Sample records for oral reference dose

  1. Oral/Poster Reference: FT242 FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH OF RUBBER UNDER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fatemi, Ali

    Oral/Poster Reference: FT242 FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH OF RUBBER UNDER VARIABLE AMPLITUDE LOADING R. Harbour1 , A. Fatemi1 , W. V. Mars2 1 The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA 2 Cooper Tire and Rubber Company, Findlay, OH, USA ABSTRACT Realistic loading conditions for rubber components are often more

  2. ORAL REFERENCE: ICF100152OR EFFECTS OF DIFFUSION ON INTERFACIAL FRACTURE OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    annealing, lead-frame bonding and service at elevated temperature, diffusion and segregation changeORAL REFERENCE: ICF100152OR EFFECTS OF DIFFUSION ON INTERFACIAL FRACTURE OF MULTILAYER HYBRID-0959 **University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 ABSTRACT In this study, the effect of diffusion on gold

  3. Organ doses for reference adult male and female undergoing computed tomography estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Long, Daniel; Fisher, Ryan; Tien, Chris; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Bolch, Wesley E. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To develop a computed tomography (CT) organ dose estimation method designed to readily provide organ doses in a reference adult male and female for different scan ranges to investigate the degree to which existing commercial programs can reasonably match organ doses defined in these more anatomically realistic adult hybrid phantomsMethods: The x-ray fan beam in the SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX2.6. The simulated CT scanner model was validated through comparison with experimentally measured lateral free-in-air dose profiles and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) values. The reference adult male and female hybrid phantoms were coupled with the established CT scanner model following arm removal to simulate clinical head and other body region scans. A set of organ dose matrices were calculated for a series of consecutive axial scans ranging from the top of the head to the bottom of the phantoms with a beam thickness of 10 mm and the tube potentials of 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis examinations were calculated based on the organ dose matrices and compared to those obtained from two commercial programs, CT-EXPO and CTDOSIMETRY. Organ dose calculations were repeated for an adult stylized phantom by using the same simulation method used for the adult hybrid phantom. Results: Comparisons of both lateral free-in-air dose profiles and CTDI values through experimental measurement with the Monte Carlo simulations showed good agreement to within 9%. Organ doses for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis scans reported in the commercial programs exceeded those from the Monte Carlo calculations in both the hybrid and stylized phantoms in this study, sometimes by orders of magnitude. Conclusions: The organ dose estimation method and dose matrices established in this study readily provides organ doses for a reference adult male and female for different CT scan ranges and technical parameters. Organ doses from existing commercial programs do not reasonably match organ doses calculated for the hybrid phantoms due to differences in phantom anatomy, as well as differences in organ dose scaling parameters. The organ dose matrices developed in this study will be extended to cover different technical parameters, CT scanner models, and various age groups.

  4. Disposition of clorazepate in dogs after single- and multiple-dose oral administration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forrester, Sharon Dru

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to compare single-dose disposition values with multiple-dose disposition values. The paired t test was also used to compare body weight on day 0 with that on day 21. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to evaluate results of routine... on both sets of parameters, comparing single-dose with multiple-dose disposition. Hecause the values for Vd(ss)/F from trapezoidal analysis were not normally distributed, nonparametric statistical analysis (ie, Wilcoxon rank sum test) was used...

  5. Organ doses, effective doses, and risk indices in adult CT: Comparison of four types of reference phantoms across different examination protocols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Yakun; Li Xiang; Paul Segars, W.; Samei, Ehsan [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States) and Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States) and Departments of Physics, Biomedical Engineering, and Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Radiation exposure from computed tomography (CT) to the public has increased the concern among radiation protection professionals. Being able to accurately assess the radiation dose patients receive during CT procedures is a crucial step in the management of CT dose. Currently, various computational anthropomorphic phantoms are used to assess radiation dose by different research groups. It is desirable to better understand how the dose results are affected by different choices of phantoms. In this study, the authors assessed the uncertainties in CT dose and risk estimation associated with different types of computational phantoms for a selected group of representative CT protocols. Methods: Routinely used CT examinations were categorized into ten body and three neurological examination categories. Organ doses, effective doses, risk indices, and conversion coefficients to effective dose and risk index (k and q factors, respectively) were estimated for these examinations for a clinical CT system (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare). Four methods were used, each employing a different type of reference phantoms. The first and second methods employed a Monte Carlo program previously developed and validated in our laboratory. In the first method, the reference male and female extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms were used, which were initially created from the Visible Human data and later adjusted to match organ masses defined in ICRP publication 89. In the second method, the reference male and female phantoms described in ICRP publication 110 were used, which were initially developed from tomographic data of two patients and later modified to match ICRP 89 organ masses. The third method employed a commercial dosimetry spreadsheet (ImPACT group, London, England) with its own hermaphrodite stylized phantom. In the fourth method, another widely used dosimetry spreadsheet (CT-Expo, Medizinische Hochschule, Hannover, Germany) was employed together with its associated male and female stylized phantoms. Results: For fully irradiated organs, average coefficients of variation (COV) ranged from 0.07 to 0.22 across the four male phantoms and from 0.06 to 0.18 across the four female phantoms; for partially irradiated organs, average COV ranged from 0.13 to 0.30 across the four male phantoms and from 0.15 to 0.30 across the four female phantoms. Doses to the testes, breasts, and esophagus showed large variations between phantoms. COV for gender-averaged effective dose and k factor ranged from 0.03 to 0.23 and from 0.06 to 0.30, respectively. COV for male risk index and q factor ranged from 0.06 to 0.30 and from 0.05 to 0.36, respectively; COV for female risk index and q factor ranged from 0.06 to 0.49 and from 0.07 to 0.54, respectively. Conclusions: Despite closely matched organ mass, total body weight, and height, large differences in organ dose exist due to variation in organ location, spatial distribution, and dose approximation method. Dose differences for fully irradiated radiosensitive organs were much smaller than those for partially irradiated organs. Weighted dosimetry quantities including effective dose, male risk indices, k factors, and male q factors agreed well across phantoms. The female risk indices and q factors varied considerably across phantoms.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of cisapride in normal healthy cats and recommended oral dosing regimen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LeGrange, Suzanne Nauman

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was paired with one receiving an intravenous dose. Cisapride was detected with an HPLC assay validated for cat plasma. Drug concentration versus time curves were subjected to standard pharmacokinetic analysis. Disposition parameters were compared between PO...

  7. Reference computations of public dose and cancer risk from airborne releases of plutonium. Nuclear safety technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, V.L.

    1993-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents results of computations of doses and the associated health risks of postulated accidental atmospheric releases from the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) of one gram of weapons-grade plutonium in a form that is respirable. These computations are intended to be reference computations that can be used to evaluate a variety of accident scenarios by scaling the dose and health risk results presented here according to the amount of plutonium postulated to be released, instead of repeating the computations for each scenario. The MACCS2 code has been used as the basis of these computations. The basis and capabilities of MACCS2 are summarized, the parameters used in the evaluations are discussed, and results are presented for the doses and health risks to the public, both the Maximum Offsite Individual (a maximally exposed individual at or beyond the plant boundaries) and the population within 50 miles of RFP. A number of different weather scenarios are evaluated, including constant weather conditions and observed weather for 1990, 1991, and 1992. The isotopic mix of weapons-grade plutonium will change as it ages, the {sup 241}Pu decaying into {sup 241}Am. The {sup 241}Am reaches a peak concentration after about 72 years. The doses to the bone surface, liver, and whole body will increase slightly but the dose to the lungs will decrease slightly. The overall cancer risk will show almost no change over this period. This change in cancer risk is much smaller than the year-to-year variations in cancer risk due to weather. Finally, x/Q values are also presented for other applications, such as for hazardous chemical releases. These include the x/Q values for the MOI, for a collocated worker at 100 meters downwind of an accident site, and the x/Q value integrated over the population out to 50 miles.

  8. Evaluation of Oral and IntravenousRoute Pharmacokinetics, Plasma Protein Binding and Uterine Tissue Dose Metrics of Bisphenol A: A Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Waechter, John M.; Clewell, III, H. J.; Covington, Tammie R.; Barton, H. A.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a weakly estrogenic monomer used in the production of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, both of which are used in food contact and other applications. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of BPA pharmacokinetics in rats and humans was developed to provide a physiological context in which the processes controlling BPA pharmacokinetics (e.g. plasma protein binding, enterohepatic recirculation of the glucuronide (BPAG)) could be incorporated. A uterine tissue compartment was included to allow the correlation of simulated ER binding of BPA with increases in uterine wet weight (UWW) in rats. Intravenous and oral-route blood kinetics of BPA in rats and oral-route plasma and urinary elimination kinetics in humans were well described by the model. Simulations of rat oral-route BPAG pharmacokinetics were less exact, most likely the result of oversimplification of the GI tract compartment. Comparison of metabolic clearance rates derived from fitting rat i.v. and oral-route data implied that intestinal glucuronidation of BPA is significant. In rats but not humans, terminal elimination rates were strongly influenced by enterohepatic recirculation. In the absence of BPA binding to plasma proteins, simulations showed high ER occupancy at doses without uterine effects. Restricting free BPA to the measured unbound amount demonstrated the importance of including plasma binding in BPA kinetic models: the modeled relationship between ER occupancy and UWW increases was consistent with expectations for a receptor mediated response with low ER occupancy at doses with no response and increasing occupancy with larger increases in UWW.

  9. Quantification of absorption, retention and elimination of two different oral doses of vitamin A in Zambian boys using accelerator mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aklamati, E K; Mulenga, M; Dueker, S R; Buchholz, B A; Peerson, J M; Kafwembe, E; Brown, K H; Haskell, M J

    2009-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A recent survey indicated that high-dose vitamin A supplements (HD-VAS) had no apparent effect on vitamin A (VA) status of Zambian children <5 y of age. To explore possible reasons for the lack of response to HD-VAS among Zambian children, we quantified the absorption, retention, and urinary elimination of either a single HDVAS (60 mg) or a smaller dose of stable isotope (SI)-labeled VA (5 mg), which was used to estimate VA pool size, in 3-4 y old Zambian boys (n = 4 for each VA dose). A 25 nCi tracer dose of [{sup 14}C{sub 2}]-labeled VA was co-administered with the HD-VAS or SI-labeled VA, and 24-hr stool and urine samples were collected for 3 and 7 consecutive days, respectively, and 24-hr urine samples at 4 later time points. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) was used to measure the cumulative excretion of {sup 14}C in stool and urine 3d after dosing to estimate, respectively, absorption and retention of the VAS and SI-labeled VA. The urinary elimination rate (UER) was estimated by plotting {sup 14}C in urine vs. time, and fitting an exponential equation to the data. Estimates of mean absorption, retention and the UER were 83.8 {+-} 7.1%, 76.3 {+-} 6.7%, and 1.9 {+-} 0.6%/d, respectively, for the HD-VAS and 76.5 {+-} 9.5%, 71.1 {+-} 9.4%, and 1.8 {+-} 1.2%/d, respectively for the smaller dose of SI-labeled VA. Estimates of absorption, retention and the UER did not differ by size of the VA dose administered (P=0.26, 0.40, 0.88, respectively). Estimated absorption and retention were negatively associated with reported fever (P=0.011) and malaria (P =0.010). HD-VAS and SI-labeled VA were adequately absorbed, retained and utilized in apparently healthy Zambian preschool-age boys, although absorption and retention may be affected by recent infections.

  10. Poroelastic references

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Christina Morency

    This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

  11. Poroelastic references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christina Morency

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

  12. Reference Material

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection RadiationRecord-SettingHead ofReference-Documents Sign In

  13. Reference Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection RadiationRecord-SettingHead ofReference-Documents Sign In About |

  14. Vince Krische Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krische, Vince; Miller, Timothy

    2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Oral history interview with Father Vince Krische conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on October 5, 2010. Father Krische served as the priest at the St. Lawrence Catholic Campus Center in Lawrence for 28 years, as the chaplain...

  15. Phil Friedl Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedl, Phil; Vestal, Sara; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

    2009-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Oral history interview with Phil Friedl conducted by Sara Vestal and Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Delia, Kansas, on November 11, 2009. Phil Friedl is a follower of David Bawden, who is also known as Pope Michael. In this interview, ...

  16. Kahler Wiebe Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiebe, Kahler; Roane, Jordan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oral history interview of Kahler Wiebe conducted by Jordan Roane in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 11, 2014. Kahler is 15 years old and the youngest member of the Wiebe family. The Wiebe family regularly attends Grace ...

  17. Warren Wiebe Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiebe, Warren; Roane, Jordan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oral history interview of Warren Wiebe conducted by Jordan Roane in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 12, 2014. Warren grew up in the small western Kansas town of Hillsboro. Hillsboro is known for its Mennonite community as ...

  18. Janice Bryant Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryant, Janice; Helmer, Lauren

    2010-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Oral history interview with Janice Bryant conducted by Lauren Helmer in Marion, Kansas, on December 29, 2010. In this interview, Janice Bryant, a former church secretary for Valley Methodist Church, discusses the history, organization, and programs...

  19. Jim Ryan Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Jim; Heidrick, Sarah

    2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Oral history interview with Jim Ryan conducted by Sarah Heidrick in Salina, Kansas, on November 9, 2009. In this interview, Jim Ryan discusses his childhood in a Catholic household, and his transition to the Methodist Church upon marriage. He...

  20. Velda Sloan Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloan, Velda; Heidrick, Sarah

    2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Oral history interview with Velda Sloan conducted by Sarah Heidrick in Salina, Kansas, on November 9, 2009. In this interview, Velda Sloan discusses her experiences attending Methodist and Presybterian churches in a variety of locations during...

  1. Mike Rose Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Mike; Helmer, Lauren

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Oral history interview with Mike Rose conducted by Lauren Helmer in Salina, Kansas, on December 31, 2010. In this interview, Mike Rose, pastor of the University United Methodist Church in Salina, describes his experiences growing up Methodist...

  2. Oralidad, narración oral y narración oral escénica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garzó n Cé spedes, Francisco

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    esta renovación han pasado por crear un nuevo arte escénico: la narración oral escénica, y por crear un movimiento iberoamericano de este arte. Nuevo arte y movimiento conformados, entre otras múltiples acciones, por medio de más de quinientos... su integración a procesos terapéuticos; —Ortodoxia, improvisación, experimentación e integración de las artes en la NOE; —La NOE: Arte como comunicación alternativa. En los siguientes Encuentros se ha debatido acerca de las relaciones de la NOE...

  3. Pharmacological Protection From Radiation {+-} Cisplatin-Induced Oral Mucositis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cotrim, Ana P. [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yoshikawa, Masanobu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Sunshine, Abraham N.; Zheng Changyu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Sowers, Anastasia L.; Thetford, Angela D.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B. [Radiation Biology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Baum, Bruce J., E-mail: bbaum@dir.nidcr.nih.gov [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate if two pharmacological agents, Tempol and D-methionine (D-met), are able to prevent oral mucositis in mice after exposure to ionizing radiation {+-} cisplatin. Methods and Materials: Female C3H mice, {approx}8 weeks old, were irradiated with five fractionated doses {+-} cisplatin to induce oral mucositis (lingual ulcers). Just before irradiation and chemotherapy, mice were treated, either alone or in combination, with different doses of Tempol (by intraperitoneal [ip] injection or topically, as an oral gel) and D-met (by gavage). Thereafter, mice were sacrificed and tongues were harvested and stained with a solution of Toluidine Blue. Ulcer size and tongue epithelial thickness were measured. Results: Significant lingual ulcers resulted from 5 Multiplication-Sign 8 Gy radiation fractions, which were enhanced with cisplatin treatment. D-met provided stereospecific partial protection from lingual ulceration after radiation. Tempol, via both routes of administration, provided nearly complete protection from lingual ulceration. D-met plus a suboptimal ip dose of Tempol also provided complete protection. Conclusions: Two fairly simple pharmacological treatments were able to markedly reduce chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. This proof of concept study suggests that Tempol, alone or in combination with D-met, may be a useful and convenient way to prevent the severe oral mucositis that results from head-and-neck cancer therapy.

  4. Michael Johnson Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Michael; Albin, Tami

    2009-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    support groups or whatever like that and then it just turned into, Well there's Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 5 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas porn online too. (laugh) So it's like—it's like you just kind... stepmother had found my Xanga site as well. Along with that she had found, on his computer, links to porn site—like gay porn Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 7 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas sites, right...

  5. Oral melanoma: An unusual presentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lessa, Nara Lidia; Moleri, Andrea Braga; Merly, Flavio; Moreira, Luiz Carlos; Moreira, Mirian Jordao; Antunes, Heliton Spindola

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CM. Oral mucosal melanoma: epidemiology and pathobiology.PubMed 2. Rapini RP. Oral melanoma: Diagnosis and treatment.JM, Soriano JAM, Perez ML. Melanoma de paladar duro. Acta

  6. Lin Tongqi : an oral history

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I explore the life of Professor Lin Tongqi, a well-known scholar of American Chinese studies, by using an oral history methodology. This oral history is named "Suffering and Thinking," and my goal is to ...

  7. Oral Drug Absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamashita, Shinji

    2006-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    properties ? membrane permeability ? metabolic stability ? enzyme inhibition or induction ? protein binding ? transporter affinity ?. Chemical Optimization DDS technology 4 Strategy of Drug Delivery Absorption Distribution Metabolism Excretion Improve of drug... absorption absorption enhancement controlled releasecontrolled release new administration route Drug targeting to the tissue to the cell to the organelle Dr. Shinji Yamashita (Setsunan University) Issue: Oral Drug Absorption Dr. Valentino J. Stella...

  8. Oral Tradition in Historical Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hankins, Rebecca

    Enduring Legacies: Oral Tradition in Historical Research Rebecca HANKINS, C.A., Assistant Professor, Area Studies, Texas A&M University MS5000 TAMU; College Station, Texas 77843-5000 #19; HYPERLINK "mailto:rhankins@tamu.edu" #1;#20;rhankins.... Stricklin, David and Rebecca Sharpless, eds. The Past Meets the Present: Essays on Oral History. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1988. 7. Swain, Ellen D. ?Oral history in the Archives: Its Documentary Role in the Twenty-first Century...

  9. Increased Radiation Dose to Overweight and Obese Patients from Radiographic Examinations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    Purpose: To estimate the increase in effective dose from diagnostic x-rays for overweight and obese adult patients compared with „lean? reference phantoms. Materials and Methods: Relative effective doses, E/E[subscript 0], ...

  10. High frequency reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  11. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  12. Application Protocol Reference Architecture Application Protocol Reference Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Sinderen, Marten

    Application Protocol Reference Architecture 165 Chapter 7 Application Protocol Reference Architecture This chapter proposes an alternative reference architecture for application protocols. The proposed reference architecture consists of the set of possible architectures for application protocols

  13. SCIENTIFIC CORRESPONDENCE Radiation doses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shlyakhter, Ilya

    -- ation doses and cancer rates to the workers m the first Soviet atom-bomb facility, near 2 Chelyabinsk

  14. The Greenhouse Culture Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scholz, Jared; Sipp, Kalah; Stratton, Emily

    2013-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Oral history interview with Jared Scholz and Kalah Sipp conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on June 26, 2013. Jared Scholz is the founder and Senior Pastor of The Greenhouse Culture; Kalah Sipp is The Greenhouse ...

  15. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Appendices. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Appendices are presented concerning the evaluations of decommissioning financing alternatives; reference site description; reference BWR facility description; radiation dose rate and concrete surface contamination data; radionuclide inventories; public radiation dose models and calculated maximum annual doses; decommissioning methods; generic decommissioning information; immediate dismantlement details; passive safe storage, continuing care, and deferred dismantlement details; entombment details; demolition and site restoration details; cost estimating bases; public radiological safety assessment details; and details of alternate study bases.

  16. Value of Information References

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Morency, Christina

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  17. Value of Information References

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  18. Precision displacement reference system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bieg, Lothar F. (Albuquerque, NM); Dubois, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Strother, Jerry D. (Edgewood, NM)

    2000-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

  19. Membrane reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.

    1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.

  20. ORAL PRESENTATION Open Access Non-neutralizing IgG anti-PID antibodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    load following antibody treatment strongly suggests that non-neutralizing inhibitory anti- bodies could-PID antibodies decreased viral load following high dose vaginal challenge of non- human primates. RetrovirologyORAL PRESENTATION Open Access Non-neutralizing IgG anti-PID antibodies decreased viral load

  1. Neutron dose equivalent meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsher, Richard H. (Los Alamos, NM); Hsu, Hsiao-Hua (Los Alamos, NM); Casson, William H. (Los Alamos, NM); Vasilik, Dennis G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kleck, Jeffrey H. (Menlo Park, CA); Beverding, Anthony (Foster City, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

  2. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.

    1981-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell are described. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  3. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1988-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A stable reference electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.

  4. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald R. (Belmont, MA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

  5. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo (Lisle, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  6. Grant Reference Lead / Sole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rank Overall Score Grant Reference Lead / Sole Grant Grant Holder Research Organisation Project of Birmingham Controls on Soil Carbon Export revealed by Novel Tracers on multiple timescales (SCENT) Standard Grant DEC12 8 8 NE/K011871/1 N Melanie Leng NERC British Geological Survey A 500,000-year environmental

  7. HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT REFERENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faraon, Andrei

    Principal Investigators 7 Laboratory Personnel 8 EH&S Personnel 8 HAZARDOUS WASTE ACCUMULATION AREAS 9 Satellite Accumulation Area 9 Waste Accumulation Facility 10 HAZARDOUS WASTE CONTAINER MANAGEMENT LabelingHAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT REFERENCE GUIDE Prepared by Environment, Health and Safety Office

  8. CONCRETE PAVEMENT Reference Manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CONCRETE PAVEMENT Reference Manual Prepared for Federal Highway Administration Office of Pavement by National Concrete Pavement Technology Center at Iowa State University 2711 South Loop Drive, Suite 4700 No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No. 4. Title and Subtitle 5. Report Date February 2008 Concrete Pavement

  9. MSL ENTERANCE REFERENCE AREA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    MSL ENTERANCE LOBBY ELEV STAIRS SSL-019 REFERENCE AREA SSL-021 GROUP STUDY SSL-018 STUDY ROOM SSL-029 SSL-020 COPY ROOM SSL-022 GROUP STUDY SSL-026 STACKS SSL-023 GROUP STUDY SSL-024 GROUP STUDY SSL TBL-014 TBL-014A STAIRS SSL-007 GIS/ WORKROOM SSL-011 SSL-008 SSL-009 SSL-010 SSL-014 SSL-017 STAIRS

  10. Cisco Reference Configurations for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    ............................................................................................. 10 EMC VNX5500 Storage Layout.0 with EMC VNX5500 Series Storage Systems White Paper November 2012 © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. AllCisco Reference Configurations for Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Fast Track Data Warehouse 4.0 with EMC

  11. OSH technical reference manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  12. Reference Undulator Measurement Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolf, Zachary; Levashov, Yurii; /SLAC; ,

    2011-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The LCLS reference undulator has been measured 22 times during the course of undulator tuning. These measurements provide estimates of various statistical errors. This note gives a summary of the reference undulator measurements and it provides estimates of the undulator tuning errors. We measured the reference undulator many times during the tuning of the LCLS undulators. These data sets give estimates of the random errors in the tuned undulators. The measured trajectories in the reference undulator are stable and straight to within {+-}2 {micro}m. Changes in the phase errors are less than {+-}2 deg between data sets. The phase advance in the cell varies by less than {+-}2 deg between data sets. The rms variation between data sets of the first integral of B{sub x} is 9.98 {micro}Tm, and the rms variation of the second integral of B{sub x} is 17.4 {micro}Tm{sup 2}. The rms variation of the first integral of B{sub y} is 6.65 {micro}Tm, and the rms variation of the second integral of B{sub y} is 12.3 {micro}Tm{sup 2}. The rms variation of the x-position of the fiducialized beam axis is 35 {micro}m in the final production run This corresponds to an rms uncertainty in the K value of {Delta}K/K = 2.7 x 10{sup -5}. The rms variation of the y-position of the fiducialized beam axis is 4 {micro}m in the final production run.

  13. STEP Intern Reference Check Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    STEP Intern Reference Check Sheet, from the Tool Kit Framework: Small Town University Energy Program (STEP).

  14. Reference Radiation for Cosmic Rays in RBE Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Shaoyong

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    effectiveness relative to a specific radiation is usually used. For low energy heavy ions and neutrons 250 keV photons are usually used for the reference radiation but their depth dose distribution is very different from that for cosmic rays. In this research...

  15. Optomechanical reference accelerometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerberding, Oliver; Melcher, John; Pratt, Jon; Taylor, Jacob

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an optomechanical accelerometer with high dynamic range, high bandwidth and read-out noise levels below 8 {\\mu}g/$\\sqrt{\\mathrm{Hz}}$. The straightforward assembly and low cost of our device make it a prime candidate for on-site reference calibrations and autonomous navigation. We present experimental data taken with a vacuum sealed, portable prototype and deduce the achieved bias stability and scale factor accuracy. Additionally, we present a comprehensive model of the device physics that we use to analyze the fundamental noise sources and accuracy limitations of such devices.

  16. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14 Dec-14 Jan-1538,469Appendix E4 Reference

  17. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14 Dec-14 Jan-1538,469Appendix E4 Reference4

  18. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14 Dec-14 Jan-1538,469Appendix E4 Reference46

  19. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14 Dec-14 Jan-1538,469Appendix E44 Reference

  20. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2CubiccurrentFor2 Reference

  1. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2CubiccurrentFor2 Reference4

  2. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2CubiccurrentFor2 Reference46

  3. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2CubiccurrentFor2 Reference464

  4. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2CubiccurrentFor24 Reference

  5. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2CubiccurrentFor24 Reference6

  6. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2CubiccurrentFor24 Reference68

  7. REFERENCES Baines, W. D.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilAElectronicCurvesSpeedingScientificof ScientificQ LA-UR- " "REFERENCES

  8. References to Astrophysics Papers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements Recently Approved JustificationBio-Inspired SolarReferences to

  9. Antares Reference Telescope System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser-fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300 to 1000 ..mu..m in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m-diameter by 9.3-m-long vacuum (10/sup -6/ torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 ..mu..m of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares Reference Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares Reference Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail.

  10. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  11. CH 6 REFERENCES.DOC 6-1 6 References

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    REFERENCES.DOC Allan, S., A. R. Buckley, and J. E. Meacham. 2001. Atlas of Oregon. Second Edition. William J

  12. Nuclear Science References Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Pritychenko; E. B?ták; B. Singh; J. Totans

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr and the International Atomic Energy Agency http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr.

  13. Long life reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1987-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

  14. Landscapes as references for design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batchelor, James P

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a study of the ways in which the forms in landscapes - natural terrain adapted and inhabited - can serve as references in architectural design. As references for design, landscapes provide a richness of responses ...

  15. Dose Reduction Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  16. Budget Reconciliation Procedures Reference Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shull, Kenneth R.

    Budget Reconciliation Procedures Reference Guide eDev Course Number FMS723 Subject Area Budget Northwestern University #12;Reference Guide Budget Reconciliation Table of Contents Helpful Contacts....................................................................................... 14 723QuickRefGuidev1.4 2 of 14 #12;Reference Guide Budget Reconciliation Helpful Contacts Below

  17. An intra-oral cone for an 18 MeV linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, P.J.; Wang, C.C.

    1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A set of intra-oral cones has been constructed for electron beam therapy from a linear accelerator. The 4 cm x 4 cm treatment accessory provided with this machine was modified by simply removing the lower collimator and replacing it with a brass plate into which all the cones can fit, so that they are easily interchangeable. Six circular cones, with diameters ranging from 27 mm to 45 mm, plus two elliptical cones are currently in use. A light field system has been built that fits into the acrylic compartment directly above the base, and provides a clear, well-illuminated view of the treatment field. The dosimetry for these cones shows that the percent depth dose curve for a 41 mm diameter field is the same as that obtained with the 4 cm x 4 cm treatment accessory, and that the isodose curves are very similar. This intra-oral cone system has been in operation for over two years and we have found it very useful in boosting the dose to specific primary lesions in the oral cavity, for example, oral tongue, floor of mouth, retromolar trigone, and soft palate.

  18. COSY INFINITY reference manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berz, M.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a reference manual for the arbitrary order particle optics and beam dynamics code COSY INFINITY. It is current as of June 28, 1990. COSY INFINITY is a code to study and design particle optical systems, including beamlines, spectrometers, and particle accelerators. At its core it is using differential algebraic (DA) methods, which allow a very systematic and simple calculation of high order effects. At the same time, it allows the computation of dependences on system parameters, which is often interesting in its own right and can also be used for fitting. COSY INFINITY has a full structured object oriented language environment. This provides a simple interface for the casual user. At the same time, it offers the demanding user a very flexible and powerful tool for the study and design of systems, and more generally, the utilization of DA methods. The power and generality of the environment is perhaps best demonstrated by the fact that the physics routines of COSY INFINITY are written in its own input language and are very compact. The approach also considerably facilitates the implementation of new features because they are incorporated with the same commands that are used for design and study. 26 refs.

  19. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  20. Calculation of external dose from distributed source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses a relatively simple calculational method, called the point kernel method (Fo68), for estimating external dose from distributed sources that emit photon or electron radiations. The principles of the point kernel method are emphasized, rather than the presentation of extensive sets of calculations or tables of numerical results. A few calculations are presented for simple source geometries as illustrations of the method, and references and descriptions are provided for other caluclations in the literature. This paper also describes exposure situations for which the point kernel method is not appropriate and other, more complex, methods must be used, but these methods are not discussed in any detail.

  1. External Dose Estimates from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; - calculated separately for the most important radionuclides produced in nuclear weapons tests. Those would averages for all tests. 2. Provide a list of references regarding: (1) the history of nuclear weapons to the Population of the Continental U.S. from Nevada Weapons Tests and Estimates of Deposition Density

  2. Optical probe with reference fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Chase, Charles L. (Dublin, CA)

    2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for characterizing tissue includes the steps of generating an emission signal, generating a reference signal, directing the emission signal to and from the tissue, directing the reference signal in a predetermined manner relative to the emission signal, and using the reference signal to compensate the emission signal. In one embodiment compensation is provided for fluctuations in light delivery to the tip of the probe due to cable motion.

  3. FAQS Reference Guide- Chemical Processing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This reference guide addresses the competency statements in the February 2010 edition of DOE-STD-1176-2010, Chemical Processing Functional Area Qualification Standard.

  4. FAQS Reference Guide – Emergency Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This reference guide addresses the competency statements in the January 2004 edition of DOE-STD-1177-2004, Emergency Management Functional Area Qualification Standard.

  5. FAQS Reference Guide – Industrial Hygiene

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This reference guide addresses the competency statements in the November 2007 edition of DOE-STD-1138-2007, Industrial Hygiene Functional Area Qualification Standard.

  6. FAQS Reference Guide – Construction Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This reference guide addresses the competency statements in the March 2004 edition of DOE-STD-1180-2004, Construction Management Functional Area Qualification Standard.

  7. FAQS Reference Guide – Environmental Compliance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This reference guide addresses the competency statements in the June 2011 edition of DOE-STD-1156-2011, Environmental Compliance Functional Area Qualification Standard.

  8. Ris Energy Report 6 References Reference list for Chapter 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø Energy Report 6 References Reference list for Chapter 3 1. European Commission. (2007). Communication from the Commis- sion to the European Council and the European Parliament ­ An energy policy of the Brussels European Council 8/9 March 2007. Brussels. (7224/1/07 Rev. 1). 3. Danish Energy authority. (2007

  9. Gallatin Valley Oral Health Alliance MSU AHEC/ORH Report by: Lorie Becker MSU Oral Health Coordinator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Gallatin Valley Oral Health Alliance MSU AHEC/ORH Report by: Lorie Becker MSU Oral Health schools. Thank you Sharon for implementing the school ­based oral screening program! Happy Retirement

  10. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. (comps.)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms; environmental transport environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  11. Oral Presentation Track 19: Biotransport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gefen, Amit

    Physical Electronics, Tel Aviv University, Israel A new method for orthopaedic drilling was developed engineering tool for improving the technology and design of orthopaedic microwave drills. Reference: 1. Jerby drilling in bone R.R. Mann1, O. Aktushev2, A. Gefen1, E. Jerby2 1 Depts. of Biomedical Engineering and 2

  12. Appendix E References | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NEPA Reading Room SEIS for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor Reference Documents Appendix E References Appendix E References Crosswalk of...

  13. POET with C++ Reference Manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buhr, Peter Allan

    POET with #22;C++ Reference Manual University of Waterloo David Taylor and Peter A. Buhr c #3; 1996 July 23, 2006 #3; Permission is granted to make copies for personal or educational use #12; 2 POET Reference Manual Contents 1 Introduction 3 2 Before Starting POET 3 3 Accessing POET 3 4 User Interface 3 5

  14. NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perkins, Richard A.

    NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards Publication 500-292 #12;i NIST Special Publication 500-292 NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture, John Messina, Lee Badger and Dawn Leaf Information Techonology Laboratory Cloud Computing Program

  15. REFERENCE CHECK QUESTIONS Candidate Name:_____________________ Date of Reference:_____________

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provancher, William

    are the candidate's most significant strengths? Any areas for improvement? If you were in a position to hire:_____________ Reference Name:_____________________ Company:____________________ Conducted by:_______________________ Phone (name) handle conflict? How about pressure? Stress? Describe the candidate's productivity, commitment

  16. Savannah River Site radioiodine atmospheric releases and offsite maximum doses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marter, W.L.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioisotopes of iodine have been released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Site since 1955. The releases, mostly from the 200-F and 200-H Chemical Separations areas, consist of the isotopes, I-129 and 1-131. Small amounts of 1-131 and 1-133 have also been released from reactor facilities and the Savannah River Laboratory. This reference memorandum was issued to summarize our current knowledge of releases of radioiodines and resultant maximum offsite doses. This memorandum supplements the reference memorandum by providing more detailed supporting technical information. Doses reported in this memorandum from consumption of the milk containing the highest I-131 concentration following the 1961 1-131 release incident are about 1% higher than reported in the reference memorandum. This is the result of using unrounded 1-131 concentrations of I-131 in milk in this memo. It is emphasized here that this technical report does not constitute a dose reconstruction in the same sense as the dose reconstruction effort currently underway at Hanford. This report uses existing published data for radioiodine releases and existing transport and dosimetry models.

  17. Absorbed Gamma-Ray Doses due to Natural Radionuclides in Building Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguiar, Vitor A. P.; Medina, Nilberto H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moreira, Ramon H.; Silveira, Marcilei A. G. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro Universitario da FEI, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is devoted to the application of high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry in the study of the effective dose coming from naturally occurring radionuclides, namely {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, present in building materials such as sand, cement, and granitic gravel. Four models were applied to estimate the effective dose and the hazard indices. The maximum estimated effective dose coming from the three reference rooms considered is 0.90(45) mSv/yr, and maximum internal hazard index is 0.77(24), both for the compact clay brick reference room. The principal gamma radiation sources are cement, sand and bricks.

  18. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference low-level waste burial ground. Volume 2. Appendices. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, E.S.; Holter, G.M.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contents: Reference site details; Waste inventory details; Radiation dose methodology; Environmental surveillance and records maintenance details; Payments needed to finance decommissioning; Site/waste stabilization decommissioning activity details; Waste relocation decommissioning activity details; Cost assessment details; Radiological safety details.

  19. Bill and Karen Vogler Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogler, Bill; Vogler, Karen; Roane, Jordan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oral history interview of Bill and Karen Vogler conducted by Jordan Roane on November 14, 2014 in Lawrence, Kansas. Bill is the pastor of Grace Evangelical Presbyterian Church in Lawrence, Kansas. He began pastoring the ...

  20. Standardized radiological dose evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, V.L.; Stahlnecker, E.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the end of the Cold War, the mission of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site changed from production of nuclear weapons to cleanup. Authorization baseis documents for the facilities, primarily the Final Safety Analysis Reports, are being replaced with new ones in which accident scenarios are sorted into coarse bins of consequence and frequency, similar to the approach of DOE-STD-3011-94. Because this binning does not require high precision, a standardized approach for radiological dose evaluations is taken for all the facilities at the site. This is done through a standard calculation ``template`` for use by all safety analysts preparing the new documents. This report describes this template and its use.

  1. Appearance of infused zinc ( sup 70 Zn) and oral zinc ( sup 68 Zn) in breast milk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moser-Veillon, P.B.; Patterson, K.Y.; Mangels, A.R.; Wallace, G.F.; Veillon, C. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States) Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States) Perkin-Elmer Corp., Rockville, MD (United States))

    1991-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to monitor the appearance of a simultaneous intravenous (IV) dose and oral dose of stable isotopes, {sup 70}Zn and {sup 68}Zn, respectively, in breast milk. Three lactating subjects, 2-3 months postpartum were fed a controlled diet which contained an average of 7.8 mg Zn/day. Subjects collected milk samples at the beginning of each feeding for a 24 hour period on the fifth day of the controlled diet. On day 7 of the controlled diet, a 160 ug IV dose of {sup 70}Zn as zinc chloride in saline was infused into each subject. The subjects also received 2 mg of {sup 68 }Zn as zinc chloride in 50 ml of orange juice. Following the stable isotope doses, subjects collected milk samples at the beginning of each feeding for 48 hours, weighing their infants before and after each feeding. The amount of natural Zn, {sup 70}Zn and {sup 68}Zn tracers in the milk was measured by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The cumulative {sup 70}Zn excretion into breast milk over 48 hours was approximately 1% of the infused dose and the cumulative {sup 68}Zn excretion was smaller still. Thus, only a small fraction of a physiological IV or oral dose of zinc comes out in the milk. The small fraction of {sup 70}Zn and {sup 68}Zn appearing in the milk suggests that circulating zinc and dietary zinc are not rapidly or directly incorporated into breast milk in appreciable amounts.

  2. Analysis of radiation doses from operation of postulated commercial spent fuel transportation systems: Main report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, K.J.; Hostick, C.J.; Ross, W.A.; Peterson, R.W.; Smith, R.I.; Stiles, D.L.; Daling, P.M.; Weakley, S.A.; Grinde, R.B.; Young, J.R.

    1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains a system study of estimated radiation doses to the public and workers resulting from the transport of spent fuel from commercial nuclear power reactors to a geologic repository. The report contains a detailed breakdown of activities and a description of time/distance/dose-rate estimates for each activity within the system. Collective doses are estimated for each of the major activities at the reactor site, in transit, and at the repository receiving facility. Annual individual doses to the maximally exposed individuals or groups of individuals are also estimated. A total of 17 alternatives and subalternatives to the postulated reference transportation system are identified, conceptualized, and their dose-reduction potentials and costs estimated. Resulting ratios of ..delta..cost/..delta..collective system dose for each alternative relative to the postulated reference transportation system are given. Most of the alternatives evaluated are estimated to provide both cost and dose reductions. Major reductions in transportation system dose and cost are estimated to result from using higher-capacity rail and truck casks, and particularly when replacing legalweight truck casks with ''advanced design'' overweight truck casks. The greatest annual dose reduction to the highest exposed individual workers (i.e., at the repository) is estimated to be achieved by using remote handling equipment for the cask handling operations at the repository. Additional shielding is also effective in reducing doses to both radiation workers at the reactor and repository and to transport workers. 69 refs., 36 figs., 156 tabs.

  3. FAQS Reference Guide – Occupational Safety

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This reference guide has been developed to address the competency statements in the July 2011 version of DOE-STD-1160-2011, Occupational Safety Functional Area Qualification Standard.

  4. Safeguards and Security Program References

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The manual establishes definitions for terms related to the Department of Energy Safeguards and Security (S&S) Program and includes lists of references and acronyms/abbreviations applicable to S&S Program directives. Cancels the Safeguards and Security Glossary of Terms, dated 12-18-95. Current Safeguards and Security Program References can also be found at Safeguards and Security Policy Information Resource (http://pir.pnl.gov/)

  5. ORISE: Dose modeling and assessments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or state regulatory compliance requirements are being met during the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Dose modeling is an important step in the...

  6. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. (comps.)

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories under contract with the Centers for Disease Control. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demography, food consumption, and agriculture; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  7. Site-Specific Reference Person Parameters and Derived Concentration Standards for the Savannah River Site

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stone, Daniel K.; Higley, Kathryn A.; Jannik, G. Timothy

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Order 458.1 states that the compliance with the 1 mSv annual dose constraint to a member of the public may be demonstrated by calculating dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) or to a representative person. Historically, the MEI concept was used for dose compliance at the Savannah River Site (SRS) using adult dose coefficients and adult male usage parameters. For future compliance, SRS plans to use the representative person concept for dose estimates to members of the public. The representative person dose will be based on the reference person dose coefficients from the U.S.more »DOE Derived Concentration Technical Standard and on usage parameters specific to SRS for the reference and typical person. Usage parameters and dose coefficients were determined for inhalation, ingestion and external exposure pathways. The parameters for the representative person were used to calculate and tabulate SRS-specific derived concentration standards (DCSs) for the pathways not included in DOE-STD-1196-2011.« less

  8. REFERENCES

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHASeptember 2010In addition to 1 |D I S P U T Edelivery205.1B

  9. Plasma concentration of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in horses following an oral dose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welch, Courtney Ann

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    experimental diet, 3.5 g chondroitin sulfate and 8.5 g glucosamine were added to the basal ration at each feeding. Following total collections, blood was centrifuged and plasma was harvested and data analyzed for the presence of each compound. Analyses...

  10. Plasma concentration of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in horses following an oral dose 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welch, Courtney Ann

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: ____________________________ ___________________________ Gary Potter...-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Gary D. Potter Dr. Pete Gibbs This study was conducted to study absorption of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate and to measure any changes in blood concentration of these compounds following...

  11. A Pentacyclic Aurora Kinase Inhibitor (AKI-001) With High in Vivo Potency And Oral Bioavailability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawson, T.E.; Ruth, M.; Blackwood, E.; Burdick, D.; Corson, L.; Dotson, J.; Drummond, J.; Fields, C.; Georges, G.J.; Goller, B.; Halladay, J.; Hunsaker, T.; Kleinheinz, T.; Krell, H.-W.; Li, J.; Liang, J.; Limberg, A.; McNutt, A.; Moffat, J.; Phillips, G.; Ran, Y.

    2009-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Aurora kinase inhibitors have attracted a great deal of interest as a new class of antimitotic agents. We report a novel class of Aurora inhibitors based on a pentacyclic scaffold. A prototype pentacyclic inhibitor 32 (AKI-001) derived from two early lead structures improves upon the best properties of each parent and compares favorably to a previously reported Aurora inhibitor, 39 (VX-680). The inhibitor exhibits low nanomolar potency against both Aurora A and Aurora B enzymes, excellent cellular potency (IC{sub 50} < 100 nM), and good oral bioavailability. Phenotypic cellular assays show that both Aurora A and Aurora B are inhibited at inhibitor concentrations sufficient to block proliferation. Importantly, the cellular activity translates to potent inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. An oral dose of 5 mg/kg QD is well tolerated and results in near stasis (92% TGI) in an HCT116 mouse xenograft model.

  12. SITE SPECIFIC REFERENCE PERSON PARAMETERS AND DERIVED CONCENTRATION STANDARDS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jannik, T.

    2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is twofold. The first is to develop a set of behavioral parameters for a reference person specific for the Savannah River Site (SRS) such that the parameters can be used to determine dose to members of the public in compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1 “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.” A reference person is a hypothetical, gender and age aggregation of human physical and physiological characteristics arrived at by international consensus for the purpose of standardizing radiation dose calculations. DOE O 458.1 states that compliance with the annual dose limit of 100 mrem (1 mSv) to a member of the public may be demonstrated by calculating the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) or to a representative person. Historically, for dose compliance, SRS has used the MEI concept, which uses adult dose coefficients and adult male usage parameters. Beginning with the 2012 annual site environmental report, SRS will be using the representative person concept for dose compliance. The dose to a representative person will be based on 1) the SRS-specific reference person usage parameters at the 95th percentile of appropriate national or regional data, which are documented in this report, 2) the reference person (gender and age averaged) ingestion and inhalation dose coefficients provided in DOE Derived Concentration Technical Standard (DOE-STD-1196-2011), and 3) the external dose coefficients provided in the DC_PAK3 toolbox. The second purpose of this report is to develop SRS-specific derived concentration standards (DCSs) for all applicable food ingestion pathways, ground shine, and water submersion. The DCS is the concentration of a particular radionuclide in water, in air, or on the ground that results in a member of the public receiving 100 mrem (1 mSv) effective dose following continuous exposure for one year. In DOE-STD-1196-2011, DCSs were developed for the ingestion of water, inhalation of air and submersion in air pathways, only. These DCSs are required by DOE O 458.1 to be used at all DOE sites in the design and conduct of radiological environmental protection programs. In this report, DCSs for the following additional pathways were considered and documented: ingestion of meat, dairy, grains, produce (fruits and vegetables), seafood, submersion in water and ground shine. These additional DCSs were developed using the same methods as in DOE-STD-1196-2011 and will be used at SRS, where appropriate, as screening and reference values.

  13. Design and synthesis of a novel, orally active, brain penetrant, tri-substituted thiophene based JNK inhibitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowers, Simeon; Truong, Anh P.; Neitz, R. Jeffrey; Neitzel, Martin; Probst, Gary D.; Hom, Roy K.; Peterson, Brian; Galemmo, Jr., Robert A.; Konradi, Andrei W.; Sham, Hing L.; Tóth, Gergley; Pan, Hu; Yao, Nanhua; Artis, Dean R.; Brigham, Elizabeth F.; Quinn, Kevin P.; Sauer, John-Michael; Powell, Kyle; Ruslim, Lany; Ren, Zhao; Bard, Frédérique; Yednock, Ted A.; Griswold-Prenner, Irene (Elan)

    2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The SAR of a series of tri-substituted thiophene JNK3 inhibitors is described. By optimizing both the N-aryl acetamide region of the inhibitor and the 4-position of the thiophene we obtained single digit nanomolar compounds, such as 47, which demonstrated an in vivo effect on JNK activity when dosed orally in our kainic acid mouse model as measured by phospho-c-jun reduction.

  14. C++ References Kenneth I. Joy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    . It enabled me to see how to use the language to accomplish what I wanted to do. ffl Scott Meyer's Book gave plate'' member functions came very close to the ``complete class'' paradigm, that I developed from Meyer that I attempt to utilize. #12; C++ References Page 2 of 3 Lippman, Stanley B., C++ Primer, 2nd Edition

  15. aguda oral del: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from tobacco use range from harmless soft tissue changes to a life-threatening oral cancer. Your dentist is trained to perform an oral examination to detect tobacco use...

  16. australian oral health: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Oral health Oral health CiteSeer Summary: Prams asks about the care of teeth during pregnancy: whether the...

  17. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMakin, A.H.; Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M. (comps.)

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The TSP consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed technical members representing the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demography, food consumption, and agriculture, and environmental pathways and dose estimates. Progress is discussed.

  18. The Consumption of Reference Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. A. White; J. A. Vaccaro; H. M. Wiseman

    2008-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the operational restriction of the U(1)-superselection rule, states that contain coherences between eigenstates of particle number constitute a resource. Such resources can be used to facilitate operations upon systems that otherwise cannot be performed. However, the process of doing this consumes reference resources. We show this explicitly for an example of a unitary operation that is forbidden by the U(1)-superselection rule.

  19. HANFORD WASTE MINERALOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports that used experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases observed in Hanford waste.

  20. HANFORD WASTE MINEROLOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This report lists the observed mineral phase phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports using experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases present observed in Hanford waste.

  1. Microgrid cyber security reference architecture.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veitch, Cynthia K.; Henry, Jordan M.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Hart, Derek H.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes a microgrid cyber security reference architecture. First, we present a high-level concept of operations for a microgrid, including operational modes, necessary power actors, and the communication protocols typically employed. We then describe our motivation for designing a secure microgrid; in particular, we provide general network and industrial control system (ICS)-speci c vulnerabilities, a threat model, information assurance compliance concerns, and design criteria for a microgrid control system network. Our design approach addresses these concerns by segmenting the microgrid control system network into enclaves, grouping enclaves into functional domains, and describing actor communication using data exchange attributes. We describe cyber actors that can help mitigate potential vulnerabilities, in addition to performance bene ts and vulnerability mitigation that may be realized using this reference architecture. To illustrate our design approach, we present a notional a microgrid control system network implementation, including types of communica- tion occurring on that network, example data exchange attributes for actors in the network, an example of how the network can be segmented to create enclaves and functional domains, and how cyber actors can be used to enforce network segmentation and provide the neces- sary level of security. Finally, we describe areas of focus for the further development of the reference architecture.

  2. Buffy McKinley Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKinley, Buffy; Manning, Sean

    2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Oral history interview with Buffy McKinley conducted by Sean Manning in Lawrence, Kansas, on May 11, 2010. In this interview, Buffy McKinley discusses her experiences with the Wiccan/pagan community in Lawrence, Kansas. This interview was conducted...

  3. Session: Geothermal Research Volcanology Oral presentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Session: Geothermal Research ­ Volcanology Oral presentation Contribution of multi-methods geophysics to improve the regional knowledge of Bouillante geothermal Province (Guadeloupe) Lydie Gailler1.gailler@brgm.fr The need to understand the geological context of the Bouillante geothermal Province (Basse- Terre

  4. ORAL QUAL SYLLABUS: SET THEORY; ERGODIC THEORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORAL QUAL SYLLABUS: SET THEORY; ERGODIC THEORY SAMUEL COSKEY Set Theory. #15; Basic set theory's theorem { there exists an Aronsajn tree { Shanin's root system lemma (#2;2) #15; Descriptive set theory of set theory (Jech 12,13) { Mostowski's collapsing theorem { relativization and absolute formulas { re

  5. Technical basis for dose reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this paper is to consider two general topics: technical considerations of why dose-reconstruction studies should or should not be performed and methods of dose reconstruction. The first topic is of general and growing interest as the number of dose-reconstruction studies increases, and one asks the question whether it is necessary to perform a dose reconstruction for virtually every site at which, for example, the Department of Energy (DOE) has operated a nuclear-related facility. And there is the broader question of how one might logically draw the line at performing or not performing dose-reconstruction (radiological and chemical) studies for virtually every industrial complex in the entire country. The second question is also of general interest. There is no single correct way to perform a dose-reconstruction study, and it is important not to follow blindly a single method to the point that cheaper, faster, more accurate, and more transparent methods might not be developed and applied.

  6. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.

  7. ORAL CANCER IN NEVADA: A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    ORAL CANCER IN NEVADA: A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE by Karl Kingsley, PhD Doctor of Philosophy the thesis prepared under our supervision by Karl Kingsley, Ph.D. entitled Oral Cancer in Nevada: A Public May 2010 #12;iii ABSTRACT Oral Cancer in Nevada: A Public Health Perspective by Karl Kingsley, Ph

  8. Reference Inflow Characterization for River Resource Reference Model (RM2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neary, Vincent S [ORNL

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) is leading an effort to develop reference models for marine and hydrokinetic technologies and wave and current energy resources. This effort will allow the refinement of technology design tools, accurate estimates of a baseline levelized cost of energy (LCoE), and the identification of the main cost drivers that need to be addressed to achieve a competitive LCoE. As part of this effort, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was charged with examining and reporting reference river inflow characteristics for reference model 2 (RM2). Published turbulent flow data from large rivers, a water supply canal and laboratory flumes, are reviewed to determine the range of velocities, turbulence intensities and turbulent stresses acting on hydrokinetic technologies, and also to evaluate the validity of classical models that describe the depth variation of the time-mean velocity and turbulent normal Reynolds stresses. The classical models are found to generally perform well in describing river inflow characteristics. A potential challenge in river inflow characterization, however, is the high variability of depth and flow over the design life of a hydrokinetic device. This variation can have significant effects on the inflow mean velocity and turbulence intensity experienced by stationary and bottom mounted hydrokinetic energy conversion devices, which requires further investigation, but are expected to have minimal effects on surface mounted devices like the vertical axis turbine device designed for RM2. A simple methodology for obtaining an approximate inflow characterization for surface deployed devices is developed using the relation umax=(7/6)V where V is the bulk velocity and umax is assumed to be the near-surface velocity. The application of this expression is recommended for deriving the local inflow velocity acting on the energy extraction planes of the RM2 vertical axis rotors, where V=Q/A can be calculated given a USGS gage flow time-series and stage vs. cross-section area rating relationship.

  9. EMP Attachment 3 DOE-SC PNNL Site Dose Assessment Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.

    2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This Dose Assessment Guidance (DAG) describes methods to use to determine the Maximally-Exposed Individual (MEI) location and to estimate dose impact to that individual under the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP). This guidance applies to public dose from radioactive material releases to the air from PNNL Site operations. This document is an attachment to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) and describes dose assessment guidance for radiological air emissions. The impact of radiological air emissions from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) PNNL Site is indicated by dose estimates to a maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). Reporting requirements associated with dose to members of the public from radiological air emissions are in 40 CFR Part 61.94, WAC 246-247-080, and DOE Order 458.1. The DOE Order and state standards for dose from radioactive air emissions are consistent with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) dose standards in 40 CFR 61.92 (i.e., 10 mrem/yr to a MEI). Despite the fact that the current Contract Requirements Document (CRD) for the DOE-SC PNNL Site operations does not include the requirement to meet DOE CRD 458.1, paragraph 2.b, public dose limits, the DOE dose limits would be met when EPA limits are met.

  10. Biological doses with template distribution patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrop, R. (Simon Fraer Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia); Haymond, H.R.; Nisar, A.; Syed, A.N.M.; Feder, B.H.; Neblett, D.L.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Consideration of radiation dose rate effects emphasizes advantages of the template method for lateral distribution of multiple sources in treatment of laterally infiltrating gynecologic cancer, when compared to a conventional technique with colpostats. Biological doses in time dose fractionation (TDF), ret and reu units are calculated for the two treatment methods. With the template method the lateral dose (point B) is raised without significantly increasing the doses to the rectum and bladder, that is, relatively, the calculated biological doses at point A and B are more nearly equivalent and the doses to the rectum and bladder are significantly lower than the dose to point B.

  11. Reference electrode for electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kessie, R.W.

    1988-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane. 4 figs.

  12. PVWatts Version 1 Technical Reference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobos, A. P.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The NREL PVWatts(TM) calculator is a web application developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that estimates the electricity production of a grid-connected photovoltaic system based on a few simple inputs. PVWatts combines a number of sub-models to predict overall system performance, and makes several hidden assumptions about performance parameters. This technical reference details the individual sub-models, documents assumptions and hidden parameters, and explains the sequence of calculations that yield the final system performance estimation.

  13. Tips: References | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPower 2010 1 TNews & SolarLaundryReferences Tips:

  14. References | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA Approved:AdministrationAnalysis andBHoneywell9/%2A en7/%2ANationalReferences

  15. Tips: References | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartmentTest for PumpingThe| Department ofAir DuctsTips:References Tips:

  16. AGING FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.L. Thacker

    2005-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Aging Facility performing operations to transfer aging casks to the aging pads for thermal and logistical management, stage empty aging casks, and retrieve aging casks from the aging pads for further processing in other site facilities. Doses received by workers due to aging cask surveillance and maintenance operations are also included. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation from normal operation. There are no Category 1 event sequences associated with the Aging Facility (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167268], Section 7.2.1). The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the Aging Facility and to provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Environmental and Nuclear Engineering of the Design and Engineering Organization and are intended solely for the use of the Design and Engineering Organization in its work regarding facility operation. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering should be consulted before use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in Environmental and Nuclear Engineering.

  17. High stability wavefront reference source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feldman, M.; Mockler, D.J.

    1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source which produces a collimated output laser beam is disclosed. The output beam comprises substantially planar reference wavefronts which are useful for aligning and testing optical interferometers. The invention receives coherent radiation from an input optical fiber, directs a diverging input beam of the coherent radiation to a beam folding mirror (to produce a reflected diverging beam), and collimates the reflected diverging beam using a collimating lens. In a class of preferred embodiments, the invention includes a thermally and mechanically stable frame comprising rod members connected between a front end plate and a back end plate. The beam folding mirror is mounted on the back end plate, and the collimating lens mounted to the rods between the end plates. The end plates and rods are preferably made of thermally stable metal alloy. Preferably, the input optical fiber is a single mode fiber coupled to an input end of a second single mode optical fiber that is wound around a mandrel fixedly attached to the frame of the apparatus. The output end of the second fiber is cleaved so as to be optically flat, so that the input beam emerging therefrom is a nearly perfect diverging spherical wave. 7 figures.

  18. National Environmental Information Infrastructure Reference Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    National Environmental Information Infrastructure Reference Architecture Consultation Draft Environmental Information Infrastructure Reference Architecture: Consultation Draft Environmental Information Architecture: Consultation Draft, Bureau of Meteorology, Canberra, Australia, pp. 52. With the exception

  19. Cross-References Applications of Nanofluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    Cross-References Applications of Nanofluidics Electrokinetic Fluid Flow in Nanostructures Micro/Nano Flow Characterization Techniques Nanochannels for Nanofluidics: Fabrication Aspects Rapid Electrokinetic Patterning References 1. Conlisk, A.T.: Essentials of Micro and Nanofluidics with Application

  20. Economic Impact of Standard Reference Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    00-1 Planning Report Economic Impact of Standard Reference Materials for Sulfur in Fossil Fuels Administration #12;February 2000 Economic Impact of Standard Reference Materials for Sulfur in Fossil Fuels Final-006 Economic Impact of Standard Reference Materials for Sulfur in Fossil Fuels Final Report February 2000

  1. Reference Phase of Fresnel Zone Plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. W. Webb

    2003-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard zone plate assumes that the shortest ray connecting a radiation source and a detection point has a phase of 0 deg thereby defining a reference phase. Here we examine the experimental consequences of varying this reference phase from 0 deg to 360 deg. It is concluded that reference phase is an intrinsic and useful property of zone plates.

  2. Flow rate through the small intestine of the equine determined with soluble and insoluble indicators given in a pulse and steady-state dose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nyberg, Michelle Ann

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    three indicators and two combinations of indicators dosed with the diet: (1) CnOi, (2) CrEDTA (3) CoEDTA (4) CnOs with CrEDTA and (5) CnOs with CoEDTA. There were two experiments. In the pulse dose experiment the ponies were dosed orally... treatments for the soluble and insoluble indicators, with the exception of the MRT for the Crz03/ CrEDTA treatment was significantly (P&. 05) different from all other treatments. In the steady-state experiment, estimates of ileal output were...

  3. ILC cryogenic systems reference design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, T.J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.; /Fermilab; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; /CERN

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

  4. OPI (Oral Proficiency Interview) Information and Registration Packet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Weigang

    Education Hunter College requires graduate foreign language education applicants (Italian, French, Spanish, French, Spanish) are required to demonstrate oral proficiency in their language before beginning student

  5. Recommendation 169: Establishment of an Oak Ridge Oral History Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ORSSAB recommends DOE-ORO fully endorse the establishment of an Oak Ridge Oral History Program and provide necessary assistance.

  6. Oral absorption of apramycin in newborn calves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buck, Joan Marjorie

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    & Mandell, 1990). Apramycin, restricted to veterinary use (Chaslus-Dancla @ gl. , (1989), is available as a feed additive for swine in the United States (Muller, 1986). In several European countries, apramycin is approved for use in oral and parenteral...-medicated, Land-0-Lakes~ (Fort Dodge, Iowa) kid milk replacer was fed to the calves after they were 36 hours old. The amount fed was increased as the calves got older. All calves were fed by bottle twice daily and had free access to water, using either...

  7. Tolerance doses for treatment planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyman, J.T.

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data for the tolerance of normal tissues or organs to (low-LET) radiation has been compiled from a number of sources which are referenced at the end of this document. This tolerance dose data are ostensibly for uniform irradiation of all or part of an organ, and are for either 5% (TD/sub 5/) or 50% (TD/sub 50/) complication probability. The ''size'' of the irradiated organ is variously stated in terms of the absolute volume or the fraction of the organ volume irradiated, or the area or the length of the treatment field. The accuracy of these data is questionable. Much of the data represents doses that one or several experienced therapists have estimated could be safely given rather than quantitative analyses of clinical observations. Because these data have been obtained from multiple sources with possible different criteria for the definition of a complication, there are sometimes different values for what is apparently the same endpoint. The data from some sources shows a tendancy to be quantized in 5 Gy increments. This reflects the size of possible round off errors. It is believed that all these data have been accumulated without the benefit of 3-D dose distributions and therefore the estimates of the size of the volume and/or the uniformity of the irradiation may be less accurate than is now possible. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Introduction of section II and overview of dose reconstruction: lessons learned from studies in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anspaugh, L. R, LLNL

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of dose reconstruction with an emphasis on the lessons learned from work in the United States. Several major dose reconstructions have been undertaken in the United States, particularly in reference to Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Some of these activities have now been completed and these are indicated in the upper part of Table 2. The first major activity took place at the Nevada Test Site (NTS),where researchers have considered several different specific populations. The activities began with an analysis of hypothetical individuals, which was followed by an analysis of the collective dose to all exposed individuals within the surrounding region. Later, the University of Utah undertook some specific epidemiologic studies and calculated doses to specific individuals. The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Study has completed its results for hypothetical individuals. The Hanford researchers did not report collective dose. Long-Term Radiation Contamination in Chelyabinsk, Russia

  9. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M. [comps.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates):Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  10. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. (comps.)

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  11. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. [comps.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demography, food consumption, and agriculture, and environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  12. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, W. Tyler, E-mail: watkinswt@virginia.edu; Siebers, Jeffrey V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Moore, Joseph A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Gordon, James [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Hugo, Geoffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  13. A Short Reference Grammar of Standard Slovene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Marc L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reference grammar of the Slovene language designed for advanced-level language users and linguists to compare semantic categories across languages.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Reference Model 3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Model 3 Sandia, NREL Release Wave Energy Converter Modeling and Simulation Code: WEC-Sim On July 29, 2014, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy, News, News &...

  15. FAQS Reference Guide – General Technical Base

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This reference guide addresses the competency statements in the December 2007 edition of DOE-STD-1146-2007, General Technical Base Functional Area Qualification Standard.

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: Reference Model Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    marine hydrokinetic (MHK) reference models (RMs) for wave energy converters and tidal, ocean, and river current energy converters. The RMP team includes a partnership between...

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: marine hydrokinetic reference models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    marine hydrokinetic (MHK) reference models (RMs) for wave energy converters and tidal, ocean, and river current energy converters. The RMP team includes a partnership between...

  18. ORISE: Dose modeling and assessments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparencyDOE ProjectCrisis and Risk CommunicationOakDose modeling

  19. An Interactive Flash Website for Oral Histories* Michael G. Christel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christel, Mike

    -tested with The HistoryMakers and Harrisburg Living Legacy oral history archives, showing the value of an Adobe Flash oral histories, and the Highmark Blue Shield Living Legacy Series, Harrisburg, PA, recording the memories of 150 Harrisburg area residents in celebration of the city of Harrisburg's 150 years

  20. Clinical Reflectance Confocal Microscope for Imaging of Oral Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jabbour, Joey

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    in vivo imaging of the human oral cavity, an electrically tunable lens was integrated in the system for axial scanning and a miniature objective lens was designed and fabricated for access into the oral cavity. Performance of the system was characterized...

  1. FAQS Reference Guide - Quality Assurance | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Reference Guide - Quality Assurance FAQS Reference Guide - Quality Assurance This reference guide has been developed to address the competency statements in the April 2002 edition...

  2. Radiological assessment. A textbook on environmental dose analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Till, J.E.; Meyer, H.R. (eds.)

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiological assessment is the quantitative process of estimating the consequences to humans resulting from the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. It is a multidisciplinary subject requiring the expertise of a number of individuals in order to predict source terms, describe environmental transport, calculate internal and external dose, and extrapolate dose to health effects. Up to this time there has been available no comprehensive book describing, on a uniform and comprehensive level, the techniques and models used in radiological assessment. Radiological Assessment is based on material presented at the 1980 Health Physics Society Summer School held in Seattle, Washington. The material has been expanded and edited to make it comprehensive in scope and useful as a text. Topics covered include (1) source terms for nuclear facilities and Medical and Industrial sites; (2) transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere; (3) transport of radionuclides in surface waters; (4) transport of radionuclides in groundwater; (5) terrestrial and aquatic food chain pathways; (6) reference man; a system for internal dose calculations; (7) internal dosimetry; (8) external dosimetry; (9) models for special-case radionuclides; (10) calculation of health effects in irradiated populations; (11) evaluation of uncertainties in environmental radiological assessment models; (12) regulatory standards for environmental releases of radionuclides; (13) development of computer codes for radiological assessment; and (14) assessment of accidental releases of radionuclides.

  3. anthropometrically derived dosing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jonathan 102 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  4. additional dose assessment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jonathan 139 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  5. absorbed gamma dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  6. atoll dose assessment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jonathan 89 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  7. absorbed dose profiles: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  8. administer therapeutic dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jonathan 133 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  9. astronaut absorbed dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  10. absorbed dose kerma: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  11. assess lung dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Morgan 68 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  12. avaliacao da dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jonathan 31 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  13. absorbed dose estimates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NTS tests 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  14. absorbed doses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  15. absorbed doses received: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  16. absorbed radiation dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  17. average absorbed doses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  18. assessing organ doses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jonathan 140 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  19. absorbed dose optimization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  20. afterloading high dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    71 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  1. absorbed dose estimation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NTS tests 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  2. absorbed glandular dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  3. absorbed dose metrology: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  4. absorbed dose onboard: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  5. affecting dose distributions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Index 141 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  6. absorbed doses profiles: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  7. absorbed dose appears: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  8. absorbed dose computations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  9. absorbed dose 3d: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  10. acenocoumarol dose based: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jonathan 48 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  11. absorbed doses onboard: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  12. absorbed dose evaluation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  13. Archived Reference Building Type: Primary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  14. Archived Reference Building Type: Primary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  15. Physics 321 Accelerating Reference Frames II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    Physics 321 Hour 25 Accelerating Reference Frames II Consider an accelerating train car Proof 0 and S is a frame rotating with angular velocity . Examples Handout rotation.nb #12;Physics 321 Hour 26 Accelerating Reference Frames III Velocities in Rotating Frames in S0 basis in S' basis In S' basis in S0 basis

  16. Archived Reference Building Type: Outpatient health care

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  17. Archived Reference Building Type: Outpatient health care

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  18. Degradation of a quantum reference frame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen D. Bartlett; Terry Rudolph; Robert W. Spekkens; Peter S. Turner

    2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the degradation of reference frames, treated as dynamical quantum systems, and quantify their longevity as a resource for performing tasks in quantum information processing. We adopt an operational measure of a reference frame's longevity, namely, the number of measurements that can be made against it with a certain error tolerance. We investigate two distinct types of reference frame: a reference direction, realized by a spin-j system, and a phase reference, realized by an oscillator mode with bounded energy. For both cases, we show that our measure of longevity increases quadratically with the size of the reference system and is therefore non-additive. For instance, the number of measurements that a directional reference frame consisting of N parallel spins can be put to use scales as N^2. Our results quantify the extent to which microscopic or mesoscopic reference frames may be used for repeated, high-precision measurements, without needing to be reset - a question that is important for some implementations of quantum computing. We illustrate our results using the proposed single-spin measurement scheme of magnetic resonance force microscopy.

  19. Libraries Reference Copyright 1996 -2003 Intel Corporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fossati, Giovanni

    Intel® Fortran Libraries Reference Copyright © 1996 - 2003 Intel Corporation All Rights Reserved PROPERTY RIGHT. Intel products are not intended for use in medical, life saving, or life sustain- ing applications. This Intel® Fortran Libraries Reference as well as the software described in it is furnished

  20. Archived Reference Building Type: Strip mall

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  1. Archived Reference Building Type: Strip mall

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  2. Archived Reference Building Type: Medium office

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  3. Archived Reference Building Type: Medium office

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  4. Archived Reference Building Type: Secondary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  5. Archived Reference Building Type: Secondary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  6. Multicriteria optimization of the spatial dose distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlaefer, Alexander [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562, Germany and Institute of Medical Technology, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg 21073 (Germany)] [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562, Germany and Institute of Medical Technology, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg 21073 (Germany); Viulet, Tiberiu [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562 (Germany)] [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562 (Germany); Muacevic, Alexander; Fürweger, Christoph [European CyberKnife Center Munich, Munich 81377 (Germany)] [European CyberKnife Center Munich, Munich 81377 (Germany)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Treatment planning for radiation therapy involves trade-offs with respect to different clinical goals. Typically, the dose distribution is evaluated based on few statistics and dose–volume histograms. Particularly for stereotactic treatments, the spatial dose distribution represents further criteria, e.g., when considering the gradient between subregions of volumes of interest. The authors have studied how to consider the spatial dose distribution using a multicriteria optimization approach.Methods: The authors have extended a stepwise multicriteria optimization approach to include criteria with respect to the local dose distribution. Based on a three-dimensional visualization of the dose the authors use a software tool allowing interaction with the dose distribution to map objectives with respect to its shape to a constrained optimization problem. Similarly, conflicting criteria are highlighted and the planner decides if and where to relax the shape of the dose distribution.Results: To demonstrate the potential of spatial multicriteria optimization, the tool was applied to a prostate and meningioma case. For the prostate case, local sparing of the rectal wall and shaping of a boost volume are achieved through local relaxations and while maintaining the remaining dose distribution. For the meningioma, target coverage is improved by compromising low dose conformality toward noncritical structures. A comparison of dose–volume histograms illustrates the importance of spatial information for achieving the trade-offs.Conclusions: The results show that it is possible to consider the location of conflicting criteria during treatment planning. Particularly, it is possible to conserve already achieved goals with respect to the dose distribution, to visualize potential trade-offs, and to relax constraints locally. Hence, the proposed approach facilitates a systematic exploration of the optimal shape of the dose distribution.

  7. Dynamically accumulated dose and 4D accumulated dose for moving tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Heng; Li Yupeng; Zhang Xiaodong; Li Xiaoqiang; Liu Wei; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between dynamically accumulated dose (dynamic dose) and 4D accumulated dose (4D dose) for irradiation of moving tumors, and to quantify the dose uncertainty induced by tumor motion. Methods: The authors established that regardless of treatment modality and delivery properties, the dynamic dose will converge to the 4D dose, instead of the 3D static dose, after multiple deliveries. The bounds of dynamic dose, or the maximum estimation error using 4D or static dose, were established for the 4D and static doses, respectively. Numerical simulations were performed (1) to prove the principle that for each phase, after multiple deliveries, the average number of deliveries for any given time converges to the total number of fractions (K) over the number of phases (N); (2) to investigate the dose difference between the 4D and dynamic doses as a function of the number of deliveries for deliveries of a 'pulsed beam'; and (3) to investigate the dose difference between 4D dose and dynamic doses as a function of delivery time for deliveries of a 'continuous beam.' A Poisson model was developed to estimate the mean dose error as a function of number of deliveries or delivered time for both pulsed beam and continuous beam. Results: The numerical simulations confirmed that the number of deliveries for each phase converges to K/N, assuming a random starting phase. Simulations for the pulsed beam and continuous beam also suggested that the dose error is a strong function of the number of deliveries and/or total deliver time and could be a function of the breathing cycle, depending on the mode of delivery. The Poisson model agrees well with the simulation. Conclusions: Dynamically accumulated dose will converge to the 4D accumulated dose after multiple deliveries, regardless of treatment modality. Bounds of the dynamic dose could be determined using quantities derived from 4D doses, and the mean dose difference between the dynamic dose and 4D dose as a function of number of deliveries and/or total deliver time was also established.

  8. Phase I Dose Escalation Trial of Vandetanib With Fractionated Radiosurgery in Patients With Recurrent Malignant Gliomas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, Emma C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO (United States); Damek, Denise [Department of Neurology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO (United States); Gaspar, Laurie E.; Liu, Arthur K.; Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO (United States); Waziri, Allen; Lillehei, Kevin [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO (United States); Chen, Changhu, E-mail: changhu.chen@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of vandetanib with fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. Methods and Materials: Patients with a recurrent malignant glioma and T1-enhancing recurrent tumor {<=}6 cm were eligible. Vandetanib was given orally, once per day, 7 days a week, starting at least 7 days before SRS and continued until a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) or disease progression. The planned vandetanib daily dose was 100 mg, 200 mg, and 300 mg for the cohorts 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and was escalated using a standard 3+3 design. A total SRS dose of 36 Gy, 12 Gy per fraction, was delivered over 3 consecutive days. The MTD was defined as the dose of vandetanib at which less than 33% of patients developed DLTs, defined by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3 as any Grade 3 or greater nonhematologic toxicity and Grade 4 or greater hematologic toxicity. Results: Ten patients were treated, 6 on cohort 1 and 4 on cohort 2. Treatment characteristics were: 7 men, 3 women; median age, 40 years (range, 22-72); 7 GBM, 3 anaplastic astrocytoma (AA); median initial radiation (RT) dose, 60 Gy (range, 59.4-70); median interval since initial RT, 14.5 months (range, 7-123); All patients received SRS per protocol. The median follow-up time was 4 months (range, 1-10 months). Median time on vandetanib was 3 months (range 1-11). One of 6 patients in the first cohort developed a DLT of Grade 3 hemothorax while on anticoagulation. The MTD was reached when 2 of the 4 patients enrolled in the second cohort developed DLTs. Six patients had radiographic response, 2 with stable disease. Conclusion: The MTD of vandetanib, with SRS in recurrent malignant glioma, is 100 mg daily. Further evaluation of safety and efficacy is warranted.

  9. Introducing Reference Semantics via Refinement Graeme Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Graeme

    Introducing Reference Semantics via Refinement Graeme Smith Software Verification Research Centre, University of Queensland, Australia smith@svrc.uq.edu.au Abstract. Two types of semantics have been given

  10. An expectation model of referring expressions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kræmer, John, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis introduces EMRE, an expectation-based model of referring expressions. EMRE is proposed as a model of non-syntactic dependencies - in particular, discourse-level semantic dependencies that bridge sentence gaps. ...

  11. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Supermarket

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  12. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Warehouse

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  13. Generating and interpreting referring expressions in context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Dustin Arthur

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Referring expressions with vague and ambiguous modifiers, such as "a quick visit" and "the big meeting," are difficult for computers to interpret because their meanings are defined in part by context. For the hearer to ...

  14. Clause chaining, switch reference and coordination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nonato, Rafael

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis I ponder over a constellation of phenomena that revolve around switch reference and coordination, drawing mainly on their instantiation in Kisedje (Je, Brazil). I start by investigating Klsedje's case system. ...

  15. Libraries Reference Document Number: 253262-002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talbot, James P.

    Intel® Fortran Libraries Reference Document Number: 253262-002 World Wide Web: http PROPERTY RIGHT. Intel products are not intended for use in medical, life saving, or life sustain- ing.................................................................................... xxiv Chapter 1 Overview of the Libraries Portability Routines

  16. Integrating Referring and Informing in NP Planning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Michael; Knott, Alistair; Hitzeman, Janet; Cheng, Hua

    Two of the functions of an NP are to refer (identify a particular entity) and to inform (provide new information about an entity). While many NPs may serve only one of these functions, some NPs conflate the functions, ...

  17. FAQS Reference Guide – Safety Software Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This reference guide has been developed to address the competency statements in the (March 2011) edition of DOE-STD-1172-2011, Safety Software Quality Assurance Functional Area Qualification Standard.

  18. Defining Reference Information for Restoring Ecologically Rare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . In particular, we assess the constraints that arise when refer- ence information from various sources is ei type that occurs across temperate and tropical regions and is characterized by scattered, open- grown

  19. Internal dose following a major nuclear war

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, K.R.; Shapiro, C.S. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (Unites States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The PATHWAY model results were used, in conjunction with a hypothetical major nuclear attack on the U.S., to arrive at the ratio of internal to external dose for humans from early (48 h) fallout. Considered were the four nuclides (137Cs, 89Sr, 90Sr, 131I) that account for most of the reconstructed whole-body committed equivalent dose from internal radiation in people who lived downwind of the Nevada Test Site during atmospheric tests. Effects of climate perturbations (the 'nuclear winter' effect) on food crops were considered. These could increase internal dose estimates, depending on the severity of the climate perturbations. Internal and external doses to humans for 10 locations within the U.S. have been calculated, with varying local conditions and varying assumption about their shelters. The estimated 50-y internal dose commitment ranged from 0.0-0.17 Sv, the 48-h external dose from 0.15-4.6 Sv. The resultant ratios of internal to external committed dose received in the first months (until food transport was restored) varied from less than 0.01 to about 0.2. In all cases examined, the total dose from early fallout was found to be dominated by the external dose.

  20. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, S.M. (comp.)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics; agriculture; food habits; and environmental pathways and dose estimates. 3 figs.

  1. Quantum communication, reference frames and gauge theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. J. van Enk

    2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider quantum communication in the case that the communicating parties not only do not share a reference frame but use imperfect quantum communication channels, in that each channel applies some fixed but unknown unitary rotation to each qubit. We discuss similarities and differences between reference frames within that quantum communication model and gauge fields in gauge theory. We generalize the concept of refbits and analyze various quantum communication protocols within the communication model.

  2. GASPAR II: Technical reference and user guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strenge, D.L.; Bander, T.J.; Soldat, J.K.

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the computer program GASPAR II used by the staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to perform environmental dose analyses for releases of radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants into the atmosphere. The analyses estimate radiation dose to individuals and population groups from inhalation, ingestion (terrestrial foods), and external-exposure (ground and plume) pathways. The calculated doses provide information for National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) evaluations and for determining compliance with Appendix I of 10 CFR 50 (the ''ALARA'' philosophy). The report also instructs the user in preparing input to the program, describes the mathematical models that are used, and supplies detailed information on program structure and parameters used to modify the program. 20 refs., 11 figs., 77 tabs.

  3. "Analysis of SOFCs using reference electrodes?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finklea, Harry; Chen,Xiaoke; Gerdes,Kirk; Pakalapati, Suryanarayana; Celik, Ismail

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reference electrodes are frequently applied to isolate the performance of one electrode in a solid oxide fuel cell. However, reference electrode simulations raise doubt to veracity of data collected using reference electrodes. The simulations predict that the reported performance for the one electrode will frequently contain performance of both electrodes. Nonetheless, recent reports persistently treat data so collected as ideally isolated. This work confirms the predictions of the reference electrode simulations on two SOFC designs, and to provides a method of validating the data measured in the 3-electrode configuration. Validation is based on the assumption that a change in gas composition to one electrode does not affect the impedance of the other electrode at open circuit voltage. This assumption is supported by a full physics simulation of the SOFC. Three configurations of reference electrode and cell design are experimentally examined using various gas flows and two temperatures. Impedance data are subjected to deconvolution analysis and equivalent circuit fitting and approximate polarization resistances of the cathode and anode are determined. The results demonstrate that the utility of reference electrodes is limited and often wholly inappropriate. Reported impedances and single electrode polarization values must be scrutinized on this basis.

  4. RESEARCH Open Access Analysis of primary risk factors for oral cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    RESEARCH Open Access Analysis of primary risk factors for oral cancer from select US states , Michelle Chino3 , Karl Kingsley1* Abstract Objectives: To examine the primary risk factor for oral cancer in oral cancer incidence and mortality. Methods: Population-based data on oral cancer morbidity

  5. Thesis Oral Energy-efficient Data-intensive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thesis Oral Energy-efficient Data-intensive Computing with a Fast Array of Wimpy Nodes Vijay classification and workload analysis showing when FAWN can be more energyefficient and under what workload

  6. Digital Documentation of the China Mongghul Ha Clan Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mingzong, Ha

    2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper will describe the author’s project documenting the Mongghul Ha clan oral history tradition in Qinghai and Gansu provinces, China, by focusing on the purposes, methods and approaches to documentation. Reactions and attitudes towards...

  7. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to cumulative dose. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Dose code recovery activities, Calculation 004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 004) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to cumulative dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows` milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in calculation 002. This calculation specifically addresses cumulative radiation doses to infants and adults resulting from releases occurring over the period 1945 through 1972.

  8. Draft Air Pathway Report: Phase 1 of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the air pathway portion of the first phase of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, conducted by Battelle staff at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel. The HEDR Project is estimating historical radiation doses that could have been received by populations near the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the air-pathway dose reconstruction sought to determine whether dose estimates could be calculated for populations in the 10 counties nearest the Hanford Site from atmospheric releases of iodine-131 from the site from 1944--1947. Phase 1 demonstrated the following: HEDR-calculated source-term estimates of iodine-131 releases to the atmosphere were within 20% of previously published estimates; calculated vegetation concentrations of iodine-131 agree well with previously published measurements; the highest of the Phase 1 preliminary dose estimates to the thyroid are consistent with independent, previously published estimates of doses to maximally exposed individuals; and relatively crude, previously published measurements of thyroid burdens for Hanford workers are in the range of average burdens that the HEDR model estimated for similar reference individuals'' for the period 1944--1947. 4 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. An updated dose assessment for Rongelap Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have updated the radiological dose assessment for Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll using data generated from field trips to the atoll during 1986 through 1993. The data base used for this dose assessment is ten fold greater than that available for the 1982 assessment. Details of each data base are presented along with details about the methods used to calculate the dose from each exposure pathway. The doses are calculated for a resettlement date of January 1, 1995. The maximum annual effective dose is 0.26 mSv y{sup {minus}1} (26 mrem y{sup {minus}1}). The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 0.0059 Sv (0.59 rem), 0.0082 Sv (0.82 rem), and 0.0097 Sv (0.97 rem), respectively. More than 95% of these estimated doses are due to 137-Cesium ({sup 137}Cs). About 1.5% of the estimated dose is contributed by 90-Strontium ({sup 90}Sr), and about the same amount each by 239+240-Plutonium ({sup 239+240}PU), and 241-Americium ({sup 241}Am).

  10. EXTRAPOLATING RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER RISKS FROM LOW DOSES TO VERY LOW DOSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    risk; National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements INTRODUCTION THERE IS considerablePaper EXTRAPOLATING RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER RISKS FROM LOW DOSES TO VERY LOW DOSES David J. Brenner* Abstract--There is strong evidence that ionizing radiation increases cancer risks at high doses

  11. Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, K.N.

    Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny in the human Abstract To calculate the absorbed dose in the human lung due to inhaled radon progeny, ICRP focussed and secretory cells). The absorbed energy for alpha particles emitted by radon progeny in the human respiratory

  12. Dose reduction at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The collective dose equivalent at nuclear power plants increased from 1250 rem in 1969 to nearly 54,000 rem in 1980. This rise is attributable primarily to an increase in nuclear generated power from 1289 MW-y to 29,155 MW-y; and secondly, to increased average plant age. However, considerable variation in exposure occurs from plant to plant depending on plant type, refueling, maintenance, etc. In order to understand the factors influencing these differences, an investigation was initiated to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at light water plants. Objectives are to: identify high-dose maintenance tasks and related dose-reduction techniques; investigate utilization of high-reliability, low-maintenance equipment; recommend improved radioactive waste handling equipment and procedures; examine incentives for dose reduction; and compile an ALARA handbook.

  13. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, S.M. (comp.)

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This monthly report summarizes the technical progress and project status for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of a Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The TSP is composed of experts in numerous technical fields related to this project and represents the interests of the public. The US Department of Energy (DOE) funds the project. The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks address each of the primary steps in the path from radioactive releases to dose estimates source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demographics, agriculture, and food habits, and environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  14. Dose calculations for severe LWR accident scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margulies, T.S.; Martin, J.A. Jr.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a set of precalculated doses based on a set of postulated accident releases and intended for use in emergency planning and emergency response. Doses were calculated for the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) accident categories of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) using the CRAC (Calculations of Reactor Accident Consequences) code. Whole body and thyroid doses are presented for a selected set of weather cases. For each weather case these calculations were performed for various times and distances including three different dose pathways - cloud (plume) shine, ground shine and inhalation. During an emergency this information can be useful since it is immediately available for projecting offsite radiological doses based on reactor accident sequence information in the absence of plant measurements of emission rates (source terms). It can be used for emergency drill scenario development as well.

  15. A work bibliography on native food consumption, demography and lifestyle. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, C.E.; Lee, W.J.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to provide a bibliography for the Native American tribe participants in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project to use. The HEDR Project`s primary objective is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Eight Native American tribes are responsible for estimating daily and seasonal consumption of traditional foods, demography, and other lifestyle factors that could have affected the radiation dose received by tribal members. This report provides a bibliography of recorded accounts that tribal researchers may use to verify their estimates. The bibliographic citations include references to information on the specific tribes, Columbia River plateau ethnobotany, infant feeding practices and milk consumption, nutritional studies and radiation, tribal economic and demographic characteristics (1940--1970), research methods, primary sources from the National Archives, regional archives, libraries, and museums.

  16. Combined methodology for estimating dose rates and health effects from exposure to radioactive pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Leggett, R.W.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work described in the report is basically a synthesis of two previously existing computer codes: INREM II, developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); and CAIRD, developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The INREM II code uses contemporary dosimetric methods to estimate doses to specified reference organs due to inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide. The CAIRD code employs actuarial life tables to account for competing risks in estimating numbers of health effects resulting from exposure of a cohort to some incremental risk. The combined computer code, referred to as RADRISK, estimates numbers of health effects in a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 persons due to continuous lifetime inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide. Also briefly discussed in this report is a method of estimating numbers of health effects in a hypothetical cohort due to continuous lifetime exposure to external radiation. This method employs the CAIRD methodology together with dose conversion factors generated by the computer code DOSFACTER, developed at ORNL; these dose conversion factors are used to estimate dose rates to persons due to radionuclides in the air or on the ground surface. The combination of the life table and dosimetric guidelines for the release of radioactive pollutants to the atmosphere, as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.

  17. Preliminary assessment of radiological doses in alternative waste management systems without an MRS facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, K.J.; Pelto, P.J.; Daling, P.M.; Lavender, J.C.; Fecht, B.A.

    1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents generic analyses of radiological dose impacts of nine hypothetical changes in the operation of a waste management system without a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. The waste management activities examined in this study include those for handling commercial spent fuel at nuclear power reactors and at the surface facilities of a deep geologic repository, and the transportation of spent fuel by rail and truck between the reactors and the repository. In the reference study system, the radiological doses to the public and to the occupational workers are low, about 170 person-rem/1000 metric ton of uranium (MTU) handled with 70% of the fuel transported by rail and 30% by truck. The radiological doses to the public are almost entirely from transportation, whereas the doses to the occupational workers are highest at the reactors and the repository. Operating alternatives examined included using larger transportation casks, marshaling rail cars into multicar dedicated trains, consolidating spent fuel at the reactors, and wet or dry transfer options of spent fuel from dry storage casks. The largest contribution to radiological doses per unit of spent fuel for both the public and occupational workers would result from use of truck transportation casks, which are smaller than rail casks. Thus, reducing the number of shipments by increasing cask sizes and capacities (which also would reduce the number of casks to be handled at the terminals) would reduce the radiological doses in all cases. Consolidating spent fuel at the reactors would reduce the radiological doses to the public but would increase the doses to the occupational workers at the reactors.

  18. SU-E-T-91: Correction Method to Determine Surface Dose for OSL Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, T; Higgins, P [UniversityMinnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: OSL detectors are commonly used in clinic due to their numerous advantages, such as linear response, negligible energy, angle and temperature dependence in clinical range, for verification of the doses beyond the dmax. Although, due to the bulky shielding envelope, this type of detectors fails to measure skin dose, which is an important assessment of patient ability to finish the treatment on time and possibility of acute side effects. This study aims to optimize the methodology of determination of skin dose for conventional accelerators and a flattening filter free Tomotherapy. Methods: Measurements were done for x-ray beams: 6 MV (Varian Clinac 2300, 10×10 cm{sup 2} open field, SSD = 100 cm) and for 5.5 MV (Tomotherapy, 15×40 cm{sup 2} field, SAD = 85 cm). The detectors were placed at the surface of the solid water phantom and at the reference depth (dref=1.7cm (Varian 2300), dref =1.0 cm (Tomotherapy)). The measurements for OSLs were related to the externally exposed OSLs measurements, and further were corrected to surface dose using an extrapolation method indexed to the baseline Attix ion chamber measurements. A consistent use of the extrapolation method involved: 1) irradiation of three OSLs stacked on top of each other on the surface of the phantom; 2) measurement of the relative dose value for each layer; and, 3) extrapolation of these values to zero thickness. Results: OSL measurements showed an overestimation of surface doses by the factor 2.31 for Varian 2300 and 2.65 for Tomotherapy. The relationships: SD{sup 2300} = 0.68 × M{sup 2300}-12.7 and SD?o?o = 0.73 × M?o?o-13.1 were found to correct the single OSL measurements to surface doses in agreement with Attix measurements to within 0.1% for both machines. Conclusion: This work provides simple empirical relationships for surface dose measurements using single OSL detectors.

  19. SU-E-J-62: Estimating Plausible Treatment Course Dose Distributions by Accounting for Registration Uncertainty and Organ Motion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thor, M; Saleh, Z; Oh, JH; Apte, A; Deasy, J [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Centre, NY City, NY (United States); Muren, L [Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Dose accumulation following deformable image registration (DIR) is challenging. In this study, we used a statistical sampling approach, which takes into account both DIR uncertainties and patient-specific organ motion, to study the distribution of possible true dose distributions. Methods: The study included ten patients (six CT scans/patient) treated with radiotherapy for prostate cancer. For each patient, the planned dose was re-calculated on the repeated geometries, following rigid registration based on fiducial markers. The dose re-calculated on the first CT served as our snapshot dose distribution (D1) and the average of the first five repeat scans as our treatment course reference dose distribution (Dref). Patient-specific motion and DIR-uncertainties, at each voxel in CT1, were assessed using a previously developed DIR performance measure, the distance discordance metric (DDM). To sample the distribution of possible true, predicted dose distributions (Dpred), we resampled D1 by perturbing the location of each voxel with the corresponding DDM. The three dose distribution approaches are compared for the rectum and the bladder. Results: The bladder generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) from the averaged Dpred was closer to the gEUDref than to the gEUD1 (difference: 0.6 vs. 1.0 Gy). For both structures, the gEUDpred was higher than the gEUDref, and significantly higher (p?0.05) for the rectum (average: 50.8 Gy vs. 48.0 Gy). Conclusion: We have shown that the bladder gEUD values resulting from our DIR-uncertainty inclusive dose sampling approach, Dpred, were closer to the gEUD from Dref than the gEUD values from D1. For the rectum, gEUDpred overestimated gEUDref. Theoretically however, gEUDpred values, sampled from DDM uncertainties are more representative of dose uncertainties.

  20. Collected References, available on-line as , updated 23-Feb-14 References for: Gio Wiederhold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    .6] [Abba:97] Wayne Abba: "Earned Value Management: Reconciling Government and Commercial Practices-14 1 References for: Gio Wiederhold: Valuing Intellectual Capital, Multinationals and Taxhavens is italicized. Entries cited and listed in the Reference section of Valuing Intelectual Capital have [bold

  1. NIST Standard Reference Database 23 NIST Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties--

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, Joseph W.

    -Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy. The development of the models on which#12;NIST Standard Reference Database 23 NIST Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Properties Division National Institute of Standards and Technology Boulder, Colorado 80305 April, 2007 U

  2. NIST Standard Reference Database 23 NIST Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties--

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technology Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy. Model development and measurements at NIST have been#12;NIST Standard Reference Database 23 NIST Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Division National Institute of Standards and Technology Boulder, Colorado 80305 November, 2010 U

  3. Kyoto University Libraries Reference Guide 1. Compare the reference style of books and journals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takada, Shoji

    Kyoto University Libraries Reference Guide 1. Compare the reference style of books and journals Ex Publisher Year of Publications Pages Ex.3) The basic style of journal articles Fidel, Raya; Green, Maurice -Distinguishing kinds of documents- Ver.1.1, 2008.03.26, Yumi Sugimoto (Eng.Arch.Library), Ver.2.0, 2014

  4. Linearization of dose-response curve of the radiochromic film dosimetry system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devic, Slobodan; Tomic, Nada; Aldelaijan, Saad; DeBlois, Francois; Seuntjens, Jan; Chan, Maria F.; Lewis, Dave [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada) and Department of Radiation Oncology, SMBD Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1E2 (Canada); Executive Administration for Radiation Protection and Safety Medical Devices Sector, Saudi Food and Drug Authority, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 13312 (Saudi Arabia); Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada) and Department of Radiation Oncology, SMBD Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1E2 (Canada); Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Basking Ridge, New Jersey 07920 (United States); Ashland Inc., Wayne, New Jersey 07470 (United States)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Despite numerous advantages of radiochromic film dosimeter (high spatial resolution, near tissue equivalence, low energy dependence) to measure a relative dose distribution with film, one needs to first measure an absolute dose (following previously established reference dosimetry protocol) and then convert measured absolute dose values into relative doses. In this work, we present result of our efforts to obtain a functional form that would linearize the inherently nonlinear dose-response curve of the radiochromic film dosimetry system. Methods: Functional form [{zeta}= (-1){center_dot}netOD{sup (2/3)}/ln(netOD)] was derived from calibration curves of various previously established radiochromic film dosimetry systems. In order to test the invariance of the proposed functional form with respect to the film model used we tested it with three different GAFCHROMIC Trade-Mark-Sign film models (EBT, EBT2, and EBT3) irradiated to various doses and scanned on a same scanner. For one of the film models (EBT2), we tested the invariance of the functional form to the scanner model used by scanning irradiated film pieces with three different flatbed scanner models (Epson V700, 1680, and 10000XL). To test our hypothesis that the proposed functional argument linearizes the response of the radiochromic film dosimetry system, verification tests have been performed in clinical applications: percent depth dose measurements, IMRT quality assurance (QA), and brachytherapy QA. Results: Obtained R{sup 2} values indicate that the choice of the functional form of the new argument appropriately linearizes the dose response of the radiochromic film dosimetry system we used. The linear behavior was insensitive to both film model and flatbed scanner model used. Measured PDD values using the green channel response of the GAFCHROMIC Trade-Mark-Sign EBT3 film model are well within {+-}2% window of the local relative dose value when compared to the tabulated Cobalt-60 data. It was also found that criteria of 3%/3 mm for an IMRT QA plan and 3%/2 mm for a brachytherapy QA plan are passing 95% gamma function points. Conclusions: In this paper, we demonstrate the use of functional argument to linearize the inherently nonlinear response of a radiochromic film based reference dosimetry system. In this way, relative dosimetry can be conveniently performed using radiochromic film dosimetry system without the need of establishing calibration curve.

  5. INVESTIGATION Construction of Reference Chromosome-Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douches, David S.

    INVESTIGATION Construction of Reference Chromosome-Scale Pseudomolecules for Potato: Integrating was genotyped with several types of molecular genetic markers to construct a new ~936 cM linkage map comprising and orientation within the pseudo- molecules are closely collinear with independently constructed high density

  6. Risk Management Steering Committee Terms of Reference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Risk Management Steering Committee Terms of Reference October 2009 1.0 Purpose The purposes Facilities Management Risk and Insurance Analyst Associate Vice-President Human Resources Administrative of the Steering Committee are: a) to follow a continuous process to understand and communicate risk from

  7. Previous Up Next Article From References: 0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stachó, László

    Previous Up Next Article Citations From References: 0 From Reviews: 0 MR561879 (81d:62015) 62E20 for the volume of the intersection of an n-dimensional simplex and an n-dimensional ball is also given. {For

  8. Previous Up Next Article From References: 0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stachó, László

    Previous Up Next Article Citations From References: 0 From Reviews: 0 MR1261496 (94k:49008) 49J35 of f on X × co(Y ). Here, co(Y ) is a certain simplex defined in the space of all real-valued functions

  9. Previous Up Next Article From References: 12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghys, Étienne

    Previous Up Next Article Citations From References: 12 From Reviews: 3 MR939473 (89e:55015) 55N35(M, R) is the cohomology of singular cochains whose value on a singular simplex is bounded independent of the simplex. From the work of Gromov, one knows that bounded cohomology interacts in a delicate manner

  10. Positional reference system for ultraprecision machining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jones B. (Knoxville, TN); Burleson, Robert R. (Clinton, TN); Pardue, Robert M. (Knoxville, TN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A stable positional reference system for use in improving the cutting tool-to-part contour position in numerical controlled-multiaxis metal turning machines is provided. The reference system employs a plurality of interferometers referenced to orthogonally disposed metering bars which are substantially isolated from machine strain induced position errors for monitoring the part and tool positions relative to the metering bars. A microprocessor-based control system is employed in conjunction with the plurality of position interferometers and part contour description data inputs to calculate error components for each axis of movement and output them to corresponding axis drives with appropriate scaling and error compensation. Real-time position control, operating in combination with the reference system, makes possible the positioning of the cutting points of a tool along a part locus with a substantially greater degree of accuracy than has been attained previously in the art by referencing and then monitoring only the tool motion relative to a reference position located on the machine base.

  11. Positional reference system for ultraprecision machining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, J.B.; Burleson, R.R.; Pardue, R.M.

    1980-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A stable positional reference system for use in improving the cutting tool-to-part contour position in numerical controlled-multiaxis metal turning machines is provided. The reference system employs a plurality of interferometers referenced to orthogonally disposed metering bars which are substantially isolated from machine strain induced position errors for monitoring the part and tool positions relative to the metering bars. A microprocessor-based control system is employed in conjunction with the plurality of positions interferometers and part contour description data input to calculate error components for each axis of movement and output them to corresponding axis driven with appropriate scaling and error compensation. Real-time position control, operating in combination with the reference system, makes possible the positioning of the cutting points of a tool along a part locus with a substantially greater degree of accuracy than has been attained previously in the art by referencing and then monitoring only the tool motion relative to a reference position located on the machine base.

  12. REFERENCE GUIDE ENERGY CONSERVATION ASSISTANCE ACT (ECAA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with this requirement. Waste management guidance and plan template can be downloaded at http://www.energy that generate waste. Attachments: Energy Commission Waste Management Plan Guidance Waste Management Plan1 REFERENCE GUIDE ENERGY CONSERVATION ASSISTANCE ACT (ECAA) STATE ENERGY PROGRAM (SEP) AMERICAN

  13. Ris Energy Report 2 References chapter 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    8 Risø Energy Report 2 References chapter 3 1. IEA (2001), World Energy Outlook, OECD/IEA 2001. 2, Rome. 3. UNDP (2000): World Energy Assessment, NY 2000. 4. WEC (2001): Survey of energy resources. World Energy Council, Lon- don. 5. Kaltschmitt (2001): Martin Kaltschmitt, Hans Hartmann (Hrsg

  14. Hazard Communication Program 1.0 REFERENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Hazard Communication Program 1.0 REFERENCE California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Sections 337 the properties and potential safety and health hazards of the materials which they use or to which they are exposed. Employees who use or may be exposed to potentially hazardous substances or harmful physical

  15. FOR OFFICE USE ONLY Referred to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

    : In Partial Fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of: in: REVIEW AND ACCEPTANCE - REQUIRED SIGNATURESFOR OFFICE USE ONLY Month/Year Graduation Referred to Approved Denied GRADUATE SCHOOL THESIS of this thesis or dissertation. EMBARGO REQUEST Instructions: Student may request a one-year embargo

  16. Terms of Reference Information Security Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haase, Markus

    Terms of Reference Information Security Group Version 3.1 8 March 2011 © University of Leeds 2011 Security Group Information Security Management 3.1 (8/3/11) Page 2 of 4 Document Control Owner: Kevin Darley, IT Security Co-ordinator, Information Systems Services, University of Leeds Source Location: V

  17. Geoscience laser altimeter system - stellar reference system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millar, Pamela S.; Sirota, J. Marcos [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Laser Remote Sensing Branch, Code 924, Greenbelt, Maryland, 20771 (United States); University of Maryland at Baltimore County, 5401 Wilkens Ave, Baltimore, Maryland, 21228-5398 (United States)

    1998-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    GLAS is an EOS space-based laser altimeter being developed to profile the height of the Earth's ice sheets with {approx}15 cm single shot accuracy from space under NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE). The primary science goal of GLAS is to determine if the ice sheets are increasing or diminishing for climate change modeling. This is achieved by measuring the ice sheet heights over Greenland and Antarctica to 1.5 cm/yr over 100 kmx100 km areas by crossover analysis (Zwally 1994). This measurement performance requires the instrument to determine the pointing of the laser beam to {approx}5 urad (1 arcsecond), 1-sigma, with respect to the inertial reference frame. The GLAS design incorporates a stellar reference system (SRS) to relate the laser beam pointing angle to the star field with this accuracy. This is the first time a spaceborne laser altimeter is measuring pointing to such high accuracy. The design for the stellar reference system combines an attitude determination system (ADS) with a laser reference system (LRS) to meet this requirement. The SRS approach and expected performance are described in this paper.

  18. Run-Time Library Routines Reference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    MDS Run-Time Library Routines Reference Manual February 1993 Software Version: MDS 5.2 VAX.S.A. The following are trademarks of Digitial Equipment Corporation: CDD DECnet VAX DATATRIEVE DECUS VAXcluster DEC MicroVAX VAX Information Architecture DEC/CMS MicroVMS VMS DEC/MMS Rdb/VMS VT IDL (Interactive Data

  19. R Reference Manual: A gentle overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priestley, Jennifer Lewis

    , yet similar to SAS, R is a commands-driven programming environment to execute statistical analysisR Reference Manual: A gentle overview #12;2 Developed and maintained by the Center for Statistics statistical computing packages ­ Excel, SPSS, Minitab, R and SAS. 1 Readers of this manual are assumed to have

  20. SENATE COMMITTEE ON AWARDS TERMS OF REFERENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    SENATE COMMITTEE ON AWARDS TERMS OF REFERENCE The committee shall: 1. Approve and recommend to Senate new or revised undergraduate and graduate student awards and the terms and conditions for those awards; 2. Consider and approve the student recipients nominated or recommended for undergraduate awards

  1. Xyce parallel electronic simulator : reference guide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Ting; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Santarelli, Keith R.; Fixel, Deborah A.; Coffey, Todd Stirling; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Warrender, Christina E.; Keiter, Eric Richard; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a reference guide to the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator, and is a companion document to the Xyce Users Guide. The focus of this document is (to the extent possible) exhaustively list device parameters, solver options, parser options, and other usage details of Xyce. This document is not intended to be a tutorial. Users who are new to circuit simulation are better served by the Xyce Users Guide. The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator has been written to support, in a rigorous manner, the simulation needs of the Sandia National Laboratories electrical designers. It is targeted specifically to run on large-scale parallel computing platforms but also runs well on a variety of architectures including single processor workstations. It also aims to support a variety of devices and models specific to Sandia needs. This document is intended to complement the Xyce Users Guide. It contains comprehensive, detailed information about a number of topics pertinent to the usage of Xyce. Included in this document is a netlist reference for the input-file commands and elements supported within Xyce; a command line reference, which describes the available command line arguments for Xyce; and quick-references for users of other circuit codes, such as Orcad's PSpice and Sandia's ChileSPICE.

  2. Reference number ISO 8601:2004(E)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shiliang

    Reference number ISO 8601:2004(E) © ISO 2004 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 8601 Third edition 2004'heure #12;ISO 8601:2004(E) PDF disclaimer This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance. The ISO Central Secretariat accepts no liability in this area. Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems

  3. Documents and Briefcase Zimbra Quick Reference Card

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Portman, Douglas

    Documents and Briefcase Zimbra Quick Reference Card Documents ­ Workspace (http://z.rochester.edu) Documents Shortcuts Edit Refresh Show Shortcuts + Cancel Save + Go the `Shortcuts' tab on the left. Basic Briefcase Tasks What is Briefcase? It is a tool for managing files from

  4. The Impact of Individual In Vivo Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks on Oral Mucositis in Adjuvant Radiotherapy of Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleckenstein, Jochen, E-mail: rajfle@uks.eu [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Saarland University Medical School, Homburg (Germany); Kuehne, Martin; Seegmueller, Katharina; Derschang, Sarah; Melchior, Patrick [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Saarland University Medical School, Homburg (Germany); Graeber, Stefan [Institute for Medical Biometry, Epidemiology und Medical Informatics (IMBEI), Saarland University Medical School, Homburg (Germany); Fricke, Andreas; Ruebe, Claudia E.; Ruebe, Christian [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Saarland University Medical School, Homburg (Germany)

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of individual in vivo DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair capacity on the incidence of severe oral mucositis in patients with head-and-neck cancer undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) or radiochemotherapy (RCT). Patients and Methods: Thirty-one patients with resected head-and-neck cancer undergoing adjuvant RT or RCT were examined. Patients underwent RT of the primary tumor site and locoregional lymph nodes with a total dose of 60-66 Gy (single dose 2 Gy, five fractions per week). Chemotherapy consisted of two cycles of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. To assess DSB repair, {gamma}-H2AX foci in blood lymphocytes were quantified before and 0.5 h, 2.5 h, 5 h, and 24 h after in vivo radiation exposure (the first fraction of RT). World Health Organization scores for oral mucositis were documented weekly and correlated with DSB repair. Results: Sixteen patients received RT alone; 15 patients received RCT. In patients who developed Grade {>=} 3 mucositis (n = 18) the amount of unrepaired DSBs 24 h after radiation exposure and DSB repair half-times did not differ significantly from patients with Grade {<=}2 mucositis (n = 13). Patients with a proportion of unrepaired DSBs after 24 h higher than the mean value + one standard deviation had an increased incidence of severe oral mucositis. Conclusions: Evaluation of in vivo DSB repair by determination of {gamma}-H2AX foci loss is feasible in clinical practice and allows identification of patients with impaired DSB repair. The incidence of oral mucositis is not closely correlated with DSB repair under the evaluated conditions.

  5. Revised Analyses of Decommissioning Reference Non-Fuel-Cycle Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MC Bierschbach; DR Haffner; KJ Schneider; SM Short

    2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of non-fuel-cycle nuclear facilities that represent a significant decommissioning task in terms of decontamination and disposal activities. This study is a re-evaluation of the original study (NUREG/CR-1754 and NUREG/CR-1754, Addendum 1). The reference facilities examined in this study are the same as in the original study and include: a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 3}H-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 14}C-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 123}I-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 137}Cs sealed sources; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 241}Am sealed sources; and an institutional user laboratory. In addition to the laboratories, three reference sites that require some decommissioning effort were also examined. These sites are: (1) a site with a contaminated drain line and hold-up tank; (2) a site with a contaminated ground surface; and (3) a tailings pile containing uranium and thorium residues. Decommissioning of these reference facilities and sites can be accomplished using techniques and equipment that are in common industrial use. Essentially the same technology assumed in the original study is used in this study. For the reference laboratory-type facilities, the study approach is to first evaluate the decommissioning of individual components (e.g., fume hoods, glove boxes, and building surfaces) that are common to many laboratory facilities. The information obtained from analyzing the individual components of each facility are then used to determine the cost, manpower requirements and dose information for the decommissioning of the entire facility. DECON, the objective of the 1988 Rulemaking for materials facilities, is the decommissioning alternative evaluated for the reference laboratories because it results in the release of the facility for restricted or unrestricted use as soon as possible. For a facility, DECON requires that contaminated components either be: (1) decontaminated to restricted or unrestricted release levels or (2) packaged and shipped to an authorized disposal site. This study considers unrestricted release only. The new decommissioning criteria of July 1997 are too recent for this study to include a cost analysis of the restricted release option, which is now allowed under these new criteria. The costs of decommissioning facility components are generally estimated to be in the range of $140 to $27,000, depending on the type of component, the type and amount of radioactive contamination, the remediation options chosen, and the quantity of radioactive waste generated from decommissioning operations. Estimated costs for decommissioning the example laboratories range from $130,000 to $205,000, assuming aggressive low-level waste (LLW) volume reduction. If only minimal LLW volume reduction is employed, decommissioning costs range from $150,000 to $270,000 for these laboratories. On the basis of estimated decommissioning costs for facility components, the costs of decommissioning typical non-fuel-cycle laboratory facilities are estimated to range from about $25,000 for the decommissioning of a small room containing one or two fume hoods to more than $1 million for the decommissioning of an industrial plant containing several laboratories in which radiochemicals and sealed radioactive sources are prepared. For the reference sites of this study, the basic decommissioning alternatives are: (1) site stabilization followed by long-term care and (2) removal of the waste or contaminated soil to an authorized disposal site. Cost estimates made for decommissioning three reference sites range from about $130,000 for the removal of a contaminated drain line and hold-up tank to more than $23 million for the removal of a tailings pile that contains radioactive residue from ore-processing operations in which tin slag is processed for the recovery of rare metals. Total occupational radiation doses generally range from 0.00007 person-rem to 13 person-rem for

  6. FORM FOR ESPC CASE STUDIES AND REFERENCES | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    FORM FOR ESPC CASE STUDIES AND REFERENCES FORM FOR ESPC CASE STUDIES AND REFERENCES Document features a template, sample, and instructions to help Federal agencies develop case...

  7. asce standardized reference: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lux (of 26 INSTALLATION AND UNCERTAINTY EVALUATION OF REFERENCE HARDNESS STANDARD OF CROATIA CiteSeer Summary: Abstract ? Reference hardness standard with HV1 HV50 measuring...

  8. analytical reference standards: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lux (of 27 INSTALLATION AND UNCERTAINTY EVALUATION OF REFERENCE HARDNESS STANDARD OF CROATIA CiteSeer Summary: Abstract ? Reference hardness standard with HV1 HV50 measuring...

  9. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 4B Albuquerque, New Mexico Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 4B Albuquerque, New...

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    More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 4A Baltimore, Maryland Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative...

  17. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    akfairbankspre1980v1-47-2.zip More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 8 Fairbanks, Alaska Reference Buildings by Climate Zone...

  18. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    minneapolispre1980v1-47-2.zip More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 6A Minneapolis, Minnesota Reference Buildings by...

  19. Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daila S. Gridley, PhD

    2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Supported by the Low Dose Radiation Research Program, Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64345 Project ID: 0012965 Award Register#: ER64345 Project Manager: Noelle F. Metting, Sc.D. Phone: 301-903-8309 Division SC-23.2 noelle.metting@science.doe.gov Submitted March 2012 To: https://www.osti.gov/elink/241.3.jsp Title: Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation PI: Daila S. Gridley, Ph.D. Human low dose radiation data have been derived primarily from studies of space and airline flight personnel, nuclear plant workers and others exposed occupationally, as well as victims in the vicinity of atomic bomb explosions. The findings remain inconclusive due to population inconsistencies and complex interactions among total dose, dose rate, radiation quality and age at exposure. Thus, safe limits for low dose occupational irradiation are currently based on data obtained with doses far exceeding the levels expected for the general population and health risks have been largely extrapolated using the linear-nonthreshold dose-response model. The overall working hypothesis of the present study is that priming with low dose, low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation can ameliorate the response to acute high-dose radiation exposure. We also propose that the efficacy of low-dose induced protection will be dependent upon the form and regimen of the high-dose exposure: photons versus protons versus simulated solar particle event protons (sSPE). The emphasis has been on gene expression and function of CD4+ T helper (Th) lymphocytes harvested from spleens of whole-body irradiated C57BL/6 mice, a strain that provides the genetic background for many genetically engineered strains. Evaluations of the responses of other selected cells, tissues such as skin, and organs such as lung, liver and brain were also initiated (partially funded by other sources). The long-term goal is to provide information that will be useful in estimating human health risks due to radiation that may occur during exposures in the work environment, nuclear/radiological catastrophes, as well as radiotherapy. Several papers have been published, accepted for publication or are in preparation. A number of poster and oral presentations have been made at scientific conferences and workshops. Archived tissues of various types will continue to be evaluated via funding from other sources (the DoE Low Dose Radiation Research Program, Office of Science and this specific grant will be appropriately included in the Acknowledgements of all subsequent publications/presentations). A post-doc and several students have participated in this study. More detailed description of the accomplishments is described in attached file.

  20. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMakin, A.H.; Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M. [comps.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The TSP consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed technical members representing the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demography, food consumption, and agriculture, and environmental pathways and dose estimates. Progress is discussed.

  1. Determination of prescription dose for Cs-131 permanent implants using the BED formalism including resensitization correction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Wei, E-mail: wei.luo@uky.edu; Molloy, Janelle; Aryal, Prakash; Feddock, Jonathan; Randall, Marcus [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The current widely used biological equivalent dose (BED) formalism for permanent implants is based on the linear-quadratic model that includes cell repair and repopulation but not resensitization (redistribution and reoxygenation). The authors propose a BED formalism that includes all the four biological effects (4Rs), and the authors propose how it can be used to calculate appropriate prescription doses for permanent implants with Cs-131. Methods: A resensitization correction was added to the BED calculation for permanent implants to account for 4Rs. Using the same BED, the prescription doses with Au-198, I-125, and Pd-103 were converted to the isoeffective Cs-131 prescription doses. The conversion factor F, ratio of the Cs-131 dose to the equivalent dose with the other reference isotope (F{sub r}: with resensitization, F{sub n}: without resensitization), was thus derived and used for actual prescription. Different values of biological parameters such as ?, ?, and relative biological effectiveness for different types of tumors were used for the calculation. Results: Prescription doses with I-125, Pd-103, and Au-198 ranging from 10 to 160 Gy were converted into prescription doses with Cs-131. The difference in dose conversion factors with (F{sub r}) and without (F{sub n}) resensitization was significant but varied with different isotopes and different types of tumors. The conversion factors also varied with different doses. For I-125, the average values of F{sub r}/F{sub n} were 0.51/0.46, for fast growing tumors, and 0.88/0.77 for slow growing tumors. For Pd-103, the average values of F{sub r}/F{sub n} were 1.25/1.15 for fast growing tumors, and 1.28/1.22 for slow growing tumors. For Au-198, the average values of F{sub r}/F{sub n} were 1.08/1.25 for fast growing tumors, and 1.00/1.06 for slow growing tumors. Using the biological parameters for the HeLa/C4-I cells, the averaged value of F{sub r} was 1.07/1.11 (rounded to 1.1), and the averaged value of F{sub n} was 1.75/1.18. F{sub r} of 1.1 has been applied to gynecological cancer implants with expected acute reactions and outcomes as expected based on extensive experience with permanent implants. The calculation also gave the average Cs-131 dose of 126 Gy converted from the I-125 dose of 144 Gy for prostate implants. Conclusions: Inclusion of an allowance for resensitization led to significant dose corrections for Cs-131 permanent implants, and should be applied to prescription dose calculation. The adjustment of the Cs-131 prescription doses with resensitization correction for gynecological permanent implants was consistent with clinical experience and observations. However, the Cs-131 prescription doses converted from other implant doses can be further adjusted based on new experimental results, clinical observations, and clinical outcomes.

  2. Radiation Leukemogenesis at Low Dose Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weil, Michael; Ullrich, Robert

    2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The major goals of this program were to study the efficacy of low dose rate radiation exposures for the induction of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to characterize the leukemias that are caused by radiation exposures at low dose rate. An irradiator facility was designed and constructed that allows large numbers of mice to be irradiated at low dose rates for protracted periods (up to their life span). To the best of our knowledge this facility is unique in the US and it was subsequently used to study radioprotectors being developed for radiological defense (PLoS One. 7(3), e33044, 2012) and is currently being used to study the role of genetic background in susceptibility to radiation-induced lung cancer. One result of the irradiation was expected; low dose rate exposures are ineffective in inducing AML. However, another result was completely unexpected; the irradiated mice had a very high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), approximately 50%. It was unexpected because acute exposures are ineffective in increasing HCC incidence above background. This is a potential important finding for setting exposure limits because it supports the concept of an 'inverse dose rate effect' for some tumor types. That is, for the development of some tumor types low dose rate exposures carry greater risks than acute exposures.

  3. Air pathway report: Phase I of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase 1 of the air-pathway portion of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project sought to determine whether dose estimates could be calculated for populations in the 10 counties nearest the Hanford Site from atmospheric releases of iodine-131 from the site from 1944--1947. Phase 1 demonstrated the following: HEDR-calculated source-term estimates of iodine-131 releases to the atmosphere were within 20% of previously published estimates; calculated vegetation concentrations of iodine-131 agree well with previously published measurements; the highest of the Phase 1 preliminary dose estimates to the thyroid are consistent with independent, previously published estimates of doses to maximally exposed individuals; and, relatively crude, previously published measurements of thyroid burdens for Hanford workers are in the range of average burdens that the HEDR model estimated for similar reference individuals'' for the period 1944--1947. Preliminary median dose estimates summed over the year 1945--1947 for the primary pathway, air-pasture-cow-milk-thyroid, ranged from low median values of 0.006 rad for upwind adults who obtained milk from backyard cows not on pasture to high median values of 68.0 rad for downwind infants who drank milk from pasture-fed cows. Extremes of the estimated range are a low of essentially zero to upwind adults and a high of almost 3000 rem to downwind infants. 37 refs., 37 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Breakaway safety feature for an intra-oral cone system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, P.J.; Wang, C.C.

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With an increasing number of high energy accelerators in operation, intra-oral electron radiotherapy is likely to become a more widely-used modality in the treatment of lesions of the oral cavity. However, there is one potential problem associated with this modality which concerns patient safety. There must never be any uncontrolled movement of the couch or gantry while the cone is in the patients's mouth, otherwise serious consequences could occur. In an effort to overcome this problem, a set of cones previously constructed by the authors for use in intra-oral electron radiotherapy has been modified to include a breakaway safety feature. This modification consists of separating the plate into which each of the treatment cones screws, into two pieces, the dividing line being in the shape of a cone frustum flaring out in the upward direction.

  5. absorbed dose calculation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2010-01-01 4 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  6. absorbed dose measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2013-01-01 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  7. air dose absorbed: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2009-01-01 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  8. absorbed dose distribution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2010-01-01 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  9. absorbed dose measurement: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2013-01-01 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  10. absorbed dose determination: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2012-06-07 5 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  11. absorbed dose effective: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2010-01-01 2 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  12. absorbed dose standard: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2010-01-01 4 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  13. absorbed doses distribution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2010-01-01 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  14. absorbed dose distributions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2010-01-01 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  15. absorbed dose rate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2010-01-01 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  16. absorbed dose determinations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2012-06-07 5 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  17. absorbed dose calculations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2010-01-01 4 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  18. External dose-rate conversion factors for calculation of dose to the public

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a tabulation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides in the environment. This report was prepared in conjunction with criteria for limiting dose equivalents to members of the public from operations of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The dose-rate conversion factors are provided for use by the DOE and its contractors in performing calculations of external dose equivalents to members of the public. The dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons presented in this report are based on a methodology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. However, some adjustments of the previously documented methodology have been made in obtaining the dose-rate conversion factors in this report. 42 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. Total ionizing dose effects of domestic SiGe HBTs under different dose rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mo-Han, Liu; Wu-Ying, Ma; Xin, Wang; Qi, Guo; Cheng-Fa, He; Ke, Jiang; Xiao-Long, Li; Ming-Zhu, Xiong

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The total ionizing radiation (TID) response of commercial NPN silicon germanium hetero-junction bipolar transistors (SiGe HBTs) produced domestic were investigated under the dose rate of 800mGy(Si)/s and 1.3mGy(Si)/s with Co-60 gamma irradiation source, respectively. The changes of the transistor parameter such as Gummel characteristics, excess base current before and after irradiation are investigated. The results of the experiments shows that for the KT1151, the radiation damage have slightly difference under the different dose rate after the prolonged annealing, shows an time dependent effect(TDE). But for the KT9041, the degradations of low dose rate irradiation are more higher than the high dose rate, demonstrate that there have potential enhanced low dose rate sensitive(ELDRS) effect exist on KT9041. The underlying physical mechanisms of the different dose rates response induced by the gamma ray are detailed discussed.

  20. Comparison of radiological dose pathways for tank farm accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1996-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This calculation note documents an evaluation of the doses from submersion and ground shine due to a release of tank farm radioactive materials, and a comparison of these doses to the doses from inhalation of the materials. The submersion and ground shine doses are insignificant compared to the inhalation doses. The doses from resuspension are also shown to be negligible for the tank farm analysis conditions.

  1. Oral History, Civil Rights and the Archival Role

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hankins, Rebecca

    2004-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Oral History, Civil Rights and the Archival Role Rebecca Hankins, C.A., M.L.I.S Prescript: The years 2003 to 2006 will witness the anniversaries of many of the events that represent the Modern Civil Rights Movement. With the 50th anniversary...-384. 5. Staples, Brent. ?Senator Strom Thurmond's Not-So-Secret Black Daughter.? New York Times, December 18, 2003. 6. Stricklin, David and Rebecca Sharpless, eds. The Past Meets the Present: Essays on Oral History. Lanham, MD: University Press...

  2. Population estimates for Phase 1: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, D.M.; Erickson, A.R.; Harkreader, S.A.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the population estimates of Phase I of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. These estimates were used to develop preliminary dose estimates.

  3. Low-dose radiation impacts skin sensitivity | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low-dose radiation impacts skin sensitivity Low-dose radiation impacts skin sensitivity Released: April 06, 2015 Systems approach suggests alterations in stability of cells and...

  4. Reference Inside KS1992 Tray Inside Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Llope, William J.

    Reference Inside KS1992 0.2 Tray Inside Air 0.5 Tray Inside Air 0.8 Tray Inside Air 0.2 Tray Side Wall Inner 0.2 Tray Side Wall Inner Under TAMP near sensor pos4 Under TAMP near sensor pos4 Air Gap Below TDIG pos1 Air Gap Below TDIG pos4 Air Gap Below TDIG pos6 HPTDC1 Chip pos6 HPTDC4 Chip pos6 HPTDC2

  5. Literacy, orality annd the digital revolution: history and prospects for university undergraduate research fellows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cornelison, J. Garrett

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    For years, communications scholars have classified communication into two types, oral and literate. Oral communication is, of course, basic to humans. We are bom with the ability to speak and need no formal training in ...

  6. "I Respond": Alissa Goldring's Photographs of Mexico in the 1950s: An Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldring, Alissa; Gray, Lizzy Kate; Regional History Project, UCSC Library

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Goldring’s Photographs of Mexico in the 1950s: An OralGoldring’s Photographs of Mexico in the 1950s: An OralI looked out and I saw Mexico City. It was like jewels

  7. Oral Mucositis Prevention By Low-Level Laser Therapy in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Undergoing Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy: A Phase III Randomized Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gouvea de Lima, Aline [Departamento de Radiologia, Disciplina de Oncologia, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Villar, Rosangela Correa [Instituto de Radiologia, Servico de Radioterapia, Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Castro, Gilberto de, E-mail: gilberto.castro@usp.br [Department of Clinical Oncology, Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Antequera, Reynaldo [Divisao de Odontologia, Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gil, Erlon; Rosalmeida, Mauro Cabral [Instituto de Radiologia, Servico de Radioterapia, Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Federico, Miriam Hatsue Honda; Snitcovsky, Igor Moises Longo [Departamento de Radiologia, Disciplina de Oncologia, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Oral mucositis is a major complication of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in head-and-neck cancer patients. Low-level laser (LLL) therapy is a promising preventive therapy. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of LLL therapy to decrease severe oral mucositis and its effect on RT interruptions. Methods and Materials: In the present randomized, double-blind, Phase III study, patients received either gallium-aluminum-arsenide LLL therapy 2.5 J/cm{sup 2} or placebo laser, before each radiation fraction. Eligible patients had to have been diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, or metastases to the neck with an unknown primary site. They were treated with adjuvant or definitive CRT, consisting of conventional RT 60-70 Gy (range, 1.8-2.0 Gy/d, 5 times/wk) and concurrent cisplatin. The primary endpoints were the oral mucositis severity in Weeks 2, 4, and 6 and the number of RT interruptions because of mucositis. The secondary endpoints included patient-reported pain scores. To detect a decrease in the incidence of Grade 3 or 4 oral mucositis from 80% to 50%, we planned to enroll 74 patients. Results: A total of 75 patients were included, and 37 patients received preventive LLL therapy. The mean delivered radiation dose was greater in the patients treated with LLL (69.4 vs. 67.9 Gy, p = .03). During CRT, the number of patients diagnosed with Grade 3 or 4 oral mucositis treated with LLL vs. placebo was 4 vs. 5 (Week 2, p = 1.0), 4 vs. 12 (Week 4, p = .08), and 8 vs. 9 (Week 6, p = 1.0), respectively. More of the patients treated with placebo had RT interruptions because of mucositis (6 vs. 0, p = .02). No difference was detected between the treatment arms in the incidence of severe pain. Conclusions: LLL therapy was not effective in reducing severe oral mucositis, although a marginal benefit could not be excluded. It reduced RT interruptions in these head-and-neck cancer patients, which might translate into improved CRT efficacy.

  8. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, S. M.; McMakin, A. H.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into five technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (i.e., dose estimates). The Source Terms Task develops estimates of radioactive emissions from Hanford facilities since 1944. The Environmental Transport Task reconstructs the movements of radioactive particles from the areas of release to populations. The Environmental Monitoring Data Task assemblies, evaluates and reports historical environmental monitoring data. The Demographics, Agriculture and Food Habits Task develops the data needed to identify the populations that could have been affected by the releases. The Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates Task used the information derived from the other Tasks to estimate the radiation doses individuals could have received from Hanford radiation. This document lists the progress on this project as of September 1991. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. DRY TRANSFER FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.S. Tang

    2004-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Dry Transfer Facility No.1 (DTF-1) performing operations to receive transportation casks, transfer wastes, prepare waste packages, and ship out loaded waste packages and empty casks. Doses received by workers due to maintenance operations are also included in this revision. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation from normal operation, excluding the remediation area of the building. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the DTF-1 and to provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Environmental and Nuclear Engineering of the Design and Engineering Organization and are intended solely for the use of the Design and Engineering Organization in its work regarding facility operation. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering should be consulted before use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering.

  10. Agriculture-related radiation dose calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furr, J.M.; Mayberry, J.J.; Waite, D.A.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimates of radiation dose to the public must be made at each stage in the identification and qualification process leading to siting a high-level nuclear waste repository. Specifically considering the ingestion pathway, this paper examines questions of reliability and adequacy of dose calculations in relation to five stages of data availability (geologic province, region, area, location, and mass balance) and three methods of calculation (population, population/food production, and food production driven). Calculations were done using the model PABLM with data for the Permian and Palo Duro Basins and the Deaf Smith County area. Extra effort expended in gathering agricultural data at succeeding environmental characterization levels does not appear justified, since dose estimates do not differ greatly; that effort would be better spent determining usage of food types that contribute most to the total dose; and that consumption rate and the air dispersion factor are critical to assessment of radiation dose via the ingestion pathway. 17 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  11. Phenylbutyrate Mouthwash Mitigates Oral Mucositis During Radiotherapy or Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yen, Sang-Hue; Wang, Ling-Wei [Cancer Center, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Yang Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yi-Hsien [Division of Radiotherapy, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jen, Yee-Min, E-mail: yeeminjen@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Yih-Lin, E-mail: ylchung@kfsyscc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Yang Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Deleterious oral mucositis (OM) develops during radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer (HNC) patients. There are currently no effective cytoprotective treatments for OM without a potential risk of tumor protection. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study aimed to determine the therapeutic safety and efficacy of phenylbutyrate (an antitumor histone deacetylase inhibitor and chemical chaperone) 5% mouthwash for treating OM caused by cancer therapy. Methods and Materials: Between September 2005 and June 2006, 36 HNC patients were randomized to standard oral care plus 5 mL of either phenylbutyrate 5% mouthwash (n = 17) or placebo (mouthwash vehicle, n = 19) taken four times daily (swish and spit). Treatment began when mild mucositis (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 1) occurred, and ended 4 weeks after RT completion. Safety and efficacy were based on adverse events, physical examination, laboratory determinations, vital signs, Oral Mucosa Assessment Scale (OMAS) and World Health Organization scores, the ability to eat, body weight change, local control, and survival. Results: We found no severe drug-related side effect. At RT doses of 5500-7500 cGy, phenylbutyrate significantly mitigated the severity of mucositis compared with placebo, based on both the WHO score (severity {>=} 3; p = 0.0262) and the OMAS scale (ulceration score {>=} 2; p = 0.0049). The Kaplan-Meier estimates for 2- and 3-year local control, and overall survival were 100% and 80.8%, and 78.6% and 64.3%, respectively, in the phenylbutyrate group and 74.2% and 74.2%, and 57.4% and 50.2%, respectively, in the placebo group. Conclusions: This pilot trial suggested that phenylbutyrate mouthwash significantly decreased the impact of OM in HNC patients receiving RT or chemoradiotherapy and did not confront the tumor control. Larger Phase II randomized trials are needed to confirm these results.

  12. Embedded Electrical and Computer Engineering MASTER ORAL DEFENSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmoodi, Hamid

    of this research is to design a low power integrated system that can be used in vivo for scanning the electrode. A model created in Python provides input vectors and output comparison for the verification processEmbedded Electrical and Computer Engineering MASTER ORAL DEFENSE TITLE: Low Power Scanner for High

  13. Research Report Oral supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtman, Richard

    cognitive ability with a diet enriched in DHA. Various cellular mechanisms have been proposed for DHA phosphatides and in pre- and post-synaptic proteins within the hippocampus. Hence, oral DHA may promote, is synthesized from its precursor -linolenic acid, which cannot be synthesized in mammals (mammals lack

  14. Historical river flow rates for dose calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlton, W.H.

    1991-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Annual average river flow rates are required input to the LADTAP Computer Code for calculating offsite doses from liquid releases of radioactive materials to the Savannah River. The source of information on annual river flow rates used in dose calculations varies, depending on whether calculations are for retrospective releases or prospective releases. Examples of these types of releases are: Retrospective - releases from routine operations (annual environmental reports) and short term release incidents that have occurred. Prospective - releases that might be expected in the future from routine or abnormal operation of existing or new facilities (EIS`s, EID`S, SAR`S, etc.). This memorandum provides historical flow rates at the downstream gauging station at Highway 301 for use in retrospective dose calculations and derives flow rate data for the Beaufort-Jasper and Port Wentworth water treatment plants.

  15. Page 1 of 1 BACHELOR OF ORAL HEALTH (Therapy/Hygiene)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Richard C.

    Page 1 of 1 BACHELOR OF ORAL HEALTH (Therapy/Hygiene) REQUEST FOR SCHOOL PREDICTED SCORE YEAR 12 The above student wishes to apply for the Bachelor Oral Health (Therapy/Hygiene) at Charles Sturt University assessment for the Bachelor of Oral Health (Therapy/Hygiene) degree and must be received at Charles Sturt

  16. Bachelor of Oral Health (Therapy/Hygiene): Instructions for Applicants Page 1 of 2 INSTRUCTIONS FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Richard C.

    Bachelor of Oral Health (Therapy/Hygiene): Instructions for Applicants Page 1 of 2 INSTRUCTIONS FOR DOMESTIC APPLICANTS BACHELOR OF ORAL HEALTH (Therapy/Hygiene) CAREFULLY READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING THE BACHELOR OF ORAL HEALTH (THERAPY/HYGIENE) SUPPLEMENTARY APPLICATION FORM. IMPORTANT NOTES

  17. Modcomp MAX IV System Processors reference guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, J.

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A user almost always faces a big problem when having to learn to use a new computer system. The information necessary to use the system is often scattered throughout many different manuals. The user also faces the problem of extracting the information really needed from each manual. Very few computer vendors supply a single Users Guide or even a manual to help the new user locate the necessary manuals. Modcomp is no exception to this, Modcomp MAX IV requires that the user be familiar with the system file usage which adds to the problem. At General Atomics there is an ever increasing need for new users to learn how to use the Modcomp computers. This paper was written to provide a condensed Users Reference Guide'' for Modcomp computer users. This manual should be of value not only to new users but any users that are not Modcomp computer systems experts. This Users Reference Guide'' is intended to provided the basic information for the use of the various Modcomp System Processors necessary to, create, compile, link-edit, and catalog a program. Only the information necessary to provide the user with a basic understanding of the Systems Processors is included. This document provides enough information for the majority of programmers to use the Modcomp computers without having to refer to any other manuals. A lot of emphasis has been placed on the file description and usage for each of the System Processors. This allows the user to understand how Modcomp MAX IV does things rather than just learning the system commands.

  18. Department of Energy Construction Safety Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE has adopted the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1926 ``Safety and Health Regulations for Construction,`` and related parts of 29 CFR 1910, ``Occupational Safety and Health Standards.`` This nonmandatory reference guide is based on these OSHA regulations and, where appropriate, incorporates additional standards, codes, directives, and work practices that are recognized and accepted by DOE and the construction industry. It covers excavation, scaffolding, electricity, fire, signs/barricades, cranes/hoists/conveyors, hand and power tools, concrete/masonry, stairways/ladders, welding/cutting, motor vehicles/mechanical equipment, demolition, materials, blasting, steel erection, etc.

  19. 1993 Solid Waste Reference Forecast Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valero, O.J.; Blackburn, C.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Kaae, P.S.; Armacost, L.L.; Garrett, S.M.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, which updates WHC-EP-0567, 1992 Solid Waste Reference Forecast Summary, (WHC 1992) forecasts the volumes of solid wastes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site during the 30-year period from FY 1993 through FY 2022. The data used in this document were collected from Westinghouse Hanford Company forecasts as well as from surveys of waste generators at other US Department of Energy sites who are now shipping or plan to ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site for disposal. These wastes include low-level and low-level mixed waste, transuranic and transuranic mixed waste, and nonradioactive hazardous waste.

  20. AVIATION MANAGER QUALIFICATION STANDARD REFERENCE GUIDE

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartmentDepartment of2 of 5) ALARAManager Qualification Standard Reference

  1. References - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclear Press Releases 2014References by Website Administrator This

  2. Sandia Energy - Marine Hydrokinetics Technology: Reference Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand RequirementsCoatingsUltra-High-VoltagePowerUpdatesDevelopment Reference Model

  3. 2014 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints: References

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of BadTHEEnergy VehicleSessionOffice |OfficeAboutofAugustReferences

  4. Template:Reference | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheastern ILSunseekerTallahatchieTecniplanReference Jump to:

  5. Commercial Reference Buildings | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformationNew York:Governor s(RedirectedColusaCommack,Reference

  6. Advanced Computational Approaches for Characterizing Stochastic Cellular Responses to Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Exposures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Bobby, R., Ph.D.

    2003-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK - B135 This project final report summarizes modeling research conducted in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Low Dose Radiation Research Program at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute from October 1998 through June 2003. The modeling research described involves critically evaluating the validity of the linear nonthreshold (LNT) risk model as it relates to stochastic effects induced in cells by low doses of ionizing radiation and genotoxic chemicals. The LNT model plays a central role in low-dose risk assessment for humans. With the LNT model, any radiation (or genotoxic chemical) exposure is assumed to increase one¡¯s risk of cancer. Based on the LNT model, others have predicted tens of thousands of cancer deaths related to environmental exposure to radioactive material from nuclear accidents (e.g., Chernobyl) and fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Our research has focused on developing biologically based models that explain the shape of dose-response curves for low-dose radiation and genotoxic chemical-induced stochastic effects in cells. Understanding the shape of the dose-response curve for radiation and genotoxic chemical-induced stochastic effects in cells helps to better understand the shape of the dose-response curve for cancer induction in humans. We have used a modeling approach that facilitated model revisions over time, allowing for timely incorporation of new knowledge gained related to the biological basis for low-dose-induced stochastic effects in cells. Both deleterious (e.g., genomic instability, mutations, and neoplastic transformation) and protective (e.g., DNA repair and apoptosis) effects have been included in our modeling. Our most advanced model, NEOTRANS2, involves differing levels of genomic instability. Persistent genomic instability is presumed to be associated with nonspecific, nonlethal mutations and to increase both the risk for neoplastic transformation and for cancer occurrence. Our research results, based on applications of NEOTRANS2, indicate that nonlinear threshold-type, dose-response relationships for excess stochastic effects (problematic nonlethal mutations, neoplastic transformation) should be expected after exposure to low linear energy transfer (LET) gamma rays or gamma rays in combination with high-LET alpha radiation. Similar thresholds are expected for low-dose-rate low-LET beta irradiation. We attribute the thresholds to low-dose, low-LET radiation induced protection against spontaneous mutations and neoplastic transformations. The protection is presumed mainly to involve selective elimination of problematic cells via apoptosis. Low-dose, low-LET radiation is presumed to trigger wide-area cell signaling, which in turn leads to problematic bystander cells (e.g., mutants, neoplastically transformed cells) selectively undergoing apoptosis. Thus, this protective bystander effect leads to selective elimination of problematic cells (a tissue cleansing process in vivo). However, this protective bystander effects is a different process from low-dose stimulation of the immune system. Low-dose, low-LET radiation stimulation of the immune system may explain why thresholds for inducing excess cancer appear much larger (possibly more than 100-fold larger) than thresholds for inducing excess mutations and neoplastic transformations, when the dose rate is low. For ionizing radiation, the current risk assessment paradigm is such that the relative risk (RR) is always ¡Ý 1, no matter how small the dose. Our research results indicate that for low-dose or low-dose-rate, low-LET irradiation, RR < 1 may be more the rule than the exception. Directly tied to the current RR paradigm are the billion-dollar cleanup costs for radionuclide-contaminated DOE sites. Our research results suggest that continued use of the current RR paradigm for which RR ¡Ý 1 could cause more harm than benefit to society (e.g., by spreading unwarranted fear about phantom excess risks associated with low-dose low-LET radiation). Such phantom risks also may arise from risk assessments conducted for com

  7. SU-E-T-44: Angular Dependence of Surface Dose Enhancement Measured On Several Inhomogeneities Using Radiochromic EBT3 Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansen, A; Schoenfeld, A; Poppinga, D; Chofor, N; Poppe, B [University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg (Germany); Pius Hospital Oldenburg, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The quantification of the relative surface dose enhancement in dependence on the angle of incidence and the atomic number Z of the surface material. Methods: Experiments were performed with slabs made of aluminum, titanium, copper, silver, dental gold and lead. The metal slabs with equal sizes of 1.0×8.0×8.8mm{sup 3} were embedded in an Octavius 4D phantom (PTW Freiburg, Germany). Radiochromic EBT3 films were used to measure the surface dose for angles of incidence ranging from 0° to 90°. The setup with the metals slabs at the isocenter was irradiated with acceleration voltages of 6MV and 10MV. Water reference measurements were taken under equal conditions. Results: The surface dose enhancement is highest for angles of incidence below 30° and drops significantly for higher. The surface dose enhancement produced by lead and dental gold at 6MV showed a peak of 65%. At 90°, the surface dose enhancement dropped to 15% for both materials. The surface dose enhancements for silver, copper, titanium and aluminum were 45%, 32%, 22% and 12% at 0°, respectively. At an angle of incidence of 80°, the values dropped to 22%, 18%, 12% und 6%. The values for 10MV were very similar. Lead and dental gold showed peaks of 65% und 60%. Their values dropped to 18% at an angle of 90°. The surface dose enhancements for silver, copper, titanium and aluminum were 45%, 30%, 20% and 8% at 0°. At 80° the values dropped to 30%, 20%, 12% and 5%. A dependence of the magnitude of the surface dose enhancement on the atomic number of the surface material can be seen, which is in consistence with literature. Conclusion: The results show that the surface dose enhancements near implant materials with high Z-values should be taken into consideration in radio therapy, even when the angle of incidence is flat.

  8. Reference worldwide model for antineutrinos from reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marica Baldoncini; Ivan Callegari; Giovanni Fiorentini; Fabio Mantovani; Barbara Ricci; Virginia Strati; Gerti Xhixha

    2015-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Antineutrinos produced at nuclear reactors constitute a severe source of background for the detection of geoneutrinos, which bring to the Earth's surface information about natural radioactivity in the whole planet. In this framework we provide a reference worldwide model for antineutrinos from reactors, in view of reactors operational records yearly published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). We evaluate the expected signal from commercial reactors for ongoing (KamLAND and Borexino), planned (SNO+) and proposed (Juno, RENO-50, LENA and Hanohano) experimental sites. Uncertainties related to reactor antineutrino production, propagation and detection processes are estimated using a Monte Carlo based approach, which provides an overall site dependent uncertainty on the signal in the geoneutrino energy window on the order of 3%. We also implement the off-equilibrium correction to the reference reactor spectra associated with the long-lived isotopes and we estimate a 2.4% increase of the unoscillated event rate in the geoneutrino energy window due to the storage of spent nuclear fuels in the cooling pools. We predict that the research reactors contribute to less than 0.2% to the commercial reactor signal in the investigated 14 sites. We perform a multitemporal analysis of the expected reactor signal over a time lapse of 10 years using reactor operational records collected in a comprehensive database published at www.fe.infn.it/antineutrino.

  9. Estimating Radiological Doses to Predators Foraging in a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.Soholt; G.Gonzales; P.Fresquez; K.Bennett; E.Lopez

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1957, Los Alamos National Laboratory has operated Area G as its low-level, solid radioactive waste management and disposal area. Although the waste management area is developed, plants, small mammals, and avian and mammalian predators still occupy the less disturbed and revegetated portions of the land. For almost a decade, we have monitored the concentrations of selected radionuclides in soils, plants, and small mammals at Area G. The radionuclides tritium, plutonium-238, and plutonium-239 are regularly found at levels above regional background in all three media. Based on radionuclide concentrations in mice collected from 1994 to 1999, we calculated doses to higher trophic levels (owl, hawk, kestrel, and coyote) that forage on the waste management area. These predators play important functions in the regional ecosystems and are an important part of local Native American traditional tales that identify the uniqueness of their culture. The estimated doses are compared to Department of Energy's interim limit of 0.1 rad/day for the protection of terrestrial wildlife. We used exposure parameters that were derived from the literature for each receptor, including Environmental Protection Agency's exposure factors handbook. Estimated doses to predators ranged from 9E-06 to 2E-04 rad/day, assuming that they forage entirely on the waste management area. These doses are greater than those calculated for predators foraging exclusively in reference areas, but are still well below the interim dose limit. We believe that these calculated doses represent upper-bound estimates of exposure for local predators because the larger predators forage over areas that are much greater than the 63-acre waste management area. Based on these results, we concluded that predators foraging on this area do not face a hazard from radiological exposure under current site conditions.

  10. Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Liange; Colon, Carlos Jové; Bianchi, Marco; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive waste disposal in a deep subsurface repository hosted in clay/shale/argillite is a subject of widespread interest given the desirable isolation properties, geochemically reduced conditions, and widespread geologic occurrence of this rock type (Hansen 2010; Bianchi et al. 2013). Bianchi et al. (2013) provides a description of diffusion in a clay-hosted repository based on single-phase flow and full saturation using parametric data from documented studies in Europe (e.g., ANDRA 2005). The predominance of diffusive transport and sorption phenomena in this clay media are key attributes to impede radionuclide mobility making clay rock formations target sites for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The reports by Hansen et al. (2010) and those from numerous studies in clay-hosted underground research laboratories (URLs) in Belgium, France and Switzerland outline the extensive scientific knowledge obtained to assess long-term clay/shale/argillite repository isolation performance of nuclear waste. In the past several years under the UFDC, various kinds of models have been developed for argillite repository to demonstrate the model capability, understand the spatial and temporal alteration of the repository, and evaluate different scenarios. These models include the coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) models (e.g. Liu et al. 2013; Rutqvist et al. 2014a, Zheng et al. 2014a) that focus on THMC processes in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) bentonite and argillite host hock, the large scale hydrogeologic model (Bianchi et al. 2014) that investigates the hydraulic connection between an emplacement drift and surrounding hydrogeological units, and Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) models (Greenberg et al. 2013) that evaluate thermal evolution in the host rock approximated as a thermal conduction process to facilitate the analysis of design options. However, the assumptions and the properties (parameters) used in these models are different, which not only make inter-model comparisons difficult, but also compromise the applicability of the lessons learned from one model to another model. The establishment of a reference case would therefore be helpful to set up a baseline for model development. A generic salt repository reference case was developed in Freeze et al. (2013) and the generic argillite repository reference case is presented in this report. The definition of a reference case requires the characterization of the waste inventory, waste form, waste package, repository layout, EBS backfill, host rock, and biosphere. This report mainly documents the processes in EBS bentonite and host rock that are potentially important for performance assessment and properties that are needed to describe these processes, with brief description other components such as waste inventory, waste form, waste package, repository layout, aquifer, and biosphere. A thorough description of the generic argillite repository reference case will be given in Jové Colon et al. (2014).

  11. From Oral Literature to Technauriture: What’s in a Name?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaschula, Russell; Mostert, Andre

    is not possible. The converse is obviously not the case, nor was it true for much of human history. For many people, the written word has come to dominate, with orally-based societies being viewed as quaint but unsophis- ticated. But for many orally... to contextualise it and to recognise that twenty years ago, the options were limited: ‘Thinking of oral tradition or a heritage of oral performance, genres and styles as “oral literature” is rather like thinking of horses as automobiles without wheels’, he...

  12. NON-MONOTONIC DOSE DEPENDENCE OF THERMOLUMINESCENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Reuven

    Scientific Inc., Pacifica, CA, USA The thermoluminescence (TL) intensity in different materials is usually material used for archaeological and geological TL dating. Ichikawa(6) found that in gammaNON-MONOTONIC DOSE DEPENDENCE OF THERMOLUMINESCENCE R. Chen1,Ã? , D. Lo2 and J. L. Lawless3 1 School

  13. Total dose and dose rate models for bipolar transistors in circuit simulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Phillip Montgomery; Wix, Steven D.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to develop a model for total dose effects in bipolar junction transistors for use in circuit simulation. The components of the model are an electrical model of device performance that includes the effects of trapped charge on device behavior, and a model that calculates the trapped charge densities in a specific device structure as a function of radiation dose and dose rate. Simulations based on this model are found to agree well with measurements on a number of devices for which data are available.

  14. WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Du, Pengwei; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Vyakaranam, Bharat

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This planning reference book is a document reflecting a Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) effort to put together multiple sources of information and provide a clear, systemic, comprehensive outline of the problems, both existing and anticipated; their impacts on the system; currently used and proposed solutions by the industry and research community; planning practices; new technologies, equipment, and standards; and expected future trends. This living (periodically updated) document could help WECC and other practicing engineers, especially the younger generation of engineers joining the workforce, to get familiar with a large variety of information related to the integration of variable resources into the WECC system, bypassing in part the need for time-consuming information gathering and learning processes from more experienced engineers or from the literature.

  15. Semantic Features for Classifying Referring Search Terms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Chandler J.; Henry, Michael J.; McGrath, Liam R.; Bell, Eric B.; Marshall, Eric J.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    When an internet user clicks on a result in a search engine, a request is submitted to the destination web server that includes a referrer field containing the search terms given by the user. Using this information, website owners can analyze the search terms leading to their websites to better understand their visitors needs. This work explores some of the features that can be used for classification-based analysis of such referring search terms. We present initial results for the example task of classifying HTTP requests countries of origin. A system that can accurately predict the country of origin from query text may be a valuable complement to IP lookup methods which are susceptible to the obfuscation of dereferrers or proxies. We suggest that the addition of semantic features improves classifier performance in this example application. We begin by looking at related work and presenting our approach. After describing initial experiments and results, we discuss paths forward for this work.

  16. ACAA fly ash basics: quick reference card

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash is a fine powdery material created when coal is burned to generate electricity. Before escaping into the environment via the utility stacks, the ash is collected and may be stored for beneficial uses or disposed of, if necessary. The use of fly ash provides environmental benefits, such as the conservation of natural resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and eliminating the needed for ash disposal in landfills. It is also a valuable mineral resource that is used in construction and manufacturing. Fly ash is used in the production of Portland cement, concrete, mortars and stuccos, manufactured aggregates along with various agricultural applications. As mineral filler, fly ash can be used for paints, shingles, carpet backing, plastics, metal castings and other purposes. This quick reference card is intended to provide the reader basic source, identification and composition, information specifically related to fly ash.

  17. ILC Reference Design Report Volume 3 - Accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phinney, Nan; Walker, Nicholas

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a 200-500 GeV center-of-mass high-luminosity linear electron-positron collider, based on 1.3 GHz superconducting radio-frequency (SCRF) accelerating cavities. The ILC has a total footprint of about 31 km and is designed for a peak luminosity of 2x10^34 cm^-2 s^-1. The complex includes a polarized electron source, an undulator-based positron source, two 6.7 km circumference damping rings, two-stage bunch compressors, two 11 km long main linacs and a 4.5 km long beam delivery system. This report is Volume III (Accelerator) of the four volume Reference Design Report, which describes the design and cost of the ILC.

  18. Reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laing, Anthony; Rarity, John G.; O'Brien, Jeremy L. [Centre for Quantum Photonics, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, BS8 1UB (United Kingdom); Scarani, Valerio [Centre for Quantum Technologies and Department of Physics, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a quantum key distribution protocol based on pairs of entangled qubits that generates a secure key between two partners in an environment of unknown and slowly varying reference frame. A direction of particle delivery is required, but the phases between the computational basis states need not be known or fixed. The protocol can simplify the operation of existing setups and has immediate applications to emerging scenarios such as earth-to-satellite links and the use of integrated photonic waveguides. We compute the asymptotic secret key rate for a two-qubit source, which coincides with the rate of the six-state protocol for white noise. We give the generalization of the protocol to higher-dimensional systems and detail a scheme for physical implementation in the three-dimensional qutrit case.

  19. Credit and Trade References President and Fellows of Harvard College

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Credit and Trade References President and Fellows of Harvard College 1033 Massachusetts Avenue, 2nd;Trade References VWR International Risk Department Contact: Brian Newton TEL: 770-792-1271 FAX: 484

  20. SPD SEIS References for Appendix F | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    SPD SEIS References for Appendix F SPD SEIS References for Appendix F Blunt, B., 2010, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina, personal communication (email) to J. DiMarzio,...

  1. "No two directions are ever the same": Transforming reference services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stratton, John M.; Devlin, Frances A.

    2008-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This poster provides information about the changes that have occurred in reference services at the University of Kansas (KU) Libraries since 2002. Our intent is to illustrate the evolution of thinking about reference ...

  2. It's Complicated!: The Continuing Evolution of the Reference Service Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devlin, Frances A.; Ellis, Erin L.

    2010-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Digital resources and technologies have brought new dimensions to librarianship and traditional reference services. At the University of Kansas (KU) Libraries, reference services have been evolving and reconfigured several ...

  3. One in five online scholarly articles affected by 'reference...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on reference rot, the combination of link rot and content drift to which references to web resources included in STM articles are subject. January 26, 2015 From left, Los Alamos...

  4. SU-E-J-113: The Influence of Optimizing Pediatric CT Simulator Protocols On the Treatment Dose Calculation in Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y; Zhang, J; Hu, Q; Tie, J; Wu, H [Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Department of Radiotherapy, Peking University Cancer Hospital ' Institute, Beijing (China); Deng, J [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To investigate the possibility of applying optimized scanning protocols for pediatric CT simulation by quantifying the dosimetric inaccuracy introduced by using a fixed HU to density conversion. Methods: The images of a CIRS electron density reference phantom (Model 062) were acquired by a Siemens CT simulator (Sensation Open) using the following settings of tube voltage and beam current: 120 kV/190mA (the reference protocol used to calibrate CT for our treatment planning system (TPS)); Fixed 190mA combined with all available kV: 80, 100, and 140; fixed 120 kV and various current from 37 to 444 mA (scanner extremes) with interval of 30 mA. To avoid the HU uncertainty of point sampling in the various inserts of known electron densities, the mean CT numbers of the central cylindrical volume were calculated using DICOMan software. The doses per 100 MU to the reference point (SAD=100cm, Depth=10cm, Field=10X10cm, 6MV photon beam) in a virtual cubic phantom (30X30X30cm) were calculated using Eclipse TPS (calculation model: AcurosXB-11031) by assigning the CT numbers to HU of typical materials acquired by various protocols. Results: For the inserts of densities less than muscle, CT number fluctuations of all protocols were within the tolerance of 10 HU as accepted by AAPM-TG66. For more condensed materials, fixed kV yielded stable HU with any mA combination where largest disparities were found in 1750mg/cc insert: HU{sub reference}=1801(106.6cGy), HU{sub minimum}=1799 (106.6cGy, error{sub dose}=0.00%), HU{sub maximum}=1815 (106.8cGy, error{sub dose}=0.19%). Yet greater disagreements were observed with increasing density when kV was modified: HU{sub minimum}=1646 (104.5cGy, error{sub dose}=- 1.97%), HU{sub maximum}=2487 (116.4cGy, error{sub dose}=9.19%) in 1750mg/cc insert. Conclusion: Without affecting treatment dose calculation, personalized mA optimization of CT simulator can be conducted by fixing kV for a better cost-effectiveness of imaging dose and quality especially for children. Unless recalibrated, kV should be constant for all anatomical sites if diagnostic CT scanner is used as a simulator. This work was partially supported by Capital Medical Development Scientific Research Fund of China.

  5. Determination of the transuranic dose equivalent to the Rongelapese from urinary output analyzed by the fission track method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, George Anthony

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    materials and fission products, 2s9Pu is the major radionuclide of concern in the contamination of the environment (Sun 1984). Internally deposited plutonium is extremely hazardous to man, mainly because of its long effective half-life. It has been... Background Transuranic Dose MATERIAL AND METHODS Plutonium In Man . Urinalysis . Whole Body Counting (WBC) . Computer Programs Data Analysis . . . . . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION . CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS ON FURTHER WORK REFERENCES VITA . Page Vl...

  6. Integer Programs for High Dose Rate Brachytherapy Needle and Dose Planning that Directly Optimize Clinical Objectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siauw, Ko-Ay Timmy

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    radiation received by the bulb of the penis correlates withof radiation dose to the bulb of the penis in men with andavoided puncturing the penile bulb; the average number of

  7. Evaluation and Control of Radiation Dose to the Embryo/Fetus Guide for Use with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This Guide provides an acceptable methodology for establishing and operating a program to control fetal exposure to ionizing radiation and evaluate the resultant dose that will comply with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements specified in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection (DOE 1998), hereinafter referred to as 10 CFR 835.

  8. On the Intrinsic Locality Properties of Web Reference Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    On the Intrinsic Locality Properties of Web Reference Streams Rodrigo Fonseca Virg´ilio Almeida in the study of Web reference streams: sequences of requests for Web objects. In particular, many studies have into the nature of reference stream transformations in the Web. I. INTRODUCTION Considerable effort has gone

  9. Generating and Interpreting Referring Expressions in Dustin Arthur Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Referring Expressions in Context by Dustin Arthur Smith Submitted to the Program of Media Arts and Sciences, MIT Media Lab #12;Generating and Interpreting Referring Expressions in Context by Dustin Arthur SmithGenerating and Interpreting Referring Expressions in Context by Dustin Arthur Smith B.S., Wake

  10. Model Reference Adaptive Control Framework for Real Time Traffic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Adaptive Control #12;12 Prescriptive Dynamic Traffic Assignment A Prediction Model and the Reference ModelModel Reference Adaptive Control Framework for Real Time Traffic Management Under Emergency Movement Volume Adaptive Controller Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) Assumptions Super Zone Concept

  11. RECENT REFERENCES: APRIL 1, 2005 TO JUNE 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WINCHELL, D.F.

    2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document lists experimental references added to Nuclear Science References (NSR) during the period April 1, 2005 to June 30, 2005. The first section lists keynumbers and keywords sorted by mass and nuclide. The second section lists all references, ordered by keynumber.

  12. RECENT REFERENCES: JANUARY 1, 2005 TO DECEMBER 31, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WINCHELL, D.F.

    2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document lists experimental references added to Nuclear Science References (NSR) during the period January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2005. The first section lists keynumbers and keywords sorted by mass and nuclide. The second section lists all references, ordered by keynumber.

  13. RECENT REFERENCES: OCTOBER 1, 2005 TO DECEMBER 31, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WINCHELL, D.F.

    2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document lists experimental references added to Nuclear Science References (NSR) during the period October 1, 2005 to December 31, 2005. The first section lists keynumbers and keywords sorted by mass and nuclide. The second section lists all references, ordered by keynumber.

  14. 54 | P a g e Terms of Reference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    in campus sustainability by: o Working together to reduce the amount of water, energy and products we use 54 | P a g e Terms of Reference DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY OFFICE OF SUSTAINABILITY Rethink: Sustainability on Campus SUSTAINABILITY TEAMS Terms of Reference 1.0 Introduction These terms of reference

  15. Using Enterprise Reference Models for Automated ISO 9000 Compliance Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, Mark S.

    1 Using Enterprise Reference Models for Automated ISO 9000 Compliance Evaluation Henry M. Kim1, and then compared to a reference model of "good" processes and structures, such as the ISO 9000 standards. In this paper, the TOVE ISO 9000 Micro-Theory is presented as a formal reference model of quality goodness. ISO

  16. Low Dose Suppression of Neoplastic Transformation in Vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Leslie Redpath

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This grant was to study the low dose suppression of neoplastic transformation in vitro and the shape of the dose-response curve at low doses and dose-rates of ionizing radiation. Previous findings had indicated a suppression of transformation at dose <10cGy of low-LET radiation when delivered at high dose-rate. The present study indicates that such suppression extends out to doses in excess of 100cGy when the dose (from I-125 photons) is delivered at dose-rates as low as 0.2 mGy/min and out to in excess of {approx}25cGy the highest dose studied at the very low dose-rate of 0.5 mGy/day. We also examined dose-rate effects for high energy protons (which are a low-LET radiation) and suppression was evident below {approx}10cGy for high dose-rate delivery and at least out to 50cGy for low dose-rate (20cGy/h) delivery. Finally, we also examined the effect of low doses of 1 GeV/n iron ions (a high-LET radiation) delivered at high dose-rate on transformation at low doses and found a suppression below {approx}10cGy that could be attributable to an adaptive response in bystander cells induced by the associated low-LET delta rays. These results have implications for cancer risk assessment at low doses.

  17. CRYSTALLINE CERAMIC WASTE FORMS: REFERENCE FORMULATION REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, K.; Fox, K.; Marra, J.

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The research conducted in this work package is aimed at taking advantage of the long term thermodynamic stability of crystalline ceramics to create more durable waste forms (as compared to high level waste glass) in order to reduce the reliance on engineered and natural barrier systems. Durable ceramic waste forms that incorporate a wide range of radionuclides have the potential to broaden the available disposal options and to lower the storage and disposal costs associated with advanced fuel cycles. Assemblages of several titanate phases have been successfully demonstrated to incorporate radioactive waste elements, and the multiphase nature of these materials allows them to accommodate variation in the waste composition. Recent work has shown that they can be successfully produced from a melting and crystallization process. The objective of this report is to explain the design of ceramic host systems culminating in a reference ceramic formulation for use in subsequent studies on process optimization and melt property data assessment in support of FY13 melter demonstration testing. The waste stream used as the basis for the development and testing is a combination of the projected Cs/Sr separated stream, the Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorous reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes (TALSPEAK) waste stream consisting of lanthanide fission products, the transition metal fission product waste stream resulting from the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process, and a high molybdenum concentration with relatively low noble metal concentrations. In addition to the combined CS/LN/TM High Mo waste stream, variants without Mo and without Mo and Zr were also evaluated. Based on the results of fabricating and characterizing several simulated ceramic waste forms, two reference ceramic waste form compositions are recommended in this report. The first composition targets the CS/LN/TM combined waste stream with and without Mo. The second composition targets with CS/LN/TM combined waste stream with Mo and Zr removed. Waste streams that contain Mo must be produced in reducing environments to avoid Cs-Mo oxide phase formation. Waste streams without Mo have the ability to be melt processed in air. A path forward for further optimizing the processing steps needed to form the targeted phase assemblages is outlined in this report. Processing modifications including melting in a reducing atmosphere, and controlled heat treatment schedules are anticipated to improve the targeted elemental partitioning.

  18. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  19. SAPHIRE 8 Volume 2 - Technical Reference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. L. Smith; S. T. Wood; W. J. Galyean; J. A. Schroeder; M. B. Sattison

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) refers to a set of computer programs that were developed to create and analyze probabilistic risk assessment (PRAs). Herein information is provided on the principles used in the construction and operation of Version 8.0 of the SAPHIRE system. This report summarizes the fundamental mathematical concepts of sets and logic, fault trees, and probability. This volume then describes the algorithms used to construct a fault tree and to obtain the minimal cut sets. It gives the formulas used to obtain the probability of the top event from the minimal cut sets, and the formulas for probabilities that apply for various assumptions concerning reparability and mission time. It defines the measures of basic event importance that SAPHIRE can calculate. This volume gives an overview of uncertainty analysis using simple Monte Carlo sampling or Latin Hypercube sampling, and states the algorithms used by this program to generate random basic event probabilities from various distributions. Also covered are enhance capabilities such as seismic analysis, Workspace algorithms, cut set "recovery," end state manipulation, and use of "compound events."

  20. WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book: Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Du, Pengwei; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Vyakaranam, Bharat

    2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The document titled “WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book”. This book is divided into two volumes; one is the main document (volume 1)and the other is appendices (volume 2). The main document is a collection of the best practices and the information regarding the application and impact of variables generation on power system planning. This volume (appendices) has additional information on the following topics: Probabilistic load flow problems. 2. Additional useful indices. 3. high-impact low-frequency (HILF) events. 4. Examples of wide-area nomograms. 5. Transmission line ratings, types of dynamic rating methods. 6. Relative costs per MW-km of different electric power transmission technologies. 7. Ultra-high voltage (UHV) transmission. 8.High voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC). 9. HVDC. 10. Rewiring of existing transmission lines. 11. High-temperature low sag (HTLS) conductors. 12. The direct method and energy functions for transient stability analysis in power systems. 13.Blackouts caused by voltage instability. 14. Algorithm for parameter continuation predictor-corrector methods. 15. Approximation techniques available for security regions. 16. Impacts of wind power on power system small signals stability. 17. FIDVR. 18. FACTS. 19. European planning standard and practices. 20. International experience in wind and solar energy sources. 21. Western Renewable Energy Zones (WREZ). 22. various energy storage technologies. 23. demand response. 24. BA consolidation and cooperation options. 25. generator power management requirements and 26. European planning guidelines.

  1. Realistic simulation of reduced-dose CT with noise modeling and sinogram synthesis using DICOM CT images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Won Kim, Chang [Interdisciplinary Program of Bioengineering Major Seoul National University College of Engineering, San 56-1, Silim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 152-742, South Korea and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28, Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Interdisciplinary Program of Bioengineering Major Seoul National University College of Engineering, San 56-1, Silim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 152-742, South Korea and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28, Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyo, E-mail: kimjhyo@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28, Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul, 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do, 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do, 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Reducing the patient dose while maintaining the diagnostic image quality during CT exams is the subject of a growing number of studies, in which simulations of reduced-dose CT with patient data have been used as an effective technique when exploring the potential of various dose reduction techniques. Difficulties in accessing raw sinogram data, however, have restricted the use of this technique to a limited number of institutions. Here, we present a novel reduced-dose CT simulation technique which provides realistic low-dose images without the requirement of raw sinogram data. Methods: Two key characteristics of CT systems, the noise equivalent quanta (NEQ) and the algorithmic modulation transfer function (MTF), were measured for various combinations of object attenuation and tube currents by analyzing the noise power spectrum (NPS) of CT images obtained with a set of phantoms. Those measurements were used to develop a comprehensive CT noise model covering the reduced x-ray photon flux, object attenuation, system noise, and bow-tie filter, which was then employed to generate a simulated noise sinogram for the reduced-dose condition with the use of a synthetic sinogram generated from a reference CT image. The simulated noise sinogram was filtered with the algorithmic MTF and back-projected to create a noise CT image, which was then added to the reference CT image, finally providing a simulated reduced-dose CT image. The simulation performance was evaluated in terms of the degree of NPS similarity, the noise magnitude, the bow-tie filter effect, and the streak noise pattern at photon starvation sites with the set of phantom images. Results: The simulation results showed good agreement with actual low-dose CT images in terms of their visual appearance and in a quantitative evaluation test. The magnitude and shape of the NPS curves of the simulated low-dose images agreed well with those of real low-dose images, showing discrepancies of less than +/?3.2% in terms of the noise power at the peak height and +/?1.2% in terms of the spatial frequency at the peak height. The magnitudes of the noise measured for 12 different combinations the phantom size, tube current, and reconstruction kernel for the simulated and real low-dose images were very similar, with differences of 0.1 to 4.7%. Thep value for a statistical testing of the difference in the noise magnitude ranged from 0.99 to 0.11, showing that there was no difference statistically between the noise magnitudes of the real and simulated low-dose images using our method. The strength and pattern of the streak noise in an anthropomorphic phantom was also consistent with expectations. Conclusions: A novel reduced-dose CT simulation technique was developed which uses only CT images while not requiring raw sinogram data. Our method can provide realistic simulation results under reduced-dose conditions both in terms of the noise magnitude and the textual appearance. This technique has the potential to promote clinical research for patient dose reductions.

  2. Ensuring the Availability and Reliability of Urea Dosing For...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ensuring the Availability and Reliability of Urea Dosing For On-Road and Non-Road Ensuring the Availability and Reliability of Urea Dosing For On-Road and Non-Road 2003 DEER...

  3. arteries dose reduction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    artery Price, Paul A. 8 a 50% reduction in Prlr gene dose, provides strong evidence for PRL being the mediator Geosciences Websites Summary: a 50% reduction in Prlr gene dose,...

  4. Key ACA Terms A quick reference of frequently used terms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    to achieving health care quality goals and outcomes that result in cost savings. Affordable Health Care Health; and pediatric services, including oral and vision care. Federal Poverty Level (FPL) A measure of income level issued annually by the Department of Health and Human Services. The federal poverty level is used

  5. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report, February 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M. (comps.)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source Terms; Environmental Transport; Environmental Monitoring Data; Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture; and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  6. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report, February 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M. [comps.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source Terms; Environmental Transport; Environmental Monitoring Data; Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture; and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  7. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report, November 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. [comps.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms; environmental transport environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  8. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report, May 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. [comps.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These task correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demography, food consumption, and agriculture, and environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  9. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report, May 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. (comps.)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These task correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demography, food consumption, and agriculture, and environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  10. Limitations of the TG-43 formalism for skin high-dose-rate brachytherapy dose calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granero, Domingo, E-mail: dgranero@eresa.com [Department of Radiation Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, 46014 Valencia (Spain)] [Department of Radiation Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, 46014 Valencia (Spain); Perez-Calatayud, Jose [Radiotherapy Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026 (Spain)] [Radiotherapy Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026 (Spain); Vijande, Javier [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100, Spain and IFIC (UV-CSIC), Paterna 46980 (Spain)] [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100, Spain and IFIC (UV-CSIC), Paterna 46980 (Spain); Ballester, Facundo [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain)] [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: In skin high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, sources are located outside, in contact with, or implanted at some depth below the skin surface. Most treatment planning systems use the TG-43 formalism, which is based on single-source dose superposition within an infinite water medium without accounting for the true geometry in which conditions for scattered radiation are altered by the presence of air. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dosimetric limitations of the TG-43 formalism in HDR skin brachytherapy and the potential clinical impact. Methods: Dose rate distributions of typical configurations used in skin brachytherapy were obtained: a 5 cm × 5 cm superficial mould; a source inside a catheter located at the skin surface with and without backscatter bolus; and a typical interstitial implant consisting of an HDR source in a catheter located at a depth of 0.5 cm. Commercially available HDR{sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir sources and a hypothetical {sup 169}Yb source were considered. The Geant4 Monte Carlo radiation transport code was used to estimate dose rate distributions for the configurations considered. These results were then compared to those obtained with the TG-43 dose calculation formalism. In particular, the influence of adding bolus material over the implant was studied. Results: For a 5 cm × 5 cm{sup 192}Ir superficial mould and 0.5 cm prescription depth, dose differences in comparison to the TG-43 method were about ?3%. When the source was positioned at the skin surface, dose differences were smaller than ?1% for {sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir, yet ?3% for {sup 169}Yb. For the interstitial implant, dose differences at the skin surface were ?7% for {sup 60}Co, ?0.6% for {sup 192}Ir, and ?2.5% for {sup 169}Yb. Conclusions: This study indicates the following: (i) for the superficial mould, no bolus is needed; (ii) when the source is in contact with the skin surface, no bolus is needed for either {sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir. For lower energy radionuclides like {sup 169}Yb, bolus may be needed; and (iii) for the interstitial case, at least a 0.1 cm bolus is advised for {sup 60}Co to avoid underdosing superficial target layers. For {sup 192}Ir and {sup 169}Yb, no bolus is needed. For those cases where no bolus is needed, its use might be detrimental as the lack of radiation scatter may be beneficial to the patient, although the 2% tolerance for dose calculation accuracy recommended in the AAPM TG-56 report is not fulfilled.

  11. SU-E-I-02: A Framework to Perform Batch Simulations of Computational Voxel Phantoms to Study Organ Doses in Computed Tomography Using a Commercial Monte Carlo Software Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bujila, R; Nowik, P; Poludniowski, G [Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: ImpactMC (CT Imaging, Erlangen, Germany) is a Monte Carlo (MC) software package that offers a GPU enabled, user definable and validated method for 3D dose distribution calculations for radiography and Computed Tomography (CT). ImpactMC, in and of itself, offers limited capabilities to perform batch simulations. The aim of this work was to develop a framework for the batch simulation of absorbed organ dose distributions from CT scans of computational voxel phantoms. Methods: The ICRP 110 adult Reference Male and Reference Female computational voxel phantoms were formatted into compatible input volumes for MC simulations. A Matlab (The MathWorks Inc., Natick, MA) script was written to loop through a user defined set of simulation parameters and 1) generate input files required for the simulation, 2) start the MC simulation, 3) segment the absorbed dose for organs in the simulated dose volume and 4) transfer the organ doses to a database. A demonstration of the framework is made where the glandular breast dose to the adult Reference Female phantom, for a typical Chest CT examination, is investigated. Results: A batch of 48 contiguous simulations was performed with variations in the total collimation and spiral pitch. The demonstration of the framework showed that the glandular dose to the right and left breast will vary depending on the start angle of rotation, total collimation and spiral pitch. Conclusion: The developed framework provides a robust and efficient approach to performing a large number of user defined MC simulations with computational voxel phantoms in CT (minimal user interaction). The resulting organ doses from each simulation can be accessed through a database which greatly increases the ease of analyzing the resulting organ doses. The framework developed in this work provides a valuable resource when investigating different dose optimization strategies in CT.

  12. Stereoscopic Interpretation of Low-Dose Breast Tomosynthesis Projection Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bovik, Alan

    Stereoscopic Interpretation of Low-Dose Breast Tomosynthesis Projection Images Gautam S. Muralidhar of this study was to evaluate stereoscopic perception of low-dose breast tomosynthesis projection images . 3D perception . Low-dose projections Background In breast tomosynthesis imaging, 15­30 x

  13. International linear collider reference design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aarons, G.

    2007-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Linear Collider will give physicists a new cosmic doorway to explore energy regimes beyond the reach of today's accelerators. A proposed electron-positron collider, the ILC will complement the Large Hadron Collider, a proton-proton collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, together unlocking some of the deepest mysteries in the universe. With LHC discoveries pointing the way, the ILC -- a true precision machine -- will provide the missing pieces of the puzzle. Consisting of two linear accelerators that face each other, the ILC will hurl some 10 billion electrons and their anti-particles, positrons, toward each other at nearly the speed of light. Superconducting accelerator cavities operating at temperatures near absolute zero give the particles more and more energy until they smash in a blazing crossfire at the centre of the machine. Stretching approximately 35 kilometres in length, the beams collide 14,000 times every second at extremely high energies -- 500 billion-electron-volts (GeV). Each spectacular collision creates an array of new particles that could answer some of the most fundamental questions of all time. The current baseline design allows for an upgrade to a 50-kilometre, 1 trillion-electron-volt (TeV) machine during the second stage of the project. This reference design provides the first detailed technical snapshot of the proposed future electron-positron collider, defining in detail the technical parameters and components that make up each section of the 31-kilometer long accelerator. The report will guide the development of the worldwide R&D program, motivate international industrial studies and serve as the basis for the final engineering design needed to make an official project proposal later this decade.

  14. A Review of "Oral Culture and Catholicism in Early Modern England" by Alison Shell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landrum, Robert

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reviews 123 Alison Shell. Oral Culture and Catholicism in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. xiv + 244 pp. $95.00. Review by robert landrum, university of south carolina beaufort. In Oral Culture and Catholicism... in Early Modern England Alison Shell assigns herself an ambitious task, to assess the impact of post-Refor- mation Catholicism on England?s oral culture. It is an investigation of a persecuted and deliberately opaque subculture through the use...

  15. Low-Dose Radiotherapy in Indolent Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossier, Christine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Schick, Ulrike; Miralbell, Raymond [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland); Mirimanoff, Rene O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Weber, Damien C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland); Ozsahin, Mahmut, E-mail: Esat-Mahmut.Ozsahin@chuv.ch [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To assess the response rate, duration of response, and overall survival after low-dose involved-field radiotherapy in patients with recurrent low-grade lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Methods and Materials: Forty-three (24 women, 19 men) consecutive patients with indolent lymphoma or CLL were treated with a total dose of 4 Gy (2 x 2 Gy) using 6- 18-MV photons. The median age was 73 years (range, 39-88). Radiotherapy was given either after (n = 32; 75%) or before (n = 11; 25%) chemotherapy. The median time from diagnosis was 48 months (range, 1-249). The median follow-up period was 20 months (range, 1-56). Results: The overall response rate was 90%. Twelve patients (28%) had a complete response, 15 (35%) had a partial response, 11 (26%) had stable disease, and 5 (11%) had progressive disease. The median overall survival for patients with a positive response (complete response/partial response/stable disease) was 41 months; for patients with progressive disease it was 6 months (p = 0.001). The median time to in-field progression was 21 months (range, 0-24), and the median time to out-field progression was 8 months (range, 0-40). The 3-year in-field control was 92% in patients with complete response (median was not reached). The median time to in-field progression was 9 months (range, 0.5-24) in patients with partial response and 6 months (range, 0.6-6) in those with stable disease (p < 0.05). Younger age, positive response to radiotherapy, and no previous chemotherapy were the best factors influencing the outcome. Conclusions: Low-dose involved-field radiotherapy is an effective treatment in the management of patients with recurrent low-grade lymphoma or CLL.

  16. SU-E-T-176: Examination of Surface Dose Enhancement Using Radiochromic EBT3-Films in a Cylindrical Setup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Failing, T; Chofor, N; Poppinga, D; Schoenfeld, A; Poppe, B [Pius Hospital and Carl von Ossietzky University, Oldenburg, Germany, Oldenburg, Niedersachsen (Germany); Willborn, K [Pius Hospital Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Niedersachsen (Germany)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to optimize the measurement techniques with radiochromic EBT3 films to offer accurate surface dose measurements and at the same time high resolution depth dose curves of the backscattering from high Z materials. Methods: Radiochromic EBT3 films (Ashland ISP, Wayne, USA) were wrapped around a PET hollow cylinder with a diameter of 41.5 mm and fixed upon the surface of a lead block. The setup was immersed in water and exposed to a dose of 2 Gy at 6MV acceleration voltage using a Siemens Primus linear accelerator. Water reference measurements were undertaken under equal conditions. An Epson Expression 10000 XL flatbed scanner (Epson, Suwa, Japan) with a preset resolution of 72 dpi was used for digitization. Results: The dose enhancement could be measured with a high resolution of measurement points along the axis normal to the lead surface. A dose enhancement of 70 % was measured at a distance of 134 ?m from the lead surface. The data has been compared with results presented by Das et al (Med. Phys. 16(3) (1989)) and is consistent within the uncertainty of the measurements. The results are in consistence with the results from time-tested EBT3 setups, i.e. normal-to-beam EBT3 film stacks and parallel to beam EBT3-films. Conclusion: The cylindrical film setup offers a powerful tool for surface measurements. The advantages of a stacked film setup and a parallel to beam setup could be combined.

  17. ORISE: Radiation Dose Estimates and Other Compendia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparencyDOENurse Triage LinesCytogeneticHowResponseDose Estimates

  18. HE3286, an oral synthetic steroid, treats lung inflammation in mice without immune suppression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    implications for therapy. Treat Respir Med 2004, 3:147-59.as a potential agent to treat autoimmune diseases. Autoimmunan oral synthetic steroid, treats lung inflammation in mice

  19. Oral History Videos | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find MoreRod-OracleOral

  20. Special topics reports for the reference tandem mirror fusion breeder. Volume 2. Reactor safety assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maya, I.; Hoot, C.G.; Wong, C.P.C.; Schultz, K.R.; Garner, J.K.; Bradbury, S.J.; Steele, W.G.; Berwald, D.H.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The safety features of the reference fission suppressed fusion breeder reactor are presented. These include redundancy and overcapacity in primary coolant system components to minimize failure probability, an improved valve location logic to provide for failed component isolation, and double-walled coolant piping and steel guard vessel protection to further limit the extent of any leak. In addition to the primary coolant and decay heat removal system, reactor safety systems also include an independent shield cooling system, the module safety/fuel transfer coolant system, an auxiliary first wall cooling system, a psssive dump tank cooling system based on the use of heat pipes, and several lithium fire suppression systems. Safety system specifications are justified based on the results of thermal analysis, event tree construction, consequence calculations, and risk analysis. The result is a reactor design concept with an acceptably low probability of a major radioactivity release. Dose consequences of maximum credible accidents appear to be below 10CFR100 regulatory limits.

  1. Reference Model for Control and Automation Systems in Electrical...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Model for Control and Automation Systems in Electrical Power (October 2005) Reference Model for Control and Automation Systems in Electrical Power (October 2005) Modern...

  2. Reference Model for Control and Automation Systems in Electrical...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Reference Model for Control and Automation Systems in Electrical Power Version 1.2 October 12, 2005 Prepared by: Sandia National Laboratories' Center for SCADA Security Jason...

  3. The Hydrogen Laboratory and The Brazilian Reference Center for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laboratory & The Brazilian Reference Center for Hydrogen Energy December 09 th , 2009 Dr. Newton Pimenta Cristiano Pinto LH2 & CENEH The State University of Campinas UNICAMP...

  4. Polymorphic Typing of Variables and References GEOFFREY SMITH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Geoffrey

    Polymorphic Typing of Variables and References GEOFFREY SMITH Florida International University reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Authors' addresses: G. Smith, School of Computer

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: blade NDI reference sample library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NDI reference sample library Sandia Participated in AMII to Support American-Made Wind-Turbine Blades On December 3, 2014, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy, Materials...

  6. 2012 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Cross-Reference of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review Results Report - Cross-reference of Project Investigators, Projects, and Organizations 2011 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Hybrid and Vehicle Systems Technologies...

  7. 2014 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Cross-reference of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2012 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Cross-Reference of Project Investigtors, Projects, and Organizations 2011 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Hybrid and Vehicle Systems...

  8. 2013 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Cross-Reference of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review Results Report - Cross-reference of Project Investigators, Projects, and Organizations 2011 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Hybrid and Vehicle Systems Technologies...

  9. approval reference number: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    REPORTING;Emergency Information Desk Reference 3 REPORTING AN EMERGENCY Police - Fire - Medical 9-1-1 Dialing 911 Sciences Campus (252) 744-3863 University...

  10. Detailed HCCI Exhaust Speciation - ORNL Reference Fuel Blends...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HCCI Exhaust Speciation - ORNL Reference Fuel Blends Accurately measure exhaust profile from an HCCI engine with a variety of fuels and create a better understanding of HCCI...

  11. EFRC management reference document Energy Frontier Research Centers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    appropriate acknowledgment of the facility or equipment and its supporting agency. EFRC management reference document Energy Frontier Research Centers Acknowledgments of Support...

  12. FAQS Reference Guide – Safeguards and Security General Technical Base

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This reference guide addresses the competency statements in the July 2009 edition of DOE-STD-1123-2009, Safeguards and Security General Technical Base Qualification Standard.

  13. Draft SPD SEIS Master Reference List | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Policy Act (NEPA) NEPA Reading Room Surplus Plutonium Disposition Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement Draft SPD SEIS Master Reference List Draft SPD SEIS Master...

  14. adt reference manual: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LLSIM Reference Manual MIT - DSpace Summary: A program that simulates a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-11 computer and many of its peripherals on the AI Laboratory Time Sharing...

  15. MPI: The Complete Reference Scientific and Engineering Computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Paul

    MPI: The Complete Reference #12; Scientific and Engineering Computation Janusz Kowalik, Editor Data Manchek, and Vaidy Sunderam, 1994 Enabling Technologies for Petaflops Computing by Thomas Sterling, Paul

  16. NERSC/DOE BER Requirements Workshop Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLoveReference Materials ReferenceReference Materials Reference

  17. NERSC/DOE FES Requirements Workshop Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLoveReference MaterialsReferenceReference Materials Reference

  18. Misonidazole with dexamethasone rescue: an escalating dose toxicity study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanasichuk, H.; Urtasun, R.C.; Fulton, D.S.; Raleigh, J.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neurotoxicity induced by misonidazole (MISO) and desmethylmisonidazole (DMM) has become the dose limiting factor in clinical work. In 1981, the authors reported a preliminary study suggestive that Dexamethasone (DEXA) does have a protective effect against peripheral neuropathies (PN) resulting from toxicity of misonidazole. The authors are presently investigating the use of DEXA, with escalating doses of MISO in an attempt to modify its neurotoxicity. To date, 16 patients have been registered to receive total doses of MISO given in 9 equally divided doses over 3 weeks. DEXA is given 3 days prior to the first dose and continues for the duration of therapy. All patients receive palliative radiation. No toxicity was seen at the total dose of 13.5 gm/M/sub 2/. One grade I PN occurred in the first four patients receiving 15.5 gm/M/sub 2/. Six additional patients were entered at this dose level and no further incidence of PN was observed.

  19. a-bisabolol induces dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    42 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  20. Monte Carlo calculations for reference dosimetry of electron beams with the PTW Roos and NE2571 ion chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muir, B. R., E-mail: bmuir@physics.carleton.ca; Rogers, D. W. O., E-mail: drogers@physics.carleton.ca [Physics Department, Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)] [Physics Department, Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To investigate recommendations for reference dosimetry of electron beams and gradient effects for the NE2571 chamber and to provide beam quality conversion factors using Monte Carlo simulations of the PTW Roos and NE2571 ion chambers. Methods: The EGSnrc code system is used to calculate the absorbed dose-to-water and the dose to the gas in fully modeled ion chambers as a function of depth in water. Electron beams are modeled using realistic accelerator simulations as well as beams modeled as collimated point sources from realistic electron beam spectra or monoenergetic electrons. Beam quality conversion factors are calculated with ratios of the doses to water and to the air in the ion chamber in electron beams and a cobalt-60 reference field. The overall ion chamber correction factor is studied using calculations of water-to-air stopping power ratios. Results: The use of an effective point of measurement shift of 1.55 mm from the front face of the PTW Roos chamber, which places the point of measurement inside the chamber cavity, minimizes the difference betweenR{sub 50}, the beam quality specifier, calculated from chamber simulations compared to that obtained using depth-dose calculations in water. A similar shift minimizes the variation of the overall ion chamber correction factor with depth to the practical range and reduces the root-mean-square deviation of a fit to calculated beam quality conversion factors at the reference depth as a function of R{sub 50}. Similarly, an upstream shift of 0.34 r{sub cav} allows a more accurate determination of R{sub 50} from NE2571 chamber calculations and reduces the variation of the overall ion chamber correction factor with depth. The determination of the gradient correction using a shift of 0.22 r{sub cav} optimizes the root-mean-square deviation of a fit to calculated beam quality conversion factors if all beams investigated are considered. However, if only clinical beams are considered, a good fit to results for beam quality conversion factors is obtained without explicitly correcting for gradient effects. The inadequacy of R{sub 50} to uniquely specify beam quality for the accurate selection of k{sub Q} factors is discussed. Systematic uncertainties in beam quality conversion factors are analyzed for the NE2571 chamber and amount to between 0.4% and 1.2% depending on assumptions used. Conclusions: The calculated beam quality conversion factors for the PTW Roos chamber obtained here are in good agreement with literature data. These results characterize the use of an NE2571 ion chamber for reference dosimetry of electron beams even in low-energy beams.

  1. We can do better than effective dose for estimating or comparing low-dose radiation risks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    of the radiation risks they are trying to control. Ã? 2012 ICRP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved Effective dose (ICRP, 1977) represents an attempt to provide a quantity which is proportional of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. 124 #12;and hereditary effects. Specifically, it is the sum

  2. Empowering the Frontline: A Dynamic Online Reference Manual and Training Session for Student Library Employee Reference Skills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loo, Jeffery L; Quigley, Brian D; Ngo, Lisa T; Powell, Susan; Teplitzky, Samantha

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    training across our libraries’ service points. To developSession for Student Library Employee Reference SkillsTraining Design 5 libraries Engineering & Physical Sciences

  3. Using Prefetching to Improve Reference-Counting Garbage Collectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrank, Erez

    Using Prefetching to Improve Reference-Counting Garbage Collectors Harel Paz 1 and Erez Petrank 2 1-counting collector. We propose potential prefetching opportunities for the advanced reference-counting collector and report an implementation of a collector that employs such prefetch- ing. The proposed prefetch

  4. General References Name Author(s) of Book

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pamela J. Bennett; Gary Y. Gao; David L; Clement; Ethel Dutky; Michael A; Dirr; Charles W; Fred Hower; Alison; Michael A; Of Woody Plant; Of North

    This is the third Special Circular installment of useful horticultural references for green-industry professionals, horticultural educators, and gardeners. This work-in-progress is a compilation of references that horticulturists use on a regular basis. If there are any books that should be added to this list,

  5. TLG Beta Code Quick Reference Guide Revised: July 16, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loudon, Catherine

    TLG Beta Code Quick Reference Guide Revised: July 16, 2009 This document provides a quick reference to Beta Code and its Unicode equivalents. For a comprehensive overview of Beta Code, please see the TLG Beta Code Manual. Unicode equivalents are correct as of Unicode 5.1. Table of Contents Notes

  6. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3B Los Angeles, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  7. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3B Los Angeles, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  8. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3B Las Vegas, Nevada

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  9. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3B Las Vegas, Nevada

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  10. Archived Reference Climate Zone: TMY2 Weather Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  11. Archived Reference Climate Zone: TMY2 Weather Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  12. UNIVERSITY COUNCIL ON ANIMAL CARE (UCAC) Terms of Reference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lennard, William N.

    's Terms of Reference; AUS-approved Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). b) Ensure that the University, maintenance and use of animals as defined by the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC), hereafter referred Canada. iv) The Canadian Association of Laboratory Medicine's Standards of Animal Care; v) The Animals

  13. Titanium Language Reference Manual Version 2.20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    Titanium Language Reference Manual Version 2.20 P. N. Hilfinger (editor), Dan Bonachea, Kaushik Berkeley, California 94720 #12;Titanium Language Reference Manual Version 2.20 P. N. Hilfinger (editor, and Katherine Yelick August, 2006 #12;Abstract The Titanium language is a Java dialect for high

  14. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 2A Houston, Texas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  15. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 2A Houston, Texas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  16. Occupational dose estimates for a monitored retrievable storage facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harty, R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Occupational doses were estimated for radiation workers at the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. This study provides an estimate of the occupational dose based on the current MRS facility design, examines the extent that various design parameters and assumptions affect the dose estimates, and identifies the areas and activities where exposures can be reduced most effectively. Occupational doses were estimated for both the primary storage concept and the alternate storage concept. The dose estimates indicate the annual dose to all radiation workers will be below the 5 rem/yr federal dose equivalent limit. However, the estimated dose to most of the receiving and storage crew (the workers responsible for the receipt, storage, and surveillance of the spent fuel and its subsequent retrieval), to the crane maintenance technicians, and to the cold and remote maintenance technicians is above the design objective of 1 rem/yr. The highest annual dose is received by the riggers (4.7 rem) in the receiving and storage crew. An indication of the extent to which various design parameters and assumptions affect the dose estimates was obtained by changing various design-based assumptions such as work procedures, background dose rates in radiation zones, and the amount of fuel received and stored annually. The study indicated that a combination of remote operations, increased shielding, and additional personnel (for specific jobs) or changes in operating procedures will be necessary to reduce worker doses below 1.0 rem/yr. Operations that could be made at least partially remote include the removal and replacement of the tiedowns, impact limiters, and personnel barriers from the shipping casks and the removal or installation of the inner closure bolts. Reductions of the background dose rates in the receiving/shipping and the transfer/discharge areas may be accomplished with additional shielding.

  17. Shared Dosimetry Error in Epidemiological Dose-Response Analyses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stram, Daniel O.; Preston, Dale L.; Sokolnikov, Mikhail; Napier, Bruce; Kopecky, Kenneth J.; Boice, John; Beck, Harold; Till, John; Bouville, Andre; Zeeb, Hajo

    2015-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation dose reconstruction systems for large-scale epidemiological studies are sophisticated both in providing estimates of dose and in representing dosimetry uncertainty. For example, a computer program was used by the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study to provide 100 realizations of possible dose to study participants. The variation in realizations reflected the range of possible dose for each cohort member consistent with the data on dose determinates in the cohort. Another example is the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2013 which estimates both external and internal exposures and provides multiple realizations of "possible" dose history to workers given dose determinants. This paper takesmore »up the problem of dealing with complex dosimetry systems that provide multiple realizations of dose in an epidemiologic analysis. In this paper we derive expected scores and the information matrix for a model used widely in radiation epidemiology, namely the linear excess relative risk (ERR) model that allows for a linear dose response (risk in relation to radiation) and distinguishes between modifiers of background rates and of the excess risk due to exposure. We show that treating the mean dose for each individual (calculated by averaging over the realizations) as if it was true dose (ignoring both shared and unshared dosimetry errors) gives asymptotically unbiased estimates (i.e. the score has expectation zero) and valid tests of the null hypothesis that the ERR slope ? is zero. Although the score is unbiased the information matrix (and hence the standard errors of the estimate of ?) is biased for ?6¼0 when ignoring errors in dose estimates, and we show how to adjust the information matrix to remove this bias, using the multiple realizations of dose. The use of these methods in the context of several studies including, the MayakWorker Cohort, and the U.S. Atomic Veterans Study, is discussed.« less

  18. Technology Assessment and Roadmap for the Emergency Radiation Dose Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turteltaub, K W; Hartman-Siantar, C; Easterly, C; Blakely, W

    2005-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A Joint Interagency Working Group (JIWG) under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security Office of Research and Development conducted a technology assessment of emergency radiological dose assessment capabilities as part of the overall need for rapid emergency medical response in the event of a radiological terrorist event in the United States. The goal of the evaluation is to identify gaps and recommend general research and development needs to better prepare the Country for mitigating the effects of such an event. Given the capabilities and roles for responding to a radiological event extend across many agencies, a consensus of gaps and suggested development plans was a major goal of this evaluation and road-mapping effort. The working group consisted of experts representing the Departments of Homeland Security, Health and Human Services (Centers for Disease Control and the National Institutes of Health), Food and Drug Administration, Department of Defense and the Department of Energy's National Laboratories (see appendix A for participants). The specific goals of this Technology Assessment and Roadmap were to: (1) Describe the general context for deployment of emergency radiation dose assessment tools following terrorist use of a radiological or nuclear device; (2) Assess current and emerging dose assessment technologies; and (3) Put forward a consensus high-level technology roadmap for interagency research and development in this area. This report provides a summary of the consensus of needs, gaps and recommendations for a research program in the area of radiation dosimetry for early response, followed by a summary of the technologies available and on the near-term horizon. We then present a roadmap for a research program to bring present and emerging near-term technologies to bear on the gaps in radiation dose assessment and triage. Finally we present detailed supporting discussion on the nature of the threats we considered, the status of technology today, promising emerging technologies and references for further reading.

  19. Investigation of infrared Fourier-Transform spectroscopy for oral cancer detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooney, Kevin Michael

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system was developed using a Fourier Transform-n spectrometer to investigate spectral differences between malignant, benign and healthy oral tissue in the near-infrared range (2.0-2.5 microns). A hamster model for oral squamous cell carcinoma...

  20. Validation of Dose Calculation Codes for Clearance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, S.; Wirendal, B.; Bjerler, J.; Studsvik; Teunckens, L.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Various international and national bodies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency, the European Commission, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission have put forward proposals or guidance documents to regulate the ''clearance'' from regulatory control of very low level radioactive material, in order to allow its recycling as a material management practice. All these proposals are based on predicted scenarios for subsequent utilization of the released materials. The calculation models used in these scenarios tend to utilize conservative data regarding exposure times and dose uptake as well as other assumptions as a safeguard against uncertainties. None of these models has ever been validated by comparison with the actual real life practice of recycling. An international project was organized in order to validate some of the assumptions made in these calculation models, and, thereby, better assess the radiological consequences of recycling on a practical large scale.

  1. ILC Reference Design Report: Accelerator Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phinney, Nan; /SLAC

    2007-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a 200-500 GeV center-of-mass high-luminosity linear electron-positron collider, based on 1.3 GHz superconducting radiofrequency (SCRF) accelerating cavities. The use of the SCRF technology was recommended by the International Technology Recommendation Panel (ITRP) in August 2004 [1], and shortly thereafter endorsed by the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA). In an unprecedented milestone in high-energy physics, the many institutes around the world involved in linear collider R&D united in a common effort to produce a global design for the ILC. In November 2004, the 1st International Linear Collider Workshop was held at KEK, Tsukuba, Japan. The workshop was attended by some 200 accelerator physicists from around the world, and paved the way for the 2nd ILC Workshop in August 2005, held at Snowmass, Colorado, USA, where the ILC Global Design Effort (GDE) was officially formed. The GDE membership reflects the global nature of the collaboration, with accelerator experts from all three regions (Americas, Asia and Europe). The first major goal of the GDE was to define the basic parameters and layout of the machine--the Baseline Configuration. This was achieved at the first GDE meeting held at INFN, Frascati, Italy in December 2005 with the creation of the Baseline Configuration Document (BCD). During the next 14 months, the BCD was used as the basis for the detailed design work and value estimate (as described in section 1.6) culminating in the completion of the second major milestone, the publication of the draft ILC Reference Design Report (RDR). The technical design and cost estimate for the ILC is based on two decades of world-wide Linear Collider R&D, beginning with the construction and operation of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). The SLC is acknowledged as a proof-of-principle machine for the linear collider concept. The ILC SCRF linac technology was pioneered by the TESLA collaboration*, culminating in a proposal for a 500 GeV center-of-mass linear collider in 2001 [2]. The concurrent (competing) design work on a normal conducting collider (NLC with X-band [3] and GLC with X- or C-Band [4]), has advanced the design concepts for the ILC injectors, Damping Rings (DR) and Beam Delivery System (BDS), as well as addressing overall operations, machine protection and availability issues. The X- and C-band R&D has led to concepts for the RF power source that may eventually produce either cost and/or performance benefits. Finally, the European XFEL [5] to be constructed at DESY, Hamburg, Germany, will make use of the TESLA linac technology, and represents a significant on-going R&D effort which remains of great benefit for the ILC. The current ILC baseline assumes an accelerating gradient of 31.5 MV/m to achieve a centre-of-mass energy of 500 GeV. The high luminosity requires the use of high power and small emittance beams. The choice of 1.3 GHz SCRF is well suited to the requirements, primarily because the very low power loss in the SCRF cavity walls allows the use of long RF pulses, relaxing the requirements on the peak-power generation, and ultimately leading to high wall-plug to beam transfer efficiency. The primary cost drivers are the SCRF Main Linac technology and the Conventional Facilities (including civil engineering). The choice of gradient is a key cost and performance parameter, since it dictates the length of the linacs, while the cavity quality factor (Q{sub 0}) relates to the required cryogenic cooling power. The achievement of 31.5 MV/m as the baseline average operational accelerating gradient--requiring a minimum performance of 35 MV/m during cavity mass-production acceptance testing--represents the primary challenge to the global ILC R&D With the completion of the RDR, the GDE will shortly begin an engineering design study, closely coupled with a prioritized R&D program. The goal is to produce an Engineering Design Report (EDR) demonstrating readiness for construction by 2010, followed by start of construction in 2012. A seve

  2. Geometric interpretation of the dose distribution comparison technique: Interpolation-free calculation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ju, Tao

    Geometric interpretation of the dose distribution comparison technique: Interpolation investigators to quantitatively compare multidimensional dose distributions. The tool requires the specification of dose and distance-to- agreement DTA criteria for acceptable variations between the dose distributions

  3. ALL-PATHWAYS DOSE ANALYSIS FOR THE PORTSMOUTH ON-SITE WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, F.; Phifer, M.

    2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) All-Pathways analysis has been conducted that considers the radiological impacts to a resident farmer. It is assumed that the resident farmer utilizes a farm pond contaminated by the OSWDF to irrigate a garden and pasture and water livestock from which food for the resident farmer is obtained, and that the farmer utilizes groundwater from the Berea sandstone aquifer for domestic purposes (i.e. drinking water and showering). As described by FBP 2014b the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model (Schroeder et al. 1994) and the Surface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) model (White and Oostrom 2000, 2006) were used to model the flow and transport from the OSWDF to the Points of Assessment (POAs) associated with the 680-ft elevation sandstone layer (680 SSL) and the Berea sandstone aquifer. From this modeling the activity concentrations radionuclides were projected over time at the POAs. The activity concentrations were utilized as input to a GoldSimTM (GTG 2010) dose model, described herein, in order to project the dose to a resident farmer over time. A base case and five sensitivity cases were analyzed. The sensitivity cases included an evaluation of the impacts of using a conservative inventory, an uncased well to the Berea sandstone aquifer, a low waste zone uranium distribution coefficient (Kd), different transfer factors, and reference person exposure parameters (i.e. at 95 percentile). The maximum base case dose within the 1,000 year assessment period was projected to be 1.5E-14 mrem/yr, and the maximum base case dose at any time less than 10,000 years was projected to be 0.002 mrem/yr. The maximum projected dose of any sensitivity case was approximately 2.6 mrem/yr associated with the use of an uncased well to the Berea sandstone aquifer. This sensitivity case is considered very unlikely because it assumes leakage from the location of greatest concentration in the 680 SSL in to the Berea sandstone aquiver over time and does not conform to standard private water well construction practices. The bottom-line is that all predicted doses from the base case and five sensitivity cases fall well below the DOE all-pathways 25 mrem/yr Performance Objective.

  4. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference large irradiator and reference sealed sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haffner, D.R.; Villelgas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to examine the decommissioning of large radioactive irradiators and their respective facilities, and a broad spectrum of sealed radioactive sources and their respective devices. Conceptual decommissioning activities are identified, and the technology, safety, and costs (in early 1993 dollars) associated with decommissioning the reference large irradiator and sealed source facilities are evaluated. The study provides bases and background data for possible future NRC rulemaking regarding decommissioning, for evaluation of the reasonableness of planned decommissioning actions, and for determining if adequate funds are reserved by the licensees for decommissioning of their large irradiator or sealed source facilities. Another purpose of this study is to provide background and information to assist licensees in planning and carrying out the decommissioning of their sealed radioactive sources and respective facilities.

  5. SU?C?105?05: Reference Dosimetry of High?Energy Electron Beams with a Farmer?Type Ionization Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muir, B; Rogers, D [Carleton University, Ottawa, ON (Canada)] [Carleton University, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To investigate gradient effects and provide Monte Carlo calculated beam quality conversion factors to characterize the Farmer?type NE2571 ion chamber for high?energy reference dosimetry of clinical electron beams. Methods: The EGSnrc code system is used to calculate the absorbed dose to water and to the gas in a fully modeled NE2571 chamber as a function of depth in a water phantom. Electron beams incident on the surface of the phantom are modeled using realistic BEAMnrc accelerator simulations and electron beam spectra. Beam quality conversion factors are determined using calculated doses to water and to air in the chamber in high?energy electron beams and in a cobalt?60 reference field. Calculated water?to?air stopping power ratios are employed for investigation of the overall ion chamber perturbation factor. Results: An upstream shift of 0.3–0.4 multiplied by the chamber radius, r-cav, both minimizes the variation of the overall ion chamber perturbation factor with depth and reduces the difference between the beam quality specifier (R{sub 5} {sub 0}) calculated using ion chamber simulations and that obtained with simulations of dose?to?water in the phantom. Beam quality conversion factors are obtained at the reference depth and gradient effects are optimized using a shift of 0.2r-cav. The photon?electron conversion factor, k-ecal, amounts to 0.906 when gradient effects are minimized using the shift established here and 0.903 if no shift of the data is used. Systematic uncertainties in beam quality conversion factors are investigated and amount to between 0.4 to 1.1% depending on assumptions used. Conclusion: The calculations obtained in this work characterize the use of an NE2571 ion chamber for reference dosimetry of high?energy electron beams. These results will be useful as the AAPM continues to review their reference dosimetry protocols.

  6. A database for estimating organ dose for coronary angiography and brain perfusion CT scans for arbitrary spectra and angular tube current modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rupcich, Franco; Badal, Andreu; Kyprianou, Iacovos; Schmidt, Taly Gilat [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233 (United States); Division of Imaging and Applied Mathematics (OSEL/CDRH), US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20905 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233 (United States)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a database for estimating organ dose in a voxelized patient model for coronary angiography and brain perfusion CT acquisitions with any spectra and angular tube current modulation setting. The database enables organ dose estimation for existing and novel acquisition techniques without requiring Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: The study simulated transport of monoenergetic photons between 5 and 150 keV for 1000 projections over 360 Degree-Sign through anthropomorphic voxelized female chest and head (0 Degree-Sign and 30 Degree-Sign tilt) phantoms and standard head and body CTDI dosimetry cylinders. The simulations resulted in tables of normalized dose deposition for several radiosensitive organs quantifying the organ dose per emitted photon for each incident photon energy and projection angle for coronary angiography and brain perfusion acquisitions. The values in a table can be multiplied by an incident spectrum and number of photons at each projection angle and then summed across all energies and angles to estimate total organ dose. Scanner-specific organ dose may be approximated by normalizing the database-estimated organ dose by the database-estimated CTDI{sub vol} and multiplying by a physical CTDI{sub vol} measurement. Two examples are provided demonstrating how to use the tables to estimate relative organ dose. In the first, the change in breast and lung dose during coronary angiography CT scans is calculated for reduced kVp, angular tube current modulation, and partial angle scanning protocols relative to a reference protocol. In the second example, the change in dose to the eye lens is calculated for a brain perfusion CT acquisition in which the gantry is tilted 30 Degree-Sign relative to a nontilted scan. Results: Our database provides tables of normalized dose deposition for several radiosensitive organs irradiated during coronary angiography and brain perfusion CT scans. Validation results indicate total organ doses calculated using our database are within 1% of those calculated using Monte Carlo simulations with the same geometry and scan parameters for all organs except red bone marrow (within 6%), and within 23% of published estimates for different voxelized phantoms. Results from the example of using the database to estimate organ dose for coronary angiography CT acquisitions show 2.1%, 1.1%, and -32% change in breast dose and 2.1%, -0.74%, and 4.7% change in lung dose for reduced kVp, tube current modulated, and partial angle protocols, respectively, relative to the reference protocol. Results show -19.2% difference in dose to eye lens for a tilted scan relative to a nontilted scan. The reported relative changes in organ doses are presented without quantification of image quality and are for the sole purpose of demonstrating the use of the proposed database. Conclusions: The proposed database and calculation method enable the estimation of organ dose for coronary angiography and brain perfusion CT scans utilizing any spectral shape and angular tube current modulation scheme by taking advantage of the precalculated Monte Carlo simulation results. The database can be used in conjunction with image quality studies to develop optimized acquisition techniques and may be particularly beneficial for optimizing dual kVp acquisitions for which numerous kV, mA, and filtration combinations may be investigated.

  7. Technical Review of SRS Dose Reconstrruction Methods Used By CDC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpkins, Ali, A

    2005-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a subcontractor Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International, Inc.(ATL) issued a draft report estimating offsite dose as a result of Savannah River Site operations for the period 1954-1992 in support of Phase III of the SRS Dose Reconstruction Project. The doses reported by ATL differed than those previously estimated by Savannah River Site SRS dose modelers for a variety of reasons, but primarily because (1) ATL used different source terms, (2) ATL considered trespasser/poacher scenarios and (3) ATL did not consistently use site-specific parameters or correct usage parameters. The receptors with the highest dose from atmospheric and liquid pathways were within about a factor of four greater than dose values previously reported by SRS. A complete set of technical comments have also been included.

  8. Blue carbon storage potential of marine carbonate deposits Project reference IAP/13/50. Please quote this reference when applying.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zaoyang

    IAPETUS Blue carbon storage potential of marine carbonate deposits Project reference IAP/13 Henrik Stahl, Scottish Association for Marine Science Key Words 1. Blue carbon 2. Carbonate 3. Coralline is referred to as `blue carbon' to differentiate it from terrestrial carbon stores. Known blue carbon sinks

  9. Further evaluation of dose estimation using the FBX dosimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helfinstine, Suzanne Yvette

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    offset and general discrep- ancy between the expected dose and the one measured by the FBX dosimeter. To determine the origin of these anomalies, the dosimeter was used in intimate mixtures with tritiated water, HTO, iodine crystals, and various dilute... iodine solutions. When mixed with HTO, the doses measured by the FBX solution were in better agree- ment with the doses predicted by MIRD techniques than the measurements with I. In 131 subsequent mixtures with stable iodine crystals, the dosimeter...

  10. Radiation dose rates from UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friend, P.J. [Urenco, Capenhurst (United Kingdom)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of many studies, both theoretical and experimental, which have been carried out by Urenco over the last 15 years into radiation dose rates from uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders. The contents of the cylinder, its history, and the geometry all affect the radiation dose rate. These factors are all examined in detail. Actual and predicted dose rates are compared with levels permitted by IAEA transport regulations.

  11. Experimentally studied dynamic dose interplay does not meaningfully affect target dose in VMAT SBRT lung treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stambaugh, Cassandra [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Nelms, Benjamin E. [Canis Lupus LLC, Merrimac, Wisconsin 53561 (United States)] [Canis Lupus LLC, Merrimac, Wisconsin 53561 (United States); Dilling, Thomas; Stevens, Craig; Latifi, Kujtim; Zhang, Geoffrey; Moros, Eduardo; Feygelman, Vladimir [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The effects of respiratory motion on the tumor dose can be divided into the gradient and interplay effects. While the interplay effect is likely to average out over a large number of fractions, it may play a role in hypofractionated [stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT)] treatments. This subject has been extensively studied for intensity modulated radiation therapy but less so for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), particularly in application to hypofractionated regimens. Also, no experimental study has provided full four-dimensional (4D) dose reconstruction in this scenario. The authors demonstrate how a recently described motion perturbation method, with full 4D dose reconstruction, is applied to describe the gradient and interplay effects during VMAT lung SBRT treatments.Methods: VMAT dose delivered to a moving target in a patient can be reconstructed by applying perturbations to the treatment planning system-calculated static 3D dose. Ten SBRT patients treated with 6 MV VMAT beams in five fractions were selected. The target motion (motion kernel) was approximated by 3D rigid body translation, with the tumor centroids defined on the ten phases of the 4DCT. The motion was assumed to be periodic, with the period T being an average from the empirical 4DCT respiratory trace. The real observed tumor motion (total displacement ?8 mm) was evaluated first. Then, the motion range was artificially increased to 2 or 3 cm. Finally, T was increased to 60 s. While not realistic, making T comparable to the delivery time elucidates if the interplay effect can be observed. For a single fraction, the authors quantified the interplay effect as the maximum difference in the target dosimetric indices, most importantly the near-minimum dose (D{sub 99%}), between all possible starting phases. For the three- and five-fractions, statistical simulations were performed when substantial interplay was found.Results: For the motion amplitudes and periods obtained from the 4DCT, the interplay effect is negligible (<0.2%). It is also small (0.9% average, 2.2% maximum) when the target excursion increased to 2–3 cm. Only with large motion and increased period (60 s) was a significant interplay effect observed, with D{sub 99%} ranging from 16% low to 17% high. The interplay effect was statistically significantly lower for the three- and five-fraction statistical simulations. Overall, the gradient effect dominates the clinical situation.Conclusions: A novel method was used to reconstruct the volumetric dose to a moving tumor during lung SBRT VMAT deliveries. With the studied planning and treatment technique for realistic motion periods, regardless of the amplitude, the interplay has nearly no impact on the near-minimum dose. The interplay effect was observed, for study purposes only, with the period comparable to the VMAT delivery time.

  12. Guidance on Dose Rate Measurements for Use in Dose-to-Curie Conversions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, R.S.

    2000-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The dose-to-curie (DTC) methodology used at SRS was developed in early 1994 by Health Physics Technology (HPT) for inclusion in the Site Waste Information Tracking System (WITS). DTC is used to estimate the nuclide activity in a waste container based on the measured dose rate from the container. The DTC method is a simple and easy to apply method that can provide a reasonable estimate of the container activity by nuclide when properly applied. In order to make the method practical, numerous assumptions had to be made and limitations placed on its use. Many of these assumptions and limitations can only be procedurally controlled and must be well understood by these individuals in order to assure proper application numerous the method. These limitations are addressed in this report.

  13. Progress in high-dose radiation dosimetry. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ettinger, K.V.; Nam, J.W.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Chadwick, K.H.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The last decade has witnessed a deluge of new high-dose dosimetry techniques and expended applications of methods developed earlier. Many of the principal systems are calibrated by means of calorimetry, although production of heat is not always the final radiation effect of interest. Requirements for a stable and reliable transfer dose meters have led to further developments of several important high-dose systems: thermoluminescent materials, radiochromic dyes, ceric-cerous solutions analyzed by high-frequency oscillometry. A number of other prospective dosimeters are also treated in this review. In addition, an IAEA program of high-dose intercomparison and standardization for industrial radiation processing is described.

  14. Progress in high-dose radiation dosimetry. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ettinger, K.V.; Nam, J.W.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Chadwick, K.H.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The last decade has witnessed a deluge of new high-dose dosimetry techniques and expended applications of methods developed earlier. Many of the principal systems are calibrated by means of calorimetry, although production of heat is not always the final radiation effect of interest. Requirements for a stable and reliable transfer dose meters have led to further developments of several important high-dose systems: thermoluminescent materials, radiochromic dyes, ceric-cerous solutions analyzed by high-frequency oscillometry. A number of other prospective dosimeters also treated in this review. In addition, an IAEA programme of high-dose intercomparison and standardization for industrial radiation processing is described.

  15. Metabolomic Response of Human Skin Tissue to Low Dose Ionizing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for IR exposure at low doses can help provide a scientific basis for establishing radiation protection standards. Little is known regarding the physiological responses to...

  16. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report, June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. [comps.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories under contract with the Centers for Disease Control. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demography, food consumption, and agriculture; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  17. how many doses can you miss before resistance emerges?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Title: Adherence to antiretroviral HIV drugs: how many doses can you miss before resistance emerges? Abstract. The emergence of drug resistance is one of the ...

  18. ascending dose study: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Masahiko; Saito, Kimiaki 2015-01-01 72 Environmental Radioactivity 56 (2001) 327340 Radon progeny dose conversion coefficients for Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Journal of...

  19. Monte Carlo simulations of adult and pediatric computed tomography exams: Validation studies of organ doses with physical phantoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Daniel J.; Lee, Choonsik; Tien, Christopher; Fisher, Ryan; Hoerner, Matthew R.; Hintenlang, David; Bolch, Wesley E. [J Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6131 (United States); National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1502 (United States); J Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6131 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0374 (United States); J Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6131 (United States)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To validate the accuracy of a Monte Carlo source model of the Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 CT scanner using organ doses measured in physical anthropomorphic phantoms. Methods: The x-ray output of the Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNPX version 2.6. The resulting source model was able to perform various simulated axial and helical computed tomographic (CT) scans of varying scan parameters, including beam energy, filtration, pitch, and beam collimation. Two custom-built anthropomorphic phantoms were used to take dose measurements on the CT scanner: an adult male and a 9-month-old. The adult male is a physical replica of University of Florida reference adult male hybrid computational phantom, while the 9-month-old is a replica of University of Florida Series B 9-month-old voxel computational phantom. Each phantom underwent a series of axial and helical CT scans, during which organ doses were measured using fiber-optic coupled plastic scintillator dosimeters developed at University of Florida. The physical setup was reproduced and simulated in MCNPX using the CT source model and the computational phantoms upon which the anthropomorphic phantoms were constructed. Average organ doses were then calculated based upon these MCNPX results. Results: For all CT scans, good agreement was seen between measured and simulated organ doses. For the adult male, the percent differences were within 16% for axial scans, and within 18% for helical scans. For the 9-month-old, the percent differences were all within 15% for both the axial and helical scans. These results are comparable to previously published validation studies using GE scanners and commercially available anthropomorphic phantoms. Conclusions: Overall results of this study show that the Monte Carlo source model can be used to accurately and reliably calculate organ doses for patients undergoing a variety of axial or helical CT examinations on the Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 scanner.

  20. Forward Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Planning in Breast Cancer to Improve Dose Homogeneity: Feasibility of Class Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peulen, Heike, E-mail: h.peulen@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, MAASTRO Clinic, Maastricht (Netherlands); Hanbeukers, Bianca; Boersma, Liesbeth; Baardwijk, Angela van; Ende, Piet van den; Houben, Ruud; Jager, Jos; Murrer, Lars; Borger, Jacques [Department of Radiation Oncology, MAASTRO Clinic, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To explore forward planning methods for breast cancer treatment to obtain homogeneous dose distributions (using International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements criteria) within normal tissue constraints and to determine the feasibility of class solutions. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans were optimized in a stepwise procedure for 60 patients referred for postlumpectomy irradiation using strict dose constraints: planning target volume (PTV){sub 95%} of >99%; V{sub 107%} of <1.8 cc; heart V{sub 5Gy} of <10% and V{sub 10Gy} of <5%; and mean lung dose of <7 Gy. Treatment planning started with classic tangential beams. Optimization was done by adding a maximum of four segments before adding beams, in a second step. A breath-hold technique was used for heart sparing if necessary. Results: Dose constraints were met for all 60 patients. The classic tangential beam setup was not sufficient for any of the patients; in one-third of patients, additional segments were required (<3), and in two-thirds of patients, additional beams (<2) were required. Logistic regression analyses revealed central breast diameter (CD) and central lung distance as independent predictors for transition from additional segments to additional beams, with a CD cut-off point at 23.6 cm. Conclusions: Treatment plans fulfilling strict dose homogeneity criteria and normal tissue constraints could be obtained for all patients by stepwise dose intensity modification using limited numbers of segments and additional beams. In patients with a CD of >23.6 cm, additional beams were always required.

  1. Radiation Therapy Photon Beams Dose Conformation According to Dose Distribution Around Intracavitary-Applied Brachytherapy Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jurkovic, Slaven [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital, Rijeka (Croatia)], E-mail: slaven.jurkovic@ri.htnet.hr; Zauhar, Gordana [Department of Physics, School of Medicine, Rijeka (Croatia); Faj, Dario [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital, Osijek (Croatia); Radojcic, Deni Smilovic; Svabic, Manda [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital, Rijeka (Croatia)

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intracavitary application of brachytherapy sources followed by external beam radiation is essential for the local treatment of carcinoma of the cervix. Due to very high doses to the central portion of the target volume delivered by brachytherapy sources, this part of the target volume must be shielded while being irradiated by photon beams. Several shielding techniques are available, from rectangular block and standard cervix wedge to more precise, customized step wedge filters. Because the calculation of a step wedge filter's shape was usually based on effective attenuation coefficient, an approach that accounts, in a more precise way, for the scattered radiation, is suggested. The method was verified under simulated clinical conditions using film dosimetry. Measured data for various compensators were compared to the numerically determined sum of the dose distribution around brachytherapy sources and one of compensated beam. Improvements in total dose distribution are demonstrated, using our method. Agreement between calculation and measurements were within 3%. Sensitivity of the method on sources displacement during treatment has also been investigated.

  2. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ``ground-water pathway,`` which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  3. NERSC/DOE BES Requirements Workshop Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLoveReference MaterialsReference Materials Reference Materials

  4. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to dose in 1945. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Dose code recovery activities, Calculation 003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 003) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. This study builds on the work initiated in the first scoping study of iodine in cow`s milk (calculation 001). Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows` milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in Calculation 001.

  5. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Primary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  6. adolescents reference values: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    final paper in BG if available. Hypoxia and cyanobacteria not natural features of the Baltic Sea L. Zilln; D. J. Conley; Tables Figures 2010-01-01 58 References: Grundlagen....

  7. acr-1000 reference fuel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Constraint Management in Fuel Cells: A Fast Reference Governor Approach Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization...

  8. Naming, Reference, and Sense: Theoretical and Practical Attitudes at Odds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norman, Andrew

    Naming, Reference, and Sense: Theoretical and Practical Attitudes at Odds ANDREW NORMAN Northwestern University Three questions lie at the center of the philosophical controversy over proper names: 1) Do proper names have a sense? 2) If so...

  9. Nuclear Science References Coding Manual D.F. Winchell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    Nuclear Science References Coding Manual D.F. Winchell National Nuclear Data Center Brookhaven and coding procedures for specific topics . . 18 3.2.1 NUCLEAR REACTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.2.2 RADIOACTIVITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3.2.3 NUCLEAR STRUCTURE

  10. Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Early Release Reference Case

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    projected in the AEO2012 Reference case * All renewable fuels grow, but biomass and biofuels growth is slower than in AEO2012 * U.S. energy-related carbon dioxide emissions...

  11. academic reference works: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Get References into RefWorks Engineering Websites Summary: time. Type in your search terms. 5. Import from a text file. This method works for some onlineWorks function is...

  12. advisory committee references: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AM in the Gemini O'Toole, Alice J. 8 ADVISORY COMMITTEE on PRESIDENTIAL SEARCH (ACoPS) TERMS OF REFERENCE Physics Websites Summary: and abide by the terms of this document as...

  13. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Stand-alone retail

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  14. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Small office

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  15. NASA/TP--2003210793 Lunar Surface Reference Missions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Hanover, MD 21076-1320 #12;July 2003 NASA/TP--2003­210793 Lunar Surface Reference Missions: A Description Hanover, MD 21076-1320 Springfield, VA 22161 301-

  16. NBS SPEC. PUBL. 260 -16 Standard Reference Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NBS SPEC. PUBL. 260 - 16 Standard Reference Materials: HOMOGENEITY CHARACTERIZATION OF NBS Materials: Homogeneity Characterization of NBS Spectrometric Standards IV: Preparation and Microprobe. L. Vieth Institute for Materials Research National Bureau of Standards Washington, D.C. 20234

  17. SPD SEIS References for Appendix D | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    D SPD SEIS References for Appendix D Christenbury, G., 2011, U.S. Department of Energy, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina, personal communication (email) to V. Kay, U.S....

  18. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Large office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  19. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Fast food

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  20. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Baltimore, Maryland Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 4A Baltimore, Maryland In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view...

  1. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Chicago, Illinois Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 5A Chicago, Illinois In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the...

  2. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    B Helena, Montana Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 6B Helena, Montana In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the...

  3. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    B Boulder, Colorado Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 5B Boulder, Colorado In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the...

  4. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1A Miami, Florida Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 1A Miami, Florida In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the...

  5. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    7 Duluth, Minnesota Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 7 Duluth, Minnesota In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the...

  6. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    B Phoenix, Arizona Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 2B Phoenix, Arizona In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the...

  7. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    B Las Vegas, Nevada Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 3B Las Vegas, Nevada In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the...

  8. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    B Los Angeles, California Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 3B Los Angeles, California In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can...

  9. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    C San Francisco, California Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 3C San Francisco, California In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can...

  10. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    A Atlanta, Georgia Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 3A Atlanta, Georgia In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the...

  11. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    A Houston, Texas Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 2A Houston, Texas In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the...

  12. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    C Seattle, Washington Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 4C Seattle, Washington In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view...

  13. Plutonium Certified Reference Materials Price List | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Reference Materials (CRM) Contact Information New Brunswick Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Building 350 9800 South Cass Avenue Argonne, IL 60439-4899 P: (630) 252-2442 (NBL)...

  14. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Strip mall

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  15. Quantum geometrodynamical description of the Universe in different reference frames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. P. Shestakova

    2002-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Several years ago the so-called quantum geometrodynamics in extended phase space was proposed. The main role in this version of quantum geometrodynamics is given to a wave function that carries information about geometry of the Universe as well as about a reference frame in which this geometry is studied. We consider the evolution of a physical object (the Universe) in ``physical'' subspace of extended configurational space, the latter including gauge and ghost degrees of freedom. A measure of the ``physical'' subspace depends on a chosen reference frame, in particular, a small variation of a gauge-fixing function results in changing the measure. Thus, a transition to another gauge condition (another reference frame) leads to non-unitary transformation of a physical part of the wave function. From the viewpoint of the evolution of the Universe in the ``physical'' subspace a transition to another reference frame is an irreversible process that may be important when spacetime manifold has a nontrivial topology.

  16. Library and Information Services Division Current References 2009-1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Library and Information Services Division Current References 2009-1 The Year of Darwin 2009 Discovering Darwin at NOAA Central Library: Resources on Charles Darwin, Evolution, and the Galapagos Islands National Oceanographic Data Center NOAA Central Library October 2009 http

  17. NIST Standard Reference Database 17 NIST Chemical Kinetics Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NIST Standard Reference Database 17 __________________________________________________________ NIST Chemical Kinetics Database WindowsTM Version 2Q98 Users' Guide (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data

  18. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    new2004v1.35.0.zip refbldg3ausagaatlantanew2004v1-47-2.zip More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 3A Atlanta, Georgia...

  19. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    new2004v1.35.0.zip refbldg1ausaflmiaminew2004v1-47-2.zip More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 1A Miami, Florida...

  20. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    new2004v1.35.0.zip refbldg2ausatxhoustonnew2004v1-47-2.zip More Documents & Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 2A Houston, Texas...

  1. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Secondary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  2. Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    B Albuquerque, New Mexico Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 4B Albuquerque, New Mexico In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can...

  3. Dose assessments in relation to disposal at sea under the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of radioactivity, and dredging activity, in coastal waters of the UK 2.1 Radioactivity in the environment 2 Standards 2.5 Dredging activity in the UK 2.6 Other licensed activity 3 Dose Assessment procedures 3, to derive assessment for dredging at Whitehaven in 2004. Table 8 Comparison of gamma dose rates (µ

  4. Hanford Site Annual Report Radiological Dose Calculation Upgrade Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.

    2010-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Operations at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, result in the release of radioactive materials to offsite residents. Site authorities are required to estimate the dose to the maximally exposed offsite resident. Due to the very low levels of exposure at the residence, computer models, rather than environmental samples, are used to estimate exposure, intake, and dose. A DOS-based model has been used in the past (GENII version 1.485). GENII v1.485 has been updated to a Windows®-based software (GENII version 2.08). Use of the updated software will facilitate future dose evaluations, but must be demonstrated to provide results comparable to those of GENII v1.485. This report describes the GENII v1.485 and GENII v2.08 dose exposure, intake, and dose estimates for the maximally exposed offsite resident reported for calendar year 2008. The GENII v2.08 results reflect updates to implemented algorithms. No two environmental models produce the same results, as was again demonstrated in this report. The aggregated dose results from 2008 Hanford Site airborne and surface water exposure scenarios provide comparable dose results. Therefore, the GENII v2.08 software is recommended for future offsite resident dose evaluations.

  5. Total dose radiation response of plasma-damaged NMOS devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, J.; Lo, E.; Flanery, M. [Honeywell Solid-State Electronic Center, Plymouth, MN (United States)] [Honeywell Solid-State Electronic Center, Plymouth, MN (United States)

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma-damaged NMOS devices were subjected to the X-ray total dose irradiation. Unlike the traditional hot-carrier or Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) stress where the hole trap generation is less pronounced, this study shows enhanced hole trap and interface trap generation on plasma-damaged devices after total dose irradiation.

  6. Measurements of Cavitation Dose, Echogenicity, and Temperature during Ultrasound Ablation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mast, T. Douglas

    Measurements of Cavitation Dose, Echogenicity, and Temperature during Ultrasound Ablation T traces from the array, time-domain signals received by a 1 MHz, unfocused passive cavitation detector signals received by the array. Cavitation dose was quantified from the spectra of signals measured

  7. Newton-Cartan Gravity in Noninertial Reference Frames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leo Rodriguez; James St. Germaine-Fuller; Sujeev Wickramasekara

    2014-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We study properties of Newton-Cartan gravity under transformations into all noninertial, nonrelativistic reference frames. The set of these transformations has the structure of an infinite dimensional Lie group, called the Galilean line group, which contains as a subgroup the Galilei group. We show that the fictitious forces of noninertial reference frames are naturally encoded in the Cartan connection transformed under the Galilean line group. These noninertial forces, which are coordinate effects, do not contribute to the Ricci tensor which describes the curvature of Newtonian spacetime. We show that only the $00$-component of the Ricci tensor is non-zero and equal to ($4\\pi$ times) the matter density in any inertial or noninetial reference frame and that it leads to what may be called Newtonian ADM mass. While the Ricci field equation and Gauss law are both fulfilled by the same physical matter density in inertial and linearly accelerating reference frames, there appears a discrepancy between the two in rotating reference frames in that Gauss law holds for an effective mass density that differs from the physical matter density. This effective density has its origin in the simulated magnetic field that appears in rotating frames, highlighting a rather striking difference between linearly and rotationally accelerating reference frames. We further show that the dynamical equations that govern the simulated gravitational and magnetic fields have the same form as Maxwell's equations, a surprising conclusion given that these equations are well-known to obey special relativity (and $U(1)$-gauge symmetry), rather than Galilean symmetry.

  8. SU-E-J-85: Leave-One-Out Perturbation (LOOP) Fitting Algorithm for Absolute Dose Film Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, A; Ahmad, M; Chen, Z; Nath, R [Yale New Haven Hospital/School of Medicine Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Feng, W [New York Presbyterian Hospital, Tenafly, NJ (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To introduce an outliers-recognition fitting routine for film dosimetry. It cannot only be flexible with any linear and non-linear regression but also can provide information for the minimal number of sampling points, critical sampling distributions and evaluating analytical functions for absolute film-dose calibration. Methods: The technique, leave-one-out (LOO) cross validation, is often used for statistical analyses on model performance. We used LOO analyses with perturbed bootstrap fitting called leave-one-out perturbation (LOOP) for film-dose calibration . Given a threshold, the LOO process detects unfit points (“outliers”) compared to other cohorts, and a bootstrap fitting process follows to seek any possibilities of using perturbations for further improvement. After that outliers were reconfirmed by a traditional t-test statistics and eliminated, then another LOOP feedback resulted in the final. An over-sampled film-dose- calibration dataset was collected as a reference (dose range: 0-800cGy), and various simulated conditions for outliers and sampling distributions were derived from the reference. Comparisons over the various conditions were made, and the performance of fitting functions, polynomial and rational functions, were evaluated. Results: (1) LOOP can prove its sensitive outlier-recognition by its statistical correlation to an exceptional better goodness-of-fit as outliers being left-out. (2) With sufficient statistical information, the LOOP can correct outliers under some low-sampling conditions that other “robust fits”, e.g. Least Absolute Residuals, cannot. (3) Complete cross-validated analyses of LOOP indicate that the function of rational type demonstrates a much superior performance compared to the polynomial. Even with 5 data points including one outlier, using LOOP with rational function can restore more than a 95% value back to its reference values, while the polynomial fitting completely failed under the same conditions. Conclusion: LOOP can cooperate with any fitting routine functioning as a “robust fit”. In addition, it can be set as a benchmark for film-dose calibration fitting performance.

  9. Inspection and Gamma-Ray Dose Rate Measurements of the Annulus of the VSC-17 Concrete Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Cask

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. L. Winston

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The air cooling annulus of the Ventilated Storage Cask (VSC)-17 spent fuel storage cask was inspected using a Toshiba 7 mm (1/4”) CCD video camera. The dose rates observed in the annular space were measured to provide a reference for the activity to which the camera(s) being tested were being exposed. No gross degradation, pitting, or general corrosion was observed.

  10. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to cumulative dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 004) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to cumulative dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows' milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in calculation 002. This calculation specifically addresses cumulative radiation doses to infants and adults resulting from releases occurring over the period 1945 through 1972.

  11. Topographic Effects on Ambient Dose Equivalent Rates from Radiocesium Fallout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malins, Alex; Machida, Masahiko; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Land topography can affect air radiation dose rates by locating radiation sources closer to, or further, from detector locations when compared to perfectly flat terrain. Hills and slopes can also shield against the propagation of gamma rays. To understand the possible magnitude of topographic effects on air dose rates, this study presents calculations for ambient dose equivalent rates at a range of heights above the ground for varying land topographies. The geometries considered were angled ground at the intersection of two planar surfaces, which is a model for slopes neighboring flat land, and a simple conical geometry, representing settings from hilltops to valley bottoms. In each case the radiation source was radioactive cesium fallout, and the slope angle was varied systematically to determine the effect of topography on the air dose rate. Under the assumption of homogeneous fallout across the land surface, and for these geometries and detector locations, the dose rates at high altitudes are more strongly...

  12. Age-dependent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response in preweanling rats following oral exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timchalk, Chuck; Poet, Torka S.; Kousba, Ahmed A.

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Juvenile rats are more susceptible than adults to the acute toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides like chlorpyrifos (CPF). Age- and dose-dependent differences in metabolism may be responsible. Of importance is CYP450 activation and detoxification of CPF to CPF-oxon and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), as well as B-esterase (cholinesterase; ChE) and A-esterase (PON-1) detoxification of CPF-oxon to TCP. The pharmacokinetics of CPF, TCP, and the extent of blood (plasma/RBC), and brain ChE inhibition in rats were determined on postnatal days (PND) -5, -12, and -17 following oral gavage administration of 1 and 10 mg CPF/kg of body weight. For all neonatal ages the blood TCP exceeded the CPF concentration, and within each age group there was no evidence of non-linear kinetics over the dose range evaluated. Younger animals demonstrated a greater sensitivity to ChE inhibition as evident by the dose- and age-dependent inhibition of plasma, RBC, and brain ChE. Of particular importance was the observation that even in rats as young as PND-5, the CYP450 metabolic capacity was adequate to metabolize CPF to both TCP and CPF-oxon based on the detection of TCP in blood and extensive ChE inhibition (biomarker of CPF-oxon) at all ages. In addition, the increase in the blood TCP concentration ({approx}3-fold) in PND-17 rats relative to the response in the younger animals, and the higher blood concentrations of CPF in neonatal rats (1.7 to 7.5-fold) relative to adults was consistent with an increase in CYP450 metabolic capacity with age. This is the first reported study that evaluated both the pharmacokinetics of the parent pesticide, the major metabolite and the extent of ChE inhibition dynamics in the same animals as a function of neonatal age. The results suggest that in the neonatal rat, CPF was rapidly absorbed and metabolized, and the extent of metabolism was age-dependent.

  13. Phase 1 of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work described in this report was prompted by the public's concern about potential effect from the radioactive materials released from the Hanford Site. The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation dose the public might have received from the Hanford Site since 1944, when facilities began operating. Phase 1 of the HEDR Project is a pilot'' or demonstration'' phase. The objectives of this initial phase were to determine whether enough historical information could be found or reconstructed to be used for dose estimation and develop and test conceptual and computational models for calculating credible dose estimates. Preliminary estimates of radiation doses were produced in Phase 1 because they are needed to achieve these objectives. The reader is cautioned that the dose estimates provided in this and other Phase 1 HEDR reports are preliminary. As the HEDR Project continues, the dose estimates will change for at least three reasons: more complete input information for models will be developed; the models themselves will be refined; and the size and shape of the geographic study area will change. This is one of three draft reports that summarize the first phase of the four-phased HEDR Project. This, the Summary Report, is directed to readers who want a general understanding of the Phase 1 work and preliminary dose estimates. The two other reports -- the Air Pathway Report and the Columbia River Pathway Report -- are for readers who understand the radiation dose assessment process and want to see more technical detail. Detailed descriptions of the dose reconstruction process are available in more than 20 supporting reports listed in Appendix A. 32 refs., 46 figs.

  14. Enrofloxacin and amikacin pharmacokinetics in Scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) following a single intravenous dose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gamble, Kathryn Christine

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    metabolic standard, metabolic energy cost (NEC), is used to calculate a dose. MEC, ?. ?. = K(Weight' ") MEC. . ?, = K (Weight'-") Dose?. . . , = Total daily drug dose (mg) MECaoee = Dose?. . . , /NEC . . . , Dose. ?. ?. = MEC. ???X NEC, . . . (mg... and clinically used in the model. " Once a dose is established, NES can be further employed to suggest dose interval in a regimen. Calculation of MEC by weight basis is the specific minimum energy cost (SMEC) of both the model and the exotic. SMEC...

  15. Influence of an Intra-articular Lipopolysaccharide Challenge on Markers of Inflammation and Cartilage Metabolism and the Ability of Oral Glucosamine to Mitigate these Alterations in Young Horses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucia, Jessica Lauren

    2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    ............................................................... 22 Oral Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics ................................ 22 Conclusion ...................................................................................... 25 II INFLUENCE OF AN INTRA...

  16. Supervised Machine Learning Algorithms for Early Detection of Oral Epithelial Cancer Using Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Joohyung

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the clinical potential of the endogenous multispectral Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) was investigated to objectively detect oral cancer. To this end, in vivo FLIM imaging was performed on a hamster cheek pouch model...

  17. Transepithelial Transport of Fc-Targeted Nanoparticles by the Neonatal Fc Receptor for Oral Delivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pridgen, Eric M.

    Nanoparticles are poised to have a tremendous impact on the treatment of many diseases, but their broad application is limited because currently they can only be administered by parenteral methods. Oral administration of ...

  18. Non-invasive detection of oral cancer using reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGee, Sasha Alanda

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In vivo reflectance and fluorescence spectra were collected from patients with oral lesions, as well as healthy volunteers, in order to evaluate the potential of spectroscopy to serve as a non-invasive tool for the detection ...

  19. Role of AI-2 in oral biofilm formation using microfluidic devices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sun Ho

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Biofilms are highly organized bacterial structures that are attached to a surface. They are ubiquitous in nature and may be detrimental, causing numerous types of illnesses in living organisms. Biofilms in the human oral cavity are the main cause...

  20. An Investigation of the Demands on Oral Language Skills of Learning Disabled Students in Secondary Classrooms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moran, Mary Ross

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The demands placed upon students in mainstream secondary classrooms by the oral language behaviors of teachers were investigated by applying 12 categories of utterance types to audiotape-recorded class sessions. Data were ...