OPTIMAL OPERATION OF AN INTEGRATED ENERGY PARK INCLUDING FOSSIL FUEL POWER GENERATION,
Stanford University
OPTIMAL OPERATION OF AN INTEGRATED ENERGY PARK INCLUDING FOSSIL FUEL POWER GENERATION, CO2 CAPTURE combustion turbine, and wind generation. Energy park com- ponents are modeled using energy and mass balances. A formal optimization proce- dure is used to determine the optimal hourly dispatch of energy park
Wroblewski, David (Mentor, OH); Katrompas, Alexander M. (Concord, OH); Parikh, Neel J. (Richmond Heights, OH)
2009-09-01
A method and apparatus for optimizing the operation of a power generating plant using artificial intelligence techniques. One or more decisions D are determined for at least one consecutive time increment, where at least one of the decisions D is associated with a discrete variable for the operation of a power plant device in the power generating plant. In an illustrated embodiment, the power plant device is a soot cleaning device associated with a boiler.
Wagner, A.; Wambsgan, M.; Froehlich, S.
2004-01-01
University Karlsruhe (TH) - Department of Architecture Building Physics and Technical Building Services web-based method to generate specific energyconsumption data for the evaluation and optimisationof building operationAndreas Wagner, Mathias... about energy consumptionand specific data especially in large building stocks?user complaints and energy consumption arerarely considered in building operation?reduction of energy consumption and operation costsas well as ensuring a high work space...
Reservoir-Stimulation Optimization with Operational Monitoring...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Optimization with Operational Monitoring for Creation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems Reservoir-Stimulation Optimization with Operational Monitoring for Creation...
OPTIMAL OPERATION OF INTEGRATED PROCESSES
Skogestad, Sigurd
OPTIMAL OPERATION OF INTEGRATED PROCESSES Studies on Heat Recovery Systems by Bjørn Glemmestad exchanger network (HEN) for heat recovery. Within the process engineering community, much attention has been
Optimization of Wind Turbine Operation
Optimization of Wind Turbine Operation by Use of Spinner Anemometer TF Pedersen, NN Sørensen, L Title: Optimization of Wind Turbine Operation by Use of Spinner Anemometer Department: Wind Energy prototype wind turbine. Statistics of the yaw error showed an average of about 10°. The average flow
Optimizing Installation, Operation, and Maintenance at Offshore...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Optimizing Installation, Operation, and Maintenance at Offshore Wind Projects in the United States Optimizing Installation, Operation, and Maintenance at Offshore Wind Projects in...
Operating Reserves and Variable Generation
Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.
2011-08-01
This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.
Optimization Online - Operations Risk Management by Planning ...
Emmanuel Fragnière
2007-08-01
Aug 1, 2007 ... Operations Risk Management by Planning Optimally the Qualified Workforce Capacity. Emmanuel Fragnière(Emmanuel.Fragniere ***at*** ...
Jrgen Bauck Jensen Optimal Operation of Refrigera-
Skogestad, Sigurd
and compared with the Tmin-method. Considering the large amount of work that goes into the design of LNG LNG process is used as an example for optimal design and optimal operation of LNG processes
Operating strategy generators for nuclear reactors
Solovyev, D. A., E-mail: and@est.mephi.ru; Semenov, A. A.; Shchukin, N. V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation)
2011-12-15
Operating strategy generators, i.e., the software intended for increasing the efficiency of work of nuclear power plant operators, are discussed. The possibilities provided by the domestic and foreign operating-strategy generators are analyzed.
Optimizing Asset Utilization and Operating Efficiency Efficiently...
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
also part of the solution for Smart Grid Optimizing Asset Utilization and Operating Efficien Efficientl More Documents & Publications Metrics for Measuring Progress Toward...
Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.
1991-09-01
This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.
Optimal discrimination between quantum operations
Lvzhou Li; Daowen Qiu
2007-05-17
In this paper, we address the problem of discriminating two given quantum operations. Firstly, based on the Bloch representation of single qubit systems, we give the exact minimum error probability of discriminating two single qubit quantum operations by unentangled input states. In particular, for the Pauli channels discussed in [Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 71}, 062340 (2005)], we use a more intuitional and visual method to deal with their discrimination problem. Secondly, we consider the condition for perfect discrimination of two quantum operations. Specially, we get that two generalized Pauli channels are perfectly distinguishable if and only if their characteristic vectors are orthogonal.
Model-Based Transient Calibration Optimization for Next Generation...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Based Transient Calibration Optimization for Next Generation Diesel Engines Model-Based Transient Calibration Optimization for Next Generation Diesel Engines 2005 Diesel Engine...
Distributed Generation Operational Reliability, Executive Summary...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Reliability, Executive Summary Report, January 2004 Distributed Generation Operational Reliability, Executive Summary Report, January 2004 This report summarizes the results of the...
Distributed Generation Operational Reliability and Availability...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Reliability and Availability Database, Final Report, January 2004 Distributed Generation Operational Reliability and Availability Database, Final Report, January 2004 This final...
Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under Various Electricity Tariffs
Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris
2007-01-01
price ($/kWh) Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization Under Various Electricity Tariffs carbon (
Method of operating a thermoelectric generator
Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D
2013-11-05
A method for operating a thermoelectric generator supplying a variable-load component includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a first output and determining a first load current and a first load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded first output. The method also includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a second output and determining a second load current and a second load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded second output. The method includes calculating a maximum power output of the thermoelectric generator from the determined first load current and voltage and the determined second load current and voltage, and commanding the variable-load component to operate at a third output. The commanded third output is configured to draw the calculated maximum power output from the thermoelectric generator.
Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs State-of-the-Art Computational Fluid Dynamics Model Optimizes Fuel Rate in Blast Furnaces The blast...
Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx...
Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Coupled LNT...
Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for Fuel Cell Vehicles
Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy
2008-01-01
Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions forOptimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions forOptimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for
Operation of Distributed Generation Under Stochastic Prices
Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris
2005-11-30
We model the operating decisions of a commercial enterprisethatneeds to satisfy its periodic electricity demand with either on-sitedistributed generation (DG) or purchases from the wholesale market. Whilethe former option involves electricity generation at relatively high andpossibly stochastic costs from a set of capacity-constrained DGtechnologies, the latter implies unlimited open-market transactions atstochastic prices. A stochastic dynamic programme (SDP) is used to solvethe resulting optimisation problem. By solving the SDP with and withoutthe availability of DG units, the implied option values of the DG unitsare obtained.
Aerodynamic Optimization Under a Range of Operating Conditions
Zingg, David W.
Aerodynamic Optimization Under a Range of Operating Conditions David W. Zingg and Samy Elias. This can be achieved through multipoint optimization. The desired performance objective and operating conditions must be speci ed, and the resulting optimization problem must be solved in such a manner
Stochastic Optimization for Operating Chemical Processes under Uncertainty
Henrion, René
Abstract Mathematical optimization techniques are on their way to becoming a standard tool in chemical Stochastic Optimization for Operating Chemical Processes under Uncertainty René Henrion1 , Pu Li2 for the explicit treatment of uncertain- ties by stochastic optimization. 1 OPERATING CHEMICAL PROCESSES Chemical
MODEL-BASED OPTIMAL OPERATION OF SEEDED BATCH CRYSTALLISATION PROCESSES
Van den Hof, Paul
.mesbah@tudelft.nl Dynamic optimization is applied for optimal control of a semi-industrial batch crystallisation process of the open-loop optimal control due to plant-model mismatch, unmeasured process disturbances, irreproducibleMODEL-BASED OPTIMAL OPERATION OF SEEDED BATCH CRYSTALLISATION PROCESSES A. Mesbah1, 2 , J. Landlust
Stochastic Co-optimization for Hydro-Electric Power Generation
1 Stochastic Co-optimization for Hydro-Electric Power Generation Shi-Jie Deng, Senior Member, IEEE the optimal scheduling problem faced by a hydro-electric power producer that simultaneously participates in multiple markets. Specifically, the hydro-generator participates in both the electricity spot market
A Study of Optimization of Reservoir Operations of the Colorado River
the optimization model to determine if operational flexibility could be used to increase hydropower values of 6% in forecasted hydropower generation value are possible using reasonable amounts of flexibility. Because the annual value from the three hydropower generation locations in the Lower Basin of the Colorado
An Adaptive Mutation Operator for Particle Swarm Optimization
Yang, Shengxiang
.le.ac.uk Abstract Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is an efficient tool for optimization and search problems- search works have shown that mutation operators can help PSO prevent prema- ture convergence and compared for PSO. An adaptive muta- tion operator is designed. Experimental results show
Optimal Design and Operation of Energy Polygeneration Systems
is then considered for the energy polygeneration system. In real applications, product prices can fluctuateOptimal Design and Operation of Energy Polygeneration Systems by Yang Chen Submitted;Optimal Design and Operation of Energy Polygeneration Systems by Yang Chen Submitted to the Department
Institute of Operations Research Discrete Optimization and Logistics
Al Hanbali, Ahmad
Institute of Operations Research Discrete Optimization and Logistics 1 Prof. Dr. Stefan Nickel Health Care Logistics: Overview Health Care Logistics 11/28/2013 #12;Institute of Operations Research Discrete Optimization and Logistics 2 Prof. Dr. Stefan Nickel Health Care Logistics: Overview Health Care
Sensitivity of Optimal Operation of an Activated Sludge Process Model
Skogestad, Sigurd
Sensitivity of Optimal Operation of an Activated Sludge Process Model Antonio Araujo, Simone sensitivity analysis of optimal operation conducted on an activated sludge process model based on the test.[7] applied a systematic procedure for control structure design of an activated sludge process
Shi, Cong, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2012-01-01
Many if not most of the core problems studied in operations management fall into the category of multi-stage stochastic optimization models, whereby one considers multiple, often correlated decisions to optimize a particular ...
Second-generation-heliostat optimization studies. Final report
Not Available
1982-05-01
The objective of this study was to define and quantify cost reductions in the Martin Marietta Denver Aerospace Second Generation Heliostat resulting from design and cost optimization. These cost reductions were based on optimizing the heliostat performance vs. cost and engineering design, and reviewing the design specification in selected technological areas with a goal of removing nonrealistic requirements and eliminating or minimizing overdesign. Specific technological areas investigated were: (1) designing the heliostat for survival strength rather than stiffness and reducing the operational wind requirements as dictated by this design approach; (2) reducing the pointing accuracy and/or beam quality required for some fraction or all of the heliostat field; (3) modifying the operational temperature range; (4) relaxing the rate at which the heliostat must move in the slew mode; (5) using alternate beam safety strategies; (6) analyzing actual wind data for selected sites in the southwest United States vs. the heliostat design specification survival wind requirements; (7) estimating heliostat damage for winds in excess of the design specification over a 30 year period; (8) evaluating the impact of designing the heliostat for higher wind loads; and (9) investigating the applicability to heliostat design of the standard engineering practices for designing buildings.
SYSTEMS OPTIMIZATION LABORATORY DEPARTMENT OF OPERATIONS RESEARCH
Stanford University
Liquefaction Coal Gasification Thermal Electric Power Generation Oil Shale Conversion Fuel Refining Coal Slurry
Applications of Optimal Building Energy System Selection and Operation
Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; DeForest, Nicholas; Donadee, Jon; Bhattacharya, Prajesh; Lai, Judy
2011-04-01
Berkeley Lab has been developing the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) for several years. Given load curves for energy services requirements in a building microgrid (u grid), fuel costs and other economic inputs, and a menu of available technologies, DER-CAM finds the optimum equipment fleet and its optimum operating schedule using a mixed integer linear programming approach. This capability is being applied using a software as a service (SaaS) model. Optimisation problems are set up on a Berkeley Lab server and clients can execute their jobs as needed, typically daily. The evolution of this approach is demonstrated by description of three ongoing projects. The first is a public access web site focused on solar photovoltaic generation and battery viability at large commercial and industrial customer sites. The second is a building CO2 emissions reduction operations problem for a University of California, Davis student dining hall for which potential investments are also considered. And the third, is both a battery selection problem and a rolling operating schedule problem for a large County Jail. Together these examples show that optimization of building u grid design and operation can be effectively achieved using SaaS.
Utility Systems Management and Operational Optimization
Dhole, V.; Seillier, D.; Garza, K.
2002-01-01
simultaneously within the context of an integrated utilities management objective. Aspen Utilities™ provides a single environment to optimize business processes relating to utilities management and substantially improves financial performance typically equivalent...
Conversion efficiency, scaling and global optimization of high harmonic generation
Falcao-Filho, Edilson L.
Closed form expressions for the high harmonic generation (HHG) conversion efficiency in the plateau and cut-off region are derived showing agreement with previous observations. Application of these results to optimal ...
Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Evaluation ace029harold2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems...
Development of Optimization Tool for Air Conditioning System Operation
Sumiyoshi, D.; Akashi, Y.
2008-01-01
This study aims to realize the optimization of the air-conditioning system operation. Although set values of air-conditioning systems are usually fixed, variable setting values are used in this study. It is possible that less energy consumption...
Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
and Operating Strategies for Coupled LNTSCR We introduce a new bench-scale engine generator testing system for different diesel fuels, fuel blends, fuel additives, and evaluate...
Entropy generation and jet engine optimization
Lucia, Umberto
2010-01-01
In 2009, it was shown that, with an original approach to hydrodynamic cavitation, a phenomenological model was realized in order to compute some of the physical parameters needed for the design of the most common technological applications (turbo-machinery, etc.) with an economical saving in planning because this analysis could allow engineers to reduce the experimental tests and the consequent costs in the design process. Here the same approach has been used to obtain range of some physical quantity for jet engine optimization.
Optimal operation of simple vapour compression cycles
Skogestad, Sigurd
- uefaction of natural gas (LNG process), more complex cycles are used in order to improve the thermodynamic parameters; compressor work Ws, valve opening z and UA for the two heat ex- changers. As a consequence.g. Qh), Pl, Ph, Tsup and Tsub 5 Operation Ws (load), choke valve opening (z) and UA in two heat
A Methodology for Optimizing Boiler Operating Strategy
Jones, K. C.
1983-01-01
Among the many ways by which an energy manager can conserve energy is the establishment of a strategy for operation of fired boilers. In particular, he can effect total fuel consumption by his decision on how much on-line boiler surplus is required...
Requirements for Emergency Generator Operation All Emergency Generators
Lawson, Catherine L.
.2% Sulfur or less) As of October 1, 2007 Ultra low Sulfur Diesel must be used (0.05% Sulfur or less be received from manufacturer and sent to REHS Diesel emergency Generators must use low Sulfur Diesel ( 0
Safe Operation of Backup Power Generators
Smith, David
2006-04-19
equipped with a grounding pin. ? Never plug the generator into a wall outlet in a house or other circuit. This practice, known as ?back feeding,? is extremely dangerous because it energizes the failed electrical wiring supply- ing the home. This could... stream_source_info pdf_2312.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 6389 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name pdf_2312.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 E-395 04/06 Portable generators...
AVESTAR Center for Operational Excellence of Electricity Generation Plants
Zitney, Stephen
2012-08-29
To address industry challenges in attaining operational excellence for electricity generation plants, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has launched a world-class facility for Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTARTM). This presentation will highlight the AVESTARTM Center simulators, facilities, and comprehensive training, education, and research programs focused on the operation and control of high-efficiency, near-zero-emission electricity generation plants. The AVESTAR Center brings together state-of-the-art, real-time, high-fidelity dynamic simulators with full-scope operator training systems (OTSs) and 3D virtual immersive training systems (ITSs) into an integrated energy plant and control room environment. AVESTAR’s initial offering combines--for the first time--a “gasification with CO2 capture” process simulator with a “combined-cycle” power simulator together in a single OTS/ITS solution for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. IGCC systems are an attractive technology option for power generation, especially when capturing and storing CO2 is necessary to satisfy emission targets. The AVESTAR training program offers a variety of courses that merge classroom learning, simulator-based OTS learning in a control-room operations environment, and immersive learning in the interactive 3D virtual plant environment or ITS. All of the courses introduce trainees to base-load plant operation, control, startups, and shutdowns. Advanced courses require participants to become familiar with coordinated control, fuel switching, power-demand load shedding, and load following, as well as to problem solve equipment and process malfunctions. Designed to ensure work force development, training is offered for control room and plant field operators, as well as engineers and managers. Such comprehensive simulator-based instruction allows for realistic training without compromising worker, equipment, and environmental safety. It also better prepares operators and engineers to manage the plant closer to economic constraints while minimizing or avoiding the impact of any potentially harmful, wasteful, or inefficient events. The AVESTAR Center is also used to augment graduate and undergraduate engineering education in the areas of process simulation, dynamics, control, and safety. Students and researchers gain hands-on simulator-based training experience and learn how the commercial-scale power plants respond dynamically to changes in manipulated inputs, such as coal feed flow rate and power demand. Students also analyze how the regulatory control system impacts power plant performance and stability. In addition, students practice start-up, shutdown, and malfunction scenarios. The 3D virtual ITSs are used for plant familiarization, walk-through, equipment animations, and safety scenarios. To further leverage the AVESTAR facilities and simulators, NETL and its university partners are pursuing an innovative and collaborative R&D program. In the area of process control, AVESTAR researchers are developing enhanced strategies for regulatory control and coordinated plant-wide control, including gasifier and gas turbine lead, as well as advanced process control using model predictive control (MPC) techniques. Other AVESTAR R&D focus areas include high-fidelity equipment modeling using partial differential equations, dynamic reduced order modeling, optimal sensor placement, 3D virtual plant simulation, and modern grid. NETL and its partners plan to continue building the AVESTAR portfolio of dynamic simulators, immersive training systems, and advanced research capabilities to satisfy industry’s growing need for training and experience with the operation and control of clean energy plants. Future dynamic simulators under development include natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC) plants with post-combustion CO2 capture. These dynamic simulators are targeted for us
Generating Code for High-Level Operations through Code Composition
Generating Code for High-Level Operations through Code Composition James M. Stichnoth August 1997 of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements: Compilers, code generation, parallelism, communication generation #12;Abstract A traditional compiler
Objects to the rescue! httpd: the next generation operating system
Walpole, Jonathan
Objects to the rescue! or httpd: the next generation operating system Andrew P. Black Jonathan suggest that object-oriented operating systems may provide the means to meet the ever-growing demands is in fact an operating system, we observe that it implements uniform naming, persistent objects
Optimization of Water Consumption in Second Generation Bioethanol Plants
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
of the ethanol production processes are designed by determining water consumption, reuse and recycle1 Optimization of Water Consumption in Second Generation Bioethanol Plants Mariano Martína of Tuzla, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Abstract In this work we address the water consumption
Generation and Optimization of Numerical Programs by Symbolic Mathematical Methods
Fateman, Richard J.
Generation and Optimization of Numerical Programs by Symbolic Mathematical Methods Richard J FOR NUMERICAL COMPUTING, May 17-19, 1993 1 #12;5 The Future 21 5.1 Symbolic tools available in some form or numeric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2 Recent CAS
Skogestad, Sigurd
1M. Panahi, S. Skogestad ' Optimal Operation of a CO2 Capturing Plant for a Wide Range of Disturbances' Optimal Operation of a CO2 Capturing Plant for a Wide Range of Disturbances Mehdi Panahi Sigurd Skogestad 18.10.2011 AIChE Annual Meeting #12;2M. Panahi, S. Skogestad ' Optimal Operation of a CO2
Global Optimization for Scheduling Refinery Crude Oil Operations Ramkumar Karuppiaha
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
Global Optimization for Scheduling Refinery Crude Oil Operations Ramkumar Karuppiaha , Kevin C of a nonconvex Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) model for the scheduling of crude oil movement of crude oil and products. Furthermore, detailed scheduling models often require a continuous time
An Operational Model for Optimal NonDispatchable Demand Response
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
An Operational Model for Optimal NonDispatchable Demand Response for Continuous PowerintensiveFACTS, $ Demand Response Energy Storage HVDC Industrial Customer PEV Renewable Energy Source: U.S.-Canada Power: To balance supply and demand of a power system, one can manipulate both: supply and demand demand response
Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer
Skogestad, Sigurd
Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer Tore Lid Statoil Mongstad model of a semiregenerative catalytic naphtha reformer, involving five pseudo components, was presented) developed a more de- tailed model of a semiregenerative catalytic naphtha reformer, involving 35 pseudo
Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer
Skogestad, Sigurd
Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer Tore Lid Statoil Mongstad of a semiregenerative catalytic naphtha reformer, involving 35 pseudo compo- nents. They claimed that the simplified-mail:skoge@chemeng.ntnu.no) #12;Abstract The naphtha reforming process converts low-octane gasoline blending compo- nents to high
Optimal operation of a mixed fluid cascade LNG process
Skogestad, Sigurd
Optimal operation of a mixed fluid cascade LNG process Jørgen Bauck Jensen & Sigurd Skogestad distances is to first produce liquefied natural gas (LNG) and then transport the LNG by ships. At atmospheric pressure LNG has approximately 600 times the density of gaseous NG and a temperature of ap
Control and optimal operation of simple heat pump cycles
Skogestad, Sigurd
Control and optimal operation of simple heat pump cycles Jørgen Bauck Jensen and Sigurd Skogestad in the opposite direction, the "heat pump", has recently become pop- ular. These two applications have also merged. The coefficients of performance for a heating cycle (heat pump) and a cooling cycle (refrigerator, A/C) are defined
Wind turbine generator with improved operating subassemblies
Cheney, Jr., Marvin C. (24 Stonepost Rd., Glastonbury, CT 06033)
1985-01-01
A wind turbine includes a yaw spring return assembly to return the nacelle from a position to which it has been rotated by yawing forces, thus preventing excessive twisting of the power cables and control cables. It also includes negative coning restrainers to limit the bending of the flexible arms of the rotor towards the tower, and stop means on the rotor shaft to orient the blades in a vertical position during periods when the unit is upwind when the wind commences. A pendulum pitch control mechanism is improved by orienting the pivot axis for the pendulum arm at an angle to the longitudinal axis of its support arm, and excessive creep is of the synthetic resin flexible beam support for the blades is prevented by a restraining cable which limits the extent of pivoting of the pendulum during normal operation but which will permit further pivoting under abnormal conditions to cause the rotor to stall.
Generation of stable subfemtosecond hard x-ray pulses with optimized...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
optimized nonlinear bunch compression Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of stable subfemtosecond hard x-ray pulses with optimized nonlinear bunch...
A Simple Strategy for Optimal Operation of Heat Exchanger V. LERSBAMRUNGSUK1
Skogestad, Sigurd
A Simple Strategy for Optimal Operation of Heat Exchanger Networks V. LERSBAMRUNGSUK1 , S for optimal operation of heat exchanger networks. Optimal operation in this context requires that 1) all of heat exchanger networks are analyzed and used to identify if the operation is structurally feasible
Skogestad, Sigurd
Near-optimal operation by self-optimizing control: From process con- trol to marathon running optimized by keeping selected controlled variables at given constant values (setpoints). In the paper this idea of "self-optimizing control" is explained and illustrated on a large number of examples. Keywords
Optimal operation and design of solar-thermal energy storage systems
Lizarraga-García, Enrique
2012-01-01
The present thesis focuses on the optimal operation and design of solar-thermal energy storage systems. First, optimization of time-variable operation to maximize revenue through selling and purchasing electricity to/from ...
Simulation and Optimization on Power Plant Operation Using SEGA's EOP Program
Zhou, J.; Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Liu, M.
2000-01-01
The operation of a cogeneration power plant is complicated. The Energy Optimization Program (EOP, software made by SEGA, Inc.) was designed to simulate and optimize the operation of TAMU power plant. All major plant components were represented...
Simulation and Optimization on Power Plant Operation Using Sega's EOP Program
Zhou, J.; Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Liu, M.
2000-01-01
The operation of a cogeneration power plant is complicated. The Energy Optimization Program (EOP, software made by SEGA, Inc.) was designed to simulate and optimize the operation of TAMU power plant. All major plant components were represented...
Cold weather hydrogen generation system and method of operation
Dreier, Ken Wayne; Kowalski, Michael Thomas; Porter, Stephen Charles; Chow, Oscar Ken; Borland, Nicholas Paul; Goyette, Stephen Arthur
2010-12-14
A system for providing hydrogen gas is provided. The system includes a hydrogen generator that produces gas from water. One or more heat generation devices are arranged to provide heating of the enclosure during different modes of operation to prevent freezing of components. A plurality of temperature sensors are arranged and coupled to a controller to selectively activate a heat source if the temperature of the component is less than a predetermined temperature.
Baumann, O.
2004-01-01
Building energy management systems (BEMS) process a large amount of data to operate the building. Instead of using this data only to signal failures and breakdowns of systems, it can be further employed for enhanced operation diagnostics. Adequate...
Optimization of Crude-Oil Blending Operations Sylvain Mouret Ignacio E. Grossmann Pierre Pestiaux
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
Optimization of Crude-Oil Blending Operations Sylvain Mouret Ignacio E. Grossmann Pierre Pestiaux Optimize the schedule of operations for the crude-oil prob- lem using a MINLP scheduling model Tools MINLP Sylvain Mouret, Ignacio E. Grossmann, Pierre Pestiaux Optimization of Crude-Oil Blending Operations #12
2012-03-16
GENI Project: The CRA team is developing control technology to help grid operators more actively manage power flows and integrate renewables by optimally turning on and off entire power lines in coordination with traditional control of generation and load resources. The control technology being developed would provide grid operators with tools to help manage transmission congestion by identifying the facilities whose on/off status must change to lower generation costs, increase utilization of renewable resources and improve system reliability. The technology is based on fast optimization algorithms for the near to real-time change in the on/off status of transmission facilities and their software implementation.
Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under Various Electricity Tariffs
Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris
2007-01-01
Optimization Under Various Electricity Tariffs Firestone,Optimization Under Various Electricity Tariffs Table of3 2.1 Electricity Tariff
Optimal Solar PV Arrays Integration for Distributed Generation
Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Li, Xueping
2012-01-01
Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems hold great potential for distributed energy generation by installing PV panels on rooftops of residential and commercial buildings. Yet challenges arise along with the variability and non-dispatchability of the PV systems that affect the stability of the grid and the economics of the PV system. This paper investigates the integration of PV arrays for distributed generation applications by identifying a combination of buildings that will maximize solar energy output and minimize system variability. Particularly, we propose mean-variance optimization models to choose suitable rooftops for PV integration based on Markowitz mean-variance portfolio selection model. We further introduce quantity and cardinality constraints to result in a mixed integer quadratic programming problem. Case studies based on real data are presented. An efficient frontier is obtained for sample data that allows decision makers to choose a desired solar energy generation level with a comfortable variability tolerance level. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the tradeoffs between solar PV energy generation potential and variability.
Engineering to Control Noise, Loading, and Optimal Operating Points
Mitchell R. Swartz
2000-11-12
Successful engineering of low-energy nuclear systems requires control of noise, loading, and optimum operating point (OOP) manifolds. The latter result from the biphasic system response of low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR)/cold fusion systems, and their ash production rate, to input electrical power. Knowledge of the optimal operating point manifold can improve the reproducibility and efficacy of these systems in several ways. Improved control of noise, loading, and peak production rates is available through the study, and use, of OOP manifolds. Engineering of systems toward the OOP-manifold drive-point peak may, with inclusion of geometric factors, permit more accurate uniform determinations of the calibrated activity of these materials/systems.
Study of On-Board Ammonia (NH3) Generation for SCR Operation...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Study of On-Board Ammonia (NH3) Generation for SCR Operation Study of On-Board Ammonia (NH3) Generation for SCR Operation The feasibility of on-board ammonia generation was...
Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under Various Electricity Tariffs
Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris
2007-01-01
Optimization Common DG devices are reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines, and fuel cells.
Optimal Transmission Switching in Electric Networks for Improved Economic Operations1
Ferris, Michael C.
1 Optimal Transmission Switching in Electric Networks for Improved Economic Operations1 Emily. Abstract Growing demand for electric power seems to necessitate new transmission lines, but obstacles" bulk electric grid, one that is more controllable and flexible. Optimal transmission switching
Performing a scatterv operation on a hierarchical tree network optimized for collective operations
Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E
2013-10-22
Performing a scatterv operation on a hierarchical tree network optimized for collective operations including receiving, by the scatterv module installed on the node, from a nearest neighbor parent above the node a chunk of data having at least a portion of data for the node; maintaining, by the scatterv module installed on the node, the portion of the data for the node; determining, by the scatterv module installed on the node, whether any portions of the data are for a particular nearest neighbor child below the node or one or more other nodes below the particular nearest neighbor child; and sending, by the scatterv module installed on the node, those portions of data to the nearest neighbor child if any portions of the data are for a particular nearest neighbor child below the node or one or more other nodes below the particular nearest neighbor child.
Generation of Stable Sub-femtosecond Hard X-ray pulses with Optimized...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Generation of Stable Sub-femtosecond Hard X-ray pulses with Optimized Nonlinear Bunch Compression Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of Stable Sub-femtosecond...
Optimization of sequential attractor-based movement for compact behaviour generation
Toussaint, Marc
Optimization of sequential attractor-based movement for compact behaviour generation Marc Toussaint optimal robot motion based on a sequence of attractor dynamics in task space. This is motivated] and by the need for compact movement representations on which efficient optimization can be performed. We
Pedram, Massoud
Concurrent Optimization of Consumer's Electrical Energy Bill and Producer's Power Generation Cost their electric bill. On the other hand optimizing the number and production time of power generation facilities lower cost. I. INTRODUCTION There is no substitute for the status of electrical energy, which
Kusiak, Andrew
1 Abstract--A bi-objective optimization model of power and power changes generated by a wind the industrial data collected at a wind farm. The models and constraints derived from the data were integrated prediction, power ramp rate, data mining, wind turbine operation strategy, generator torque, blade pitch
Linderoth, Jeffrey T.
Combining Optimization and Simulation for Strategic and Operational Industrial Gas Production-wide Optimization; Simulation Optimization; 1 Introduction Liquid oxygen (lox) and liquid nitrogen (lni and complicated. This leads to a natural question of why the schedule adjustment is so often necessary
Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under Various Electricity Tariffs
Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris
2007-01-01
the Optimization of Cogeneration Dispatch in a Deregulatedheat and power (CHP), or cogeneration, systems make use ofheat and power (CHP), or cogeneration, systems make use of
Optimal Technology Selection and Operation of Microgrids in Commercial Buildings
Marnay, Chris; Venkataramanan, Giri; Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Firestone, Ryan; Chandran, Bala
2008-01-01
Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage,” Journal ofPV), and possibly some heat recovery devices. And typically,generation with heat recovery, thermal heat collection, and
Implications of a Regime-Switching Model on Natural Gas Storage Valuation and Optimal Operation
Forsyth, Peter A.
Implications of a Regime-Switching Model on Natural Gas Storage Valuation and Optimal Operation-switching model for the risk adjusted natural gas spot price and study the implications of the model on the valuation and optimal operation of natural gas storage facilities. We calibrate the model parameters to both
Control and optimal operation of simple heat pump cycles Jrgen B. Jensen and Sigurd Skogestad
Skogestad, Sigurd
Control and optimal operation of simple heat pump cycles Jørgen B. Jensen and Sigurd Skogestad cycle. Keywords: Operation, heat pump cycle, cyclic process, charge, self-optimizing control 1. The coefficients of performance for a heating cycle (heat pump) and a cooling cycle (re- frigerator, A
Aalborg Universitet Optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro CHP system for
Berning, Torsten
Aalborg Universitet Optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro CHP system., & Brandon, N. (2014). Optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro CHP system for residential of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro-CHP system for residential applications in different climate zones in China
Optimal monitoring and visualization of steady state power system operation
Xu, Bei
2009-06-02
Power system operation requires accurate monitoring of electrical quantities and a reliable database of the power system. As the power system operation becomes more competitive, the secure operation becomes highly important ...
Robot Locomotion Controller Generation Through Human-Inspired Optimization
Powell, Matthew Joseph
2013-11-13
This thesis presents an approach to the formal design, optimization and implementation of bipedal robotic walking controllers, with experimental application on two biped platforms. Standard rigid-body modeling is used to construct a hybrid sys- tem...
Optimal Technology Selection and Operation of Microgrids inCommercial Buildings
Marnay, Chris; Venkataramanan, Giri; Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui,Afzal; Firestone, Ryan; Chandran, Bala
2007-01-15
The deployment of small (<1-2 MW) clusters of generators,heat and electrical storage, efficiency investments, and combined heatand power (CHP) applications (particularly involving heat activatedcooling) in commercial buildings promises significant benefits but posesmany technical and financial challenges, both in system choice and itsoperation; if successful, such systems may be precursors to widespreadmicrogrid deployment. The presented optimization approach to choosingsuch systems and their operating schedules uses Berkeley Lab'sDistributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model [DER-CAM], extendedto incorporate electrical storage options. DER-CAM chooses annual energybill minimizing systems in a fully technology-neutral manner. Anillustrative example for a San Francisco hotel is reported. The chosensystem includes two engines and an absorption chiller, providing anestimated 11 percent cost savings and 10 percent carbon emissionreductions, under idealized circumstances.
Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under Various Electricity Tariffs
Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris
2007-01-01
data available and used to generate random solar radiationResource Data Center], The Solar Radiation Resourcedata were collected from [16]. The stochastic model of solar radiation
A Symmetry-Breaking Tool for the Optimization of Crude-Oil Operations Scheduling
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
A Symmetry-Breaking Tool for the Optimization of Crude-Oil Operations Scheduling Sylvain Mouret the schedule of operations for the crude-oil unloading and blending problem using a continuous and Mann (2003) #12;Crude-oil operations scheduling problem Scheduling horizon [0, H] 4 types of resources
Optimizing Kernel Block Memory Operations Michael Calhoun, Scott Rixner, Alan L. Cox
Optimizing Kernel Block Memory Operations Michael Calhoun, Scott Rixner, Alan L. Cox Rice University Houston, TX 77005 {calhoun,rixner,alc}@rice.edu Abstract-- This paper investigates the performance of block memory operations in the operating system, including memory copies, page zeroing, interprocess
Optimal generation of Fock states in a weakly nonlinear oscillator
B. Khani; J. M. Gambetta; F. Motzoi; F. K. Wilhelm
2009-09-25
We apply optimal control theory to determine the shortest time in which an energy eigenstate of a weakly anharmonic oscillator can be created under the practical constraint of linear driving. We show that the optimal pulses are beatings of mostly the transition frequencies for the transitions up to the desired state and the next leakage level. The time of a shortest possible pulse for a given nonlinearity scale with the nonlinearity parameter delta as a power law of alpha with alpha=-0.73 +/-0.029. This is a qualitative improvement relative to the value alpha=1 suggested by a simple Landau-Zener argument.
Zebian, Hussam
2014-01-01
Efficient and clean electricity generation is a major challenge for today's world. Multivariable optimization is shown to be essential in unveiling the true potential and the high efficiency of pressurized oxy-coal combustion ...
Applications of Optimal Building Energy System Selection and Operation
Marnay, Chris
2014-01-01
http://microgrid.lbl.gov/microgrids-lbnl/current-project-and Operation of Microgrids in Commercial Buildings,” IEEEmore background on microgrids, please see the presentations
Optimization of a Small Passive Wind Turbine Generator with Multiobjective Genetic Algorithms
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
: Multiobjective Optimization, Genetic Algorithms, Wind Energy, Vertical Axis Wind Turbine hal-00763673,version1 #12;2.2. The Wind Turbine Characteristics A Savonius Vertical Axis Wind Turbine of radius R = 0.5 mOptimization of a Small Passive Wind Turbine Generator with Multiobjective Genetic Algorithms A
Simulation and Optimization of Wind Farm Operations under Stochastic Conditions
Byon, Eunshin
2011-08-08
, the resulting strategy are season-dependent. The model is solved using a backward dynamic programming method. The bene ts of the optimal policy are highlighted via a case study that is based upon eld data from the literature and industry. We nd...
UNIFIED PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION FOR TACKLING OPERATIONS RESEARCH PROBLEMS
Parsopoulos, Konstantinos
of the variables are real, will be considered in future works. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) has proved as a unified PSO scheme that com- bines the exploration and exploitation properties of differ- ent PSO variants of UPSO against the standard PSO variants [7, 8]. We investigate the performance of UPSO on minimax
A Systems Approach to Optimize the Operation of a Refrigeration Unit at a Chemical Plant
Papar, R.; Zugibe, K.; Heitler, J.
2005-01-01
This paper focuses on the ongoing system level analysis and the optimization results of two steamturbine driven refrigeration units at the Dow Chemical company Peroxymerics (PXC) plant located at St. Charles Operations in Hahnville, LA. Six-sigma...
Airline schedule planning and operations : optimization-based approaches for delay mitigation
Marla, Lavanya
2010-01-01
We study strategic and operational measures of improving airline system performance and reducing delays for aircraft, crew and passengers. As a strategic approach, we study robust optimization models, which capture possible ...
Branch and Bound for Boolean Optimization and the Generation of Optimality Certificates
Larrosa, Javier
optimization problems of the form (S, cost), where S is a clause set over Boolean variables x1 . . . xn, with an arbi- trary cost function cost : Bn R, and the aim is to find a model A of S such that cost algorithm that can model optimization concepts such as cost-based propagation and cost-based backjumping
Optimal command generation for maneuvering the space station
Bryson, Amy Louise
2001-01-01
The objective of this research is to obtain near minimum-fuel and minimum-time maneuver commands for large-angle maneuvers for the international space station. Attitude and angular velocity waypoints are generated using the method of differential...
Optimal strategies for operating energy storage in an arbitrage Lisa Flatley
Sengun, Mehmet Haluk
Optimal strategies for operating energy storage in an arbitrage market Lisa Flatley Robert S Mac, energy storage, optimal localized algorithm. AMS subject classifications. 49K30, 93C10 1 Introduction-shaving, frequency response, reactive power regulation and the provision of reserve. In the UK, large
Control Structure Selection for Optimal Operation of a Heat Exchanger Network
Skogestad, Sigurd
Control Structure Selection for Optimal Operation of a Heat Exchanger Network Johannes J--We consider the control structure design for a heat exchanger network (HEN), where a stream is split of temperature measurements. Index Terms--Control structure selection, Self-optimizing con- trol, Heat exchanger
Yokoyama, R.; Ito, K.
1995-12-01
An optimal operational planning method is proposed for cogeneration systems with thermal storage. The daily operational strategy of constituent equipment is determined so as to minimize the daily operational cost subject to the energy demand requirement. This optimization problem is formulated as a large-scale mixed-integer linear programming one, and it is solved by means of the decomposition method. Effects of thermal storage on the operation of cogeneration systems are examined through a numerical study on a gas engine-driven cogeneration system installed in a hotel. This method is a useful tool for evaluating the economic and energy-saving properties of cogeneration systems with thermal storage.
Optimal design and operation of energy polygeneration systems
Chen, Yang, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Chemical Engineering
2013-01-01
Polygeneration is a concept where multiple energy products are generated in a single plant by tightly integrating multiple processes into one system. Compared to conventional single-product systems, polygeneration systems ...
Optimizing the Day to Day Operation of Utility Systems
Eastwood, A.; Bealing, C.
2003-01-01
At the 2002 IETC, Linnhoff March presented an overview of spreadsheet-based software packages to rigorously model site utility systems. Such models allow the user to plan future scenarios that might impact upon the system operation (energy saving...
Optimization for Design and Operation of Natural Gas Transmission Networks
Dilaveroglu, Sebnem 1986-
2012-08-22
This study addresses the problem of designing a new natural gas transmission network or expanding an existing network while minimizing the total investment and operating costs. A substantial reduction in costs can be ...
Optimized Hydrogen and Electricity Generation from Wind | Department of
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills and ReduceNovemberDOE'sManagementOpenEIthe U.S.Energy Optimized
Optimization of THz Radiation Generation from a Laser Wakefield Accelerator
Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson
used to characterize these THz pulses. Keywords: T-rays generation, CTR, LWFA, Beam diagnostics PACS ultrashort electron bunches with energies up to 1 GeV [1] and energy spreads of a few-percent. Laser pulses interacting with a plasma create accelerated electrons which upon exiting the plasma emit terahertz pulses via
Optimal distributed power generation under network load constraints
Utrecht, Universiteit
, small wind turbine or central heating power units) can be inserted into any transmission line, mainly because of the development of novel components for decentral power generation (solar panels, small wind turbines and heat pumps). This gives rise to the question how many units of each type (solar panel
Lan Pengfei; Takahashi, Eiji J.; Midorikawa, Katsumi [Extreme Photonics Research Group, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)
2010-11-15
We present the optimization of the two-color synthesis method for generating an intense isolated attosecond pulse (IAP) in the multicycle regime. By mixing an infrared assistant pulse with a Ti:sapphire main pulse, we show that an IAP can be produced using a multicycle two-color pulse with a duration longer than 30 fs. We also discuss the influence of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) and the relative intensity on the generation of IAPs. By optimizing the wavelength of the assistant field, IAP generation becomes insensitive to the CEP slip. Therefore, the optimized two-color method enables us to relax the requirements of pulse duration and easily produce the IAP with a conventional multicycle laser pulse. In addition, it enables us to markedly suppress the ionization of the harmonic medium. This is a major advantage for efficiently generating intense IAPs from a neutral medium by applying the appropriate phase-matching and energy-scaling techniques.
Optimization of Magnetic Refrigerators by Tuning the Heat Transfer Medium and Operating Conditions
Ghahremani, Mohammadreza; Bennett, Lawrence H; Della Torre, Edward
2015-01-01
A new experimental test bed has been designed, built, and tested to evaluate the effect of the systems parameters on a reciprocating Active Magnetic Regenerator (AMR) near room temperature. Bulk gadolinium was used as the refrigerant, silicon oil as the heat transfer medium, and a magnetic field of 1.3 T was cycled. This study focuses on the methodology of single stage AMR operation conditions to get a higher temperature span near room temperature. Herein, the main objective is not to report the absolute maximum attainable temperature span seen in an AMR system, but rather to find the systems optimal operating conditions to reach that maximum span. The results of this research show that there is a optimal operating frequency, heat transfer fluid flow rate, flow duration, and displaced volume ratio in an AMR system. By optimizing these parameters the refrigeration performance increased by 24%. It is expected that such optimization will permit the design of a more efficient magnetic refrigeration system.
Numerical Methods for the QCD Overlap Operator: II. Optimal Krylov Subspace Methods
G. Arnold; N. Cundy; J. van den Eshof; A. Frommer; S. Krieg; Th. Lippert; K. Schäfer
2004-02-20
We investigate optimal choices for the (outer) iteration method to use when solving linear systems with Neuberger's overlap operator in QCD. Different formulations for this operator give rise to different iterative solvers, which are optimal for the respective formulation. We compare these methods in theory and practice to find the overall optimal one.For the first time, we apply the so-called SUMR method of Jagels and Reichel to the shifted unitary version of Neuberger's operator, and show that this method is in a sense the optimal choice for propagator computations. When solving the ``squared'' equations in a dynamical simulation with two degenerate flavours, it turns out that the CG method should be used.
System and method of cylinder deactivation for optimal engine torque-speed map operation
Sujan, Vivek A; Frazier, Timothy R; Follen, Kenneth; Moon, Suk-Min
2014-11-11
This disclosure provides a system and method for determining cylinder deactivation in a vehicle engine to optimize fuel consumption while providing the desired or demanded power. In one aspect, data indicative of terrain variation is utilized in determining a vehicle target operating state. An optimal active cylinder distribution and corresponding fueling is determined from a recommendation from a supervisory agent monitoring the operating state of the vehicle of a subset of the total number of cylinders, and a determination as to which number of cylinders provides the optimal fuel consumption. Once the optimal cylinder number is determined, a transmission gear shift recommendation is provided in view of the determined active cylinder distribution and target operating state.
Zhou, Jijun
2001-01-01
The operation of a combined cycle cogeneration power plant system is complicated because of the complex interactions among components as well as the dynamic nature of the system. Studies of plant operation through experiments in such a sensitive...
Department of Industrial Engineering & Operations Research IEOR264 Computational Optimization
Atamtürk, Alper
in which some or all of the variables must take on integral values. Examples of such problems include, with an emphasis on problems in the logistics of production, distribution, transportation, and telecom- munication DantzigWolfe decomposition, column generation Applications: generalized assignment and multicommodity
Operation and Configuration of a Storage Portfolio via Convex Optimization
for energy storage devices is buffering the output power flow of intermittent, renewable energy sources of increased power generation. Because both the capital costs of the storage systems and the potential energy an average cost function. The individual storage devices have different parameters that characterize
Site-Wide Optimization Using an Operations Center
Boland, D.
1988-01-01
"Most industrial sites consist of more that one individual production unit. Whenever this is the case, there is a natural tendency to treat the operation and performance of each unit as one entity within its own right. However, it is generally...
STUDIES ON OPTIMAL DESIGN AND OPERATION OF INTEGRATED
Skogestad, Sigurd
on distillation as a measure of separating a feed mixture into its constituents, probably dates back at least the efficiency has been towards heat integration between columns or between the column and other parts regulations, more recent research aims at designs that offer savings in both operational (energy) and capital
Single-cycle mixed-fluid LNG process Part II: Optimal operation
Skogestad, Sigurd
Single-cycle mixed-fluid LNG process Part II: Optimal operation Jørgen Bauck Jensen and Sigurd of work that goes into the design of LNG processes, there is surprisingly little attention simple LNG process, namely the PRICO process. Keywords: PRICO, LNG, operation 1 Introduction The process
Skogestad, Sigurd
Sensitivity Analysis of Optimal Operation of an Activated Sludge Process Model for Economic operation conducted on an activated sludge process model based on the test-bed benchmark simulation model no. 1 (BSM1) and the activated sludge model no. 1 (ASM1). The objective is to search for a control
Predictive energy Optimization: The Next Generation of Energy Management
Dickinson, P.
2013-01-01
, demand response, electric vehicle charging, on site renewables, co-generation, energy star targets and a range of other complexities introduce the need to move beyond fixed logic and scripted responses. THE SOLUTION: Given the gap between MPC.... If the labor force was previously running at 100% then, to reach the increased output, additional labor is required. How should new labor be introduced? Should additional labor be full time employees as perhaps the cheapest option albeit with the risk...
Reservoir Stimulation Optimization with Operational Monitoring for Creation of EGS
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Fernandez, Carlos A.
EGS field projects have not sustained production at rates greater than ½ of what is needed for economic viability. The primary limitation that makes commercial EGS infeasible is our current inability to cost-effectively create high-permeability reservoirs from impermeable, igneous rock within the 3,000-10,000 ft depth range. Our goal is to develop a novel fracturing fluid technology that maximizes reservoir permeability while reducing stimulation cost and environmental impact. Laboratory equipment development to advance laboratory characterization/monitoring is also a priority of this project to study and optimize the physicochemical properties of these fracturing fluids in a range of reservoir conditions. Barrier G is the primarily intended GTO barrier to be addressed as well as support addressing barriers D, E and I.
Reservoir Stimulation Optimization with Operational Monitoring for Creation of EGS
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Fernandez, Carlos A.
2013-09-25
EGS field projects have not sustained production at rates greater than ½ of what is needed for economic viability. The primary limitation that makes commercial EGS infeasible is our current inability to cost-effectively create high-permeability reservoirs from impermeable, igneous rock within the 3,000-10,000 ft depth range. Our goal is to develop a novel fracturing fluid technology that maximizes reservoir permeability while reducing stimulation cost and environmental impact. Laboratory equipment development to advance laboratory characterization/monitoring is also a priority of this project to study and optimize the physicochemical properties of these fracturing fluids in a range of reservoir conditions. Barrier G is the primarily intended GTO barrier to be addressed as well as support addressing barriers D, E and I.
AVESTAR Center for operational excellence of electricity generation plants
Zitney, S.
2012-01-01
To address challenges in attaining operational excellence for clean energy plants, the U.S.Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory has launched a world-class facility for Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTAR™). The AVESTAR Center brings together state-of-the-art, real time,high-fidelity dynamic simulators with operator training systems and 3D virtual immersive training systems into an integrated energy plant and control room environment.
Control and operation cost optimization of the HISS cryogenic system
Porter, J.; Bieser, F.; Anderson, D.
1983-08-01
The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) relies upon superconducting coils of cryostable design to provide a maximum particle bending field of 3 tesla. A previous paper describes the cryogenic facility including helium refrigeration and gas management. This paper discusses a control strategy which has allowed full time unattended operation, along with significant nitrogen and power cost reductions. Reduction of liquid nitrogen consumption has been accomplished by making use of the sensible heat available in the cold exhaust gas. Measured nitrogen throughput agrees with calculations for sensible heat utilization of zero to 70%. Calculated consumption saving over this range is 40 liters per hour for conductive losses to the supports only. The measured throughput differential for the total system is higher.
Hu, Weihao
performance [1]. Moreover, some grid codes already require wind turbines to provide reactive power ability Wind Generation Systems Considering Reactive Power Provision. In Proceedings of the 40th Annual generator based wind generation systems when providing reactive power. The proposed method achieves its goal
Pang,X.; Piette, M.A.; Hao,B.
2014-01-01
CONSORTIUM U.S. - CHINA CLEAN ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER (CERC-BEE) E3: Commissioning, Operation, Real Time Monitoring and Evaluation of Pilot Achieving Optimal Performance through Building Commissioning Xiufeng Pang, Mary Ann Piette, Bin Hao Interface... to demo projects to ensure that the CERC-BEE demonstrated technologies work properly and are integrated with the rest of the building systems • Review the Cx plans for the two demo projects, the CABR building and the Xingye building. • Develop optimal...
Jeffrey J. Einerson; Jeffrey A. Phillips; Eric L. Shaber; Scott E. Niedzialek; W. Clay Richardson; Scott G. Nagley
2012-10-01
Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to baseline historical production processes, and allow compacting at fuel packing fractions up to 46% by volume. The scale-up approach of jet milling, fluid-bed overcoating, and hot-press compacting adopted in the U.S. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program involves significant paradigm shifts to capitalize on distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of mixed waste. A series of designed experiments have been completed to optimize compaction conditions of time, temperature, and forming pressure using natural uranium oxycarbide (NUCO) fuel. Results from these experiments are included. The scale-up effort is nearing completion with the process installed and operational using nuclear fuel materials. The process is being certified for manufacture of qualification test fuel compacts for the AGR-5/6/7 experiment at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).
Variational stability of optimal control problems involving subdifferential operators
Tolstonogov, Aleksandr A [Institute of System Dynamics and Control Theory, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk (Russian Federation)
2011-04-30
This paper is concerned with the problem of minimizing an integral functional with control-nonconvex integrand over the class of solutions of a control system in a Hilbert space subject to a control constraint given by a phase-dependent multivalued map with closed nonconvex values. The integrand, the subdifferential operators, the perturbation term, the initial conditions and the control constraint all depend on a parameter. Along with this problem, the paper considers the problem of minimizing an integral functional with control-convexified integrand over the class of solutions of the original system, but now subject to a convexified control constraint. By a solution of a control system we mean a 'trajectory-control' pair. For each value of the parameter, the convexified problem is shown to have a solution, which is the limit of a minimizing sequence of the original problem, and the minimal value of the functional with the convexified integrand is a continuous function of the parameter. This property is commonly referred to as the variational stability of a minimization problem. An example of a control parabolic system with hysteresis and diffusion effects is considered. Bibliography: 24 titles.
Cryptanalysis of the Random Number Generator of the Windows Operating System
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Cryptanalysis of the Random Number Generator of the Windows Operating System Leo Dorrendorf School by the Windows operating system is the most commonly used PRNG. The pseudo-randomness of the output the second most popular operating system after Windows XP. (This investigation was done without any help from
Optimal Placement and Sizing of Distributed Generator Units using Genetic Optimization
and electricity in the distribution grid. A group of DG units can form a virtual power plant, being centrally controlled and behaving as a single power plant towards the grid. The extreme case is an energy island to conventional power plants distributed generation units such as PV cells (depending on solar illumination
Multidisciplinary optimization of aircraft design and takeoff operations for low noise
Jones, Anya Rachel
2006-01-01
Aircraft planform design, takeoff operations, and airfoil design are examined as a complete system in order to quantify tradeoffs that can result in a quiet aircraft. An aircraft design model was developed to generate ...
Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed
1 Optimal Integration of Renewable Energy Resources in Data Centers with Behind-the-Meter Renewable-- Renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar power, are rapidly becoming generation technologies-temporal variations, the integration of renewable energy resources is usually very challenging. Some of the previously
High-throughput generation, optimization and analysis of genome-scale metabolic models.
Henry, C. S.; DeJongh, M.; Best, A. A.; Frybarger, P. M.; Linsay, B.; Stevens, R. L.
2010-09-01
Genome-scale metabolic models have proven to be valuable for predicting organism phenotypes from genotypes. Yet efforts to develop new models are failing to keep pace with genome sequencing. To address this problem, we introduce the Model SEED, a web-based resource for high-throughput generation, optimization and analysis of genome-scale metabolic models. The Model SEED integrates existing methods and introduces techniques to automate nearly every step of this process, taking {approx}48 h to reconstruct a metabolic model from an assembled genome sequence. We apply this resource to generate 130 genome-scale metabolic models representing a taxonomically diverse set of bacteria. Twenty-two of the models were validated against available gene essentiality and Biolog data, with the average model accuracy determined to be 66% before optimization and 87% after optimization.
Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed
are particularly interested in the case where a significant portion of the power generated in the grid is from wind, energy and reserve markets, wind power integration, stochastic optimization. NOMENCLATURE h, t Indices study in [2] has shown that significant wind power curtailment may become inevitable if more renewable
Cost-Optimal Operation of Energy Storage Units: Benefits of a Problem-Specific Approach
Siemer, Lars; Kleinhans, David
2015-01-01
The integration of large shares of electricity produced by non-dispatchable Renewable Energy Sources (RES) leads to an increasingly volatile energy generation side, with temporary local overproduction. The application of energy storage units has the potential to use this excess electricity from RES efficiently and to prevent curtailment. The objective of this work is to calculate cost-optimal charging strategies for energy storage units used as buffers. For this purpose, a new mathematical optimization method is presented that is applicable to general storage-related problems. Due to a tremendous gain in efficiency of this method compared with standard solvers and proven optimality, calculations of complex problems as well as a high-resolution sensitivity analysis of multiple system combinations are feasible within a very short time. As an example technology, Power-to-Heat converters used in combination with thermal storage units are investigated in detail and optimal system configurations, including storage ...
2012-02-24
GENI Project: Sandia National Laboratories is working with several commercial and university partners to develop software for market management systems (MMSs) that enable greater use of renewable energy sources throughout the grid. MMSs are used to securely and optimally determine which energy resources should be used to service energy demand across the country. Contributions of electricity to the grid from renewable energy sources such as wind and solar are intermittent, introducing complications for MMSs, which have trouble accommodating the multiple sources of price and supply uncertainties associated with bringing these new types of energy into the grid. Sandia’s software will bring a new, probability-based formulation to account for these uncertainties. By factoring in various probability scenarios for electricity production from renewable energy sources in real time, Sandia’s formula can reduce the risk of inefficient electricity transmission, save ratepayers money, conserve power, and support the future use of renewable energy.
Skogestad, Sigurd
2007-01-01
the selection of controlled variables for two different cycles. One is a conventional sub-critical ammonia operation there are differences. For the ammonia cycle, there are several simple control structures storage, were discussed in Part I. It was found in Part I that there are normally three optimally active
A Semi-Lagrangian Approach for Natural Gas Storage Valuation and Optimal Operation
Forsyth, Peter A.
A Semi-Lagrangian Approach for Natural Gas Storage Valuation and Optimal Operation Zhuliang Chen such as fuel and electricity, natural gas prices exhibit seasonality dynamics due to fluctuations in demand [28]. As such, natural gas storage facilities are constructed to provide a cushion for such fluctuations
Bulk CMOS Device Optimization for High-Speed and Ultra-Low Power Operations
Nyathi, Jabulani
Bulk CMOS Device Optimization for High-Speed and Ultra-Low Power Operations Brent Bero and Jabulani- Interest in subthreshold design has increased due to the emergence of systems that require ultra-low power creating a clear divide between designing for high speed and ultra-low power. It might be beneficial
A Simple Control Scheme for Near-optimal Operation of Parallel Heat Exchanger Systems
Skogestad, Sigurd
A Simple Control Scheme for Near-optimal Operation of Parallel Heat Exchanger Systems Johannes J) N-7491 Trondheim, Norway Abstract For heat exchanger networks with stream splits, we present for systems with logarithmic mean temperature difference as driving force. Keywords: Heat exchanger networks
Degrees of freedom and optimal operation of simple heat pump cycles
Skogestad, Sigurd
Degrees of freedom and optimal operation of simple heat pump cycles Jørgen Bauck Jensen and Sigurd in the opposite direction, the "heat pump", has recently become pop- ular. These two applications have also merged of performance for a heating cycle (heat pump) and a cooling cycle (refrigerator, A/C) are defined as COPh = Qh
Chu, Xi
Optimization of high-order harmonic generation by genetic algorithm and wavelet time laser fields by means of the genetic algorithm optimization of the laser-pulse amplitude and phase optimization 11 of the laser-pulse shape and intra-atomic phase matching. We show that by combining the GA
Oren, Shmuel S.
Unit Commitment and Transmission Switching With N-1 Reliability Kory W. Hedman, Student Member, IEEE present a co-optimization formulation of the generation unit commitment and transmission switching problem to hour. We also show that optimizing the topology can change the optimal unit commitment schedule
Hoff, Brian D. (East Peoria, IL); Algrain, Marcelo C. (Peoria, IL)
2008-12-09
A power system includes an engine, a motor/generator operatively connected to the engine, and a starter operatively connected to at least one of the engine and the motor/generator.
Optimization and operation of a cementation plant in the Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant
Schifferdecker, H. [Kraftanlagen Energie- und Industrieanlagen Heidelberg (Germany)
1995-12-31
The quality of conditioned radioactive waste must constantly be improved to keep pace with technical progress. To meet these ever-increasing demands it is necessary to modernize existing plants for the treatment of radioactive waste. The Atucha I NPP has been in operation since 1974 and the cementation plant no longer conformed with today`s requirements regarding safe operation and product quality. The optimization of the plant mainly involved the execution of the following points: Dismantling of existing plant sections to enable the installation of new and supplementary components; Installation of new and supplementary plant sections (components); Integration of the new system into the existing plant; and Commissioning of the new plant and operation of the plant using the optimized process for the duration of 60 calendar days. 200 barrels were to be cemented during this period.
How Run-of-River Operation Affects Hydropower Generation Henriette I. Jager Mark S. Bevelhimer
Jager, Henriette I.
How Run-of-River Operation Affects Hydropower Generation and Value Henriette I. Jager Æ Mark S) are mandated to protect aquatic biota, (2) decrease hydropower generation per unit flow, and (3) decrease energy revenue. We tested these three assump- tions by reviewing hydropower projects with license
Economic Optimal Operation of Community Energy Storage Systems in Competitive Energy Markets
Arghandeh, Reza; Onen, Ahmet; Jung, Jaesung; Broadwater, Robert P
2014-01-01
Distributed, controllable energy storage devices offer several significant benefits to electric power system operation. Three such benefits include reducing peak load, providing standby power, and enhancing power quality. These benefits, however, are only realized during peak load or during an outage, events that are infrequent. This paper presents a means of realizing additional benefits by taking advantage of the fluctuating costs of energy in competitive energy markets. An algorithm for optimal charge/discharge scheduling of community energy storage (CES) devices as well as an analysis of several of the key drivers of such optimization are discussed.
Pedram, Massoud
Variability-Aware Design of Energy-Delay Optimal Linear Pipelines Operating in the Near}@usc.edu ABSTRACT Soft-edge flip-flop based pipelines can improve the performance and energy efficiency of circuits-delay optimal linear pipelines that are aimed at operating in both the near-threshold and super
Kenji Nakahira; Tsuyoshi Sasaki Usuda
2015-01-26
We study the discrimination of multipartite quantum states by local operations and classical communication. We derive that any optimal discrimination of quantum states spanning a two-dimensional Hilbert space in which each party's space is finite dimensional is possible by local operations and one-way classical communication, regardless of the optimality criterion used and how entangled the states are.
Skogestad, Sigurd
-combustion CO2 capturing process where optimality is defined in terms of a cost function that includes energy Efficient Operation of CO2 Capturing Process Part I: Self-optimizing Procedure for Selecting the Best consumption and penalty for released CO2 to the air. Three different operational regions are considered
Optimal energy-harvesting cycles for load-driven dielectric generators in plane strain
R. Springhetti; E. Bortot; G. deBotton; M. Gei
2014-03-13
The performances of energy harvesting generators based on dielectric elastomers are investigated. The configuration is of a thin dielectric film coated by stretchable electrodes at both sides. The film is first stretched, then charged and subsequently, afterwards it is released, and finally the charge is harvested at a higher electric potential. The amount of energy extracted by this cycle is bounded by the electric breakdown and the ultimate stretch ratio of the film as well as by structural instabilities due to loss of tension. To identify the optimal cycle that complies with these limits we formulate a constraint optimization problem and solve it with a dedicated solver for two typical classes of elastic dielectrics. As anticipated, we find that the performance of the generator depends critically on the ultimate stretch ratio of the film. However, more surprising is our finding of a universal limit on the dielectric strength of the film beyond which the optimal cycle is independent of this parameter. Thus, we reveal that, regardless of how large the dielectric strength of the material is, there is an upper bound on the amount of harvested energy that depends only on the ultimate stretch ratio. We conclude the work with detailed calculations of the optimal cycles for two commercially available elastic dielectrics.
Urquhart, B.; Sengupta, M.; Keller, J.
2012-09-01
A multi-objective optimization was performed to allocate 2MW of PV among four candidate sites on the island of Lanai such that energy was maximized and variability in the form of ramp rates was minimized. This resulted in an optimal solution set which provides a range of geographic allotment alternatives for the fixed PV capacity. Within the optimal set, a tradeoff between energy produced and variability experienced was found, whereby a decrease in variability always necessitates a simultaneous decrease in energy. A design point within the optimal set was selected for study which decreased extreme ramp rates by over 50% while only decreasing annual energy generation by 3% over the maximum generation allocation. To quantify the allotment mix selected, a metric was developed, called the ramp ratio, which compares ramping magnitude when all capacity is allotted to a single location to the aggregate ramping magnitude in a distributed scenario. The ramp ratio quantifies simultaneously how much smoothing a distributed scenario would experience over single site allotment and how much a single site is being under-utilized for its ability to reduce aggregate variability. This paper creates a framework for use by cities and municipal utilities to reduce variability impacts while planning for high penetration of PV on the distribution grid.
Optimization of the operation of a drying heat pump using superheated steam
Moraitis, C.S.; Akritidis, C.B.
1997-05-01
A numerical solution of a model which describes the optimal operation of a novel concept of heat pump for drying applications based on the theory of minimum energy cycles is presented. The thermodynamic cycle of the drying heat pump involves vapor condensation in a Laval nozzle, removal of the liquid phase in a separator as well as compression of the working medium, which is superheated vapor.
Optimizing hourly hydro operations at the Salt Lake City Area integrated projects
Veselka, T.D.; Hamilton, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); McCoy, J. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)
1995-06-01
The Salt Lake City Area (SLCA) office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) is responsible for marketing the capacity and energy generated by the Colorado Storage, Collbran, and Rio Grande hydropower projects. These federal resources are collectively called the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). In recent years, stringent operational limitations have been placed on several of these hydropower plants including the Glen Canyon Dam, which accounts for approximately 80% of the SLCA/IP resources. Operational limitations on SLCA/IP hydropower plants continue to evolve as a result of decisions currently being made in the Glen Canyon Dam Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the Power Marketing EIS. To analyze a broad range of issues associated with many possible future operational restrictions, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), with technical assistance from Western has developed the Hydro LP (Linear Program) Model. This model simulates hourly operations at SLCA/IP hydropower plants for weekly periods with the objective of maximizing Western`s net revenues. The model considers hydropower operations for the purpose of serving SLCA firm loads, loads for special projects, Inland Power Pool (IPP) spinning reserve requirements, and Western`s purchasing programs. The model estimates hourly SLCA/IP generation and spot market activities. For this paper, hourly SLCA/IP hydropower plant generation is simulated under three operational scenarios and three hydropower conditions. For each scenario an estimate of Western`s net revenue is computed.
Paper Number Sizing and Optimal Operation of a Power Split Hydraulic
Li, Perry Y.
sector. In hybrid vehicles energy is saved by regenerating kinetic energy while braking, by operating power sources that can directly or indirectly propel the vehicle. A hybrid vehicle saves energy in three as alternative energy storage and electric motors and generators are used to assist the engine in power, is often
Optimizing the CEBAF Injector for Beam Operation with a Higher Voltage Electron Gun
F.E. Hannon, A.S. Hofler, R. Kazimi
2011-03-01
Recent developments in the DC gun technology used at CEBAF have allowed an increase in operational voltage from 100kV to 130kV. In the near future this will be extended further to 200kV with the purchase of a new power supply. The injector components and layout at this time have been designed specifically for 100kV operation. It is anticipated that with an increase in gun voltage and optimization of the layout and components for 200kV operation, that the electron bunch length and beam brightness can be improved upon. This paper explores some upgrade possibilities for a 200kV gun CEBAF injector through beam dynamic simulations.
Chu, Shih-I
2015-01-01
PHYSICAL REVIEW A 91, 063408 (2015) Optimal control of high-order harmonics for the generation an efficient high-order-harmonic optimal control scheme for the generation of the ultrabroad supercontinuum NEWUOA (NEW Unconstrained Optimization Algorithm). For illustration, the high-order-harmonic generation
From Physics Model to Results: An Optimizing Framework for Cross-Architecture Code Generation
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Blazewicz, Marek; Hinder, Ian; Koppelman, David M.; Brandt, Steven R.; Ciznicki, Milosz; Kierzynka, Michal; Löffler, Frank; Schnetter, Erik; Tao, Jian
2013-01-01
Starting from a high-level problem description in terms of partial differential equations using abstract tensor notation, theChemoraframework discretizes, optimizes, and generates complete high performance codes for a wide range of compute architectures. Chemora extends the capabilities of Cactus, facilitating the usage of large-scale CPU/GPU systems in an efficient manner for complex applications, without low-level code tuning. Chemora achieves parallelism through MPI and multi-threading, combining OpenMP and CUDA. Optimizations include high-level code transformations, efficient loop traversal strategies, dynamically selected data and instruction cache usage strategies, and JIT compilation of GPU code tailored to the problem characteristics. The discretization is based onmore »higher-order finite differences on multi-block domains. Chemora's capabilities are demonstrated by simulations of black hole collisions. This problem provides an acid test of the framework, as the Einstein equations contain hundreds of variables and thousands of terms.« less
From Physics Model to Results: An Optimizing Framework for Cross-Architecture Code Generation
Marek Blazewicz; Ian Hinder; David M. Koppelman; Steven R. Brandt; Milosz Ciznicki; Michal Kierzynka; Frank Löffler; Erik Schnetter; Jian Tao
2013-07-24
Starting from a high-level problem description in terms of partial differential equations using abstract tensor notation, the Chemora framework discretizes, optimizes, and generates complete high performance codes for a wide range of compute architectures. Chemora extends the capabilities of Cactus, facilitating the usage of large-scale CPU/GPU systems in an efficient manner for complex applications, without low-level code tuning. Chemora achieves parallelism through MPI and multi-threading, combining OpenMP and CUDA. Optimizations include high-level code transformations, efficient loop traversal strategies, dynamically selected data and instruction cache usage strategies, and JIT compilation of GPU code tailored to the problem characteristics. The discretization is based on higher-order finite differences on multi-block domains. Chemora's capabilities are demonstrated by simulations of black hole collisions. This problem provides an acid test of the framework, as the Einstein equations contain hundreds of variables and thousands of terms.
Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for Fuel Cell Vehicles
Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy
2008-01-01
R.M. Moore, PEM Fuel Cell System Optimization, ProceedingsInterface of the fuel cell system optimization model Fig. 5hydrogen fuel cell vehicle; optimization model; simulation *
Tool-Assisted Unit-Test Generation and Selection Based on Operational Abstractions
Xie, Tao
Tool-Assisted Unit-Test Generation and Selection Based on Operational Abstractions Tao Xie1 of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105 Abstract. Unit testing, a common step in software development, presents a chal- lenge. When produced manually, unit test suites are often insufficient to identify defects. The main
Macknick, Jordan; Newmark, Robin; Heath, Garvin; Hallett, K. C.
2011-03-01
This report provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. The presented water factors may be useful in modeling and policy analyses where reliable power plant level data are not available.
MagRad: A code to optimize the operation of superconducting magnets in a radiation environment
Yeaw, C.T.
1995-12-31
A powerful computational tool, called MagRad, has been developed which optimizes magnet design for operation in radiation fields. Specifically, MagRad has been used for the analysis and design modification of the cable-in-conduit conductors of the TF magnet systems in fusion reactor designs. Since the TF magnets must operate in a radiation environment which damages the material components of the conductor and degrades their performance, the optimization of conductor design must account not only for start-up magnet performance, but also shut-down performance. The degradation in performance consists primarily of three effects: reduced stability margin of the conductor; a transition out of the well-cooled operating regime; and an increased maximum quench temperature attained in the conductor. Full analysis of the magnet performance over the lifetime of the reactor includes: radiation damage to the conductor, stability, protection, steady state heat removal, shielding effectiveness, optimal annealing schedules, and finally costing of the magnet and reactor. Free variables include primary and secondary conductor geometric and compositional parameters, as well as fusion reactor parameters. A means of dealing with the radiation damage to the conductor, namely high temperature superconductor anneals, is proposed, examined, and demonstrated to be both technically feasible and cost effective. Additionally, two relevant reactor designs (ITER CDA and ARIES-II/IV) have been analyzed. Upon addition of pure copper strands to the cable, the ITER CDA TF magnet design was found to be marginally acceptable, although much room for both performance improvement and cost reduction exists. A cost reduction of 10-15% of the capital cost of the reactor can be achieved by adopting a suitable superconductor annealing schedule. In both of these reactor analyses, the performance predictive capability of MagRad and its associated costing techniques have been demonstrated.
Real-Time Combined Heat and Power Operational Strategy Using a Hierarchical Optimization Algorithm
Yun, Kyung Tae; Cho, Heejin; Luck, Rogelio; Mago, Pedro J.
2011-06-01
Existing attempts to optimize the operation of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems for building applications have two major limitations: the electrical and thermal loads are obtained from historical weather profiles; and the CHP system models ignore transient responses by using constant equipment efficiencies. This paper considers the transient response of a building combined with a hierarchical CHP optimal control algorithm to obtain a real-time integrated system that uses the most recent weather and electric load information. This is accomplished by running concurrent simulations of two transient building models. The first transient building model uses current as well as forecast input information to obtain short term predictions of the thermal and electric building loads. The predictions are then used by an optimization algorithm, i.e., a hierarchical controller, that decides the amount of fuel and of electrical energy to be allocated at the current time step. In a simulation, the actual physical building is not available and, hence, to simulate a real-time environment, a second, building model with similar but not identical input loads are used to represent the actual building. A state-variable feedback loop is completed at the beginning of each time step by copying, i.e., measuring, the state variable from the actual building and restarting the predictive model using these ?measured? values as initial conditions. The simulation environment presented in this paper features nonlinear effects such as the dependence of the heat exchanger effectiveness on their operating conditions. The results indicate that the CHP engine operation dictated by the proposed hierarchical controller with uncertain weather conditions have the potential to yield significant savings when compared to conventional systems using current values of electricity and fuel prices.
Johnson, David K; Lewis, Matthew J; Pavlich, Jane C; Wright, Alan D; Johnson, Kathryn E; Pace, Andrew M
2013-02-01
The goal of this Department of Energy (DOE) project is to increase wind turbine efficiency and reliability with the use of a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system. The LIDAR provides wind speed and direction data that can be used to help mitigate the fatigue stress on the turbine blades and internal components caused by wind gusts, sub-optimal pointing and reactionary speed or RPM changes. This effort will have a significant impact on the operation and maintenance costs of turbines across the industry. During the course of the project, Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) modified and tested a prototype direct detection wind LIDAR instrument; the resulting LIDAR design considered all aspects of wind turbine LIDAR operation from mounting, assembly, and environmental operating conditions to laser safety. Additionally, in co-operation with our partners, the National Renewable Energy Lab and the Colorado School of Mines, progress was made in LIDAR performance modeling as well as LIDAR feed forward control system modeling and simulation. The results of this investigation showed that using LIDAR measurements to change between baseline and extreme event controllers in a switching architecture can reduce damage equivalent loads on blades and tower, and produce higher mean power output due to fewer overspeed events. This DOE project has led to continued venture capital investment and engagement with leading turbine OEMs, wind farm developers, and wind farm owner/operators.
Operational-Condition-Independent Criteria Dedicated to Monitoring Wind Turbine Generators: Preprint
Yang, W.; Sheng, S.; Court, R.
2012-08-01
To date the existing wind turbine condition monitoring technologies and commercially available systems have not been fully accepted for improving wind turbine availability and reducing their operation and maintenance costs. One of the main reasons is that wind turbines are subject to constantly varying loads and operate at variable rotational speeds. As a consequence, the influences of turbine faults and the effects of varying load and speed are coupled together in wind turbine condition monitoring signals. So, there is an urgent need to either introduce some operational condition de-coupling procedures into the current wind turbine condition monitoring techniques or develop a new operational condition independent wind turbine condition monitoring technique to maintain high turbine availability and achieve the expected economic benefits from wind. The purpose of this paper is to develop such a technique. In the paper, three operational condition independent criteria are developed dedicated for monitoring the operation and health condition of wind turbine generators. All proposed criteria have been tested through both simulated and practical experiments. The experiments have shown that these criteria provide a solution for detecting both mechanical and electrical faults occurring in wind turbine generators.
Tatematsu, Y. Yamaguchi, Y.; Kawase, T.; Ichioka, R.; Ogawa, I.; Saito, T.; Idehara, T.
2014-08-15
The oscillation characteristics of Gyrotron FU CW GIII and its wave frequency and output power dependences on the magnetic field strength, the gun coil current, and the anode voltage were investigated experimentally. The experimental results were analyzed theoretically using a self-consistent code that included the electron properties in the cavity, corresponding to the actual operating conditions in the experiments. As a result, it was found that the variation in frequency with the magnetic field strength was related to an axial profile change in the electromagnetic wave in the cavity. In addition, the optimal condition that gives the maximum output power was found to be determined by the pitch factor rather than by the electron beam radius under the given operating conditions.
Chu, Shih-I
-dimensional quantum study of the coherent control of high-order harmonic generation HHG processes in intense pulsed.65.Ky, 32.80.Wr The study of coherent control of atomic and molecular processes is a subject of muchOptimization of high-order harmonic generation by genetic algorithm and wavelet time
Excited meson radiative transitions from lattice QCD using variationally optimized operators
Christian J. Shultz; Jozef J. Dudek; Robert G. Edwards
2015-01-29
We explore the use of optimized operators, designed to interpolate only a single meson eigenstate, in three-point correlation functions with a vector-current insertion. These operators are constructed as linear combinations in a large basis of meson interpolating fields using a variational analysis of matrices of two-point correlation functions. After performing such a determination at both zero and non-zero momentum, we compute three-point functions and are able to study radiative transition matrix elements featuring excited state mesons. The required two- and three-point correlation functions are efficiently computed using the distillation framework in which there is a factorization between quark propagation and operator construction, allowing for a large number of meson operators of definite momentum to be considered. We illustrate the method with a calculation using anisotopic lattices having three flavors of dynamical quark all tuned to the physical strange quark mass, considering form-factors and transitions of pseudoscalar and vector meson excitations. The dependence on photon virtuality for a number of form-factors and transitions is extracted and some discussion of excited-state phenomenology is presented.
Skogestad, Sigurd
Optimal Operation of a Waste Incineration Plant for District Heating Johannes J¨aschke, Helge@chemeng.ntnu.no off-line. This systematic approach is here applied to a waste incineration plant for district heating. In district heating networks, operators usually wish to ob- tain the lowest possible return temperature
Optimal selection of on-site generation with combined heat andpower applications
Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Bailey, Owen; HamachiLaCommare, Kristina
2004-11-30
While demand for electricity continues to grow, expansion of the traditional electricity supply system, or macrogrid, is constrained and is unlikely to keep pace with the growing thirst western economies have for electricity. Furthermore, no compelling case has been made that perpetual improvement in the overall power quality and reliability (PQR)delivered is technically possible or economically desirable. An alternative path to providing high PQR for sensitive loads would generate close to them in microgrids, such as the Consortium for Electricity Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid. Distributed generation would alleviate the pressure for endless improvement in macrogrid PQR and might allow the establishment of a sounder economically based level of universal grid service. Energy conversion from available fuels to electricity close to loads can also provide combined heat and power (CHP) opportunities that can significantly improve the economics of small-scale on-site power generation, especially in hot climates when the waste heat serves absorption cycle cooling equipment that displaces expensive on-peak electricity. An optimization model, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), developed at Berkeley Lab identifies the energy bill minimizing combination of on-site generation and heat recovery equipment for sites, given their electricity and heat requirements, the tariffs they face, and a menu of available equipment. DER-CAM is used to conduct a systemic energy analysis of a southern California naval base building and demonstrates atypical current economic on-site power opportunity. Results achieve cost reductions of about 15 percent with DER, depending on the tariff.Furthermore, almost all of the energy is provided on-site, indicating that modest cost savings can be achieved when the microgrid is free to select distributed generation and heat recovery equipment in order to minimize its over all costs.
Initial operating results of coal-fired steam generators converted to 100% refuse-derived fuel
Barsin, J.A. ); Graika, P.K. ); Gonyeau, J.A. ); Bloomer, T.M. )
1988-01-01
The conversion of Northern States Power Company's (NSP) Red Wing and Wilmarth steam generators to fire refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is discussed. The use of the existing plant with the necessary modifications to the boilers has allowed NSP to effectively incinerate the fuel as required by Washington and Ramsey Counties. This paper covers the six-month start-up of Red Wing No. 1, commencing in May 1987, and the operating results since the plant went commercial in July 1987.
Ornstein, H.L.
1995-04-01
This report presents the results of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) review of operating experience of main turbine-generator overspeed and overspeed protection systems. It includes an indepth examination of the turbine overspeed event which occurred on November 9, 1991, at the Salem Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant. It also provides information concerning actions taken by other utilities and the turbine manufacturers as a result of the Salem overspeed event. AEOD`s study reviewed operating procedures and plant practices. It noted differences between turbine manufacturer designs and recommendations for operations, maintenance, and testing, and also identified significant variations in the manner that individual plants maintain and test their turbine overspeed protection systems. AEOD`s study provides insight into the shortcomings in the design, operation, maintenance, testing, and human factors associated with turbine overspeed protection systems. Operating experience indicates that the frequency of turbine overspeed events is higher than previously thought and that the bases for demonstrating compliance with NRC`s General Design Criterion (GDC) 4, Environmental and dynamic effects design bases, may be nonconservative with respect to the assumed frequency.
A. Vaudrey; P. Baucour; F. Lanzetta; R. Glises
2010-08-30
Producing useful electrical work in consuming chemical energy, the fuel cell have to reject heat to its surrounding. However, as it occurs for any other type of engine, this thermal energy cannot be exchanged in an isothermal way in finite time through finite areas. As it was already done for various types of systems, we study the fuel cell within the finite time thermodynamics framework and define an endoreversible fuel cell. Considering different types of heat transfer laws, we obtain an optimal value of the operating temperature, corresponding to a maximum produced power. This analysis is a first step of a thermodynamical approach of design of thermal management devices, taking into account performances of the whole system.
Vaudrey, A; Lanzetta, F; Glises, R
2009-01-01
Producing useful electrical work in consuming chemical energy, the fuel cell have to reject heat to its surrounding. However, as it occurs for any other type of engine, this thermal energy cannot be exchanged in an isothermal way in finite time through finite areas. As it was already done for various types of systems, we study the fuel cell within the finite time thermodynamics framework and define an endoreversible fuel cell. Considering different types of heat transfer laws, we obtain an optimal value of the operating temperature, corresponding to a maximum produced power. This analysis is a first step of a thermodynamical approach of design of thermal management devices, taking into account performances of the whole system.
Optimization of Preprocessing and Densification of Sorghum Stover at Full-scale Operation
Neal A. Yancey; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Craig C. Conner; Christopher T. Wright
2011-08-01
Transportation costs can be a prohibitive step in bringing biomass to a preprocessing location or biofuel refinery. One alternative to transporting biomass in baled or loose format to a preprocessing location, is to utilize a mobile preprocessing system that can be relocated to various locations where biomass is stored, preprocess and densify the biomass, then ship it to the refinery as needed. The Idaho National Laboratory has a full scale 'Process Demonstration Unit' PDU which includes a stage 1 grinder, hammer mill, drier, pellet mill, and cooler with the associated conveyance system components. Testing at bench and pilot scale has been conducted to determine effects of moisture on preprocessing, crop varieties on preprocessing efficiency and product quality. The INLs PDU provides an opportunity to test the conclusions made at the bench and pilot scale on full industrial scale systems. Each component of the PDU is operated from a central operating station where data is collected to determine power consumption rates for each step in the process. The power for each electrical motor in the system is monitored from the control station to monitor for problems and determine optimal conditions for the system performance. The data can then be viewed to observe how changes in biomass input parameters (moisture and crop type for example), mechanical changes (screen size, biomass drying, pellet size, grinding speed, etc.,), or other variations effect the power consumption of the system. Sorgum in four foot round bales was tested in the system using a series of 6 different screen sizes including: 3/16 in., 1 in., 2 in., 3 in., 4 in., and 6 in. The effect on power consumption, product quality, and production rate were measured to determine optimal conditions.
Lee, Ho Sung
Title: Optimal Design of Thermoelectric Generators for Low Grade Heat Recovery Developed by Dr. Ho- grade waste heat recovery with the present optimal design. We consider low grade heat recovery from
Masahiro Takeoka; Masahide Sasaki
2008-08-14
We address the limit of the Gaussian operations and classical communication in the problem of quantum state discrimination. We show that the optimal Gaussian strategy for the discrimination of the binary phase shift keyed (BPSK) coherent signal is a simple homodyne detection. We also propose practical near-optimal quantum receivers that beat the BPSK homodyne limit in all areas of the signal power. Our scheme is simple and does not require realtime electrical feedback.
Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection
Stadler, Michael
2012-01-01
distributed generation energy management system electricenergy resources, distributed generation, electric vehicle,
Control and Optimization of Power Systems with Renewables: Voltage Regulation and Generator Dispatch
Zhang, Baosen
2013-01-01
4 Generator Dispatch 4.1 ProblemRegulation . . . . . . .1.1.3 Generator Dispatch . . . .Regulation . . . . 1.2.3 Generator Dispatch . . . . 1.3 Our
Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Ma, Jian; Subbarao, Krishnappa
2010-10-19
In this paper, an approach to evaluate the uncertainties of the balancing capacity, ramping capability, and ramp duration requirements is proposed. The approach includes three steps: forecast data acquisition, statistical analysis of retrospective information, and prediction of grid balancing requirements for a specified time horizon and a given confidence level. Assessment of the capacity and ramping requirements is performed using a specially developed probabilistic algorithm based on histogram analysis, incorporating sources of uncertainty of both continuous (wind and load forecast errors) and discrete (forced generator outages and start-up failures) nature. A new method called the "flying-brick" technique is developed to evaluate the look-ahead required generation performance envelope for the worst case scenario within a user-specified confidence level. A self-validation process is used to validate the accuracy of the confidence intervals. To demonstrate the validity of the developed uncertainty assessment methods and its impact on grid operation, a framework for integrating the proposed methods with an EMS system is developed. Demonstration through integration with an EMS system illustrates the applicability of the proposed methodology and the developed tool for actual grid operation and paves the road for integration with EMS systems from other vendors.
Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Huang, Zhenyu; Subbarao, Krishnappa
2011-06-23
An approach to evaluate the uncertainties of the balancing capacity, ramping capability, and ramp duration requirements is proposed. The approach includes three steps: forecast data acquisition, statistical analysis of retrospective information, and prediction of grid balancing requirements for a specified time horizon and a given confidence level. An assessment of the capacity and ramping requirements is performed using a specially developed probabilistic algorithm based on histogram analysis, incorporating sources of uncertainty - both continuous (wind and load forecast errors) and discrete (forced generator outages and start-up failures). A new method called the 'flying-brick' technique is developed to evaluate the look-ahead required generation performance envelope for the worst case scenario within a user-specified confidence level. A self-validation process is used to validate the accuracy of the confidence intervals. To demonstrate the validity of the developed uncertainty assessment methods and its impact on grid operation, a framework for integrating the proposed methods with an EMS system is developed. Demonstration through EMS integration illustrates the applicability of the proposed methodology and the developed tool for actual grid operation and paves the road for integration with EMS systems in control rooms.
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This EIS analyzes DOE's proposed transfer of the Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (HS/RTG) operations at the Mound Site near Miamisburg, Ohio, to an alternative DOE site.
An Application of Integrated Thermal and Electrical Energy Cogeneration Optimization
Ahner, D. J.; Mills, R. J.
1994-01-01
The savings associated with operations optimization of power generation and cogeneration facilities are large, and readily justify the hardware and software costs required for implementation of Energy Management Optimization Systems (EMOS...
Clark, Thomas M; Erlach, Celeste
2014-12-30
Demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small scale power generation from low temperature co-produced fluids. Phase I is to Develop, Design and Test an economically feasible low temperature ORC solution to generate power from lower temperature co-produced geothermal fluids. Phase II &III are to fabricate, test and site a fully operational demonstrator unit on a gold mine working site and operate, remotely monitor and collect data per the DOE recommended data package for one year.
Has Restructuring Improved Operating Efficiency at U.S. Electricity Generating Plants?
Fabrizio, Kira; Rose, Nancy; Wolfram, Catherine
2004-01-01
Cost Efficiency of Electric Generating Plants: A Stochasticat US Electricity Generating Plants? Kira Markiewicz, Nancyat US Electricity Generating Plants? Kira Markiewicz UC
Marchon, Cassia Helena
2008-10-10
This dissertation contains three essays. The first and second essays examine intergenerational mobility in earnings in Brazil using a data set spanning three generations. I use data from PNAD{a nationally representative household survey in Brazil. I...
Lavaei, Javad
1 Abstract-- The optimal power flow (OPF) problem is a critical problem for power generation flow on the line P: vector of active power generations Q: vector of reactive power generations L: loss/reactive power generation limits. Given the practical importance of the problem, a great many studies have been
Operating Efficiency Comes From Teamwork
Relyea, D. L.; Stone, A.
1997-01-01
of the Site's utilities generation and distribution systems, which cross the operating boundaries of all three of the plants in the complex, and supports both capital improvements and long-term energy optimization projects for those systems. INPUTs origins go...
Optimal Technology Investment and Operation in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings with Demand Response
Stadler, Michael
2009-01-01
optimal could be acquired. Battery storage costs are roughlylead/acid battery) and thermal storage capabilities wereis limited by battery size - Heat storage is limited by
Fetcho-Phillips, Kacey L. (Kacey Lynn)
2011-01-01
Application of system optimization theory, supply chain principles, and capacity modeling are increasingly valuable tools for use in pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities. The dynamics of the pharmaceutical industry - ...
slowly driving the generator while flying fast in a crosswind direction. To achieve a periodic power
Optimal Technology Investment and Operation in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings with Demand Response
Stadler, Michael
2009-01-01
and Operation in Zero-Net- Energy Buildings with Demandand Operation in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings with Demandhas launched the Zero-Net- Energy (ZNE) Commercial Building
Energy 42 (2012) 486-496 Thermoeconomic operation optimization of a coal-fired power plant
Luh, Peter
2012-01-01
optimization of a coal-fired power plant Jie Xiong a, Haibo Zhao a.*, Chao Zhang a, Chuguang Zheng a, Peter B. Luh b aState Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion. Huazhong University ofSdence and Technology. Wuhan optimization on a 300 MW coal-fired power plant located in Yiyang (Hunan Province, China) is accomplished based
Computers and Chemical Engineering 31 (2007) 712721 Optimal operation of simple refrigeration cycles
Skogestad, Sigurd
2007-01-01
of freedom; the compressor power, the heat transfer in the condenser, the heat transfer in the evaporator sub-cooling is optimal. For a simple ammonia cycle, sub-cooling gives savings in compressor power cycles Part I: Degrees of freedom and optimality of sub-cooling Jørgen Bauck Jensen, Sigurd Skogestad
SU-E-T-395: Multi-GPU-Based VMAT Treatment Plan Optimization Using a Column-Generation Approach
Tian, Z; Shi, F; Jia, X; Jiang, S; Peng, F
2014-06-01
Purpose: GPU has been employed to speed up VMAT optimizations from hours to minutes. However, its limited memory capacity makes it difficult to handle cases with a huge dose-deposition-coefficient (DDC) matrix, e.g. those with a large target size, multiple arcs, small beam angle intervals and/or small beamlet size. We propose multi-GPU-based VMAT optimization to solve this memory issue to make GPU-based VMAT more practical for clinical use. Methods: Our column-generation-based method generates apertures sequentially by iteratively searching for an optimal feasible aperture (referred as pricing problem, PP) and optimizing aperture intensities (referred as master problem, MP). The PP requires access to the large DDC matrix, which is implemented on a multi-GPU system. Each GPU stores a DDC sub-matrix corresponding to one fraction of beam angles and is only responsible for calculation related to those angles. Broadcast and parallel reduction schemes are adopted for inter-GPU data transfer. MP is a relatively small-scale problem and is implemented on one GPU. One headand- neck cancer case was used for test. Three different strategies for VMAT optimization on single GPU were also implemented for comparison: (S1) truncating DDC matrix to ignore its small value entries for optimization; (S2) transferring DDC matrix part by part to GPU during optimizations whenever needed; (S3) moving DDC matrix related calculation onto CPU. Results: Our multi-GPU-based implementation reaches a good plan within 1 minute. Although S1 was 10 seconds faster than our method, the obtained plan quality is worse. Both S2 and S3 handle the full DDC matrix and hence yield the same plan as in our method. However, the computation time is longer, namely 4 minutes and 30 minutes, respectively. Conclusion: Our multi-GPU-based VMAT optimization can effectively solve the limited memory issue with good plan quality and high efficiency, making GPUbased ultra-fast VMAT planning practical for real clinical use.
Optimal Technology Investment and Operation in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings with Demand Response
Stadler , Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; ,, Hirohisa Aki; Lai, Judy
2009-05-26
The US Department of Energy has launched the Zero-Net-Energy (ZNE) Commercial Building Initiative (CBI) in order to develop commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge energy-efficient technologies and meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. We examine how such buildings may be implemented within the context of a cost- or carbon-minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various technologies, such as photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and passive / demand-response technologies. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has a multi-criteria objective function: the minimization of a weighted average of the building's annual energy costs and carbon / CO2 emissions. The MILP's constraints ensure energy balance and capacity limits. In addition, constraining the building's energy consumed to equal its energy exports enables us to explore how energy sales and demand-response measures may enable compliance with the CBI. Using a nursing home in northern California and New York with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find that a ZNE building requires ample PV capacity installed to ensure electricity sales during the day. This is complemented by investment in energy-efficient combined heat and power equipment, while occasional demand response shaves energy consumption. A large amount of storage is also adopted, which may be impractical. Nevertheless, it shows the nature of the solutions and costs necessary to achieve ZNE. For comparison, we analyze a nursing home facility in New York to examine the effects of a flatter tariff structure and different load profiles. It has trouble reaching ZNE status and its load reductions as well as efficiency measures need to be more effective than those in the CA case. Finally, we illustrate that the multi-criteria frontier that considers costs and carbon emissions in the presence of demand response dominates the one without it.
Optimal Technology Investment and Operation in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings with Demand Response
Stadler, Michael
2009-01-01
Golden, CO, USA. Electricity Storage Association, MorganUSA Figure 7. Optimal schedule for meeting the electricityUSA Figure 4. CA nursing home January and July weekday electricity
The Optimizing Control and Energy Saving Operations of One Teaching Building
Lu, J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, J.
2006-01-01
save the energy consumption of the air conditioning system to a large extent. In other words, the optimizing control system possesses enormous development potential. Therefore, the control method and the energy-saving strategies in this paper can...
Optimal meter placement and transaction-based loss allocation in deregulated power system operation
Ding, Qifeng
2005-02-17
is the selection of candidate measurement sets, each of which will make the system observable under a given contingency (loss of measurements and network topology changes). A new method is then developed for optimal meter placement, which is the choice...
Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for Fuel Cell Vehicles
Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy
2008-01-01
and Optimization of PEMFC Systems and its Application onExchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology for use inExchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology for use in
Liu, M.; Athar, A.; Reddy, A.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.; White, E.
1994-01-01
, they involve resetting the cooling deck or heating deck temperature according to the ambient temperature such that maximum energy efficiency can be achieved without compromising indoor air quality and comfort. Extended O&M Measures optimize system..., building energy consumption can be further reduced even after these traditional O&M measures are applied. This involves optimal adjusting of cold deck and hot deck settings according to the ambient temperature and organizing cold deck settings properly...
Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection
Stadler, Michael
2012-01-01
Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric VehiclePlanning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicleenergy costs at the smart grid or commercial building due to
SUSTAINABLE RESERVOIR OPERATION: CAN WE GENERATE HYDROPOWER AND PRESERVE ECOSYSTEM VALUES?y
Jager, Henriette I.
Ridge, TN 37831-6036, USA ABSTRACT Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few requirements. Reservoir optimization schemes used in practice do not seek flow regimes that maximize aquatic ecosystem health. Here, we review optimization studies that considered environmental goals in one of three
Optimal selection of on-site generation with combined heat and power applications
Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Bailey, Owen; Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina
2004-01-01
Modeling with Combined Heat and Power Applications. LBNL-Tax on Microgrid Combined Heat and Power Adoption. JournalGeneration with Combined Heat and Power Applications Afzal
Fuzzy logic controller optimization
Sepe, Jr., Raymond B; Miller, John Michael
2004-03-23
A method is provided for optimizing a rotating induction machine system fuzzy logic controller. The fuzzy logic controller has at least one input and at least one output. Each input accepts a machine system operating parameter. Each output produces at least one machine system control parameter. The fuzzy logic controller generates each output based on at least one input and on fuzzy logic decision parameters. Optimization begins by obtaining a set of data relating each control parameter to at least one operating parameter for each machine operating region. A model is constructed for each machine operating region based on the machine operating region data obtained. The fuzzy logic controller is simulated with at least one created model in a feedback loop from a fuzzy logic output to a fuzzy logic input. Fuzzy logic decision parameters are optimized based on the simulation.
Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Coupled LNT/SCR
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
We introduce a new bench-scale engine generator testing system for different diesel fuels, fuel blends, fuel additives, and evaluate their efficiency in Nox reduction.
Banaji,. Murad
. The increase of random fluctuations in the generation of electricity when more wind and solar installations, wind and solar generation fluctuates depending on meteorological conditions. This new source to limited capacity, hydro-pump plants are currently employed. With the growing penetration of renewable
Modeling and Optimization of Next Generation Feedstock Development for Chemical Process
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
1929, 2011 #12;Motivation Energy Consumption by Manufacturing Industry 20061Industry, 20061 Primary for CPI · Utilize sun-light energy as carbon- based molecules · Renewable · Reduced CO2 emissions, USA PanAmerican Advanced Studies Institute Process Modeling and Optimization for Energy
Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection
Stadler, Michael
2012-01-01
and Marnay, C. (2007). “Microgrids, An Overview of Ongoingand Operation of Microgrids in Commercial Buildings,” IEEEwith commercial smartgrids/microgrids, which may include
Power profile based selection and operation optimization of parallel-connected
Noé, Reinhold
, the kind of switching devices, the mode of operation and more. SinkSource PSO PSI PSO,1 PSO,2 PSO,n PSI,1
Macknick, J.; Newmark, R.; Heath, G.; Hallett, K. C.
2011-03-01
Various studies have attempted to consolidate published estimates of water use impacts of electricity generating technologies, resulting in a wide range of technologies and values based on different primary sources of literature. The goal of this work is to consolidate the various primary literature estimates of water use during the generation of electricity by conventional and renewable electricity generating technologies in the United States to more completely convey the variability and uncertainty associated with water use in electricity generating technologies.
Real-time Pricing Leading to Optimal Operation under Distributed Decision Makings
Hespanha, João Pedro
such as renewable, micro-combined heat and power systems as well as energy storage systems such as batteries and development on the future power grid in which small but variety and a huge number of distributed generators, since the legacy power grid is intended for delivering energy from centralized power generators
Simulation Support for Optimizing the Design and Operation of a Large Open-Space Office Building
Lain, M.; Hensen, J.; Zemlicka, J.
2008-01-01
and simulation was used to predict the performance of various design alternatives with respect to reducing the required cooling capacity, in order to verify the fan-coil capacity sizing and to optimize the ventilation system and strategy of the atriums. Since...
Enterprise-Wide Optimization Seminar Integration of Supply Chain Design and Operation with
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
Pipeline Inventory Place order Place order Inventory position Receive order Receive order Outline 0 2 4 6 8 Acetone Cumene Ethylene Carbon Monoxide Methanol Ethylbenzene Naphtha Chlorobenzene Styrene Ethanol Ethylene Glycol Acetic Acid Byproducts #12;5Enterprise-Wide Optimization Seminar Supply Chain Design
Facility Siting and Layout Optimization for Risk Reduction of Offshore Operations
Richardson, Joshua Paul
2015-07-17
.......................................................... 129 5.7.2 Muster Point Case Study............................................................................. 130 5.7.3 FPSO Case Study ........................................................................................ 135 5.8 Conclusions... parameters for the smoke diffuse dispersion case ...................... 127 Table 35: FPSO optimization information ..................................................................... 136 xviii LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1: An example of possible...
Single-cycle mixed-fluid LNG process Part II: Optimal operation
Skogestad, Sigurd
consider Case 8 from part I, where a liquid turbine is included both in the expansion of natural gas of natural gas and it has been optimized in several publications (Lee et al., 2002; Del Nogal et al., 2005: rotational speed 4 Cooler: flow of sea water (SW) in cooler 5 Load: Feed flow of natural gas (can also
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
Presents a next generation model-based engine controller that incorporates real-time fuel efficiency optimization and tested under fully transient engine and vehicle operating conditions.
U.S. Installation, Operation, and Performance Standards for Microturbine Generator Sets, August 2000
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
Report detailing the various codes and standards that are applicable for the installation, operation, and performance of microturbines.
Eto, Joseph H.; Undrill, John; Mackin, Peter; Daschmans, Ron; Williams, Ben; Haney, Brian; Hunt, Randall; Ellis, Jeff; Illian, Howard; Martinez, Carlos; O'Malley, Mark; Coughlin, Katie; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi
2010-12-20
An interconnected electric power system is a complex system that must be operated within a safe frequency range in order to reliably maintain the instantaneous balance between generation and load. This is accomplished by ensuring that adequate resources are available to respond to expected and unexpected imbalances and restoring frequency to its scheduled value in order to ensure uninterrupted electric service to customers. Electrical systems must be flexible enough to reliably operate under a variety of"change" scenarios. System planners and operators must understand how other parts of the system change in response to the initial change, and need tools to manage such changes to ensure reliable operation within the scheduled frequency range. This report presents a systematic approach to identifying metrics that are useful for operating and planning a reliable system with increased amounts of variable renewable generation which builds on existing industry practices for frequency control after unexpected loss of a large amount of generation. The report introduces a set of metrics or tools for measuring the adequacy of frequency response within an interconnection. Based on the concept of the frequency nadir, these metrics take advantage of new information gathering and processing capabilities that system operators are developing for wide-area situational awareness. Primary frequency response is the leading metric that will be used by this report to assess the adequacy of primary frequency control reserves necessary to ensure reliable operation. It measures what is needed to arrest frequency decline (i.e., to establish frequency nadir) at a frequency higher than the highest set point for under-frequency load shedding within an interconnection. These metrics can be used to guide the reliable operation of an interconnection under changing circumstances.
Robustness and Stability Optimization of Power Generating Kite Systems in a Periodic Pumping Mode
on the ground while flying fast in a crosswind direction. We are searching for an intrinsically open-loop stable pulls as strong as possible on its cable slowly driving the generator while flying fast in a crosswind
Optimization of three-color laser field for the generation of single ultrashort attosecond pulse
Chu, Shih-I; Liu, I-Lin; Li, Peng-Cheng
2011-11-09
We present an efficient and realizable scheme for the generation of an ultrashort single attosecond (as) pulse. The feasibility of such a scheme is demonstrated by solving accurately the time-dependent Schrödinger equation using the time...
Lapa, Celso M.F.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A. [CNEN, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rua General Severiano 90, Rio de Janeiro, RJ-22-294-900 (Brazil); Frutuoso e Melo, P.F. [COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco G, sala 101, Ilha do Fundao, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil)
2002-07-01
Nuclear standby safety systems must frequently, be submitted to periodic surveillance tests. The main reason is to detect, as soon as possible, the occurrence of unrevealed failure states. Such interventions may, however, affect the overall system availability due to component outages. Besides, as the components are demanded, deterioration by aging may occur, penalizing again the system performance. By these reasons, planning a good surveillance test policy implies in a trade-off between gains and overheads due to the surveillance test interventions. In order maximize the systems average availability during a given period of time, it has recently been developed a non-periodic surveillance test optimization methodology based on genetic algorithms (GA). The fact of allowing non-periodic tests turns the solution space much more flexible and schedules can be better adjusted, providing gains in the overall system average availability, when compared to those obtained by an optimized periodic tests scheme. The optimization problem becomes, however, more complex. Hence, the use of a powerful optimization technique, such as GAs, is required. Some particular features of certain systems can turn it advisable to introduce other specific constraints in the optimization problem. The Emergency Diesel Generation System (EDGS) of a Nuclear Power Plant (N-PP) is a good example for demonstrating the introduction of seasonal constraints in the optimization problem. This system is responsible for power supply during an external blackout. Therefore, it is desirable during periods of high blackout probability to maintain the system availability as high as possible. Previous applications have demonstrated the robustness and effectiveness of the methodology. However, no seasonal constraints have ever been imposed. This work aims at investigating the application of such methodology in the Angra-II Brazilian NPP EDGS surveillance test policy optimization, considering the blackout probability growth during summer, due to the electrical power demand increase. Here, the model used penalizes test interventions by a continuous modulating function, which depends on the instantaneous blackout probability. Results have demonstrated the ability of the method in adapting the surveillance tests policy to seasonal behaviors. The knowledge acquired by the GA during the searching process has lead to test schedules that drastically minimize the test interventions at periods of high blackout probability. It is compensated by more frequent tests redistributed through the periods of low blackout probability, in order to provide improvement on the overall average availability at the system level. (authors)
Lillaney, Prasheel; Shin, Mihye; Conolly, Steven M.; Fahrig, Rebecca
2012-09-15
Purpose: Combining x-ray fluoroscopy and MR imaging systems for guidance of interventional procedures has become more commonplace. By designing an x-ray tube that is immune to the magnetic fields outside of the MR bore, the two systems can be placed in close proximity to each other. A major obstacle to robust x-ray tube design is correcting for the effects of the magnetic fields on the x-ray tube focal spot. A potential solution is to design active shielding that locally cancels the magnetic fields near the focal spot. Methods: An iterative optimization algorithm is implemented to design resistive active shielding coils that will be placed outside the x-ray tube insert. The optimization procedure attempts to minimize the power consumption of the shielding coils while satisfying magnetic field homogeneity constraints. The algorithm is composed of a linear programming step and a nonlinear programming step that are interleaved with each other. The coil results are verified using a finite element space charge simulation of the electron beam inside the x-ray tube. To alleviate heating concerns an optimized coil solution is derived that includes a neodymium permanent magnet. Any demagnetization of the permanent magnet is calculated prior to solving for the optimized coils. The temperature dynamics of the coil solutions are calculated using a lumped parameter model, which is used to estimate operation times of the coils before temperature failure. Results: For a magnetic field strength of 88 mT, the algorithm solves for coils that consume 588 A/cm{sup 2}. This specific coil geometry can operate for 15 min continuously before reaching temperature failure. By including a neodymium magnet in the design the current density drops to 337 A/cm{sup 2}, which increases the operation time to 59 min. Space charge simulations verify that the coil designs are effective, but for oblique x-ray tube geometries there is still distortion of the focal spot shape along with deflections of approximately 3 mm in the radial and circumferential directions on the anode. Conclusions: Active shielding is an attractive solution for correcting the effects of magnetic fields on the x-ray focal spot. If extremely long fluoroscopic exposure times are required, longer operation times can be achieved by including a permanent magnet with the active shielding design.
Jager, Yetta; Smith, Brennan T
2008-02-01
Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few carbon emissions. Yet, reservoirs are not operated sustainably, which we define as meeting societal needs for water and power while protecting long-term health of the river ecosystem. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy revenue, while meeting other legal water requirements. Reservoir optimization schemes used in practice do not seek flow regimes that maximize aquatic ecosystem health. Here, we review optimization studies that considered environmental goals in one of three approaches. The first approach seeks flow regimes that maximize hydropower generation, while satisfying legal requirements, including environmental (or minimum) flows. Solutions from this approach are often used in practice to operate hydropower projects. In the second approach, flow releases from a dam are timed to meet water quality constraints on dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature and nutrients. In the third approach, flow releases are timed to improve the health of fish populations. We conclude by suggesting three steps for bringing multi-objective reservoir operation closer to the goal of ecological sustainability: (1) conduct research to identify which features of flow variation are essential for river health and to quantify these relationships, (2) develop valuation methods to assess the total value of river health and (3) develop optimal control softwares that combine water balance modelling with models that predict ecosystem responses to flow.
Evaluation of Storage Reallocation and Related Strategies for Optimizing Reservoir System Operations
Wurbs, Ralph A.; Carriere, Patrick E.
1988-01-01
by various purposes, such as water supply, hydroelectric power, and recreation, which involve both complementary and conflicting interactions. Public needs and objectives and numerous factors affecting reservoir operation change over time. An increasing...
Predictive storm damage modeling and optimizing crew response to improve storm response operations
Whipple, Sean David
2014-01-01
Utility infrastructures are constantly damaged by naturally occurring weather. Such damage results in customer service interruption and repairs are necessary to return the system to normal operation. In most cases these ...
Optimal thermal operation of liquid-cooled electronic chips Chander Shekhar Sharma a
Daraio, Chiara
operating conditions of water cooled micro- processor chips through a tradeoff between heat recovery from by combining the heat recovery and chip reliability into a single parameter. Then, multi
Droegemeier, Kelvin K.
Some Practical Considerations Regarding Horizontal Resolution in the First Generation,# JASON J. LEVIT, GREGORY W. CARBIN, CRAIG S. SCHWARTZ,@ MORRIS L. WEISMAN,& KELVIN K. DROEGEMEIER
Subtask 1.24 - Optimization of Cooling Water Resources for Power Generation
Daniel Stepan; Richard Shockey; Bethany Kurz; Wesley Peck
2009-03-31
The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed an interactive, Web-based decision support system (DSS{copyright} 2007 EERC Foundation) to provide power generation utilities with an assessment tool to address water supply issues when planning new or modifying existing generation facilities. The Web-based DSS integrates water and wastewater treatment technology and water law information with a geographic information system-based interactive map that links to state and federal water quality and quantity databases for North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wyoming, Montana, Nebraska, Wisconsin, and Iowa.
Optimization of lithium target for epithermal neutrons generation B. Bayanov, V. Belov, V. Kindyukb
Taskaev, Sergey Yur'evich
producing target prototype are presented, the results of calculations of hydraulic resistance for heat with vacuum insulation and near threshold neutron generation. Pilot facility is under construction now on temperature of a surface being cooled, and there is no danger in case of coolant leakage into vacuum volume
Optimal sizing study of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power generation unit
Belfkira, Rachid; Zhang, Lu; Barakat, Georges [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Automatique du Havre, University of Le Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, BP 1123, 76063 Le Havre (France)
2011-01-15
In this paper, a methodology of sizing optimization of a stand-alone hybrid wind/PV/diesel energy system is presented. This approach makes use of a deterministic algorithm to suggest, among a list of commercially available system devices, the optimal number and type of units ensuring that the total cost of the system is minimized while guaranteeing the availability of the energy. The collection of 6 months of data of wind speed, solar radiation and ambient temperature recorded for every hour of the day were used. The mathematical modeling of the main elements of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel system is exposed showing the more relevant sizing variables. A deterministic algorithm is used to minimize the total cost of the system while guaranteeing the satisfaction of the load demand. A comparison between the total cost of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel energy system with batteries and the hybrid wind/PV/diesel energy system without batteries is presented. The reached results demonstrate the practical utility of the used sizing methodology and show the influence of the battery storage on the total cost of the hybrid system. (author)
Design and optimization of a bi-axial vibration-driven electromagnetic generator
Yang, Jin, E-mail: yangjin@cqu.edu.cn; Yu, Qiangmo; Zhao, Jiangxin; Zhao, Nian; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping; Qiu, Jing [Department of Optoelectronic Engineering, Research Center of Sensors and Instruments, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)
2014-09-21
To scavenge energy from ambient vibrations with arbitrary in-plane motion directions and over a wide frequency range, a novel electromagnetic vibration energy harvester is designed and optimized. In the harvester, a circular cross-section elastic rod, not a traditional thin cantilever beam, is used to extract ambient vibration energy because of its capability to collect vibration from arbitrary in-plane motion directions. The magnetic interaction between magnets and the iron core contributes to a nonlinear oscillation of the rod with increased frequency bandwidth. The influences of the structure configurations on the electrical output and the working bandwidth of the harvester are investigated using Ansoft's Maxwell 3D to achieve optimal performance. The experimental results show that the harvester is sensitive to vibrations from arbitrary in-plane directions and it exhibits a bandwidth of 5.7 Hz and a maximum power of 13.4 mW at an acceleration of 0.6 g (with g=9.8 ms?²).
Optimization of operating temperature in cryocooled HTS magnets for compactness and efficiency
Chang, Ho-Myung
superconductor (HTS) magnets is presented, aiming simultaneously at small size and low energy consumption in numerous industrial areas, mainly because of the easy and economical cooling with liquid nitrogen at around, motors, or generators [14] are some examples. The cryogenic cooling at temperatures below 77 K can
Optimal Technology Investment and Operation in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings with Demand Response
Stadler, Michael
2009-01-01
nursing home results in adoption of PV panels and storagestorage system adoption in run 3 (low storage and PV costs).adoption of a 200 kW on-site, gas-fired generation system with CHP along with electric storage and PV.
Automated Locality Optimization Based on the Reuse Distance of String Operations
Cortes, Corinna
datacenter resources. String operations hurt processor cache efficiency when the data accessed is not reused datacenter applications. Index Terms--memcpy; nontemporal; reuse distance I. INTRODUCTION A. Background languages, including C, C++, Java or Python. In a function profile across all Google datacenter applications
Optimization Models for Supply Chain and Operations Management OM 392, Spring 2012
Ghosh, Joydeep
Models for Supply Chain and Operations Management OM 392, Spring 2012 Unique Number: 03955 Professor Anant Balakrishnan Classroom: GSB 5.154 Office: CBA 6.486 Class time: W 2 to 5 p.m. e-mail: anantb Management involves planning and coordinating the value-adding activities and flow of materials
Zeineldin, H. H.
Distribution systems are experiencing increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG). One attractive option is to use the available DG capacity during utility outages by forming planned micro-grids. Load sharing ...
Distributed generation and demand side management : applications to transmission system operation
Hayes, Barry Patrick
2013-07-01
Electricity networks are undergoing a period of rapid change and transformation, with increased penetration levels of renewable-based distributed generation, and new influences on electricity end-use patterns from ...
Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.
2010-01-01
The power system balancing process, which includes the scheduling, real time dispatch (load following) and regulation processes, is traditionally based on deterministic models. Since the conventional generation needs time to be committed and dispatched to a desired megawatt level, the scheduling and load following processes use load and wind and solar power production forecasts to achieve future balance between the conventional generation and energy storage on the one side, and system load, intermittent resources (such as wind and solar generation), and scheduled interchange on the other side. Although in real life the forecasting procedures imply some uncertainty around the load and wind/solar forecasts (caused by forecast errors), only their mean values are actually used in the generation dispatch and commitment procedures. Since the actual load and intermittent generation can deviate from their forecasts, it becomes increasingly unclear (especially, with the increasing penetration of renewable resources) whether the system would be actually able to meet the conventional generation requirements within the look-ahead horizon, what the additional balancing efforts would be needed as we get closer to the real time, and what additional costs would be incurred by those needs. To improve the system control performance characteristics, maintain system reliability, and minimize expenses related to the system balancing functions, it becomes necessary to incorporate the predicted uncertainty ranges into the scheduling, load following, and, in some extent, into the regulation processes. It is also important to address the uncertainty problem comprehensively by including all sources of uncertainty (load, intermittent generation, generators’ forced outages, etc.) into consideration. All aspects of uncertainty such as the imbalance size (which is the same as capacity needed to mitigate the imbalance) and generation ramping requirement must be taken into account. The latter unique features make this work a significant step forward toward the objective of incorporating of wind, solar, load, and other uncertainties into power system operations. Currently, uncertainties associated with wind and load forecasts, as well as uncertainties associated with random generator outages and unexpected disconnection of supply lines, are not taken into account in power grid operation. Thus, operators have little means to weigh the likelihood and magnitude of upcoming events of power imbalance. In this project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a framework has been developed for incorporating uncertainties associated with wind and load forecast errors, unpredicted ramps, and forced generation disconnections into the energy management system (EMS) as well as generation dispatch and commitment applications. A new approach to evaluate the uncertainty ranges for the required generation performance envelope including balancing capacity, ramping capability, and ramp duration has been proposed. The approach includes three stages: forecast and actual data acquisition, statistical analysis of retrospective information, and prediction of future grid balancing requirements for specified time horizons and confidence levels. Assessment of the capacity and ramping requirements is performed using a specially developed probabilistic algorithm based on a histogram analysis, incorporating all sources of uncertainties of both continuous (wind and load forecast errors) and discrete (forced generator outages and start-up failures) nature. A new method called the “flying brick” technique has been developed to evaluate the look-ahead required generation performance envelope for the worst case scenario within a user-specified confidence level. A self-validation algorithm has been developed to validate the accuracy of the confidence intervals.
Palmintier, Bryan S. (Bryan Stephen)
2013-01-01
This dissertation demonstrates how flexibility in hourly electricity operations can impact long-term planning and analysis for future power systems, particularly those with substantial variable renewables (e.g., wind) or ...
Operational behavior of a double-fed permanent magnet generator for wind turbines
Reddy, Sivananda Kumjula
2005-01-01
Greater efficiency in wind turbine systems is achieved by allowing the rotor to change its rate of rotation as the wind speed changes. The wind turbine system is decoupled from the utility grid and a variable speed operation ...
A Virtual Reality Framework to Optimize Design, Operation and Refueling of GEN-IV Reactors.
Rizwan-uddin; Nick Karancevic; Stefano Markidis; Joel Dixon; Cheng Luo; Jared Reynolds
2008-04-23
many GEN-IV candidate designs are currently under investigation. Technical issues related to material, safety and economics are being addressed at research laboratories, industry and in academia. After safety, economic feasibility is likely to be the most important crterion in the success of GEN-IV design(s). Lessons learned from the designers and operators of GEN-II (and GEN-III) reactors must play a vital role in achieving both safety and economic feasibility goals.
Mittal, Shashi, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2011-01-01
This thesis presents efficient algorithms that give optimal or near-optimal solutions for problems with non-linear objective functions that arise in discrete, continuous and robust optimization. First, we present a general ...
Optimization of Operating Parameters for Minimum Mechanical Specific Energy in Drilling
Hamrick, Todd
2011-05-25
Efficiency in drilling is measured by Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE). MSE is the measure of the amount of energy input required to remove a unit volume of rock, expressed in units of energy input divided by volume removed. It can be expressed mathematically in terms of controllable parameters; Weight on Bit, Torque, Rate of Penetration, and RPM. It is well documented that minimizing MSE by optimizing controllable factors results in maximum Rate of Penetration. Current methods for computing MSE make it possible to minimize MSE in the field only through a trial-and-error process. This work makes it possible to compute the optimum drilling parameters that result in minimum MSE. The parameters that have been traditionally used to compute MSE are interdependent. Mathematical relationships between the parameters were established, and the conventional MSE equation was rewritten in terms of a single parameter, Weight on Bit, establishing a form that can be minimized mathematically. Once the optimum Weight on Bit was determined, the interdependent relationship that Weight on Bit has with Torque and Penetration per Revolution was used to determine optimum values for those parameters for a given drilling situation. The improved method was validated through laboratory experimentation and analysis of published data. Two rock types were subjected to four treatments each, and drilled in a controlled laboratory environment. The method was applied in each case, and the optimum parameters for minimum MSE were computed. The method demonstrated an accurate means to determine optimum drilling parameters of Weight on Bit, Torque, and Penetration per Revolution. A unique application of micro-cracking is also presented, which demonstrates that rock failure ahead of the bit is related to axial force more than to rotation speed.
HYBRID ALARM SYSTEMS: COMBINING SPATIAL ALARMS AND ALARM LISTS FOR OPTIMIZED CONTROL ROOM OPERATION
Ronald L. Boring; J.J. Persensky
2012-07-01
The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current nuclear power plants. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Within control room modernization, alarm system upgrades present opportunities to meet the broader goals of the LWRS project in demonstrating the use and safety of the advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies and the short-term and longer term objectives of the plant. In this paper, we review approaches for and human factors issues behind upgrading alarms in the main control room of nuclear power plants.
Efficient generation and optimization of stochastic template banks by a neighboring cell algorithm
Henning Fehrmann; Holger J. Pletsch
2014-11-17
Placing signal templates (grid points) as efficiently as possible to cover a multi-dimensional parameter space is crucial in computing-intensive matched-filtering searches for gravitational waves, but also in similar searches in other fields of astronomy. To generate efficient coverings of arbitrary parameter spaces, stochastic template banks have been advocated, where templates are placed at random while rejecting those too close to others. However, in this simple scheme, for each new random point its distance to every template in the existing bank is computed. This rapidly increasing number of distance computations can render the acceptance of new templates computationally prohibitive, particularly for wide parameter spaces or in large dimensions. This work presents a neighboring cell algorithm that can dramatically improve the efficiency of constructing a stochastic template bank. By dividing the parameter space into sub-volumes (cells), for an arbitrary point an efficient hashing technique is exploited to obtain the index of its enclosing cell along with the parameters of its neighboring templates. Hence only distances to these neighboring templates in the bank are computed, massively lowering the overall computing cost, as demonstrated in simple examples. Furthermore, we propose a novel method based on this technique to increase the fraction of covered parameter space solely by directed template shifts, without adding any templates. As is demonstrated in examples, this method can be highly effective..
Arena, L.
2014-02-01
Conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has told us a couple of things consistently for several years now: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. The implication of this is that, for setback to be successfully implemented, the heating system must be oversized. This issue is exacerbated further when an outdoor reset control is used with a condensing boiler, because not only is the system matched to the load at design, the outdoor reset control matches the output to the load under varying outdoor temperatures. Under these circumstances, the home may never recover from setback. Special controls to bypass the outdoor reset sensor are then needed. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step by step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.
Arena, L.
2014-02-01
Conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has consistently stated two things: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads, and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. The implication of this is that, for setback to be successfully implemented, the heating system must be oversized. This issue is exacerbated further when an outdoor reset control is used with a condensing boiler, because not only is the system matched to the load at design, the outdoor reset control matches the output to the load under varying outdoor temperatures. Under these circumstances, the home may never recover from setback. Special controls to bypass the outdoor reset sensor are then needed. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. The first step is to determine the appropriateness of setback for a particular project. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step-by-step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.
Wu, Ko-Jen
2011-12-31
This report summarizes activities conducted for the project “The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuel’s characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the project’s objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project goals. Several flex-fuel demonstration vehicles were designed and built for carrying out calibration development and final testing to quantify the technology merits. Based on the extensive test results collected from dynamometer and vehicle testing, the fuel economy benefits of cooled EGR from the intended level of turbocharger technology were quantified. When combined with turbo downsizing, the FE benefits are considered large enough for E0 fuel as well as for E85 fuel to warrant further development of the technology beyond the current proof-of-concept level to a level that can meet production driveability quality and durability requirements in order to meet customers’ expectations. Cold-start cart test results from the emissions segment of the project were positive, confirming the assumption of faster thermal response of turbo exhaust system for emissions reductions for both E0 and E85 fuels. Vehicle emissions test results directionally correlated to the cold-start cart findings. The limited number of test runs did demonstrate the potentials of meeting stringent emission standards, however, they did not comprehend the factors such as hardware variability and long-term durability, 3 which are essential for mass production to satisfy customers’ expectations. It is therefore recommended, moving forward, durability concerns over turbocharger, EGR system and aftertreatment system, which would likely impact production viability, should be addressed. The data moreover suggested that further FE increase is likely with turbocharger technology advancement.
A Comparative Study of Modular Axial Flux Podded Generators for Marine Current Turbines
Brest, Université de
A Comparative Study of Modular Axial Flux Podded Generators for Marine Current Turbines Sofiane turbines (MCTs). Due to the submarine environment, maintenance operations are very hard, very costly current turbine, axial flux permanent magnet generator, design, optimization. Nomenclature MCT = Marine
Analysis of viscoelastic soft dielectric elastomer generators operating in an electrical circuit
Eliana Bortot; Ralf Denzer; Andreas Menzel; Massimiliano Gei
2014-11-13
A predicting model for soft Dielectric Elastomer Generators (DEGs) must consider a realistic model of the electromechanical behaviour of the elastomer filling, the variable capacitor and of the electrical circuit connecting all elements of the device. In this paper such an objective is achieved by proposing a complete framework for reliable simulations of soft energy harvesters. In particular, a simple electrical circuit is realised by connecting the capacitor, stretched periodically by a source of mechanical work, in parallel with a battery through a diode and with an electrical load consuming the energy produced. The electrical model comprises resistances simulating the effect of the electrodes and of the conductivity current invariably present through the dielectric film. As these devices undergo a high number of electro-mechanical loading cycles at large deformation, the time-dependent response of the material must be taken into account as it strongly affects the generator outcome. To this end, the viscoelastic behaviour of the polymer and the possible change of permittivity with strains are analysed carefully by means of a proposed coupled electro-viscoelastic constitutive model, calibrated on experimental data available in the literature for an incompressible polyacrilate elastomer (3M VHB4910). Numerical results showing the importance of time-dependent behaviour on the evaluation of performance of DEGs for different loading conditions, namely equi-biaxial and uniaxial, are reported in the final section.
King, J.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Beuning, S.
2012-05-01
This paper considers several alternative forms of an energy imbalance market (EIM) proposed in the nonmarket areas of the Western Interconnection. The proposed EIM includes two changes in operating practices that independently reduce variability and increase access to responsive resources: balancing authority cooperation and sub-hourly dispatch. As the penetration of variable generation increases on the power system, additional interest in coordination would likely occur. Several alternative approaches could be used, but consideration of any form of coordinated unit commitment is beyond the scope of this analysis. This report examines the benefits of several possible EIM implementations--both separately and in concert.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Bierbach, Jana; Yeung, Mark; Eckner, Erich; Roedel, Christian; Kuschel, Stephan; Zepf, Matt; Paulus, Gerhard G.
2015-05-01
Surface high-harmonic generation in the relativistic regime is demonstrated as a source of extreme ultra-violet (XUV) pulses with extended operation time. Relativistic high-harmonic generation is driven by a frequency-doubled high-power Ti:Sapphire laser focused to a peak intensity of 3·1019 W/cm2 onto spooling tapes. We demonstrate continuous operation over up to one hour runtime at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. Harmonic spectra ranging from 20 eV to 70 eV (62 nm to 18 nm) were consecutively recorded by an XUV spectrometer. An average XUV pulse energy in the µJ range is measured. With the presented setup, relativistic surface high-harmonic generationmore »becomes a powerful source of coherent XUV pulses that might enable applications in, e.g. attosecond laser physics and the seeding of free-electron lasers, when the laser issues causing 80-% pulse energy fluctuations are overcome.« less
Harold, Michael; Crocker, Mark; Balakotaiah, Vemuri; Luss, Dan; Choi, Jae-Soon; Dearth, Mark; McCabe, Bob; Theis, Joe
2013-09-30
Oxides of nitrogen in the form of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) commonly referred to as NO{sub x}, is one of the two chemical precursors that lead to ground-level ozone, a ubiquitous air pollutant in urban areas. A major source of NO{sub x} is generated by equipment and vehicles powered by diesel engines, which have a combustion exhaust that contains NO{sub x} in the presence of excess O{sub 2}. Catalytic abatement measures that are effective for gasoline-fueled engines such as the precious metal containing three-way catalytic converter (TWC) cannot be used to treat O2-laden exhaust containing NO{sub x}. Two catalytic technologies that have emerged as effective for NO{sub x} abatement are NO{sub x} storage and reduction (NSR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). NSR is similar to TWC but requires much larger quantities of expensive precious metals and sophisticated periodic switching operation, while SCR requires an on-board source of ammonia which serves as the chemical reductant of the NO{sub x}. The fact that NSR produces ammonia as a byproduct while SCR requires ammonia to work has led to interest in combining the two together to avoid the need for the cumbersome ammonia generation system. In this project a comprehensive study was carried out of the fundamental aspects and application feasibility of combined NSR/SCR. The project team, which included university, industry, and national lab researchers, investigated the kinetics and mechanistic features of the underlying chemistry in the lean NOx trap (LNT) wherein NSR was carried out, with particular focus on identifying the operating conditions such as temperature and catalytic properties which lead to the production of ammonia in the LNT. The performance features of SCR on both model and commercial catalysts focused on the synergy between the LNT and SCR converters in terms of utilizing the upstream-generated ammonia and alternative reductants such as propylene, representing the hydrocarbon component of diesel exhaust. First-principle models of the LNT and SCR converters, which utilized the mechanistic-based kinetics and realistic treatments of the flow and transport processes, in combination with bench-scale reactor experiments helped to identify the best designs for combining the NSR and SCR catalysts over a range of operating conditions encountered in practice. This included catalysts having multiple zones and layers and additives with the focus on determining the minimal precious metal component needed to meet emission abatement targets over a wide range of operating conditions. The findings from this study provide diesel vehicle and catalyst companies valuable information to develop more cost effective diesel emissions catalysts which helps to expand the use of more fuel efficient diesel power. The fundamental modeling and experimental tools and findings from this project can be applied to catalyst technologies used in the energy and chemical industries. Finally, the project also led to training of several doctoral students who were placed in research jobs in industry and academia.
Francisco Delgado
2014-10-28
Control of quantum entanglement has been considered as elemental physical resource for quantum applications in Quantum Information and Quantum Computation. Control of entangled states on a couple of atoms, ions or quantum dots are milestones in almost all quantum applications towards a scalable spin-based quantum computers or quantum devices. For magnetic systems, Ising model is an interaction which generates and modi?es entanglement properties of quantum systems based on matter. In addition, when this interaction includes driven magnetic ?elds, it can be controlled to sustain, characterize or modify entanglement and other quantum properties. In this work, recent results about evolution in a general anisotropic three dimensional Ising model including an inhomogeneous magnetic ?eld is considered to obtain some general quantum control e?ects for their sustainability, programmed evolution or transformation: Evolution loops and Exchange operations. This control is achievable through a set of physical parameters, whose prescriptions are reported. The use of a non local basis in the model to express time evolution lets take advantage to describe and control the system, in particular with those issues associated with entanglement and operations mentioned before. Finally, some analysis about equivalent gates based on our development is made including an example with teleportation, using one of the gates constructed.
Oren, Shmuel S.
that is more controllable and flexible. The full control of transmission assets are not currently built into electric network optimization models. Optimal transmission switching is a straight- forward way to leverage economics, power system reliability, power transmission control, power transmission economics. NOMENCLATURE
1981-01-01
The start-up manual is an information aid to initially familiarize plant operators with the plant operation and later be used as a reference manual while operating the plant. This start-up manual is supplemented by the Plant Data Manual which contains a detailed description of the philosophy of operation and equipment characteristics. The sequencing herein presents the necessary operating procedures which must be followed in order that a smooth start-up is obtained. The sequence includes, first conditioning the well and stabilizing the steam/water separations, and then bringing the operating machinery on line. The Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams and Electrical Drawings are included under Section 12.0 and are frequently referred to in the text. Information for ''trouble-shooting'' is provided in the maintenance and operations manuals on all the equipment.
Dong, Q.; Jenkins, M.V.; Bernadas, S.R.
1997-09-09
A frequency modulation (FM) tone signal generator for generating a FM tone signal is disclosed. The tone signal generator includes a waveform generator having a plurality of wave tables, a selector and an enveloper. The waveform generator furnishes a waveform signal in response to a phase angle address signal. Each wave table stores a different waveform. The selector selects one of the wave tables in response to a plurality of selection signals such that the selected wave table largely provides the waveform signal upon being addressed largely by the phase angle address signal. Selection of the selected wave table varies with each selection signal. The enveloper impresses an envelope signal on the waveform signal. The envelope signal is used as a carrier or modulator for generating the FM tone signal. 17 figs.
Jordan, Eric Alan
1997-01-01
The premise for this research is a desire to improve the performance of systems that have complex command inputs. For such systems, a fixed controller may not provide the necessary means to optimize the system's performance. To remedy this problem...
Gross, R.E.
1998-10-30
The lubricating oil system provides a means to introduce a lubricant in the form of a film to reduce friction and wear between surfaces that bear against each other as they move.1 The oil film which is established also cools the parts by carrying generated heat away from hot surfaces, cleans and carries dirt or metal wear particles to the filter media, and helps seal the piston to the cylinder during combustion. Most systems are pressure lubricated and distribute oil under pressure to bearings, gears, and power assemblies. Lubricating oil usually reaches main, connecting rod, and camshaft bearings through drilled passages in the cylinder block and crankshaft or through piping and common manifolds.Many parts rely on oil for cooling, so if the lube oil system fails to perform its function the engine will overheat. Metal to metal surfaces not separated by a thin film of oil rapidly build up frictional heat. As the metals reach their melting point, they tend to weld together in spots or streaks. Lube oil system failures can cause significant damage to an engine in a short period of time. Proper maintenance and operation of the lubricating oil system is essential if your engine is to accomplish its mission.
L.E. Demick
2011-10-01
This paper summarizes an evaluation by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project of siting a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) plant on an existing nuclear plant site that is located in an area of significant industrial activity. This is a co-generation application in which the HTGR Plant will be supplying steam and electricity to one or more of the nearby industrial plants.
Eto, Joseph H.
2011-01-01
wind Time (Seconds) Figure 5-3. The Power Delivered by Primary Frequency Control Actions via Generator
heat and power Fuel cells Building energy a b s t r a c t The distributed generation (DG) of combined Wisconsin, retrofitted with solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and a hot water storage tank. The simpler model of renewable or non- renewable sources of power generation (e.g., photovoltaic (PV) cells, fuel cells
Different electrode configurations to optimize performance of multi- electrode microbial fuel cells a b s t r a c t Scaling-up of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for practical applications requires compact. Introduction Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are an emerging method for achieving sustainable wastewater treatment
Krstic, Miroslav
stochastic behavior · Scaled for medium size office or apartment complex [1] California ISO: System Status Power Generation Automated Modeling Laboratory Slide 6 of 28 BATTERY COMPRESSOR H2 STORAGE TANK SUPPLY
Alexander, Brentan R
2007-01-01
Humans are releasing record amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere through the combustion of fossil fuels in power generation plants. With mounting evidence that this carbon dioxide is a leading cause of global ...
Gill, Arjun
2013-05-01
of ATPG to not only include the conventional static defects but also to include test patterns for dynamic defects. The current industry practices consider test pattern generation for transition faults to screen dynamic defects. It has been observed...
Eto, Joseph H.
2011-01-01
generating unit loading and commitment (e.g. , dispatchingas Conventional unit scheduling, commitment and dispatchconventional unit scheduling, commitment and dispatch will
Eto, Joseph H.
2011-01-01
load shedding is greater than the amount of generation that was lost, frequency will quickly rise and exceed the scheduled value.
Eto, Joseph H.
2011-01-01
Integration of Variable Renewable Generation The report isISO (CAISO). 2007. Integration of Renewable Resources.recommendations for integrating renewable resources on the
Optimal operation of a concurrent-flow corn dryer with a drying heat pump using superheated steam
Moraitis, C.S. [Systelligence Consultants and Research Associates, Volos (Greece); Akritidis, C.B. [Dept. of Hydraulics and Agricultural Engineering, Thessaloniki (Greece)
1998-07-01
A numerical model of a concurrent-flow dryer of corn using superheated steam as drying medium is solved applying a shooting technique, so as to satisfy boundary conditions imposed by the optimal design of a drying heat pump. The drying heat pump is based on the theory of minimum energy cycles. The solution of the model proves the applicability of the heat pump to a concurrent-flow dryer, achieving a Specific Energy Consumption as low as 1080 kJ/kg.
Brian Toelle
2008-11-30
This project, 'Application of Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring for the Control and Optimization of CO{sub 2} Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations', investigated the potential for monitoring CO{sub 2} floods in carbonate reservoirs through the use of standard p-wave seismic data. This primarily involved the use of 4D seismic (time lapse seismic) in an attempt to observe and map the movement of the injected CO{sub 2} through a carbonate reservoir. The differences between certain seismic attributes, such as amplitude, were used for this purpose. This technique has recently been shown to be effective in CO{sub 2} monitoring in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects, such as Weyborne. This study was conducted in the Charlton 30/31 field in the northern Michigan Basin, which is a Silurian pinnacle reef that completed its primary production in 1997 and was scheduled for enhanced oil recovery using injected CO{sub 2}. Prior to injection an initial 'Base' 3D survey was obtained over the field and was then processed and interpreted. CO{sub 2} injection within the main portion of the reef was conducted intermittently during 13 months starting in August 2005. During this time, 29,000 tons of CO{sub 2} was injected into the Guelph formation, historically known as the Niagaran Brown formation. By September 2006, the reservoir pressure within the reef had risen to approximately 2000 lbs and oil and water production from the one producing well within the field had increased significantly. The determination of the reservoir's porosity distribution, a critical aspect of reservoir characterization and simulation, proved to be a significant portion of this project. In order to relate the differences observed between the seismic attributes seen on the multiple 3D seismic surveys and the actual location of the CO{sub 2}, a predictive reservoir simulation model was developed based on seismic attributes obtained from the base 3D seismic survey and available well data. This simulation predicted that the CO{sub 2} injected into the reef would remain in the northern portion of the field. Two new wells, the State Charlton 4-30 and the Larsen 3-31, were drilled into the field in 2006 and 2008 respectively and supported this assessment. A second (or 'Monitor') 3D seismic survey was acquired during September 2007 over most of the field and duplicated the first (Base) survey, as much as possible. However, as the simulation and new well data available at that time indicated that the CO{sub 2} was concentrated in the northern portion of the field, the second seismic survey was not acquired over the extreme southern end of the area covered by the original (or Base) 3D survey. Basic processing was performed on the second 3D seismic survey and, finally, 4D processing methods were applied to both the Base and the Monitor surveys. In addition to this 3D data, a shear wave seismic data set was obtained at the same time. Interpretation of the 4D seismic data indicated that a significant amplitude change, not attributable to differences in acquisition or processing, existed at the locations within the reef predicted by the reservoir simulation. The reservoir simulation was based on the porosity distribution obtained from seismic attributes from the Base 3D survey. Using this validated reservoir simulation the location of oil within the reef at the time the Monitor survey was obtained and recommendations made for the drilling of additional EOR wells. The economic impact of this project has been estimated in terms of both enhanced oil recovery and CO{sub 2} sequestration potential. In the northern Michigan Basin alone, the Niagaran reef play is comprised of over 700 Niagaran reefs with reservoirs already depleted by primary production. Potentially there is over 1 billion bbls of oil (original oil in place minus primary recovery) remains in the reefs in Michigan, much of which could be more efficiently mobilized utilizing techniques similar to those employed in this study.
Doubly Fed Induction Generator in an Offshore Wind Power Plant Operated at Rated V/Hz: Preprint
Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.
2012-06-01
This paper introduces the concept of constant Volt/Hz operation of offshore wind power plants. The deployment of offshore WPPs requires power transmission from the plant to the load center inland. Since this power transmission requires submarine cables, there is a need to use High-Voltage Direct Current transmission, which is economical for transmission distances longer than 50 kilometers. In the concept presented here, the onshore substation is operated at 60 Hz synced with the grid, and the offshore substation is operated at variable frequency and voltage, thus allowing the WPP to be operated at constant Volt/Hz.
Eto, Joseph H.
2011-01-01
2008. Operational Impacts of Wind Energy Resources in theReferences American Wind Energy Association (AWEA). 2009.Dealing with ramping of wind energy, especially when ramping
Eto, Joseph H.
2011-01-01
on the August 14, 2003 Blackout in the United States andcustomers will experience a blackout. Shedding large amountsto an even wider spread blackout). 16 Operators, therefore,
enhances certain aspects of the power quality of the owners significantly by mitigat- ing the voltage sag distributed generation (DG) to electric power systems. The proliferation of new generators creates new are discussed. A technique used to evaluate fault current in the system after installing DGs is ana- lyzed
Lewis, Robert Michael (College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA); Torczon, Virginia Joanne (College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA); Kolda, Tamara Gibson
2006-08-01
We consider the solution of nonlinear programs in the case where derivatives of the objective function and nonlinear constraints are unavailable. To solve such problems, we propose an adaptation of a method due to Conn, Gould, Sartenaer, and Toint that proceeds by approximately minimizing a succession of linearly constrained augmented Lagrangians. Our modification is to use a derivative-free generating set direct search algorithm to solve the linearly constrained subproblems. The stopping criterion proposed by Conn, Gould, Sartenaer and Toint for the approximate solution of the subproblems requires explicit knowledge of derivatives. Such information is presumed absent in the generating set search method we employ. Instead, we show that stationarity results for linearly constrained generating set search methods provide a derivative-free stopping criterion, based on a step-length control parameter, that is sufficient to preserve the convergence properties of the original augmented Lagrangian algorithm.
OPTIMAL CONTROLLED VARIABLE SELECTION FOR INDIVIDUAL PROCESS UNITS IN SELF OPTIMIZING CONTROL
Skogestad, Sigurd
OPTIMAL CONTROLLED VARIABLE SELECTION FOR INDIVIDUAL PROCESS UNITS IN SELF OPTIMIZING CONTROL operation of pro- cess plants in the presence of disturbances, optimal control structure selection trays. I. INTRODUCTION Operating process plants close to the optimal even in the presence
Brasington, Robert David, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2012-01-01
Coal-fired power plants with post combustion capture and sequestration (CCS) systems have a variety of challenges to integrate the steam generation, air quality control, cooling water systems and steam turbine with the ...
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
, wall heating, floor heating, ceiling heating, EnergyPlus SUMMARY Low temperature heating panel systems. It is found that the floor-ceiling heating system has the lowest energy, exergy, CO2 emissions, operating and the surrounding areas, and the heat conduction between the floor and the ground. The main essence of the low
Humberto E. Garcia; Amit Mohanty; Wen-Chiao Lin; Robert S. Cherry
2013-04-01
Dynamic analysis of hybrid energy systems (HES) under flexible operation and variable renewable generation is considered in order to better understand various challenges and opportunities associated with the high system variability arising from the integration of renewable energy into the power grid. Unique consequences are addressed by devising advanced HES solutions in which multiple forms of energy commodities, such as electricity and chemical products, may be exchanged. Dynamic models of various unit operations are developed and integrated within two different HES options. One HES option, termed traditional, produces electricity only and consists of a primary heat generator (PHG) (e.g., a small modular reactor), a steam turbine generator, a wind farm, and a battery storage. The other HES option, termed advanced, includes not only the components present in the traditional option but also a chemical plant complex to repurpose excess energy for non-electricity services, such as for the production of chemical goods (e.g., transportation fuel). In either case, a given HES is connected to the power grid at a point of common coupling and requested to deliver a certain electricity generation profile as dictated by a regional power grid operator based on a predicted demand curve. Dynamic analysis of these highly-coupled HES are performed to identify their key dynamical properties and limitations and to prescribe solutions for best managing and mitigating the high variability introduced from incorporating renewable energy into the energy mix. A comparative dynamic cost analysis is also conducted to determine best HES options. The cost function includes a set of metrics for computing fixed costs, such as fixed operations and maintenance (O&M) and overnight capital costs, and also variable operational costs, such as cost of variability, variable O&M cost, and cost of environmental impact, together with revenues. Assuming different options for implementing PHG (e.g., natural gas, coal, nuclear), preliminary results identify the level of renewable penetration at which a given advanced HES option (e.g., a nuclear hybrid) becomes increasingly more economical than a traditional electricity-only generation solution. Conditions are also revealed under which carbon resources may be better utilized as carbon sources for chemical production rather than as combustion material for electricity generation.
Eto, Joseph H.
2011-01-01
electricity (e.g. , steam turbines, combustion turbines,all be used to run a steam turbine). See Undrill (2010) forcycle plants whose steam turbines are operated with their
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to construct and operate a drum storage facility at the U.S. Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden,...
Aegerter, R.
2004-01-01
and Cost The ultimate goal in optimizing the steam system is to minimize the steam generation costs. Most projects are dependent on the steam balance and can only be justified if low-pressure steam is being vented or if steam is being let down. Some... savings can be quantified. Steam Venting or Letting Down? Typically a plant will be either venting excess low-pressure steam or letting down steam to meet the low-pressure steam demand. If a plant has multiple operating units, it is possible...
Robertson, A.; Domeracki, W.; Newby, R.; Rehmat, A.; Horazak, D.
1992-10-01
After many years of experimental testing and development work, coal-fired pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) combustion combined-cycle power plants are moving toward reality. Under the US Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Program, a 70-MWe PFB combustion retrofit, utilizing a 1525{degrees}F gas turbine inlet temperature, has been built and operated as a demonstration plant at the American Electric Power Company`s Tidd Plant in Brilliant, Ohio. As PFB combustion technology moves closer and closer to commercialization, interest is turning toward the development of an even more efficient and more cost-effective PFB combustion plant. The targeted goals of this ``second-generation`` plant are a 45-percent efficiency and a cost of electricity (COE) that is at least 20 percent lower than the COE of a conventional pulverized-coal (PC)-fired plant with stack gas scrubbing. In addition, plant emissions should be within New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and the plant should have high availability, be able to burn different ranks of coal, and incorporate modular construction technologies. In response to this need, a team of companies led by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC). The key components in the proposed second-generation plant are the carbonizer, CPFBC, ceramic cross-flow filter, and topping combustor. Unfortunately, none of these components has been operated at proposed plant operating conditions, and experimental tests must be conducted to explore/determine their performance throughout the proposed plant operating envelope. The major thrust of Phase 2 is to design, construct, test, and evaluate the performance of the key components of the proposed plant.
Alpay, S. Pamir
Economic Impact Analysis of CPV Towantic, LLC's Construction and Operation of an 805 MW, 2015 #12;Connecticut Center for Economic Analysis Page 2 of 25 University of Connecticut EXECUTIVE SUMMARY CPV Towantic, LLC (CPV) engaged the Connecticut Center for Economic Analysis (CCEA) to develop
Matson, J.
1985-01-01
A cooling water system can be optimized by operation at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces. The way to optimize will be shown, with a number of examples of new systems....
Optimization Online - Stochastic Programming Submissions - 2013
Stochastic Programming Submissions - 2013. January 2013. Generating moment matching scenarios using optimization techniques. Sanjay Mehrotra, David ...
Gross, R.; Padgett, A.B.; Burrows, K.P.; Fairchild, P.N.; Lam, T.; Janes, J.
1997-06-01
This handbook is divided into the four chapters. Chapter one covers the design, procurement, storage, handling and testing of diesel fuel oil to be used in DOE backup power supplies. Chapter two discusses the selection of automatic transfer switches to be used in DOE backup power supplies. Chapter three is about low voltage open frame air circuit breaker operation, testing, and maintenance for DOE backup power supplies. And chapter four covers installation, design, and maintenance of engine cooling water and jacket water systems.
Production optimization in the Provincia field, Colombia
Blann, J.; Jacobson, L.; Faber, C.
1989-02-01
Designing or redesigning production facilities for optimum operation usually results in the generation of maximum profit from an installation. But in older fields, or fields where a short life is expected, design changes may not be a viable option. In such cases, obtaining maximum production within the limits of existing facilities, thereby minimizing new investments, may be an attractive option. This paper discusses application of the latter technique in the Provincia field, Colombia, to optimize oil and gas production within constraints imposed by periodic temporary gas-compression-capacity restrictions and by the configuration of existing oil and gas facilities. The multistep optimization program used at Provincia included improvement of individual well performance, optimization of individual well facilities, fieldwide optimization of surface facilities, and optimization of the field production scheme.
Ness, E.
1999-09-02
Distributed generation, locating electricity generators close to the point of consumption, provides some unique benefits to power companies and customers that are not available from centralized electricity generation. Photovoltaic (PV) technology is well suited to distributed applications and can, especially in concert with other distributed resources, provide a very close match to the customer demand for electricity, at a significantly lower cost than the alternatives. In addition to augmenting power from central-station generating plants, incorporating PV systems enables electric utilities to optimize the utilization of existing transmission and distribution.
Optimization of water distribution operation
Pennington, Walter Carlton
1987-01-01
TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) CHAPTER VI. RECOMMENDATIONS 66 REFERENCES 68 APPENDIX I. NOTATION APPENDIX II. FREDERICKSBURG INFLOW AND CLIMATOLOGICAL GRAPHS APPENDIX III. POP SOURCE CODE AND FILE DEFINITION VITA 72 74 107 128 LIST OF FIGURES...) -815. 5(25. 6) 2398. 3 June 2401. 8(244. 9) 99. 2(168. 2) 0 -6658. 5 July 3071. 9(713. 6) 69. 1(92. 8) 0 -3423. 9 August 687. 6(6. 68) 74. 5(13. 5) -1344. 7(14. 9) -4061. 0 September 1516. 9(60. 2) 43. 8(28. 5) -757. 2(10. 3) -1485. 1 October 1614...
Convex Optimization Convex Optimization
Masci, Frank
Convex Optimization #12;#12;Convex Optimization Stephen Boyd Department of Electrical Engineering Cataloguing-in-Publication data Boyd, Stephen P. Convex Optimization / Stephen Boyd & Lieven Vandenberghe p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0 521 83378 7 1. Mathematical optimization. 2
An Optimization Framework for Dynamic Hybrid Energy Systems
Wenbo Du; Humberto E Garcia; Christiaan J.J. Paredis
2014-03-01
A computational framework for the efficient analysis and optimization of dynamic hybrid energy systems (HES) is developed. A microgrid system with multiple inputs and multiple outputs (MIMO) is modeled using the Modelica language in the Dymola environment. The optimization loop is implemented in MATLAB, with the FMI Toolbox serving as the interface between the computational platforms. Two characteristic optimization problems are selected to demonstrate the methodology and gain insight into the system performance. The first is an unconstrained optimization problem that optimizes the dynamic properties of the battery, reactor and generator to minimize variability in the HES. The second problem takes operating and capital costs into consideration by imposing linear and nonlinear constraints on the design variables. The preliminary optimization results obtained in this study provide an essential step towards the development of a comprehensive framework for designing HES.
HOMOTOPY OPTIMIZATION METHODS FOR GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION
O'Leary, Dianne P.
HOMOTOPY OPTIMIZATION METHODS FOR GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION DANIEL M. DUNLAVY AND DIANNE P. O'LEARY under Grants CCR 02-04084 and CCF 05-14213. 1 #12;2 D.M. DUNLAVY AND D.P. O'LEARY point is generated
Ware's capabilities with TVA's daily operations scheduling models which optimize hydropower value while meeting non and operates 29 conventional hydropower plants and one pumped storage hydropower plant in the Tennessee Valley to hydropower generation, the reservoir system provides other beneficial services throughout the Tennessee
Hybrid robust predictive optimization method of power system dispatch
Chandra, Ramu Sharat (Niskayuna, NY); Liu, Yan (Ballston Lake, NY); Bose, Sumit (Niskayuna, NY); de Bedout, Juan Manuel (West Glenville, NY)
2011-08-02
A method of power system dispatch control solves power system dispatch problems by integrating a larger variety of generation, load and storage assets, including without limitation, combined heat and power (CHP) units, renewable generation with forecasting, controllable loads, electric, thermal and water energy storage. The method employs a predictive algorithm to dynamically schedule different assets in order to achieve global optimization and maintain the system normal operation.
Kwatny, Harry G.
of Boiler-Turbine-Generator Controls Using Optimal Linear Regulator Theory JOHN P. McDOKALD AND HARRY G of a nonlinear mathematical model of a drum-type, twin furnace, reheat boiler-turbine-generator (RBTG) system- tiveoperatingandcontrolstrategies for boiler-t.urbine- generator systems to meet different, system operating ob- jectives. Among
Jordan, G.; Piwko, D.
2013-02-01
It is the intent of this analysis to examine the operational benefits of increased cooperation between a large number of WECC operating regions.
Raitsimring, Arnold; Astashkin, Andrei V.; Enemark, John H.; Kaminker, Ilia; Goldfarb, Daniella; Walter, Eric D.; Song, Y.; Meade, T. J.
2013-06-01
In this work, the experimental conditions and parameters necessary to optimize the long-distance (? 60 Å) Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER) measurements of biomacromolecules labeled with Gd(III) tags are analyzed. The specific parameters discussed are the temperature, microwave band, the separation between the pumping and observation frequencies, pulse train repetition rate, pulse durations and pulse positioning in the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum. It was found that: (i) in optimized DEER measurements, the observation pulses have to be applied at the maximum of the EPR spectrum; (ii) the optimal temperature range for Ka-band measurements is 14-17 K, while in W-band the optimal temperatures are between 6-9 K; (iii) W-band is preferable to Ka-band for DEER measurements. Recent achievements and the conditions necessary for short-distance measurements (<15 Å) are also briefly discussed.
Dvijotham, Krishnamurthy; Backhaus, Scott
2011-01-01
As the penetration level of transmission-scale time-intermittent renewable generation resources increases, control of flexible resources will become important to mitigating the fluctuations due to these new renewable resources. Flexible resources may include new or existing synchronous generators as well as new energy storage devices. The addition of energy storage, if needed, should be done optimally to minimize the integration cost of renewable resources, however, optimal placement and sizing of energy storage is a difficult optimization problem. The fidelity of such results may be questionable because optimal planning procedures typically do not consider the effect of the time dynamics of operations and controls. Here, we use an optimal energy storage control algorithm to develop a heuristic procedure for energy storage placement and sizing. We generate many instances of intermittent generation time profiles and allow the control algorithm access to unlimited amounts of storage, both energy and power, at a...
Multi-period portfolio optimization with alpha decay ... Transmission and Generation Investment in Electricity Markets: The Effects of Market Splitting and ... Improving Large Scale Day-ahead Security Constrained Unit Commitment Performance
Global Optimization of Optimal Power Flow
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
Multi-Period OPF `Smart Grid' · Transmission short falls due to Fluctuating demands. Integrating/03/2013 2 AC-OPF definition · Given: Topology of the power grid: generators, loads, power lines. · Objective: Find operating points for generators, (PG,QG) Minimizing cost of generation f(PG) · Satisfy
de Souza, J.; Holden, D.
2004-01-01
Energy Optimization is one of the key issues facing the chemical process industries today. The drivers are both economic and environmental. Utilities are among the top operating expenses for manufacturers, reflecting elevated energy prices...
Digitally programmable signal generator and method
Priatko, G.J.; Kaskey, J.A.
1986-09-02
A digitally programmable signal generator (DPSG) and method are disclosed. The DPSG can be used in applications such as Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) to create an optimal match between the process laser's spectral profile and that of the vaporized material. Other applications include optical telecommunications, non-optical telecommunication in the microwave and radio spectrum, radar, electronic countermeasures, high speed computer interconnects, local area networks, high definition video transport and the multiplexing of large quantities of slow digital memory into high speed data streams. This invention extends the operation of DPSGs into the GHz range, while preserving all of the current art's DPSGs' operational features.
Gas turbines have become widely used in the generation of power for cities. They are used all over the world and must operate under a wide variety of ambient conditions. Every turbine has a temperature to the turbine has not been extensively studied or documented. It is important to understand how the droplets
Maehara, K.; Sagara, N.
2007-01-01
of not being able to satisfy the requirements of room temperature control during the cooling period in summer, an optimal PID parameter (O-PI) is selected through simulation of its two feedback control systems with mutual influence using the models identified...
Decomposition methods for semidefinite optimization
Sun, Yifan
2015-01-01
optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Optimization over sparse matrixoptimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model Predictive Control-based Optimal Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources
Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Lian, Jianming; Elizondo, Marcelo A.
2013-01-07
Distributed energy resources, such as renewable energy resources (wind, solar), energy storage and demand response, can be used to complement conventional generators. The uncertainty and variability due to high penetration of wind makes reliable system operations and controls challenging, especially in isolated systems. In this paper, an optimal control strategy is proposed to coordinate energy storage and diesel generators to maximize wind penetration while maintaining system economics and normal operation performance. The goals of the optimization problem are to minimize fuel costs and maximize the utilization of wind while considering equipment life of generators and energy storage. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve a look-ahead dispatch optimization problem and the performance is compared to an open loop look-ahead dispatch problem. Simulation studies are performed to demonstrate the efficacy of the closed loop MPC in compensating for uncertainties and variability caused in the system.
Model Predictive Control-based Optimal Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources
Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Lian, Jianming; Elizondo, Marcelo A.
2013-04-03
Distributed energy resources, such as renewable energy resources (wind, solar), energy storage and demand response, can be used to complement conventional generators. The uncertainty and variability due to high penetration of wind makes reliable system operations and controls challenging, especially in isolated systems. In this paper, an optimal control strategy is proposed to coordinate energy storage and diesel generators to maximize wind penetration while maintaining system economics and normal operation performance. The goals of the optimization problem are to minimize fuel costs and maximize the utilization of wind while considering equipment life of generators and energy storage. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve a look-ahead dispatch optimization problem and the performance is compared to an open loop look-ahead dispatch problem. Simulation studies are performed to demonstrate the efficacy of the closed loop MPC in compensating for uncertainties and variability caused in the system.
Optimal power flow in microgrids using event-triggered optimization Pu Wan and Michael D. Lemmon
Lemmon, Michael
Optimal power flow in microgrids using event-triggered optimization Pu Wan and Michael D. Lemmon Abstract-- Microgrids are power generation and distribution systems in which users and generators-triggered distributed optimization algorithm to solve the optimal power flow (OPF) problem in microgrids. Under event
Control and optimization system
Xinsheng, Lou
2013-02-12
A system for optimizing a power plant includes a chemical loop having an input for receiving an input parameter (270) and an output for outputting an output parameter (280), a control system operably connected to the chemical loop and having a multiple controller part (230) comprising a model-free controller. The control system receives the output parameter (280), optimizes the input parameter (270) based on the received output parameter (280), and outputs an optimized input parameter (270) to the input of the chemical loop to control a process of the chemical loop in an optimized manner.
Neal, Thomas E. (Thomas Eugene)
2006-01-01
Classical manufacturing work cells have machines to perform each operation in the process, the number of each type of machine being chosen so that all machines would be equally busy. Although design of work cells for ...
Optimization Online Links. Optimization related societies. Mathematical Optimization Society · SIAM · INFORMS. Optimization related journals. Mathematical ...
Zhou, Zhi; de Bedout, Juan Manuel; Kern, John Michael; Biyik, Emrah; Chandra, Ramu Sharat
2013-01-22
A system for optimizing customer utility usage in a utility network of customer sites, each having one or more utility devices, where customer site is communicated between each of the customer sites and an optimization server having software for optimizing customer utility usage over one or more networks, including private and public networks. A customer site model for each of the customer sites is generated based upon the customer site information, and the customer utility usage is optimized based upon the customer site information and the customer site model. The optimization server can be hosted by an external source or within the customer site. In addition, the optimization processing can be partitioned between the customer site and an external source.
Hiskens, Ian A.
of the underlying transmission network, forcing system operation closer to limits. To meet these operational-stamped measurements that facilitate wide-area monitoring and control. Flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices disruptive peaks in demand. Power transfers are continually increasing, without commensurate expansion
Optimal Power Cost Management Using Stored Energy in Data Centers
Urgaonkar, Rahul; Neely, Michael J; Sivasubramaniam, Anand
2011-01-01
Since the electricity bill of a data center constitutes a significant portion of its overall operational costs, reducing this has become important. We investigate cost reduction opportunities that arise by the use of uninterrupted power supply (UPS) units as energy storage devices. This represents a deviation from the usual use of these devices as mere transitional fail-over mechanisms between utility and captive sources such as diesel generators. We consider the problem of opportunistically using these devices to reduce the time average electric utility bill in a data center. Using the technique of Lyapunov optimization, we develop an online control algorithm that can optimally exploit these devices to minimize the time average cost. This algorithm operates without any knowledge of the statistics of the workload or electricity cost processes, making it attractive in the presence of workload and pricing uncertainties. An interesting feature of our algorithm is that its deviation from optimality reduces as the...
Weather forecast-based optimization of integrated energy systems.
Zavala, V. M.; Constantinescu, E. M.; Krause, T.; Anitescu, M.
2009-03-01
In this work, we establish an on-line optimization framework to exploit detailed weather forecast information in the operation of integrated energy systems, such as buildings and photovoltaic/wind hybrid systems. We first discuss how the use of traditional reactive operation strategies that neglect the future evolution of the ambient conditions can translate in high operating costs. To overcome this problem, we propose the use of a supervisory dynamic optimization strategy that can lead to more proactive and cost-effective operations. The strategy is based on the solution of a receding-horizon stochastic dynamic optimization problem. This permits the direct incorporation of economic objectives, statistical forecast information, and operational constraints. To obtain the weather forecast information, we employ a state-of-the-art forecasting model initialized with real meteorological data. The statistical ambient information is obtained from a set of realizations generated by the weather model executed in an operational setting. We present proof-of-concept simulation studies to demonstrate that the proposed framework can lead to significant savings (more than 18% reduction) in operating costs.
Robust optimization based self scheduling of hydro-thermal Genco ...
Dec 29, 2013 ... Abstract: This paper proposes a robust optimization model for optimal self scheduling of a hydro-thermal generating company. The proposed ...
Edinburgh Research Explorer Local solutions of the optimal power flow problem
Millar, Andrew J.
law (KVL), which describes the flow of power in transmission lines, and is a nonlinear function of bus is to find a steady state operating point that minimizes the cost of electric power generation whileEdinburgh Research Explorer Local solutions of the optimal power flow problem Citation
Optimization Journals, Sites, Societies - Optimization Online
Optimization related societies. Mathematical Optimization Society · SIAM · INFORMS. Optimization related journals. Mathematical Programming and ...
Maxwell, Bruce D.
Seed and Fertilizer Placement in Simultaneous, Single-Pass Operations with Air Drills under Differing: It is the objective of this project to evaluate air drill openers for the production of cereal grains under varying-seeded into spring wheat stubble at Havre in 2003 is presented in Table 1. Yield performance data for all air drill
Maxwell, Bruce D.
and Fertilizer Placement in Simultaneous, Single-Pass Operations with Air Drills under Differing Cropping Systems Cooperating Dealers and Manufacturers OBJECTIVES: It is the objective of this project to evaluate air drill manufacturer loan and dealer support of additional state-of- the-art air drill equipment being made available
Maxwell, Bruce D.
and Fertilizer Placement in Simultaneous, Single-Pass Operations with Air Drills under Differing Cropping Systems to evaluate air drill openers and systems for the production of cereal grains under varying cropping was limited primarily to evaluation of "double-shoot" air drill openers using a research-scale `Concord' air
Maxwell, Bruce D.
Seed and Fertilizer Placement in Simultaneous, Single-Pass Operations with Air Drills under Differing: It is the objective of this project to evaluate air drill openers for the production of cereal grains under varying-seeded into spring wheat stubble at Havre in 2001 is presented in Table 1. Yield performance data for all air drill
Maxwell, Bruce D.
Seed and Fertilizer Placement in Simultaneous, Single-Pass Operations with Air Drills under Differing: It is the objective of this project to evaluate air drill openers for the production of cereal grains under varying and shallower planting depths. Yield performance data for all air drill opener trials conducted by NARC
Maxwell, Bruce D.
Seed and Fertilizer Placement in Simultaneous, Single-Pass Operations with Air Drills under Differing of this project to evaluate air drill openers for the production of cereal grains under varying cropping-seeded into spring wheat stubble at Havre in 2004 is presented in Table 1. Yield performance data for all air drill
Optimization of a turbocharger for high EGR applications | Department...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
a turbocharger for high EGR applications Optimization of a turbocharger for high EGR applications Approach to optimize single turbocharger operation to drive high-EGR efficiently,...
Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani
2014-05-27
An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.
Autonomic html interface generator for web applications
Bassil, Youssef; 10.5121/ijwest.2012.3104
2012-01-01
Recent advances in computing systems have led to a new digital era in which every area of life is nearly interrelated with information technology. However, with the trend towards large-scale IT systems, a new challenge has emerged. The complexity of IT systems is becoming an obstacle that hampers the manageability, operability, and maintainability of modern computing infrastructures. Autonomic computing popped up to provide an answer to these ever-growing pitfalls. Fundamentally, autonomic systems are self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing, and self-protecting; hence, they can automate all complex IT processes without human intervention. This paper proposes an autonomic HTML web-interface generator based on XML Schema and Style Sheet specifications for self-configuring graphical user interfaces of web applications. The goal of this autonomic generator is to automate the process of customizing GUI web-interfaces according to the ever-changing business rules, policies, and operating environment with th...
Decision support for operations and maintenance (DSOM) system
Jarrell, Donald B. (Kennewick, WA); Meador, Richard J. (Richland, WA); Sisk, Daniel R. (Richland, WA); Hatley, Darrel D. (Kennewick, WA); Brown, Daryl R. (Richland, WA); Keibel, Gary R. (Richland, WA); Gowri, Krishnan (Richland, WA); Reyes-Spindola, Jorge F. (Richland, WA); Adams, Kevin J. (San Bruno, CA); Yates, Kenneth R. (Lake Oswego, OR); Eschbach, Elizabeth J. (Fort Collins, CO); Stratton, Rex C. (Richland, WA)
2006-03-21
A method for minimizing the life cycle cost of processes such as heating a building. The method utilizes sensors to monitor various pieces of equipment used in the process, for example, boilers, turbines, and the like. The method then performs the steps of identifying a set optimal operating conditions for the process, identifying and measuring parameters necessary to characterize the actual operating condition of the process, validating data generated by measuring those parameters, characterizing the actual condition of the process, identifying an optimal condition corresponding to the actual condition, comparing said optimal condition with the actual condition and identifying variances between the two, and drawing from a set of pre-defined algorithms created using best engineering practices, an explanation of at least one likely source and at least one recommended remedial action for selected variances, and providing said explanation as an output to at least one user.
Optimally Invariant Variable Combinations for Nonlinear Systems
Skogestad, Sigurd
up to control them to their setpoints yielding optimal process operation. The conventional Real@chemeng.ntnu.no). Abstract: Optimal operation of chemical processes becomes increasingly important in order to be able have been identified and the control structure is set up, there is no need for on-line optimization
Preisig, H. A.
1988-01-01
is the surface J(-) of which the optimum is sought. Experience teaches that the optimum of the unconstrained response surface lays often outside the permissible domain which puts the permissible optimal operating point on the boundary which is defined.... The optimizer can thus use the model to predict the steady state and decide on the next move before the process has reached the steady state. ? Identification Scheme Different identification schemes should be used depending on the signal/noise ra tio...
Vasilyak, L. M., E-mail: vasilyak@ihed.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute of High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Drozdov, L. A., E-mail: lit@npo.lit.ru; Kostyuchenko, S. V.; Sokolov, D. V. [ZAO LIT (Russian Federation); Kudryavtsev, N. N.; Sobur, D. A., E-mail: soburda@gmail.com [Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)
2011-12-15
The effect of the discharge current, mercury vapor pressure, and the inert gas pressure on the intensity and efficiency of the 185 nm line generation are considered. The spectra of the UV radiation (vacuum ultraviolet) transmission by protective coatings from the oxides of rare earth metals and aluminum are investigated.
Nielsen, Finn Ã?rup
Canonical Ridge Analysis with Ridge Parameter Optimization F. Ã?. Nielsen, L. K. Hansen and S. C - PLS 1 = k 0 = k optimal k k = optimal k k Â£ Â£ 0 #12; Canonical Ridge Analysis with Ridge Parameter Optimization F. Ã?. Nielsen, L. K. Hansen and S. C. Strother The Human Brain Project, P20 MH57180 ``Spatial
On-line economic optimization of energy systems using weather forecast information.
Zavala, V. M.; Constantinescu, E. M.; Krause, T.; Anitescu, M.
2009-01-01
We establish an on-line optimization framework to exploit weather forecast information in the operation of energy systems. We argue that anticipating the weather conditions can lead to more proactive and cost-effective operations. The framework is based on the solution of a stochastic dynamic real-time optimization (D-RTO) problem incorporating forecasts generated from a state-of-the-art weather prediction model. The necessary uncertainty information is extracted from the weather model using an ensemble approach. The accuracy of the forecast trends and uncertainty bounds are validated using real meteorological data. We present a numerical simulation study in a building system to demonstrate the developments.
Patel, M.C.
1994-04-04
The study, conducted by S & Davis International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of Tanzania`s Ministry of Water, Construction, Energy, Land, and Environment. The report reviews and evaluates the existing power source and support stations for the current and future reliability of providing power to the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba as well as the feasibility of obtaining an independent power source. The study also covers the cost of power generation and rate structures, including the execution schedule and budgetary costs. The report contains the Introduction and Executive Summary and is divided into the following chapters: (1) General Information; (2) Power Supply Assessment; (3) Estimate of Power Usage; (4) Recommended Power Plant Configuration; (5) Technical Data on Generators; (6) The Economics.
Communication Optimization for Customizable Domain-Specific Computing
Xiao, Bingjun
2015-01-01
Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176 Communication Optimization
Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance
James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J
2013-07-30
A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.
Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance
James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J.
2012-12-25
A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.
Kalke, Richard D
1972-01-01
on the aquatic organisms when water is used for cooling by a steam electric generating station. Countant (1970) and Markowski (1959) state that the principle changes are: (1) increase in pressure caused by the pumps, (2) elevation in temperature, (3... proper use of a 0. 5 m plankton net (Figure 2). Stations too shallow for sampling were 3, 6, 9, 12-14, 18-21, and 24 and these are omitted from this report. Tabbs Bay Plankton Stations I and 2 were located in lower Tabbs Bay near the intake canal...
Schmidt, Monroe
1972-01-01
site to insure that sufficient water could be drawn up the bayou from IBOI 27 15 24 ;*':: 21 RED BAYOU , . 8:; h, ;-, !;, 18 23 12 ";;. 9 17 II *'?'-' 7 8 13 14 18 28 ABBS h2 3 ':. ; TRINITY BAY h SCALE: STATUTE MILES 0 I 2 3 4 5... un- doubtedly had some effects on organisms there. Dredging operations in Tabbs Bay (August 19, 1970 until November 25, 1970) were near both Stations 1 and 2 and often caused high turbidity and other disturbances at the stations. Station 3...
Finding Benefits by Modeling and Optimizing Steam and Power Systems
Jones, B.; Nelson, D.
2007-01-01
A site-wide steam modeling and optimization program (Visual MESA) was implemented at the INEOS Chocolate Bayou site. This program optimizes steam production, compressor turbine extraction, pump operation (turbine/motor) operation, as well...
Grothey, Andreas
is primarily due to Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL), which describes the flow of power in transmission lines that minimizes the cost of electric power generation while satisfying operating constraints and meeting demandLocal Solutions of Optimal Power Flow Waqquas A. Bukhsh, Andreas Grothey, Ken McKinnon, and Paul
Online optimization and choice of optimization variables for control of heat exchanger networks
Skogestad, Sigurd
Online optimization and choice of optimization variables for control of heat exchanger networks B operation of a general heat exchanger network with given structure, heat exchanger areas and stream data to any heat exchanger network. Using this model periodically for optimization, the operating conditions
On-line optimization and choice of optimization variables for control of heat exchanger networks
Skogestad, Sigurd
On-line optimization and choice of optimization variables for control of heat exchanger networks B operation of a general heat exchanger network with given structure, heat exchanger areas and stream data to any heat exchanger network. Using this model periodically for optimization, the operating conditions
Convex and Nonsmooth Optimization Submissions - 2012. January 2012. Nonsmooth Optimization Necessary optimality conditions in pessimistic bilevel ...
Optimization related societies. Mathematical Optimization Society · SIAM · INFORMS. Optimization related journals. Mathematical Programming and ...
Wang, Haoqing
2015-01-01
Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .annotation optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Opt. is the time after optimization. Anno- phos is the time
A Problem Generator Jorg Fliege
Fliege, JÃ¶rg
A Problem Generator Jorg Fliege Fachbereich Mathematik Universitat Dortmund 44221 Dortmund;nd a new, previously unconsidered one. We propose a problem generator that can auto- matically generate new optimization problems. These problems can then be analyzed by scientists with, e. g., standard
Optimal Pairings F. Vercauteren
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Optimal Pairings F. Vercauteren Department of Electrical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit pairing is completely determined by its value on one set of generators of G1, G2: let G1 = P , G2 = Q with the occasional jumps caused by fundamentally new approaches. One line of research is focused on shortening
Optimal Pairings F. Vercauteren #
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Optimal Pairings F. Vercauteren # Department of Electrical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit. Indeed, every pairing is completely determined by its value on one set of generators of G 1 , G 2 : let G improved ef ficiency, interspersed with the occasional jumps caused by fundamentally new approaches. One
CSEM WP 135 Has Restructuring Improved Operating Efficiency
California at Berkeley. University of
CSEM WP 135 Has Restructuring Improved Operating Efficiency at US Electricity Generating Plants Operating Efficiency at US Electricity Generating Plants? Kira Markiewicz UC Berkeley, Haas School assesses the impact of electricity industry restructuring on generating plant operating efficiency. Cost
Modeling Power System Operation with Intermittent Resources
Marinovici, Maria C.; Kirkham, Harold; Glass, Kevin A.; Carlsen, Leif C.
2013-02-27
Electricity generating companies and power system operators face the need to minimize total fuel cost or maximize total profit over a given time period. These issues become optimization problems subject to a large number of constraints that must be satisfied simultaneously. The grid updates due to smart-grid technologies plus the penetration of intermittent re- sources in electrical grid introduce additional complexity to the optimization problem. The Renewable Integration Model (RIM) is a computer model of interconnected power system. It is intended to provide insight and advice on complex power systems management, as well as answers to integration of renewable energy questions. This paper describes RIM basic design concept, solution method, and the initial suite of modules that it supports.
The thermodynamics of creating correlations: Limitations and optimal protocols
David Edward Bruschi; Martí Perarnau-Llobet; Nicolai Friis; Karen V. Hovhannisyan; Marcus Huber
2015-03-11
We establish a rigorous connection between fundamental resource theories at the quantum scale. Correlations and entanglement constitute indispensable resources for numerous quantum information tasks. However, their establishment comes at the cost of energy, the resource of thermodynamics, and is limited by the initial entropy. Here, the optimal conversion of energy into correlations is investigated. Assuming the presence of a thermal bath, we establish general bounds for arbitrary systems and construct a protocol saturating them. The amount of correlations, quantified by the mutual information, can increase at most linearly with the available energy, and we determine where the linear regime breaks down. We further consider the generation of genuine quantum correlations, focusing on the fundamental constituents of our universe: fermions and bosons. For fermionic modes, we find the optimal entangling protocol. For bosonic modes, we show that while Gaussian operations can be outperformed in creating entanglement, their performance is optimal for high energies.
A linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics approach to optimization of thermoelectric devices
Ouerdane, H; Apertet, Y; Michot, A; Abbout, A
2013-01-01
Improvement of thermoelectric systems in terms of performance and range of applications relies on progress in materials science and optimization of device operation. In this chapter, we focuse on optimization by taking into account the interaction of the system with its environment. For this purpose, we consider the illustrative case of a thermoelectric generator coupled to two temperature baths via heat exchangers characterized by a thermal resistance, and we analyze its working conditions. Our main message is that both electrical and thermal impedance matching conditions must be met for optimal device performance. Our analysis is fundamentally based on linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics using the force-flux formalism. An outlook on mesoscopic systems is also given.
Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Policastro, A.; Freeman, W.; Jackson, R.; Mishima, J.; Turner, S.
1996-12-01
This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms evaluated. A personal-computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for the calculation of human health risk impacts. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated, and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. Key assumptions in the development of the source terms are identified. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also discuss specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.
Integrating Gasifiers and Reciprocating Engine Generators to...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
benefit industries that generate organic waste streams, such as food processing plants, pulp and paper factories, and large farms. Project Description This project optimized the...
Next Generation Calibration Models with Dimensional Modeling...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Decision Tree Based Control Model-Based Transient Calibration Optimization for Next Generation Diesel Engines An Accelerated Aging Method for Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems...
U.S. Installation, Operation, and Performance Standards for Microturbi...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Installation, Operation, and Performance Standards for Microturbine Generator Sets, August 2000 U.S. Installation, Operation, and Performance Standards for Microturbine Generator...
High Operating Temperature Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Thermal...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
High Operating Temperature Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Thermal Power Generation FY13 Q1 High Operating Temperature Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Thermal Power Generation FY13...
Illinois Nuclear Profile - Byron Generating Station
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
Byron Generating Station" ,"Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date"...
Illinois Nuclear Profile - Dresden Generating Station
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
Dresden Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration...
Illinois Nuclear Profile - Braidwood Generation Station
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
Braidwood Generation Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License...
Washington Nuclear Profile - Columbia Generating Station
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
Columbia Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration...
Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources using Model Predictive Control
Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Butler-Purry, Karen
2012-07-22
In an isolated power system (rural microgrid), Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) such as renewable energy resources (wind, solar), energy storage and demand response can be used to complement fossil fueled generators. The uncertainty and variability due to high penetration of wind makes reliable system operations and controls challenging. In this paper, an optimal control strategy is proposed to coordinate energy storage and diesel generators to maximize wind penetration while maintaining system economics and normal operation. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem with the goals of minimizing fuel costs and changes in power output of diesel generators, minimizing costs associated with low battery life of energy storage and maintaining system frequency at the nominal operating value. Two control modes are considered for controlling the energy storage to compensate either net load variability or wind variability. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve the aforementioned problem and the performance is compared to an open-loop look-ahead dispatch problem. Simulation studies using high and low wind profiles, as well as, different MPC prediction horizons demonstrate the efficacy of the closed-loop MPC in compensating for uncertainties in wind and demand.
Power System Modeling of 20percent Wind-Generated Electricity by 2030
Hand, Maureen
2008-01-01
selected to achieve a cost-optimal generation mix over a 20-Conventional Generation Technology Cost and Performancethe future cost and performance of conventional generation
Plant Energy Cost Optimization Program (PECOP)
Robinson, A. M.
1980-01-01
The Plant Energy Cost Optimization Program (PECOP) is a Management System designed to reduce operating cost in a continuous operating multi product plant by reviewing all cost factors and selecting plant wide production schedules which are most...
Skogestad, Sigurd
2014-01-01
Please cite this article in press as: Jäschke J, Skogestad S. Optimal operation of heat exchanger of heat exchanger networks with stream split: Only temperature measurements are required Johannes Jäschke in revised form 20 March 2014 Accepted 27 March 2014 Available online xxx Keywords: Heat exchanger networks
Optimization Online - Nonlinear Optimization Submissions - 2014
Nonlinear Optimization Submissions - 2014. January 2014. Constrained Nonlinear Optimization New active set identification for general constrained ...
Smart Grid Application of Optimal Transmission Switching
Ferris, Michael C.
;6 Introduction continued Electric Transmission Network Flow Problem Optimal Power Flow (OPF) AlternatingSmart Grid Application of Optimal Transmission Switching By, Kory W. Hedman, et al.* University (Professor, UC Berkeley) #12;2 Motivation Co-optimize transmission topology and generation dispatch
Registration of Electric Generators (Connecticut)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
All electric generating facilities operating in the state, with the exception of hydroelectric and nuclear facilities, must obtain a certificate of registration from the Department of Public...
Shlapentokh, Alexandra
Diophantine Generation, Horizontal and Vertical Problems, and the Weak Vertical Method Alexandra Shlapentokh Diophantine Sets, Definitions and Generation Diophantine Sets Diophantine Generation Properties of Diophantine Generation Diophantine Family of Z Diophantine Family of a Polynomial Ring Going Down Horizontal
ONLINE OPTIMIZATION AND SELECTION OF MEASUREMENTS
Skogestad, Sigurd
117 Chapter 7 ONLINE OPTIMIZATION AND SELECTION OF MEASUREMENTS This is the last of three chapters that discuss optimal operation of a general heat exchanger network. A method that combines the use of steady state optimization and decentralized feedback control is proposed. A general steady state model
Three essays in operations management
Leung, Ngai-Hang Zachary
2014-01-01
The thesis applies optimization theory to three problems in operations management. In the first part of the thesis, we investigate the impact of inventory control on the availability of drugs to patients at public health ...
Optimal Operation of a Multiple Reservoir System
Marino, Miguel A; Loaiciga, Hugo A
1983-01-01
Francisco, of Small, Low Head Hydroelectric Installations.Keswick Power Plants are low-head installations whereas Yehby releasing heavily during wet low head and a corresponding
Optimizing Installation, Operation, and Maintenance at Offshore...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
The report also discusses the cost implications for the onerous wave climate in the Pacific Ocean, the impact of sea ice on projects in the Great Lakes, and the limitations...
Optimal Operation Strategy for Biohydrogen Production
Rio-Chanona, Ehecatl Antonio del; Dechatiwongse, Pongsathorn; Zhang, Dongda; Maitland, Geoffrey C.; Hellgardt, Klaus; Arellano-Garcia, Harvey; Vassiliadis, Vassilios S.
2015-06-02
in the development of these highly nonlinear dynamic models is the estimation of the associated kinetic parameters. This work presents the estimation of the parameters of a revised Droop model for biohydrogen production by Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 in batch and fed...
Optimization of the Heating System Operation
Xu, W.; Mao, S.
2006-01-01
and the flowrate as the target variables. In order to deduce the function between the input variable and the target variable, the exergy loss of the system can serve as the intermediate target variable, and the function between the exergy loss of the system... 2 ()()nw pn KFt ttt F ? ? +?? ?= ? + ?4 ? 2.2 The Relation between the Exergy Loss and the Temperature Difference of the Supply-return Water Based on the simplification and suppositions of heating system, the following two...
human spaceflight and operations
Anand, Mahesh
1 human spaceflight and operations Lunar Lander human spaceflight and operations #12;2 human cooperation in exploration prim ary objective opportunity for investigations #12;3 human spaceflight No RHUs LANDING SITE South Polar Reliant on Solar Power generation + conventional thermal control LAUNCHER
Synthetic guide star generation
Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA) [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H. (Castro Valley, CA) [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA
2008-06-10
A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.
Synthetic guide star generation
Payne, Stephen A.; Page, Ralph H.; Ebbers, Christopher A.; Beach, Raymond J.
2004-03-09
A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.
Gschwind, Michael K
2013-07-23
Mechanisms for aggressively optimizing computer code are provided. With these mechanisms, a compiler determines an optimization to apply to a portion of source code and determines if the optimization as applied to the portion of source code will result in unsafe optimized code that introduces a new source of exceptions being generated by the optimized code. In response to a determination that the optimization is an unsafe optimization, the compiler generates an aggressively compiled code version, in which the unsafe optimization is applied, and a conservatively compiled code version in which the unsafe optimization is not applied. The compiler stores both versions and provides them for execution. Mechanisms are provided for switching between these versions during execution in the event of a failure of the aggressively compiled code version. Moreover, predictive mechanisms are provided for predicting whether such a failure is likely.
Fighting dephasing noise with robust optimal control
Kevin C. Young; Dylan J Gorman; K. Birgitta Whaley
2010-05-28
We address the experimentally relevant problem of robust mitigation of dephasing noise acting on a qubit. We first present an extension of a method for representing $1/\\omega^{\\alpha}$ noise developed by Kuopanportti et al. to the efficient representation of arbitrary Markovian noise. We then add qubit control pulses to enable the design of numerically optimized, two-dimensional control functions with bounded amplitude, that are capable of decoupling the qubit from the dephasing effects of a broad variety of Markovian noise spectral densities during arbitrary one qubit quantum operations. We illustrate the method with development of numerically optimized control pulse sequences that minimize decoherence due to a combination of $1/\\omega$ and constant offset noise sources. Comparison with the performance of standard dynamical decoupling protocols shows that the numerically optimized pulse sequences are considerably more robust with respect to the noise offset, rendering them attractive for application to situations where homogeneous dephasing noise sources are accompanied by some extent of heterogeneous dephasing. Application to the mitigation of dephasing noise on spin qubits in silicon indicates that high fidelity single qubit gates are possible with current pulse generation technology.
Brown, Matt
2013-01-01
Optimizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 and 26. APPENDIX B Optimizations Included in thisappendix are the three optimization steps which together
4th Generation ECR Ion Sources
Lyneis, Claude M.
2010-01-01
4th Generation ECR Ion Sources Claude M Lyneis, D. Leitner,to developing a 4 th generation ECR ion source with an RFover current 3 rd generation ECR ion sources, which operate
Thermodynamic modeling and optimization of a screw compressor chiller and cooling tower system
Graves, Rhett David
2004-09-30
, absorption, thermoelectric, and thermoacoustic (Gordon and Ng 1995). Chiller models have been used to predict the performance of thermal storage 6 systems (Henze et al. 1997) and whole chiller plant systems (Lau et al. 1985). Chiller models have also been... used to aid in the development of control algorithms for chiller plants (Flake et al. 1997). There have been several attempts to generate an ?optimal? operating scheme using the Whillier cooling tower model, a chiller model, or a combination of both...
Safe Operation of Backup Power Generators (Spanish)
Smith, David
2006-04-19
bajo una estructura abierta, como un toldo. Recuerde secarse las manos antes de tocar el generador. ? Conecte los aparatos el?ctricos directamente al generador o use una extensi?n el?ctrica de alta resistencia que sea apta para usarse en exteriores.... Cerci?rese que la extensi?n tambi?n tenga el calibre (en vatios o amperios) de por lo menos igual resistencia a la suma de la carga el?ctrica conectada. Verifique que la extensi?n no est? rajada o rota y que el enchufe tenga tres espigas, siendo una...
Optimization of Heat Exchangers
Ivan Catton
2010-10-01
The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.
Alexander Bolonkin; Robert Sierakowski
2007-01-19
Current research suggests the use of a liner quadratic performance index for optimal control of regulators in various applications. Some examples include correcting the trajectory of rocket and air vehicles, vibration suppression of flexible structures, and airplane stability. In all these cases, the focus is in suppressing/decreasing system deviations rapidly. However, if one compares the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) solution with optimal solutions (minimum time), it is seen that the LQR solution is less than optimal in some cases indeed (3-6) times that obtained using a minimum time solution. Moreover, the LQR solution is sometimes unacceptable in practice due to the fact that values of control extend beyond admissible limits and thus the designer must choose coefficients in the linear quadratic form, which are unknown. The authors suggest methods which allow finding a quasi-optimal LQR solution with bounded control which is closed to the minimum time solution. They also remand the process of the minimum time decision. Keywords: Optimal regulator, minimum time controller, Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR). -- This paper is declared a work of the U.S. Government and not subject to copyright protection in the USA. The manuscript is accepted as paper AIAA-2003-6638 by 2nd AIAA Unmanned Unlimited Systems, Technologies, and Operations-Aerospace, Land, and See Conference and Workshop - Exhibit, San Diego, California, USA, 15-18 Sep. 2003.
Exact Convex Relaxation of Optimal Power Flow in Radial Networks
Gan, LW; Li, N; Topcu, U; Low, SH
2015-01-01
The optimal power flow (OPF) problem determines a network operating point that minimizes a certain objective such as generation cost or power loss. It is nonconvex. We prove that a global optimum of OPF can be obtained by solving a second-order cone program, under a mild condition after shrinking the OPF feasible set slightly, for radial power networks. The condition can be checked a priori, and holds for the IEEE 13, 34, 37, 123-bus networks and two real-world networks.
dominic
2013-03-26
Lesson 30. Optimization (I). 1. A woman wants to build a rectangular garden next to a straight river. She will enclose the garden on 3 sides with fencing—the ...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Electricity, US Data. 6. Distributed Generation: Standby Generation and Cogeneration Ozz Energy Solutions, Inc. February 28 th , 2005. For more information about...
Optimization Online - Nonlinear Optimization Submissions - 2013
Nonlinear Optimization Submissions - 2013. January 2013. A Framework of Constraint Preserving Update Schemes for Optimization on Stiefel Manifold
Optimization Online - Nonlinear Optimization Submissions - 2012
Nonlinear Optimization Submissions - 2012. January 2012. Systems governed by Differential Equations Optimization Squeeze-and-Breathe Evolutionary Monte ...
Convex and Nonsmooth Optimization Submissions - 2014. January 2014. Convex Optimization Generalized Gauss Inequalities via Semidefinite Programming
Carver Performance and Optimization
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Optimization Performance and Optimization Performance Monitoring Last edited: 2012-01-09 12:31:03...
Visual-based methods in compliant mechanism optimization
Timm, Richard W. (Richard William)
2006-01-01
The purpose of this research is to generate visual-based methods for optimizing compliant mechanisms (CMs). Visual-based optimization methods use graphical representations (3-D plots) of CM performance to convey design ...
Hutter, Marcus
Optimization Difficulty Tansu Alpcan Introduction Definitions and Model Optimization Difficulty Bounds on Optimization Difficulty Conclusion Can we measure the difficulty of an optimization problem Science Australian National University ITW 2014, Hobart 1 / 22 #12;Optimization Difficulty Tansu Alpcan
On combining Laplacian and optimization-based mesh smoothing techniques
Freitag, L.A.
1997-07-01
Local mesh smoothing algorithms have been shown to be effective in repairing distorted elements in automatically generated meshes. The simplest such algorithm is Laplacian smoothing, which moves grid points to the geometric center of incident vertices. Unfortunately, this method operates heuristically and can create invalid meshes or elements of worse quality than those contained in the original mesh. In contrast, optimization-based methods are designed to maximize some measure of mesh quality and are very effective at eliminating extremal angles in the mesh. These improvements come at a higher computational cost, however. In this article the author proposes three smoothing techniques that combine a smart variant of Laplacian smoothing with an optimization-based approach. Several numerical experiments are performed that compare the mesh quality and computational cost for each of the methods in two and three dimensions. The author finds that the combined approaches are very cost effective and yield high-quality meshes.
Path Integral for Quantum Operations
Vasily E. Tarasov
2007-06-14
In this paper we consider a phase space path integral for general time-dependent quantum operations, not necessarily unitary. We obtain the path integral for a completely positive quantum operation satisfied Lindblad equation (quantum Markovian master equation). We consider the path integral for quantum operation with a simple infinitesimal generator.
Process and Energy Optimization Revitalizes Energy Management at Eastman
Greenwaldt, W. C.
2007-01-01
In 2005, the Eastman-Texas Operations Energy Management Team (EMT), in response to rapidly increasing energy prices, initiated a new energy optimization program to optimize the site’s energy intensity. This new program utilized a process and energy...
Optimal Sequencing of Central Refrigeration Equipment in an Industrial Plant
Fiorino, D. P.; Priest, J. W.
1986-01-01
A model was developed to find a viable solution to the problem of selecting the optimal sequence of refrigeration equipment (chillers, cooling towers, pumps) to operate in a Central Utility Plant. The optimal equipment sequence is that sequence...
Design and optimization of a defect tolerant processor array
Lakkapragada, Bhavani S
1995-01-01
In this thesis we design and optimization of a defect tolerant MIMD processor array, for maximum performance per wafer area, targeted at applications that have a large number of operations per memory word, is described. The optimization includes...
Not Available
1988-01-01
The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management the responsibility for disposing of high-level waste and spent fuel. A significant part of that responsibility involves transporting nuclear waste materials within the federal waste management system; that is, from the waste generator to the repository. The lead responsibility for transportation operations has been assigned to Oak Ridge Operations, with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing technical support through the Transportation Operations Support Task Group. One of the ORNL support activities involves assessing what facilities, equipment and services are required to assure that an acceptable, cost-effective and safe transportation operations system can be designed, operated and maintained. This study reviews, surveys and assesses the experience of Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) in operating a fleet of spent-fuel shipping casks to aid in developing the spent-fuel transportation system.
Modeling and Optimization of PEMFC Systems and its Application to Direct Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles
Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy
2008-01-01
In the original fuel cell optimization model [11], only theIn the original fuel cell optimization model, only the dryof the fuel cell system and optimization of the operating
Operational Waste Volume Projection
STRODE, J.N.
2000-08-28
Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June. 2000.
An Approximate Inference Approach to Temporal Optimization in Optimal Control
Vijayakumar, Sethu
Motivation · Stochastic Optimal feedback control (SOFC) is a plausible move- ment generation strategy in goal with non-linear dynamics and non-quadratic costs SOFC law can only be found locally and iteratively, e SOFC Model Random variables we use here: xt state of a plant (joint angles q and velocities q) ut
Interconnection networks synthesis and optimization
Zhu, Yi
2008-01-01
Synthesis and Optimization . . . . . . . . . . .1.Wire Style Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. PowerSynthesis and Optimization . 1. Overview . . . . . . . . . .
Optimization of Cylindrical Hall Thrusters
Yevgeny Raitses, Artem Smirnov, Erik Granstedt, and Nathaniel J. Fi
2007-07-24
The cylindrical Hall thruster features high ionization efficiency, quiet operation, and ion acceleration in a large volume-to-surface ratio channel with performance comparable with the state-of-the-art annular Hall thrusters. These characteristics were demonstrated in low and medium power ranges. Optimization of miniaturized cylindrical thrusters led to performance improvements in the 50-200W input power range, including plume narrowing, increased thruster efficiency, reliable discharge initiation, and stable operation. __________________________________________________
Optimization of Cylindrical Hall Thrusters
Yevgeny Raitses, Artem Smirnov, Erik Granstedt, and Nathaniel J. Fisch
2007-11-27
The cylindrical Hall thruster features high ionization efficiency, quiet operation, and ion acceleration in a large volume-to-surface ratio channel with performance comparable with the state-of-the-art annular Hall thrusters. These characteristics were demonstrated in low and medium power ranges. Optimization of miniaturized cylindrical thrusters led to performance improvements in the 50-200W input power range, including plume narrowing, increased thruster efficiency, reliable discharge initiation, and stable operation.
Steam System Optimization : A Case Study
Iordanova, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.; Calogero, M.
2002-01-01
The steam system optimization (generation, distribution, use and condensate return) offers a large opportunity for action to comply with the new levels of energy efficiency standards. Superior design and improved maintenance practices are the two...
Designing and operating electrostatically driven microengines
Rodgers, M.S.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Miller, S.L.; LaVigne, G.F.
1998-02-01
Microelectromechanical engines that convert the linear outputs from dual orthogonal electrostatic actuators to rotary motion were first developed in 1993. Referred to as microengines, these early devices demonstrated the potential of microelectromechanical technology, but, as expected from any first-of-its-kind device, were not yet optimized. Yield was relatively low, and the 10 micronewtons of force generated by the actuators was not always enough to ensure reliable operation. Since initial development, these engines have undergone a continuous series of significant improvements on three separate fronts: design, fabrication, and electrical activation. Although all three areas will be discussed, emphasis will be on aspects related to mechanical design and generation of the electrical waveforms used to drive these devices. Microtransmissions that dramatically increase torque will also be discussed. Electrostatically driven microengines can be operated at hundreds of thousands of revolutions per minute making large gear reduction ratios feasible; overall ratios of 3,000,000:1 have been successfully demonstrated. Today`s microengines have evolved into high endurance (one test device has seen over 7,000,000,000 revolutions), high yield, robust devices that have become the primary actuation source for MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) at Sandia National Laboratories.
Soliton molecules: Experiments and optimization
Mitschke, Fedor
2014-10-06
Stable compound states of several fiber-optic solitons have recently been demonstrated. In the first experiment their shape was approximated, for want of a better description, by a sum of Gaussians. Here we discuss an optimization strategy which helps to find preferable shapes so that the generation of radiative background is reduced.
Authors, Various
2012-01-01
3 1st Edition FTN4 OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES November 1979O. INTRODUCTION 1. COt1PILER OPTIMIZATIONS 2. SOURCE CODEcode. Most of these optimizations decrease central processor
July 2, 2007 1 Optimal Transmission Switching
Mangasarian, Olvi L.
. INTRODUCTION n large electric networks, transmission is traditionally characterized as a static systemJuly 2, 2007 1 Optimal Transmission Switching Emily Bartholomew Fisher, Student Member, IEEE an optimal generation dispatch and transmission topology to meet a specific inflexible load as a mixed
Optimal Power Dispatch via Multistage Stochastic Programming
RÃ¶misch, Werner
Mathematical models for cost-optimal power scheduling in hydro-thermal systems often combine several di culties for the dis- patch of electric power in a hydro-thermal generation system over a certain time horizonOptimal Power Dispatch via Multistage Stochastic Programming M.P. Nowak1 and W. Romisch1 Abstract
Optimized Triple-Junction Solar Cells Using Inverted Metamorphic Approach (Presentation)
Geisz, J. F.
2008-11-01
Record efficiencies with triple-junction inverted metamorphic designs, modeling useful to optimize, and consider operating conditions before choosing design.
Gas Network Optimization: A comparison of Piecewise Linear Models
2014-06-22
Gas network optimization manages the gas transport by minimizing operating costs and .... This problem represents the transportation process of natural gas. 79.
Low Voltage Operational Amplifier Design for Energy Harvesting Applications
Collins, Gary S.
Low Voltage Operational Amplifier Design for Energy Harvesting Applications Brisa Calderon, Dr provide low voltages, all the components in a PMS must be able to operate at low voltages. Optimizing these components to operate at low voltages in turn contributes to the optimization of the PMS as a whole. Theory
Sarmiento, Z.F.; Aquino, B.G.; Aunzo, Z.P.; Rodis, N.O.; Saw, V.S.
1993-10-01
An evaluation of the Tongonan geothermal reservoir was conducted to improve the power recovery through reservoir and process optimization. The performance of the existing production wells was reviewed and the response of the field based on the anticipated production levels was simulated at various operating conditions. The results indicate that the Tongonan geothermal reservoir can be exploited at a high pressure operating condition with substantial improvement in the field capacity. The authors calculate that the Upper Mahiao and the Malitbog sectors of the Tongonan field are capable of generating 395 MWe at 1.0 MPa abs., on top of the existing 112.5 MWe plant, compared with 275 MWe if the field is operated at 0.6 MPa abs. The total capacity for the proposed Leyte A 640 MWe expansion can be generated from these sectors with the additional power to be tapped from Mahanagdong and Alto Peak sectors.
BEopt: Software for Identifying Optimal Building Designs on the Path to Zero Net Energy; Preprint
Christensen, C.; Horowitz, S.; Givler, T.; Courtney, A.; Barker, G.
2005-04-01
A zero net energy (ZNE) building produces as much energy on-site as it uses on an annual basis--using a grid-tied, net-metered photovoltaic (PV) system and active solar. The optimal path to ZNE extends from a base case to the ZNE building through a series of energy-saving building designs with minimal energy-related owning and operating costs. BEopt is a computer program designed to find optimal building designs along the path to ZNE. A user selects from among predefined options in various categories to specify options to be considered in the optimization. Energy savings are calculated relative to a reference. The reference can be either a user-defined base-case building or a climate-specific Building America Benchmark building automatically generated by BEopt. The user can also review and modify detailed information on all available options and the Building America Benchmark in a linked options library spreadsheet.
A Communication-Optimal Framework for Contracting Distributed Tensors
Rajbhandari, Samyam; NIkam, Akshay; Lai, Pai-Wei; Stock, Kevin; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy
2014-11-16
Tensor contractions are extremely compute intensive generalized matrix multiplication operations encountered in many computational science fields, such as quantum chemistry and nuclear physics. Unlike distributed matrix multiplication, which has been extensively studied, limited work has been done in understanding distributed tensor contractions. In this paper, we characterize distributed tensor contraction algorithms on torus networks. We develop a framework with three fundamental communication operators to generate communication-efficient contraction algorithms for arbitrary tensor contractions. We show that for a given amount of memory per processor, our framework is communication optimal for all tensor contractions. We demonstrate performance and scalability of our framework on up to 262,144 cores of BG/Q supercomputer using five tensor contraction examples.
Co-optimization 1 Introduction
McCalley, James D.
1 Co-optimization 1 Introduction Many of you are familiar with the basic electricity market operation which maximizes the economic surplus of the market, where the surplus may be loosely thought engines because it does not account for reserves. The simplest approach to account for reserves
-International Doctorate Program -Identification, Optimization and Control
Dettweiler, Michael
for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Systems: A Challenge in PDE Constrained Optimization April 23, 2009 Preprint IOC-25 #12;#12;OPTIMAL CONTROL OF LOAD CHANGES FOR MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS: A CHALLENGE carbonate fuel cells provide a promising technology for the operation of future stationary power plants
Economopoulou, M.A.; Economopoulou, A.A.; Economopoulos, A.P.
2013-11-15
Highlights: • A two-step (strategic and detailed optimal planning) methodology is used for solving complex MSW management problems. • A software package is outlined, which can be used for generating detailed optimal plans. • Sensitivity analysis compares alternative scenarios that address objections and/or wishes of local communities. • A case study shows the application of the above procedure in practice and demonstrates the results and benefits obtained. - Abstract: The paper describes a software system capable of formulating alternative optimal Municipal Solid Wastes (MSWs) management plans, each of which meets a set of constraints that may reflect selected objections and/or wishes of local communities. The objective function to be minimized in each plan is the sum of the annualized capital investment and annual operating cost of all transportation, treatment and final disposal operations involved, taking into consideration the possible income from the sale of products and any other financial incentives or disincentives that may exist. For each plan formulated, the system generates several reports that define the plan, analyze its cost elements and yield an indicative profile of selected types of installations, as well as data files that facilitate the geographic representation of the optimal solution in maps through the use of GIS. A number of these reports compare the technical and economic data from all scenarios considered at the study area, municipality and installation level constituting in effect sensitivity analysis. The generation of alternative plans offers local authorities the opportunity of choice and the results of the sensitivity analysis allow them to choose wisely and with consensus. The paper presents also an application of this software system in the capital Region of Attica in Greece, for the purpose of developing an optimal waste transportation system in line with its approved waste management plan. The formulated plan was able to: (a) serve 113 Municipalities and Communities that generate nearly 2 million t/y of comingled MSW with distinctly different waste collection patterns, (b) take into consideration several existing waste transfer stations (WTS) and optimize their use within the overall plan, (c) select the most appropriate sites among the potentially suitable (new and in use) ones, (d) generate the optimal profile of each WTS proposed, and (e) perform sensitivity analysis so as to define the impact of selected sets of constraints (limitations in the availability of sites and in the capacity of their installations) on the design and cost of the ensuing optimal waste transfer system. The results show that optimal planning offers significant economic savings to municipalities, while reducing at the same time the present levels of traffic, fuel consumptions and air emissions in the congested Athens basin.
Optimization Online - Nonlinear Optimization Submissions - 2015
Nonlinear Optimization Submissions - 2015. January 2015. On iteratively reweighted Algorithms for Non-smooth Non-convex Optimization in Computer Vision
Computational Needs for the Next Generation Electric Grid Proceedings
Birman, Kenneth
2012-01-01
optimization for the unit commitment problem. Technicaloptimization of generation unit commitment and transmissionLee, M. Anitescu, “Unit Commitment with Wind Power
Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid under Uncertainty
Siddiqui, Afzal
2008-01-01
L, editor. 11 th Annual Real Options Conference, Berkeley,from its utility. Using the real options approach, we find aDistributed Generation; Real Options; Optimal Investment;
Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid Under Uncertainty
Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris
2006-01-01
utility. Using the real options approach, we find naturalDistributed Generation; Real Options; Optimal Investment. 1.based microgrid via the real options approach to determine
Advanced Review Geometry optimization
Schlegel, H. Bernhard
Advanced Review Geometry optimization H. Bernhard Schlegel Geometry optimization is an important part of most quantum chemical calcu- lations. This article surveys methods for optimizing equilibrium geometries, lo- cating transition structures, and following reaction paths. The emphasis is on optimizations
Jodice, Patrick
Optimization Jason Courter Foundations of Ecology #12;What is optimization? Maximization Minimization Optimization Natural Selection 1. Variation 2. Heritable Variation 3. Differential Reproduction #12;On Optimal use of a Patchy Environment · Robert MacArthur · Eric Pianka http
[SIAM conference on optimization
Not Available
1992-05-10
Abstracts are presented of 63 papers on the following topics: large-scale optimization, interior-point methods, algorithms for optimization, problems in control, network optimization methods, and parallel algorithms for optimization problems.
New Jersey Nuclear Profile - PSEG Salem Generating Station
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
PSEG Salem Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License...
New Jersey Nuclear Profile - PSEG Hope Creek Generating Station
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
PSEG Hope Creek Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License...
California Nuclear Profile - San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License...
Illinois Nuclear Profile - LaSalle Generating Station
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
LaSalle Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration...
Optimization Online - Coordinators
Optimization Online Coordinators. Optimization Online submissions are electronically handled by a team of volunteer coordinators: Principal Coordinators.
Convex and Nonsmooth Optimization Submissions - 2001. January 2001. Convex Optimization Two properties of condition numbers for convex programs via ...
Authors, Various
2012-01-01
OPTIMIZATION When OPT=2 is specified on the FTN control statement, the compiler optimizes the user code in the process
Illumina Production Sequencing at the DOE Joint Genome Institute - Workflow and Optimizations
Tarver, Angela; Fern, Alison; Diego, Matthew San; Kennedy, Megan; Zane, Matthew; Daum, Christopher; Hack, Christopher; Tang, Eric; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Roberts, Simon; Alexandre, Melanie; Harmon-Smith, Miranda; Lucas, Susan
2010-06-18
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute?s (JGI) Production Sequencing group is committed to the generation of high-quality genomic DNA sequence to support the DOE mission areas of renewable energy generation, global carbon management, and environmental characterization and clean-up. Within the JGI?s Production Sequencing group, the Illumina Genome Analyzer pipeline has been established as one of three sequencing platforms, along with Roche/454 and ABI/Sanger. Optimization of the Illumina pipeline has been ongoing with the aim of continual process improvement of the laboratory workflow. These process improvement projects are being led by the JGI?s Process Optimization, Sequencing Technologies, Instrumentation& Engineering, and the New Technology Production groups. Primary focus has been on improving the procedural ergonomics and the technicians? operating environment, reducing manually intensive technician operations with different tools, reducing associated production costs, and improving the overall process and generated sequence quality. The U.S. DOE JGI was established in 1997 in Walnut Creek, CA, to unite the expertise and resources of five national laboratories? Lawrence Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, and Pacific Northwest ? along with HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology. JGI is operated by the University of California for the U.S. DOE.
Optimizing HVAC Control to Improve Building Comfort and Energy Performance
Song, L.; Joo, I.; Dong, D.; Liu, M.; Wang, J.; Hansen, K.; Quiroz, L.; Swiatek, A.
2003-01-01
include a terminal box temperature integrated minimum airflow reset. The building has been used and operated based on the design intents. This paper presents both the existing and the optimal control schedules, which include the VAV box operation schedule...
Simulation Models to Optimize the Energy Consumption of Buildings
Burhenne, S.; Jacob, D.
2008-01-01
In practice, building operation systems are only adjusted during commissioning. This is done manually and leads to failure-free but often inefficient operation. This work deals with the development of simulation models to describe and optimize...
Demontration of Integrated Optimization Software at the Baldwin Energy Complex
Rob James; John McDermott; Sanjay Patnaik; Steve Piche`
2009-01-07
This project encompassed the design, development, and demonstration of integrated online optimization systems at Dynegy Midwest Generation's Baldwin Energy Complex (BEC) located in Baldwin, Illinois. The overall project objective was to improve coal-based generation's emission profile, efficiency, maintenance requirements and plant asset life in order to enhance the long-term viability of the United States abundant coal resources. Five separate but integrated optimization products were developed, addressing combustion, sootblowing, SCR operations, overall unit thermal performance, and plant-wide availability optimization. Optimization results are inherently unit-specific and cannot be known for a particular generating unit in advance. However, NeuCo believed that the following were reasonable targets for the completed, integrated set of products: Furnace NOx reduction improvement by 5%, Heat rate improvement by 1.5%, Increase of annual Available MWh by 1.5%, Commensurate reductions in greenhouse gases, mercury, and particulates; and Commensurate increases in profitability from lower costs, improved reliability, and greater commercial availability. The goal during Phase I was to establish each system and demonstrate their integration in unified plant optimization. Efforts during Phase I focused on: (1) developing, deploying, integrating, and testing prototypes for each of the five products; (2) identifying and addressing issues required for the products to integrate with plant operations; and (3) systematically collecting and assimilating feedback to improve subsequent product releases. As described in the Phase II continuation application NeuCo successfully achieved the goal for Phase I. The goal of Phase II was to improve upon the products installed and tested in Phase I and to quantify the benefits of the integrated system. As this report documents, NeuCo has also successfully achieved the goal for Phase II. The overall results of the project, compared with the project goals, are: (1) NOx Reduction: The 5% target for NOx reduction was exceeded with average CEMS and SCR Inlet (furnace) NOx reduction of between 12% and 14%. (2) Heat Rate Improvement: The optimization systems delivered an average heat rate improvement of between 0.67% and 0.7%. This falls short of the 1.5% heat rate improvement target largely because Cyclone Stability (availability) and CEMS and SCR Inlet NOx were prioritized over heat rate in the event they needed to be traded-off with one another. A different prioritization of objectives could have driven a different balance, thereby meeting the target of 1.5% improvement. There were also several factors that could have been masking greater heat rate improvements such as the decrease in fuel density over the course of the project and the impact of actions taken as a result of advice provided by the optimizers that are difficult to quantify. (3) Increased Annual Available MWh: Although difficult to measure precisely, the target of increasing available MWh's by 1.5% was met by providing prioritized alerts and knowledge-based diagnostics for a wide array of plant equipment and process anomalies; helping the plant to move from high sulfur, high Btu Illinois coal to PRB and run that fuel at low stoichiometries without derates; and improved management of cyclone flame quality as well as improved vigilance with respect to cyclone conditions which avoided some degree of temporary de-rate due to cyclone slag build up. (4) Commensurate Reductions in Greenhouse Gases, Mercury, and Particulates: Reductions in all three of these indices can be associated directly with the optimization leverage observed in the heat rate and NOx reductions. (5) Commensurate Increases in Profitability from Lower Costs, Improved Reliability, and Greater Commercial Availability: Commensurate improvements in costs, reliability and availability resulted from the previously described benefits. Also playing a role were the sustained operation of the cyclones while using more available, less expensive but off-design fuel; more effective catal
Billet Heating with the Homopolar Generator
Weldon, W. F.; Keith, R. E.; Weldon, J. M.
1980-01-01
generators, operating in the pulsed mode, offer a fourth possible billet heating method. Although basically a direct resistance heating method, the homopolar generator type of power supply has several advantages over a conventional transformer-type supply...
Comments on Emergency Order to Resume Limited Operation at the...
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
Operation at the Potomac River Generating Station, Alexandria, VA from the Chesapeake Climate Action Network. Comments on Emergency Order to Resume Limited Operation at the...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEYI/O Streams for Large-scale Scientific SimulationsOptimizing
Method for protecting an electric generator
Kuehnle, Barry W. (Ammon, ID); Roberts, Jeffrey B. (Ammon, ID); Folkers, Ralph W. (Ammon, ID)
2008-11-18
A method for protecting an electrical generator which includes providing an electrical generator which is normally synchronously operated with an electrical power grid; providing a synchronizing signal from the electrical generator; establishing a reference signal; and electrically isolating the electrical generator from the electrical power grid if the synchronizing signal is not in phase with the reference signal.
Matlab-based Optimization: Optimization Toolbox
Crawford, T. Daniel
Matlab-based Optimization: the Optimization Toolbox Gene Cliff (AOE/ICAM - ecliff@vt.edu ) 3:00pm Engineering ICAM: Interdisciplinary Center for Applied Mathematics 1 / 37 #12;Matlab's Optimization Toolbox Classifying Optimization Problems A Soup Can Example Intermezzo A Trajectory Example 2nd Trajectory Example
Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, Vahab (Golden, CO)
2008-05-20
A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).
Computational optimization of synthetic water channels.
Rogers, David Michael; Rempe, Susan L. B.
2012-12-01
Membranes for liquid and gas separations and ion transport are critical to water purification, osmotic energy generation, fuel cells, batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysis. Often these membranes lack pore uniformity and robustness under operating conditions, which can lead to a decrease in performance. The lack of uniformity means that many pores are non-functional. Traditional membranes overcome these limitations by using thick membrane materials that impede transport and selectivity, which results in decreased performance and increased operating costs. For example, limitations in membrane performance demand high applied pressures to deionize water using reverse osmosis. In contrast, cellular membranes combine high flux and selective transport using membrane-bound protein channels operating at small pressure differences. Pore size and chemistry in the cellular channels is defined uniformly and with sub-nanometer precision through protein folding. The thickness of these cellular membranes is limited to that of the cellular membrane bilayer, about 4 nm thick, which enhances transport. Pores in the cellular membranes are robust under operating conditions in the body. Recent efforts to mimic cellular water channels for efficient water deionization produced a significant advance in membrane function. The novel biomimetic design achieved a 10-fold increase in membrane permeability to water flow compared to commercial membranes and still maintained high salt rejection. Despite this success, there is a lack of understanding about why this membrane performs so well. To address this lack of knowledge, we used highperformance computing to interrogate the structural and chemical environments experienced by water and electrolytes in the newly created biomimetic membranes. We also compared the solvation environments between the biomimetic membrane and cellular water channels. These results will help inform future efforts to optimize and tune the performance of synthetic biomimetic membranes for applications in water purification, energy, and catalysis.
Budgeted Optimization with Concurrent Stochastic-Duration Experiments
output of nano-enhanced Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs). MFCs [3] use micro-organisms to generate electricityBudgeted Optimization with Concurrent Stochastic-Duration Experiments Javad Azimi, Alan Fern}@eecs.oregonstate.edu Abstract Budgeted optimization involves optimizing an unknown function that is costly to evalu- ate
Minimizing electricity costs with an auxiliary generator using stochastic programming
Rafiuly, Paul, 1976-
2000-01-01
This thesis addresses the problem of minimizing a facility's electricity costs by generating optimal responses using an auxiliary generator as the parameter of the control systems. The-goal of the thesis is to find an ...
Parallel problem generation for structured problems in mathematical programming
Qiang, Feng
2015-11-26
The aim of this research is to investigate parallel problem generation for structured optimization problems. The result of this research has produced a novel parallel model generator tool, namely the Parallel Structured ...
California: Next-Generation Geothermal Demonstration Launched...
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
at the Newberry Volcano Calpine operates 15 plants at The Geysers in northwest California, which generate enough clean energy daily to power a city the size of San...
Powers, Tom [JLAB
2013-09-01
This work describes preliminary results of a new software tool that allows one to vary parameters and understand the effects on the optimized costs of construction plus 10 year operations of an SRF linac, the associated cryogenic facility, and controls, where operations includes the cost of the electrical utilities but not the labor or other costs. It derives from collaborative work done with staff from Accelerator Science and Technology Centre, Daresbury, UK several years ago while they were in the process of developing a conceptual design for the New Light Source project.[1] The initial goal was to convert a spread sheet format to a graphical interface to allow the ability to sweep different parameter sets. The tools also allow one to compare the cost of the different facets of the machine design and operations so as to better understand the tradeoffs. The work was first published in an ICFA Beam Dynamics News Letter.[2] More recent additions to the software include the ability to save and restore input parameters as well as to adjust the Qo versus E parameters in order to explore the potential costs savings associated with doing so. Additionally, program changes now allow one to model the costs associated with a linac that makes use of energy recovery mode of operation.
National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
servers and other critical Operations Center equipment
Fuzzy logic control and optimization system
Lou, Xinsheng (West Hartford, CT)
2012-04-17
A control system (300) for optimizing a power plant includes a chemical loop having an input for receiving an input signal (369) and an output for outputting an output signal (367), and a hierarchical fuzzy control system (400) operably connected to the chemical loop. The hierarchical fuzzy control system (400) includes a plurality of fuzzy controllers (330). The hierarchical fuzzy control system (400) receives the output signal (367), optimizes the input signal (369) based on the received output signal (367), and outputs an optimized input signal (369) to the input of the chemical loop to control a process of the chemical loop in an optimized manner.
Inventory pre-positioning for humanitarian operations
Akkihal, Anup Roop
2006-01-01
This research examines the impact of inventory pre-positioning on humanitarian operations. The study identifies optimal locations for warehousing non-consumable inventories required for initial deployment of aid. These ...
EIGHT CHANNEL PROGRAMMABLE PULSE GENERATOR
Kleinfeld, David
Master-8 EIGHT CHANNEL PROGRAMMABLE PULSE GENERATOR Operation Manual A.M.P.I. A.M.P.I. 123Uzlel St and the programming simple and easy to learn. Master-8 is an attractive unit and you will enjoy working with its eight -- Modes of operation 11 -- Setting the parameters 13 -- Triggering 14 -- Eight stored paradigms 14
Distributed Frequency-Preserving Optimal Load Control
Wierman, Adam
Distributed Frequency-Preserving Optimal Load Control Enrique Mallada Steven H. Low California prices to incentivize the users to adapt their consumption to the true cost of generation at the time to accept more readily a stochastically fluctuating energy source, such as wind or solar generation
Petrick, Michael (Joliet, IL); Pierson, Edward S. (Chicago, IL); Schreiner, Felix (Mokena, IL)
1980-01-01
According to the present invention, coal combustion gas is the primary working fluid and copper or a copper alloy is the electrodynamic fluid in the MHD generator, thereby eliminating the heat exchangers between the combustor and the liquid-metal MHD working fluids, allowing the use of a conventional coalfired steam bottoming plant, and making the plant simpler, more efficient and cheaper. In operation, the gas and liquid are combined in a mixer and the resulting two-phase mixture enters the MHD generator. The MHD generator acts as a turbine and electric generator in one unit wherein the gas expands, drives the liquid across the magnetic field and thus generates electrical power. The gas and liquid are separated, and the available energy in the gas is recovered before the gas is exhausted to the atmosphere. Where the combustion gas contains sulfur, oxygen is bubbled through a side loop to remove sulfur therefrom as a concentrated stream of sulfur dioxide. The combustor is operated substoichiometrically to control the oxide level in the copper.
Design and optimization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells
Grujicic, Mica
Design and optimization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells M. Grujicic* , K optimization algorithm to determine an optimum design of the fuel cell with respect to the operation difference has the largest effect on the predicted polarization curve of the fuel cell. However, the optimal
Event-driven multithreaded dynamic optimization
Zhang, Weifeng
2006-01-01
Speci?c Optimizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . F.3. Trace Optimization Overhead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dynamic Optimization . . . . . . .B. Optimizations with the
Next Generation Radioisotope Generators | Department of Energy
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Generators Next Generation Radioisotope Generators Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) - The ASRG is currently being developed as a high-efficiency RPS technology...
NEXT GENERATION TURBINE PROGRAM
William H. Day
2002-05-03
The Next Generation Turbine (NGT) Program's technological development focused on a study of the feasibility of turbine systems greater than 30 MW that offer improvement over the 1999 state-of-the-art systems. This program targeted goals of 50 percent turndown ratios, 15 percent reduction in generation cost/kW hour, improved service life, reduced emissions, 400 starts/year with 10 minutes to full load, and multiple fuel usage. Improvement in reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM), while reducing operations, maintenance, and capital costs by 15 percent, was pursued. This program builds on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work being carried out by Pratt & Whitney (P&W) for P&W Power Systems (PWPS), which is a company under the auspices of the United Technologies Corporation (UTC). This study was part of the overall Department of Energy (DOE) NGT Program that extends out to the year 2008. A follow-on plan for further full-scale component hardware testing is conceptualized for years 2002 through 2008 to insure a smooth and efficient transition to the marketplace for advanced turbine design and cycle technology. This program teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), P&W, United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), kraftWork Systems Inc., a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, and Multiphase Power and Processing Technologies (MPPT), an off-site subcontractor. Under the auspices of the NGT Program, a series of analyses were performed to identify the NGT engine system's ability to serve multiple uses. The majority were in conjunction with a coal-fired plant, or used coal as the system fuel. Identified also was the ability of the NGT system to serve as the basis of an advanced performance cycle: the humid air turbine (HAT) cycle. The HAT cycle is also used with coal gasification in an integrated cycle HAT (IGHAT). The NGT systems identified were: (1) Feedwater heating retrofit to an existing coal-fired steam plant, which could supply both heat and peaking power (Block 2 engine); (2) Repowering of an older coal-fired plant (Block 2 engine); (3) Gas-fired HAT cycle (Block 1 and 2 engines); (4) Integrated gasification HAT (Block 1 and 2 engines). Also under Phase I of the NGT Program, a conceptual design of the combustion system has been completed. An integrated approach to cycle optimization for improved combustor turndown capability has been employed. The configuration selected has the potential for achieving single digit NO{sub x}/CO emissions between 40 percent and 100 percent load conditions. A technology maturation plan for the combustion system has been proposed. Also, as a result of Phase I, ceramic vane technology will be incorporated into NGT designs and will require less cooling flow than conventional metallic vanes, thereby improving engine efficiency. A common 50 Hz and 60 Hz power turbine was selected due to the cost savings from eliminating a gearbox. A list of ceramic vane technologies has been identified for which the funding comes from DOE, NASA, the U.S. Air Force, and P&W.
Bukhsh, Waqquas Ahmed
2014-07-01
Optimization plays a central role in the control and operation of electricity power networks. In this thesis we focus on two very important optimization problems in power systems. The first is the optimal power flow ...
Jobs and Economic Development from New Transmission and Generation...
Construction- and Operations-related Economic Activity from 1,800 MW of New Natural Gas Generation ......
Optimal Model-Based Production Planning for
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
Motivation Refining Operation and crude cost variable cost of production Largest product price components Key to refinery profit and economics Refinery production planning models Operation optimization Crude selection Statement Cat Ref Hydrotreatment Gasoline blending Distillate blending Gas oil blending Cat Crack CDU crude1
Optimal Energy Storage Control Policies for the Smart Power Grid
Koutsopoulos, Iordanis
Optimal Energy Storage Control Policies for the Smart Power Grid Iordanis Koutsopoulos Vassiliki Center for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), Greece Abstract--Electric energy storage devices the optimal energy storage control problem from the side of the utility operator. The operator controller
Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems
Firestone, Ryan Michael
2007-05-31
This report describes the development and application of a dispatch optimization algorithm for integrated energy systems (IES) comprised of on-site cogeneration of heat and electricity, energy storage devices, and demand response opportunities. This work is intended to aid commercial and industrial sites in making use of modern computing power and optimization algorithms to make informed, near-optimal decisions under significant uncertainty and complex objective functions. The optimization algorithm uses a finite set of randomly generated future scenarios to approximate the true, stochastic future; constraints are included that prevent solutions to this approximate problem from deviating from solutions to the actual problem. The algorithm is then expressed as a mixed integer linear program, to which a powerful commercial solver is applied. A case study of United States Postal Service Processing and Distribution Centers (P&DC) in four cities and under three different electricity tariff structures is conducted to (1) determine the added value of optimal control to a cogeneration system over current, heuristic control strategies; (2) determine the value of limited electric load curtailment opportunities, with and without cogeneration; and (3) determine the trade-off between least-cost and least-carbon operations of a cogeneration system. Key results for the P&DC sites studied include (1) in locations where the average electricity and natural gas prices suggest a marginally profitable cogeneration system, optimal control can add up to 67% to the value of the cogeneration system; optimal control adds less value in locations where cogeneration is more clearly profitable; (2) optimal control under real-time pricing is (a) more complicated than under typical time-of-use tariffs and (b) at times necessary to make cogeneration economic at all; (3) limited electric load curtailment opportunities can be more valuable as a compliment to the cogeneration system than alone; and (4) most of the trade-off between least-cost and least-carbon IES is determined during the system design stage; for the IES system considered, there is little difference between least-cost control and least-carbon control.
The optimization problem Genetic Algorithm
Giménez, Domingo
The optimization problem Genetic Algorithm Particle Swarm Optimization Experimental results for time-power optimization META, October 27-31, 2014 1 / 25 #12;The optimization problem Genetic Algorithm Particle Swarm Optimization Experimental results Conclusions Time and energy optimization Traditionally
Optimization and Control of Electric Power Systems
Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Molzahn, Daniel K.
2014-10-17
The analysis and optimization needs for planning and operation of the electric power system are challenging due to the scale and the form of model representations. The connected network spans the continent and the mathematical models are inherently nonlinear. Traditionally, computational limits have necessitated the use of very simplified models for grid analysis, and this has resulted in either less secure operation, or less efficient operation, or both. The research conducted in this project advances techniques for power system optimization problems that will enhance reliable and efficient operation. The results of this work appear in numerous publications and address different application problems include optimal power flow (OPF), unit commitment, demand response, reliability margins, planning, transmission expansion, as well as general tools and algorithms.
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1997-03-28
This chapter is focused on capital costs for conventional construction and environmental restoration and waste management projects and examines operating cost estimates to verify that all elements of the project have been considered and properly estimated.
High-Yield D-T Neutron Generator
Ludewigt, B.A.
2008-01-01
CRC Handbook of Fast Neutron Generators, ISBN 0-8493-2967-1,and can be pulsed. The generator is operated with a D/T gaslifetime target. Initial generator tests at reduce HV showed
Options for Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators
Petr Sulc; Konstantin Turitsyn; Scott Backhaus; Michael Chertkov
2010-08-04
High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic(PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit present several challenges and opportunities for distribution utilities. Rapidly varying irradiance conditions may cause voltage sags and swells that cannot be compensated by slowly responding utility equipment resulting in a degradation of power quality. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We discuss and compare via simulation various design options for control systems to manage the reactive power generated by these inverters. An important design decision that weighs on the speed and quality of communication required is whether the control should be centralized or distributed (i.e. local). In general, we find that local control schemes are capable for maintaining voltage within acceptable bounds. We consider the benefits of choosing different local variables on which to control and how the control system can be continuously tuned between robust voltage control, suitable for daytime operation when circuit conditions can change rapidly, and loss minimization better suited for nighttime operation.
Armen E. Allahverdyan; Karen Hovhannisyan; Guenter Mahler
2010-07-25
We study a refrigerator model which consists of two $n$-level systems interacting via a pulsed external field. Each system couples to its own thermal bath at temperatures $T_h$ and $T_c$, respectively ($\\theta\\equiv T_c/T_hisolated interaction between the systems driven by the external field and isothermal relaxation back to equilibrium. There is a complementarity between the power of heat transfer from the cold bath and the efficiency: the latter nullifies when the former is maximized and {\\it vice versa}. A reasonable compromise is achieved by optimizing the product of the heat-power and efficiency over the Hamiltonian of the two system. The efficiency is then found to be bounded from below by $\\zeta_{\\rm CA}=\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{1-\\theta}}-1$ (an analogue of the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency), besides being bound from above by the Carnot efficiency $\\zeta_{\\rm C} = \\frac{1}{1-\\theta}-1$. The lower bound is reached in the equilibrium limit $\\theta\\to 1$. The Carnot bound is reached (for a finite power and a finite amount of heat transferred per cycle) for $\\ln n\\gg 1$. If the above maximization is constrained by assuming homogeneous energy spectra for both systems, the efficiency is bounded from above by $\\zeta_{\\rm CA}$ and converges to it for $n\\gg 1$.
Optimization and geophysical inverse problems
Barhen, J.
2008-01-01
for Unconstrained Optimization and Nonlinear Equations,equality constrained optimization, SIAM J. Optim. , 7, 28.R. , Practical Methods of Optimization, Wiley, New York, 436
Compiler Optimization Jordan Bradshaw
Valtorta, Marco
Compiler Optimization Jordan Bradshaw #12;Outline Overview Goals and Considerations Scope. 346- 352. Print. "Compiler Optimization." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 25 04 2010. Web. 25 Apr 2010. #12;Compiler Optimization Goals: Speed
Pessimistic Bilevel Optimization
Wiesemann, Wolfram
We study a variant of the pessimistic bilevel optimization problem, which comprises constraints that must be satisfied for any optimal solution of a subordinate (lower-level) optimization problem. We present conditions ...
Reis, Catarina (Catarina Luis Monteiro dos)
2007-01-01
This thesis studies the optimal income tax scheme in four different settings. Chapter 1 focuses on the implications of lack of commitment for the optimal labor and capital income tax rates. It finds that it is optimal to ...
Optimization Online - Combinatorial Optimization Submissions - 2015
Combinatorial Optimization Submissions - 2015. January 2015. Polyhedra Steiner Trees with Degree Constraints: Structural Results and an Exact Solution ...
Optimization Online - Robust Optimization Submissions - 2015
Robust Optimization Submissions - 2015. January 2015. A Composite Risk Measure Framework for Decision Making under Uncertainty Pengyu Qian, Zizhuo ...
Optimization Online - Robust Optimization Submissions - 2013
Robust Optimization Submissions - 2013. January 2013. Robust Least Square Semidefinite Programming with Applications to Correlation Stress Testing
Optimization Online - Combinatorial Optimization Submissions - 2014
Combinatorial Optimization Submissions - 2014. January 2014. Approximation Algorithms Worst-Case Performance Analysis of Some Approximation Algorithms ...
EIS-0362: Colorado Springs Utilities' Next Generation CFB Coal Generating Unit, CO
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This EIS analyzes DOE's decision to approve Colorado Springs Utilities design, construction, and operation of their Next- Generation Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Coal Generating Unit demonstration plant near Fountain, El Paso County, Colorado.
Some remarks on quasi-Hermitian operators
Antoine, Jean-Pierre; Trapani, Camillo
2014-01-15
A quasi-Hermitian operator is an operator that is similar to its adjoint in some sense, via a metric operator, i.e., a strictly positive self-adjoint operator. Whereas those metric operators are in general assumed to be bounded, we analyze the structure generated by unbounded metric operators in a Hilbert space. Following our previous work, we introduce several generalizations of the notion of similarity between operators. Then we explore systematically the various types of quasi-Hermitian operators, bounded or not. Finally, we discuss their application in the so-called pseudo-Hermitian quantum mechanics.
Lu, Qingda; Gao, Xiaoyang; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Baumgartner, Gerald; Ramanujam, J.; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy
2012-03-01
Empirical optimizers like ATLAS have been very effective in optimizing computational kernels in libraries. The best choice of parameters such as tile size and degree of loop unrolling is determined by executing different versions of the computation. In contrast, optimizing compilers use a model-driven approach to program transformation. While the model-driven approach of optimizing compilers is generally orders of magnitude faster than ATLAS-like library generators, its effectiveness can be limited by the accuracy of the performance models used. In this paper, we describe an approach where a class of computations is modeled in terms of constituent operations that are empirically measured, thereby allowing modeling of the overall execution time. The performance model with empirically determined cost components is used to perform data layout optimization together with the selection of library calls and layout transformations in the context of the Tensor Contraction Engine, a compiler for a high-level domain-specific language for expressing computational models in quantum chemistry. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated through experimental measurements on representative computations from quantum chemistry.
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Mission statement. Optimization Online is a repository of eprints about optimization and related topics. It facilitates quick dissemination of new research of ...
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Manufacturing time operators: Covariance, selection criteria, and examples
Hegerfeldt, G. C. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, DE-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Muga, J. G.; Munoz, J. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 644, ES-48080 Bilbao (Spain)
2010-07-15
We provide the most general forms of covariant and normalized time operators and their probability densities, with applications to quantum clocks, the time of arrival, and Lyapunov quantum operators. Examples are discussed of the profusion of possible operators and their physical meaning. Criteria to define unique, optimal operators for specific cases are given.
Manufacturing time operators: covariance, selection criteria, and examples
G. C. Hegerfeldt; J. G. Muga; J. Muñoz
2010-05-27
We provide the most general forms of covariant and normalized time operators and their probability densities, with applications to quantum clocks, the time of arrival, and Lyapunov quantum operators. Examples are discussed of the profusion of possible operators and their physical meaning. Criteria to define unique, optimal operators for specific cases are given.
SPECTR System Operational Test Report
W.H. Landman Jr.
2011-08-01
This report overviews installation of the Small Pressure Cycling Test Rig (SPECTR) and documents the system operational testing performed to demonstrate that it meets the requirements for operations. The system operational testing involved operation of the furnace system to the design conditions and demonstration of the test article gas supply system using a simulated test article. The furnace and test article systems were demonstrated to meet the design requirements for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Therefore, the system is deemed acceptable and is ready for actual test article testing.
Multicriteria optimization informed VMAT planning
Chen, Huixiao; Craft, David L.; Gierga, David P.
2014-04-01
We developed a patient-specific volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) optimization procedure using dose-volume histogram (DVH) information from multicriteria optimization (MCO) of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans. The study included 10 patients with prostate cancer undergoing standard fractionation treatment, 10 patients with prostate cancer undergoing hypofractionation treatment, and 5 patients with head/neck cancer. MCO-IMRT plans using 20 and 7 treatment fields were generated for each patient on the RayStation treatment planning system (clinical version 2.5, RaySearch Laboratories, Stockholm, Sweden). The resulting DVH of the 20-field MCO-IMRT plan for each patient was used as the reference DVH, and the extracted point values of the resulting DVH of the MCO-IMRT plan were used as objectives and constraints for VMAT optimization. Weights of objectives or constraints of VMAT optimization or both were further tuned to generate the best match with the reference DVH of the MCO-IMRT plan. The final optimal VMAT plan quality was evaluated by comparison with MCO-IMRT plans based on homogeneity index, conformity number of planning target volume, and organ at risk sparing. The influence of gantry spacing, arc number, and delivery time on VMAT plan quality for different tumor sites was also evaluated. The resulting VMAT plan quality essentially matched the 20-field MCO-IMRT plan but with a shorter delivery time and less monitor units. VMAT plan quality of head/neck cancer cases improved using dual arcs whereas prostate cases did not. VMAT plan quality was improved by fine gantry spacing of 2 for the head/neck cancer cases and the hypofractionation-treated prostate cancer cases but not for the standard fractionation–treated prostate cancer cases. MCO-informed VMAT optimization is a useful and valuable way to generate patient-specific optimal VMAT plans, though modification of the weights of objectives or constraints extracted from resulting DVH of MCO-IMRT or both is necessary.