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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optimal oxygen levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Design optimization of oxygenated fluid pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In medical emergencies, an oxygen-starved brain quickly suffers irreparable damage. In many cases, patients who stop breathing can be resuscitated but suffer from brain damage. Dr. John Kheir from Boston Children's Hospital ...

Piazzarolo, Bruno Aiala

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

A DCS supervisory control of a centrifugal compessor for oxygen consumption optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a supervisory control system for oxygen consumption optimization on a Syngas Manufacturing Process Plant is proposed. A grey-box multivariable parametric identification of the oxygen compressor system is first performed. Consequently, ...

Silvia Maria Zanoli; Luca Barboni

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

An extended level set method for shape and topology optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the conventional level set methods are extended as an effective approach for shape and topology optimization by the introduction of the radial basis functions (RBFs). The RBF multiquadric splines are used to construct the implicit level ... Keywords: Extension velocity, Gradient-based optimization, Level set method, Radial basis functions, Shape optimization, Topology optimization

S. Y. Wang; K. M. Lim; B. C. Khoo; M. Y. Wang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Issue 5: Optimizing High Levels of Insulation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Issue 5: Optimizing High Levels of Insulation NREL, Ren Anderson Building America Technical Update Meeting July 25 th , 2012 Issue 5 - How Much Insulation is Too Much? How do we define the cost-effective limit for improvements in enclosure efficiency? Key Factors to Consider: -Cost of savings vs. cost of grid-supplied energy -Cost of efficiency savings vs. cost of savings from renewable generation. -Savings from envelope improvements vs. other efficiency options Context * It is widely believed that code-specified insulation levels also represent cost-effective limits. * However, the cost-effective insulation levels exceed IECC values in many climates. * The homeowner-driven value of modest increases in enclosure performance can create economies of scale that will reduce

5

Optimization of Oxygen Purity for Coal Conversion Energy Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conversion of coal into gaseous and liquid fuels and chemical feedstock will require large quantities of oxygen. This oxygen will be produced in large multi-train air separation plants which will consume about 350 kilowatt hours of energy for each ton of coal processed. Thus, the oxygen plants in a commercial coal conversion facility may require 150 megawatts. Design of the oxygen plants will require close attention to energy consumption. Many coal conversion processes can accept oxygen at less than the historical 99.5% purity with significant savings in energy and cost. The air separation process is reviewed with emphasis on optimum oxygen purity. An energy reduction of 8.4% can be achieved when oxygen purity is reduced from 99.5% to 95%. Oxygen is a major tonnage chemical which is also highly energy intensive. The current United States capacity of about 80 thousand tons per day places it in the top five of basic chemicals, and its energy requirement of 350 to 450 kilowatt hours per ton makes it a major energy consumer. The growing synfuels industry -- conversion of coal into hydrocarbon fuels and chemical feed-stocks -- will greatly increase the production of oxygen and presents major opportunities for energy conservation.

Baker, C. R.; Pike, R. A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Credit portfolio management using two-level particle swarm optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose a novel Two-level Particle Swarm Optimization (TLPSO) to solve the credit portfolio management problem. A two-date credit portfolio management model is considered. The objective of the manager is to minimize the maximum expected ... Keywords: Credit portfolio management, Genetic algorithm, Particle swarm optimization, Two-level particle swarm optimization

Fu-Qiang Lu, Min Huang, Wai-Ki Ching, Tak Kuen Siu

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Application Level Optimizations for Energy Efficiency and Thermal Stability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

whether application-level software optimization can improve energy efficiency and thermal behavior. We use-life multicore system to explore two issues: (i) software tun- ing to improve scalability and energyApplication Level Optimizations for Energy Efficiency and Thermal Stability Md. Ashfaquzzaman Khan

Coskun, Ayse

8

System level optimization and design space exploration for low power  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a software tool for power dissipation analysis and optimization on the algorithmic abstraction level from C/C++ and VHDL descriptions. An analysis is most efficient on such a high level since the influence of design decisions on the power ...

Ansgar Stammermann; Lars Kruse; Wolfgang Nebel; Alexander Pratsch; Eike Schmidt; Milan Schulte; Arne Schulz

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Effects of Headspace and Oxygen Level on Off-gas Emissions from Wood Pellets in Storage  

SciTech Connect

Few papers have been published in the open literature on the emissions from biomass fuels, including wood pellets, during the storage and transportation and their potential health impacts. The purpose of this study is to provide data on the concentrations, emission factors, and emission rate factors of CO2, CO, and CH4 from wood pellets stored with different headspace to container volume ratios with different initial oxygen levels, in order to develop methods to reduce the toxic off-gas emissions and accumulation in storage spaces. Metal containers (45 l, 305 mm diameter by 610 mm long) were used to study the effect of headspace and oxygen levels on the off-gas emissions from wood pellets. Concentrations of CO2, CO, and CH4 in the headspace were measured using a gas chromatograph as a function of storage time. The results showed that the ratio of the headspace ratios and initial oxygen levels in the storage space significantly affected the off-gas emissions from wood pellets stored in a sealed container. Higher peak emission factors and higher emission rates are associated with higher headspace ratios. Lower emissions of CO2 and CO were generated at room temperature under lower oxygen levels, whereas CH4 emission is insensitive to the oxygen level. Replacing oxygen with inert gases in the storage space is thus a potentially effective method to reduce the biomass degradation and toxic off-gas emissions. The proper ventilation of the storage space can also be used to maintain a high oxygen level and low concentrations of toxic off-gassing compounds in the storage space, which is especially useful during the loading and unloading operations to control the hazards associated with the storage and transportation of wood pellets.

Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Kuang, Xingya [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Shankar, T.S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Lim, C. Jim [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Architecture-Level Power Optimization - What Are the Limits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper explores the limits of microprocessor power savings available via certain classes of architecture-level optimization. It classifies architectural power optimizations into three categories, three sources of waste that consume energy. The first is the execution of instructions that are unnecessary for correct program execution. The second source of wasted power is speculation waste – waste due to speculative execution of instructions that do not commit their results. The third source is architectural waste. This comes from suboptimal sizing of processor structures. This study shows that when these sources of waste are eliminated, processor energy has the potential to be reduced by 55 % and 52% for the studied SPEC 2000 integer and floating point benchmarks respectively. 1.

John S. Seng; Dean M. Tullsen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

An optimization-based approach to enforcing mass conservation in level set methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a new conservative level set method for numerical simulation of evolving interfaces. A PDE-constrained optimization problem is formulated and solved in an iterative fashion. The proposed optimal control procedure constrains the level ... Keywords: Evolving interfaces, Finite elements, Level set methods, Mass conservation, PDE-constrained optimization, Transport equations

Dmitri Kuzmin

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Informatively optimal levels of confidence for measurement uncertainty  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

evolutionary trend to optimization in human activity, one can obviously expect a ..... redundancy, i.e. from 92% to 96%) correspond according to the error function

13

High-level adaptive program optimization with ADAPT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Compile-time optimization is often limited by a lack of target machine and input data set knowledge. Without this information, compilers may be forced to make conservative assumptions to preserve correctness and to avoid performance degradation. In order ...

Michael J. Voss; Rudolf Eigemann

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Enterprise level fuel inventory management simulation and optimization.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective is to find the optimal fuel inventory management strategy roadmap for each supplier along the fuel delivery supply chain. SoSAT (System of Systems Analysis Toolset) Enterprise is a suite of software tools: State Model tool; Stochastic simulation tool; Advanced data visualization tools; and Optimization tools. Initially designed to provide DoDand supporting organizations the capability to analyze a System-of-Systems (SoS) and its various platforms: (1) Supporting multiple US Army Program Executive Office Integration (PEO-I) trade studies; (2) Supporting US Army Program Executive Office of Ground Combat Systems (PEO GCS) for Fleet Management and Modernization Planning initiative; and (3) Participating in formal Verification, Validation & Accreditation effort with Army Organizations (AMSAA and ATEC).

Kao, Gio K.; Eddy, John P.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

High-Level Data Communication Optimization for Reconfigurable Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes methods for synthesizing the internal representation of a compiler into a hardware description language in order to program reconfigurable hardware devices. We demonstrate the usefulness of static single assignment (SSA) in reducing the amount of data communication in the hardware. However, the placement of alP-nodes by current SSA algorithms is not optimal in terms of minimizing data communication. We propose an improved SSA algorithm which optimally places nodes, further decreasing area and communication latency. Our algorithm reduces the data communication (measured as total edge weight in a control data flow graph) by as much as 20% for some applications as compared to the best-known SSA algorithm - the pruned algorithm. We also show that our algorithm frequently leads to increased overall area, and describe future modifications to our model that should correct this shortcoming.

Adam Kaplan; Majid Sarrafzadeh; Ryan Kastner

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

System-level power optimization: techniques and tools  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This tutorial surveys design methods for energy-efficient system-level design. We consider electronic sytems consisting of a hardware platform and software layers. We consider the three major constituents of hardware that consume energy, namely computation, ...

Luca Benini; Giovanni de Micheli

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

In Situ CO, Oxygen, and Opacity Measurement for Optimizing Combustion Control System Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The performance of a combustion control system is limited by the accuracy and reliability of the feedback provided by the stack emission flue gas monitoring system which is utilized to analyze the composition of the products of combustion. A detailed review of the latest state-of-the-art In Situ measurement techniques is provided, including: gas filter correlation spectroscopy (CO), zirconium oxide fuel cell (oxygen), and glass fiber optics based transmissometers (opacity). Recent advancements in the design and application of microprocessor-based In Situ CO, oxygen, and opacity stack emission monitoring systems are outlined, including a review of the performance capability of the latest microprocessor-based combust ion control systems.

Molloy, R. C.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Performance-centering optimization for system-level analog design exploration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we propose a novel analog design optimization methodology to address two key aspects of top-down system-level design: (1) how to optimally compare and select analog system architectures in the early phases of design; and (2) how to hierarchically ...

Xin Li; Jian Wang; L. T. Pileggi; Tun-Shih Chen; Wanju Chiang

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

JV Task 112-Optimal Ethanol Blend-Level Investigation  

SciTech Connect

Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET) and Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) tests were conducted on four 2007 model vehicles; a Chevrolet Impala flex-fuel and three non-flex-fuel vehicles: a Ford Fusion, a Toyota Camry, and a Chevrolet Impala. This investigation utilized a range of undenatured ethanol/Tier II gasoline blend levels from 0% to 85%. HWFET testing on ethanol blend levels of E20 in the flex fuel Chevrolet Impala and E30 in the non-flex-fuel Ford Fusion and Toyota Camry resulted in miles-per-gallon (mpg) fuel economy greater than Tier 2 gasoline, while E40 in the non-flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala resulted in an optimum mpg based on per-gallon fuel Btu content. Exhaust emission values for non-methane organic gases (NMOG), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) obtained from both the FTP-75 and the HWFET driving cycles were at or below EPA Tier II, Light-Duty Vehicles, Bin 5 levels for all vehicles tested with one exception. The flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala exceeded the NMOG standard for the FTP-75 on E-20 and Tier II gasoline.

Richard Shockey; Ted Aulich; Bruce Jones; Gary Mead; Paul Steevens

2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

20

Research on water level optimal control of boiler drum based on dual heuristic dynamic programming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boiler drum system is an important component of a thermal power plant or industrial production, and the water level is a critical parameter of boiler drum control system. Because of non-linear, strong coupling and large disturbance, it is difficult to ... Keywords: BP neural network, boiler drum level, dual heuristic dynamic programming, optimal control

Qingbao Huang; Shaojian Song; Xiaofeng Lin; Kui Peng

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optimal oxygen levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

A variational level set method for the topology optimization of steady-state Navier-Stokes flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The smoothness of topological interfaces often largely affects the fluid optimization and sometimes makes the density-based approaches, though well established in structural designs, inadequate. This paper presents a level-set method for topology optimization ... Keywords: Level set method, Maximum permeability, Minimum energy dissipation, Navier-Stokes flow, Topology optimization, Variational method

Shiwei Zhou; Qing Li

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization for the Multi-Level Lot-Sizing Problem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization (DPSO) approach for the Multi-Level Lot-Sizing Problem (MLLP), which is an uncapacitated lot sizing problem dedicated to materials requirements planning (MRP) systems. The proposed DPSO approach ... Keywords: DPSO, MLLP, MRP, Metaheuristic, Sequential Heuristic

Laurent Deroussi; David Lemoine

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Optimal Lyapunov quantum control on two-level systems: convergence and extended techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Taking a two-level system as an example, we show that a strong control field may enhance the efficiency of optimal Lyapunov quantum control in [Hou et al., Phys. Rev. A \\textbf{86}, 022321 (2012)] but could decrease its control fidelity. A relationship between the strength of the control field and the control fidelity is established. An extended technique, which combines free evolution and external control, is proposed to improve the control fidelity. We analytically demonstrate that the extended technique can be used to design a control law for steering a two-level system exactly to the target state. In such a way, the convergence of the extended optimal Lyapunov quantum control can be guaranteed.

L. C. Wang; S. C. Hou; X. X. Yi; Daoyi Dong; Ian R. Petersen

2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

24

Enabling run-time memory data transfer optimizations at the system level with automated extraction of embedded software metadata information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The information about the run-time behavior of software applications is crucial for enabling system level optimizations for embedded systems. This embedded Software Metadata information is especially important today, because several complex multi-threaded ...

Alexandros Bartzas; Miguel Peon-Quiros; Stylianos Mamagkakis; Francky Catthoor; Dimitrios Soudris; Jose M. Mendias

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Natural Circulation Level Optimization and the Effect during ULOF Accident in the SPINNOR Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Natural circulation level optimization and the effect during loss of flow accident in the 250 MWt MOX fuelled small Pb-Bi Cooled non-refueling nuclear reactors (SPINNOR) have been performed. The simulation was performed using FI-ITB safety code which has been developed in ITB. The simulation begins with steady state calculation of neutron flux, power distribution and temperature distribution across the core, hot pool and cool pool, and also steam generator. When the accident is started due to the loss of pumping power the power distribution and the temperature distribution of core, hot pool and cool pool, and steam generator change. Then the feedback reactivity calculation is conducted, followed by kinetic calculation. The process is repeated until the optimum power distribution is achieved. The results show that the SPINNOR reactor has inherent safety capability against this accident.

Abdullah, Ade Gafar [Physics Dept. Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Electrical Engineering Dept. Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (UPI), Jl. Dr. Setiabudhi 229 Bandung (Indonesia); Su'ud, Zaki; Kurniadi, Rizal; Kurniasih, Neny [Physics Dept. Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Yulianti, Yanti [Physics Dept. Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Physics Dept. Universitas Lampung (UNILA), Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro 1 Bandar Lampung (Indonesia)

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

26

The Use of Collective Dose for Optimization of a Low-Level Waste Site Closure Cover  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low-level radioactive waste management regulations require that releases to the environment be as low as reasonably achievable. Collective dose’s use in quantitative cost benefit analysis is well accepted for optimization of operational radiation safety, but seldom applied to routine environmental releases. One concern is that collective dose for large areas and long time periods may obscure the spatial and temporal distribution of risk and the magnitude of individual doses. Use of collective dose for optimization also requires that the decision maker justify subjective inputs including truncation limits for the summation of collective dose in space and time, a monetary value for collective dose, and a discount rate for future health detriment. In this study, a probabilistic collective dose model is developed and used to optimize the closure of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site. Collective dose’s shortcomings are addressed by preparing a dose matrix that disaggregates the collective dose in space and time and by reporting individual doses for exposed subgroups. Important subjective inputs are assigned discrete values reflecting differing opinions, and the consequence of the differences on the final decision is described. The resulting optimization process remains subjective, but clearly identifies subjective inputs, the values selected, and their impact on the decision. For the Area 5 RWMS, the value of the collective dose is small compared to closure cover cost options over a broad range of subjective values for the spatial and temporal limits for truncation of collective dose, monetary value of collective dose, and discount rates for future dose. The collective dose matrix and individual doses indicate that the societal and individual risks are greatest for future residents within the disposal site boundary, suggesting that options deterring intrusion have the greatest potential for cost-effectiveness. The cost of various closure options far exceeds the value of the collective dose averted, indicating that there are few opportunities for cost-effective improvements when closures meet the low dose constraints in waste management regulations.

Greg Shott, Vefa Yucel

2010-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

27

Facility-Level and System-Level Stochastic Optimization of Bridge Maintenance Policies for Markovian Management Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

maintenance and inspection, led to the development of bridge management systemsmaintenance and repair decisions. Experience with infrastructure management systemsManagement Systems and Optimization Models Given available resources and a set of possible maintenance and

Robelin, Charles-Antoine

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) INTEGRITY PROJECT HIGH LEVEL WASTE CHEMISTRY OPTIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office (DOE) of River Protection (ORP) has a continuing program for chemical optimization to better characterize corrosion behavior of High-Level Waste (HLW). The DOE controls the chemistry in its HLW to minimize the propensity of localized corrosion, such as pitting, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nitrate-containing solutions. By improving the control of localized corrosion and SCC, the ORP can increase the life of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) carbon steel structural components and reduce overall mission costs. The carbon steel tanks at the Hanford Site are critical to the mission of safely managing stored HLW until it can be treated for disposal. The DOE has historically used additions of sodium hydroxide to retard corrosion processes in HLW tanks. This also increases the amount of waste to be treated. The reactions with carbon dioxide from the air and solid chemical species in the tank continually deplete the hydroxide ion concentration, which then requires continued additions. The DOE can reduce overall costs for caustic addition and treatment of waste, and more effectively utilize waste storage capacity by minimizing these chemical additions. Hydroxide addition is a means to control localized and stress corrosion cracking in carbon steel by providing a passive environment. The exact mechanism that causes nitrate to drive the corrosion process is not yet clear. The SCC is less of a concern in the newer stress relieved double shell tanks due to reduced residual stress. The optimization of waste chemistry will further reduce the propensity for SCC. The corrosion testing performed to optimize waste chemistry included cyclic potentiodynamic volarization studies. slow strain rate tests. and stress intensity factor/crack growth rate determinations. Laboratory experimental evidence suggests that nitrite is a highly effective:inhibitor for pitting and SCC in alkaline nitrate environments. Revision of the corrosion control strategies to a nitrite-based control, where there is no constant depletion mechanism as with hydroxide, should greatly enhance tank lifetime, tank space availability, and reduce downstream reprocessing costs by reducing chemical addition to the tanks.

WASHENFELDER DJ

2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

29

Cost of stockouts in the microprocessor business and its impact in determining the optimal service level/  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to develop optimal inventory policies, it is essential to know the consequences of stockouts and the costs related to each kind of stockout; at Intel, however, such costs have not yet been quantified. The primary ...

Sonnet, Maria Claudia

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Network-Level Reliability-Based Bridge Inspection, Maintenance and Replacement Optimization Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

maintenance and inspection, led to the development of bridge management systemsmaintenance and rehabilitation decisions. Experience with infrastructure management systemsManagement System (PMS) to optimize pavement rehabilitation expenditures has saved over $200 million in maintenance and

Robelin, Charles-Antoine; Madanat, S M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

System- and circuit-level optimization of PLL designs for DVB-T/H receivers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article proposes a framework for the optimization of voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) designs in frequency synthesizers for digital video broadcasting --- terrestrial/handheld (DVB-T/H) receivers. Linear time-invariant phase-domain model of a ... Keywords: Adjacent channel interference, DVB-H, DVB-T, Inter-carrier interference, PLL, Phase noise, VCO

Nikolay N. Tchamov; Ville Syrjälä; Jukka Rinne; Mikko Valkama; Yaning Zou; Markku Renfors

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Framework for Link-Level Energy Efficiency Optimization with Informed Transmitter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dramatic increase of network infrastructure comes at the cost of rapidly increasing energy consumption, which makes optimization of energy efficiency (EE) an important topic. Since EE is often modeled as the ratio of rate to power, we present a mathematical framework called fractional programming that provides insight into this class of optimization problems, as well as algorithms for computing the solution. The main idea is that the objective function is transformed to a weighted sum of rate and power. A generic problem formulation for systems dissipating transmit-independent circuit power in addition to transmit-dependent power is presented. We show that a broad class of EE maximization problems can be solved efficiently, provided the rate is a concave function of the transmit power. We elaborate examples of various system models including time-varying parallel channels. Rate functions with an arbitrary discrete modulation scheme are also treated. The examples considered lead to water-filling solutions,...

Isheden, Christian; Jorswieck, Eduard; Fettweis, Gerhard

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Optimal control of quantum gates and suppression of decoherence in a system of interacting two-level particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methods of optimal control are applied to a model system of interacting two-level particles (e.g., spin-half atomic nuclei or electrons or two-level atoms) to produce high-fidelity quantum gates while simultaneously negating the detrimental effect of decoherence. One set of particles functions as the quantum information processor, whose evolution is controlled by a time-dependent external field. The other particles are not directly controlled and serve as an effective environment, coupling to which is the source of decoherence. The control objective is to generate target one- and two-qubit unitary gates in the presence of strong environmentally-induced decoherence and under physically motivated restrictions on the control field. The quantum-gate fidelity, expressed in terms of a novel state-independent distance measure, is maximized with respect to the control field using combined genetic and gradient algorithms. The resulting high-fidelity gates demonstrate the feasibility of precisely guiding the quantum evolution via optimal control, even when the system complexity is exacerbated by environmental coupling. It is found that the gate duration has an important effect on the control mechanism and resulting fidelity. An analysis of the sensitivity of the gate performance to random variations in the system parameters reveals a significant degree of robustness attained by the optimal control solutions.

Matthew Grace; Constantin Brif; Herschel Rabitz; Ian A. Walmsley; Robert L. Kosut; Daniel A. Lidar

2007-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

34

Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7 at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) 4. Other entry N/A Credit Level awards (if applicable): 5. Exit Awards: PGDip Advanced Computer Science 120 credits with not more than 30 credits at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) Credit

Programme Csad

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7 at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) 4. Other entry N/A Credit Level awards (if applicable): 5. Exit Awards: PGDip Computer Science 120 credits with not more than 30 credits at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) Credit

unknown authors

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Probabilistic versus possibilistic risk assessment models for optimal service level agreements in grid computing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a probabilistic and a possibilistic model for assessing the risk of a service level agreement for a computing task in a cluster/grid environment. These models can also be applied to cloud computing. Using the predictive probabilistic approach ... Keywords: Grid and cloud computing, Predictive possibilities, Predictive probabilities, Service level agreement (SLA)

Christer Carlsson; Robert Fullér

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Natural circulation steam generator model for optimal steam generator water level control  

SciTech Connect

Several authors have cited the control of steam generator water level as an important problem in the operation of pressurized water reactor plants. In this paper problems associated with steam generator water level control are identified, and advantages of modern estimation and control theory in dealing with these problems are discussed. A new state variable steam generator model and preliminary verification results using data from the loss of fluid test (LOFT) plant are also presented.

Feeley, J.J.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Low level laser therapy activates NF-kB via generation of reactive oxygen species in mouse embryonic fibroblasts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Despite over forty years of investigation on low-level light therapy (LLLT), the fundamental mechanisms underlying photobiomodulation remain unclear. In this study, we isolated murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) from ...

Hamblin, Michael R.

39

A scheduling algorithm for optimization and early planning in high-level synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Complexities of applications implemented on embedded and programmable systems grow with the advances in capacities and capabilities of these systems. Mapping applications onto them manually is becoming a very tedious task. This draws attention to using ... Keywords: Scheduling, bipartite matching, data flow graph, high-level synthesis

Seda Ogrenci Memik; Ryan Kastner; Elaheh Bozorgzadeh; Majid Sarrafzadeh

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7 180 credits with not more than 30 credits at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) 4. Other entry N/A Credit Level awards (if applicable): 5. Exit Awards: PGDip in Advanced Computer Science with

Programme Csci

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optimal oxygen levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Effects of Sea Level Data Assimilation by Ensemble Optimal Interpolation and 3D Variational Data Assimilation on the Simulation of Variability in a Tropical Pacific Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sea level anomalies (SLA) from the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon are assimilated with three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) and ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) for the period of 1997–2001. When sea level data ...

Weiwei Fu; Jiang Zhu

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Oxygen analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

Benner, William H. (Danville, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Oxygen analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

Benner, W.H.

1984-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

44

Oxygen in Underwater Cave  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen in Underwater Cave Oxygen in Underwater Cave Name: Natalie Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: HI Country: USA Date: Spring 2011 Question: Is it possible for there to be free oxygen in an underwater cave? If it is, then how does it work? Replies: Yes it is possible as I have personally experienced. If the cave roof rises to a level above the water, air dissolved in the water will slowly out gas until the water is at the same level at all places. A pocket of breathable air will form. In many caves the roof dips below water level in one place but it above it on both sides. Think of a U shaped tube where the bottom of the U is blocked by water. This is called a siphon and I have passed through many of these to find breathable air on the other side. R. W. "Bob" Avakian Oklahoma State Univ. Inst. of Technology

45

Oxygen Isotopes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pages to Isotopes Data Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane 800,000 Deuterium Record and Shorter Records of...

46

Mitigating the risk of information leakage in a two-level supply chain through optimal supplier selection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information leakage in supply chains is drawing more and more attention in supply chain management. Unlike existing research, which usually focuses on the effect of information leakage on the supply chain's material and information flow, this paper aims ... Keywords: Inference, Information leakage, Information sharing, Optimal supplier selection, Risk mitigation

Da Yong Zhang; Xinlin Cao; Lingyu Wang; Yong Zeng

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Pessimistic Bi-Level Optimization - Optimization Online  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

market leader, and as such it has to choose its production quantities x ? X = [0, 10] n ..... A bilevel programming approach to determining tax credits for biofuel.

48

Optimal register-type selection during resource binding in flip-flop/latch-based high-level synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flip-flop (FF)/latch-based design has advantages on such as area and power compared to single register-type design (only FFs or latches). Considering FF/latch-based design at high-level synthesis is necessary, because resource binding process significantly ... Keywords: FU binding, register binding, register-type selection

Keisuke Inoue; Mineo Kaneko

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Optimization Online - All Areas Submissions - October 2013  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

All Areas Submissions - October 2013. Network Optimization Optimization Models for Differentiating Quality of Service Levels in Probabilistic Network Capacity ...

50

Regional imaging with oxygen-14  

SciTech Connect

The metabolic significance of the distribution of labeled oxygen was studied in the dog by inhalation of gas mixtures labeled with oxygen-14 (T/sub /sup 1///sub 2// = 71 seconds) maintained at a constant level of activity. Under steady-state conditions, whole-body images were developed by detection of the positron annihilation emissions with a dual head rectilinear scanner in the coincidence mode. (auth)

Russ, G.A.; Bigler, R.E.; Dahl, J.R.; Kostick, J.; McDonald, J.M.; Tilbury, R.S.; Laughlin, J.S.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in yield and 4 cP in viscosity in comparison to high AA pulp for the oxygen delignification. This difference is also seen for high-kappa SW kraft pulps with an average improvement of {approx}3% in yield and 3 cP in viscosity for low AA high kappa number 50 pulp. Low AA hardwood kappa number 20 pulp had an average improvement of {approx}4% in yield and 6-12 cP in viscosity as compared to high AA pulp. Lower kraft cooking temperature (160 vs. 170 C) in combination with the medium AA provides a practical approach for integrating high kappa pulping of hardwoods (i.e., low rejects) with an advanced extended oxygen delignification stage. ECF pulp bleaching of low and high kappa kraft SW and HW pulps exhibit comparable optical and physical strength properties when bleached D(EPO)D.

Arthur J. Ragauskas

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

52

Pessimistic Bi-Level Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This expression reflects the assumption that the market clearing price for ..... The deregulated electricity market viewed as a bilevel programming problem.

53

Optimization Online  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NEOS Optimization Server · NEOS Optimization Guide · Linear Programming FAQ · Nonlinear Programming FAQ · Mathematical Programming Glossary ...

54

Oxygen scavengers - The chemistry of sulfite under hydrothermal conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Control of oxygen corrosion is critical to the reliability of steam generator systems. Mechanical deaeration and chemical oxygen scavenging effectively reduce oxygen levels in boiler feedwater systems. This paper reviews the use of sulfites to reduce oxygen and provide corrosion control throughout the boiler feedwater circuit as well as mechanical and operational oxygen reduction methods. The mechanism of oxygen pitting, electrochemical reactions, and the basis of operation of mechanical deaeration are discussed. Estimating techniques for the amount of steam required and a deaerator troubleshooting guide are included. The chemistry of sulfites is covered in detail. Also included are a functional definition of chemical oxygen scavengers and a general discussion of their various types.

Cotton, I.J.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Oxygen Control in PWR Makeup Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three fixed-bed processes can accelerate hydrazine-oxygen reactions in PWR makeup water and reduce oxygen levels to below 5 ppb. In this comparative-test project, activated carbon based systems offered the best combination of low cost, effectiveness, and commercial availability. A second process, employing palladium-coated anion resin, is also commercially available.

1988-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

56

EVALUATING AN INNOVATIVE OXYGEN SENSOR FOR REMOTE SUBSURFACE OXYGEN MEASUREMENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oxygen is a primary indicator of whether anaerobic reductive dechlorination and similar redox based processes contribute to natural attenuation remedies at chlorinated solvent contaminated sites. Thus, oxygen is a viable indicator parameter for documenting that a system is being sustained in an anaerobic condition. A team of researchers investigated the adaptation of an optical sensor that was developed for oceanographic applications. The optical sensor, because of its design and operating principle, has potential for extended deployment and sensitivity at the low oxygen levels relevant to natural attenuation. The results of the research indicate this tool will be useful for in situ long-term monitoring applications, but that the traditional characterization tools continue to be appropriate for characterization activities.

Millings, M; Brian Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Karen Vangelas, K; Brian02 Looney, B

2006-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

57

Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving Complex of Photosynthesis Arguably the most important chemical reaction on earth is the photosynthetic splitting of water to molecular oxygen by the Mn-containing oxygen-evolving complex (Mn-OEC) in the protein known as photosystem II (PSII). It is this reaction which has, over the course of some 3.8 billion years, gradually filled our atmosphere with O2 and consequently enabled and sustained the evolution of complex aerobic life. Coupled to the reduction of carbon dioxide, biological photosynthesis contributes foodstuffs for nutrition while recycling CO2 from the atmosphere and replacing it with O2. By utilizing sunlight to power these energy-requiring reactions, photosynthesis also serves as a model for addressing societal energy needs as we enter an era of diminishing fossil fuel resources and climate change. Understanding, at the molecular level, the dynamics and mechanisms behind photosynthesis is of fundamental importance and will prove critical to the future design of devices aimed at converting sunlight into electrochemical energy and transportable fuel.

58

Modeling the Oxygen - Hydrazine Reaction in PWR Secondary Feedwater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The proper control of oxygen in primary water reactor (PWR) secondary feedwater, using hydrazine, has been an enduring issue. The requirements on the oxygen concentration are partly opposing. Fully deoxygenated conditions in the steam generators are essential to minimize corrosion. On the other hand, some oxygen in the feedwater counteracts corrosion of carbon steel surfaces and the transport of corrosion products to the steam generators. Optimization is, therefore, essential. This work applies the frame...

2008-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

59

Combining Optimization and Simulation for Strategic and Operational Industrial Gas Production and Distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of liquefied atmo- spheric gases. A simulation engine that interacts with the optimization models is used-wide Optimization; Simulation Optimization; 1 Introduction Liquid oxygen (lox) and liquid nitrogen (lni

Linderoth, Jeffrey T.

60

Oxygen-enriched diesel engine performance: A comparison of analytical and experimental results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Use of oxygen-enriched combustion air in diesel engines can lead to significant improvements in power density, as well as reductions in particulate emissions, but at the expense of higher NO{sub x} emissions. Oxygen enrichment would also lead to lower ignition delays and the opportunity to burn lower grade fuels. Analytical and experimental studies are being conducted in parallel to establish the optimal combination of oxygen level and diesel fuel properties. In this paper, cylinder pressure data acquired on a single-cylinder engine are used to generate heat release rates for operation under various oxygen contents. These derived heat release rates are in turn used to improve the combustion correlation -- and thus the prediction capability -- of the simulation code. It is shown that simulated and measured cylinder pressures and other performance parameters are in good agreement. The improved simulation can provide sufficiently accurate predictions of trends and magnitudes to be useful in parametric studies assessing the effects of oxygen enrichment and water injection on diesel engine performance. Measured ignition delays, NO{sub x} emissions, and particulate emissions are also compared with previously published data. The measured ignition delays are slightly lower than previously reported. Particulate emissions measured in this series of tests are significantly lower than previously reported. 14 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Assanis, D.N. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA)); Schaus, J.E. (Autoresearch Labs., Inc., Chicago, IL (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optimal oxygen levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Optimal basis set for ab-initio calculations of energy levels in tunneling structures, using the covariance matrix of the wave functions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper proposes a method to obtain the optimal basis set for solving the self consistent field (SCF) equations for large atomic systems in order to calculate the energy barriers in tunneling structures, with higher accuracy and speed. Taking into account the stochastic-like nature of the samples of all the involved wave functions for many body problems, a statistical optimization is made by considering the covariance matrix of these samples. An eigenvalues system is obtained and solved for the optimal basis set and by inspecting the rapidly decreasing eigenvalues one may seriously reduce the necessary number of vectors that insures an imposed precision. This leads to a potentially significant improvement in the speed of the SCF calculations and accuracy, as the statistical properties of a large number of wave functions in an large spatial domain may be considered. The eigenvalue problem has to be solved only few times, so that the amount of time added may be much smaller that the overall iterating SCF calculations. A simple implementation of the method is presented for a situation where the analytical solution is known, and the results are encouraging.

Sever Spanulescu

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

Oxygen ion conducting materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Oxygen Reduction on Well-Defined Core-Shell Nanocatalysts: Particle Size, Facet, and Pt Shell Thickness Effects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We examined the effects of the thickness of the Pt shell, lattice mismatch, and particle size on specific and mass activities from the changes in effective surface area and activity for oxygen reduction induced by stepwise Pt-monolayer depositions on Pd and Pd{sub 3}Co nanoparticles. The core?shell structure was characterized at the atomic level using Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with element-sensitive electron energy loss spectroscopy. The enhancements in specific activity are largely attributed to the compressive strain effect based on the density functional theory calculations using a nanoparticle model, revealing the effect of nanosize-induced surface contraction on facet-dependent oxygen binding energy. The results suggest that moderately compressed (111) facets are most conducive to oxygen reduction reaction on small nanoparticles and indicate the importance of concerted structure and component optimization for enhancing core?shell nanocatalysts activity and durability.

Wang, J.X.; Inada, H.; Wu, L.; Zhu, Y.; Choi, Y.; Liu, P.; Zhou, W.-P.; Adzic, R.R.

2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

64

Optimization Online Digest -- November 2008  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Unified Approach for Cycle Service Levels Miguel Lejeune Optimization of Real Asset Portfolio using a Coherent Risk Measure: Application to Oil and Energy ...

65

Machine Learning for Global Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

approach for global optimization in which machine learning is used to predict ..... In Figure 1 we show the level curves of the 2–dimensional Rastrigin function.

66

Algae for Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Algae for Oxygen Algae for Oxygen Name: Pam Burkardt Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Hi, I am Pam Burkardt, a seventh grader at Fox Chapel School. I have a question on algae. I read somewhere that someday people might take bath tubs full of algae onto spaceships to provide oxygen for the crew. How much oxygen does algae give off, is this really possible? Replies: I think that most of the oxygen in the atmosphere comes in fact from one-celled plants in the oceans, like algae. They are likely to produce a lot of oxygen per unit weight because they don't have non-photosynthesizing bark, roots, branches, etc., nor (I think) a major dormant period like temperate-zone plants. The cost of space travel at present is dominated by the expense of heaving weight up into Earth orbit (it costs very little extra to send it to the Moon, for example, or Mars). For missions of short duration the weight of the compressed oxygen you need to carry is less than the weight of algae, water and extra plumbing you'd need to carry if you relied on algae to produce your oxygen. The important use of green plants would be in very long duration space flight (years) or permanent inhabitation of worlds like the Moon, where you need an unlimited supply of oxygen. Now if you want to fantasize, Venus' atmosphere is almost all carbon dioxide. Suppose you dropped a whole lot of specially gene-tailored one-celled plants into the atmosphere (not the surface, it's too hot). Why then they might eat up all the carbon dioxide and produce a breathable atmosphere. The "greenhouse effect" would go away, and Venus would become a nice habitable if tropical world only 50 million miles away.

67

Plants making oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plants making oxygen Plants making oxygen Name: Doug Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: How many plants are needed to make enough oxygen for one person for one hour? We are experimenting with Anacharis plants. Replies: The problem can be solved when broken down into smaller questions: 1. How much oxygen does a person need in an hour? 2. How much oxygen does a plant produce in an hour? 3. Based on the above, how many plants will provide the oxygen needs of the person for the hour? Here is the solution to the first question: A resting, healthy adult on an average, cool day breathes in about 53 liters of oxygen per hour. An average, resting, health adult breathes in about 500 mL of air per breath. This is called the normal tidal volume. Now, 150 mL of this air will go to non- functioning areas of the lung, called the "dead space." The average breath rate for this average person is 12 breaths per minute. So, the amount of air breathed in by the person which is available for use is 12 x (500 mL -150 mL) = 4,200 mL/minute. Multiply by 60 to get 252,000 mL/hour. That is, every hour, the person will breathe in 252 L of air. Now, on an average, cool, clear day, only 21% of that air is oxygen. So, 21% of 252 L is 53 L. So, in an hour, the person breathes in about 53 L of oxygen.

68

Optimization Online - Coordinators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

... Programming); William Hart — Sandia National Laboratory; (Combinatorial Optimization / Global Optimization / Optimization Software and Modeling Systems

69

High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

Lucian A. Lucia

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Oxygen detection in biological systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

kinetics of flash induced oxygen evolution of algae through measuring ...... (1999) Fast response oxygen micro-optodes based on novel soluble ormosil glasses.

71

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen`s A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2,000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest. 4 figs.

Kebabian, P.

1997-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

72

Optimization Online - Optimal Design of Electrical Machines ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jun 8, 2011 ... Optimal Design of Electrical Machines: Mathematical Programming ... Science and Engineering (Multidisciplinary Design Optimization ).

73

Magnetism in Lithium–Oxygen Discharge Product  

SciTech Connect

Nonaqueous lithium–oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium–oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium–oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium– oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

74

Oxygenates vs. synthesis gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methanol synthesis from H{sub 2}/CO has been carried out at 7.6 MPa over zirconia-supported copper catalysts. Catalysts with nominal compositions of 10/90 mol% and 30/70 mol% Cu/ZrO{sub 2} were used in this study. Additionally, a 3 mol% cesium-doped 10/90 catalyst was prepared to study the effect of doping with heavy alkali, and this promoter greatly increased the methanol productivity. The effects of CO{sub 2} addition, water injection, reaction temperature, and H{sub 2}/C0 ratio have been investigated. Both CO{sub 2} addition to the synthesis gas and cesium doping of the catalyst promoted methanol synthesis, while inhibiting the synthesis of dimethyl ether. Injection of water, however, was found to slightly suppress methanol and dimethyl ether formation while being converted to CO{sub 2} via the water gas shift reaction over these catalysts. There was no clear correlation between copper surface area and catalyst activity. Surface analysis of the tested samples revealed that copper tended to migrate and enrich the catalyst surface. The concept of employing a double-bed reactor with a pronounced temperature gradient to enhance higher alcohol synthesis was explored, and it was found that utilization of a Cs-promoted Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a first lower temperature bed and a Cs-promoted ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a second high-temperature bed significantly promoted the productivity of 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol) from H{sub 2}/CO synthesis gas mixtures. While the conversion of CO to C{sub 2+} oxygenates over the double-bed configuration was comparable to that observed over the single Cu-based catalyst, major changes in the product distribution occurred by the coupling to the zinc chromite catalyst; that is, the productivity of the C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} alcohols decreased dramatically, and 2-methyl branched alcohols were selectively formed. The desirable methanol/2-methyl oxygenate molar ratios close to 1 were obtained in the present double-bed system that provides the feedstock for the synthesis of high octane and high cetane ethers, where the isobutanol productivity was as high as 139 g/kg cat/hr. Higher alcohol synthesis has been investigated over a Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at temperatures higher (up to 703K) than those previously utilized, and no sintering of the catalyst was observed during the short-term testing. However, the higher reaction temperatures led to lower CO conversion levels and lower yield of alcohols, especially of methanol, because of equilibrium limitations. With the double catalyst bed configuration, the effect of pressure in the range of 7.6--12.4 MPa on catalyst activity and selectivity was studied. The upper bed was composed of the copper-based catalyst at 598K, and the lower bed consisted of a copper-free Cs-ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at a high temperature of 678K. High pressure was found to increase CO conversion to oxygenated products, although the increase in isobutanol productivity did not keep pace with that of methanol. It was also shown that the Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst could be utilized to advantage as the second-bed catalyst at 613--643K instead of the previously used copper-free Cs-ZnO/ Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at higher temperature, With double Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, high space time yields of up to 202 g/kg cat/hr, with high selectivity to isobutanol, were achieved.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Alessandra Beretta; Maria A. Burcham; Qun Sun; Yeping Cai; Biswanath Roy

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Oxygen Transport Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

S. Bandopadhyay

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

76

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

In the present quarter, the possibility of using a more complex interfacial engineering approach to the development of reliable and stable oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes/metal seals is discussed. Experiments are presented and ceramic/metal interactions are characterized. Crack growth and fracture toughness of the membrane in the reducing conditions are also discussed. Future work regarding this approach is proposed are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Effect of Feedwater Oxygen Control at the Vermont Yankee BWR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tests in an operating BWR show that routine injection of oxygen into the feedwater to control radiation buildup is not warranted under normal operating conditions. However, since oxygen injection reduces the nickel release rate, it might be considered on a plant-by-plant basis for BWRs experiencing high nickel corrosion levels.

1985-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

79

Maintaining and Monitoring Dissolved Oxygen at Hydroelectric Projects: Status Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is an update of EPRI's 1990 report, "Assessment and Guide for Meeting Dissolved Oxygen Water Quality Standards for Hydroelectric Plant Discharges" (GS-7001). The report provides an updated review of technologies and techniques for enhancing dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in reservoirs and releases from hydroelectric projects and state-of-the-art methods, equipment, and techniques for monitoring DO.

2002-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

80

Photolithographic patterning of polymer-encapsulated optical oxygen sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we show a novel fabrication process capable of yielding arbitrarily-shaped optical oxygen sensor patterns at micron resolution. The wafer-level process uses a thin-film sacrificial metal layer as intermediate mask, protecting the sensor ... Keywords: Optical oxygen sensor, Photolithography, PtOEPK/PS, Sensor patterning

Volker Nock; Maan Alkaisi; Richard J. Blaikie

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optimal oxygen levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Detailed chemical kinetic modeling of diesel combustion with oxygenated fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The influence of oxygenated hydrocarbons as additives to diesel fuels on ignition, NOx emissions and soot production has been examined using a detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism. N-heptane was used as a representative diesel fuel, and methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether and dimethoxymethane were used as oxygenated fuel additives. It was found that addition of oxygenated hydrocarbons reduced NOx levels and reduced the production of soot precursors. When the overall oxygen content in the fuel reached approximately 25% by mass, production of soot precursors fell effectively to zero, in agreement with experimental studies. The kinetic factors responsible for these observations are discussed.

Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Fisher, E; Glaude, P A; Marinov, N M; Westbrook, C K

1999-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

82

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

83

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the previous research, the reference point of oxygen occupancy was determined and verified. In the current research, the oxygen occupancy was investigated at 1200 C as a function of oxygen activity and compared with that at 1000 C. The cause of bumps at about 200 C was also investigated by using different heating and cooling rates during TGA. The fracture toughness of LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature is an important mechanical property. Vicker's indentation method was used to evaluate this toughness. Through this technique, a K{sub Ic} (Mode-I Fracture Toughness) value is attained by means of semi-empirical correlations between the indentation load and the length of the cracks emanating from the corresponding Vickers indentation impression. In the present investigation, crack propagation behavior was extensively analyzed in order to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved in the non-transforming La based ceramic composites. Cracks were generated using Vicker's indenter and used to identify and evaluate the toughening mechanisms involved. Preliminary results of an electron microscopy study of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Modeling of the isotopic transients on operating membranes (LSCrF-2828 at 900 C) and a ''frozen'' isotope profile have been analyzed in conjunction with a 1-D model to reveal the gradient in oxygen diffusivity through the membrane under conditions of high chemical gradients.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Fuel cell oxygen electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen electrode for a fuel cell utilizing an acid electrolyte has a substrate of an alkali metal tungsten bronze of the formula: A.sub.x WO.sub.3 where A is an alkali metal and x is at least 0.2, which is covered with a thin layer of platinum tungsten bronze of the formula: Pt.sub.y WO.sub.3 where y is at least 0.8.

Shanks, Howard R. (Ames, IA); Bevolo, Albert J. (Ames, IA); Danielson, Gordon C. (Ames, IA); Weber, Michael F. (Wichita, KS)

1980-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

87

Optical modeling toward optimizing monitoring of intestinal perfusion in trauma patients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Trauma is the number one cause of death for people between the ages 1 and 44 years in the United States. In addition, according to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, injury results in over 31 million emergency department visits annually. Minimizing the resuscitation period in major abdominal injuries increases survival rates by correcting impaired tissue oxygen delivery. Optimization of resuscitation requires a monitoring method to determine sufficient tissue oxygenation. Oxygenation can be assessed by determining the adequacy of tissue perfusion. In this work, we present the design of a wireless perfusion and oxygenation sensor based on photoplethysmography. Through optical modeling, the benefit of using the visible wavelengths 470, 525 and 590nm (around the 525nm hemoglobin isobestic point) for intestinal perfusion monitoring is compared to the typical near infrared (NIR) wavelengths (805nm isobestic point) used in such sensors. Specifically, NIR wavelengths penetrate through the thin intestinal wall (~4mm) leading to high background signals. However, these visible wavelengths have two times shorter penetration depth that the NIR wavelengths. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the transmittance of the three selected wavelengths is lower by 5 orders of magnitude depending on the perfusion state. Due to the high absorbance of hemoglobin in the visible range, the perfusion signal carried by diffusely reflected light is also enhanced by an order of magnitude while oxygenation signal levels are maintained. In addition, short source-detector separations proved to be beneficial for limiting the probing depth to the thickness of the intestinal wall.

Akl, Tony [Texas A& M University; Wilson, Mark A. [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh PA; Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL; Cote, Gerard L. [Texas A& M University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Oxygen Transport Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

S. Bandopadhyay

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

89

Pathwise Optimization for Optimal Stopping Problems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We introduce the pathwise optimization (PO) method, a new convex optimization procedure to produce upper and lower bounds on the optimal value (the “price”) of a high-dimensional optimal stopping problem. The PO method builds on a dual characterization ... Keywords: American options, Bermudian options, dynamic programming, optimal control, optimal stopping

Vijay V. Desai; Vivek F. Farias; Ciamac C. Moallemi

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

SEAMOPT - Stirling engine optimization code  

SciTech Connect

Experience is described with use of a fast-running Stirling engine optimization code developed at Argonne intended for public release. Stirling engine modeling is provided by the SEAM1 thermodynamic code. An interface was written to combine SEAM1 with a general optimization code and assess maximum component stress levels. Thus full engine thermodynamic and structural simulation is done during the optimization process. Several examples of the use of this code to optimize the GPU-3 engine are described. In one case efficiency was improved by over 25%.

Heames, T.J.; Daley, J.G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ti doping on La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSF) tends to increase the oxygen equilibration kinetics of LSF in lower oxygen activity environment because of the high valence state of Ti. However, the addition of Ti decreases the total conductivity because the acceptor ([Sr{prime}{sub La}]) is compensated by the donor ([Ti{sub Fe}{sup {sm_bullet}}]) which decreases the carrier concentration. The properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSFT, x = 0.45) have been experimentally and theoretically investigated to elucidate (1) the dependence of oxygen occupancy and electrochemical properties on temperature and oxygen activity by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (2) the electrical conductivity and carrier concentration by Seebeck coefficient and electrical measurements. In the present study, dual phase (La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4}O{sub 3-{delta}}/Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-{delta}}) membranes have been evaluated for structural properties such as hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength. The effect of high temperature and slightly reducing atmosphere on the structural properties of the membranes was studied. The flexural strength of the membrane decreases upon exposure to slightly reducing conditions at 1000 C. The as-received and post-fractured membranes were characterized using XRD, SEM and TG-DTA to understand the fracture mechanisms. Changes in structural properties of the composite were sought to be correlated with the physiochemical features of the two-phases. We have reviewed the electrical conductivity data and stoichiometry data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} some of which was reported previously. Electrical conductivity data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCrF) were obtained in the temperature range, 752 {approx} 1055 C and in the pO{sub 2} range, 10{sup -18} {approx} 0.5 atm. The slope of the plot of log {sigma} vs. log pO{sub 2} is {approx} 1/5 in the p-type region, pO{sub 2} = 10{sup -5} {approx} 10{sup -1} atm. The pO{sub 2} at which the p-n transition is observed increases with increasing temperature. The activation energy for ionic conduction was estimated to be 0.86 eV from an Arrhenius plot of the minimum conductivity vs. reciprocal temperature. At temperatures below 940 C, a plateau in the conductivity isotherm suggests the presence of a two-phase region. Most likely, phase separation occurs to form a mixture of a perovskite phase and an oxygen vacancy ordered phase related to brownmillerite. Additional data for the oxygen non stoichiometry are presented.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

92

Faunal responses to oxygen gradients on the Pakistan margin: A comparison of foraminiferans, macrofauna and megafauna  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Faunal responses to oxygen gradients on the Pakistan margin: A comparison of foraminiferans Oxygen minimum zone Benthos Arabian Sea Biodiversity Deep sea a b s t r a c t The Pakistan Margin where oxygen levels were lowest. The rarity of larger animals between 300 and 700 m on the Pakistan

Levin, Lisa

93

Optimizing Power Using Transformations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: The increasing demand for portable computing has elevated power consumption to be one of the most critical design parameters. A high-level synthesis system, HYPER-LP, is presented for minimizing power consumption in application specific datapath intensive CMOS circuits using a variety of architectural and computational transformations. The synthesis environment consists of high-level estimation of power consumption, a library of transformation primitives, and heuristic/probabilistic optimization search mechanisms for fast and efficient scanning of the design space. Examples with varying degree of computational complexity and structures are optimized and synthesized using the HYPER-LP system. The results indicate that more than an order of magnitude reduction in power can be achieved over current-day design methodologies while maintaining the system throughput; in some cases this can be accomplished while preserving or reducing the implementation area. 1.0 Introduction VLSI research a...

Anantha P. Chandrakasan; Miodrag Potkonjak; Renu Mehra; Jan Rabaey; Robert W. Brodersen

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Oxygen to the core  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1-01 1-01 For immediate release: 01/10/2013 | NR-13-01-01 Oxygen to the core Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov Printer-friendly An artist's conception of Earth's inner and outer core. LIVERMORE, Calif. -- An international collaboration including researchers from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has discovered that the Earth's core formed under more oxidizing conditions than previously proposed. Through a series of laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments at high pressure (350,000 to 700,000 atmospheres of pressure) and temperatures (5,120 to 7,460 degrees Fahrenheit), the team demonstrated that the depletion of siderophile (also known as "iron loving") elements can be produced by core formation under more oxidizing conditions than earlier

95

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the following tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints; Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability; Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres; Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures; Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability; and Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

O' Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O' Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

97

Dissolution of oxygen reduction electrocatalysts in acidic environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Platinum (Pt) alloy nanoparticles are used as catalysts in electrochemical cells to reduce oxygen to water and to oxidize hydrogen; the overall reaction converts chemical energy into electrical energy. These nanocatalysts are deposited on a carbon substrate and their catalytic function takes place in acid medium. This harsh environment causes an undesired reaction, which is the dissolution of the metal atoms into the acid medium; thus affecting the catalyst life. This dissertation aims to investigate the dissolution mechanism of fuel cell cathode catalysts at the atomic level starting from the oxygen reaction intermediates on the cathode catalyst surface and propose guidelines to improve cathode catalysts durability based on our proposed mechanism. Density functional theory is employed to study various possible scenarios with the goals of understanding the mechanism of the metal atom dissolution process and establishing some guidelines that permit a rational design of catalysts with better stability against dissolution. A thermodynamic analysis of potential metal dissolution reactions in acid medium is presented first, using density functional theory calculations to explore the relative stabilities of transition metals in relation to that of Pt. The study is performed by comparing the change in reaction Gibbs free energies for different metals in a given dissolution reaction. Then, a series of density functional theory studies, tending to investigate the adsorbed atomic oxygen absorption process from cathode catalyst surface into its subsurface, includes: 1) the oxygen adsorption on various catalyst surfaces and oxygen absorption in subsurface sites to figure out the minimum energy pathway and energy barrier of on-surface oxygen migration and absorption into subsurface; 2) the oxygen coverage, the other oxygen reduction reaction intermediates, and water effects on the oxygen absorption process according to reaction pathways, energy barriers, and thermodynamic analysis; 3) the oxygen absorption process on several Pt-based alloys with various compositions and components to find out the best alloy to inhibit atomic oxygen absorption including both kinetic and thermodynamic analyses, and the effects of such alloyed species on the inhibition process.

Gu, Zhihui

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Performance and Optimization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Optimization Performance and Optimization Compiler Comparisons Using a set of benchmarks described below, different optimization options for the different compilers on...

99

Optimization Online - Stochastic Optimization Approach to Water ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mar 18, 2012 ... Optimization Online. Stochastic Optimization Approach to Water Management in Cooling-Constrained Power Plants. Juan M. Salazar(juan ...

100

Optimization Online - Global Optimization Submissions - 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization and homotopy methods for the Gibbs free energy of magmatic mixtures ... On DC. optimization algorithms for solving minmax flow problems

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optimal oxygen levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a Bloom baffle burner at GTI. The results are positive and confirm that oxygen-enriched combustion can be carried out without producing higher levels of NOx than normal air firing, if lancing of combustion air is used and the excess air levels are controlled. A simple economic study shows that the membrane processes can produce O{sub 2} at less than $40/ton EPO{sub 2} and an energy cost of 1.1-1.5 MMBtu/ton EPO{sub 2}, which are very favorable compared with conventional technologies such as cryogenics and vacuum pressure swing adsorption processes. The benefits of integrated membrane processes/combustion process trains have been evaluated, and show good savings in process costs and energy consumption, as well as reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. For example, if air containing 30% oxygen is used in natural gas furnaces, the net natural gas savings are an estimated 18% at a burner temperature of 2,500 F, and 32% at a burner temperature of 3,000 F. With a 20% market penetration of membrane-based oxygen-enriched combustion in all combustion processes by 2020, the energy savings would be 414-736 TBtu/y in the U.S. The comparable net cost savings are estimated at $1.2-2.1 billion per year by 2020, calculated as the value of fuel savings subtracted from the cost of oxygen production. The fuel savings of 18%-32% by the membrane/oxygen-enriched combustion corresponds to an 18%-32% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, or 23-40 MM ton/y less CO{sub 2} from natural gas-fired furnaces by 2020. In summary, results from this project (Concept Definition phase) are highly promising and clearly demonstrate that membrane processes can produce oxygen-enriched air in a low cost manner that will lower operating costs and energy consumption in industrial combustion processes. Future work will focus on proof-of-concept bench-scale demonstration in the laboratory.

Lin, Haiqing

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

102

Plants and Night Oxygen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plants and Night Oxygen Production Plants and Night Oxygen Production Name: Ashar Status: other Grade: other Location: Outside U.S. Country: India Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: I would like to know if there are any plants which produces oxygen at night (without photosynthesis). I was told by a friend that Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) produces oxygen even at night and I'm not convinced. I would like to get confirmation from experts. Replies: Some plants (particularly those of dry regions, e.g., deserts) only open their stomates at night to avoid drying out to intake CO2 (and output O2) (CAM photosynthesis) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crassulacean_acid_metabolism Sincerely, Anthony R. Brach, PhD Missouri Botanical Garden Bringing oxygen producing plants into your home is a way to mimic the healthy lifestyle factors of longevity in humans from the longest lived cultures.

103

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

MTBE, Oxygenates, and MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline Contents * Introduction * Federal gasoline product quality regulations * What are oxygenates? * Who gets gasoline with oxygenates? * Which areas get MTBE? * How much has been invested in MTBE production capacity? * What does new Ethanol capacity cost? * What would an MTBE ban cost? * On-line information resources * Endnotes * Summary of revisions to this analysis Introduction The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an

104

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY  

SciTech Connect

THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

BERGMAN TB; STEFANSKI LD; SEELEY PN; ZINSLI LC; CUSACK LJ

2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

106

The Fundamental Role of Nano-Scale Oxide Films in the Oxidation of Hydrogen and the Reduction of Oxygen on Noble Metal Electrocatalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The derivation of successful fuel cell technologies requires the development of more effective, cheaper, and poison-resistant electrocatalysts for both the anode (H{sub 2} oxidation in the presence of small amounts of CO from the reforming of carbonaceous fuels) and the cathode (reduction of oxygen in the presence of carried-over fuel). The proposed work is tightly focused on one specific aspect of electrocatalysis; the fundamental role(s) played by nanoscale (1-2 nm thick) oxide (''passive'') films that form on the electrocatalyst surfaces above substrate-dependent, critical potentials, on charge transfer reactions, particularly at elevated temperatures (25 C < T < 200 C). Once the role(s) of these films is (are) adequately understood, we will then use this information to specify, at the molecular level, optimal properties of the passive layer for the efficient electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction.

Digby Macdonald

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

Photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae  

SciTech Connect

An overview of photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae in the context of its potential as a renewable chemical feed stock and energy carrier is presented. Beginning with its discovery by Gaffron and Rubin in 1942, motivated by curiosity-driven laboratory research, studies were initiated in the early 1970s that focused on photosynthetic hydrogen production from an applied perspective. From a scientific and technical point of view, current research is focused on optimizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiencies represented by the Gibbs Free Energy of molecular hydrogen. The key research questions of maximizing hydrogen and oxygen production by light-activated water splitting in green algae are (1) removing the oxygen sensitivity of algal hydrogenases; (2) linearizing the light saturation curves of photosynthesis throughout the entire range of terrestrial solar irradiance--including the role of bicarbonate and carbon dioxide in optimization of photosynthetic electron transport and (3) the minimum number of light reactions that are required to split water to elemental hydrogen and oxygen. Each of these research topics is being actively addressed by the photobiological hydrogen research community.

Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

108

Photosynthetic Hydrogen and Oxygen Production by Green Algae  

SciTech Connect

Photosynthesis research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is focused on hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae in the context of its potential as a renewable fuel and chemical feed stock. Beginning with its discovery by Gaffron and Rubin in 1942, motivated by curiosity-driven laboratory research, studies were initiated in the early 1970s that focused on photosynthetic hydrogen production from an applied perspective. From a scientific and technical point of view, current research is focused on optimizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiencies represented by the Gibbs Free Energy of molecular hydrogen. The key research questions of maximizing hydrogen and oxygen production by light-activated water splitting in green algae are: (1) removing the oxygen sensitivity of algal hydrogenases; (2) linearizing the light saturation curves of hotosynthesis throughout the entire range of terrestrial solar irradiance-including the role of bicarbonate and carbon dioxide in optimization of photosynthetic electron transpor;t and (3) constructing real-world bioreactors, including the generation of hydrogen and oxygen against workable back pressures of the photoproduced gases.

Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

1999-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

109

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Liquid Oxygen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Paramagnetism) Paramagnetism Liquid Oxygen and Fire! What happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a test tube of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a test tube of liquid oxygen! Joanna: Let's see what happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire. Steve: Fire?! Joanna: Yeah! Steve: Really?! Joanna: Why not! Steve: Okay! Joanna: As nitrogen boils, it changes into nitrogen gas. Because it's so cold, it's denser than the air in the room. The test tube fills up with

110

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale This article first appeared in the Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement 1995, Energy Information Administration, DOE/EIA-0202(95) (Washington, DC, July 1995), pp. 33-42, 83-85. The regression results and historical data for production, inventories, and imports have been updated in this presentation. Contents * Introduction o Table 1. Oxygenate production capacity and demand * Oxygenate demand o Table 2. Estimated RFG demand share - mandated RFG areas, January 1998 * Fuel ethanol supply and demand balance o Table 3. Fuel ethanol annual statistics * MTBE supply and demand balance o Table 4. EIA MTBE annual statistics * Refinery balances

111

It's Elemental - The Element Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Previous Element (Nitrogen) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Fluorine) Fluorine The Element Oxygen [Click for Isotope Data] 8 O Oxygen 15.9994 Atomic Number: 8 Atomic Weight: 15.9994 Melting Point: 54.36 K (-218.79°C or -361.82°F) Boiling Point: 90.20 K (-182.95°C or -297.31°F) Density: 0.001429 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Gas Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 2 Group Number: 16 Group Name: Chalcogen What's in a name? From the greek words oxys and genes, which together mean "acid forming." Say what? Oxygen is pronounced as OK-si-jen. History and Uses: Oxygen had been produced by several chemists prior to its discovery in 1774, but they failed to recognize it as a distinct element. Joseph

112

Oxygen sensitive, refractory oxide composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Oxide compositions containing niobium pentoxide and an oxide selected from the group consisting of hafnia, titania, and zirconia have electrical conductivity characteristics which vary greatly depending on the oxygen content.

Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Smith, Douglas D. (Knoxville, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Integration of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Oxygen Metabolism in Escherichia coli--Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A key challenge for living systems is balancing utilization of multiple elemental nutrients, such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, whose availability is subject to environmental fluctuations. As growth can be limited by the scarcity of any one nutrient, the rate at which each nutrient is assimilated must be sensitive not only to its own availability, but also to that of other nutrients. Remarkably, across diverse nutrient conditions, E. coli grows nearly optimally, balancing effectively the conversion of carbon into energy versus biomass. To investigate the link between the metabolism of different nutrients, we quantified metabolic responses to nutrient perturbations using LC-MS based metabolomics and built differential equation models that bridge multiple nutrient systems. We discovered that the carbonaceous substrate of nitrogen assimilation, �±-ketoglutarate, directly inhibits glucose uptake and that the upstream glycolytic metabolite, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, ultrasensitively regulates anaplerosis to allow rapid adaptation to changing carbon availability. We also showed that NADH controls the metabolic response to changing oxygen levels. Our findings support a general mechanism for nutrient integration: limitation for a nutrient other than carbon leads to build-up of the most closely related product of carbon metabolism, which in turn feedback inhibits further carbon uptake.

Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Wingreen, Ned s; Rabitz, Herschel A; Xu, Yifan

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

114

IMPACT OF OXYGEN CONCENTRATION ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY  

SciTech Connect

These tests have indicated that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels in environments having dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations ranging from very low to very high. The results suggest that the highest mussel kill can be achieved in moderately to highly aerated environments, while kill may be 0-20% lower under conditions of very low oxygen. For example, under highly oxygenated conditions 97% kill was achieved while conditions having low DO produced 79% mussel kill. Service water measured in a local power plant indicated that DO concentrations were in the range of 8-9 ppm (e.g., highly aerated) within their pipes. Therefore, we will not expect to see decreases in the efficacy of CL0145A treatments due to oxygen levels within such power plant pipes.

Daniel P. Molloy

2003-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

115

Time optimal software pipelining of loops with control flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Software pipelining is widely used as a compiler optimization technique to achieve high performance in machines that exploit instruction-level parallelism. However, surprisingly, there have been few theoretical or empirical results on time optimal software ... Keywords: VLIW, compiler optimization, instruction-level parallelism, software pipelining

Han-Saem Yun; Jihong Kim; Soo-Mook Moon

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Optimization Online - Nonlinear Optimization Submissions - 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mariano Beguerisse-Díaz, Baojun Wang, Radhika Desikan, Mauricio Barahona. Unconstrained Optimization Globally Convergent Evolution Strategies and ...

117

Optimization Online - Robust Optimization Submissions - 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sanjay Mehrotra, He Zhang. Robust Energy Cost Optimization of Water Distribution System with Uncertain Demand Alexander Goryashko, Arkadi Nemirovski.

118

Optimization Online - Robust Optimization Submissions - 2013  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Robust Optimization Submissions - 2013. January 2013. Robust Least Square Semidefinite Programming with Applications to Correlation Stress Testing

119

Optimization Online - Optimizing Trading Decisions for Hydro ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dec 10, 2011 ... Optimizing Trading Decisions for Hydro Storage Systems using Approximate ... Keywords: OR in Energy, Approximate Dynamic Programming, ...

120

THE OXYGEN PERMEATION PROPERTIES OF NANO CRYSTALLINE CEO2 THIN FILMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The measurement of oxygen flux across nanocrystalline CeO{sub 2} cerium oxide thin films at intermediate temperature (650 to 800 C) is presented. Porous ceria support substrates were fabricated by sintering with carbon additions. The final dense film was deposited from an optimized sol-gel solution resulting in a mean grain size of 50 nm which displayed oxygen flux values of up to 0.014 {micro}mol/cm{sup 2}s over the oxygen partial pressure range from air to helium gas used in the measurement at 800 C. The oxygen flux characteristics confirm mixed ionic and electronic conductivity in nanocrystalline ceria films and demonstrate the role of size dependent materials properties as a design parameter in functional membranes for oxygen separation.

Brinkman, K.

2010-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optimal oxygen levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

2010 - Optimization Online  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minimum wight Topology optimization subject to unsteady heat equation and space-time pointwise ... Optimal adaptive control of cascading power grid failures

122

Performance and Optimization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1-800-66-NERSC, option 3 or 510-486-8611 Home For Users Computational Systems Edison Performance and Optimization Performance and Optimization Note: all the performance...

123

Optimal multilevel thresholding using bacterial foraging algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The conventional multilevel thresholding methods are efficient for bi-level thresholding. However, they are computationally expensive extending to multilevel thresholding since they exhaustively search the optimal thresholds to optimize the objective ... Keywords: Bacterial foraging, Histogram, Image segmentation, Kapur's function, Multilevel thresholding, Otsu's function

P. D. Sathya; R. Kayalvizhi

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Efficient simulation-based discrete optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In many practical applications of simulation it is desirable to optimize the levels of integer or binary variables that are inputs for the simulation model. In these cases, the objective function must often be estimated through an expensive simulation ...

Seth D. Guikema; Rachel A. Davidson; Zehra Ça?nan

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Bacterial Foraging Optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The bacterial foraging optimization BFO algorithm mimics how bacteria forage over a landscape of nutrients to perform parallel nongradient optimization. In this article, the author provides a tutorial on BFO, including an overview of the biology of bacterial ... Keywords: Bacteria Foraging, Bacteria Foraging Optimization, Bacteria Motility, Control, Distributed Control, Optimization

Kevin M. Passino

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Optimization Online - Benchmark of Some Nonsmooth Optimization ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mar 1, 2006 ... Benchmark of Some Nonsmooth Optimization Solvers for Computing Nonconvex Proximal Points. Warren Hare (whare ***at*** cecm.sfu.ca)

127

Optimization Online - Nonlinear Optimization Submissions - 2013  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization of running strategies based on anaerobic energy and variations of velocity. Amandine Aftalion, J. Frédéric Bonnans. Convergence Analysis of DC ...

128

Optimization Online - Energy Security: a robust optimization ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sep 9, 2010 ... Energy Security: a robust optimization approach to design a robust European energy supply via TIAM. F Babonneau(fbabonneau ***at*** ...

129

Optimization Online - Python Optimization Modeling Objects (Pyomo)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sep 24, 2008 ... sandia.gov). Abstract: We describe Pyomo, an open-source tool for modeling optimization applications in Python. Pyomo can be used to define ...

130

Optimization Online - Python Optimization Modeling Objects (Pyomo)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dec 30, 2009 ... Python Optimization Modeling Objects (Pyomo). William Hart(wehart ***at*** sandia.gov) Jean-Paul Watson(jwatson ***at*** sandia.gov)

131

Optimization Online - Projection methods in conic optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mar 8, 2011 ... Citation: To appear as a contributed chapter of "Handbook of Semidefinite, Cone and Polynomial Optimization" edited by M. Anjos and J. B. ...

132

Optimization Online - Robust Optimization Submissions - 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Exact Algorithm for Power Grid Interdiction Problem with Line Switching Long Zhao, Bo Zeng. An Exact Algorithm for Two-stage Robust Optimization with ...

133

Excitation optimization for damage detection  

SciTech Connect

A technique is developed to answer the important question: 'Given limited system response measurements and ever-present physical limits on the level of excitation, what excitation should be provided to a system to make damage most detectable?' Specifically, a method is presented for optimizing excitations that maximize the sensitivity of output measurements to perturbations in damage-related parameters estimated with an extended Kalman filter. This optimization is carried out in a computationally efficient manner using adjoint-based optimization and causes the innovations term in the extended Kalman filter to be larger in the presence of estimation errors, which leads to a better estimate of the damage-related parameters in question. The technique is demonstrated numerically on a nonlinear 2 DOF system, where a significant improvement in the damage-related parameter estimation is observed.

Bement, Matthew T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bewley, Thomas R [UCSD

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Aerobic composting of waste activated sludge: Kinetic analysis for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption  

SciTech Connect

In order to examine the optimal design and operating parameters, kinetics for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption in composting of waste activated sludge were quantitatively examined. A series of experiments was conducted to discuss the optimal operating parameters for aerobic composting of waste activated sludge obtained from Kawagoe City Wastewater Treatment Plant (Saitama, Japan) using 4 and 20 L laboratory scale bioreactors. Aeration rate, compositions of compost mixture and height of compost pile were investigated as main design and operating parameters. The optimal aerobic composting of waste activated sludge was found at the aeration rate of 2.0 L/min/kg (initial composting mixture dry weight). A compost pile up to 0.5 m could be operated effectively. A simple model for composting of waste activated sludge in a composting reactor was developed by assuming that a solid phase of compost mixture is well mixed and the kinetics for microbiological reaction is represented by a Monod-type equation. The model predictions could fit the experimental data for decomposition of waste activated sludge with an average deviation of 2.14%. Oxygen consumption during composting was also examined using a simplified model in which the oxygen consumption was represented by a Monod-type equation and the axial distribution of oxygen concentration in the composting pile was described by a plug-flow model. The predictions could satisfactorily simulate the experiment results for the average maximum oxygen consumption rate during aerobic composting with an average deviation of 7.4%.

Yamada, Y. [Research Center for Biochemical and Environmental Engineering, Department of Applied Chemistry, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Saitama, 350-8585 (Japan); Kawase, Y. [Research Center for Biochemical and Environmental Engineering, Department of Applied Chemistry, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Saitama, 350-8585 (Japan)]. E-mail: bckawase@mail.eng.toyo.ac.jp

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of an ongoing effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate the feasibility of gasification on a broader level, Nexant, Inc. was contracted to perform a comprehensive study to provide a set of gasification alternatives for consideration by the DOE. Nexant completed the first two tasks (Tasks 1 and 2) of the ''Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization Study'' for the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in 2003. These tasks evaluated the use of the E-GAS{trademark} gasification technology (now owned by ConocoPhillips) for the production of power either alone or with polygeneration of industrial grade steam, fuel gas, hydrocarbon liquids, or hydrogen. NETL expanded this effort in Task 3 to evaluate Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. The Task 3 study had three main objectives. The first was to examine the application of the gasifier at an industrial application in upstate New York using a Southeastern Ohio coal. The second was to investigate the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota. The final goal was to train NETL personnel in the methods of process design and systems analysis. These objectives were divided into five subtasks. Subtasks 3.2 through 3.4 covered the technical analyses for the different design cases. Subtask 3.1 covered management activities, and Subtask 3.5 covered reporting. Conceptual designs were developed for several coal gasification facilities based on the fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. Subtask 3.2 developed two base case designs for industrial combined heat and power facilities using Southeastern Ohio coal that will be located at an upstate New York location. One base case design used an air-blown gasifier, and the other used an oxygen-blown gasifier in order to evaluate their relative economics. Subtask 3.3 developed an advanced design for an air-blown gasification combined heat and power facility based on the Subtask 3.2 design. The air-blown case was chosen since it was less costly and had a better return on investment than the oxygen-blown gasifier case. Under appropriate conditions, this study showed a combined heat and power air-blown gasification facility could be an attractive option for upgrading or expanding the utilities area of industrial facilities. Subtask 3.4 developed a base case design for a large lignite-fueled IGCC power plant that uses the advanced GE 7FB combustion turbine to be located at a generic North Dakota site. This plant uses low-level waste heat to dry the lignite that otherwise would be rejected to the atmosphere. Although this base case plant design is economically attractive, further enhancements should be investigated. Furthermore, since this is an oxygen-blown facility, it has the potential for capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2}. The third objective for Task 3 was accomplished by having NETL personnel working closely with Nexant and Gas Technology Institute personnel during execution of this project. Technology development will be the key to the long-term commercialization of gasification technologies. This will be important to the integration of this environmentally superior solid fuel technology into the existing mix of power plants and industrial facilities. As a result of this study, several areas have been identified in which research and development will further advance gasification technology. Such areas include improved system availability, development of warm-gas clean up technologies, and improved subsystem designs.

Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

A FICTITIOUS PLAY APPROACH TO LARGE-SCALE OPTIMIZATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The system-optimal traffic assignment problem with flow dependent costs has been .... Several problem instances, with various initial battery capacity levels, we

137

Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

138

Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, ...

Ulloa, Osvaldo

139

Microchemical systems for singlet oxygen generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Lasers (COIL) are a technology of interest for industrial and military audiences. COILs are flowing gas lasers where the gain medium of iodine atoms is collisionally pumped by singlet delta oxygen ...

Hill, Tyrone F. (Tyrone Frank), 1980-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Oxygen Sensitivity of Krypton and Lyman-? Hygrometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxygen sensitivity of krypton and Lyman-? hygrometers is studied. Using a dewpoint generator and a controlled nitrogen/oxygen flow the extinction coefficients of five hygrometers associated with the third-order Taylor expansion of the Lambert–...

Arjan van Dijk; Wim Kohsiek; Henk A. R. de Bruin

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optimal oxygen levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Innovative oxygen separation membrane prototype  

SciTech Connect

Improvements are still needed to gas separation processes to gain industry acceptance of coal gasification systems. The Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) technology, being developed by the US Department of Energy and its partners, offers an opportunity to lower overall plant cost and improve efficiency compared to cryogenic distillation and pressure swing adsorption methods. The technology is based on a novel class of perovskite ceramic oxides which can selectively separate oxygen ions from a stream of air at high temperature and pressure. Those ions are transported across the ITM leaving non-permeate air which can be integrated with a fuel-fired gas system, enabling co-production of power and steam along with the concentrated, high-purity oxygen. The project is at the second phase, to scale up the ITM Oxygen ceramic devices to demonstrate the technology at the 1-5 tpd capability in the Subscale Engineering Prototype. A third phase to demonstrate commercial viability extends to the end of the decade. 2 figs.

NONE

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good, and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel's standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion on furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

Riley, Michael F.

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

143

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

Riley, M.F.; Ryan, H.M.

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

144

Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4.degree. C. storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4.degree. C. for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials.

Bitensky, Mark W. (Boston, MA); Yoshida, Tatsuro (Newton, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4 C storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4 C for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials. 8 figs.

Bitensky, M.W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

146

Optimization of Cooling Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A cooling water system can be optimized by operation at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces. The way to optimize will be shown, with a number of examples of new systems.

Matson, J.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Heterogeneous particle swarm optimizers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a swarm intelligence technique originally inspired by models of flocking and of social influence that assumed homogeneous individuals. During its evolution to become a practical optimization tool, some heterogeneous ...

Marco A. Montes De Oca; Jorge Peña; Thomas Stützle; Carlo Pinciroli; Marco Dorigo

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Nonconvex robust optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a novel robust optimization technique, which is applicable to nonconvex and simulation-based problems. Robust optimization finds decisions with the best worst-case performance under uncertainty. If constraints ...

Teo, Kwong Meng

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Erosion and Optimal Transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

383 pp. EROSION AND OPTIMAL TRANSPORT [23] I. Ekeland and T.and D. Simons, Sediment transport capacity of overland ?ow,measure spaces via optimal transport, Ann. of Math. (2),

Birnir, Bjorn; Rowlett, Julie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

568.ps - Optimization Online  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was implemented in the interactive system for universal functional optimization UFO. Results of extensive numerical experiments are reported. Keywords.

151

Web based portfolio optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The portfolio optimization is implemented as e-service through Internet. Four-tier client-server model of WAN-based information system is designed satisfying the intersection of several domains: financial investments, optimization theory and information ... Keywords: portfolio optimization, system algorithmic architecture of information systems, web based information system

Todor Stoilov; Krasimira Stoilova

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300°F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

153

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300°F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

154

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300?F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

155

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300?F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

156

The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air Products supplies oxygen to a number of coal gasification and partial oxidation facilities worldwide. At the high operating pressures of these processes, economics favor the use of 90% and higher oxygen purities. The effect of inerts in the oxidant on gasifier and downstream production units also favor the use of oxygen in place of air. Factors that must be considered in selecting the optimum oxygen purity include: end use of the gasifier products, oxygen delivery pressure and the cost of capital and energy. This paper examines the major factors in oxygen purity selection for typical coal gasifiers. Examples demonstrating the effect of oxygen purity on several processes are presented: production of synthetic natural gas (SNG), integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation and methanol synthesis. The potential impact of a non-cryogenic air separation process currently under development is examined based on integration with a high temperature processes.

Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study  

SciTech Connect

The current study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) oxygen plant to provide oxygen for industrial combustion applications. PSA oxygen plants utilize a molecular sieve material to separate air into an oxygen rich product stream and a nitrogen rich exhaust stream. These plants typically produce 90-95% purity oxygen and are located in close proximity to the point of use. In contrast, high purity (99.999%) oxygen is produced by the distillation of liquid air at a remote plant and is usually transported to the point of use either as a cryogenic liquid in a tank trailer or as a high pressure gas via pipeline. In this study, experiments were performed to the test PSA system used in conjunction with an A'' burner and comparisons were made with the results of the previous study which utilized high purity liquid oxygen. 4 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Delano, M.A. (Union Carbide Industrial Gases, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (USA)); Kwan, Y. (Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (USA))

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Optimization Online - Optimizing Preventive Maintenance Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jun 29, 2004 ... Optimizing Preventive Maintenance Models ... It is assumed that there is a known model which predicts the frequency of system failure as a function of ... Category 2: Applications -- OR and Management Sciences (Scheduling ).

159

Particle Swarm Optimization Based Reactive Power Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reactive power plays an important role in supporting the real power transfer by maintaining voltage stability and system reliability. It is a critical element for a transmission operator to ensure the reliability of an electric system while minimizing the cost associated with it. The traditional objectives of reactive power dispatch are focused on the technical side of reactive support such as minimization of transmission losses. Reactive power cost compensation to a generator is based on the incurred cost of its reactive power contribution less the cost of its obligation to support the active power delivery. In this paper an efficient Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based reactive power optimization approach is presented. The optimal reactive power dispatch problem is a nonlinear optimization problem with several constraints. The objective of the proposed PSO is to minimize the total support cost from generators and reactive compensators. It is achieved by maintaining the whole system power loss as minimum...

Sujin, P R; Linda, M Mary

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Efficient optimal design space characterization methodologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the primary advantages of a high-level synthesis system is its ability to explore the design space. This paper presents several methodologies for design space exploration that compute all optimal tradeoff points for the combined ... Keywords: bounding, clock-length determination, design space exploration, efficient searching, high-level synthesis, module selection, scheduling

Stephen A. Blythe; Robert A. Walker

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optimal oxygen levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Pareto-optimal glowworm swarms optimization for smart grids management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a novel nature-inspired multi-objective optimization algorithm. The method extends the glowworm swarm particles optimization algorithm with algorithmical enhancements which allow to identify optimal pareto front in the objectives ... Keywords: evolutionary optimization, micro-grids, pareto optimization, swarm-optimization

Eleonora Riva Sanseverino; Maria Luisa Di Silvestre; Roberto Gallea

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Optimal software pipelining of loops with control flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Software pipelining is widely used as a compiler optimization technique to achieve high performance in machines that exploit instruc-tion-level parallelism. However, surprisingly, there have been few theoretical or empirical results on optimal software ... Keywords: VLIW, instruction-level parallelism, software pipelining

Han-Saem Yun; Jihong Kim; Soo-Mook Moon

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Optimization Online Digest -- July 2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mathematical optimization for the inverse problem of intensity modulated ... The global optimization of Morse clusters by potential energy transformations

164

Optimization Online Digest -- February 2013  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extension of Completely Positive Cone Relaxation to Polynomial Optimization ... Optimal Power Grid Protection through A Defender-Attacker-Defender Model

165

Optimization Online Digest -- February 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

... Optimization for Power System Configuration with Renewable Energy in Remote Areas ... Robust Energy Cost Optimization of Water Distribution System with ...

166

Optimization Online Digest -- November 2004  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Friedrich Eisenbrand, Gianpaolo Oriolo, Gautier Stauffer, Paolo Ventura. Convex and Nonsmooth Optimization Finding optimal algorithmic parameters using a ...

167

Optimal geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies of the global minima of water clusters (H2O)n, n=2-6, and several hexamer local minima at the CCSD(T) level of theory  

SciTech Connect

We report the first optimum geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies for the ring pentamer and several water hexamer (prism, cage, cyclic and two book) at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. All five hexamer isomer minima previously reported by MP2 are also minima on the CCSD(T) potential energy surface (PES). In addition, all CCSD(T) minimum energy structures for the n=2-6 cluster isomers are quite close to the ones previously obtained by MP2 on the respective PESs, as confirmed by a modified Procrustes analysis that quantifies the difference between any two cluster geometries. The CCSD(T) results confirm the cooperative effect of the homodromic ring networks (systematic contraction of the nearest-neighbor (nn) intermolecular separations with cluster size) previously reported by MP2, albeit with O-O distances shorter by ~0.02 Å, indicating that MP2 overcorrects this effect. The harmonic frequencies at the minimum geometries were obtained by the double differentiation of the CCSD(T) energy using an efficient scheme based on internal coordinates that reduces the number of required single point energy evaluations by ~15% when compared to the corresponding double differentiation using Cartesian coordinates. Negligible differences between MP2 and CCSD(T) are found for the librational modes, while uniform increases of ~15 and ~25 cm-1 are observed for the bending and “free” OH harmonic frequencies. The largest differences between MP2 and CCSD(T) are observed for the harmonic hydrogen bonded frequencies. The CCSD(T) red shifts from the monomer frequencies (??) are smaller than the MP2 ones, due to the fact that the former produces shorter elongations (?R) of the respective hydrogen bonded OH lengths from the monomer value with respect to the latter. Both the MP2 and CCSD(T) results for the hydrogen bonded frequencies were found to closely follow the relation - ?? = s ? ?R, with a rate of s = 20.3 cm-1 / 0.001 Å. The CCSD(T) harmonic frequencies, when corrected using the MP2 anharmonicities obtained from second order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2), produce anharmonicCCSD(T) estimates that are within < 60 cm-1 from the measured infrared (IR) active bands of the n=2-6 clusters and furthermore trace the observed red shifts with respect to the monomer (??) quite accurately. The energetic order between the various hexamer isomers on the PES (prism has the lowest energy) previously reported at MP2 was found to be preserved at the CCSD(T) level, whereas the inclusion of anharmonic corrections further stabilizes the cage among the hexamer isomers.

Miliordos, Evangelos; Apra, Edoardo; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

2013-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

168

The role of oxygen-related defects and hydrogen impurities in HfO2 and ZrO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the properties of oxygen-related defects and hydrogen impurities in monoclinic HfO"2 and ZrO"2 using first-principles calculations based on a hybrid functional. We examine how the formation energy of these defects depend on the Fermi level ... Keywords: Defects in semiconductors, First-principles calculations, HfO2, High-k dielectrics, Hydrogen impurities, Oxygen interstitial, Oxygen vacancy, Sources of fixed charge, ZrO2

J. L. Lyons; A. Janotti; C. G. Van de Walle

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Energy optimization system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for optimizing customer utility usage in a utility network of customer sites, each having one or more utility devices, where customer site is communicated between each of the customer sites and an optimization server having software for optimizing customer utility usage over one or more networks, including private and public networks. A customer site model for each of the customer sites is generated based upon the customer site information, and the customer utility usage is optimized based upon the customer site information and the customer site model. The optimization server can be hosted by an external source or within the customer site. In addition, the optimization processing can be partitioned between the customer site and an external source.

Zhou, Zhi; de Bedout, Juan Manuel; Kern, John Michael; Biyik, Emrah; Chandra, Ramu Sharat

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

170

Cooling Plant Optimization Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Central cooling plants or district cooling systems account for 22 percent of energy costs for cooling commercial buildings. Improving the efficiency of central cooling plants will significantly impact peak demand and energy usage for both building owners and utilities. This guide identifies opportunities for optimizing a central cooling plant and provides a simplified optimization procedure. The guide focuses on plant optimization from the standpoint of minimizing energy costs and maximizing efficiencies...

1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

171

Jupiter Oxygen Corporation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Corporation Place Schiller Park, Illinois Zip 60176 Product Illinois-based oxy-fuel combustion company involved in the capture of CO2. References Jupiter Oxygen Corporation1...

172

Insitu Oxygen Conduction Into Internal Combustion Chamber  

Insitu Oxygen Conduction Into Internal Combustion Chamber Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this ...

173

Areas Participating in the Oxygenated Gasoline Program  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Demand and Price Outlook ... is a colorless, odorless, and poisonous gas ... oxygen by weight is to be used in the wintertime in those areas of the county that ...

174

Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum ...  

Platinum is the most efficient electrocatalyst for accelerating the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Under operating conditions, though, platinum catalysts ...

175

Optimization Online - Test  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jan 25, 2006 ... Test. Andrew Goldberg (goldberg ***at*** cs.wisc.edu). Abstract: Test. Keywords: Test. Category 1: Infinite Dimensional Optimization ...

176

Nonlinear Optimization Test  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jun 8, 2000 ... Nonlinear Optimization Test Goux Jean-Pierre Abstract : this is my abstract. Keywords : this are keywords. Citation: : this is a citation. Download ...

177

Postscript - Optimization Online  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

design of an industrial electric motor. This allows to show that ...... We consider the optimal design of Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) syn-. chronous motors [19

178

Distributionally Robust Convex Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

function of the respective optimization problem, and the upper curve reports the out-of-sample results from a .... Duxbury Thomson Learning, 2nd edition, 2002.

179

Homotopy optimization methods for global optimization.  

SciTech Connect

We define a new method for global optimization, the Homotopy Optimization Method (HOM). This method differs from previous homotopy and continuation methods in that its aim is to find a minimizer for each of a set of values of the homotopy parameter, rather than to follow a path of minimizers. We define a second method, called HOPE, by allowing HOM to follow an ensemble of points obtained by perturbation of previous ones. We relate this new method to standard methods such as simulated annealing and show under what circumstances it is superior. We present results of extensive numerical experiments demonstrating performance of HOM and HOPE.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.; O'Leary, Dianne P. (University of Maryland, College Park, MD)

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray spectroscopy identification and DFT simulations of oxygenated intermediates on a platinum fuel-cell cathode. The study shows that two types of hydroxyl intermediates (non-hydrated OH and hydrated OH) with distinct activities coexist on a fuel-cell cathode. The performance of polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cells is limited by the reduction at the cathode of various oxygenated intermediates in the four-electron pathway of the oxygen reduction reaction. A research team led by SLAC scientists performed x-ray spectroscopy identification and DFT simulations of oxygenated intermediates on a platinum fuel-cell cathode

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optimal oxygen levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Modal test optimization using VETO (Virtual Environment for Test Optimization)  

SciTech Connect

We present a software environment integrating analysis and test-based models to support optimal modal test design through a Virtual Environment for Test Optimization (VETO). A goal in developing this software tool is to provide test and analysis organizations with a capability of mathematically simulating the complete test environment in software. Derived models of test equipment, instrumentation and hardware can be combined within the VETO to provide the user with a unique analysis and visualization capability to evaluate new and existing test methods. The VETO assists analysis and test engineers in maximizing the value of each modal test. It is particularly advantageous for structural dynamics model reconciliation applications. The VETO enables an engineer to interact with a finite element model of a test object to optimally place sensors and exciters and to investigate the selection of data acquisition parameters needed to conduct a complete modal survey. Additionally, the user can evaluate the use of different types of instrumentation such as filters, amplifiers and transducers for which models are available in the VETO. The dynamic response of most of the virtual instruments (including the device under test) is modeled in the state space domain. Design of modal excitation levels and appropriate test instrumentation are facilitated by the VETO`s ability to simulate such features as unmeasured external inputs, A/D quantization effects, and electronic noise. Measures of the quality of the experimental design, including the Modal Assurance Criterion, and the Normal Mode Indicator Function are available.

Klenke, S.E.; Reese, G.M.; Schoof, L.A.; Shierling, C.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Effects of Pressure on Oxygen Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To measure the effects of pressure on the output of a membrane oxygen sensor and a nonmembrane oxygen sensor, the authors pressure cycled a CTD sensor package in a laboratory pressure facility. The CTD sensor package was cycled from 30 to 6800 db ...

M. J. Atkinson; F. I. M. Thomas; N. Larson

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Modelling Hydrogen Reduction and Hydrodeoxygenation of Oxygenates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations, we have studied the reduction of nickel oxide and biomass derived oxygenates (catechol, guaiacol, etc.) in hydrogen. Both the kinetic barrier and thermodynamic favorability are calculated with respect to the modeled reaction pathways. In early-stage reduction of the NiO(100) surface by hydrogen, the pull-off of the surface oxygen atom and simultaneous activation of the nearby Ni atoms coordinately dissociate the hydrogen molecules so that a water molecule can be formed, leaving an oxygen vacancy on the surface. In hydrogen reaction with oxygenates catalyzed by transition metals, hydrogenation of the aromatic carbon ring normally dominates. However, selective deoxygenation is of particular interest for practical application such as biofuel conversion. Our modeling shows that doping of the transition metal catalysts can change the orientation of oxygenates adsorbed on metal surfaces. The correlation between the selectivity of reaction and the orientation of adsorption are discussed.

Zhao, Y.; Xu, Q.; Cheah, S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Oxygen Absorption in Cooling Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The inhomogeneous cooling flow scenario predicts the existence of large quantities of gas in massive elliptical galaxies, groups, and clusters that have cooled and dropped out of the flow. Using spatially resolved, deprojected X-ray spectra from the ROSAT PSPC we have detected strong absorption over energies ~0.4-0.8 keV intrinsic to the central ~1 arcmin of the galaxy, NGC 1399, the group, NGC 5044, and the cluster, A1795. These systems have amongst the largest nearby cooling flows in their respective classes and low Galactic columns. Since no excess absorption is indicated for energies below ~0.4 keV the most reasonable model for the absorber is warm, collisionally ionized gas with T=10^{5-6} K where ionized states of oxygen provide most of the absorption. Attributing the absorption only to ionized gas reconciles the large columns of cold H and He inferred from Einstein and ASCA with the lack of such columns inferred from ROSAT, and also is consistent with the negligible atomic and molecular H inferred from HI, and CO observations of cooling flows. The prediction of warm ionized gas as the product of mass drop-out in these and other cooling flows can be verified by Chandra, XMM, and ASTRO-E.

David A. Buote

2000-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

187

Model test optimization using the virtual environment for test optimization  

SciTech Connect

We present a software environment integrating analysis and test-based models to support optimal modal test design through a Virtual Environment for Test Optimization (VETO). The VETO assists analysis and test engineers to maximize the value of each modal test. It is particularly advantageous for structural dynamics model reconciliation applications. The VETO enables an engineer to interact with a finite element model of a test object to optimally place sensors and exciters and to investigate the selection of data acquisition parameters needed to conduct a complete modal survey. Additionally, the user can evaluate the use of different types of instrumentation such as filters, amplifiers and transducers for which models are available in the VETO. The dynamic response of most of the virtual instruments (including the device under test) are modeled in the state space domain. Design of modal excitation levels and appropriate test instrumentation are facilitated by the VETO`s ability to simulate such features as unmeasured external inputs, A/D quantization effects, and electronic noise. Measures of the quality of the experimental design, including the Modal Assurance Criterion, and the Normal Mode Indicator Function are available. The VETO also integrates tools such as Effective Independence and minamac to assist in selection of optimal sensor locations. The software is designed about three distinct modules: (1) a main controller and GUI written in C++, (2) a visualization model, taken from FEAVR, running under AVS, and (3) a state space model and time integration module built in SIMULINK. These modules are designed to run as separate processes on interconnected machines.

Klenke, S.E.; Reese, G.M.; Schoof, L.A.; Shierling, C.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Critically Evaluated Energy Levels and Spectral Lines of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... not included in the level optimization procedure because they were found to possess significant systematic and statistical errors and do not improve ...

2013-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

189

Performance and optimization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

they exercise. This categorization is similar in spirit to that used in the BLAS API. Currently, the levels are: Stability Tests Performance Tests Level 0: Very low level...

190

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Method of detecting oxygen partial pressure and oxygen partial pressure sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

Dees, D.W.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

192

Selective photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A selective photooxidation process for the conversion of hydrocarbon molecules to partially oxygenated derivatives, which comprises the steps of adsorbing a hydrocarbon and oxygen onto a dehydrated zeolite support matrix to form a hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair, and subsequently exposing the hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair to visible light, thereby forming a partially oxygenated derivative.

Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Berkeley, CA); Sun, Hai (Berkeley, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Level Bundle Methods for Constrained Convex Optimization with ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

May 23, 2013 ... belongs to the l-th cycle, Xk is nonempty and xk+1 ? Xk. This fact combined with xk?1 = xk and (19) allows us to deduce that ?xk ? xk,xk+1 ...

194

Optimal service level allocation in environmentally powered embedded systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy management is a critical concern in the design of embedded systems to prolong the lifetime or to maximize the performance under energy constraints. In particular, the emerging embedded systems with renewable energy sources rise new problems and ... Keywords: embedded systems, energy harvesting systems, reward maximization, solar cells

Clemens Moser; Jian-Jia Chen; Lothar Thiele

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Optimization Models for Differentiating Quality of Service Levels in ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

works to reduce his or her own transport costs given a designed network. Patriksson (1994) ...... stochastic programming of heating oil. Management Science 4 ...

196

Optimizing inventory levels using financial, lifecycle and forecast variance data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Significant inventory write-offs have recently plagued ATI Technologies, a world leader in graphics and media processors. ATI's product-centric culture has long deterred attention from supply chain efficiency. Given that ...

Hwang, Irene S

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Optimization Online - Optimal Job Scheduling with Day-ahead Price ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aug 17, 2011 ... Optimization Online. Optimal Job Scheduling with Day-ahead Price and Random Local Distributed Generation: A Two-stage Robust Approach.

198

Risk and robust optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis develops and explores the connections between risk theory and robust optimization. Specifically, we show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between a class of risk measures known as coherent risk measures ...

Brown, David Benjamin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Polyethylene fiber drawing optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polymer fiber drawing creates fibers with enhanced thermal conductivity and strength compared to bulk polymer because drawing aligns the molecular chains. I optimize the polymer fiber drawing method in order to achieve ...

Chiloyan, Vazrik

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Optimizing workflow data footprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we examine the issue of optimizing disk usage and scheduling large-scale scientific workflows onto distributed resources where the workflows are data-intensive, requiring large amounts of data storage, and the resources have limited storage ...

Gurmeet Singh; Karan Vahi; Arun Ramakrishnan; Gaurang Mehta; Ewa Deelman; Henan Zhao; Rizos Sakellariou; Kent Blackburn; Duncan Brown; Stephen Fairhurst; David Meyers; G. Bruce Berriman; John Good; Daniel S. Katz

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optimal oxygen levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Optimal transport strategies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is generally presupposed that the shapes and mechanisms encountered in nature have evolved in such a way as to maximize the robustness of a species. However, most such optimization problems arising in biology are ...

Kim, Wonjung, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Optimal distance separating halfspace  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Plastria & Carrizosa / Optimal distance separating halfspace. 2. 1 Gauge Distance to a Hyperplane. Let ? be a gauge on Rd with unit ball B, i.e. B is a compact ...

203

Optimization of Hot Standby  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Optimization is one of the key issues facing the chemical process industries today. The drivers are both economic and environmental. Utilities are among the top operating expenses for manufacturers, reflecting elevated energy prices and the energy

de Souza, J.; Holden, D.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

1052.ps - Optimization Online  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a natural approach of formulating problems where it is necessary to simultaneously. optimize the system ... deign of gas or water transmission networks. ..... region of the linear programming relaxation is compressed because of the decrease.

205

1093.ps - Optimization Online  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Semidefinite Program (SDP) is a fundamental problem in mathematical .... SDPs arising from quantum chemistry [11, 24] and polynomial optimization [17, 19], ...... R. Saigal and L. Vandenberghe, Handbook of Semidefinite Programming ,.

206

View - Optimization Online  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

accuracy and v(xk) is not sufficiently small, or if the new constraint violation satisfies ...... RRR 12-94, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. ... Nonlinear Optimization, Technical Report, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Ox-.

207

Optimal Parametric Auctions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the problem of profit maximization in auctions of one good where the buyers' valuations are drawn from independent distributions. When these distributions are known to the seller, Myerson's optimal auction is a ...

Azar, Pablo

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

208

Computationally Optimized Homogenization Heat Treatment of Metal Alloys  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Computationally Optimized Homogenization Heat Computationally Optimized Homogenization Heat Treatment of Metal Alloys Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov May 2013 Significance * Reduction in energy consumption and carbon dioxide output due to shorter, more effective heat treatments * Substantially lower processing costs * Ability to optimize the mechanical properties of alloys for improved downstream performance * Adaptable to the constraints of individual production facilities and the level of homogenization desired Applications * Any solid substitutional alloy utilized in a

209

Recovery code generation for general speculative optimizations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A general framework that integrates both control and data speculation using alias profiling and/or compiler heuristic rules has shown to improve CPU2000 performance on Itanium systems. However, speculative optimizations require check instructions and ... Keywords: Recovery code, multi-level data speculation, speculative SSA form

Jin Lin; Wei-Chung Hsu; Pen-Chung Yew; Roy Dz-Ching Ju; Tin-Fook Ngai

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Optimal statistical model for forecasting ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to apply time series analysis and multiple regression method to ozone data in order to obtain the optimal statistical model for forecasting next day ozone level. The best estimated model is then used to produce one-step ... Keywords: ARMA (p, q), Durbin-Watson Statistic, MAPE, R-square, multiple regression

M. Abdollahian; R. Foroughi; N. Debnath

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process  

This patent-pending technology, “Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process,” provides a metal-oxide oxygen carrier for application in fuel combustion processes that use oxygen.

212

Optimization Online Digest -- January 2001  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E. Alper Yildirim, Michael J. Todd. Network Optimization Newton Algorithms for Large-Scale Strictly Convex Separable Network Optimization Aleksandar Donev  ...

213

Optimization of Lithium Titanate Electrodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optimization of Lithium Titanate Electrodes Title Optimization of Lithium Titanate Electrodes Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2006 Authors Christensen, John,...

214

Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nov 22, 2012 ... Our goal is to find the minimum cost design by choosing optimal ..... et al., 1998), the optimal response to catastrophic oil spills such as the ...

215

Optimization Online Digest -- January 2013  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization Online Digest — January 2013. Applications — OR and Management Sciences A two-step optimization approach for job shop scheduling problem ...

216

Permanent magnet hydrogen oxygen generating cells  

SciTech Connect

A generating cell for hydrogen and oxygen utilizes permanent magnets and electromagnets. Means are provided for removing gases from the electrodes. Mixing chambers are provided for water and the electrolyte used in the cell.

Harris, M.

1976-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

217

OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE Kee Chul Kim Ph.D.727-366; Figure 1. Oxygen-uranium phase-equilibrium _ystem [18]. uranium dioxide powders and 18 0 enriched carbon

Kim, Kee Chul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

THE PATH OF OXYGEN IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experiment is described in which an attempt is made to follow the path of oxygen in photosynthesis by the use of O{sup 18} as a tracer.

Dorough, G.D.; Calvin, M.

1950-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

219

Oxy-combustion: Oxygen Transport Membrane Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

combustion: Oxygen Transport combustion: Oxygen Transport Membrane Development Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. The EPEC R&D

220

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions and their uses are described. Mixed metal oxide compositions of the invention have stratified crystalline structure identifiable by means of powder X-ray diffraction patterns. In the form of dense ceramic membranes, the present compositions demonstrate an ability to separate oxygen selectively from a gaseous mixture containing oxygen and one or more other volatile components by means of ionic conductivities.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Plainfield, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Prospect, PA); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optimal oxygen levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The effect of oxygenate molecular structure on soot production in direct-injection diesel engines.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A combined experimental and kinetic modeling study of soot formation in diesel engine combustion has been used to study the addition of oxygenated species to diesel fuel to reduce soot emissions. This work indicates that the primary role of oxygen atoms in the fuel mixture is to reduce the levels of carbon atoms available for soot formation by fixing them in the form of CO or COz. When the structure of the oxygenate leads to prompt and direct formation of CO2, the oxygenate is less effective in reducing soot production than in cases when all fuel-bound 0 atoms produce only CO. The kinetic and molecular structure principles leading to this conclusion are described.

Westbrook, Charles K. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Pitz, William J. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Mueller, Charles J.; Martin, Glen M.; Pickett, Lyle M.

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and...

223

Oxygen Nonstoichiometry, Thermo-chemical Stability and Crystal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... gas separation membranes and oxygen sensors, oxygen nonstoichiometry and crystal ... New Electric Current Effects on 8-Y Zirconia Ceramics: Pore/Bubble ...

224

Control vector optimal structure for minimal-time networks optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The methodology for the electronic networks optimization was elaborated by means of the optimal control theory approach. In this case the problem of the electronic system design is formulated as a classical problem of functional minimization of the optimal ... Keywords: Lyapunov function, circuit optimization, control theory application, minimal-time system design

Alexander Zemliak; Miguel Torres; Antonio Michua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Optimization strategies for discrete multi-material stiffness optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Design of composite laminated lay-ups are formulated as discrete multi-material selection problems. The design problem can be modeled as a non-convex mixed-integer optimization problem. Such problems are in general only solvable to global optimality ... Keywords: Integer optimization, Laminated composite materials, Optimal design, Sensitivity analysis, Solution strategies

Christian Frier Hvejsel; Erik Lund; Mathias Stolpe

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Furnace and Heat Recovery Area Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the furnace and heat recovery area design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the location and design of the furnace, burners, over-fire gas ports, and internal radiant surfaces. The furnace and heat recovery area were designed and analyzed using the FW-FIRE and HEATEX computer programs. The furnace is designed with opposed wall-firing burners and over-fire air ports. Water is circulated in the furnace by natural circulation to the waterwalls and divisional wall panels. Compared to the air-fired furnace, the oxygen-fired furnace requires only 65% of the surface area and 45% of the volume. Two oxygen-fired designs were simulated: (1) without over-fire air and (2) with 20% over-fire air. The maximum wall heat flux in the oxygen-fired furnace is more than double that of the air-fired furnace due to the higher flame temperature and higher H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} concentrations. The coal burnout for the oxygen-fired case is 100% due to a 500 F higher furnace temperature and higher concentration of O{sub 2}. Because of the higher furnace wall temperature of the oxygen-fired case compared to the air-fired case, furnace water wall material was upgraded from carbon steel to T91. The total heat transfer surface required in the oxygen-fired heat recovery area (HRA) is 25% less than the air-fired HRA due to more heat being absorbed in the oxygen-fired furnace and the greater molecular weight of the oxygen-fired flue gas. The HRA tube materials and wall thickness are practically the same for the air-fired and oxygen-fired design since the flue gas and water/steam temperature profiles encountered by the heat transfer banks are very similar.

Andrew Seltzer

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Method for providing oxygen ion vacancies in lanthanide oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for desulfurization of fuel gases resulting from the incomplete combustion of sulfur containing hydrocarbons whereby the gases are treated with lanthanide oxides containing large numbers of oxygen-ion vacancies providing ionic porosity which enhances the ability of the lanthanide oxides to react more rapidly and completely with the sulfur in the fuel gases whereby the sulfur in such gases is reduced to low levels suitable for fuels for firing into boilers of power plants generating electricity with steam turbine driven generators, gas turbines, fuel cells and precursors for liquid fuels such as methanol and the like.

Kay, D. Alan R. (4305 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, CA); Wilson, William G. (820 Harden Dr., Pittsburgh, PA 15229)

1989-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

229

Recent advances in the kinetics of oxygen reduction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oxygen reduction is considered an important electrocatalytic reaction; the most notable need remains improvement of the catalytic activity of existing metal electrocatalysts and development of new ones. A review is given of new advances in the understanding of reaction kinetics and improvements of the electrocatalytic properties of some surfaces, with focus on recent studies of relationship of the surface properties to its activity and reaction kinetics. The urgent need is to improve catalytic activity of Pt and synthesize new, possibly non- noble metal catalysts. New experimental techniques for obtaining new level of information include various {ital in situ} spectroscopies and scanning probes, some involving synchrotron radiation. 138 refs, 18 figs, 2 tabs.

Adzic, R.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Oxygen generator for medical applications (USIC)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall Project objective is to develop a portable, non-cryogenic oxygen generator capable of supplying medical grade oxygen at sufficient flow rates to allow the field application of the Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT{reg_sign}) developed by Numotech, Inc. This project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and is managed by collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Numotech, Inc, and LLC SPE 'Spektr-Conversion.' The project had two phases, with the objective of Phase I being to develop, build and test a laboratory prototype of the membrane-pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system producing at 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum of 98% oxygen purity. Phase II objectives were to further refine and identify the pre-requisites needed for a commercial product and to determine the feasibility of producing 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum oxygen purity of 99%. In Phase I, Spektr built up the necessary infrastructure to perform experimental work and proceeded to build and demonstrate a membrane-PSA laboratory prototype capable of producing 98% purity oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min. Spektr offered a plausible path to scale up the process for 15 L/min. Based on the success and experimental results obtained in Phase I, Spektr performed work in three areas for Phase II: construction of a 15 L/min PSA; investigation of compressor requirements for the front end of the membrane/PSA system; and performing modeling and simulation of assess the feasibility of producing oxygen with a purity greater than 99%. Spektr successfully completed all of the tasks under Phase II. A prototype 15 L/min PSA was constructed and operated. Spektr determined that no 'off the shelf' air compressors met all of the specifications required for the membrane-PSA, so a custom compressor will likely need to be built. Modeling and simulation concluded that production of oxygen with purities greater than 99% was possible using a Membrane-PSA system.

Staiger, C. L.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Mapping Mediterranean Altimeter Data with a Multiresolution Optimal Interpolation Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multiresolution optimal interpolation scheme is described and used to map the sea level anomaly of the Mediterranean Sea based on TOPEX/Poseidon and ERS-1 data. The principal advantages of the multiresolution scheme are its high computational ...

P. Fieguth; D. Menemenlis; T. Ho; A. Willsky; C. Wunsch

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Optimization Control Strategies for HVAC Terminal Boxes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The HVAC terminal boxes are one of the major building HVAC components. They directly impact the building room comfort conditions and the energy costs. How to operate the box in a highly energy efficient way and maintain the room comfort level is an important topic in today's building energy management and HVAC control field. The authors developed novel optimized control strategies and operation schedules for the terminal boxes for both occupied and non-occupied hours. The optimized control schedules were implemented in a medical complex during the commissioning. This not only improved the building comfort conditions but also reduced the energy costs.

Zhu, Y.; Batten, T.; Noboa, H.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Liu, M.; Zhou, J.; Cameron, C.; Keeble, D.; Hirchak, R.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

NETL: Gasification Systems - Gasifier Optimization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gasifier Opt & Plant Supporting Systems Gasifier Opt & Plant Supporting Systems Gasification Systems Gasifier Optimization and Plant Supporting Systems The gasifier is the core system component in the gasification process. It determines both the primary requirements for raw material inputs and the product gas composition. The gasifier is generally a high temperature/pressure vessel where oxygen (or air) and steam are directly contacted with a fuel, such as coal, causing a series of chemical reactions to occur that result in production of a fuel gas. This fuel gas (also referred to either as synthesis gas or syngas) consists primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. Minor constituents present in the feedstock are converted to such products as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and ash/slag (mineral residues from coal). These products can be separated and captured for use or safe disposal. After cleaning to remove contaminants, the syngas consists mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. According to the Department of Energy's vision for coal gasification, at this point steam may be added and the syngas sent through a water-gas shift (WGS) reactor to convert the carbon monoxide to nothing but carbon dioxide and additional hydrogen. After a gas separation process, the carbon dioxide is ready for utilization (such as for Enhanced Oil Recovery) or safe storage, and the hydrogen can be fired in a gas-turbine/steam-turbine generator set to produce electricity with stack emissions containing no greenhouse gases. Alternately, syngas or hydrogen can be used to produce highly-valued fuels and chemicals. Co-production of combinations of these products and electricity is also possible.

234

Hopper Performance and Optimization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optimization Optimization Performance and Optimization Compiler Comparisons Comparison of different compilers with different options on several benchmarks. Read More » Using OpenMP Effectively Performance implications and case studies of codes combining MPI and OpenMP Read More » Reordering MPI Ranks Reordering MPI ranks can result in improved application performance depending on the communication patterns of the application. Read More » Application Performance Variability on Hopper How an application is placed across Hopper's roughly 6300 compute nodes can affect its performance. See a study of application runtimes vs node placement. Read More » Hopper Performance Monitoring Benchmarking performance of scientific applications on Hopper Read More » Hopper:Improving I/O performance to GSCRATCH and PROJECT

235

Reverse Osmosis Optimization  

SciTech Connect

This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). ¬The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.¬

McMordie-Stoughton, Katherine L.; Duan, Xiaoli; Wendel, Emily M.

2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

236

Lattice Boltzmann Simulation Optimization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Boltzmann Boltzmann Simulation Optimization on Leading Multicore Platforms Selected as Best Paper in Application Track, IPDPS 2008, April 14-28, Miami, Florida, USA Samuel Williams † , Jonathan Carter , Leonid Oliker John Shalf , Katherine Yelick † CRD/NERSC, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720 † CS Division, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 {SWWilliams, JTCarter, LOliker, JShalf, KAYelick}@lbl.gov Abstract We present an auto-tuning approach to optimize ap- plication performance on emerging multicore architec- tures. The methodology extends the idea of search- based performance optimizations, popular in linear al- gebra and FFT libraries, to application-specific com- putational kernels. Our work applies this strategy to a lattice Boltzmann application (LBMHD) that histor- ically has made poor use of scalar microprocessors

237

Similarities between Optimal Precursors that Trigger the Onset of Blocking Events and Optimally Growing Initial Errors in Onset Prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A triangular T21, three-level, quasigeostrophic global spectral model was used to investigate how precursors relate to the predictability of blocking onset when a conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation approach is used. Here the authors ...

Mu Mu; Zhina Jiang

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Distributed Optimization System  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A search system and method for controlling multiple agents to optimize an objective using distributed sensing and cooperative control. The search agent can be one or more physical agents, such as a robot, and can be software agents for searching cyberspace. The objective can be: chemical sources, temperature sources, radiation sources, light sources, evaders, trespassers, explosive sources, time dependent sources, time independent sources, function surfaces, maximization points, minimization points, and optimal control of a system such as a communication system, an economy, a crane, and a multi-processor computer.

Hurtado, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Dohrmann, Clark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Robinett, III, Rush D. (Tijeras, NM)

2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

239

Design optimization of IGCC power plants  

SciTech Connect

Integrated gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants have the potential for providing performance and cost improvements over conventional coal-fired steam power plants with flue-gas desulfurization. The major design options for IGCC power plants include the following: oxygen-blown versus air-blown gasification processes; entrained-flow, fluidized-bed, or fixed-bed gasifier; coal-slurry feed versus coal-dry feed; hot versus cold fuel-gas cleanup; gas turbine alternatives; and, design alternatives for the Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). This paper summarizes some results from these studies. The advanced thermoelectric techniques used at Tennessee Technological University (TTU) are very powerful tools for evaluating and optimizing IGCC power plants.

Tsatsaronis, G.; Lin, L.; Pisa, J.; Tawfik, T. (Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Steam System Optimization : A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The steam system optimization (generation, distribution, use and condensate return) offers a large opportunity for action to comply with the new levels of energy efficiency standards. Superior design and improved maintenance practices are the two main sources of savings in steam systems. Increased competition no longer permits an industry to survive with energy waste that could be eliminated. This paper highlights the study findings of the steam system in a plant from the Food industry. The steam system operates with an annual budget of $1.9 million. Normal steam demand ranges between 80,000 to 85,000 lb/hr. The steam system analysis identified energy savings worth $270,000 per year. The optimization measures were in two categories: • No cost/low cost optimizations that can be done through a better maintenance and improved operating condition • Major improvements that require a significant investment, and includes the modification of the process and major equipment.

Iordanova, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.; Calogero, M.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optimal oxygen levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Global Warming Mitigation Investments Optimized under Uncertainty  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Warming Mitigation Investments Optimized under Uncertainty Global Warming Mitigation Investments Optimized under Uncertainty Speaker(s): Hermann Held Date: July 9, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Thomas McKone The Copenhagen Accord (2009) recognizes that 'the increase in global temperature should be below 2 degrees Celsius' (compared to pre-industrial levels, '2° target'). In recent years, energy economics have derived welfare-optimal investment streams into low-emission energy mixes and associated costs. According to our analyses, auxiliary targets that are in line with the 2° target could be achieved at relatively low costs if energy investments were triggered rather swiftly. While such analyses assume 'perfect foresight' of a benevolent 'social planner', an accompanying suite of experiments explicitly

242

Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible. 1 figure

Roman, I.C.; Baker, R.W.

1990-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

243

Holistic ship design optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ship design is a complex endeavor requiring the successful coordination of many disciplines, of both technical and non-technical nature, and of individual experts to arrive at valuable design solutions. Inherently coupled with the design process is design ... Keywords: Enhanced survivability, Genetic algorithms, Holistic ship design, Minimization of resistance and wash, Multi-objective optimization

Apostolos Papanikolaou

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

933.ps - Optimization Online  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aug 30, 2004 ... optimization problem on a ner grid (see Griewank and Toint, 1982, Banks, Gill and .... clear that n is typically large, since it usually grows as some power of the ...... extensions to be possible and the resulting algorithms to be of ...

245

Cooling Water System Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During summer months, many manufacturing plants have to cut back in rates because the cooling water system is not providing sufficient cooling to support higher production rates. There are many low/no-cost techniques available to improve tower performance. To understand the importance of the optimization techniques, cooling tower theory will be discussed first.

Aegerter, R.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Optimization in Mung Chiang  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization in Networking Mung Chiang Princeton University 10th MOPTA August 18, 2010 #12;Routing variables {xl, s} #12;Power Control P. Hande,S. Rangan, M. Chiang, X. Wu, "Distributed uplink power control. Chen, S. Liu, S. Sengputa, M. Chiang, J. Li, and P. A. Chou, "P2P streaming capacity", IEEE

Chiang, Mung

247

Direct Observation of Oxygen Superstructures in Manganites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the observation of superstructures associated with the oxygen 2p states in two prototypical manganites using x-ray diffraction at the oxygen K edge. In the stripe order system Bi{sub 0.31}Ca{sub 0.69}MnO{sub 3}, hole-doped O states are orbitally ordered, at the same propagation vector as the Mn orbital ordering, but no oxygen charge stripes are found at this periodicity. In La{sub 7/8}Sr{sub 1/8}MnO{sub 3}, we observe a 2p charge ordering described by alternating hole-poor and hole-rich MnO planes that is consistent with some of the recent predictions.

Grenier, S.; Tonnerre, J. M. [Institut Neel, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Thomas, K. J.; Hill, J. P. [Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Staub, U.; Bodenthin, Y.; Garcia-Fernandez, M. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Sherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Scagnoli, V. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Kiryukhin, V.; Cheong, S-W.; Kim, B. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

2007-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

248

Optimal Carbon Capture and Storage policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Following the IPCC's report (2005), which recommended the development and the use of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies in order to achieve the environmental goals, de ned by the Kyoto Protocol, the issue addressed in this paper concerns the optimal strategy regarding the long-term use of CCS technologies. The aim of this paper is to study the optimal carbon capture and sequestration policy. The CCS technologies has motivated a number of empirical studies, via complex integrated assessment models. This literature always considers that the existing technology allows sequestrating a fraction of the carbon emissions and concludes that the early introduction of sequestration can lead to a substantial decrease in the cost of environmental externality. But, the level of complexity of such operational models, aimed at de ning some speci c climate policies. We develop a very simple growth model so as to obtain analytical and tractable results and therefore exhibit the main driving forces that should determine the optimal CSS policy. We show within this stylized framework that, under some conditions on the cost of extractions, CSS may be a long-term solution for the carbon emissions problem. Besides, it is also shown that the social planner will optimally choose to decrease the rate of capture and sequestration. Besides, we also introduce the decentralization of this simple economy, by considering the individual program of the fossil resource-holder and the one of the representative consumer. This helps us to compute analytically the optimal environmental policy, that is the optimal tax scheme, and also the optimal fossil fuel price pro le.

Alain Ayong; Le Kama; Mouez Fodha; Gilles La Orgue

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Robust Optimization of Nanometer SRAM Designs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Technology scaling has been the most obvious choice of designers and chip manufacturing companies to improve the performance of analog and digital circuits. With the ever shrinking technological node, process variations can no longer be ignored and play a significant role in determining the performance of nanoscaled devices. By choosing a worst case design methodology, circuit designers have been very munificent with the design parameters chosen, often manifesting in pessimistic designs with significant area overheads. Significant work has been done in estimating the impact of intra-die process variations on circuit performance, pertinently, noise margin and standby leakage power, for fixed transistor channel dimensions. However, for an optimal, high yield, SRAM cell design, it is absolutely imperative to analyze the impact of process variations at every design point, especially, since the distribution of process variations is a statistically varying parameter and has an inverse correlation with the area of the MOS transistor. Furthermore, the first order analytical models used for optimization of SRAM memories are not as accurate and the impact of voltage and its inclusion as an input, along with other design parameters, is often ignored. In this thesis, the performance parameters of a nano-scaled 6-T SRAM cell are modeled as an accurate, yield aware, empirical polynomial predictor, in the presence of intra-die process variations. The estimated empirical models are used in a constrained non-linear, robust optimization framework to design an SRAM cell, for a 45 nm CMOS technology, having optimal performance, according to bounds specified for the circuit performance parameters, with the objective of minimizing on-chip area. This statistically aware technique provides a more realistic design methodology to study the trade off between performance parameters of the SRAM. Furthermore, a dual optimization approach is followed by considering SRAM power supply and wordline voltages as additional input parameters, to simultaneously tune the design parameters, ensuring a high yield and considerable area reduction. In addition, the cell level optimization framework is extended to the system level optimization of caches, under both cell level and system level performance constraints.

Dayal, Akshit

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Application of oxygen-enriched combustion for locomotive diesel engines. Phase 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A thermodynamic simulation is used to study the effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on the performance and nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions of a locomotive diesel engine. The parasitic power of the air separation membrane required to supply the oxygen-enriched air is also estimated. For a given constraint on peak cylinder pressure, the gross and net power outputs of an engine operating under different levels of oxygen enrichment are compared with those obtained when a high-boost turbocharged engine is used. A 4% increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in an increase in net engine power of approximately 13% when intake air with an oxygen content of 28% by volume is used and fuel injection timing is retarded by 4 degrees. When the engine is turbocharged to a higher inlet boost, the same increase in peak cylinder pressure improves power by only 4%. If part of the significantly higher exhaust enthalpies available as a result of oxygen enrichment are recovered, the power requirements of the air separator membrane can be met, resulting in substantial net power improvements. Oxygen enrichment reduces particulate and visible smoke emissions but increases NO emissions. However, a combination of retarded fuel injection timing and post-treatment of exhaust gases may be adequate to meet the locomotive diesel engine NO{sub x} standards. Exhaust gas after-treatment and heat recovery would be required to realize the full potential of oxygen enrichment. Economic analysis shows that oxygen-enrichment technology is economically feasible and provides high returns on investment. The study also indicates the strong influence of membrane parasitic requirements and exhaust energy recovery on economic benefits. To obtain an economic advantage while using a membrane with higher parasitic power requirements, it is necessary to recover a part of the exhaust energy.

Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.R.; Assanis, D.N.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Simulation-based optimization: practical introduction to simulation optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The merging of optimization and simulation technologies has seen a rapid growth in recent years. A Google search on "Simulation Optimization" returns more than six thousand pages where this phrase appears. The content of these pages ranges from articles, ...

Jay April; Fred Glover; James P. Kelly; Manuel Laguna

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Deterministic Global Optimization in Nonlinear Optimal Control Problems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accurate solution of optimal control problems is crucial in many areas of engineering and applied science. For systems which are described by a nonlinear set of differential-algebraic equations, these problems have been shown to often contain ... Keywords: Differential-algebraic equations, Global optimization, Optimal control

William R. Esposito; Christodoulos A. Floudas

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Finding many optimal paths without growing any optimal path trees  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many algorithms seek to compute actual optimal paths in weighted directed graphs. The standard approach for reporting an actual optimal path is based on building a single-source optimal path tree. A technique was given in [1] for a class of problems ...

Danny Z. Chen; Ewa Misiolek

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Socially Optimal Transport . . .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper investigates the amount and type of mobility (physical travel) that is optimal for society overall. It asks, “How much and what type of travel would people choose in a transportation system that reflects efficient market principles, including diverse consumer options, cost-based pricing, and neutral public policies.” It discusses these principles, identifies existing transport market distortions and reforms, estimates how such reforms would affect mobility, and investigates resulting economic impacts. This analysis indicates that in a more optimal market consumers would choose to drive less, use alternative modes more, choose more accessible locations, and be better off overall as a result. Although previous studies have evaluated these transport market reforms individually, few have considered their cumulative impacts.

Todd Litman

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Performance and Optimization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Performance and Performance and Optimization Performance and Optimization Benchmarking Software on Hopper and Carver PURPOSE Test the performance impact of multithreading with representative public domain software including blastn, blastp, rpsblast, hmmsearch, usearch. Run on Hopper (24 cores/node) and Carver (8 cores/node) with different combinations of the number of tasks and threads. Provide useful set of parameters to maximize throughput PROGRAMS TESTED BLAST+ programs (blastn, blastp, rpsblast) version 2.2.26 usearch verison 5.2.32 hmmsearch version 3.0 DATASETS usearch: a collection of protein sequences (~900MB) against a reference "udb" (~900MB) blastn Query: a collection of nucleotide sequences from NCBI Microbial database from ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/refseq/release/microbial/ (34,154

256

Stencil Computation Optimization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stencil Stencil Computation Optimization and Auto-tuning on State-of-the-Art Multicore Architectures Kaushik Datta ∗† , Mark Murphy † , Vasily Volkov † , Samuel Williams ∗† , Jonathan Carter ∗ , Leonid Oliker ∗† , David Patterson ∗† , John Shalf ∗ , and Katherine Yelick ∗† ∗ CRD/NERSC, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA † Computer Science Division, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Abstract Understanding the most efficient design and utilization of emerging multicore systems is one of the most chal- lenging questions faced by the mainstream and scientific computing industries in several decades. Our work ex- plores multicore stencil (nearest-neighbor) computations - a class of algorithms at the heart of many structured grid codes, including PDE solvers. We develop a number of effective optimization

257

Oxygen Effects on Thermophilic Microbial Populations in Biofilters Treating Nitric Oxide Containing Off-Gas Streams  

SciTech Connect

Electricity generation from coal has increased by an average of 51 billion kWh per year over the past 3 years. For this reason cost-effective strategies to control nitrogen oxides (NOx) from coal-fired power plant combustion gases must be developed. Compost biofilters operated at 55°C at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 13 seconds were shown to be feasible for removal of nitric oxide (NO) from synthetic flue gas. Denitrifying microbial populations in these biofilters were shown to reduce influent NO feeds by 90 to 95% at inlet NO concentrations of 500 ppmv. Oxygen was shown to have a significant effect on the NO removal efficiency demonstrated by these biofilters. Two biofilters were set up under identical conditions for the purpose of monitoring NO removal as well as changes in the microbial population in the bed medium under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Changes in the microbial population were monitored to determine the maximum oxygen tolerance of a denitrifying biofilter as well as methods of optimizing microbial populations capable of denitrification in the presence of low oxygen concentrations. Nitric oxide removal dropped to between 10 and 20% when oxygen was present in the influent stream. The inactive compost used to pack the biofilters may have also caused the decreased NO removal efficiency compared to previous biofiltration experiments. Analysis of the bed medium microbial population using environmental scanning electron microscopy indicated significant increases in biomass populating the surface of the compost when compared to unacclimated compost.

Lee, Brady Douglas; Apel, William Arnold; Smith, William Aaron

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

HOMER® Micropower Optimization Model  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

NREL has developed the HOMER micropower optimization model. The model can analyze all of the available small power technologies individually and in hybrid configurations to identify least-cost solutions to energy requirements. This capability is valuable to a diverse set of energy professionals and applications. NREL has actively supported its growing user base and developed training programs around the model. These activities are helping to grow the global market for solar technologies.

Lilienthal, P.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Electrolysis method for producing hydrogen and oxygen  

SciTech Connect

A novel electrolytic cell produces a mixture of highly ionized hydrogen and oxygen gases by a method combining electrolysis and radiolysis of an aqueous electrolyte. The electrolyte, which may be 25 percent of potassium hydroxide, is introduced into the cell and is simultaneously subjected to an electrolyting current and intense irradiation by electromagnetic radiation of frequency less than 10/sup -10/ meters.

Horvath, S.

1978-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

Social impact theory based optimizer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces a novel stochastic and population-based binary optimization method inspired by social psychology. It is called Social Impact Theory based Optimization (SITO). The method has been developed with the use of some simple modifications ...

Martin Macaš; Lenka Lhotská

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optimal oxygen levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Power Systems Operation Planning Optimization.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Optimal hydrothermal power dispatch on a multi-area network is a large-scale non-linear problem. Its objective is to find the optimal generation schedule of hydro and… (more)

FRAGOMENI, UMBERTO

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Adaptable optimization : theory and algorithms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization under uncertainty is a central ingredient for analyzing and designing systems with incomplete information. This thesis addresses uncertainty in optimization, in a dynamic framework where information is revealed ...

Caramanis, Constantine (Constantine Michael), 1977-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Optimization Online Digest -- March 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Economic and Environmental Analysis of Photovoltaic Energy Systems via Robust Optimization Shimpei Okido, Akiko Takeda Scatter search algorithms for the ...

264

Optimization Online Digest -- December 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization Online Digest — December 2012. Applications ... Solving the integrated airline recovery problem using column-and-row generation. Stephen J  ...

265

Optimization Online Digest -- January 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assortment and Pricing with Demand Learning Masoud Talebian ... Optimal Response to Epidemics and Cyber Attacks in Networks Noam Goldberg, Sven ...

266

Portfolio Optimization: Concepts and Challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The term "portfolio optimization" -- the process of finding and exploiting opportunities to add value by changing the composition of a business portfolio -- has been occurring with increasing frequency in the electric power industry. For example, portfolio optimization has appeared as a topic on agendas for numerous industry conferences. Vendors of commercial software for trading and risk management also are starting to promote portfolio optimization's capabilities. Though portfolio optimization is a hot...

2002-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

267

Project: Sustainability Modeling and Optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and the capabilities to formulate simulation and optimization models. ... “Energy Efficiency Analysis for a Casting Production System,” Berglund ...

2012-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

268

Optimization Online Digest -- December 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Security Framework for Smart Metering with Multiple Data Consumers Cristina Rottondi, Giacomo Verticale, Antonio Capone Optimizing Trading Decisions for ...

269

Optimization Online Digest -- May 2013  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization Online Digest — May 2013. Applications — OR and Management Sciences Practical Multi-objective Programming Isaac Siwale Solution of ...

270

Optimization Online Digest -- September 2013  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization Online Digest — September 2013. Applications — OR and Management Sciences The Vehicle Platooning Problem: Computational Complexity and ...

271

Optimization Online Digest -- March 2013  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization Online Digest — March 2013. Applications — OR and Management Sciences Solution Methods for the Periodic Petrol Station Replenishment ...

272

Optimization Online Digest -- April 2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization Online Digest — April 2010. Applications — OR and Management Sciences Scheduling Flexible Maintenance Activities subject to Job-Dependent ...

273

Optimal designs for conjoint experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In conjoint experiments, each respondent receives a set of profiles to rate. Sometimes, the profiles are expensive prototypes that respondents have to test before rating them. Designing these experiments involves determining how many and which profiles ... Keywords: Conjoint experiments, D-optimality, Optimal block design, Optimal block sizes, Prototype testing

Roselinde Kessels; Peter Goos; Martina Vandebroek

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Similarity criteria in calculations of the energy characteristics of a cw oxygen - iodine laser  

SciTech Connect

The calculated and experimental data on the energy efficiency of a cw oxygen - iodine laser (OIL) are analysed based on two similarity criteria, namely, on the ratio of the residence time of the gas mixture in the resonator to the characteristic time of extraction of the energy stored in singlet oxygen td and on the gain-to-loss ratio {Pi}. It is shown that the simplified two-level laser model satisfactorily predicts the output characteristics of OILs with a stable resonator at {tau}{sub d} {<=} 7. Efficient energy extraction from the OIL active medium is achieved in the case of {tau}{sub d} = 5 - 7, {Pi} = 4 - 8. (lasers)

Mezhenin, A V; Azyazov, V N

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

275

Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis -- 2009 Progress Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been conducting research for the United States Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy, Biomass Program to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). This research has involved the screening of potential catalysts, and optimization of the more promising ones, using laboratory scale reactors. During 2009, the main goal of the testing program focused on optimizing selected supported catalysts containing rhodium (Rh) and manganese (Mn). Optimization involved examining different total concentrations and atomic ratios of Rh and Mn as well as that of the more promising promoters (Ir and Li) identified in the earlier screening studies. Evaluation of catalyst performance focused on attaining improvements with respect to the space-time-yield and converted carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates, with additional consideration given to the fraction of the oxygenates that were C2+ alcohols.

Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Stevens, Don J.; White, J. F.; Rummel, Becky L.

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

276

Probing Oxygen Activation Sites in Two Flavoprotein Oxidases Using Chloride as an Oxygen Surrogate  

SciTech Connect

A single basic residue above the si-face of the flavin ring is the site of oxygen activation in glucose oxidase (GOX) (His516) and monomeric sarcosine oxidase (MSOX) (Lys265). Crystal structures of both flavoenzymes exhibit a small pocket at the oxygen activation site that might provide a preorganized binding site for superoxide anion, an obligatory intermediate in the two-electron reduction of oxygen. Chloride binds at these polar oxygen activation sites, as judged by solution and structural studies. First, chloride forms spectrally detectable complexes with GOX and MSOX. The protonated form of His516 is required for tight binding of chloride to oxidized GOX and for rapid reaction of reduced GOX with oxygen. Formation of a binary MSOX-chloride complex requires Lys265 and is not observed with Lys265Met. Binding of chloride to MSOX does not affect the binding of a sarcosine analogue (MTA, methylthioactetate) above the re-face of the flavin ring. Definitive evidence is provided by crystal structures determined for a binary MSOX-chloride complex and a ternary MSOX-chloride-MTA complex. Chloride binds in the small pocket at a position otherwise occupied by a water molecule and forms hydrogen bonds to four ligands that are arranged in approximate tetrahedral geometry: Lys265:NZ, Arg49:NH1, and two water molecules, one of which is hydrogen bonded to FAD:N5. The results show that chloride (i) acts as an oxygen surrogate, (ii) is an effective probe of polar oxygen activation sites, and (iii) provides a valuable complementary tool to the xenon gas method that is used to map nonpolar oxygen-binding cavities.

Kommoju, Phaneeswara-Rao; Chen, Zhi-wei; Bruckner, Robert C.; Mathews, F. Scott; Jorns, Marilyn Schuman (Drexel-MED); (St. Louis-MED); (WU-MED)

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

277

Pilot-Scale Demonstration of a Novel, Low-Cost Oxygen Supply Process and its Integration with Oxy-Fuel Coal-Fired Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to achieve DOE targets for carbon dioxide capture, it is crucial not only to develop process options that will generate and provide oxygen to the power cycle in a cost-effective manner compared to the conventional oxygen supply methods based on cryogenic air separation technology, but also to identify effective integration options for these new technologies into the power cycle with carbon dioxide capture. The Linde/BOC developed Ceramic Autothermal Recovery (CAR) process remains an interesting candidate to address both of these issues by the transfer of oxygen from the air to a recycled CO{sub 2} rich flue-gas stream in a cyclic process utilizing the high temperature sorption properties of perovskites. Good progress was made on this technology in this project, but significant challenges remain to be addressed before CAR oxygen production technology is ready for commercial exploitation. Phase 1 of the project was completed by the end of September 2008. The two-bed 0.7 tons/day O2 CAR process development unit (PDU) was installed adjacent to WRI's pilot scale coal combustion test facility (CTF). Start-up and operating sequences for the PDU were developed and cyclic operation of the CAR process demonstrated. Controlled low concentration methane addition allowed the beds to be heated up to operational temperature (800-900 C) and then held there during cyclic operation of the 2-bed CAR process, in this way overcoming unavoidable heat losses from the beds during steady state operation. The performance of the PDU was optimized as much as possible, but equipment limitations prevented the system from fully achieving its target performance. Design of the flue gas recirculation system to integrate CAR PDU with the CTF and the system was completed and integrated tests successfully performed at the end of the period. A detailed techno-economic analysis was made of the CAR process for supplying the oxygen in oxy-fuel combustion retrofit option using AEP's 450 MW Conesville, Ohio plant and contrasted with the cryogenic air separation option (ASU). Design of a large scale CAR unit was completed to support this techno-economic assessment. Based on the finding that the overall cost potential of the CAR technology compared to cryogenic ASU is nominal at current performance levels and that the risks related to both material and process scale up are still significant, the team recommended not to proceed to Phase 2. CAR process economics continue to look attractive if the original and still 'realistic' target oxygen capacities could be realized in practice. In order to achieve this end, a new fundamental materials development program would be needed. With the effective oxygen capacities of the current CAR materials there is, however, insufficient economic incentive to use this commercially unproven technology in oxy-fuel power plant applications in place of conventional ASUs. In addition, it is now clear that before a larger scale pilot demonstration of the CAR technology is made, a better understanding of the impact of flue-gas impurities on the CAR materials and of thermal transients in the beds is required.

Krish Krishnamurthy; Divy Acharya; Frank Fitch

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

278

Performance and optimization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The SHOC Benchmark Suite --- Hostname: dirac20 Number of available devices: 1 Device 0: Tesla C2050 --- Starting Benchmarks --- - Level 0: "Feeds and Speeds" - -- This can take...

279

Oxygen transport by oxygen potential gradient in dense ceramic oxide membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Numerous studies have been conducted in recent years on the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas: CO + H{sub 2}) with air as the oxidant. In partial oxidation, a mixed-oxide ceramic membrane selectively transports oxygen from the air; this transport is driven by the oxygen potential gradient. Of the several ceramic materials the authors have tested, a mixed oxide based on the Sr-Fe-Co-O system has been found to be very attractive. Extensive oxygen permeability data have been obtained for this material in methane conversion experiments carried out in a reactor. The data have been analyzed by a transport equation based on the phenomenological theory of diffusion under oxygen potential gradients. Thermodynamic calculations were used to estimate the driving force for the transport of oxygen ions. The results show that the transport equation deduced from the literature describes the permeability data reasonably well and can be used to determine the diffusion coefficients and the associated activation energy of oxygen ions in the ceramic membrane material.

Maiya, P.S.; Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Mieville, R.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Udovich, C.A. [Amoco Exploration/Production, Naperville, IL (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Production Cost Optimization Assessments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The benefits of improved thermal performance of coal-fired power plants continue to grow, as the costs of fuel rise and the prospect of a carbon dioxide cap and trade program looms on the horizon. This report summarizes the efforts to date of utilities committed to reducing their heat rate by 1.0% in the Production Cost Optimization (PCO) Project. The process includes benchmarking of plant thermal performance using existing plant data and a site-specific performance appraisal. The appraisal determines po...

2008-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optimal oxygen levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Optimized hydrogen piston engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen piston engines can be simultaneously optimized for improved thermal efficiency and for extremely low emissions. Using these engines in constant-speed, constant-load systems such as series hybrid-electric automobiles or home cogeneration systems can result in significantly improved energy efficiency. For the same electrical energy produced, the emissions from such engines can be comparable to those from natural gas-fired steam power plants. These hydrogen-fueled high-efficiency, low-emission (HELE) engines are a mechanical equivalent of hydrogen fuel cells. HELE engines could facilitate the transition to a hydrogen fuel cell economy using near-term technology.

Smith, J.R.

1994-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

282

Oxygen electrode in molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The oxygen reduction reaction on a gold electrode in lithium carbonate melt was investigated to determine the influence of partial pressure of carbon dioxide and temperature on electrode kinetics and oxygen solubility by using cyclic Voltammetry and impedance analysis techniques. During this quarter, the impedance data were analyzed by a Complex Nonlinear Least Square (CNLS) Parameter estimation program to determine the kinetic and the mass transfer related parameters such as charge transfer resistance, double layer capacitance, solution resistance, and Warburg coefficient. The estimated parameters were used to obtain the C0{sub 2} reaction orders and apparent activation energies for the exchange current density and the mass transfer parameter (D{sub o}{sup {1/2}}C{sub o}*).

Dave, B.B.; Srinivasan, S.; White, R.E.; Appleby, A.J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-voltage electrical insulator for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall of a heat exchanger filled with liquid lithium while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl[sub 2]O[sub 3], sapphire) with a niobium foil layer bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal facing the heat exchanger wall, and a molybdenum layer bonded to the niobium layer to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface. 3 figures.

Van Der Beck, R.R.; Bond, J.A.

1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

284

Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-voltage electrical insulator (21) for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module (17) in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall (11) of a heat exchanger (13) filled with liquid lithium (16) while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator (21) has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl.sub.2 O.sub.3, sapphire) with a niobium foil layer (32) bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal (26) facing the heat exchanger wall (11), and a molybdenum layer (31) bonded to the niobium layer (32) to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface.

Van Der Beck, Roland R. (Lansdale, PA); Bond, James A. (Exton, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

On the reduction of oxygen from dispersed media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The reduction of oxygen from an organic phase dispersed in a concentrated electrolyte is investigated. Dispersed organic phases are used to enhance oxygen transport in fermenters and artificial blood substitutes. This work ...

Roushdy, Omar H., 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Application of Oxygen Eddy Correlation in Aquatic Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The eddy correlation technique is rapidly becoming an established method for resolving dissolved oxygen fluxes in natural aquatic systems. This direct and noninvasive determination of oxygen fluxes close to the sediment by simultaneously ...

Claudia Lorrai; Daniel F. McGinnis; Peter Berg; Andreas Brand; Alfred Wüest

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Case Study of Optimal Byproduct Gas Distribution in Integrated Steel Mill Using Multi-Period Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy constitutes about 20 % of the total production cost in an integrated steel mill, and therefore energy efficiency is crucial for profitability within the environmental policy context. An integrated steel mill generates high calorific value byproduct gases at varying rates. The differences between gas generation and consumption rates are compensated with gas holders. However, under certain circumstances the imbalances can lead to the flaring of excessive gas or require the purchase of supplementary fuel. This presentation describes a steel mill energy management system with sophisticated monitoring, planning, and optimization tools. It models the complex energy interconnections between various processes of the mill and determines the optimal trade-off between gas holder level control, flare minimization, and optimization of electricity purchase versus internal power generation. The system reduces energy cost, improves energy efficiency, manages carbon footprint, and provides environmental reporting features.

Makinen, K.; Kymalainen, T.; Junttila, J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

An efficient simulated annealing algorithm for design optimization of truss structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an optimization algorithm based on Simulated Annealing. The algorithm - denoted as CMLPSA (Corrected Multi-Level &Multi-Point Simulated Annealing) - implements an advanced search mechanism where each candidate design is selected from ... Keywords: Harmony search, Multi-level search, Multi-point search, Particle swarm, Simulated annealing optimization, Truss structures

L. Lamberti

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Low Rank Coal Optimization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Rank Coal Optimization Low Rank Coal Optimization NETL Office of Research and Development Project Number: FWP-2012.03.03 Task 4 Project Description NETL's in-house research team is using an integrated approach to combine theory, computational modeling, experiment, and industrial input to develop physics-based methods, models, and tools to support the development and deployment of advanced gasification based devices and systems. The activities in this effort include developing and applying computational and modeling tools to simulate complex flows in applications such as transport or entrained flow gasifiers. TRIG Model Development - The primary objective of this work is to develop a hierarchy of models for numerical simulations of TRIG co-feed conditions that span fast running reduced order models (ROM's) to high fidelity multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. Each model will have uncertainty quantification associated with its predictions to allow a user to choose a model based on the trade-offs between computational speed and uncertainty in the predictions.

290

Kernel Optimizations in SORD  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kernel Optimizations in SORD Kernel Optimizations in SORD earthquake dynamic rupture code Geoffrey P. Ely Leadership Computing Facility Argonne National Laboratory MiraCon March 7, 2013 S C E C an NSF+USGS center Acknowledgements Tareq Malas King Abdullah Univ. of Science & Technology Vitali Morozov Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Karen Magerlein IBM Watson Research Center Simulation Scale Outer length scale: ~500km Inner length scale: ~50m Mesh points: ~10 12 Spatial Derivatives f (⇠) = n X ↵, , =0 N ↵ (⇠)f ↵ rf = @f @⇠ · J 1 x y z ⇠ ⌘ ⇣ Equations of Motion Viscoelastic Solid (Kelvin-Voigt Model) Free surface boundary condition ¨ u = 1 ⇢ r · g = r(u + ˙ u) = trace(g) + µ(g + g T ) ⇢ density , µ elastic moduli viscosity u displacement stress tensor ⌧ = · ˆ n = 0 ! Kernel with 12 Streams do l = 1, 400 do k = 1, 400

291

E85 Optimized Engine  

SciTech Connect

A 5.0L V8 twin-turbocharged direct injection engine was designed, built, and tested for the purpose of assessing the fuel economy and performance in the F-Series pickup of the Dual Fuel engine concept and of an E85 optimized FFV engine. Additionally, production 3.5L gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) â??EcoBoostâ? engines were converted to Dual Fuel capability and used to evaluate the cold start emissions and fuel system robustness of the Dual Fuel engine concept. Project objectives were: to develop a roadmap to demonstrate a minimized fuel economy penalty for an F-Series FFV truck with a highly boosted, high compression ratio spark ignition engine optimized to run with ethanol fuel blends up to E85; to reduce FTP 75 energy consumption by 15% - 20% compared to an equally powered vehicle with a current production gasoline engine; and to meet ULEV emissions, with a stretch target of ULEV II / Tier II Bin 4. All project objectives were met or exceeded.

Stanley Bower

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

292

Molecular oxygen in the rho Ophiuchi cloud  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecular oxygen, O2 has been expected historically to be an abundant component of the chemical species in molecular clouds and, as such, an important coolant of the dense interstellar medium. However, a number of attempts from both ground and from space have failed to detect O2 emission. The work described here uses heterodyne spectroscopy from space to search for molecular oxygen in the interstellar medium. The Odin satellite carries a 1.1 m sub-millimeter dish and a dedicated 119 GHz receiver for the ground state line of O2. Starting in 2002, the star forming molecular cloud core rho Oph A was observed with Odin for 34 days during several observing runs. We detect a spectral line at v(LSR) = 3.5 km/s with dv(FWHM) = 1.5 km/s, parameters which are also common to other species associated with rho Ohp A. This feature is identified as the O2 (N_J = 1_1 - 1_0) transition at 118 750.343 MHz. The abundance of molecular oxygen, relative to H2,, is 5E-8 averaged over the Odin beam. This abundance is consistently lower than previously reported upper limits.

B. Larsson; R. Liseau; L. Pagani; P. Bergman; P. Bernath; N. Biver; J. H. Black; R. S. Booth; V. Buat; J. Crovisier; C. L. Curry; M. Dahlgren; P. J. Encrenaz; E. Falgarone; P. A. Feldman; M. Fich; H. G. Flore'n; M. Fredrixon; U. Frisk; G. F. Gahm; M. Gerin; M. Hagstroem; J. Harju; T. Hasegawa; Aa. Hjalmarson; C. Horellou; L. E. B. Johansson; K. Justtanont; A. Klotz; E. Kyroelae; S. Kwok; A. Lecacheux; T. Liljestroem; E. J. Llewellyn; S. Lundin; G. Me'gie; G. F. Mitchell; D. Murtagh; L. H. Nordh; L. -Aa. Nyman; M. Olberg; A. O. H. Olofsson; G. Olofsson; H. Olofsson; G. Persson; R. Plume; H. Rickman; I. Ristorcelli; G. Rydbeck; Aa. Sandqvist; F. v. Sche'ele; G. Serra; S. Torchinsky; N. F. Tothill; K. Volk; T. Wiklind; C. D. Wilson; A. Winnberg; G. Witt

2007-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

293

Probing brain oxygenation with near infrared spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fundamentals of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are reviewed. This technique allows to measure the oxygenation of the brain tissue. The particular problems involved in detecting regional brain oxygenation (rSO2) are discussed. The dominant chromophore (light absorber) in tissue is water. Only in the NIR light region of 650-1000 nm, the overall absorption is sufficiently low, and the NIR light can be detected across a thick layer of tissues, among them the skin, the scull and the brain. In this region, there are many absorbing light chromophores, but only three are important as far as the oxygenation is concerned. They are the hemoglobin (HbO2), the deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb) and cytochrome oxidase (CtOx). In the last 20 years there was an enormous growth in the instrumentation and applications of NIRS. . The devices that were used in our experiments were : Somanetics's INVOS Brain Oximeter (IBO) and Toomim's HEG spectrophotometer. The performances of both devices were compared including their merits and draw...

Gersten, Alexander; Raz, Amir; Fried, Robert

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Oxygen spectral line synthesis: 3D non-LTE with CO5BOLD hydrodynamical model atmospheres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we present first results of our current project aimed at combining the 3D hydrodynamical stellar atmosphere approach with non-LTE (NLTE) spectral line synthesis for a number of key chemical species. We carried out a full 3D-NLTE spectrum synthesis of the oxygen IR 777 nm triplet, using a modified and improved version of our NLTE3D package to calculate departure coefficients for the atomic levels of oxygen in a CO5BOLD 3D hydrodynamical solar model atmosphere. Spectral line synthesis was subsequently performed with the Linfor 3D code. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the lines of the oxygen triplet produce deeper cores under NLTE conditions, due to the diminished line source function in the line forming region. This means that the solar oxygen IR 777 nm lines should be stronger in NLTE, leading to negative 3D NLTE-LTE abundance corrections. Qualitatively this result would support previous claims for a relatively low solar oxygen abundance. Finally, we outline several further steps ...

Prakapavicius, D; Kucinskas, A; Ludwig, H -G; Freytag, B; Caffau, E; Cayrel, R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Assessment of thermal swing absorption alternatives for producing oxygen enriched combustion air  

SciTech Connect

It has been established that oxygen enriched combustion (OEC) can substantially improve the thermal efficiency and productivity of a furnace. An OEC performance study by the Union Carbide Corporation found that in furnaces with flue gas temperatures above 2,000{degree}F, a high level of oxygen (O{sub 2}) enrichment (50% to 100% O{sub 2}) will result in a 40% to 60% fuel savings. The US DOE's (Department of Energy) Office of Industrial Programs (OIP) has sponsored several research development projects and engineering assessments relevant to the production of oxygen enriched air (OEA) and its use in combustion systems. In an OIP-sponsored assessment of research and development opportunities for combustion technologies, Taratec Corporation indicated that thermal swing absorption (TSA) offers a potentially viable option for producing low-cost oxygen enriched combustion air (OECA). In fact, an integrated, TSA-based oxygen enriched air production system driven by waste heat from furnace exhaust may be more energy- and cost-efficient than the alternative technologies. The study presented in this document further investigates and assesses TSA alternatives for producing low-cost OECA. 7 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Not Available

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

DD4, Oxygen Plasma Exposure Effects on Indium Oxide Nanowire ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, DD4, Oxygen Plasma Exposure Effects on Indium Oxide Nanowire ... Electronic Materials Science Challenges in Renewable Energy.

297

A knowledge-based approach to optimize switching in substations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Automatic sequence switching has been an important pursuit in the field of substation automation. This paper presents an intelligent approach to optimize switching sequences in electric substations. This paper starts with a presentation of the optimal sequence switching problem. It then suggests a knowledge-based model of a substation switch network organized in a tri-level hierarchical structure, and a set of basic techniques suitable for the general task of network re-organization. An intelligent optimal sequence switching strategy for substations based on modelling techniques is presented. An expert system in PROLOG used to formalize the sequence of switching operations and an application in substations is described.

Zhang, Z.Z.; Hope, G.S.; Malik, O.P. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Calgary (CA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Optimization Online - All Areas Submissions - July 2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The global optimization of Morse clusters by potential energy transformations ... Mathematical optimization for the inverse problem of intensity modulated ...

299

Optimization Online - All Areas Submissions - February 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

... Optimization for Power System Configuration with Renewable Energy in Remote Areas ... Robust Energy Cost Optimization of Water Distribution System with ...

300

E.L. Grossman Chapter 10 Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are the mineral and water respectively. Oxygen isotopic ratios are The Geologic Time Scale 2012. DOI: 10.1016/B978E.L. Grossman Chapter 10 Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy Abstract:Variations in the 18 O/16 O ratios for global correlation. Relying on previous compilations and new data, this chapter presents oxygen isotope

Grossman, Ethan L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optimal oxygen levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations are critical. DOC technology will continue to have a highly competitive role in retrofit applications requiring increases in furnace productivity.

Riley, M.F.

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

302

Time O®set Optimization in Digital Broadcasting - Optimization Online  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

height, polarization (horizontal/vertical) and antenna diagram (directivity). In Figure 1 the time ..... Phase 2: Optimization and constraint generation continue =

303

Optimization Online - A well-posed shooting algorithm for optimal ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oct 17, 2011 ... Abstract: In this article we establish for the first time the well-posedness of the shooting algorithm applied to optimal control problems for which ...

304

First and second order optimality conditions for optimal control ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

May 16, 2012 ... Abstract: This paper deals with optimal control problems of integral equations, with initial-final and running state constraints. The order of a ...

305

Optimization Online - Robust Energy Cost Optimization of Water ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Feb 21, 2011 ... Robust Energy Cost Optimization of Water Distribution System with Uncertain Demand. Alexander Goryashko(ale_gory ***at*** rambler.ru)

306

Oxygen Sensing in Health and Disease  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Peripheral chemoreflex responsiveness is increased at elevated levels of carbon dioxide after episodic hypoxia in

Jason H. Mateika; Chris Mendello; Dany Obeid; M. Safwan Badr

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control  

SciTech Connect

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology advancements offer significant reductions in power requirements, which would improve plant efficiency and economics for the oxygen-fired technology. The second phase consisted of pilot-scale testing followed by a refined performance and economic evaluation of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. As a part of this workscope, ALSTOM modified its 3 MW{sub th} (9.9 MMBtu/hr) Multiuse Test Facility (MTF) pilot plant to operate with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures of up to 70 percent O{sub 2} by volume. Tests were conducted with coal and petroleum coke. The test objectives were to determine the impacts of oxygen firing on heat transfer, bed dynamics, potential agglomeration, and gaseous and particulate emissions. The test data results were used to refine the design, performance, costs, and economic models developed in Phase-I for the O{sub 2}-fired CFB with CO{sub 2} capture. Nsakala, Liljedahl, and Turek reported results from this study in 2004. ALSTOM identified several items needing further investigation in preparation for large scale demonstration of the oxygen-fired CFB concept, namely: (1) Operation and performance of the moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE) to avoid recarbonation and also for cost savings compared to the standard bubbling fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE); (2) Performance of the back-end flash dryer absorber (FDA) for sulfur capture under high CO{sub 2}/high moisture flue gas environment using calcined limestone in the fly ash and using fresh commercial lime directly in the FDA; (3) Determination of the effect of recarbonation on fouling in the convective pass; (4) Assessment of the impact of oxygen firing on the mercury, other trace elements, and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions; and (5) Develop a proposal-level oxygen-fired retrofit design for a relatively small existing CFB steam power plant in preparation for a large-scale demonstration of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. Hence, ALSTOM responded to a DOE Solicitation to address all these issues with further O{sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{s

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

308

Optimized nanoporous materials.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanoporous materials have maximum practical surface areas for electrical charge storage; every point in an electrode is within a few atoms of an interface at which charge can be stored. Metal-electrolyte interfaces make best use of surface area in porous materials. However, ion transport through long, narrow pores is slow. We seek to understand and optimize the tradeoff between capacity and transport. Modeling and measurements of nanoporous gold electrodes has allowed us to determine design principles, including the fact that these materials can deplete salt from the electrolyte, increasing resistance. We have developed fabrication techniques to demonstrate architectures inspired by these principles that may overcome identified obstacles. A key concept is that electrodes should be as close together as possible; this is likely to involve an interpenetrating pore structure. However, this may prove extremely challenging to fabricate at the finest scales; a hierarchically porous structure can be a worthy compromise.

Braun, Paul V. (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Langham, Mary Elizabeth; Jacobs, Benjamin W.; Ong, Markus D.; Narayan, Roger J. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Pierson, Bonnie E. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Gittard, Shaun D. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Robinson, David B.; Ham, Sung-Kyoung (Korea Basic Science Institute, Gangneung, South Korea); Chae, Weon-Sik (Korea Basic Science Institute, Gangneung, South Korea); Gough, Dara V. (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Wu, Chung-An Max; Ha, Cindy M.; Tran, Kim L.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Optimal Performance of Quantum Refrigerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A reciprocating quantum refrigerator is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. We find that if the energy spectrum of the working medium possesses an uncontrollable gap, then there is a minimum achievable temperature above zero. Such a gap, combined with a negligible amount of noise, prevents adiabatic following during the demagnetization stage which is the necessary condition for reaching $T_c \\to 0$. The refrigerator is based on an Otto cycle where the working medium is an interacting spin system with an energy gap. For this system the external control Hamiltonian does not commute with the internal interaction. As a result during the demagnetization and magnetization segments of the operating cycle the system cannot follow adiabatically the temporal change in the energy levels. We connect the nonadiabatic dynamics to quantum friction. An adiabatic measure is defined characterizing the rate of change of the Hamiltonian. Closed form solutions are found for a constant adiabatic measure for all the cycle segments. We have identified a family of quantized frictionless cycles with increasing cycle times. These cycles minimize the entropy production. Such frictionless cycles are able to cool to $T_c=0$. External noise on the controls eliminates these frictionless cycles. The influence of phase and amplitude noise on the demagnetization and magnetization segments is explicitly derived. An extensive numerical study of optimal cooling cycles was carried out which showed that at sufficiently low temperature the noise always dominates restricting the minimum temperature.

Tova Feldmann; Ronnie Kosloff

2009-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

310

Selected Isotopes for Optimized Fuel Assembly Tags  

SciTech Connect

In support of our ongoing signatures project we present information on 3 isotopes selected for possible application in optimized tags that could be applied to fuel assemblies to provide an objective measure of burnup. 1. Important factors for an optimized tag are compatibility with the reactor environment (corrosion resistance), low radioactive activation, at least 2 stable isotopes, moderate neutron absorption cross-section, which gives significant changes in isotope ratios over typical fuel assembly irradiation levels, and ease of measurement in the SIMS machine 2. From the candidate isotopes presented in the 3rd FY 08 Quarterly Report, the most promising appear to be Titanium, Hafnium, and Platinum. The other candidate isotopes (Iron, Tungsten, exhibited inadequate corrosion resistance and/or had neutron capture cross-sections either too high or too low for the burnup range of interest.

Gerlach, David C.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Reid, Bruce D.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Optimal fault location  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Basic goal of power system is to continuously provide electrical energy to the users. Like with any other system, failures in power system can occur. In those situations it is critical that correct remedial actions are applied as soon as possible after the accurate fault condition and location are detected. This thesis has been focusing on automated fault location procedure. Different fault location algorithms, classified according to the spatial placement of physical measurements on single ended, multiple ended and sparse system-wide, are investigated. As outcome of this review, methods are listed as function of different parameters that influence their accuracy. This comparison is than used for generating procedure for optimal fault location algorithm selection. According to available data, and position of the fault with respect to the data, proposed procedure decides between different algorithms and selects an optimal one. A new approach is developed by utilizing different data structures such as binary tree and serialization in order to efficiently implement algorithm decision engine. After accuracy of algorithms is strongly influenced by available input data, different data sources are recommended in proposed architecture such as the digital fault recorders, circuit breaker monitoring, SCADA, power system model and etc. Algorithm for determining faulted section is proposed based on the data from circuit breaker monitoring devices. This algorithm works in real time by recognizing to which sequence of events newly obtained recording belongs. Software prototype of the proposed automated fault location analysis is developed using Java programming language. Fault location analysis is automatically triggered by appearance of new event files in a specific folder. The tests were carried out using the real life transmission system as an example.

Knezev, Maja

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Optimization Online Digest -- January 2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Applications — Science and Engineering On the Optimal On-Line Management of Photovoltaic-Hydrogen Hybrid Energy Systems Victor Zavala, Mihai Anitescu, ...

313

Optimization Online Digest -- June 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization Online Digest — June 2012. Applications — OR and ... A new warmstarting strategy for the primal-dual column generation method. Jacek Gondzio ...

314

MULTIDISCIPLINARY FREE MATERIAL OPTIMIZATION 1 ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a mathematical framework for the so-called multidisciplinary free material ... Free material optimization (FMO) is a branch of structural optimiza- tion.

315

Optimization Online Digest -- August 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal Job Scheduling with Day-ahead Price and Random Local Distributed Generation: A Two-stage Robust Approach Anna Danandeh, Long Zhao, Bo Zeng, ...

316

Optimization Online Digest -- July 2013  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization of Demand Response Through Peak Shaving G. Zakeri, D. Craigie, A. Philpott, M. Todd A practicable framework for distributionally robust linear ...

317

Optimization Online Digest -- August 2013  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization of running strategies based on anaerobic energy and variations of velocity. Amandine Aftalion, J. Frédéric Bonnans Convergence Analysis of DC ...

318

Optimization Online Digest -- March 2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal Security Response to Attacks on Open Science Grids ... An accelerated proximal gradient algorithm for nuclear norm regularized least squares problems

319

Thermodynamic Metrics and Optimal Paths  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermodynamic metrics and optimal paths David A. Sivak ? andmanifold on the space of thermodynamic states. Within theconnection to the existing thermodynamic length formalism,

Sivak, David

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Process Optimization - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 9, 2013 ... Multi-scale, Multi-physics Optimization Framework for Additively Manufactured Structural Components: Tahany El-Wardany1; Mathew Lynch1; ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optimal oxygen levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Optimization Online Digest -- December 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization of Flexural capacity of Reinforced fibrous Concrete Beams Using Genetic Algorithm D Suji ... Prox-Regularity and Stability of the Proximal Mapping

322

Optimization Online Digest -- October 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ellen H. Fukuda, Paulo J. S. Silva, Masao Fukushima. Nonlinear Optimization A robust Kantorovich's theorem on inexact Newton method with relative residual ...

323

Optimal control, parabolic equations, st  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

state constraints, for parabolic systems have been studied in Casas [20], ... troduced for deriving optimality conditionsfor parabolic problems with pure or mixed.

324

Resource Optimization Initiative (ROI) - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 3, 2008 ... The Resource Optimization Initiative (ROI), a not-for-profit entity, has been ... to begin with, would be Land, Water and Energy – the three major ...

325

Process Heating Systems Optimization Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 1, 2003 ... PROCESS HEATING SYSTEMS OPTIMIZATION WORKSHOP. In cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency ...

326

Optimal Coupling of Energy Infrastructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a framework for integrated modeling and optimization of energy systems with multiple energy carriers. Based on the concept of energy hubs, a generic steadystate model for describing conversion and storage of multiple energy carriers, such as electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, or district heating, is developed and used for system optimization. Besides operational optimization of energy flows, the optimal structure of the system is investigated. Mathematically, the problems are stated as (mixed-integer) nonlinear programming problems. An example demonstrates the use and potential applications of the proposed method and highlights its features.

M. Geidl; G. Andersson

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Analysis of Oxygenated Compounds in Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil Distillate Fractions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three hydrotreated bio-oils with different oxygen contents (8.2, 4.9, and 0.4 w/w) were distilled to produce Light, Naphtha, Jet, Diesel, and Gasoil boiling range fractions that were characterized for oxygen containing species by a variety of analytical methods. The bio-oils were originally generated from lignocellulosic biomass in an entrained-flow fast pyrolysis reactor. Analyses included elemental composition, carbon type distribution by {sup 13}C NMR, acid number, GC-MS, volatile organic acids by LC, and carbonyl compounds by DNPH derivatization and LC. Acid number titrations employed an improved titrant-electrode combination with faster response that allowed detection of multiple endpoints in many samples and for acid values attributable to carboxylic acids and to phenols to be distinguished. Results of these analyses showed that the highest oxygen content bio-oil fractions contained oxygen as carboxylic acids, carbonyls, aryl ethers, phenols, and alcohols. Carboxylic acids and carbonyl compounds detected in this sample were concentrated in the Light, Naphtha, and Jet fractions (oil or refinery intermediate streams may exist for the Diesel and Gasoil fractions. The 4.9 % oxygen sample contained almost exclusively phenolic compounds found to be present throughout the boiling range of this sample, but imparting measurable acidity primarily in the Light, Naphtha and Jet fractions. Additional study is required to understand what levels of the weakly acidic phenols could be tolerated in a refinery feedstock. The Diesel and Gasoil fractions from this upgraded oil had low acidity but still contained 3 to 4 wt% oxygen present as phenols that could not be specifically identified. These materials appear to have excellent potential as refinery feedstocks and some potential for blending into finished fuels. Fractions from the lowest oxygen content oil exhibited some phenolic acidity, but generally contained very low levels of oxygen functional groups. These materials would likely be suitable as refinery feedstocks and potentially as fuel blend components. PIONA analysis of the Light and Naphtha fractions shows benzene content of 0.5 and 0.4 vol%, and predicted (RON + MON)/2 of 63 and 70, respectively.

Christensen, Earl D.; Chupka, Gina; Luecke, Jon; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Alleman, Teresa L.; Iisa, Kristiina; Franz, James A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; McCormick, Robert L.

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

328

Optimal and Non-Optimal Compromise Strategies in Action Selection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from each of the two targets. · Exponentially Weakening Forces (EWF): The pulling effects), and exponentially weakening forces (EWF). We also estimated the expected utility of optimal behav- ior using 100,000 trials where an animat ran the selected strat- F SG EWF Optimal avg -4.074 -2.791 -2.465 1

Crabbe, Frederick

329

Optimization locations of wind turbines with the particle swarm optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a new algorithm is presented for the locations of wind turbine in the distribution systems. Technical constraints such as feeder capacity limits, bus voltage, and load balance are considered. The Particle Swarm Optimization(PSO) is applied ... Keywords: distribution system, equivalent current injection, particle swarm optimization, wind turbine

Ming-Tang Tsai; Szu-Wzi Wu

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

NETL: Gasification - Development of Ion-Transport Membrane Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Presentations, Papers, and Publications Presentations, Papers, and Publications ITM Oxygen Development for Advanced Oxygen Supply (Oct 2011) Ted Foster, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. presented at the Gasification Technologies Conference, San Francisco, CA Oct 9-12, 2011. ASU/IGCC Integration Strategies (Oct 2009), David McCarthy, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., 2009 Gasification Technologies Conference, Colorado Springs, CO. ITM Oxygen: Taking the Next Step (Oct 2009), VanEric Stein, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., 2009 Gasification Technologies Conference, Colorado Springs, CO. ITM Oxygen: Scaling Up a Low-Cost Oxygen Supply Technology (Oct 2006) Philip Armstrong, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., 2006 Gasification Technologies Conference, Washington, D.C. ITM Oxygen: The New Oxygen Supply for the New IGCC Market (Oct 2005)

331

(Selective carbon oxygen bond scission during reactions of oxygenates on single crystal catalysts)  

SciTech Connect

We have discovered that the carbon-oxygen bond in methanol can be selectively broken if the surface structure of the platinum catalyst is appropriately tailored. The objective of this project is to determine if variations in surface structure allow one to selectively break C-O and C-H bonds. The decomposition of a wide range of oxygenates on several carefully chosen faces of group VIII metals will be examined to see when C-O bond scission occurs and what new chemistry we can find on stepped surfaces.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

[Selective carbon oxygen bond scission during reactions of oxygenates on single crystal catalysts]. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

We have discovered that the carbon-oxygen bond in methanol can be selectively broken if the surface structure of the platinum catalyst is appropriately tailored. The objective of this project is to determine if variations in surface structure allow one to selectively break C-O and C-H bonds. The decomposition of a wide range of oxygenates on several carefully chosen faces of group VIII metals will be examined to see when C-O bond scission occurs and what new chemistry we can find on stepped surfaces.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Oxygen stabilized zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy  

SciTech Connect

An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula (Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x).sub.2-u (V.sub.1-y Fe.sub.y)O.sub.z where x=0.0 to 0.9, y=0.01 to 0.9, z=0.25 to 0.5 and u=0 to 1. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196.degree. C. to 200.degree. C. at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 torr. The compound is suitable for use as a hydrogen getter in low pressure, high temperature applications such as magnetic confinement fusion devices.

Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Hydrogen production from simulated hot coke oven gas by using oxygen-permeable ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen production from simulated hot coke oven gas (HCOG) was investigated in a BaCo{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.2}Nb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BCFNO) membrane reactor combined with a Ni/Mg(Al)O catalyst by the partial oxidation with toluene as a model tar compound under atmospheric pressure. The reaction results indicated that toluene was completely converted to H{sub 2} and CO in the catalytic reforming of the simulated HCOG in the temperature range from 825 to 875{sup o}C. Both thermodynamically predicated values and experimental data showed that the selective oxidation of toluene took precedence over that of CH{sub 4} in the reforming reaction. At optimized reaction conditions, the dense oxygen-permeable membrane has an oxygen permeation flux around 12.3 mL cm{sup -2} min{sup -1}, and a CH{sub 4} conversion of 86%, a CO{sub 2} conversion of 99%, a H{sub 2} yield of 88%, and a CO yield of 87% have been achieved. When the toluene and methane were reformed, the amount of H{sub 2} in the reaction effluent gas was about 2 times more than that of original H{sub 2} in simulated HCOG. The results reveal that it is feasible for hydrogen production from HCOG by reforming hydrocarbon compounds in a ceramic oxygen-permeable membrane reactor. 27 refs., 10 figs., 3 abs.

Hongwei Cheng; Yuwen Zhang; Xionggang Lu; Weizhong Ding; Qian Li [Shanghai University, Shanghai (China). Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Materials Processing

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

335

Bayesian inference with optimal maps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a new approach to Bayesian inference that entirely avoids Markov chain simulation, by constructing a map that pushes forward the prior measure to the posterior measure. Existence and uniqueness of a suitable measure-preserving map is established ... Keywords: Bayesian inference, Inverse problems, Measure-preserving maps, Numerical optimization, Optimal transport, Polynomial chaos

Tarek A. El Moselhy; Youssef M. Marzouk

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Nonlinear optimization and parallel computing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The new computational technologies are having a very strong influence on numerical optimization, in several different ways. Many researchers have been stimulated by the need to either conform the existing numerical techniques to the new parallel architectures ... Keywords: global optimization, heuristics, interior point methods, parallel computing, quadratic programming

A. Migdalas; G. Toraldo; V. Kumar

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Experimental optimization by evolutionary algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This tutorial addresses applications of evolutionary algorithms to optimization tasks where the function evaluation cannot be done through a computer simulation, but requires the execution of an experiment in the real world (i.e., cosmetics, detergents, ... Keywords: biological experiments, experimental optimization, history, quantum control

Thomas Bäck; Joshua Knowles; Ofer M. Shir

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Optimization of refinery hydrogen network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tighter environmental regulations and more heavy-end upgrading in the petroleum industry lead to increased demand for hydrogen in oil refineries. In this paper, the method proposed to optimize the refinery hydrogen network is based upon mathematical ... Keywords: hydrogen management, optimization, refinery, superstructure

Yunqiang Jiao; Hongye Su

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Introduction Optimal static exploration strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

strategy Optimal dynamic exploration strategy The project Find Oil The current work is part of the project strategy Optimal dynamic exploration strategy The project Find Oil The current work is part of the project components required for oil and gas to accumulate in sufficient quantities to be worth producing: source

Eidsvik, Jo

340

Industrial cogeneration optimization program  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program was to identify up to 10 good near-term opportunities for cogeneration in 5 major energy-consuming industries which produce food, textiles, paper, chemicals, and refined petroleum; select, characterize, and optimize cogeneration systems for these identified opportunities to achieve maximum energy savings for minimum investment using currently available components of cogenerating systems; and to identify technical, institutional, and regulatory obstacles hindering the use of industrial cogeneration systems. The analysis methods used and results obtained are described. Plants with fuel demands from 100,000 Btu/h to 3 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h were considered. It was concluded that the major impediments to industrial cogeneration are financial, e.g., high capital investment and high charges by electric utilities during short-term cogeneration facility outages. In the plants considered an average energy savings from cogeneration of 15 to 18% compared to separate generation of process steam and electric power was calculated. On a national basis for the 5 industries considered, this extrapolates to saving 1.3 to 1.6 quads per yr or between 630,000 to 750,000 bbl/d of oil. Properly applied, federal activity can do much to realize a substantial fraction of this potential by lowering the barriers to cogeneration and by stimulating wider implementation of this technology. (LCL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optimal oxygen levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Optimizing Power Factor Correction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The optimal investment for power factor correcting capacitors for Kansas Power and Light Company large power contract customers is studied. Since the billing capacity is determined by dividing the real demand by the power factor (the minimum billing capacity is based on 80 percent of the summer peak billing capacity) and the billing capacity is used to determine the number of kilowatt-hours billed at each pricing tier, the power factor affects both the demand and the energy charge. There is almost no information available in the literature concerning recommended power factor corrections for this situation. The general advice commonly given in the past has been that power factor should be corrected to above 0.9 if it is below that value to begin with, but that does not take into account the facts of the situation studied here. Calculations relevant to a commercial consumer of electricity were made for demands of 200, 400, 800, 1,600, 3,200, and 6,400 kW and monthly energy consumption periods of 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, and 500 hours for several capacitor purchase and installation costs. The results are displayed in a series of graphs that enable annual cost savings and payback periods to be readily determined over a range of commonly encountered parameter values. It is found that it is often economically advantageous to correct a power factor to near unity.

Phillips, R. K.; Burmeister, L. C.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Catalytic reforming optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have previously examined correlations between catalytic reforming parameters for an L-35-6 unit at the Gor'knefteorgsintez Industrial Association. Experimental design was used to derive polynomial equations describing the correlations for each reactor. Further research on optimizing the reforming has been based on these results. They adopted the following strategy to define the best working parameters: they define a temperature that would provide the maximum target-product yield while maintaining a given working life. Most of the aromatic hydrocarbons are formed by the naphthene dehydrogenation, which is endothermic, so the greater the temperature drop over the height, the more rapid the process. The temperature difference thus indicates the current catalyst activity. To increase the target-product yield, one must raise the inlet temperature and ensure the largest drop across the catalyst. They examined an algorithm with fixed inlet conditions as regards flow rate and raw material composition. This algorithm provides the basis of software for the automatic control of the L-35-6 reactor unit at the Gor'knefteorgsintez Industrial Association. The system has been checked out and put into experimental operation.

Mazina, S.G.; Rybtsov, V.V.; Priss-Titarenko, T.A.

1988-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

343

Oxygen Handling and Cooling Options in High Temperature Electrolysis Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Idaho National Laboratory is working on a project to generate hydrogen by high temperature electrolysis (HTE). In such an HTE system, safety precautions need to be taken to handle high temperature oxygen at ~830°C. This report is aimed at addressing oxygen handling in a HTE plant.. Though oxygen itself is not flammable, most engineering material, including many gases and liquids, will burn in the presence of oxygen under some favorable physicochemical conditions. At present, an absolute set of rules does not exist that can cover all aspects of oxygen system design, material selection, and operating practices to avoid subtle hazards related to oxygen. Because most materials, including metals, will burn in an oxygen-enriched environment, hazards are always present when using oxygen. Most materials will ignite in an oxygen-enriched environment at a temperature lower than that in air, and once ignited, combustion rates are greater in the oxygen-enriched environment. Even many metals, if ignited, burn violently in an oxygen-enriched environment. However, these hazards do not preclude the operations and systems involving oxygen. Oxygen can be safely handled and used if all the materials in a system are not flammable in the end-use environment or if ignition sources are identified and controlled. In fact, the incidence of oxygen system fires is reported to be low with a probability of about one in a million. This report is a practical guideline and tutorial for the safe operation and handling of gaseous oxygen in high temperature electrolysis system. The intent is to provide safe, practical guidance that permits the accomplishment of experimental operations at INL, while being restrictive enough to prevent personnel endangerment and to provide reasonable facility protection. Adequate guidelines are provided to govern various aspects of oxygen handling associated with high temperature electrolysis system to generate hydrogen. The intent here is to present acceptable oxygen standards and practices for minimum safety requirements. A summary of operational hazards, along with oxygen safety and emergency procedures, are provided.

Manohar S. Sohal; J. Stephen Herring

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Electrochemical oxygen pumps. Final CRADA report.  

SciTech Connect

All tasks of the Work Plan of ISTC Project 2277p have been completed, thus: (1) techniques of chemical synthesis were developed for more than ten recipes of electrolyte based on cerium oxide doped with 20 mole% of gadolinium (CeGd)O{sub 2}, doped by more than 10 oxide systems including 6 recipes in addition to the Work Plan; (2) electric conductivity and mechanical strength of CeGd specimens with additions of oxide systems were performed, two candidate materials for the electrolyte of electrochemical oxygen pump (pure CeGd and CeGd doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal) were chosen; (3) extended studies of mechanical strength of candidate material specimens were performed at room temperature and at 400, 600, 800 C; (4) fixtures for determination of mechanical strength of tubes by external pressure above 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C were developed and fabricated; and (5) technology of slip casting of tubes from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} and of (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal, withstanding external pressure of minimum 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C was developed, a batch of tubes was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (6) technology of making nanopowder from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} was developed based on chemical synthesis and laser ablation techniques, a batch of nanopowder with the weight 1 kg was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (7) a business plan for establishing a company for making powders of materials for electrochemical oxygen pump was developed; and (8) major results obtained within the Project were reported at international conferences and published in the Russian journal Electrochemistry. In accordance with the Work Plan a business trip of the following project participants was scheduled for April 22-29, 2006, to Tonawanda, NY, USA: Manager Victor Borisov; Leader of technology development Gennady Studenikin; Leader of business planning Elena Zadorozhnaya; Leader of production Vasily Lepalovsky; and Translator Vladimir Litvinov. During this trip project participants were to discuss with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and representative of Praxair Inc. J. Chen the results of project activities (prospects of transition metal-doped material application in oxygen pumps), as well as the prospects of cooperation with Praxair at the meeting with the company management in the following fields: (1) Deposition of thin films of oxide materials of complex composition on support by magnetron and ion sputtering, research of coatings properties; (2) Development of block-type structure technology (made of porous and dense ceramics) for oxygen pump. The block-type structure is promising because when the size of electrolyte block is 2 x 2 inches and assembly height is 10 inches (5 blocks connected together) the area of active surface is ca. 290 square inches (in case of 8 slots), that roughly corresponds to one tube with diameter 1 inch and height 100 inches. So performance of the system made of such blocks may be by a factor of two or three higher than that of tube-based system. However one month before the visit, J. Chen notified us of internal changes at Praxair and the cancellation of the visit to Tonawanda, NY. During consultations with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and Senior Project Manager A. Taylor a decision was made to extend the project term by 2 quarters to prepare proposals for follow-on activities during this extension (development of block-type structures made of dense and porous oxide ceramics for electrochemical oxygen pumps) using the funds that were not used for the trip to the US.

Carter, J. D. Noble, J.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Abrupt structural transitions involving functionally optimal networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show analytically that abrupt structural transitions can arise in functionally optimal networks, driven by small changes in the level of transport congestion. Our findings are based on an exactly solvable model system which mimics a variety of biological and social networks. Our results offer an explanation as to why such diverse sets of network structures arise in Nature (e.g. fungi) under essentially the same environmental conditions. As a by-product of this work, we introduce a novel renormalization scheme involving `cost motifs' which describes analytically the average shortest path across multiple-ring-and-hub networks.

Jarrett, T C; Fricker, M; Johnson, N F; Jarrett, Timothy C.; Ashton, Douglas J.; Fricker, Mark; Johnson, Neil F.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Abrupt structural transitions involving functionally optimal networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show analytically that abrupt structural transitions can arise in functionally optimal networks, driven by small changes in the level of transport congestion. Our findings are based on an exactly solvable model system which mimics a variety of biological and social networks. Our results offer an explanation as to why such diverse sets of network structures arise in Nature (e.g. fungi) under essentially the same environmental conditions. As a by-product of this work, we introduce a novel renormalization scheme involving `cost motifs' which describes analytically the average shortest path across multiple-ring-and-hub networks.

Timothy C. Jarrett; Douglas J. Ashton; Mark Fricker; Neil F. Johnson

2005-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

347

Second Law Optimization of Heat Exchangers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new method for optimizing heat exchangers is developed in this paper. It is based on second law efficiency relationships rather than on the traditional heat exchanger effectiveness concept. The cost of energy is based on its availability level rather than on the simple cost of fuel required to meet the exchanger heat duty. Application of the method to a condensing heater shows that the optimum area based on second law efficiency can be quite different from the optimum area computed by the effectiveness method.

Witte, L. C.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Efficiency evaluation of oxygen enrichment in energy conversion processes  

SciTech Connect

The extent to which energy conversion efficiencies can be increased by using oxygen or oxygen-enriched air for combustion was studied. Combustion of most fuels with oxygen instead of air was found to have five advantages: increases combustion temperature and efficiency, improves heat transfer at high temperatures, reduces nitrous oxide emissions, permits a high ration of exhaust gas recirculation and allows combustion of certain materials not combustible in air. The same advantages, although to a lesser degree, are apparent with oxygen-enriched air. The cost-effectiveness of the process must necessarily be improved by about 10% when using oxygen instead of air before such use could become justifiable on purely economic terms. Although such a modest increase appears to be attainable in real situations, this study ascertained that it is not possible to generally assess the economic gains. Rather, each case requires its own evaluation. For certain processes industry has already proven that the use of oxygen leads to more efficient plant operation. Several ideas for essentially new applications are described. Specifically, when oxygen is used with exhaust gas recirculation in external or internal combustion engines. It appears also that the advantages of pulse combustion can be amplified further if oxygen is used. When burning wet fuels with oxygen, direct steam generation becomes possible. Oxygen combustion could also improve processes for in situ gasification of coals, oil shales, peats, and other wet fuels. Enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding methods might also become more effective if oxygen is used. The cold energy contained in liquid oxygen can be substantially recovered in the low end of certain thermodynamic cycles. Further efforts to develop certain schemes for using oxygen for combustion appear to be justified from both the technical and economic viewpoints.

Bomelburg, H.J.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Modeling the effects of late cycle oxygen enrichment on diesel engine combustion and emissions.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A multidimensional simulation of Auxiliary Gas Injection (AGI) for late cycle oxygen enrichment was exercised to assess the merits of AGI for reducing the emissions of soot from heavy duty diesel engines while not adversely affecting the NO{sub x} emissions of the engine. Here, AGI is the controlled enhancement of mixing within the diesel engine combustion chamber by high speed jets of air or another gas. The engine simulated was a Caterpillar 3401 engine. For a particular operating condition of this engine, the simulated soot emissions of the engine were reduced by 80% while not significantly affecting the engine-out NO{sub x} emissions compared to the engine operating without AGI. The effects of AGI duration, timing, and orientation are studied to confirm the window of opportunity for realizing lower engine-out soot while not increasing engine out NO{sub x} through controlled enhancement of in-cylinder mixing. These studies have shown that this window occurs during the late combustion cycle, from 20 to 60 crank angle degrees after top-dead-center. During this time, the combustion chamber temperatures are sufficiently high that soot oxidation increases in response in increased mixing, but the temperature is low enough that NO{sub x} reactions are quenched. The effect of the oxygen composition of the injected air is studied for the range of compositions between 21% and 30% oxygen by volume. This is the range of oxygen enrichment that is practical to produce from an air separation membrane. Simulations showed that this level of oxygen enrichment is insufficient to provide an additional benefit by either increasing the level of soot oxidation or prolonging the window of opportunity for increasing soot oxidation through enhanced mixing.

Mather, D. K.; Foster, D. E.; Poola, R. B.; Longman, D. E.; Chanda, A.; Vachon, T. J.

2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

350

Optimal recovery sequencing for critical infrastructure resilience assessment.  

SciTech Connect

Critical infrastructure resilience has become a national priority for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. System resilience has been studied for several decades in many different disciplines, but no standards or unifying methods exist for critical infrastructure resilience analysis. This report documents the results of a late-start Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that investigated the identification of optimal recovery strategies that maximize resilience. To this goal, we formulate a bi-level optimization problem for infrastructure network models. In the 'inner' problem, we solve for network flows, and we use the 'outer' problem to identify the optimal recovery modes and sequences. We draw from the literature of multi-mode project scheduling problems to create an effective solution strategy for the resilience optimization model. We demonstrate the application of this approach to a set of network models, including a national railroad model and a supply chain for Army munitions production.

Vugrin, Eric D.; Brown, Nathanael J. K.; Turnquist, Mark Alan (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal is presently the world's primary fuel for generating electrical power and, being more abundant and less expensive than oil or natural gas, is expected to continue its dominance into the future. Coal, however, is more carbon intensive than natural gas and oil and consequently coal-fired power plants are large point source emitters of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Since CO{sub 2} is a greenhouse gas, which may have an adverse impact on the world's climate/weather patterns, studies have been conducted to determine the feasibility and economic impact of capturing power plant CO{sub 2} emissions for pipeline transport to a sequestration/storage site. The stack gas that exhausts from a modern coal-fired power plant typically contains about 15% CO{sub 2} on a dry volume basis. Although there are numerous processes available for removing CO{sub 2} from gas streams, gas scrubbing with amine solvent is best suited for this application because of the large gas volumes and low CO{sub 2} concentrations involved. Unfortunately the energy required to regenerate the solvent for continued use as a capturing agent is large and imposes a severe energy penalty on the plant. In addition this ''back end'' or post combustion cleanup requires the addition of large vessels, which, in retrofit applications, are difficult to accommodate. As an alternative to post combustion scrubbing, Foster Wheeler (FW) has proposed that the combustion process be accomplished with oxygen rather than air. With all air nitrogen eliminated, a CO{sub 2}-water vapor rich flue gas will be generated. After condensation of the water vapor, a portion of the flue gas will be recirculated back to the boiler to control the combustion temperature and the balance of the CO{sub 2} will be processed for pipeline transport. This proposed oxygen-carbon dioxide (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}) combustion process eliminates the need for CO{sub 2} removal/separation and reduces the cost of supplying a CO{sub 2} rich stream for sequestration. FW has developed a conceptual design of an O{sub 2} fired boiler to determine overall plant performance and economics. Five subtasks were conducted: (1) a literature review, (2) a system design and analysis, (3) a low NOx burner design and analysis, (4) a furnace and heat recovery area design analysis, and (5) an economic analysis. The objective of the literature search is to locate any data/information relevant to the Oxygen-Based PC Boiler conceptual design. The objective of the system design and analysis task is to optimize the PC boiler plant by maximizing system efficiency within practical considerations. Simulations of the oxygen-fired plant with CO{sub 2} sequestration were conducted using Aspen Plus and were compared to a reference air-fired 460 MW plant. Flue gas recycle is used in the O{sub 2}-fired PC to control the flame temperature. Parametric runs were made to determine the effect of flame temperature on system efficiency and required waterwall material and thickness. The degree of improvement on system efficiency of various modifications including hot gas recycle, purge gas recycle, flue gas feedwater recuperation, and recycle purge gas expansion were investigated. The selected O{sub 2}-fired design case has a system efficiency of 30.6% compared to the air-fired system efficiency of 36.7%. The design O{sub 2}-fired case requires T91 waterwall material and has a waterwall surface area of only 65% of the air-fired reference case. The objective of the low NOx burner design and analysis task is to optimize the burner design to ensure stable ignition, to provide safe operation, and to minimize pollutant formation. The burners were designed and analyzed using the Fluent CFD computer program. Four burner designs were developed: (1) with no OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (2) with 20% OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (3) with no OFG and 56% flue gas recycle and (4) with 20% OFG and 56% flue gas recycle. A 3-D Fluent simulation was made of a single wall-fired burner and horizontal portion of the furnace from the wall to the center. Without primary gas sw

Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Evaluating iterative optimization across 1000 datasets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While iterative optimization has become a popular compiler optimization approach, it is based on a premise which has never been truly evaluated: that it is possible to learn the best compiler optimizations across data sets. Up to now, most iterative ... Keywords: benchmarking, compiler optimization, iterative optimization

Yang Chen; Yuanjie Huang; Lieven Eeckhout; Grigori Fursin; Liang Peng; Olivier Temam; Chengyong Wu

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Constraint Handling in Particle Swarm Optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article, the authors propose a particle swarm optimization PSO for constrained optimization. The proposed PSO adopts a multiobjective approach to constraint handling. Procedures to update the feasible and infeasible personal best are designed ... Keywords: Constrained Optimization, Constraint Handling, Feasible Personal Best, Infeasible Personal Best, Multiobjective Optimization, Particle Swarm Optimization

Wen Fung Leong; Gary G. Yen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful April 22, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC -- The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies. ITM Oxygen will enhance the performance of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, as well as other gasification-based processes. The technology will also enhance the economics of oxy-fired combustion technologies, making it an attractive option for the capture of carbon

355

Oxygen Atoms Display Novel Behavior on Common Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

11, 2008 11, 2008 Oxygen Atoms Display Novel Behavior on Common Catalyst Like waltzing dancers, the two atoms of an oxygen molecule usually behave identically when they separate on the surface of a catalyst. However, new research from the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory reveals that on a particular catalyst, the oxygen atoms act like a couple dancing the tango: one oxygen atom plants itself while the other shimmies away, probably with energy partially stolen from the stationary one. Scientists from EMSL and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory discovered this unanticipated behavior while studying how oxygen interacts with reduced titanium oxide, a popular catalyst and a model oxide. Their research began with a slice of titanium oxide crystal, oriented so that titanium and oxygen

356

Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov December 2012 This patent-pending technology, "Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process," provides a metal-oxide oxygen carrier for application in fuel combustion processes that use oxygen. This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Patent Details U.S. Non-Provisional Patent Application No. 13/159,553; titled "Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid

357

MathOptimizer: A nonlinear optimization package for Mathematica ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

introduce MathOptimizer's key features and discuss its usage options that support a ..... The option Samples determines the total number of sample points in each ..... and scientific fields such as numerical integration, potential energy models, ...

358

Run-time optimization of adaptive irregular applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Compared to traditional compile-time optimization, run-time optimization could o?er signi?cant performance improvements when parallelizing and optimizing adaptive irregular applications, because it performs program analysis and adaptive optimizations during program execution. Run-time techniques can succeed where static techniques fail because they exploit the characteristics of input data, programs' dynamic behaviors, and the underneath execution environment. When optimizing adaptive irregular applications for parallel execution, a common observation is that the effectiveness of the optimizing transformations depends on programs' input data and their dynamic phases. This dissertation presents a set of run-time optimization techniques that match the characteristics of programs' dynamic memory access patterns and the appropriate optimization (parallelization) transformations. First, we present a general adaptive algorithm selection framework to automatically and adaptively select at run-time the best performing, functionally equivalent algorithm for each of its execution instances. The selection process is based on off-line automatically generated prediction models and characteristics (collected and analyzed dynamically) of the algorithm's input data, In this dissertation, we specialize this framework for automatic selection of reduction algorithms. In this research, we have identi?ed a small set of machine independent high-level characterization parameters and then we deployed an off-line, systematic experiment process to generate prediction models. These models, in turn, match the parameters to the best optimization transformations for a given machine. The technique has been evaluated thoroughly in terms of applications, platforms, and programs' dynamic behaviors. Speci?cally, for the reduction algorithm selection, the selected performance is within 2% of optimal performance and on average is 60% better than "Replicated Buffer," the default parallel reduction algorithm speci?ed by OpenMP standard. To reduce the overhead of speculative run-time parallelization, we have developed an adaptive run-time parallelization technique that dynamically chooses effcient shadow structures to record a program's dynamic memory access patterns for parallelization. This technique complements the original speculative run-time parallelization technique, the LRPD test, in parallelizing loops with sparse memory accesses. The techniques presented in this dissertation have been implemented in an optimizing research compiler and can be viewed as effective building blocks for comprehensive run-time optimization systems, e.g., feedback-directed optimization systems and dynamic compilation systems.

Yu, Hao

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Hydrogen (H2) Production by Oxygenic Phototrophs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production by Oxygenic Phototrophs Eric L. Hegg Michigan State University Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Bioresour. Technol. 2011, 102, 8589-8604 Major Challenges to H 2 Photoproduction Biological Challenges * Poor efficiency of H 2 production * Poor heterologous expression of H 2 -forming enzymes * Low quantum yields * Competition for reducing equivalents; poor electron coupling * Sensitivity of H 2 -forming enzymes to O 2 M. Ghirardi, Abstract #1751, Honolulu PRiME 2012 Technical Challenges * Mixture of H 2 and O 2 ; H 2 separation and storage * CO 2 addition and overall reactor design Overcoming Low Efficiency: Improving ET * Eliminate or down-regulate pathways competing for ele * Production of organic acids * Formation of NADPH/carbon fixation

360

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Previous Element (Nitrogen) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Fluorine) Fluorine Isotopes of the Element Oxygen [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 16 99.757% STABLE 17 0.038% STABLE 18 0.205% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 12 1.139×10-21 seconds Proton Emission No Data Available 13 8.58 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Proton Emission 100.00% 14 70.620 seconds Electron Capture 100.00% 15 122.24 seconds Electron Capture 100.00% 16 STABLE - - 17 STABLE - - 18 STABLE - - 19 26.88 seconds Beta-minus Decay 100.00%

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optimal oxygen levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

METHOD OF COMBINING HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for the catalytic recombination of radiolytic hydrogen and/or deulerium and oxygen resulting from the subjection or an aqueous thorium oxide or thorium oxide-uranium oxide slurry to ionizing radiation. An improved catalyst is prepared by providing paliadium nitrate in an aqueous thorium oxide sol at a concentration of at least 0.05 grams per gram of thorium oxide and contacting the sol with gaseous hydrogen to form flocculated solids. The solids are then recovered and added to the slurry to provide a palladium concentration of 100 to 1000 parts per million. Recombination is effected by the calalyst at a rate sufficient to support high nuclear reactor power densities. (AEC)

McBride, J.P.

1962-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

362

NETL: Gasification - Development of Ion-Transport Membrane Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feed Systems Feed Systems Recovery Act: Development of Ion-Transport Membrane Oxygen Technology for Integration in IGCC and Other Advanced Power Generation Systems Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Project Number: FC26-98FT40343 Project Description Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is developing, scaling-up, and demonstrating a novel air separation technology for large-scale production of oxygen (O2) at costs that are approximately one-third lower than conventional cryogenic plants. An Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen plant co-produces power and oxygen. A phased technology RD&D effort is underway to demonstrate all necessary technical and economic requirements for scale-up and industrial commercialization. The ITM Oxygen production technology is a radically different approach to producing high-quality tonnage oxygen and to enhance the performance of integrated gasification combined cycle and other advanced power generation systems. Instead of cooling air to cryogenic temperatures, oxygen is extracted from air at temperatures synergistic with power production operations. Process engineering and economic evaluations of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants comparing ITM Oxygen with a state-of-the-art cryogenic air separation unit are aimed to show that the installed capital cost of the air separation unit and the installed capital of IGCC facility are significantly lower compared to conventional technologies, while improving power plant output and efficiency. The use of low-cost oxygen in combustion processes would provide cost-effective emission reduction and carbon management opportunities. ITM Oxygen is an enabling module for future plants for producing coal derived shifted synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen [H2] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) ultimately for producing clean energy and fuels. Oxygen-intensive industries such as steel, glass, non-ferrous metallurgy, refineries, and pulp and paper may also realize cost and productivity benefits as a result of employing ITM Oxygen.

363

Dense ceramic membranes for partial oxygenation of methane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The most significant cost associated with partial oxidation of methane to syngas is that of the oxygen plant. In this paper, the authors offer a technology that is based on dense ceramic membranes and that uses air as the oxidant for methane-conversion reactions, thus eliminating the need for the oxygen plant. Certain ceramic materials exhibit both electronic and ionic conductivities (of particular interest is oxygen-ion conductivity). These materials transport not only oxygen ions (functioning as selective oxygen separators) but also electrons back from the reactor side to the oxygen/reduction interface. No external electrodes are required and if the driving potential of transport is sufficient, the partial oxidation reactions should be spontaneous. Such a system will operate without an externally applied potential. Oxygen is transported across the ceramic material in the form of oxygen anions, not oxygen molecules. In principle, the dense ceramic materials can be shaped into a hollow-tube reactor, with air passed over the outside of the membrane and methane through the inside. The membrane is permeable to oxygen at high temperatures, but not to nitrogen or any other gas. Long tubes of La-Sr-Fe-Co-O (SFC) membrane were fabricated by plastic extrusion, and thermal stability of the tubes was studied as a function of oxygen partial pressure by high-temperature XRD. Mechanical properties were measured and found to be acceptable for a reactor material. Fracture of certain SFC tubes was the consequence of an oxygen gradient that introduced a volumetric lattice difference between the inner and outer walls. However, tubes made with a particular stoichiometry (SFC-2) provided methane conversion efficiencies of >99% in a reactor. Some of the reactor tubes have operated for up to {approx} 1,000 h.

Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Sweeney, S.M.; Mieville, R.L.; Maiya, P.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Pei, S.; Kobylinski, T.P. [Amoco Research Center, Naperville, IL (United States); Bose, A.C. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Areas Participating in the Oxygenated Gasoline Program  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

odorless, and poisonous gas produced by incomplete burning of fuels used in internal combustion engines. Elevated levels of CO generally occur during the winter months because of...

365

Oxygen Isotope Evidence For Past And Present Hydrothermal Regimes...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

oxygen isotope compositions of cores and cuttings from Long Valley exploration wells show that the Bishop Tuff has been an important reservoir for both fossil and active...

366

Causes for the Ferromagnetism in Oxygen-Deficient Perovskite ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Multifunctional Oxides. Presentation Title, Causes for the Ferromagnetism in Oxygen-Deficient Perovskite Sr3YCo4O10+d and the Ultrafast Redox ...

367

Molecular oxygen sensors based on photoluminescent silica aerogels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Molecular oxygen sensors based on photoluminescent silica aerogels Molecular oxygen sensors based on photoluminescent silica aerogels Title Molecular oxygen sensors based on photoluminescent silica aerogels Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1998 Authors Ayers, Michael R., and Arlon J. Hunt Journal Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids Volume 225 Pagination 343-347 Keywords aerogel, air pressure, oxygen concentration, oxygen molecules, photoluminescence Abstract Photoluminescent silica aerogel acts as the active element of an optical sensor for molecular oxygen. The luminescent aerogel is prepared by the action of energized reducing gases on a standard silica aerogel. Intensity of aerogel photoluminescence decreases as the collision frequency between oxygen molecules and the luminescent carriers in the aerogel matrix increases. This behavior is a characteristic of many photoluminescent materials and arises from a transfer of energy from the aerogel to surrounding oxygen molecules. A sensor for oxygen concentration or air pressure can therefore be simply constructed utilizing an ultraviolet source for excitation and a suitable detector for the emitted visible signal. Stern-Volmer quenching constants for the aerogel sensing element are 1.55×10-2 Torr-1 for hydrophilic aerogel and 2.4×10-3 Torr-1 for hydrophobic aerogel.

368

Development of Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen Technology...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen Technology for Integration in IGCC and Other Advanced Power Generation Systems Background The Gasification Technologies Program at the National...

369

Calorimetric Investigation of the Lithium–Manganese–Oxygen ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Calorimetric Investigation of the Lithium–Manganese–Oxygen Cathode Material System for Lithium Ion Batteries. Author(s), Damian M. Cupid, ...

370

Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen ...  

Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group

371

Microbial metatranscriptomics in a permanent marine oxygen minimum zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simultaneous characterization of taxonomic composition, metabolic gene content and gene expression in marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) has potential to broaden perspectives on the microbial and biogeochemical dynamics ...

Stewart, Frank J.

372

Effect of Dopants on Interdiffusion of Aluminum and Oxygen through ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the mutual GB transport of aluminum and oxygen in RE-doped polycrystalline ... Secondary Transport Phenomena in Ceramic Membranes under ...

373

First-Principles Study of the Oxygen Evolution Reaction and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this talk, we present our study of the mechanisms of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) ... Secondary Transport Phenomena in Ceramic Membranes under ...

374

Oxygen Consumption Analysis for Life Prediction of Elastomers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Oxygen Consumption Analysis for Life Prediction of Elastomers. Author(s), Elizabeth Hoffman, T. Eric Skidmore, Donald L Fisher, William L ...

375

ORNL-grown oxygen 'sponge' presents path to better catalysts...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

presents path to better catalysts, energy materials This schematic depicts a new ORNL-developed material that can easily absorb or shed oxygen atoms. This schematic depicts...

376

Oxygen Exchange Kinetics on SOFC Cathode Materials: Importance ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Oxygen Exchange Kinetics on SOFC Cathode Materials: Importance of Ionic and Electronic Carriers. Author(s), Rotraut Merkle, Lei Wang,

377

NETL: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-Fueled Chemical Looping...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Looping Combustion Project No.: DE-FE0001808 NETL has partnered with Western Kentucky University to develop a series of advanced oxygen carriers for coal-fueled...

378

Thermodynamic and cost optimization using program GEOTHM  

SciTech Connect

Some of the features of the computer program GEOTHM are shown. This program designs and optimizes thermodynamic process cycles. Several examples of geothermal cycle optimization are given. Three dimensional plots generated by the computer show how the optimization process works.

Green, M.A.; Pines, H.A.; Pope, W.L.; Williams, J.D.

1977-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Particle swarm optimization with opposite particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The particle swarm optimization algorithm is a kind of intelligent optimization algorithm. This algorithm is prone to be fettered by the local optimization solution when the particle's velocity is small. This paper presents a novel particle swarm ...

Rujing Wang; Xiaoming Zhang

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

3D modeling of effects of increased oxygenation and activity concentration in tumors treated with radionuclides and antiangiogenic drugs  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) in response to hypoxia is a fundamental event in the process of tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. However, abnormalities in tumor neovasculature often induce increased interstitial pressure (IP) and further reduce oxygenation (pO{sub 2}) of tumor cells. In radiotherapy, well-oxygenated tumors favor treatment. Antiangiogenic drugs may lower IP in the tumor, improving perfusion, pO{sub 2} and drug uptake, by reducing the number of malfunctioning vessels in the tissue. This study aims to create a model for quantifying the effects of altered pO{sub 2}-distribution due to antiangiogenic treatment in combination with radionuclide therapy. Methods: Based on experimental data, describing the effects of antiangiogenic agents on oxygenation of GlioblastomaMultiforme (GBM), a single cell based 3D model, including 10{sup 10} tumor cells, was developed, showing how radionuclide therapy response improves as tumor oxygenation approaches normal tissue levels. The nuclides studied were {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, and {sup 211}At. The absorbed dose levels required for a tumor control probability (TCP) of 0.990 are compared for three different log-normal pO{sub 2}-distributions: {mu}{sub 1} = 2.483, {sigma}{sub 1} = 0.711; {mu}{sub 2} = 2.946, {sigma}{sub 2} = 0.689; {mu}{sub 3} = 3.689, and {sigma}{sub 3} = 0.330. The normal tissue absorbed doses will, in turn, depend on this. These distributions were chosen to represent the expected oxygen levels in an untreated hypoxic tumor, a hypoxic tumor treated with an anti-VEGF agent, and in normal, fully-oxygenated tissue, respectively. The former two are fitted to experimental data. The geometric oxygen distributions are simulated using two different patterns: one Monte Carlo based and one radially increasing, while keeping the log-normal volumetric distributions intact. Oxygen and activity are distributed, according to the same pattern. Results: As tumor pO{sub 2} approaches normal tissue levels, the therapeutic effect is improved so that the normal tissue absorbed doses can be decreased by more than 95%, while retaining TCP, in the most favorable scenario and by up to about 80% with oxygen levels previously achieved in vivo, when the least favourable oxygenation case is used as starting point. The major difference occurs in poorly oxygenated cells. This is also where the pO{sub 2}-dependence of the oxygen enhancement ratio is maximal. Conclusions: Improved tumor oxygenation together with increased radionuclide uptake show great potential for optimising treatment strategies, leaving room for successive treatments, or lowering absorbed dose to normal tissues, due to increased tumor response. Further studies of the concomitant use of antiangiogenic drugs and radionuclide therapy therefore appear merited.

Lagerloef, Jakob H.; Kindblom, Jon; Bernhardt, Peter [Department of Radiation Physics, Goeteborg University, Goeteborg 41345 (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goeteborg 41345 (Sweden); Department of Radiation Physics, Goeteborg University, Goeteborg, Sweden and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goeteborg 41345 (Sweden)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optimal oxygen levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Application of linear multiple model predictive control (MMPC) framework towards dynamic maximazation of oxygen yield in an elevated-pressure air separation unit  

SciTech Connect

In a typical air separation unit (ASU) utilizing either a simple gaseous oxygen (GOX) cycle or a pumped liquid oxygen (PLOX) cycle, the flowrate of liquid nitrogen (LN2) stream connecting high-pressure and low-pressure ASU columns plays an important role in the total oxygen yield. It has been observed that this yield reaches a maximum at a certain optimal flowrate of LN2 stream. At nominal full-load operation, the flowrate of LN2 stream is maintained near this optimum value, whereas at part-load conditions this flowrate is typically modified in proportion with the load-change (oxygen demand) through a ratio/feed-forward controller. Due to nonlinearity in the entire ASU process, the ratio-modified LN2 flowrate does not guarantee an optimal oxygen yield at part-load conditions. This is further exacerbated when process disturbances in form of “cold-box” heat-leaks enter the system. To address this problem of dynamically maximizing the oxygen yield while the ASU undergoes a load-change and/or a process disturbance, a multiple model predictive control (MMPC) algorithm is proposed. This approach has been used in previous studies to handle large ramp-rates of oxygen demand posed by the gasifier in an IGCC plant. In this study, the proposed algorithm uses linear step-response “blackbox” models surrounding the operating points corresponding to maximum oxygen yield points at different loads. It has been shown that at any operating point of the ASU, the MMPC algorithm, through model-weight calculation based on plant measurements, naturally and continuously selects the dominant model(s) corresponding to the current plant state, while making control-move decisions that approach the maximum oxygen yield point. This dynamically facilitates less energy consumption in form of compressed feed-air compared to a simple ratio control during load-swings. In addition, since a linear optimization problem is solved at each time step, the approach involves much less computational cost compared to a firstprinciple based nonlinear MPC. Introduction

Mahapatra, P.; Zitney, S.; Bequette, B. Wayne

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

OPTIMIZING PERFORMANCE OF THE HESKETT STATION  

SciTech Connect

The overall conclusion from this work is that a switch from river sand bed material to limestone at the R.M. Heskett Station would provide substantial benefits to MDU. A switch to limestone would increase the fuel flexibility of the unit, allowing fuels higher in both sodium and sulfur to be burned. The limestone bed can tolerate a much higher buildup of sodium in the bed without agglomeration, allowing either the bed turnover rate to be reduced to half the current sand feed rate for a fuel with equivalent sodium or allow a higher sodium fuel to be burned with limestone feed rates equivalent to the current sand feed rate. Both stack and ambient SO{sub 2} emissions can be controlled. A small improvement in boiler efficiency should be achievable by operating at lower excess oxygen levels at low load. This reduction in oxygen will also lower NO{sub x} emissions, providing a margin of safety for meeting emission standards. No detrimental effects of using limestone at the Heskett Station were uncovered as a result of the test burn. Some specific conclusions from this work include the following: The bed material feed rate can be reduced from the current rate of 5.4% of the coal feed rate (57.4 tons of sand/day) to 2.5% of the coal feed rate (27 tons of limestone/day). This will result in an annual savings of approximately $200,000. (1) SO{sub 2} emissions at the recommended feed rate would be approximately 250 ppm (0.82 lb/MMBtu) using a similar lignite. Based on the cost of the limestones, SO{sub 2} allowances could be generated at a cost of $60/ton SO{sub 2} , leaving a large profit margin for the sale of allowances. The addition of limestone at the same rate currently used for sand feed could generate $455,000 net income if allowances are sold at $200/ton SO2 . (2) At full-load operation, unburned carbon losses increase significantly at excess oxygen levels below 2.8%. No efficiency gains are expected at high-load operation by switching from sand to limestone. By reducing the oxygen level at low load to 8.5%, an efficiency gain of approximately 1.2% could be realized, equating to $25,000 to $30,000 in annual savings. (3) A reduction of 25 tons/day total ash (bed material plus fly ash) will be realized by using limestone at the recommended feed rate compared to the current sand feed rate. No measurable change in volume would be realized because of the lower bulk density of the limestone-derived material.

Michael D. Mann; Ann K. Henderson

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Optimal adaptive control with ?LQG.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis introduces ?LQG, the hyper extension of the Linear Quadratic Gaussian Regulator, for solving general purpose (locally optimal) nonlinear adaptive control on multiple-input multiple-output… (more)

Wendt, Luke

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Greedy approximation in convex optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jun 2, 2012 ... In optimization theory an energy function E(x) is given and we should find ..... of matrices with nuclear norm not exceeding 1. We are interested ...

385

Optimization Online Digest -- July 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal management and sizing of energy storage under dynamic pricing for the efficient integration of renewable energy. Pavithra ... POST-PARETO ANALYSIS FOR MULTIOBJECTIVE PARABOLIC CONTROL SYSTEMS Henri Bonnel.

386

Amine plant troubleshooting and optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A systematic method for troubleshooting and optimization of amine plants, if properly used, will result in fewer plant upsets, quick and correct responses to changing conditions and long-term profitable operations of any amine unit. It is important for amine plants to maintain safe, continuous and optimized operations for short- and long-term success. Effective and fast resolution of maine unit upsets plays a large part in this success. These considerations are as important in plants using generic amines such as monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and specialty amines based on MDEA. The key to troubleshooting and optimization is a systematic approach. Developing and using control charts can also be used to monitor amine plant operations. By using these techniques collectively, a formal method for troubleshooting and optimization can be established. This will ultimately result in a more trouble-free, continuous operation.

Abry, R.G.F. [Dow Chemical Co., Ft. Saskatchewan, Alberta (Canada); DuPart, M.S. [Dow Chemical Co., Freeport, TX (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

NETL: Gasification Systems - Gasifier Optimization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Optimization Small-Scale Coal-biomass to Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal...

388

Optimization of the CMDFT Code  

SciTech Connect

This report outlines the optimization of the CMDFT code by Xiaoguang Zhang during June-July 2006. The overall improvement in speed is nearly 40%. Possible further optimizatins are also discussed.

Zhang, Xiaoguang [ORNL; Kent, P. R. C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Optimization Online Digest -- December 2008  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal structure of gas transmission trunklines ... Behavior of BFGS with an Exact Line Search on Nonsmooth Examples ... MINIMIZERS AND APPROXIMATE SUPER MINIMIZERS OF A SET-VALUED MAP INVOLVING CODERIVATIVES

390

Benzene rectifying column performance optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Benzene rectifying column control at the actual petroleum refinery is studied. Certain approaches to increase the performance of precise rectification of benzene and toluene are suggested. An algorithm of evaluating the optimal regulation parameters ...

D. A. Smirnova; V. I. Fedorov; N. V. Lisitsyn

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

On Optimal Radar Reflectivity Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A format for an optimal post-detection integration is discussed. The measurement cells in the integration scheme have equal down-range and cross-range resolution to conserve more of the variability of the precipitation field. Every measurement ...

Enrico Torlaschi; Isztar Zawadzki

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Auto-tuning on the macro scale : high level algorithmic auto-tuning for scientific applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, we describe a new classification of auto-tuning methodologies spanning from low-level optimizations to high-level algorithmic tuning. This classification spectrum of auto-tuning methods encompasses the space ...

Chan, Cy P

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Optimal refinement of rule bases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article presents a formal analysis of the rule refinement selection problem. There is no satisfactory methodical standard for the optimal refinement of rule bases. Current refinement systems select the best overall rule base refinements out of a ... Keywords: Rule base validation, complex gain calculation, conflicting and alternative rule refinements, evaluation of safety-critical knowledge bases, optimal refinement selection, rule refinement classes, subsumption and synergy

Hans-Werner Kelbassa

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Production Cost Optimization Project 2010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The EPRI Production Cost Optimization project assists participating members in implementing or enhancing heat rate optimization programs to reduce production costs through sustainable performance improvements. This Technical Update summarizes the status of the project and presents results for five (5) sites that have completed initial and follow-up assessments. A PCO assessment consists of benchmarking plant thermal performance using historical plant data along with an on-site performance appraisal to id...

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

395

Optimization approach to entanglement distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We put forward a method for optimized distillation of partly entangled pairs of qubits into a smaller number of more entangled pairs by recurrent local unitary operations and projections. Optimized distillation is achieved by minimization of a cost function with up to 30 real parameters, which is chosen to be sensitive to the fidelity and the projection probability at each step. We show that in many cases this approach can significantly improve the distillation efficiency in comparison to the present methods.

T. Opatrny; G. Kurizki

1998-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

396

NREL-Renewable Energy Optimization Presentation | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Renewable Energy Optimization Presentation Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Renewable Energy Optimization Presentation Name Renewable Energy Optimization Presentation Agency...

397

Optimization Online - All Areas Submissions - July 2013  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization of Demand Response Through Peak Shaving G. Zakeri, D. Craigie, A. Philpott, M. Todd. Convex and Nonsmooth Optimization On Equilibrium ...

398

Economic and Environmental Optimization of Microgrids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Economic and Environmental Optimization of Microgrids Title Economic and Environmental Optimization of Microgrids Publication Type Presentation Year of Publication 2013 Authors...

399

Portfolio Optimization with Stochastic Dominance Constraints  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the portfolio return rate. We develop optimality and duality theory for these models. We construct equivalent optimization models with utility functions.

400

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Building Energy Optimization...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) Software Project ID: 105 Principal Investigator: Craig Christensen Brief Description: BEopt is a computer program designed to find optimal...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optimal oxygen levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 January Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important...

402

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

403

Building Distributed Energy Performance Optimization for China...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Distributed Energy Performance Optimization for China - a Regional Analysis of Building Energy Costs and CO2 Emissions Title Building Distributed Energy Performance Optimization...

404

OSCon: Optimizing superconductor transport properties through...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

OSCon: Optimizing superconductor transport properties through large-scale simulation OSCon: Optimizing superconductor transport properties through large-scale simulation The SciDAC...

405

Necessary optimality condition for Nonsmooth Switching Control ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jun 7, 2007 ... Abstract: This paper is concerned with a class optimal switching nonsmoth optimal control problem is considered. Both the switching instants ...

406

Course Overview Pump Systems Matter Optimization | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Course Overview Pump Systems Matter Optimization Attendees of the "Pump Systems Optimization" one-day course will gain valuable new skills to help them improve...

407

Optimization Online - Other Topics Submissions - 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Equilibria on the Day-Ahead Electricity Market Margarida Carvalho, João Pedro Pedroso. Optimization of Simulated Systems Simulation Optimization for the ...

408

Completely Positive Reformulations for Polynomial Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Condition (i) in Remark 1 ensures that the feasible set of (18) does not change ..... Optimization Handbook on Semidefinite, Conic and Polynomial Optimization,

409

Design Feasibility Analysis and Optimization under Uncertainty...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feasibility Analysis and Optimization under Uncertainty - A Bayesian Optimal Decision Framework Speaker(s): Jose M. Ortega Date: October 7, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90...

410

multimaterial topology optimization by volume constrained allen ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In [22], the optimization of the position of fuel assemblies in a nuclear reactor core has ... topology optimization problem based on the homogenization theory.

411

Oxygen-blown gasification combined cycle: Carbon dioxide recovery, transport, and disposal  

SciTech Connect

This project emphasizes CO2-capture technologies combined with integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems, CO2 transportation, and options for the long-term sequestration Of CO2. The intent is to quantify the CO2 budget, or an ``equivalent CO2`` budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps, in addition to process design capital and operating costs. The base case is a 458-MW (gross generation) IGCC system that uses an oxygen-blown Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW) agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, bituminous coal feed, and low-pressure glycol sulfur removal, followed by Claus/SCOT treatment, to produce a saleable product. Mining, feed preparation, and conversion result in a net electric power production for the entire energy cycle of 411 MW, with a CO2 release rate of 0.801 kg/kV-Whe. For comparison, in two cases, the gasifier output was taken through water-gas shift and then to low-pressure glycol H2S recovery, followed by either low-pressure glycol or membrane CO2 recovery and then by a combustion turbine being fed a high-hydrogen-content fuel. Two additional cases employed chilled methanol for H2S recovery and a fuel cell as the topping cycle, with no shift stages. From the IGCC plant, a 500-km pipeline takes the CO2 to geological sequestering. For the optimal CO2 recovery case, the net electric power production was reduced by 37.6 MW from the base case, with a CO2 release rate of 0.277 kg/kWhe (when makeup power was considered). In a comparison of air-blown and oxygen-blown CO2-release base cases, the cost of electricity for the air-blown IGCC was 56.86 mills/kWh, while the cost for oxygen-blown IGCC was 58.29 mills/kWh. For the optimal cases employing glycol CO2 recovery, there was no clear advantage; the cost for air-blown IGCC was 95.48 mills/kWh, and the cost for the oxygen-blown IGCC was slightly lower, at 94.55 mills/kWh.

Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.R.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

412

Building Energy Software Tools Directory : CHP Capacity Optimizer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CHP Capacity Optimizer Back to Tool CHP Capacity Optimizer data entry screen CHP Capacity Optimizer results screen CHP Capacity Optimizer restult map...

413

High-Level Power Minimization of Analog Sensor Interface Architectures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-level analog design and optimization tool was developed for the architectural synthesis of complex analog systems towards minimal power consumption. In this paper we will illustrate the use of this tool with the high-level design of an analog ...

Stéphane Donnay; Georges Gielen; Willy Sansen

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

HERSCHEL MEASUREMENTS OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN IN ORION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report observations of three rotational transitions of molecular oxygen (O{sub 2}) in emission from the H{sub 2} Peak 1 position of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen in Orion. We observed the 487 GHz, 774 GHz, and 1121 GHz lines using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared on the Herschel Space Observatory, having velocities of 11 km s{sup -1} to 12 km s{sup -1} and widths of 3 km s{sup -1}. The beam-averaged column density is N(O{sub 2}) = 6.5 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}, and assuming that the source has an equal beam-filling factor for all transitions (beam widths 44, 28, and 19''), the relative line intensities imply a kinetic temperature between 65 K and 120 K. The fractional abundance of O{sub 2} relative to H{sub 2} is (0.3-7.3) x 10{sup -6}. The unusual velocity suggests an association with a {approx}5'' diameter source, denoted Peak A, the Western Clump, or MF4. The mass of this source is {approx}10 M{sub sun} and the dust temperature is {>=}150 K. Our preferred explanation of the enhanced O{sub 2} abundance is that dust grains in this region are sufficiently warm (T {>=} 100 K) to desorb water ice and thus keep a significant fraction of elemental oxygen in the gas phase, with a significant fraction as O{sub 2}. For this small source, the line ratios require a temperature {>=}180 K. The inferred O{sub 2} column density {approx_equal}5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2} can be produced in Peak A, having N(H{sub 2}) {approx_equal} 4 x 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}. An alternative mechanism is a low-velocity (10-15 km s{sup -1}) C-shock, which can produce N(O{sub 2}) up to 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}.

Goldsmith, Paul F.; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Li Di [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Liseau, Rene; Black, John H. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Bell, Tom A. [Centro de Astrobiologia, CSIC-INTA, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Hollenbach, David [SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Kaufman, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Lis, Dariusz C. [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Melnick, Gary [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 66, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Neufeld, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Pagani, Laurent; Encrenaz, Pierre [LERMA and UMR8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France); Snell, Ronald [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Benz, Arnold O.; Bruderer, Simon [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Bergin, Edwin [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Caselli, Paola [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Caux, Emmanuel [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Falgarone, Edith, E-mail: Paul.F.Goldsmith@jpl.nasa.gov [LRA/LERMA, CNRS, UMR8112, Observatoire de Paris and Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

2011-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

415

Optimization of a Phase Change Heat Sink for Extreme Environments Jason Leland and Gerald Recktenwald  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-levelling in an electrical power grid. Here we consider a different application of a phase change heat sink: as the primaryOptimization of a Phase Change Heat Sink for Extreme Environments Jason Leland and Gerald--Results of numerical optimization are reported for a phase change heat sink used to cool electronic equipment in ex

Recktenwald, Gerald

416

International Conference of Modeling, Optimization and Simulation -MOSIM'12 June 6-8, 2012 -Bordeaux -France  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the optimal dates of inspection. The lifetime of the system investigated in (Tadikamalla, 1979) follows by sequential inspections. According to statistical knowledge of degradation level, a preventive maintenance is given. The objective of the inspection and maintenance policy is to find an optimal vector of inspection

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

417

Vehicle Transient Air Conditioning Analysis: Model Development& System Optimization Investigations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a transient air conditioning (A/C) system model using SINDA/FLUINT analysis software. It captures all the relevant physics of transient A/C system performance, including two-phase flow effects in the evaporator and condenser, system mass effects, air side heat transfer on the condenser/evaporator, vehicle speed effects, temperature-dependent properties, and integration with a simplified cabin thermal model. It has demonstrated robust and powerful system design optimization capabilities. Single-variable and multiple variable design optimizations have been performed and are presented. Various system performance parameters can be optimized, including system COP, cabin cool-down time, and system heat load capacity. This work presents this new transient A/C system analysis and optimization tool and shows some high-level system design conclusions reached to date. The work focuses on R-134a A/C systems, but future efforts will modify the model to investigate the transient performance of alternative refrigerant systems such as carbon dioxide systems. NREL is integrating its transient air conditioning model into NRELs ADVISOR vehicle system analysis software, with the objective of simultaneously optimizing A/C system designs within the overall vehicle design optimization.

Hendricks, T. J.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Distributed rate allocation for inelastic flows: Optimization frameworks, optimality conditions, and optimal algorithms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—A common assumption behind the recent surge in research activities on network utility maximization is that the traffic flows are elastic, which implies that the utility functions are concave and there are no hard limits on the rate allocated to each flow. These critical assumptions lead to the tractability of the analytic models of utility maximization, but also limits the applicability of the resulting rate allocation protocols. This paper focuses on inelastic flows and removes these restrictive and often invalid assumptions. We present several optimization frameworks, optimality conditions, and optimal algorithms. First we consider nonconcave utility functions, which turn utility maximization into nonconvex, constrained optimization problems that are well-known to be extremely difficult. We first show a surprising result that under certain conditions, the standard pricing algorithm for rate allocation will still converge to the globally optimal rate allocation. When the existing distributed algorithm fails, we present a new algorithm that produces the globally optimal rate allocation, with the worst case complexity being polynomial time in the number of users but exponential time in the number of links. In the second part of the paper, we provide a general problem formulation of rate allocation among time-sensitive flows from real-time and streaming applications, as well as a decomposition into subproblems coordinated by pricing. After simplifying the subproblems by leveraging the optimization structures, we highlight the difficult issues of causality and time-scale, and propose an effective pricing-based heuristics for admission control and an optimal algorithm for a special case formulation.

Mung Chiang; Shengyu Zhang; Prashanth H

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Palladium-cobalt particles as oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to palladium-cobalt particles useful as oxygen-reducing electrocatalysts. The invention also relates to oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells containing these palladium-cobalt particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for the production of electrical energy by using the palladium-cobalt particles of the invention.

Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Huang, Tao (Manorville, NY)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

420

Device for measuring the total concentration of oxygen in gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a CO equilibrium in a device for measuring the total concentration of oxygen impurities in a fluid stream. To this end, the CO equilibrium is produced in an electrochemical measuring cell by the interaction of a carbon element in the cell with the chemically combined and uncombined oxygen in the fluid stream at an elevated temperature.

Isaacs, Hugh S. (Shoreham, NY); Romano, Anthony J. (Kings Park, NY)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optimal oxygen levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

NETL: News Release - New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

22, 2009 22, 2009 New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful Ceramic Membrane Enables Efficient, Cost-Effective Co-Production of Power and Oxygen Washington, D.C. -The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies. ITM Oxygen will enhance the performance of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, as well as other gasification-based processes. The technology will also enhance the economics of oxy-fired combustion technologies, making it an attractive option for the capture of carbon dioxide from existing coal-fired power plants.

422

Real-Time Molecular Monitoring of Chemical Environment in ObligateAnaerobes during Oxygen Adaptive Response  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Determining the transient chemical properties of the intracellular environment canelucidate the paths through which a biological system adapts to changes in its environment, for example, the mechanisms which enable some obligate anaerobic bacteria to survive a sudden exposure to oxygen. Here we used high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectromicroscopy to continuously follow cellular chemistry within living obligate anaerobes by monitoring hydrogen bonding in their cellular water. We observed a sequence of wellorchestrated molecular events that correspond to changes in cellular processes in those cells that survive, but only accumulation of radicals in those that do not. We thereby can interpret the adaptive response in terms of transient intracellular chemistry and link it to oxygen stress and survival. This ability to monitor chemical changes at the molecular level can yield important insights into a wide range of adaptive responses.

Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Wozei, Eleanor; Lin, Zhang; Comolli, Luis R.; Ball, David. A.; Borglin, Sharon; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Downing, Kenneth H.

2009-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

423

Method for melting glass by measurement of non-bridging oxygen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for making better quality molten glass in a glass melter, the glass having the desired viscosity and, preferably, also the desired resistivity so that the glass melt can be established effectively and the product of the glass melter will have the desired level of quality. The method includes the adjustment of the composition of the glass constituents that are fed into the melter in accordance with certain correlations that reliably predict the viscosity and resistivity from the melter temperature and the melt composition, then heating the ingredients to the melter's operating temperature until they melt and homogenize. The equations include the calculation of a non-bridging oxygen' term from the numbers of moles of the various ingredients, and then the determination of the viscosity and resistivity from the operating temperature of the melter and the non-bridging oxygen term. 4 figs.

Jantzen, C.M.

1992-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

424

Method for melting glass by measurement of non-bridging oxygen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for making better quality molten glass in a glass melter, the glass having the desired viscosity and, preferably, also the desired resistivity so that the glass melt can be established effectively and the product of the glass melter will have the desired level of quality. The method includes the adjustment of the composition of the glass constituents that are fed into the melter in accordance with certain correlations that reliably predict the viscosity and resistivity from the melter temperature and the melt composition, then heating the ingredients to the melter's operating temperature until they melt and homogenize. The equations include the calculation of a "non-bridging oxygen" term from the numbers of moles of the various ingredients, and then the determination of the viscosity and resistivity from the operating temperature of the melter and the non-bridging oxygen term.

Jantzen, Carol M. (3922 Wood Valley Dr., Aiken, SC 29801)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen minimum zone (7001100 m)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen) on the bathyal Pakistan margin, where sediments grade from fully laminated sediment at 700 m (0.12 mL LÃ?1 O2 [5 m matter to generate abrupt faunal transitions on the Pakistan margin. & 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

Levin, Lisa

426

Optimal time-resource allocation for activity-detection via multimodal sensing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The optimal allocation of measurements for activity-level detection in a wireless body area network (WBAN) for health-monitoring applications is considered. The WBAN with heterogeneous sensors is deployed in a simple star topology with the fusion center ...

Gautam Thatte; Viktor Rozgic; Ming Li; Sabyasachi Ghosh; Urbashi Mitra; Shri Narayanan; Murali Annavaram; Donna Spruijt-Metz

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Dynamic clustering using combinatorial particle swarm optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Combinatorial Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO) is a relatively recent technique for solving combinatorial optimization problems. CPSO has been used in different applications, e.g., partitional clustering and project scheduling problems, and it has ... Keywords: Combinatorial optimization problems, Combinatorial particle swarm optimization, Dynamic clustering, Partitional clustering

Hamid Masoud; Saeed Jalili; Seyed Mohammad Hasheminejad

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Optimal Operation of a Multiple Reservoir System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy production release policies system. percent while optimal the meet satisfactorily all Sensitivity analysis

Marino, Miguel A; Loaiciga, Hugo A

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Optimization Online - Stochastic Programming Submissions - 2013  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stochastic Programming Submissions - 2013. January 2013. Generating moment matching scenarios using optimization techniques. Sanjay Mehrotra, David ...

430

Building Technologies Office: Building Energy Optimization Software  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Building Energy Building Energy Optimization Software to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Building Energy Optimization Software on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Building Energy Optimization Software on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Building Energy Optimization Software on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Building Energy Optimization Software on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Building Energy Optimization Software on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Building Energy Optimization Software on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Partner With DOE Activities Solar Decathlon Building America Research Innovations Research Tools Building Science Education Climate-Specific Guidance

431

Automated Synthesis Tool for Design Optimization of Power Electronic Converters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Designers of power electronic converters usually face the challenge of having multiple performance indices that must be simultaneously optimized, such as maximizing efficiency while minimizing mass or maximizing reliability while minimizing cost. The experienced engineer applies his or her judgment to reduce the number of possible designs to a manageable number of feasible designs for which to prototype and test; thus, the optimality of this design-space reduction is directly dependent upon the experience, and expertise and biases of the designer. The practitioner is familiar with tradeoff analysis; however, simple tradeoff studies can become difficult or even intractable if multiple metrics are considered. Hence a scientific and systematic approach is needed. In this dissertation, a multi-objective optimization framework is presented as a design tool. Optimization of power electronic converters is certainly not a new subject. However, when limited to off-the-shelf components, the resulting system is really optimized only over the set of commercially available components, which may represent only a subset of the design space; the reachable space limited by available components and technologies. While this approach is suited to cost-reduce an existing design, it offers little insight into design possibilities for greenfield projects. Instead, this work uses the Technology Characterization Methods (TCM) to broaden the reachable design space by considering fundamental component attributes. The result is the specification for the components that create the optimal design rather than an evaluation of an apriori selected set of candidate components. A unique outcome of this approach is that new technology development vectors may emerge to develop optimized components for the optimized power converter. The approach presented in this work uses a mathematical descriptive language to abstract the characteristics and attributes of the components used in a power electronic converter in a way suitable for multi-objective and constrained optimization methods. This dissertation will use Technology Characterization Methods (TCM) to bridge the gap between high-level performance attributes and low-level design attributes where direct relationship between these two does not currently exist. The loss and size models for inductors, capacitors, IGBTs, MOSFETs and heat sinks will be used to form objective functions for the multi-objective optimization problem. A single phase IGBT-based inverter is optimized for efficiency and volume based on the component models derived using TCM. Comparing the obtained designs to a design, which can be made from commercial off-the-shelf components, shows that converter design can be optimized beyond what is possible from using only off-the-shelf components. A module-integrated photovoltaic inverter is also optimized for efficiency, volume and reliability. An actual converter is constructed using commercial off-the-shelf components. The converter design is chosen as close as possible to a point obtained by optimization. Experimental results show that the converter modeling is accurate. A new approach for evaluation of efficiency in photovoltaic converter is also proposed and the front-end portion of a photovoltaic converter is optimized for this efficiency, as well as reliability and volume.

Mirjafari, Mehran

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Optimization of Industrial Refrigeration Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A computer program designed to optimize the size of an evaporative condenser in a two-stage industrial refrigeration plant was created. The program sizes both the high-stage and low-stage compressors and an evaporative condenser. Once the initial system is sized, a year long plant simulation is performed resulting in electric energy consumption profile and an exergy destruction profile for each component and for the system. The program uses actual regional hourly outside dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures for both sizing and simulation. An exergoeconomic optimization uses the results of the simulation combined with component and energy costs to optimize the condenser size such that both plant costs and energy losses are minimized.

Flack, P. J.; Sharp, M. K.; Case, M. E.; Gregory, R. W.; Case, P. L.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Optimal segmentation and packaging process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for improving packaging efficiency uses three dimensional, computer simulated models with various optimization algorithms to determine the optimal segmentation process and packaging configurations based on constraints including container limitations. The present invention is applied to a process for decontaminating, decommissioning (D&D), and remediating a nuclear facility involving the segmentation and packaging of contaminated items in waste containers in order to minimize the number of cuts, maximize packaging density, and reduce worker radiation exposure. A three-dimensional, computer simulated, facility model of the contaminated items are created. The contaminated items are differentiated. The optimal location, orientation and sequence of the segmentation and packaging of the contaminated items is determined using the simulated model, the algorithms, and various constraints including container limitations. The cut locations and orientations are transposed to the simulated model. The contaminated items are actually segmented and packaged. The segmentation and packaging may be simulated beforehand. In addition, the contaminated items may be cataloged and recorded.

Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Meservey, Richard H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Landon, Mark D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Optimal Scheduling of Cogeneration Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A cogeneration plant, feeding its output water into a district-heating grid, may include several types of energy producing units. The most important being the cogeneration unit, which produces both heat and electricity. Most plants also have a heat water storage. Finding the optimal production of both heat and electricity and the optimal use of the storage is a difficult optimization problem. This paper formulates a general approach for the mathematical modeling of a cogeneration plant. The model objective function is nonlinear, with nonlinear constraints. Internal plant temperatures, mass flows, storage losses, minimal up and down times and time depending start-up costs are considered. The unit commitment, i.e. the units on and off modes, is found with an algorithm based on Lagrangian relaxation. The dual search direction is given by the subgradient method and the step length by the Polyak rule II. The economic dispatch problem, i.e. the problem of determining the units production giv...

Erik Dotzauer; Kenneth Holmström

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Bayesian Inference with Optimal Maps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new approach to Bayesian inference that entirely avoids Markov chain simulation, by constructing a map that pushes forward the prior measure to the posterior measure. Existence and uniqueness of a suitable measure-preserving map is established by formulating the problem in the context of optimal transport theory. We discuss various means of explicitly parameterizing the map and computing it efficiently through solution of an optimization problem, exploiting gradient information from the forward model when possible. The resulting algorithm overcomes many of the computational bottlenecks associated with Markov chain Monte Carlo. Advantages of a map-based representation of the posterior include analytical expressions for posterior moments and the ability to generate arbitrary numbers of independent posterior samples without additional likelihood evaluations or forward solves. The optimization approach also provides clear convergence criteria for posterior approximation and facilitates model selectio...

Moselhy, Tarek A El

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Microprocessor Based Combustion Monitoring and Control Systems Utilizing in Situ Opacity, Oxygen and CO Measurement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new hybrid combustion control system has been developed which combines the functions which have traditionally been performed by separate stand-alone measurement and control instruments into one low-cost integrated system. Complete O2 Trim Control Systems will soon be available starting at less than 6,000 dollars. By utilizing a high performance low-cost microprocessor, both measurement and control functions can now be performed simultaneously. The new systems will feature automatic calibration, self-diagnostics, field programmable memory, and improved operator interface. By measuring the products of combustion utilizing the latest In Situ Opacity, Oxygen, and CO Monitoring technology, the fuel air mixture ratio of industrial fuel burning equipment can be optimized to insure reduced fuel consumption end improved combustion efficiency. Typical fuel savings of 3 to 5 percent have been experienced on a wide variety of different types of fuel burning sources, including packaged boilers, incinerators, and process heaters.

Molloy, R. C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Software optimization for performance, energy, and thermal distribution: Initial case studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As an initial step in our Green Software research, this paper investigates whether software optimization at the application level can help achieve higher energy efficiency and better thermal behavior. We use both direct measurements and modeling to quantify ... Keywords: system-level energy consumption, software optimization, performance-energy-thermal distribution, green software, energy efficiency, power estimator, multicore systems, regressing measurements, custom-designed suite, microbenchmarks, software tuning, scalability, parallel application

M. A. Khan; C. Hankendi; A. K. Coskun; M. C. Herbordt

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Pump Systems Optimization: Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pump Systems Pump Systems Optimization: Energy Efficiency and Bottom-Line Savings Host this one-day course to help participants learn how to identify and reduce hidden operation and energy costs. Participants will: * Identify energy savings * Increase profitability * Increase reliability * Earn seven PDH credits Attendees of the "Pump Systems Optimization" one-day course will gain valuable new skills to help them improve centrifugal pump system efficiency to reduce energy and operating costs while earning seven professional development hour (PDH) credits from the Hydraulic Institute. Topics covered include:* * Why Efficient Pump Systems Are Important

439

Risk-Based Production Optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the pilot application of a risk-informed approach to production optimization at fossil power plants. In this project, EPRI worked with a U.S. utility to develop risk profiles for plant components at two of the utilitys coal-fired generating units. The information was then used as a basis for identifying timing strategies for performing outage-based maintenance. The primary objective was to apply a risk-informed approach to identifying an optimal sequence of outage intervals and scop...

2011-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

440

Interactions of Oxygen and Hydrogen on Pd(111) surface  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The coadsorption and interactions of oxygen and hydrogen on Pd(1 1 1) was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations. In the absence of hydrogen oxygen forms a (2 x 2) ordered structure. Coadsorption of hydrogen leads to a structural transformation from (2 x 2) to a ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30 degree structure. In addition to this transformation, hydrogen enhances the mobility of oxygen. To explain these observations, the interaction of oxygen and hydrogen on Pd(1 1 1) was studied within the density functional theory. In agreement with the experiment the calculations find a total energy minimum for the oxygen (2 x 2) structure. The interaction between H and O atoms was found to be repulsive and short ranged, leading to a compression of the O islands from (2 x 2) to ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30 degree ordered structure at high H coverage. The computed energy barriers for the oxygen diffusion were found to be reduced due to the coadsorption of hydrogen, in agreement with the experimentally observed enhancement of oxygen mobility. The calculations also support the finding that at low temperatures the water formation reaction does not occur on Pd(1 1 1).

Demchenko, D.O.; Sacha, G.M.; Salmeron, M.; Wang, L.-W.

2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optimal oxygen levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Process Optimization and Integration Strategies for Material Reclamation and Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industrial facilities are characterized by the significant usage of natural resources and the massive discharge of waste materials. An effective strategy towards the sustainability of industrial processes is the conservation of natural resources through waste reclamation and recycles. Because of the numerous number of design alternatives, systematic procedures must be developed for the effective synthesis and screening of reclamation and recycle options. The objective of this work is to develop systematic and generally applicable procedures for the synthesis, design, and optimization of resource conservation networks. Focus is given to two important applications: material utilities (with water as an example) and spent products (with lube oil as an example). Traditionally, most of the previous research efforts in the area of designing direct-recycle water networks have considered the chemical composition as the basis for process constraints. However, there are many design problems that are not component-based; instead, they are property-based (e.g., pH, density, viscosity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), basic oxygen demand (BOD), toxicity). Additionally, thermal constraints (e.g., stream temperature) may be required to identify acceptable recycles. In this work, a novel approach is introduced to design material-utility (e.g., water) recycle networks that allows the simultaneous consideration of mass, thermal, and property constraints. Furthermore, the devised approach accounts for the heat of mixing and for the interdependence of properties. An optimization formulation is developed to embed all potential configurations of interest and to model the mass, thermal, and property characteristics of the targeted streams and units. Solution strategies are developed to identify stream allocation and targets for minimum fresh usage and waste discharge. A case study on water management is solved to illustrate the concept of the proposed approach and its computational aspects. Next, a systematic approach is developed for the selection of solvents, solvent blends, and system design in in extraction-based reclamation processes of spent lube oil Property-integration tools are employed for the systematic screening of solvents and solvent blends. The proposed approach identifies the main physical properties that influence solvent(s) performance in extracting additives and contaminants from used lubricating oils (i.e. solubility parameter (delta), viscosity (v), and vapor pressure (p)). The results of the theoretical approach are validated through comparison with experimental data for single solvents and for solvent blends. Next, an optimization formulation is developed and solved to identify system design and extraction solvent(s) by including techno-economic criteria. Two case studies are solved for identification of feasible blends and for the cost optimization of the system.

Kheireddine, Houssein

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Aerospace modal test optimization using VETO (virtual environment for test optimization)  

SciTech Connect

We present a software environment integrating analysis and test based models to support optimal modal test design of aerospace components through a Virtual Environment for Test Optimization (VETO). A goal in developing this software tool is to provide test and analysis organizations with a capability of mathematically simulating the complete test environment within a computer. Derived models of test equipment, instrumentation and hardware can be combined within the VETO to provide the user with a unique analysis and visualization capability to evaluate new and existing test methods. The VETO assists analysis and test engineers in maximizing the value of each modal test. It is particularly advantageous for structural dynamics model reconciliation applications. The VETO enables an engineer to interact with a finite element model of an aerospace component to optimally place sensors and exciters and to investigate the selection of data acquisition parameters needed to conduct a complete modal survey. Additionally, the user can evaluate the use of different types of instrumentation such as filters, amplifiers and transducers for which models are available in the VETO. The dynamic response of most of the virtual instruments (including the device under test) are modeled in the state space domain. Design of modal excitation levels and appropriate test instrumentation are facilitated by the VETO`s ability to simulate such features as unmeasured external inputs, A/D quantization effects, and electronic noise.

Klenke, S.E.; Reese, G.M.; Schoof, L.A.; Shierling, C.L.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

443

Effect of Oxygen on the Crack Growth Behavior of V-4Cr-4Ti at 600C  

SciTech Connect

Exploratory experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of oxygen on the crack growth response of V-4Cr-4Ti at 600C under constant load. Tests were run in gettered argon, argon containing 2000 ppm oxygen, and laboratory air using fatigue pre-cracked compact tension specimens. Crack growth was measured primarily by post-test fracture surface examination, but also by in-test compliance measurements. Crack growth rates measured in air and gettered argon were about 2-3x10-3 mm/h at a stress intensity factor of about 40 MPavm. The crack growth rate in argon with 2000 ppm oxygen was about 7x10-2 mm/h at the same stress intensity level. The crack growth rates were very sensitive to the stress intensity factor. Over a limited range of stress intensity values the crack growth rate in argon plus 2000 ppm oxygen appears to be power-law dependent on stress intensity with an exponent of about 8.9. The fracture mode in air and gettered argon was transgranular cleavage with 20 to 30% intergranular fracture. In the oxygenated argon environment crack growth occurred predominantly by transgranular cleavage.

Kurtz, Richard J.

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol Particles Title On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol Particles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2006 Authors Pang, Yanbo, B. J. Turpin, and Lara A. Gundel Journal Journal of Aerosol Science and Technology Volume 40 Start Page Chapter Pagination 128-133 Abstract This study shows how aerosol organic oxygen data could provide new and independent information about organic aerosol mass, aqueous solubility of organic aerosols, formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and the relative contributions of anthropogenic and biogenic sources. For more than two decades atmospheric aerosol organic mass concentration has usually been estimated by multiplying the measured carbon content by an assumed organic mass (OM)-to-organic carbon (OC ) factor of 1.4. However, this factor can vary from 1.0 to 2.5 depending on location. This great uncertainty about aerosol organic mass limits our understanding of the influence of organic aerosol on climate, visibility and health.New examination of organic aerosol speciation data shows that the oxygen content is the key factor responsible for the observed range in the OM-to-OC factor. When organic oxygen content is excluded, the ratio of non-oxygen organic mass to carbon mass varies very little across different environments (1.12 to 1.14). The non-oxygen-OM-to-non-oxygen OC factor for all studied sites (urban and non-urban) is 1.13± 0.02. The uncertainty becomes an order of magnitude smaller than the uncertainty in the best current estimates of organic mass to organic carbon ratios (1.6± 0.2 for urban and 2.1± 0.2 for non-urban areas). When aerosol organic oxygen data become available, organic aerosol mass can be quite accurately estimated using just OC and organic oxygen (OO) without the need to know whether the aerosol is fresh or aged. In addition, aerosol organic oxygen data will aid prediction of water solubility since compounds with OO-to-OC higher than 0.4 have water solubilities higher than 1g per 100 g water

445

Hydrogen Production Using Hydrogenase-Containing Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

Melis, A.; Zhang, L.; Benemann, J. R.; Forestier, M.; Ghirardi, M.; Seibert, M.

2006-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

446

Company Level Imports Archives  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Company Level Imports Company Level Imports Archives 2013 Imports by Month January XLS February XLS March XLS April XLS May XLS June XLS July XLS August XLS September XLS...

447

Gas permeation carbon capture --- Process modeling and optimization  

SciTech Connect

A multi-staged gas permeation carbon capture process model was developed in Aspen Custom Modeler{reg_sign} (ACM) and optimized in the context of the retrofit of a 550 MW subcritical pulverized coal (PC) power plant. The gas permeation stages in the process are described by a custom multi-component, hollowfiber membrane model. Gas transport across the asymmetric membrane was modeled according to the solution-diffusion model for the selective skin layer and the assumption of negligible flux resistance by the porous support. Counter-current, one-dimensional plug flow was assumed with permeate pressure drop in the fiber lumen side due to capillary constrained flow. A modular optimization framework was used to minimize the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) by optimizing a set of key process variables. The framework allows the external control of multiple simulation modules from different software packages from a common interface.

Morinelly, Juan; Miller, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Optimal reinsurance/investment problems for general insurance models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper the utility optimization problem for a general insurance model is studied. The reserve process of the insurance company is described by a stochastic differential equation driven by a Brownian motion and a Poisson random measure, representing the randomness from the financial market and the insurance claims, respectively. The random safety loading and stochastic interest rates are allowed in the model so that the reserve process is non-Markovian in general. The insurance company can manage the reserves through both portfolios of the investment and a reinsurance policy to optimize a certain utility function, defined in a generic way. The main feature of the problem lies in the intrinsic constraint on the part of reinsurance policy, which is only proportional to the claim-size instead of the current level of reserve, and hence it is quite different from the optimal investment/consumption problem with constraints in finance. Necessary and sufficient conditions for both well posedness and solvability...

Liu, Yuping; 10.1214/08-AAP582

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Optimal control of population transfer in Markovian open quantum systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There has long been interest to control the transfer of population between specified quantum states. Recent work has optimized the control law for closed system population transfer by using a gradient ascent pulse engineer- ing algorithm [1]. Here, a spin-boson model consisting of two-level atoms which interact with the dissipative environment, is investigated. With opti- mal control, the quantum system can invert the populations of the quantum logic states. The temperature plays an important role in controlling popula- tion transfer. At low temperatures the control has active performance, while at high temperatures it has less erect. We also analyze the decoherence be- havior of open quantum systems with optimal population transfer control, and we find that these controls can prolong the coherence time. We hope that active optimal control can help quantum solid-state-based engineering.

Cuia, Wei; Pan, Yu

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Optimal control of population transfer in Markovian open quantum systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There has long been interest to control the transfer of population between specified quantum states. Recent work has optimized the control law for closed system population transfer by using a gradient ascent pulse engineer- ing algorithm [1]. Here, a spin-boson model consisting of two-level atoms which interact with the dissipative environment, is investigated. With opti- mal control, the quantum system can invert the populations of the quantum logic states. The temperature plays an important role in controlling popula- tion transfer. At low temperatures the control has active performance, while at high temperatures it has less erect. We also analyze the decoherence be- havior of open quantum systems with optimal population transfer control, and we find that these controls can prolong the coherence time. We hope that active optimal control can help quantum solid-state-based engineering.

Wei Cui; Zairong Xi; Yu Pan

2010-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

451

Optimal control of photovoltaic arrays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high value of the energy conversion efficiency is not the only feature a photovoltaic power processing system must have. An optimal control of the photovoltaic generator must be also designed in order to maximize the electrical power it produces, even ... Keywords: Maximum power point tracking, Photovoltaic systems, Power electronics

N. Femia, G. Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, M. Vitelli

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Optimized Communication for Mobile Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Services and Fast Infoset Project MTOM/XOP of W3C DFDL of Global Grid Forum Extreme! Lab's research on SOAP ASN. 1. for binary encoding Binary Encoding Packed Encoding Rule (PER) ­ Octet Alt: Map SOAP 1}[0] #12;MTOM/XOP MTOM (Message Transmission Optimization Mechanism) and XOP (XML

453

Optimization of Injection Scheduling in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- of wells,and (2) allocating a total speci6cd injection rate among chosen injectors. The alloca- tion is defined as the fieldwide break- through lindex, B. Injection is optimized by choosing injection wells questions: (1) Which wells should be made injectors? (2) How should the total nquired injection rate

Stanford University

454

Condensate System Troubleshooting and Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Condensate is steam that has cooled and condensed as a result of doing work (such as heating a process or building, or driving a turbine). The purpose of this paper is to outline benefits, guidelines, and potential problem areas of condensate return as well as tools available to optimize proper treatment.

Jenkins, B. V.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Nonlinear Integer Programming - Optimization Online  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

grams have been handled in the context of the field of global optimization, where the main focus is on ... considered a very young field, and most of the problems and methods are not as well-understood or stable ...... 4.0 (beta)). 118. Sebö, A.: ...

456

Integrated Transportation System Design Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Integrated Transportation System Design Optimization by Christine Taylor B.S. Cornell University by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Professor Jaime Peraire Chairman, Department Graduate Committee #12;2 #12;Integrated Transportation System Abstract Traditionally, the design of a transportation system has focused on either the vehicle design

457

Boiler Reliability Optimization: Interim Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Competitive pressures to drive costs down in the new business environment sometimes conflict with the demands of increased reliability and quality of supply. The Boiler Reliability Optimization program, which makes use of a number of applicable EPRI technologies, was developed to assess, create, and implement an effective boiler maintenance strategy for the changing business environment.

1999-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

458

Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes a hydrogen production cost analysis of a collection of optimized central wind based water electrolysis production facilities. The basic modeled wind electrolysis facility includes a number of low temperature electrolyzers and a co-located wind farm encompassing a number of 3MW wind turbines that provide electricity for the electrolyzer units.

Saur, G.; Ramsden, T.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Optimizing luminescent solar concentrator design.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LSCs) use fluorescent materials and light guides to convert direct and diffuse sunlight into concentrated wavelength-shifted light that produces electrical power in small photovoltaic (PV) cells with the goal of significantly reducing the cost of solar energy utilization. In this paper we present an optimization analysis based on the implementation of a genetic algorithm (GA) subroutine to a numerical ray-tracing Monte Carlo model of an LSC, SIMSOLAR-P. The initial use of the GA implementation in SIMSOLAR-P is to find the optimal parameters of a hypothetical 'perfect luminescent material' that obeys the Kennard Stepanov (K-S) thermodynamic relationship between emission and absorption. The optimization balances the efficiency losses in the wavelength shift and PV conversion with the efficiency losses due to re-scattering of light out of the collector. The theoretical limits of efficiency are provided for one, two and three layer configurations; the results show that a single layer configuration is far from optimal and adding a second layer in the LSC with wavelength shifted material in the near infrared region significantly increases the power output, while the gain in power by adding a third layer is relatively small. The results of this study provide a theoretical upper limit to the performance of an LSC and give guidance for the properties required for luminescent materials, such as quantum nanocrystals, to operate efficiently in planar LSC configurations.

Hernandez-Noyola, H.; Potterveld, D. H.; Holt, R. J.; Darling, S. B. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( PHY)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Optimal deployment of solar index  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing trend, generally caused by state-specific renewable portfolio standards, to increase the importance of renewable electricity generation within generation portfolios. While RPS assist with determining the composition of generation they do not, for the most part, dictate the location of generation. Using data from various public sources, the authors create an optimal index for solar deployment. (author)

Croucher, Matt

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optimal oxygen levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Optimal reorganization of agent formations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article we address the problem of determining how a structured formation of autonomous undistinguishable agents can be reorganized into another, eventually non-rigid, formation based on changes in the environment, perhaps unforeseeable. The methodology ... Keywords: combinatorial optimization, dynamic programming, formation reorganization

Dalila B. M. M. Fontes; Fernando A. C. C. Fontes

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Optimal Control of Distillation Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The optimum performance of a distillation system can be evaluated by examining the product purities, the product recoveries, and the system's capability to respond to small or large, expected or unexpected, plant disturbances. An optimal control system should include accurate instrumentation, closed loop purity control, and a computer system to execute direct digital control with appropriate feed-forward algorithms.

Chatterjee, N.; Suchdeo, S. R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Magnetic resonance imaging of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO?)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen consumption is an essential process of the functioning brain. The rate at which the brain consumes oxygen is known as the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO?). CMRO? is intimately related to brain health and ...

Bolar, Divya Sanam

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study. Phase 2: 100 percent oxygen enriched combustion in regenerative glass melters, Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The field test project described in this report was conducted to evaluate the energy and environmental performance of 100% oxygen enriched combustion (100% OEC) in regenerative glass melters. Additional objectives were to determine other impacts of 100% OEC on melter operation and glass quality, and to verify on a commercial scale that an on-site Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant can reliably supply oxygen for glass melting with low electrical power consumption. The tests constituted Phase 2 of a cooperative project between the United States Department of Energy, and Praxair, Inc. Phase 1 of the project involved market and technical feasibility assessments of oxygen enriched combustion for a range of high temperature industrial heating applications. An assessment of oxygen supply options for these applications was also performed during Phase 1, which included performance evaluation of a pilot scale 1 ton per day PSA oxygen plant. Two regenerative container glass melters were converted to 100% OEC operation and served as host sites for Phase 2. A 75 ton per day end-fired melter at Carr-Lowrey Glass Company in Baltimore, Maryland, was temporarily converted to 100% OEC in mid- 1990. A 350 tpd cross-fired melter at Gallo Glass Company in Modesto, California was rebuilt for permanent commercial operation with 100% OEC in mid-1991. Initially, both of these melters were supplied with oxygen from liquid storage. Subsequently, in late 1992, a Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant was installed at Gallo to supply oxygen for 100% OEC glass melting. The particular PSA plant design used at Gallo achieves maximum efficiency by cycling the adsorbent beds between pressurized and evacuated states, and is therefore referred to as a Vacuum/Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) plant.

Tuson, G.B.; Kobayashi, H.; Campbell, M.J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

467

Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Scientists and an international research team have announced discovery of molecular oxygen ions in the upper-most atmosphere of Dione. March 3, 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials.

468

Calibration and Stability of Oxygen Sensors on Autonomous Floats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The calibration accuracy and stability of three Aanderaa 3835 optodes and three Seabird SBE-43 oxygen sensors were evaluated over four years using in situ and laboratory calibrations. The sensors were mostly in storage, being in the ocean for ...

Eric A. D’Asaro; Craig McNeil

469

Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes Details Activities (3) Areas (3) Regions (0) Abstract: The oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes have been tested as a geothermometer in three areas of the western United States. Limited analyses of spring and borehole fluids and existing experimental rate studies suggest that dissolved sulfate and water are probably in isotopic equilibrium in all reservoirs of significant size with temperatures above

470

Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios were measured for hydrothermal minerals (silica, clay and calcite) from fractures and vugs in altered rhyolite, located between 28 and 129 m below surface (in situ temperatures ranging from 81 to 199°C) in Yellowstone drill holes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of formation of these minerals. The Δ18O values of the thirty-two analyzed silica samples (quartz, chalcedony, α-cristobalite, and β-cristobalite) range from -7.5 to +2.8‰. About one

471

Modeling Terrestrial Biogenic Sources of Oxygenated Organic Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, oxygenated volatile organic chemicals (OVOCs) likeacetone have been recognized as important atmospheric constituents due to their ability to sequester reactive nitrogen in the form peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and to be a source ...

Christopher Potter; Steven Klooster; David Bubenheim; Hanwant B. Singh; Ranga Myneni

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Phosphorescent semiconductor nanocrystals and proteins for biological oxygen sensing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen is required for cellular respiration by all complex life making it a key metabolic profiling factor in biological systems. Tumors are defined by hypoxia (low pO2), which has been shown to influence response to ...

McLaurin, Emily J. (Emily Jane)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Nano- sized strontium titanate metal oxide semiconductor oxygen gas sensors.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The project focuses on strontium titanate (SrTiO3> material, a very important material for oxygen sensors. The advantages of the material are low cost and stability… (more)

Hu, Ying.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

CO/sub 2/ recovery from oxygen firefloods  

SciTech Connect

An additional benefit from the oxygen in-situ combustion process or fireflooding is the generation of produced gases containing a high concentration of CO/sub 2/ (>90 mole %). This CO/sub 2/ could be recovered and utilized for miscible and immiscible CO/sub 2/ flooding for EOR. This paper investigates the feasibility of recovering and marketing CO/sub 2/ from oxygen firefloods for this purpose. The expected compositions and volumes of associated gas produced from commercial oxygen in-situ combustion projects based on literature data and actual field tests are presented. In addition, the market prospects based on the transportation requirements and the costs associated with the recovery of CO/sub 2/ from an oxygen in-situ combustion project are discussed. 12 references, 2 figures, 4 tables. (JMT)

Persico, P.J.; Wetherington, J.B.; Hvizdos, L.J.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Calibration and Stability of Oxygen Sensors on Autonomous Floats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The calibration accuracy and stability of three Aanderaa 3835 optodes and three Sea-Bird Electronics SBE-43 oxygen sensors were evaluated over four years using in situ and laboratory calibrations. The sensors were mostly in storage, being in the ...

Eric A. D'Asaro; Craig McNeil

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Hybrid membrane--PSA system for separating oxygen from air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A portable, non-cryogenic, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98% and flow rates of 15 L/min or more is described. The system consists of two major components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate flow. This is then fed to the second component, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit utilizing a commercially available, but specifically formulated zeolite compound to remove the remainder of the nitrogen from the flow. The system is a unique gas separation system that can operate at ambient temperatures, for producing high purity oxygen for various applications (medical, refining, chemical production, enhanced combustion, fuel cells, etc . . . ) and represents a significant advance compared to current technologies.

Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM); Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, A. Keith (Albuquerque, NM); Cornelius, Christopher J. (Blackburg, VA)

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

477

Effect of Oxygen Potential on Crack Growth in Alloy 617  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Static crack growth rate increases from 4 x 10-9 m/sec to 4 x 10-8 m/sec when the oxygen concentration decreases from .001 to .0000001 atm. Proceedings ...

478

CO/sub 2/ recovery from oxygen firefloods  

SciTech Connect

The use of high purity oxygen in a fireflood project prevents the introduction of nonreactive nitrogen into the oil reservoir, and thus will significantly increase the CO/sub 2/ concentration in the produced gas. The increased CO/sub 2/ concentration would greatly simplify the recovery and processing required to utilize this CO/sub 2/ in a CO/sub 2/ flooding EOR project. The basic products produced by the reaction of oxygen with hydrocarbon fuel in the in situ combustion process are CO/sub 2/, carbon monoxide, and water. Oxygen fireflooding has technical and economic advantages over conventional fireflooding for EOR. Gas produced in an oxygen fireflood represents a major new source of high concentration CO/sub 2/ for EOR. 12 references.

Persico, P.J.; Wetherington, J.B.; Hvizdos, L.J.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Experimental evaluation of oxygen-enriched air and emulsified fuels in a single-cylinder diesel engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The performance of a single-cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine was measured with intake oxygen levels of up to 35% and fuel water contents of up to 20%. Because a previous study indicated that the use of a less-expensive fuel would be more economical, two series of tests with No. 4 diesel fuel and No. 2 diesel fuel were conducted. To control the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), water was introduced into the combustion process in the form of water-emulsified fuel, or the fuel injection timing was retarded. In the first series of tests, compressed oxygen was used; in the second series of tests, a hollow-tube membrane was used. Steady-state engine performance and emissions data were obtained. Test results indicated a large increase in engine power density, a slight improvement in thermal efficiency, and significant reductions in smoke and particulate-matter emissions. Although NO{sub x} emissions increased, they could be controlled by introducing water and retarding the injection timing. The results further indicated that thermal efficiency is slightly increased when moderately water-emulsified fuels are use