1993-11-01

    Carbon supercapacitors are represented as distributed RC networks with transmission line equivalent circuits. At low charge/discharge rates and low frequencies these networks approximate a simple series R{sub ESR}C circuit. The energy efficiency of the supercapacitor is limited by the voltage drop across the ESR. The pore structure of the carbon electrode defines the electrochemically active surface area which in turn establishes the volume specific capacitance of the carbon material. To date, the highest volume specific capacitance reported for a supercapacitor electrode is 220F/cm{sup 3} in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (10) and {approximately}60 F/cm{sup 3} in nonaqueous electrolyte (8).

  14. High carbon fly ash finds uses in highway construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, H.; Patton, R.

    2008-07-01

    The beneficial use of high carbon fly ash in a highway construction project is discussed. The fly ash also had a relatively high content of mercury and some other heavy metals. 1 fig., 4 photos.

  15. Soil carbon sequestration and land-use change: processes and potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil carbon sequestration and land-use change: processes and potential W . M . P O S T * and K . C to perennial vegetation, soil organic carbon can accumulate. This accumulation process essentially reverses some of the effects respon- sible for soil organic carbon losses from when the land was converted from

  16. Development and application of the EPIC model for carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Mcgill, William B.; Williams, J.R.

    2012-06-01

    This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the EPIC model in relation to carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel applications. From its original capabilities and purpose (i.e., quantify the impacts or erosion on soil productivity), the EPIC model has evolved into a comprehensive terrestrial ecosystem model for simulating with more or less process-level detail many ecosystem processes such as weather, hydrology, plant growth and development, carbon cycle (including erosion), nutrient cycling, greenhouse-gas emissions, and the most complete set of manipulations that can be implemented on a parcel of land (e.g. tillage, harvest, fertilization, irrigation, drainage, liming, burning, pesticide application). The chapter also provides details and examples of the latest efforts in model development such as the coupled carbon-nitrogen model, a microbial denitrification model with feedback to the carbon decomposition model, updates on calculation of ecosystem carbon balances, and carbon emissions from fossil fuels. The chapter has included examples of applications of the EPIC model in soil carbon sequestration, net ecosystem carbon balance, and biofuel studies. Finally, the chapter provides the reader with an update on upcoming improvements in EPIC such as the additions of modules for simulating biochar amendments, sorption of soluble C in subsoil horizons, nitrification including the release of N2O, and the formation and consumption of methane in soils. Completion of these model development activities will render an EPIC model with one of the most complete representation of biogeochemical processes and capable of simulating the dynamic feedback of soils to climate and management in terms not only of transient processes (e.g., soil water content, heterotrophic respiration, N2O emissions) but also of fundamental soil properties (e.g. soil depth, soil organic matter, soil bulk density, water limits).

  17. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-04-26

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  18. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-07-29

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  19. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-01-28

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  20. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2002-04-16

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  1. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian McPherson

    2005-08-01

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed several more tasks during the period of October 1, 2004--March 31, 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to achieve an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. Action plans for possible Phase 2 carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region are completed, and a proposal was developed and submitted describing how the Partnership may develop and carry out appropriate pilot tests. The content of this report focuses on Phase 1 objectives completed during this reporting period.

  2. EFFECTS OF SODIUM AND CALCIUM IN LIGNITE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin S. Olson; Kurt E. Eylands; Daniel J. Stepan

    2001-12-01

    New federal drinking water regulations have been promulgated to restrict the levels of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in finished public water supplies. DBPs are suspected carcinogens and are formed when organic material is partially oxidized by disinfectants commonly used in the water treatment industry. Additional federal mandates are expected in the near future that will also affect public water suppliers with respect to DBPs. These new federal drinking water regulations may require public water suppliers to adjust treatment practices or incorporate additional treatment operations into their existing treatment trains. Many options have been identified, including membrane processes, granular activated carbon, powered activated carbon (PAC), enhanced coagulation and/or softening, and alternative disinfectants (e.g., chlorine dioxide, ozone, and chloramines). Of the processes being considered, PAC appears to offer an attractive benefit-to-cost advantage for many water treatment plants, particularly small systems (those serving fewer than 10,000 customers). PAC has traditionally been used by the water treatment industry for the removal of compounds contributing to taste and odor problems. PAC also has the potential to remove naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) from raw waters prior to disinfection, thus controlling the formation of regulated DBPs. Many small water systems are currently using PAC for taste and odor control and have the potential to use PAC for controlling DBPs. Activated carbons can be produced from a variety of raw materials, including wood, peat, coconut husks, and numerous types of coal. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been working on the development of a PAC product to remove NOM from surface water supplies to prevent the formation of carcinogenic DBPs during chlorination. During that study, the sodium and calcium content of the lignites showed a significant effect on the sorption capacity of the activated carbon product. As much as a 130% increase in the humic acid sorption capacity of a PAC produced from a high-sodium-content lignite was observed. We hypothesize that the sodium and calcium content of the coal plays a significant role in the development of pore structures and pore-size distribution, ultimately producing activated carbon products that have greater sorption capacity for specific contaminants, depending on molecular size.

  3. Black carbon in Arctic snow and its effect on surface albedo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Black carbon in Arctic snow and its effect on surface albedo Stephen Warren, University wavelengths: ice is nearly transparent. Absorptive impurities: Black carbon (soot) Brown carbon (organics broadband albedo: 83% 71% (2) by addition of black carbon (BC) (20 ppb): 0.5% for r = 100 µm 1.6% for r

  4. Methods of chemical analysis for organic waste constituents in radioactive materials: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-02-01

    Most of the waste generated during the production of defense materials at Hanford is presently stored in 177 underground tanks. Because of the many waste treatment processes used at Hanford, the operations conducted to move and consolidate the waste, and the long-term storage conditions at elevated temperatures and radiolytic conditions, little is known about most of the organic constituents in the tanks. Organics are a factor in the production of hydrogen from storage tank 101-SY and represent an unresolved safety question in the case of tanks containing high organic carbon content. In preparation for activities that will lead to the characterization of organic components in Hanford waste storage tanks, a thorough search of the literature has been conducted to identify those procedures that have been found useful for identifying and quantifying organic components in radioactive matrices. The information is to be used in the planning of method development activities needed to characterize the organics in tank wastes and will prevent duplication of effort in the development of needed methods.

  5. Advanced Article Article Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Shea, Paul

    -reduction) WILEY ENCYCLOPEDIA OF CHEMICAL BIOLOGY 2008, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1 #12;Membrane PotentialsAdvanced Article Article Contents · Biological Background · Physical Chemistry Background of Biological Roles and of Tech- nologies for Measurement Membrane Potentials in Living Systems, Tools

  6. SCHOOLOFSCIENCE Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varela, Carlos

    SCHOOLOFSCIENCE Table of Contents Degrees Offered and Associated Departments 324 Overview The Darrin Fresh Water Institute 401 New York Center for Studies on the Origins of Life 402 New York State

  7. Field Emission and Nanostructure of Carbon Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkulov, V.I.; Lowndes, D.H.; Baylor, L.R.

    1999-11-29

    The results of field emission measurements of various forms of carbon films are reported. It is shown that the films nanostructure is a crucial factor determining the field emission properties. In particular, smooth, pulsed-laser deposited amorphous carbon films with both high and low sp3 contents are poor field emitters. This is similar to the results obtained for smooth nanocrystalline, sp2-bonded carbon films. In contrast, carbon films prepared by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HE-CVD) exhibit very good field emission properties, including low emission turn-on fields, high emission site density, and excellent durability. HF-CVD carbon films were found to be predominantly sp2-bonded. However, surface morphology studies show that these films are thoroughly nanostructured, which is believed to be responsible for their promising field emission properties.

  8. "The disintegration of organic compounds by microorganisms is accompanied by the liberation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    comple- ment of enzymes necessary to completely oxidize organic fuels to carbon dioxide is not yet they are `carbon-neutral'; the oxidation of the organic matter only releases recently fixed carbon back and sediments. The ubiquitous and innocuous properties of fuels for microbial fuel cells alleviates the need

  9. Organic geochemistry and correlation of Paleozoic source rocks and Trenton crude oils, Indiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guthrie, J. )

    1989-08-01

    Shale samples from four cores of the New Albany and Antrim Shales (Devonian) and from six cores of the Maquoketa Group (Ordovician), representing a broad geographic area of Indiana, have been analyzed for total organic carbon, total sulfur, pyrolysis yield (Rock-Eval), bitumen content, and illite crystallinity data. These data indicate that the New Albany, Antrim, and Maquoketa shales contain a sufficient quantity and quality of organic matter to be good petroleum source rocks. Bitumen ratios, Rock-Eval yields, gas chromatography of saturated hydrocarbons, and illite crystallinity data show that the Maquoketa shales have reached a higher level of thermal maturity than the New Albany and Antrim shales. The level of thermal maturity of the Maquoketa shales suggested a maximum burial depth considerably greater than the present depth.

  10. Carbon Management Plan for the Exeter Campuses 2010-2020

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bearhop, Stuart

    Programme www.exeter.ac.uk/sustainability #12;Version 2010v1 dated 8/03/2011 Page 2 Owner ­ G Whitehouse ­ Energy Manager Carbon Management Plan 2010 - 2020 Contents 1 Forewords 1.1 Foreword from the Vice Drivers 3.4.2 National Drivers - Legislation 3.4.3 National Drivers ­ Government Strategy for Carbon

  11. SuStainability table of contentS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karonis, Nicholas T.

    SuStainability table of contentS executive Summary-Related Sustainability Options ........................................... 41 Information Technology Infrastucture #12;sustainability 2 Private Giving

  12. Selecting activated carbon for water and wastewater treatability studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, W.; Chang, Q.G.; Liu, W.D.; Li, B.J.; Jiang, W.X.; Fu, L.J.; Ying, W.C. [East China University of Chemical Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2007-10-15

    A series of follow-up investigations were performed to produce data for improving the four-indicator carbon selection method that we developed to identify high-potential activated carbons effective for removing specific organic water pollutants. The carbon's pore structure and surface chemistry are dependent on the raw material and the activation process. Coconut carbons have relatively more small pores than large pores; coal and apricot nutshell/walnut shell fruit carbons have the desirable pore structures for removing adsorbates of all sizes. Chemical activation, excessive activation, and/or thermal reactivation enlarge small pores, resulting in reduced phenol number and higher tannic acid number. Activated carbon's phenol, iodine, methylene blue, and tannic acid numbers are convenient indicators of its surface area and pore volume of pore diameters < 10, 10-15, 15-28, and > 28 angstrom, respectively. The phenol number of a carbon is also a good indicator of its surface acidity of oxygen-containing organic functional groups that affect the adsorptive capacity for aromatic and other small polar organics. The tannic acid number is an indicator of carbon's capacity for large, high-molecular-weight natural organic precursors of disinfection by-products in water treatment. The experimental results for removing nitrobenzene, methyl-tert-butyl ether, 4,4-bisphenol, humic acid, and the organic constituents of a biologically treated coking-plant effluent have demonstrated the effectiveness of this capacity-indicator-based method of carbon selection.

  13. of Your Food Contents Page

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B-1400 8/11 of Your Food Content The Sodium #12;Contents Page Introduction.......................................................................................3 Sodium content of foods Beverages and fruit juices activity, and encourages Americans to consume more healthy foods like vegetables, fruits, seafood, whole

  14. Carbon export and transfer to depth across the Southern Ocean Great Calcite Belt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam, P. J.

    Sequestration of carbon by the marine biological pump depends on the processes that alter, remineralize, and preserve particulate organic carbon (POC) during transit to the deep ocean. Here, we present data collected from ...

  15. Understanding and engineering interfacial charge transfer of carbon nanotubes and graphene for energy and sensing applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulus, Geraldine L. C. (Geraldine Laura Caroline)

    2013-01-01

    Graphene is a one-atom thick planar monolayer of sp2 -bonded carbon atoms organized in a hexagonal crystal lattice. A single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) can be thought of as a graphene sheet rolled up into a seamless ...

  16. GEOC: Division of Geochemistry 208 -Copper sequestration by black carbon in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    GEOC: Division of Geochemistry 208 - Copper sequestration by black carbon in contaminated soil the quality of agricultural products and underground water and impacts the stability of soil organic carbon

  17. Carbon investment funds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-01-15

    The report is a study of the development of funds to invest in the purchase of carbon credits. It takes a look at the growing market for carbon credits, the rise of carbon investment funds, and the current state of carbon investing. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of climate change, greenhouse gases, and the Kyoto Protocols. Analysis of the alternatives for reducing carbon emissions including nitrous oxide reduction, coal mine methane capture and carbon capture and storage; Discussion of the different types of carbon credits; Discussion of the basics of carbon trading; Evaluation of the current status of carbon investing; and Profiles of 37 major carbon investment funds worldwide.

  18. Fermilab | About | Organization | Fermilab Organization | Explanation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Symbols Line Organization: sectors, divisions, sections Line Organization Matrix Organization: centers, projects and programs utilizing resources spanning the entire...

  19. Quantity and Spatial Variability of Soil Carbon in the Conterminous United States Yinyan Guo, Ronald Amundson,* Peng Gong, and Qian Yu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Qian

    , Ronald Amundson,* Peng Gong, and Qian Yu ABSTRACT We estimated the soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil

  20. On carbon footprints and growing energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01

    Could fractional reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organization lead to a corresponding real reduction in atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions in the next ten years? Curtis M. Oldenburg, head of the Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program of LBNL’s Earth Sciences Division, considers his own organization's carbon footprint and answers this critical question? In addressing the problem of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change, it is essential that we understand which activities are producing GHGs and the scale of emission for each activity, so that reduction efforts can be efficiently targeted. The GHG emissions to the atmosphere of an individual or group are referred to as the ‘carbon footprint’. This terminology is entirely appropriate, because 85% of the global marketed energy supply comes from carbon-rich fossil fuel sources whose combustion produces CO{sub 2}, the main GHG causing global climate change. Furthermore, the direct relation between CO2 emissions and fossil fuels as they are used today makes energy consumption a useful proxy for carbon footprint. It would seem to be a simple matter to reduce energy consumption across the board, both individually and collectively, to help reduce our carbon footprints and therefore solve the energyclimate crisis. But just how much can we reduce carbon footprints when broader forces, such as growth in energy use, cause the total footprint to simultaneously expand? In this feature, I present a calculation of the carbon footprint of the Earth Sciences Division (ESD), the division in which I work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and discuss the potential for reducing this carbon footprint. It will be apparent that in terms of potential future carbon footprint reductions under projections of expected growth, ESD may be thought of as a microcosm of the situation of the world as a whole, in which alternatives to the business-as-usual use of fossil fuels are needed if absolute GHG emission reductions are to be achieved.

  1. Cutting the carbon footprint of IT How to deliver measurable savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cutting the carbon footprint of IT How to deliver measurable savings ­ an IBM study with the support of Defra #12;Contents Section 1 ­ Foreword Page 3 Assessing and reducing carbon footprint, and infrastructure. Section 3 ­ Measuring and improving the carbon footprint Page 12 Saving power, saving money

  2. Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2011-01-01

    Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the Management ofThe Importance of Carbon Footprint Estimation Boundaries.Carbon accounting and carbon footprint - more than just

  3. Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon Sequestration, and Greenhouse, and Zhu, Zhiliang, 2010, Public review draft; A method for assessing carbon stocks, carbon sequestration

  4. Investigation of Integrated Subsurface Processing of Landfill Gas and Carbon Sequestration, Johnson County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. David Newell; Timothy R. Carr

    2007-03-31

    The Johnson County Landfill in Shawnee, KS is operated by Deffenbaugh Industries and serves much of metropolitan Kansas City. Refuse, which is dumped in large plastic-underlined trash cells covering several acres, is covered over with shale shortly after burial. The landfill waste, once it fills the cell, is then drilled by Kansas City LFG, so that the gas generated by anaerobic decomposition of the refuse can be harvested. Production of raw landfill gas from the Johnson County landfill comes from 150 wells. Daily production is approximately 2.2 to 2.5 mmcf, of which approximately 50% is methane and 50% is carbon dioxide and NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds). Heating value is approximately 550 BTU/scf. A upgrading plant, utilizing an amine process, rejects the carbon dioxide and NMVOCs, and upgrades the gas to pipeline quality (i.e., nominally a heating value >950 BTU/scf). The gas is sold to a pipeline adjacent to the landfill. With coal-bearing strata underlying the landfill, and carbon dioxide a major effluent gas derived from the upgrading process, the Johnson County Landfill is potentially an ideal setting to study the feasibility of injecting the effluent gas in the coals for both enhanced coalbed methane recovery and carbon sequestration. To these ends, coals below the landfill were cored and then were analyzed for their thickness and sorbed gas content, which ranged up to 79 scf/ton. Assuming 1 1/2 square miles of land (960 acres) at the Johnson County Landfill can be utilized for coalbed and shale gas recovery, the total amount of in-place gas calculates to 946,200 mcf, or 946.2 mmcf, or 0.95 bcf (i.e., 985.6 mcf/acre X 960 acres). Assuming that carbon dioxide can be imbibed by the coals and shales on a 2:1 ratio compared to the gas that was originally present, then 1682 to 1720 days (4.6 to 4.7 years) of landfill carbon dioxide production can be sequestered by the coals and shales immediately under the landfill. Three coal--the Bevier, Fleming, and Mulberry coals--are the major coals of sufficient thickness (nominally >1-foot) that can imbibe carbon dioxide gas with an enhanced coalbed injection. Comparison of the adsorption gas content of coals to the gas desorbed from the coals shows that the degree of saturation decreases with depth for the coals.

  5. Temperature-driven decoupling of key phases of organic matter degradation in marine sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Nathaniel B.

    Temperature-driven decoupling of key phases of organic matter degradation in marine sediments for review August 29, 2005) The long-term burial of organic carbon in sediments results in the net and atmosphere. Sediment microbial activity plays a major role in determining whether particulate organic carbon

  6. Autonomous observations of the ocean biological carbon pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, James K.B.

    2009-03-01

    Prediction of the substantial biologically mediated carbon flows in a rapidly changing and acidifying ocean requires model simulations informed by observations of key carbon cycle processes on the appropriate space and time scales. From 2000 to 2004, the National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP) supported the development of the first low-cost fully-autonomous ocean profiling Carbon Explorers that demonstrated that year-round real-time observations of particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration and sedimentation could be achieved in the world's ocean. NOPP also initiated the development of a sensor for particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) suitable for operational deployment across all oceanographic platforms. As a result, PIC profile characterization that once required shipboard sample collection and shipboard or shore based laboratory analysis, is now possible to full ocean depth in real time using a 0.2W sensor operating at 24 Hz. NOPP developments further spawned US DOE support to develop the Carbon Flux Explorer, a free-vehicle capable of following hourly variations of particulate inorganic and organic carbon sedimentation from near surface to kilometer depths for seasons to years and capable of relaying contemporaneous observations via satellite. We have demonstrated the feasibility of real time - low cost carbon observations which are of fundamental value to carbon prediction and when further developed, will lead to a fully enhanced global carbon observatory capable of real time assessment of the ocean carbon sink, a needed constraint for assessment of carbon management policies on a global scale.

  7. The sulfur content of volcanic gases on Mars Fabrice Gaillard, a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    The sulfur content of volcanic gases on Mars Fabrice Gaillard, a and Bruno Scaillet1, a a CNRS sulfur contents of the martian regolith and lack of detection of extensive carbonate deposits suggest that the latest geological events that shaped the landscapes of Mars were dominated by acidic waters possibly

  8. Carbon Fiber Consortium | Partnerships | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Fiber Consortium SHARE Carbon Fiber Consortium Oak Ridge Carbon Fiber Composites Consortium The Oak Ridge Carbon Fiber Composites Consortium was established in 2011 to...

  9. Accelerated carbonation treatment of industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunning, Peter J., E-mail: gunning_peter@hotmail.co [Centre for Contaminated Land Remediation, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime (United Kingdom); Hills, Colin D.; Carey, Paula J. [Centre for Contaminated Land Remediation, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    The disposal of industrial waste presents major logistical, financial and environmental issues. Technologies that can reduce the hazardous properties of wastes are urgently required. In the present work, a number of industrial wastes arising from the cement, metallurgical, paper, waste disposal and energy industries were treated with accelerated carbonation. In this process carbonation was effected by exposing the waste to pure carbon dioxide gas. The paper and cement wastes chemically combined with up to 25% by weight of gas. The reactivity of the wastes to carbon dioxide was controlled by their constituent minerals, and not by their elemental composition, as previously postulated. Similarly, microstructural alteration upon carbonation was primarily influenced by mineralogy. Many of the thermal wastes tested were classified as hazardous, based upon regulated metal content and pH. Treatment by accelerated carbonation reduced the leaching of certain metals, aiding the disposal of many as stable non-reactive wastes. Significant volumes of carbon dioxide were sequestrated into the accelerated carbonated treated wastes.

  10. Content-Aware Image enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schettini, Raimondo

    1 Content-Aware Image enhancement R. Schettini www.ivl.disco.unimib.it 8 Faculties, 61 Degree Recognition Content-based retrieval Quality Assessment Content-Aware Image Enhancement Presentation Outline Processing Content aware image enhancement We focus here on image based features. And show how to exploit

  11. Content-Aware Image enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schettini, Raimondo

    Content-Aware Image enhancement R. Schettini www.ivl.disco.unimib.it #12;8 Faculties, 61 Degree Recognition Content-based retrieval Quality Assessment #12;Content-Aware Image Enhancement Presentation Image Processing Content aware image enhancement We focus here on image based features. And show how

  12. Terrestrial Carbon Management Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Terrestrial Carbon Management are organized as Carbon Accumulation with Cropland Management, Carbon Accumulation with Grassland Management, Carbon Loss Following Cultivation, Carbon Accumulation Following Afforestation, and Carbon Sources and Sinks Associated with U.S. Cropland Production.

  13. Emission and Absorption Spectroscopy of Carbon Arc Plasma during Formation of Carbon Magnetic Encapsulates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lange, H.; Labedz, O.; Huczko, A.; Bystrzejewski, M.

    2011-11-29

    Plasma diagnostics of carbon arc discharge under conditions of carbon magnetic encapsulates formation was performed by emission and absorption spectroscopy. Content of C{sub 2} and Fe species, rotational temperatures of excited (d {sup 3} product {sub g}) and non-excited (a {sup 3} product {sub u}) states, and excitation temperatures of a {sup 5}F and a {sup 3}F levels relatively to the a {sup 5}D level of Fe atoms were determined. The results pointed to a non-equilibrium state of carbon arc plasma under prevailing discharge conditions.

  14. ISSUE TABLE OF CONTENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SPECTRA HOME CURRENT ISSUE TABLE OF CONTENTS TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS PRESSTIME BULLETIN ARTICLE Thomas Young's classic setup for the demonstration of interference features light from one source incident on two vertical slits because the phenomenon occurs only if the light from the slits has a well

  15. Table of Contents Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagy, Eric Sándor

    include nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2 ), nitric acid (HNO3 ), nitrous oxide (N2 O, a greenhouse gas.TheHaber-BoschprocessalsosuppliesNH3 for industrial processes. Anthropogenic sources of nitrogen are twice as large as natural terDRAFT - 1 #12;2 - DRAFT Table of Contents Introduction What is Reactive Nitrogen and Why

  16. Compacted carbon for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greinke, R.A.; Lewis, I.C.

    1997-10-14

    This invention provides compacted carbon that is useful in the electrode of an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell of improved capacity selected from the group consisting of: (a) coke having the following properties: (1) an x-ray density of at least 2.00 grams per cubic centimeters, (2) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (3) an open porosity of no greater than 47%; and (b) graphite having the following properties: (1) an x-ray density of at least 2.20 grams per cubic centimeters, (2) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (3) an open porosity of no greater than 25%. This invention also relates to an electrode for an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising compacted carbon as described above and a binder. This invention further provides an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrolytically conductive salt and an alkali metal, and (c) a counter electrode. 10 figs.

  17. Graphic values for some organic constitutents of beneficiated coal samples. [Quarterly] report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohlenberger, L.B. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Graphic techniques exist which can accurately predict values for calorific value, organic sulfur, and possibly other constituents of the organic portion of beneficiated coal sample fractions. These techniques also permit a determination of coal rank to be made without the use of the approximations required in the standard procedure. Fractions of IBC-101 with varying ash contents were produced by froth flotation. The various fractions were analyzed by the coal analysis laboratory and the particular data type was plotted in each case vs. the individual ash content of each fraction, using Lotus 123 and Freelace software packages. Such plots for calorific value and organic sulfur have, so far, been made. These curves and the information they contain are discussed in this report. A comparison of the graphic mineral matter value with the usual one calculated from the Parr approximation has been made. Eventually, the data may lead to an effective way to estimate inorganic carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and other organic constitents of coal. All data will be made available to researchers.

  18. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEYI/O Streams for Large-scaleOrganizationAboutOrganizingOrganizing

  19. Organic Matter Content of Soil After Logging of Fir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .) and assorted minor species. The sampling sites are in silt or clay loams of the Tish Tang or Strawberry soil

  20. Impact of Sulfur Oxides on Mercury Capture by Activated Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J.

    2007-09-15

    Recent field tests of mercury removal with activated carbon injection (ACI) have revealed that mercury capture is limited in flue gases containing high concentrations of sulfur oxides (SOx). In order to gain a more complete understanding of the impact of SOx on ACI, mercury capture was tested under varying conditions of SO2 and SO3 concentrations using a packed bed reactor and simulated flue gas (SFG). The final mercury content of the activated carbons is independent of the SO2 concentration in the SFG, but the presence of SO3 inhibits mercury capture even at the lowest concentration tested (20 ppm). The mercury removal capacity decreases as the sulfur content of the used activated carbons increases from 1 to 10%. In one extreme case, an activated carbon with 10% sulfur, prepared by H2SO4 impregnation, shows almost no mercury capacity. The results suggest that mercury and sulfur oxides are in competition for the same binding sites on the carbon surface.

  1. Photophysics of carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samsonidze, Georgii G

    2007-01-01

    This thesis reviews the recent advances made in optical studies of single-wall carbon nanotubes. Studying the electronic and vibrational properties of carbon nanotubes, we find that carbon nanotubes less than 1 nm in ...

  2. Carbon dioxide and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  3. Organic Superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Mielke

    2009-02-27

    Intense magnetic fields are an essential tool for understanding layered superconductors. Fundamental electronic properties of organic superconductors are revealed in intense (60 tesla) magnetic fields. Properties such as the topology of the Fermi surface and the nature of the superconducting order parameter are revealed. With modest maximum critical temperatures~13K the charge transfer salt organic superconductors prove to be incredibly valuable materials as their electronically clean nature and layered (highly anisotropic) structures yield insights to the high temperature superconductors. Observation of de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas quantum oscillatory phenomena, magnetic field induced superconductivity and re-entrant superconductivity are some of the physical phenomena observed in the charge transfer organic superconductors. In this talk, I will discuss the nature of organic superconductors and give an overview of the generation of intense magnetic fields; from the 60 tesla millisecond duration to the extreme 1000 tesla microsecond pulsed magnetic fields.

  4. www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/326/5956/1100/DC1 Supporting Online Material for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, John W. "Jack"

    ), but without ethanol to avoid carbon contamination. Charcoal samples were processed along with coal "blanks" to assure that chemical processing treatments did not contaminate samples with modern carbon; these coal, carbonates, and organic matter (KOH, H2SO4, HCl, HF), vacuum-sieving, and flotation with sodium polytungstate

  5. Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    #12;Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward

  6. Selection and preparation of activated carbon for fuel gas storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwarz, James A. (Fayetteville, NY); Noh, Joong S. (Syracuse, NY); Agarwal, Rajiv K. (Las Vegas, NV)

    1990-10-02

    Increasing the surface acidity of active carbons can lead to an increase in capacity for hydrogen adsorption. Increasing the surface basicity can facilitate methane adsorption. The treatment of carbons is most effective when the carbon source material is selected to have a low ash content i.e., below about 3%, and where the ash consists predominantly of alkali metals alkali earth, with only minimal amounts of transition metals and silicon. The carbon is washed in water or acid and then oxidized, e.g. in a stream of oxygen and an inert gas at an elevated temperature.

  7. Method of making carbon-carbon composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

    1993-01-01

    A process for making 2D and 3D carbon-carbon composites having a combined high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizible woven cloth are infiltrated with carbon material to form green composites. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnant step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3100.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced. pressure.

  8. Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Smit, Berend

    2011-06-08

    Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  9. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 21 NOVEMBER 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1014 Rapid carbon sequestration at the termination of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 21 NOVEMBER 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1014 Rapid carbon sequestration sequestration of organic carbon could reflect the regrowth of carbon stocks in the biosphere or shallow ago, has been attributed to the release of thousands of petagrams of reduced carbon into the ocean

  10. Thermodynamic Complexity of Carbon Capture in Alkylamine-Functionalize...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermodynamic Complexity of Carbon Capture in Alkylamine-Functionalized Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List D. Wu, T. M. McDonald, Z. Quan, S. V. Ushakov, P. Zhang, J. R....

  11. Synthesis of Amides and Lactams in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mak, Xiao Yin

    Supercritical carbon dioxide can be employed as an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional organic solvents for the synthesis of a variety of carboxylic amides. The addition of amines to ketenes generated in ...

  12. Dynamics of decadally cycling carbon in subsurface soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koarashi, Jun; Hockaday, William C; Masiello, Caroline A; Trumbore, Susan E

    2012-01-01

    of organic carbon in deep soil layers controlled by freshcarbon input G03033 from fresh liter to deep mineral soils,Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. , 71, 347–354, doi:

  13. Energy Use and Carbon Emissions: Non-OECD Countries

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    Presents world energy use and carbon emissions patterns, with particular emphasis on the non-OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries (including the current and former centrally planned economies).

  14. Energy Carrier Transport In Surface-Modified Carbon Nanotubes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryu, Yeontack

    2012-11-30

    of organic molecules or inorganic nanoparticles, debundling of nanotubes by dispersing agents, and microwave irradiation. Because carbon nanotubes have unique carrier transport characteristics along a sheet of graphite in a cylindrical shape, the properties...

  15. Carbonate fuel cell and components thereof for in-situ delayed addition of carbonate electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnsen, Richard (Waterbury, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT); Farooque, Mohammad (Danbury, CT)

    2011-05-10

    An apparatus and method in which a delayed carbonate electrolyte is stored in the storage areas of a non-electrolyte matrix fuel cell component and is of a preselected content so as to obtain a delayed time release of the electrolyte in the storage areas in the operating temperature range of the fuel cell.

  16. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  17. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  18. Method of making molten carbonate fuel cell ceramic matrix tape

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maricle, Donald L. (226 Forest La., Glastonbury, CT 06033); Putnam, Gary C. (47 Walker St., Manchester, CT 06040); Stewart, Jr., Robert C. (1230 Copper Hill Rd., West Suffield, CT 06093)

    1984-10-23

    A method of making a thin, flexible, pliable matrix material for a molten carbonate fuel cell is described. The method comprises admixing particles inert in the molten carbonate environment with an organic polymer binder and ceramic particle. The composition is applied to a mold surface and dried, and the formed compliant matrix material removed.

  19. Research Article Airborne carbon deposition on a remote forested lake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pace, Michael L.

    allochthonous carbon sources and food webs (Cole et al., 2006). There are numerous pathways for terrestrial inputs of terrestrial particulate organic carbon (TPOC) were measured during summ- er stratification of TPOC were between 6:1 and 22:1 (molar), much lower than the values for terrestrial leaves which were

  20. Carbon aerogels: An update on structure, properties, and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekala, R.W.; Mayer, S.T.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Kong, F.M.

    1993-07-01

    Aerogels are unique porous materials whose composition, structure, and properties can be controlled at the nanometer scale. This paper examines the synthesis of organic aerogels and their carbonized derivatives. Carbon aerogels have low electrical resistivity, high surface area, and a tunable pore size. These materials are finding applications as electrodes in double layer capacitors.

  1. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted mixture of gases and aerosols. Primary emissions include sig- nificant amounts of CH4 and aerosol (organic

  2. A Content Propagation Metric for Efficient Content Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    A Content Propagation Metric for Efficient Content Distribution Ryan S. Peterson Cornell University@cs.cornell.edu ABSTRACT Efficient content distribution in large networks comprising data- centers, end hosts, and distributed in-network caches is a diffi- cult problem. Existing systems rely on mechanisms and metrics

  3. Web Content Filtering 1 User Guidelines Web content filter guidelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swain, Peter

    Web Content Filtering 1 User Guidelines Web content filter guidelines Introduction The basic criterion for blocking a Web page Categories of material which will be blocked Requesting the unblocking of Aberdeen applies a Web Content Filtering service to all web pages accessed from the undergraduate network

  4. Novel method for carbon nanofilament growth on carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Johathan; Luhrs, Claudia; Terani, Mehran; Al - Haik, Marwan; Garcia, Daniel; Taha, Mahmoud R

    2009-01-01

    Fiber reinforced structural composites such as fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs) have proven to be key materials for blast mitigation due to their enhanced mechanical performance. However, there is a need to further increase total energy absorption of the composites in order to retain structural integrity in high energy environments, for example, blast events. Research has shown that composite failure in high energy environments can be traced to their relatively low shear strength attributed to the limited bond strength between the matrix and the fibers. One area of focus for improving the strength of composite materials has been to create 'multi-scale' composites. The most common approach to date is to introduce carbon nanotubes into a more traditional composite consisting of epoxy with embedded micron scale fibers. The inclusion of carbon nanotubes (CNT) clearly toughens different matrices. Depositing CNT in brittle matrix increases stiffness by orders of magnitude. Currently, this approach to create multiscale composites is limited due to the difficulty of dispersing significant amounts of nanotubes. It has repeatedly been reported that phase separation occurs above relatively low weight percent loading (ca. 3%) due to the strong van der Waals forces between CNTs compared with that between CNT and polymer. Hence, the nanotubes tend to segregate and form inclusions. One means to prevent nanotube or nanofilament agglomeration is to anchor one end of the nanostructure, thereby creating a stable multi-phase structure. This is most easily done by literally growing the CNTs directly on micron scale fibers. Recently, CNT were grown on carbon fibers, both polyacrylonitrile- (PAN-) and pitch-based, by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) using H2 and CH4 as precursors. Nickel clusters were electrodeposited on the fiber surfaces to catalyze the growth and uniform CNT coatings were obtained on both the PAN- and pitch-based carbon fibers. Multiwalled CNTs with smooth walls and low impurity content were grown. Carbon nanofibers were also grown on a carbon fiber cloth using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from a mixture of acetylene and ammonia. In this case, a cobalt colloid was used to achieve a good coverage of nanofibers on carbon fibers in the cloth. Caveats to CNT growth include damage in the carbon fiber surface due to high-temperatures (>800 C). More recently, Qu et al. reported a new method for uniform deposition of CNT on carbon fibers. However, this method requires processing at 1100 C in the presence of oxygen and such high temperature is anticipated to deepen the damage in the carbon fibers. In the present work, multi-scale filaments (herein, linear carbon structures with multi-micron diameter are called 'fibers', all structures with sub-micron diameter are called 'filaments') were created with a low temperature (ca. 550 C) alternative to CVD growth of CNTs. Specifically, nano-scale filaments were rapidly generated (> 10 microns/hour) on commercial micron scale fibers via catalytic (Pd particles) growth from a fuel rich combustion environment at atmospheric pressure. This atmospheric pressure process, derived from the process called Graphitic Growth by Design (GSD), is rapid, the maximum temperature low enough (below 700 C) to avoid structural damage and the process inexpensive and readily scalable. In some cases, a significant and unexpected aspect of the process was the generation of 'three scale' materials. That is, materials with these three size characteristics were produced: (1) micrometer scale commercial PAN fibers, (2) a layer of 'long' sub-micrometer diameter scale carbon filaments, and (3) a dense layer of 'short' nanometer diameter filaments.

  5. Method for catalytic destruction of organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sealock, Jr., L. John (Richland, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

    1997-01-01

    A method is disclosed for converting waste organic materials into an innocuous product gas. The method comprises maintaining, in a pressure vessel, in the absence of oxygen, at a temperature of 250.degree. C. to 500.degree. C. and a pressure of at least 50 atmospheres, a fluid organic waste material, water, and a catalyst consisting essentially of reduced nickel in an amount sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the organic waste material to produce an innocuous product gas composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. The methane in the product gas may be burned to preheat the organic materials.

  6. Method for catalytic destruction of organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1997-05-20

    A method is disclosed for converting waste organic materials into an innocuous product gas. The method comprises maintaining, in a pressure vessel, in the absence of oxygen, at a temperature of 250 to 500 C and a pressure of at least 50 atmospheres, a fluid organic waste material, water, and a catalyst consisting essentially of reduced nickel in an amount sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the organic waste material to produce an innocuous product gas composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. The methane in the product gas may be burned to preheat the organic materials. 7 figs.

  7. Contents 1. Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoepman, Jaap-Henk

    , or falsify information that its citizens receive by suppressing or crowding out political news or classifying one's own work out of fear of, or deference to, the sensibilities or preferences (actual be carried out by governments or by private organizations either at the behest of government or on their own

  8. CARBON DIOXIDE AS A FEEDSTOCK.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CREUTZ,C.; FUJITA,E.

    2000-12-09

    This report is an overview on the subject of carbon dioxide as a starting material for organic syntheses of potential commercial interest and the utilization of carbon dioxide as a substrate for fuel production. It draws extensively on literature sources, particularly on the report of a 1999 Workshop on the subject of catalysis in carbon dioxide utilization, but with emphasis on systems of most interest to us. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is an abundant (750 billion tons in atmosphere), but dilute source of carbon (only 0.036 % by volume), so technologies for utilization at the production source are crucial for both sequestration and utilization. Sequestration--such as pumping CO{sub 2} into sea or the earth--is beyond the scope of this report, except where it overlaps utilization, for example in converting CO{sub 2} to polymers. But sequestration dominates current thinking on short term solutions to global warming, as should be clear from reports from this and other workshops. The 3500 million tons estimated to be added to the atmosphere annually at present can be compared to the 110 million tons used to produce chemicals, chiefly urea (75 million tons), salicylic acid, cyclic carbonates and polycarbonates. Increased utilization of CO{sub 2} as a starting material is, however, highly desirable, because it is an inexpensive, non-toxic starting material. There are ongoing efforts to replace phosgene as a starting material. Creation of new materials and markets for them will increase this utilization, producing an increasingly positive, albeit small impact on global CO{sub 2} levels. The other uses of interest are utilization as a solvent and for fuel production and these will be discussed in turn.

  9. Perceptual Experience and Its Contents 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toribio, Josefa

    2002-01-01

    The contents of perceptual experience, it has been argued, often include a characteristic “non-conceptual” component (Evans, 1982). Rejecting such views, McDowell (1994) claims that such contents are conceptual in ...

  10. Organization Chart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEYI/O Streams for Large-scaleOrganization Chart Organization Charts

  11. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEYI/O Streams for Large-scaleOrganizationAbout EventsOrganizing

  12. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEYI/O Streams for Large-scaleOrganizationAboutOrganizing Committee

  13. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEYI/O Streams for Large-scaleOrganizationAboutOrganizing

  14. Carbon Nanotube Based Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Mian; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-11-01

    This review article provides a comprehensive review on sensors and biosensors based on functionalized carbon nanotubes.

  15. Carbon Monoxide Environmental Public

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The National Workgroup on Carbon Monoxide Surveillance Formed in April 2005 Membership: EPHT grantees Academic

  16. The CO2 Content of Consumption Across US Regions: A Multi-Regional Input-Output (MRIO) Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caron, J.

    We improve on existing estimates of the carbon dioxide (CO2) content of consumption across regions of the United States. Using a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) framework, we estimate the direct and indirect CO2 emissions ...

  17. Personalized professional content recommendation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-10-27

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  18. Personalized professional content recommendation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-11-05

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  19. NESEA Newsletter Content

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGEMissionStressMoveMuncriefB NESEA Newsletter Content

  20. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

    2014-09-09

    A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

  1. Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Anderson, SC)

    2001-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  2. Carbon Dioxide Sealing Capacity: Textural or Compositional Controls?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cranganu, Constantin; Soleymani, Hamidreza; Sadiqua, Soleymani; Watson, Kieva

    2013-11-30

    This research project is aiming to assess the carbon dioxide sealing capacity of most common seal-rocks, such as shales and non-fractured limestones, by analyzing the role of textural and compositional parameters of those rocks. We hypothesize that sealing capacity is controlled by textural and/or compositional pa-rameters of caprocks. In this research, we seek to evaluate the importance of textural and compositional parameters affecting the sealing capacity of caprocks. The conceptu-al framework involves two testable end-member hypotheses concerning the sealing ca-pacity of carbon dioxide reservoir caprocks. Better understanding of the elements controlling sealing quality will advance our knowledge regarding the sealing capacity of shales and carbonates. Due to relatively low permeability, shale and non-fractured carbonate units are considered relatively imper-meable formations which can retard reservoir fluid flow by forming high capillary pres-sure. Similarly, these unites can constitute reliable seals for carbon dioxide capture and sequestration purposes. This project is a part of the comprehensive project with the final aim of studying the caprock sealing properties and the relationship between microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of seal rocks in depleted gas fields of Oklahoma Pan-handle. Through this study we examined various seal rock characteristics to infer about their respective effects on sealing capacity in special case of replacing reservoir fluid with super critical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}). To assess the effect of textural and compositional properties on scCO{sub 2} maximum reten-tion column height we collected 30 representative core samples in caprock formations in three counties (Cimarron, Texas, Beaver) in Oklahoma Panhandle. Core samples were collected from various seal formations (e.g., Cherokee, Keys, Morrowan) at different depths. We studied the compositional and textural properties of the core samples using several techniques. Mercury Injection Porosimetry (MIP), Scanning Electron Microsco-py SEM, and Sedigraph measurements are used to assess the pore-throat-size distribu-tion, sorting, texture, and grain size of the samples. Also, displacement pressure at 10% mercury saturation (Pd) and graphically derived threshold pressure (Pc) were deter-mined by MIP technique. SEM images were used for qualitative study of the minerals and pores texture of the core samples. Moreover, EDS (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spec-trometer), BET specific surface area, and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) measurements were performed to study various parameters and their possible effects on sealing capaci-ty of the samples. We found that shales have the relatively higher average sealing threshold pressure (Pc) than carbonate and sandstone samples. Based on these observations, shale formations could be considered as a promising caprock in terms of retarding scCO{sub 2} flow and leak-age into above formations. We hypothesized that certain characteristics of shales (e.g., 3 fine pore size, pore size distribution, high specific surface area, and strong physical chemical interaction between wetting phase and mineral surface) make them an effi-cient caprock for sealing super critical CO{sub 2}. We found that the displacement pressure at 10% mercury saturation could not be the ultimate representative of the sealing capacity of the rock sample. On the other hand, we believe that graphical method, introduced by Cranganu (2004) is a better indicator of the true sealing capacity. Based on statistical analysis of our samples from Oklahoma Panhandle we assessed the effects of each group of properties (textural and compositional) on maximum supercriti-cal CO{sub 2} height that can be hold by the caprock. We conclude that there is a relatively strong positive relationship (+.40 to +.69) between supercritical CO{sub 2} column height based on Pc and hard/ soft mineral content index (ratio of minerals with Mohs hardness more than 5 over minerals with Mohs hardness less than 5) in both shales and limestone samples. Average median pore rad

  3. Nanocomposite fibers and film containing polyolefin and surface-modified carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chu,Benjamin (Setauket, NY); Hsiao, Benjamin S. (Setauket, NY)

    2010-01-26

    Methods for modifying carbon nanotubes with organic compounds are disclosed. The modified carbon nanotubes have enhanced compatibility with polyolefins. Nanocomposites of the organo-modified carbon nanotubes and polyolefins can be used to produce both fibers and films having enhanced mechanical and electrical properties, especially the elongation-to-break ratio and the toughness of the fibers and/or films.

  4. 19.1 Introduction Carbon sequestration programs on land and in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Chapter 19 19.1 Introduction Carbon sequestration programs on land and in the oceans are gaining sequestration programs emphasize storing carbon in soil organic matter in agri- cultural fields,in woody sequestration and management include the feasibil- ity and permanence of the carbon sequestered, the scale

  5. Global Change Biology (2000) 6, 317328 Soil Carbon Sequestration and Land-Use Change: Processes and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2000-01-01

    Global Change Biology (2000) 6, 317­328 Soil Carbon Sequestration and Land-Use Change: Processes in enhanced soil carbon sequestration with changes in land-use and soil management. We review literature, and indicates the relative importance of some factors that influence the rates of organic carbon sequestration

  6. Oxygen production and carbon sequestration in an upwelling coastal Burke Hales,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxygen production and carbon sequestration in an upwelling coastal margin Burke Hales,1 Lee Karp), Oxygen production and carbon sequestration in an upwelling coastal margin, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 20 of particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved O2 during the upwelling season off the Oregon coast. Oxygen

  7. Recent Leaf-Litter-Derived Carbon Is Not a Major Source for Mineral Soil Microbial Communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post, Wilfred M.

    Recent Leaf-Litter-Derived Carbon Is Not a Major Source for Mineral Soil Microbial Communities mineral soil microbes. ·The results provided quantitative evidence that root-derived C is the major (>60: Microbial communities in soil A horizons derive their carbon from several potential sources: organic carbon

  8. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 3 APRIL 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1123 Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Monica G.

    ­20% of global anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, second only to fossil fuel combustion7,8 . Recent of coastal development, aqua- culture expansion and over-harvesting1­4 . Carbon emissions resulting from and dead wood biomass, soil carbon content, and soil depth in 25 mangrove forests across a broad area

  9. Carbon Film Electrodes For Super Capacitor Applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, Ming X. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-07-20

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

  10. Microbial community transcriptomes reveal microbes and metabolic pathways associated with dissolved organic matter turnover in the sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarren, Jay

    Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) contains as much carbon as the Earth's atmosphere, and represents a critical component of the global carbon cycle. To better define microbial processes and activities associated with ...

  11. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39 (2007) 27012711 Carbon structure and enzyme activities in alpine and forest ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neff, Jason

    2007-01-01

    : Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; Py-GC/MS; Enzymes; Microbe; Carbon; Chemistry; Soil organicSoil Biology & Biochemistry 39 (2007) 2701­2711 Carbon structure and enzyme activities in alpine of soil organic matter fractions and its relationship to biological processes remains uncertain. We used

  12. Doping of carbon foams for use in energy storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Morrison, Robert L. (Modesto, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A polymeric foam precursor, wetted with phosphoric acid, is pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to produce an open-cell doped carbon foam, which is utilized as a lithium intercalation anode in a secondary, organic electrolyte battery. Tests were conducted in a cell containing an organic electrolyte and using lithium metal counter and reference electrodes, with the anode located therebetween. Results after charge and discharge cycling, for a total of 6 cycles, indicated a substantial increase in the energy storage capability of the phosphorus doped carbon foam relative to the undoped carbon foam, when used as a rechargeable lithium ion battery.

  13. Doping of carbon foams for use in energy storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Morrison, R.L.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1994-10-25

    A polymeric foam precursor, wetted with phosphoric acid, is pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to produce an open-cell doped carbon foam, which is utilized as a lithium intercalation anode in a secondary, organic electrolyte battery. Tests were conducted in a cell containing an organic electrolyte and using lithium metal counter and reference electrodes, with the anode located there between. Results after charge and discharge cycling, for a total of 6 cycles, indicated a substantial increase in the energy storage capability of the phosphorus doped carbon foam relative to the undoped carbon foam, when used as a rechargeable lithium ion battery. 3 figs.

  14. Carbon nanotubes and carbon onions for modification of styrene-acrylate copolymer based nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merijs-Meri, Remo; Zicans, Janis; Ivanova, Tatjana; Bitenieks, Juris [Institute of Polymer Materials, Riga Technical University, Azenes street 14/24, LV-1048, Riga (Latvia); Kuzhir, Polina; Maksimenko, Sergey [Institute of Nuclear Problems, Belarus State University, Bobruiskaya str. 11, 220030, Minsk (Belarus); Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Moseenkov, Sergey [Boreskov Institute of Catalyst Siberian branch of RAS, pr. Lavrentieva 5, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-15

    Styrene acrylate polymer (SAC) nanocomposites with various carbon nanofillers (multiwalled carbon nanotubes MWCNTs and onion like carbon OLC) are manufactured by means of latex based routes. Concentration of the carbon nanofillers is changed in a broad interval starting from 0.01 up to 10 wt. %. Elastic, dielectric and electromagnetic properties of SAC nanocomposites are investigated. Elastic modulus, electrical conductivity and electromagnetic radiation absorption of the investigated SAC nanocomposites increase along with rising nanofiller content. The effect of the addition of anisometric MWCNTs on the elastic properties of the composite is higher than in the case of the addition of OLC. Higher electrical conductivity of the OLC containing nanocomposites is explained with the fact that reasonable agglomeration of the nanofiller can promote the development of electrically conductive network. Efficiency of the absorption of electromagnetic radiation depends on the development of conductive network within the SAC matrix.

  15. Cleaning Web Pages for Effective Web Content Mining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ezeife, Christie

    Cleaning Web Pages for Effective Web Content Mining Jing Li and C.I. Ezeife School of Computer://www.cs.uwindsor.ca/cezeife Abstract. Classifying and mining noise-free web pages will improve on accuracy of search results as well as search speed, and may benefit web- page organization applications (e.g., keyword-based search engines

  16. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  17. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels| Departmentof Energy CaliforniaContentsForumCarbon

  18. Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gas by Phase Enhanced Absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Fout

    2007-06-30

    A new process, phase enhanced absorption, was invented. The method is carried out in an absorber, where a liquid carrier (aqueous solution), an organic mixture (or organic compound), and a gas mixture containing a gas to be absorbed are introduced from an inlet. Since the organic mixture is immiscible or at least partially immiscible with the liquid carrier, the organic mixture forms a layer or small parcels between the liquid carrier and the gas mixture. The organic mixture in the absorber improves mass transfer efficiency of the system and increases the absorption rate of the gas. The organic mixture serves as a transportation media. The gas is finally accumulated in the liquid carrier as in a conventional gas-liquid absorption system. The presence of the organic layer does not hinder the regeneration of the liquid carrier or recovery of the gas because the organic layer is removed by a settler after the absorption process is completed. In another aspect, the system exhibited increased gas-liquid separation efficiency, thereby reducing the costs of operation and maintenance. Our study focused on the search of the organic layer or transportation layer to enhance the absorption rate of carbon dioxide. The following systems were studied, (1) CO{sub 2}-water system and CO{sub 2}-water-organic layer system; (2) CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate aqueous solution system and CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate aqueous solution-organic layer system. CO{sub 2}-water and CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate systems are the traditional gas-liquid absorption processes. The CO{sub 2}-water-organic layer and CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate-organic layer systems are the novel absorption processes, phase enhanced absorption. As we mentioned early, organic layer is used for the increase of absorption rate, and plays the role of transportation of CO{sub 2}. Our study showed that the absorption rate can be increased by adding the organic layer. However, the enhanced factor is highly depended on the liquid mass transfer coefficients for the CO{sub 2}-water-organic layer system. For the CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate aqueous solution-organic layer system, the enhanced factor is not only dependent on the liquid mass transfer coefficients, but also the chemical reaction rates.

  19. Carbon Nanostructure-Based Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Tapan

    2012-01-01

    Control of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Functionalization.M. S. Characterizing carbon nanotube samples with resonancewith a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Capacitor. Science

  20. Recovery of carboxylic acids from water by precipitation from organic solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Starr, John (Albany, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are recovered from wet organic solutions by reducing the solutions' water content thus causing the acids to precipitate as recoverable crystals.

  1. Metallic carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA); Crespi, Vincent Henry (Darien, IL); Louie, Steven Gwon Sheng (Berkeley, CA); Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Novel metallic forms of planar carbon are described, as well as methods of designing and making them. Nonhexagonal arrangements of carbon are introduced into a graphite carbon network essentially without destroying the planar structure. Specifically a form of carbon comprising primarily pentagons and heptagons, and having a large density of states at the Fermi level is described. Other arrangements of pentagons and heptagons that include some hexagons, and structures incorporating squares and octagons are additionally disclosed. Reducing the bond angle symmetry associated with a hexagonal arrangement of carbons increases the likelihood that the carbon material will have a metallic electron structure.

  2. Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in high purity magnesium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roche, Neil Gerard

    1981-01-01

    DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial i'ulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1981 Major Subject: Chemistry DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Approved as to style and content by: E. A. Schweikert (Chairman of Committee) G. J. Bastiaans (Member) L...

  3. A study of oil displacement by carbonated water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partovi-Najafabadi, Roohollah

    1968-01-01

    A STUDY OF OIL DISPLACEMENT BY CARBONATED WATER A Thesis by Roohollah Partovi-N. Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1988... Major Subject: Petroleum Fn ineerin A STUDY OF OIL DISPLACEMENT BY CARBONATED WATER A Thesis by Roohollah Partovi-N. Approved as to style and content by: ( irman of mmittee) M mber) (Head of partment) (Member) January 1968 CP9292...

  4. FTIR spectroscopy can predict organic matter quality in2 regenerating cutover peatlands3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    emissions51 Soil Biology and Biochemistry #12;3 show a return to net carbon sequestration (Tuittila et al sequestration potential. Increased losses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC)55 have been observed from many area. Peat46 extraction for fuel and horticultural use has steadily diminished this carbon stock,47

  5. Terrestrial Analysis of the Organic Component

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    they formed, these large bodies cannot provide many insights into the nature of the raw starting materials organics is of great interest, both because these materials are thought to represent a reservoir of the original carbon-containing materials from which everything else in our solar system was made and because

  6. Tailoring the properties of organic aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    We have recently succeeded in producing a new class of organic (or carbon) aerogels whose electrical, mechanical, and other properties are superior to those of the metal alkoxides. By tailoring properties to specific applications, we hope to achieve aerogels with even better performance. We have already tested carbon aerogels for use in inertial-confinement fusion targets and are currently studying applications to other technologies, such as battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. In several of these applications, the permeability of the carbon aerogels-that is, their resistance to fluid flow-is crucial to their performance. Here, we describe briefly the synthesis of organic aerogels and present the results of our permeability studies.

  7. SYNTHESIS AND EMERGING IDEAS Decomposition of soil organic matter from boreal black

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neff, Jason

    using pyrolysis gas chromatography- mass spectrometry prior to incubation, and after incubation on soils Pyrolysis GC/MS Á Soil organic carbon Introduction Boreal soils have been accumulating carbon (C) sinceSYNTHESIS AND EMERGING IDEAS Decomposition of soil organic matter from boreal black spruce forest

  8. ~>-----c ~I Fig. 2.3: Schematic diagram showing the model for one dimensional carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    of Alloying Elements on the Morphology of Austenite The strength and ductility shown by dual phase steels of martensite in the dual phase structure will be dependent upon; (a) the carbon content, (b) the annealing

  9. Precambrian Research 228 (2013) 85101 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

    2013-01-01

    Precambrian Research 228 (2013) 85­101 Contents lists available at SciVerse Science, the extent of organic matter remineralization (and thus degree of 13 C depletion) is correlated with water

  10. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEYI/O Streams for Large-scaleOrganizationAbout Events

  11. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEYI/O Streams for Large-scaleOrganizationAbout

  12. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Lin, Yuehe (Richland, WA); Yantasee, Wassana (Richland, WA); Liu, Guodong (Fargo, ND); Lu, Fang (Burlingame, CA); Tu, Yi (Camarillo, CA)

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  13. ESM 271 Carbon Footprints and Carbon Accounting Instructor: Sangwon Suh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    1 ESM 271 Carbon Footprints and Carbon Accounting Instructor: Sangwon Suh Bren hall 3422, suh Week 1: Introduction to carbon footprint and carbon account - Background: carbon awareness, major out a report or a web site about carbon footprint results of a product or of a company. Write a two

  14. ContentsContents2424Fourier 1. The Fourier transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vickers, James

    ContentsContents2424Fourier transforms 1. The Fourier transform 2. Properties of the Fourier Transform 3. Some Special Fourier Transform Pairs Learning outcomes needs doing Time allocation You mathematical topics this time may vary considerably. 1 #12;The Fourier Transform 24.1 Introduction

  15. Big Sky Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    (Acknowledgment to the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP); see home page at http://www.bigskyco2.org/)

  16. Metal filled porous carbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Adam F. (Los Angeles, CA); Vajo, John J. (West Hills, CA); Cumberland, Robert W. (Malibu, CA); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Salguero, Tina T. (Encino, CA)

    2011-03-22

    A porous carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the porous carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.

  17. Carbon Footprint Towson University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fath, Brian D.

    Carbon Footprint Towson University GHG Inventory for Educational Institutes Getting Starting.TM The Carbon Footprint 8 The Constellation Experience A Broad Inventory 1. Scope I-Direct Emissions works.TM The Carbon Footprint 10 The Constellation Experience A Broad Inventory 3. Scope III

  18. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  19. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-03-06

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  20. Supercritical separation process for complex organic mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Filardo, Giuseppe (Palermo, IT)

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for separating low molecular weight components from complex aqueous organic mixtures. The process includes preparing a separation solution of supercritical carbon dioxide with an effective amount of an entrainer to modify the solvation power of the supercritical carbon dioxide and extract preselected low molecular weight components. The separation solution is maintained at a temperature of at least about 70.degree. C. and a pressure of at least about 1,500 psi. The separation solution is then contacted with the organic mixtures while maintaining the temperature and pressure as above until the mixtures and solution reach equilibrium to extract the preselected low molecular weight components from the organic mixtures. Finally, the entrainer/extracted components portion of the equilibrium mixture is isolated from the separation solution.

  1. Supercritical separation process for complex organic mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, H.L.; Filardo, G.

    1990-10-23

    A process is disclosed for separating low molecular weight components from complex aqueous organic mixtures. The process includes preparing a separation solution of supercritical carbon dioxide with an effective amount of an entrainer to modify the solvation power of the supercritical carbon dioxide and extract preselected low molecular weight components. The separation solution is maintained at a temperature of at least about 70 C and a pressure of at least about 1,500 psi. The separation solution is then contacted with the organic mixtures while maintaining the temperature and pressure as above until the mixtures and solution reach equilibrium to extract the preselected low molecular weight components from the organic mixtures. Finally, the entrainer/extracted components portion of the equilibrium mixture is isolated from the separation solution. 1 fig.

  2. Mineral mesopore effects on nitrogenous organic matter Andrew R. Zimmermana,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chorover, Jon

    as sequestration of pollutants in soils and sediments (Luthy et al., 1997), turnover of natural soil organic carbon that organic matter (OM) may be protected from enzymatic degradation by sequestration within mineral mesopores observations. These results provide a potential mechanism for the selective sequestration and preservation

  3. CONTENTS 2 1 Motivation 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, Rudolf

    1 #12;CONTENTS 2 Contents 1 Motivation 4 2 Circuit QED and Two-Resonator Circuit-QED 6 2.1 Coupled Fabrication Parameters 94 D E-beam Sample Holder 96 E Danksagungen 103 #12;1 MOTIVATION 4 1 Motivation

  4. Revision of the global carbon budget due to changing air-sea oxygen fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, Thomas

    -derived relationship between changes in atmospheric O2/N2 due to oceanic outgassing and heat fluxes to estimate ocean O2 outgassing. The inferred terrestrial carbon sink for the 1990s is reduced by a factor of two: global carbon budget, changes in ocean heat content, oceanic oxygen outgassing, ocean and land sinks

  5. Melody Meyer: Organic Foods Distributor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farmer, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    are into green building, reducing carbon footprint, trackingour carbon footprint. There aren’t many companies that areuse, offsetting our carbon footprint. The Rockland facility

  6. A novel activated carbon for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Haijie; Liu, Enhui; Xiang, Xiaoxia; Huang, Zhengzheng; Tian, Yingying; Wu, Yuhu; Wu, Zhilian; Xie, Hui

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel activated carbon was prepared from phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbon has large surface area with microporous, and high heteroatom content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heteroatom-containing functional groups can improve the pseudo-capacitance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physical and chemical properties lead to the good electrochemical properties. -- Abstract: A novel activated carbon has been prepared by simple carbonization and activation of phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin which is synthesized by the condensation polymerization method. The morphology, thermal stability, surface area, elemental composition and surface chemical composition of samples have been investigated by scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurement, elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Electrochemical properties have been studied by cyclic voltammograms, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements in 6 mol L{sup -1} potassium hydroxide. The activated carbon shows good capacitive behavior and the specific capacitance is up to 210 F g{sup -1}, which indicates that it may be a promising candidate for supercapacitors.

  7. Early Miocene Carbonate Dissolution in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Julia Keegan

    2014-11-19

    stream_source_info WILSON-DISSERTATION-2014.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 158802 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name WILSON-DISSERTATION-2014.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... GPTS Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale GIN Greenland, Iceland, Norwegian h Hour(s) HCl Hydrochloric Acid HCO3- Bicarbonate H2CO3 Carbonic Acid HClO4 Perchloric Acid HF Hydroflouric Acid HNO3 Nitric Acid H2O Water H2O2 Hydrogen Peroxide H3PO4...

  8. GEOC R Lee Penn Sunday, March 25, 2012 12 -Biogeochemical transformation of Fe-and Mn-along a redox gradient: Implications for carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    a redox gradient: Implications for carbon sequestration within the Christina River Basin Critical Zone States Organic carbon (C)-mineral complexation mechanism is crucial in C sequestration. It is a function

  9. Corrosion control of metals by organic coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ooij, W.J. van; Bierwagen, G.P.; Skerry, B.S.; Mills, D.

    1999-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive treatment of the entire field of corrosion control of metals, from mechanisms and testing procedures to modification of metal surfaces and interfaces by silanes and plasma techniques. They discuss the new, sophisticated analytical tools, such as Time-of-Flight SIMS and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and all materials -- metals, pretreatments, and paint systems. The contents include: (1) Corrosion under organic coatings; (2) Mechanisms of corrosion control by organic coatings; (3) Metal pretreatments; (4) Techniques to study organic coating-metal interfaces; (5) Modification of metal surfaces and interfaces; (6) corrosion testing; (7) Adhesion testing; (8) Paint systems; (9) Conclusions and prospects references.

  10. Using Renewable Energy Purchases to Achieve Institutional Carbon Goals: A Review of Current Practices and Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Sumner, J.

    2011-01-01

    With organizations and individuals increasingly interested in accounting for their carbon emissions, greater attention is being placed on how to account for the benefits of various carbon mitigation actions available to consumers and businesses. Generally, organizations can address their own carbon emissions through energy efficiency, fuel switching, on-site renewable energy systems, renewable energy purchased from utilities or in the form of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and carbon offsets. This paper explores the role of green power and carbon offsets in carbon footprinting and the distinctions between the two products. It reviews how leading greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting programs treat green power purchases and discusses key issues regarding how to account for the carbon benefits of renewable energy. It also discusses potential double counting if renewable energy generation is used in multiple markets.

  11. Influence of carbon, manganese and nickel on microstructure and properties of strong steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Influence of carbon, manganese and nickel on microstructure and properties of strong steel weld of increasing the nickel content from 3 to 7 or 9 wt-% were investigated in high strength steel weld metals nickel contents. In these weld metals a mainly martensitic microstructure developed at interdendritic

  12. Organic fuel cells and fuel cell conducting sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); Ha, Su (Champaign, IL); Adams, Brian (Savoy, IL)

    2007-10-16

    A passive direct organic fuel cell includes an organic fuel solution and is operative to produce at least 15 mW/cm.sup.2 when operating at room temperature. In additional aspects of the invention, fuel cells can include a gas remover configured to promote circulation of an organic fuel solution when gas passes through the solution, a modified carbon cloth, one or more sealants, and a replaceable fuel cartridge.

  13. Significance of Isotopically Labile Organic Hydrogen in Thermal Maturation of Organic Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arndt Schimmelmann; Maria Mastalerz

    2010-03-30

    Isotopically labile organic hydrogen in fossil fuels occupies chemical positions that participate in isotopic exchange and in chemical reactions during thermal maturation from kerogen to bitumen, oil and gas. Carbon-bound organic hydrogen is isotopically far less exchangeable than hydrogen bound to nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur. We explore why organic hydrogen isotope ratios express a relationship with organic nitrogen isotope ratios in kerogen at low to moderate maturity. We develop and apply new techniques to utilize organic D/H ratios in organic matter fractions and on a molecular level as tools for exploration for fossil fuels and for paleoenvironmental research. The scope of our samples includes naturally and artificially matured substrates, such as coal, shale, oil and gas.

  14. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian McPherson; Rick Allis; Barry Biediger; Joel Brown; Jim Cappa; George Guthrie; Richard Hughes; Eugene Kim; Robert Lee; Dennis Leppin; Charles Mankin; Orman Paananen; Rajesh Pawar; Tarla Peterson; Steve Rauzi; Jerry Stuth; Genevieve Young

    2004-11-01

    The Southwest Partnership Region includes six whole states, including Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Utah, roughly one-third of Texas, and significant portions of adjacent states. The Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to achieve an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. The Partnership made great progress in this first year. Action plans for possible Phase II carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region are almost finished, including both technical and non-technical aspects necessary for developing and carrying out these pilot tests. All partners in the Partnership are taking an active role in evaluating and ranking optimum sites and technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region. We are identifying potential gaps in all aspects of potential sequestration deployment issues.

  15. Visual Analysis of Weblog Content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Payne, Deborah A.; McColgin, Dave; Cramer, Nick O.; Love, Douglas V.

    2007-03-26

    In recent years, one of the advances of the World Wide Web is social media and one of the fastest growing aspects of social media is the blogosphere. Blogs make content creation easy and are highly accessible through web pages and syndication. With their growing influence, a need has arisen to be able to monitor the opinions and insight revealed within their content. In this paper we describe a technical approach for analyzing the content of blog data using a visual analytic tool, IN-SPIRE, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We highlight the capabilities of this tool that are particularly useful for information gathering from blog data.

  16. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  17. Characterization of carbon dissolution from the new Auscarb clean carbon for ironmaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahajwalla, V.; Farrell, K.; Gao, K. [Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Waugh, B. [CSIRO, North Ryde, New South Wales (Australia). Div. of Coal and Energy Technology; Roberts, C. [Australian Coal Industry Research Labs. Ltd., North Ryde, New South Wales (Australia); Langley, J.M. [White Mining Ltd., North Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    1995-12-01

    In the foundry industry, the recarburizing materials used can range from high purity graphite to chars. The dissolution performance of recarburizing materials is critical to the industry, as it has a direct bearing on productivity. In this study, the dissolution performance of a variety of clean Auscarb carbon materials has been determined to assess their suitability as recarburizing material. The carbon sources investigated were graphite (synthetic), coke A (2.5 and 18 hr), coke B (2.5, 3 and 18 hr) and coke C (2.5 hr). In addition, the effect of melt sulfur content and coke supplier (ACIRL or CSIRO laboratories) on dissolution performance was examined. Dissolution performance was characterized on the basis of the measured rate constant. The experimental investigation conducted in this study has established the trend in performance of the carbons. The results show that, for a fixed melt sulfur content of 0.2%, synthetic graphite was the best, although the dissolution performance of coke B approaches half that of synthetic graphite. The performance of cokes A and C fall slightly behind that of coke B. The cokes supplied from different sources were found to have similar dissolution performance only on extended coking times. Decreased melt sulfur content was found to increase the dissolution rate, and it was found that the extent of improvement was influenced by the nature of the carbonaceous material.

  18. Thermal expansion of multiwall carbon nanotube reinforced nanocrystalline silver matrix composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Manjula Sharma, Vimal; Pal, Hemant

    2014-04-24

    Multiwall carbon nanotube reinforced silver matrix composite was fabricated by novel molecular level mixing method, which involves nucleation of Ag ions inside carbon nanotube dispersion at the molecular level. As a result the carbon nanotubes get embedded within the powder rather than on the surfaces. Micro structural characterization by X- ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy reveals that the nanotubes are homogeneously dispersed and anchored within the matrix. The thermal expansion of the composite with the multiwall nanotube content (0, 1.5 vol%) were investigated and it is found that coefficient of thermal expansion decreases with the addition of multiwall nanotube content and reduce to about 63% to that of pure Ag.

  19. CARBON EMISSIONS AND CARBON FIXING FROM AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    constraint to these relationships, with the carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption pressingCARBON EMISSIONS AND CARBON FIXING FROM AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE by Dennis Anderson CSERGE GEC Working Paper 92-28 #12;CARBON EMISSIONS AND CARBON FIXING FROM AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE by Dennis Anderson

  20. Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and individuals wishing to reduce their carbon footprint while also delivering a range of other environmentalWoodland Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects ® Version 1.2 July of group schemes 8 2.6 Monitoring 9 2.7 Carbon statements and reporting 9 2.8 Woodland Carbon Code

  1. Carbon RRLs Carbon RRLs towards Ultra-compact HII Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Dana S.

    Carbon RRLs Carbon RRLs towards Ultra-compact HII Regions Dana S. Balser D. Anish Roshi (Raman (Agnes Scott College) #12;Carbon RRLs Carbon Radio Recombination Lines (RRLs) NGC 2024 (Orion B) IC 1795 (W3) Palmer et al. (1967) #12;Carbon RRLs Photodissociation Regions (PDRs) Hollenbach & Tielens (1997

  2. Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment 14 March 2002 Howard Herzog overview and assessment of carbon sequestration by mineral carbonation (referred to as "mineral sequestration R&D. The first is that carbonates have a lower energy state than CO2. Therefore, at least

  3. Evaluation of control strategies for volatile organic compounds in indoor air (journal article)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, K.; Debler, V.L.

    1988-01-01

    The paper discusses research which evaluates the application of adsorption techniques to the control of indoor organic vapors. The adsorption on activated carbon of three compounds representing three classes of organic species was studied at 30 C in the concentration range zero to 200 ppb using a microbalance. The three were benzene (aromatic), acetaldehyde (oxygenated aliphatic), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (halogenated aliphatic). Three sorbents (a wood base carbon, a coal base carbon, and a coconut shell base carbon) were examined. Uptakes for all the compounds on all the carbons were low (on the order of 10 to the minus 7th power gmol/g carbon). Simulation of a packed bed of carbon indicated that carbon adsorption may not be practical for continuous removal, but may be applicable to sudden releases (e.g., spills). Potential alternatives to activated carbon adsorption are discussed. Potentially toxic organic vapors are emitted from a wide variety of building materials, consumer products, and human activities. Control of indoor organic vapors generally involves removing the source and/or increasing the ventilation rate. The ubiquitous nature of sources of organic vapors generally makes source removal impractical. Increased ventilation causes increased energy usage with its resultant economic penalties. Therefore, practical removal methods are needed.

  4. manipulating cytosolic PPi content can

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    content and starch degradation during storage of tubers harvested from different potato varieties. Potato. et al. (1994) Possible involvement of abscisic acid, ethylene and phenolic acids in potato tuber

  5. Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage Using Strontium Carbonate Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage Using Strontium...

  6. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Wang, Xiqing (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-02-14

    The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

  7. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Wang, Xiqing

    2013-08-20

    The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

  8. Storing Carbon in Agricultural Soils to Help Head-Off Global Warming and to Combat Desertification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, Norman J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2001-12-31

    We know for sure that addition of organic matter to soil increases water-holding capacity, imparts fertility with the addition of nutrients, increases soil aggregation and improves tilth. Depeing on it's type, organic matter contains between 40 and 60% carbon. Using agricultural management practices to increase the amount of organic matter and carbon in soils can be an effective strategy to offset carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere as well as to improve the quality of the soil and slow or prevent desertification.

  9. Method for producing fluorinated diamond-like carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hakovirta, Marko J.; Nastasi, Michael A.; Lee, Deok-Hyung; He, Xiao-Ming

    2003-06-03

    Fluorinated, diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) films are produced by a pulsed, glow-discharge plasma immersion ion processing procedure. The pulsed, glow-discharge plasma was generated at a pressure of 1 Pa from an acetylene (C.sub.2 H.sub.2) and hexafluoroethane (C.sub.2 F.sub.6) gas mixture, and the fluorinated, diamond-like carbon films were deposited on silicon <100>substrates. The film hardness and wear resistance were found to be strongly dependent on the fluorine content incorporated into the coatings. The hardness of the F-DLC films was found to decrease considerably when the fluorine content in the coatings reached about 20%. The contact angle of water on the F-DLC coatings was found to increase with increasing film fluorine content and to saturate at a level characteristic of polytetrafluoroethylene.

  10. Activated Carbon Injection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-22

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  11. Activated Carbon Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-07-16

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  12. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 26 (2010) 12971301 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wilfred

    2010-01-01

    Biosensors and Bioelectronics 26 (2010) 1297­1301 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Biosensors and Bioelectronics journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/bios Carbon nanotubes-free chemiresistive/field-effect tran- sistor biosensors as they provide label-free and high sensitivity detection

  13. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 409 (2015) 232242 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirschvink, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Energy Technology Company, Carbonate Stratigraphy Research & Development, 1500 Louisiana St., Rm 27134Earth and Planetary Science Letters 409 (2015) 232­242 Contents lists available at Science, California Institute of Technology, MC 170-25 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125, USA e Chevron

  14. Journal of Power Sources 195 (2010) 18411844 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    power generation of carbon fiber brushes: acid soaking (CF-A), heating (CF-H), and a combination of both processes (CF- AH). The combined heat and acid treatment improve power production to 1370 mW m-2 , whichJournal of Power Sources 195 (2010) 1841­1844 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal

  15. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-10-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound information on MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Two key deliverables were completed in the second quarter--a literature review/database to assess the soil carbon on rangelands, and the draft protocols, contracting options for soil carbon trading. The protocols developed for soil carbon trading are unique and provide a key component of the mechanisms that might be used to efficiently sequester GHG and reduce CO{sub 2} concentrations. While no key deliverables were due during the third quarter, progress on other deliverables is noted in the PowerPoint presentations and in this report. A series of meetings held during the second and third quarters have laid the foundations for assessing the issues surrounding carbon sequestration in this region, the need for a holistic approach to meeting energy demands and economic development potential, and the implementation of government programs or a market-based setting for soil C credits. These meetings provide a connection to stakeholders in the region and a basis on which to draw for the DOE PEIS hearings. In the fourth quarter, three deliverables have been completed, some in draft form to be revised and updated to include Wyoming. This is due primarily to some delays in funding to LANL and INEEL and the approval of a supplemental proposal to include Wyoming in much of the GIS data sets, analysis, and related materials. The de

  16. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-30

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop (see attached agenda). The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound information on MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Two key deliverables were completed in the second quarter--a literature review/database to assess the soil carbon on rangelands, and the draft protocols, contracting options for soil carbon trading. The protocols developed for soil carbon trading are unique and provide a key component of the mechanisms that might be used to efficiently sequester GHG and reduce CO2 concentrations. While no key deliverables were due during the third quarter, progress on other deliverables is noted in the PowerPoint presentations and in this report. A series of meetings held during the second and third quarters have laid the foundations for assessing the issues surrounding carbon sequestration in this region, the need for a holistic approach to meeting energy demands and economic development potential, and the implementation of government programs or a market-based setting for soil C credits. These meetings provide a connection to stakeholders in the region and a basis on which to draw for the DOE PEIS hearings. A third Partnership meeting has been planned for August 04 in Idaho Falls; a preliminary agenda is attached.

  17. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-11-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO2 utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other DOE regional partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Deliverables for the 7th Quarter reporting period include (1) for the geological efforts: Reports on Technology Needs and Action Plan on the Evaluation of Geological Sinks and Pilot Project Deployment (Deliverables 2 and 3), and Report on the Feasibility of Mineralization Trapping in the Snake River Plain Basin (Deliverable 14); (2) for the terrestrial efforts: Report on the Evaluation of Terrestrial Sinks and a Report of the Best Production Practices for Soil C Sequestration (Deliverables 8 and 15). In addition, the 7th Quarter activities for the Partnership included further development of the proposed activities for the deployment and demonstration phase of the carbon sequestration pilots including geological and terrestrial pilots, expansion of the Partnership to encompass regions and institutions that are complimentary to the steps we have identified, building greater collaborations with industry and stakeholders in the region, contributed to outreach efforts that spanned all partnerships, co-authorship on the Carbon Capture and Separation report, and developed a regional basis to address future energy opportunities in the region. The deliverables and activities are discussed in the following sections and appended to this report. The education and outreach efforts have resulted in a comprehensive plan which serves as a guide for implementing the outreach activities under Phase I. The public website has been expanded and integrated with the GIS carbon atlas. We have made presentations to stakeholders and policy makers including two tribal sequestration workshops, and made connections to other federal and state agencies concerned with GHG emissions, climate change, and efficient and environmental

  18. Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2011-01-01

    Y. Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the ManagementJ. van Houtum. 2011. E?ect of carbon emission regulations onStreamlined Enterprise Carbon Footprinting. Environmental

  19. Electrochemical behavior of carbon aerogels derived from different precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekala, R.W.; Alviso, C.T.; Nielson, J.K.; Tran, T.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Reynolds, G.M.; Dresshaus, M.S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1995-04-01

    The ability to tailor the structure and properties of porous carbons has led to their increased use as electrodes in energy storage devices. Our research focuses on the synthesis and characterization of carbon aerogels for use in electrochemical double layer capacitors. Carbon aerogels are formed from the sol-gel polymerization of (1) resorcinol-formaldehyde or (2) phenolic-furfural, followed by supercritical drying from carbon dioxide, and subsequent pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere. These materials can be produced as monoliths, composites, thin films, powders, or microspheres. In all cases, the areogels have an open-cell structure with an ultrafine pore size (<100 nm), high surface area (400-1 100 m{sup 2}/g), and a solid matrix composed of interconnected particles, fibers, or platelets with characteristic dimensions of 10 nm. This paper examines the effects of the carbon precursor and processing conditions on electrochemical performance in aqueous and organic electrolytes.

  20. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul Box; Weijiong Li; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2005 and June 30, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas from coal combustion and synthesis gas from coal gasification. Supported sodium carbonate sorbents removed up to 76% of the carbon dioxide from simulated flue gas in a downflow cocurrent flow reactor system, with an approximate 15 second gas-solid contact time. This reaction proceeds at temperatures as low as 25 C. Lithium silicate sorbents remove carbon dioxide from high temperature simulated flue gas and simulated synthesis gas. Both sorbent types can be thermally regenerated and reused. The lithium silicate sorbent was tested in a thermogravimetric analyzer and in a 1-in quartz reactor at atmospheric pressure; tests were also conducted at elevated pressure in a 2-in diameter high temperature high pressure reactor system. The lithium sorbent reacts rapidly with carbon dioxide in flue gas at 350-500 C to absorb about 10% of the sorbent weight, then continues to react at a lower rate. The sorbent can be essentially completely regenerated at temperatures above 600 C and reused. In atmospheric pressure tests with synthesis gas of 10% initial carbon dioxide content, the sorbent removed over 90% of the carbon dioxide. An economic analysis of a downflow absorption process for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas with a supported sodium carbonate sorbent suggests that a 90% efficient carbon dioxide capture system installed at a 500 MW{sub e} generating plant would have an incremental capital cost of $35 million ($91/kWe, assuming 20 percent for contingencies) and an operating cost of $0.0046/kWh. Assuming capital costs of $1,000/kW for a 500 MWe plant the capital cost of the down flow absorption process represents a less than 10% increase, thus meeting DOE goals as set forth in its Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan.

  1. Data management system for organic soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stinnette, P.

    1999-07-01

    A Data Management System for Organic Soil (DMSOS) has been developed that enables the acquisition, management and analysis of organic soil data as well as the presentation of results to be conducted effectively through a common interface. This development was in response to the data management needs of research investigating the engineering properties of organic soil and its extension to the stabilization of organic soil through dynamic replacement (DR). It is shown how the above functions are implemented efficiently using Windows-based software to perform comprehensive data management and analysis of data gathered from both laboratory and field tests. When the engineering properties of a given organic soil deposit are needed, a build-in Computer Advisor for Organic Soil Projects (CAOSP) predicts the properties from DMSOS based correlations. A unique and useful feature of the CAOSP is its ability to estimate the anticipated ultimate settlement of an organic soil deposit given the loading conditions and the moisture or organic content. Also incorporated in the DMSOS is a quality control system that utilizes computerized data acquisition/data management techniques in order to evaluate the degree of improvement of an organic soil layer at a given stage of treatment using DR.

  2. Process for recovering organic vapors from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Mountain View, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A process for recovering and concentrating organic vapor from a feed stream of air having an organic vapor content of no more than 20,000 ppm by volume. A thin semipermeable membrane is provided which has a feed side and a permeate side, a selectivity for organic vapor over air of at least 50, as measured by the ratio of organic vapor permeability to nitrogen permeability, and a permeability of organic vapor of at least 3.times.10.sup.-7 cm.sup.3 (STP) cm/cm.sup.2 sec.cm Hg. The feed stream is passed across the feed side of the thin semipermeable membrane while providing a pressure on the permeate side which is lower than the feed side by creating a partial vacuum on the permeate side so that organic vapor passes preferentially through the membrane to form an organic vapor depleted air stream on the feed side and an organic vapor enriched stream on the permeate side. The organic vapor which has passed through the membrane is compressed and condensed to recover the vapor as a liquid.

  3. Permafrost carbon—climate feedback is sensitive to deep soil carbon decomposability but not deep soil nitrogen dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Koven, Charles D.; Lawrence, David M.; Riley, William J.

    2015-03-09

    Permafrost soils contain enormous amounts of organic carbon whose stability is contingent on remaining frozen. With future warming, these soils may release carbon to the atmosphere and act as a positive feedback to climate change. Significant uncertainty remains on the postthaw carbon dynamics of permafrost-affected ecosystems, in particular since most of the carbon resides at depth where decomposition dynamics may differ from surface soils, and since nitrogen mineralized by decomposition may enhance plant growth. Here we show, using a carbon–nitrogen model that includes permafrost processes forced in an unmitigated warming scenario, that the future carbon balance of the permafrost regionmore »is highly sensitive to the decomposability of deeper carbon, with the net balance ranging from 21 Pg C to 164 Pg C losses by 2300. Increased soil nitrogen mineralization reduces nutrient limitations, but the impact of deep nitrogen on the carbon budget is small due to enhanced nitrogen availability from warming surface soils and seasonal asynchrony between deeper nitrogen availability and plant nitrogen demands. The future carbon balance of this region is projected to hinge more on the rate and extent of permafrost thaw and soil decomposition than on enhanced nitrogen availability for vegetation growth resulting from permafrost thaw.« less

  4. Carbon-13 variations in fluids from the Cerro Prieto geothermal system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janik, C.J.; Nehring, N.L.; Huebner, M.A.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1982-08-10

    The carbon isotope compositions of CO/sub 2/ in steam from Cerro Prieto production well have been measured for 1977, 1979, and 1982. Variations in the delta/sup 13/C values are caused by production-related changes in the chemical and physical parameters of the geothermal system. In 1977, most CO/sub 2/ in the reservoir was isotopically light (delta/sup 13/C = -6.4 +/- 0.4). Heavier CO/sub 2/ was produced from wells in the center of the field (M5,M26,M27) due to deposition of isotopically light calcite caused by near-well boiling. In 1979 nearly all well showed relatively heavy CO/sub 2/, probably due to expansion of aquifer boiling and calcite precipitation. In 1982, many wells in the central part of the field were shut in. The amount of drawndown decreased and as temperatures and pressures near the wells increased, the boiling zones collapsed. The CO/sub 2/ in the fluid then exchanged with the precipitated calcite and became isotopically lighter. The sensitivity of carbon isotopes to calcite precipitations caused by aquifer boiling and to reequilibration with this deposited calcite upon decrease of boiling suggests use as an indicator of these aquifer processes. Surficial CO/sub 2/ of thermal origin was collected in 1981. Generally, the carbon-13 contents were close to CO/sub 2/ from production wells except for high-temperature mud pots and fumaroles containing isotopically light CO/sub 2/ derived from near surface alteration of organic matter.

  5. Bioavailability of organic matter in a highly disturbed estuary: The role of detrital and algal resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    organic carbon derived primarily from internal phytoplankton production is the dominant food supply of detrital and algal organic matter to the metazoan food web in this large estuarine ecosystem. BackgroundBioavailability of organic matter in a highly disturbed estuary: The role of detrital and algal

  6. Wiseman et al.: Organic Amendment Effects in the Root Zone 2012 International Society of Arboriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    microor- ganisms are integral to the soil food web because of their role in the decomposition of organicWiseman et al.: Organic Amendment Effects in the Root Zone ©2012 International Society of Arboriculture 262 P. Eric Wiseman, Susan D. Day, and J. Roger Harris Organic Amendment Effects on Soil Carbon

  7. Project title: Sources, supply and bioavailability of soluble organic matter in relation to mineralization.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Charles W.

    and Food Research). Topic: Soluble organic matter is of interest due to its role in carbon and nitrogenProject title: Sources, supply and bioavailability of soluble organic matter in relation examined. The study will seek to understand the role that soluble organic matter plays in regulating

  8. Metabolic evolution of Escherichia coli strains that produce organic acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grabar, Tammy; Gong, Wei; Yocum, R Rogers

    2014-10-28

    This invention relates to the metabolic evolution of a microbial organism previously optimized for producing an organic acid in commercially significant quantities under fermentative conditions using a hexose sugar as sole source of carbon in a minimal mineral medium. As a result of this metabolic evolution, the microbial organism acquires the ability to use pentose sugars derived from cellulosic materials for its growth while retaining the original growth kinetics, the rate of organic acid production and the ability to use hexose sugars as a source of carbon. This invention also discloses the genetic change in the microorganism that confers the ability to use both the hexose and pentose sugars simultaneously in the production of commercially significant quantities of organic acids.

  9. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-12-01

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, one each in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. Regression models of chemical and physical soil properties were created in order to estimate the SOC content down the soil profile. Soil organic carbon concentration and volumetric percent of the fines decreased exponentially down the soil profile. The results indicated that one-third of the total SOC content on mined lands was found in the surface 0-13 cm soil layer, and more than two-thirds of it was located in the 0-53 cm soil profile. A relative estimate of soil density may be best in broad-scale mine soil mapping since actual D{sub b} values are often inaccurate and difficult to obtain in rocky mine soils. Carbon sequestration potential is also a function of silvicultural practices used for reforestation success. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and white pine, as any increased growth resulting from fertilization may not offset the decreased survival that accompanied fertilization. Relative to carbon value, our analysis this quarter shows that although short-rotation hardwood management on reclaimed surface mined lands may have higher LEVs than traditional long-rotation hardwood management, it is only profitable in a limited set of circumstances.

  10. Carbon Park Environmental Impact Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of offsetting the University's carbon footprint, promoting biodiversity and establishing easily maintained Carbon Park Environmental Impact Assessment A B.E.S.T. Project By, Adam Bond 2011 #12; Bishop's University Carbon Park

  11. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Wednesday, 25 July 2007 00:00 Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of...

  12. Ordered organic-organic multilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R; Lunt, Richard R

    2015-01-13

    An ordered multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure is formed by depositing at least two layers of thin film crystalline organic materials successively wherein the at least two thin film layers are selected to have their surface energies within .+-.50% of each other, and preferably within .+-.15% of each other, whereby every thin film layer within the multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure exhibit a quasi-epitaxial relationship with the adjacent crystalline organic thin film.

  13. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen E. (Pinole, CA); Moses, William W. (Berkeley, CA)

    1991-01-01

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses.

  14. Survey of mercury, cadmium and lead content of household batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Recknagel, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.recknagel@bam.de [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Reference Materials, Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Radant, Hendrik [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Reference Materials, Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Kohlmeyer, Regina [German Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Section III 1.6 Extended Producer Responsibility, Wörlitzer Platz 1, D-06844 Dessau-Roßlau (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • A well selected sample of 146 batteries was analysed for its heavy metals content. • A comparison was made between heavy metals contents in batteries in 2006 and 2011. • No significant change after implementation of the new EU Batteries Directive. • Severe differences in heavy metal contents were found in different battery-types. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to provide updated information on the development of the potential impact of heavy metal containing batteries on municipal waste and battery recycling processes following transposition of the new EU Batteries Directive 2006/66/EC. A representative sample of 146 different types of commercially available dry and button cells as well as lithium-ion accumulators for mobile phones were analysed for their mercury (Hg)-, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contents. The methods used for preparing the cells and analysing the heavy metals Hg, Cd, and Pb were either developed during a former study or newly developed. Several batteries contained higher mass fractions of mercury or cadmium than the EU limits. Only half of the batteries with mercury and/or lead fractions above the marking thresholds were labelled. Alkaline–manganese mono-cells and Li-ion accumulators, on average, contained the lowest heavy metal concentrations, while zinc–carbon batteries, on average, contained the highest levels.

  15. Center Beef Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfalfa Forage Performance, or "Why Not Just Use Vernal?"......... 33 Carcass Ultrasound Scanning and Management...................... 37 CARBON FLUX ASSESSEMENT IN COW-CALF GRAZING SYSTEMS.... 40 #12;4 August 6 quality of life for all the Center effects: our visitors, employees and other coworkers. Essentially, we

  16. FACULTY-STAFF HANDBOOK Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Laughlin, Jay

    ..............................................................................................................1420 Administrative Organization [Chart ......................................................................................1540 Organization of the UI Faculty [Chart, General Organization, and Governance Origins and Growth of the University of Idaho

  17. CARBON SEQUESTRATION STRATEGIES FOR CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GEOLOGIC CARBON SEQUESTRATION STRATEGIES FOR CALIFORNIA: REPORT TO THE LEGISLATURE Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) studies that we used, including Cameron Downey

  18. Recent carbonate sedimentation on Balearic platform: model for temperate-climate carbonate shelves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fornos, J.; Rodriguez-Perea, A.; Massuti, C.; Pomar, L.; Acosta, J.; Herranz, P.; Sanz, J.L.

    1989-03-01

    Existing models for carbonate sedimentation on continental platforms are derived from the study of modern carbonate platforms in tropical climates. The Balearic platform in the western Mediterranean provides a new model for carbonate sedimentation in a temperature, semiarid climate. On most of the continental shelf around the Balearic Islands, modern sediments are exclusively bioclastic carbonates. Shoreline carbonate sediments are bioclastic sands and muds accumulating in beach-dune systems without significant tidal influence (there are no astronomical tides in the western Mediterranean ). From the upper shoreface to 35 m deep, the sandy bottom is extensively colonized by sea grass (Posidonia oceanica), the rhizomes and roots of which form a rigid entrapment that retains the sediment derived from calcareous organisms living within the sea grass and from calcareous epiphytes living on the stems and leaves. Archeological dating establishes a rate of vertical accretion in this zone of 10/sup 3/ Bubnoff units (1 Bubnoff unit = 1 mm/1000 years). Between depths of 40 and 60 m, carbonate sands are composed predominantly or red-algal fragments. Intensely bioturbated wave ripples occur in environments dominated by laminar red algae (Lithothamnium and Phymatolithon). Below depths of 60 m, coarse sediment produced by rhodolitic and ramose red algae is deposited in areas of tens to hundreds of meters in size. Biogenic buildups up to 2 m high occur in sandy areas as well as in deeper muddy areas. At the same depth in open-platform zones, the bottom topography is characterized by large hummocks several hundred meters across. From the horizontal distribution of facies, it is possible to construct the probable vertical sequence of lithofacies which would characterize carbonates accumulating on a temperate-climate carbonate shelf. Many of these lithofacies are recognized in upper Miocene limestones on the Balearic Islands.

  19. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-01-04

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the first performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first Partnership meeting the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Complementary to the efforts on evaluation of sources and sinks is the development of the Big Sky Partnership Carbon Cyberinfrastructure (BSP-CC) and a GIS Road Map for the Partnership. These efforts will put in place a map-based integrated information management system for our Partnership, with transferability to the national carbon sequestration effort. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but other policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long term viability. A series of meetings held in November and December, 2003, have laid the foundations for assessing the issues surrounding the implementation of a market-based setting for soil C credits. These include the impact of existing local, state, and federal permitting issues for terrestrial based carbon sequestration projects, consistency of final protocols and planning standards with national requirements, and alignments of carbon sequestration projects with existing federal and state cost-share programs. Finally, the education and outreach efforts during this performance period have resulted in a comprehensive plan which serves as a guide for implementing the outreach activities under Phase I. The primary goal of this plan is to increase awareness, understanding, and public acceptance of sequestration efforts and build support for a constituent based network which includes the initial Big Sky Partnership and other local and regional businesses and entities.

  20. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-01

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the second performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long term viability. Scientifically sound information on MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Two key deliverables were completed this quarter--a literature review/database to assess the soil carbon on rangelands, and the draft protocols, contracting options for soil carbon trading. To date, there has been little research on soil carbon on rangelands, and since rangeland constitutes a major land use in the Big Sky region, this is important in achieving a better understanding of terrestrial sinks. The protocols developed for soil carbon trading are unique and provide a key component of the mechanisms that might be used to efficiently sequester GHG and reduce CO{sub 2} concentrations. Progress on other deliverables is noted in the PowerPoint presentations. A series of meetings held during the second quarter have laid the foundations for assessing the issues surrounding the implementation of a market-based setting for soil C credits. These meetings provide a connection to stakeholders in the region and a basis on which to draw for the DOE PEIS hearings. Finally, the education and outreach efforts have resulted in a comprehensive plan and process which serves as a guide for implementing the outreach activities under Phase I. While we are still working on the public website, we have made many presentations to stakeholders and policy makers, connections to other federal and state agencies concerned with GHG emissions, climate change, and efficient and environmentally-friendly energy production. In addition, we have laid plans for integration of our outreach efforts with the students, especially at the tribal colleges and at the universities involved in our partnership. This includes collaboration with the film and media arts departments at MSU, with outreach effort

  1. Terrestrial Subsidies of Organic Carbon Support Net Ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    filled, we monitored net ecosystem production (NEP) on a biweekly basis from 9 April to 27 May 2002. All ponds were consistently net heterotrophic; how- ever, NEP was significantly less negative in re- moval that the difference in NEP between treatments was driven by the change in R. Therefore, it appears that terrestrial

  2. Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentrations and Compositions, and Trihalomethane Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Waters from Agricultural Peat Soils, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California: Implications for Drinking SURVEY Water-Resources Investigations Report 98­4147 Prepared in cooperation with the California Department of Water Resources 6217-37 Sacramento, California 1998 #12;U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BRUCE

  3. Radiocarbon in dissolved organic carbon of the South Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Druffel, ERM; Griffin, S

    2015-01-01

    G. Ostlund (1983), Abyssal water C distribution and the agenorthward transport of deep waters, indicating that the deepof Lower Circumpolar Deep Water. This presents a conundrum

  4. Influences of Organic Carbon Supply Rate on Uranium Bioreduction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to...

  5. Unburned lubricant produces 60%90% of organic carbon emissions.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles · New and aged lubricants representative fuel, biodiesel, and CNG The study confirmed that normally functioning emission control systems

  6. Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the public from...

  7. Challenges for improving estimates of soil organic carbon stored in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D BGene Network Shaping ofStaff60053760Chain Tsuanfor

  8. Metal-Organic Frameworks with Precisely Designed Interior for Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeatMaRIEdioxide capture | Center forDioxide Capture in the

  9. Metal-Organic Frameworks with Precisely Designed Interior for Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeatMaRIEdioxide capture | Center forDioxide Capture in

  10. Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) |productionPatent:Compression (JournalPublisher'sLeakage into an

  11. Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) |productionPatent:Compression (JournalPublisher'sLeakage into

  12. Metal Organic Clathrates for Carbon Dioxide Removal - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on dark matter ByMentor-ProtegeFrom the Director

  13. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan Capalbo

    2005-12-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated has significant potential to sequester large amounts of CO{sub 2}. Simulations conducted to evaluate mineral trapping potential of mafic volcanic rock formations located in the Idaho province suggest that supercritical CO{sub 2} is converted to solid carbonate mineral within a few hundred years and permanently entombs the carbon. Although MMV for this rock type may be challenging, a carefully chosen combination of geophysical and geochemical techniques should allow assessment of the fate of CO{sub 2} in deep basalt hosted aquifers. Terrestrial carbon sequestration relies on land management practices and technologies to remove atmospheric CO{sub 2} where it is stored in trees, plants, and soil. This indirect sequestration can be implemented today and is on the front line of voluntary, market-based approaches to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil Carbon (C) on rangelands, and forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Rangelands can store up to an additional 0.05 mt C/ha/yr, while the croplands are on average four times that amount. Estimates of technical potential for soil sequestration within the region in cropland are in the range of 2.0 M mt C/yr over 20 year time horizon. This is equivalent to approximately 7.0 M mt CO{sub 2}e/yr. The forestry sinks are well documented, and the potential in the Big Sky region ranges from 9-15 M mt CO{sub 2} equivalent per year. Value-added benefits include enhanced yields, reduced erosion, and increased wildlife habitat. Thus the terrestrial sinks provide a viable, environmentally beneficial, and relatively low cost sink that is available to sequester C in the current time frame. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological and terrestrial sequestration re

  14. Carbon flow and ecosystem dynamics in the Mississippi River plume described by inverse analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breed, Greg Allen

    2002-01-01

    excess organic carbon from autotrophic regions to heterotrophic regions. In contrast, the winter result indicated a plume that was net-heterotrophic in all 4 subregions with high aerobic bacterial respiration and relatively low primary production...

  15. Radiation Detection: Resistivity Responses in Functional Poly(Olefin Sulfone)/Carbon Nanotube Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swager, Timothy Manning

    Detection of gamma rays is shown using a non-scintillating organic-based sensor composed of poly(olefin sulfone)/carbon nanotube blends. Functionalization of the polymers can be performed after polymerization to tailor ...

  16. Black carbon in marine sediments : quantification and implications for the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accardi-Dey, AmyMarie, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    Sorption is a key factor in determining the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment. Here, PAH sorption is proposed as the sum of two mechanisms: absorption into a biogenic, organic carbon (OC) ...

  17. Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Nitrogen and Water in Flue Gas Streams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mera, Hilda 1989-

    2012-04-12

    coefficients of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water in MOFs. The metal-organic frameworks studied are copper trimesate (Cu-BTC), zinc terephthalate (IRMOF1), and MIL-47, which belongs to the Materials of the Institute Lavoisier series. Diffusion coefficients...

  18. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy study of carbon deposited on the NiO/MgO solid solution catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Y.H.; Ruckenstein, E.

    1999-05-15

    The carbon deposition due to the CH{sub 4} decomposition at 790 C over NiO/MgO catalysts was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. While no deposits could be detected over the catalysts with a NiO content smaller than 9.1 wt%, they were detected over the catalysts with NiO contents of 23 and 50 wt%. The carbon deposits are composed of platelets located at distances of about 0.34 nm, corresponding to the graphitic carbon. Various structures of the deposited carbon were observed: (a) carbon consisting of platelets parallel to the surface of the particle, which covers a catalyst particle, (b) nanotubes composed of platelets parallel to their axis, and (c) carbon vortexes consisting of platelets parallel to their axis.

  19. Molten carbonate fuel cell cathode with mixed oxide coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilmi, Abdelkader; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2013-05-07

    A molten carbonate fuel cell cathode having a cathode body and a coating of a mixed oxygen ion conductor materials. The mixed oxygen ion conductor materials are formed from ceria or doped ceria, such as gadolinium doped ceria or yttrium doped ceria. The coating is deposited on the cathode body using a sol-gel process, which utilizes as precursors organometallic compounds, organic and inorganic salts, hydroxides or alkoxides and which uses as the solvent water, organic solvent or a mixture of same.

  20. Table of Contents Deschutes Subbasin Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Table of Contents Deschutes Subbasin Plan Table of Contents Executive Summary 1. Purpose and Scope.1. Physical, Natural and Human Landscape ................................................2.1 2.2. Water, Table of Contents Page 1 #12;Table of Contents 7. Limiting Factors and Conditions .........

  1. Regulations and Basic Information Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Regulations and Basic Information Table of Contents Safe and Effective Use.) for Various Quantities of Water

  2. Handbook for Chemistry Majors Contents Page

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reactions · Drug-Receptor Interactions · Nuclear Structures · Electrochemistry · Organic Electrochemistry

  3. Table Of Contents Section: Page

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    EM 385-1-1 XX Sep 13 i Section 2 SANITATION Table Of Contents Section: Page 02.A General Water......................................................... 2-1 02.D Non-Potable Water and openings. 02.C DRINKING WATER #12;EM 385-1-1 XX Sep 13 2-2 02.C.01 An adequate supply of potable water

  4. THINKING THESIS Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    THINKING THESIS GUIDEBOOK #12;#12;Table of Contents Part One: Getting Started 1. What the Honors aides 5. Final Turn in of the Thesis Appendix I. Sample Title Page II. Honors Mentor Declaration Form on to better things. Theodore Roosevelt #12;#12;Honors College Thesis Requirements There are several forms

  5. OUTLOOK BYLAWS Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OUTLOOK BYLAWS Table of Contents Article I - Legal Authority to Operate Article II - Scope-in-Chief and Responsible Director Article VIII - Funding of Outlook Article IX - Unused Funds Article X - Composition The publication of Outlook is authorized under a license granted to AUB by decision No. 113 issued by the Lebanese

  6. Table of Contents Executive Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Table of Contents Page Executive Summary I. Introduction 1 Neutrino Oscillation Results from Solar and Atmospheric Neutrino Data 1 Tables 7 References 5 Figures 9 II. Overview of the Long Baseline Experiment 17 Magnetic Moment, Charge Radius, and Extra Z-bosons 261 VII. Cost and Schedule 265 Project schedule 267 Work

  7. Table of Contents INTRODUCTION 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Mahony, Donal E.

    #12;1 Table of Contents INTRODUCTION 2 SECTION ONE: PRINCIPLES OF GOOD PRACTICE 4 SECTION TWO, it offers a practical guide to staff and volunteers who work with children by outlining a number of fundamental principles of good practice, highlighting the key elements of each one and discussing the issues

  8. Supplemental Material Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuchta, Shawn R.

    1 Supplemental Material Table of Contents Text on the multiple individuals per population phylogeny: pg 4 Supplemental Figure 1: Phylogram of U. stansburiana populations from the complete data set that included multiple individuals per population. pg 5 Supplemental Table 1: Population locations and years

  9. Student Handbook TABLE OF CONTENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horowitz, Leah S.

    1 Student Handbook 2014-2015 TABLE OF CONTENTS Comprehensive Nondiscrimination Statement 3 Sex Student Handbook Comprehensive Nondiscrimination Policy The provisions of this handbook of the services, programs or activities described in this handbook. The most up-to-date handbook can be found

  10. HOUSING POLICY Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HOUSING POLICY Table of Contents Housing Policy Housing Rules and Regulations Appendix I contact: policies@aub.edu.lb. Last updated on: August 14, 2014 #12;HOUSING POLICY Section 1 - Policy Section 2 - Housing Purchase Plan (HPP) Section 3 - Procedure for the Implementation of the Housing

  11. Trading Water for Carbon with Biological Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Trading Water for Carbon with Biological Carbon Sequestration Robert B. Jackson,1 * Esteban G. Farley,1 David C. le Maitre,5 Bruce A. McCarl,6 Brian C. Murray7 Carbon sequestration strategies plantations feature prominently among tools for carbon sequestration (1­8). Plantations typi- cally combine

  12. Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a crucial insight of Je Smith that external smash products can be internalized. We show that each category of generalized FSP's is isomorphic to the category of.

  13. Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling the invasion and spread of contagious diseases in heterogeneous populations; Wayne M. Getz, James O. Lloyd-Smith, Paul C. Cross, Shirli Bar-

  14. CONTENTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chapter 3.0 - CRITICAL, SPECIAL, & ENGINEERED LIFTS March 21, 2013 Rev 1 Page 4 6. Two mobile cranes are lifting the load and the load share equals more than 70% of one or both...

  15. Contents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingConcentrating Department of Energy'sContango in Cushing?Program

  16. CONTENTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B LReports from the CloudGEGR-N Goods PO 1 of 8 GE4,

  17. CONTENTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B LReports from the CloudGEGR-N Goods PO 1 of 8 GE4, Volume 2,

  18. CONTENTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B LReports from the CloudGEGR-N Goods PO 1 of 8 GE4, Volume 2,

  19. CONTENTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B LReports from the CloudGEGR-N Goods PO 1 of 8 GE4, Volume 2,8.0 -

  20. Contents

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01 Sandia4) AugustA. Geographic Available for® ALOHA A R E A L L