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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

ARM - Measurement - Cloud optical depth  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

optical depth optical depth ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud optical depth Amount of light cloud droplets or ice particles prevent from passing through a column of atmosphere. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. External Instruments GOES : Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites Field Campaign Instruments EC-CONVAIR580-BULK : Environment Canada Convair 580 Bulk Parameters GOES : Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites

2

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol optical depth  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

depth depth ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol optical depth A measure of how much light aerosols prevent from passing through a column of atmosphere. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments HSRL : High Spectral Resolution Lidar MPL : Micropulse Lidar MFRSR : Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer NIMFR : Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer Field Campaign Instruments AOS-PMFOV : Acoustical Optical Spectrometer-Photometer with Multiple

3

Design of a Shadowband Spectral Radiometer for the Retrieval of Thin Cloud Optical Depth, Liquid Water Path, and the Effective Radius  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design and operation of a Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (TCRSR) described here was used to measure the radiative intensity of the solar aureole and enable the simultaneous retrieval of cloud optical depth, drop effective radius, and liquid water path. The instrument consists of photodiode sensors positioned beneath two narrow metal bands that occult the sun by moving alternately from horizon to horizon. Measurements from the narrowband 415-nm channel were used to demonstrate a retrieval of the cloud properties of interest. With the proven operation of the relatively inexpensive TCRSR instrument, its usefulness for retrieving aerosol properties under cloud-free skies and for ship-based observations is discussed.

Bartholomew M. J.; Reynolds, R. M.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Min, Q.; Edwards, R.; Smith, S.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Determining Nighttime Atmospheric Optical Depth Using Mars Exploration Rover Images  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was compared to the expected flux to give nighttime optical depth values. The observed nighttime optical depth was consistently similar to the daytime optical depth values on both an individual image and sol-averaged basis. Recommendations are made going...

Bean, Keri Marie

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

5

Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research), the world’s first hyperspectral airborne tracking sunphotometer, acquired aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 1 Hz during all July 2012 flights of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Root-mean square differences from AERONET ground-based observations were 0.01 at wavelengths between 500-1020 nm, 0.02 at 380 and 1640 nm and 0.03 at 440 nm in four clear-sky fly-over events, and similar in ground side-by-side comparisons. Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3-km-deep spirals were typically consistent with integrals of coincident in situ (on DOE Gulfstream 1 with 4STAR) and lidar (on NASA B200) extinction measurements within 0.01, 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02 at 355, 450, 532, 550, 700, 1064 nm, respectively, despite atmospheric variations and combined measurement uncertainties. Finer vertical differentials of the 4STAR measurements matched the in situ ambient extinction profile within 14% for one homogeneous column. For the AOD observed between 350-1660 nm, excluding strong water vapor and oxygen absorption bands, estimated uncertainties were ~0.01 and dominated by (then) unpredictable throughput changes, up to +/-0.8%, of the fiber optic rotary joint. The favorable intercomparisons herald 4STAR’s spatially-resolved high-frequency hyperspectral products as a reliable tool for climate studies and satellite validation.

Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

6

Assessing the Radiative Impact of Clouds of Low Optical Depth  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the Radiative Impact of Clouds of the Radiative Impact of Clouds of Low Optical Depth W. O'Hirok and P. Ricchiazzi Institute for Computational Earth System Science University of California Santa Barbara, California C. Gautier Department of Geography and Institute for Computational Earth System Science University of California Santa Barbara, California Introduction Analysis from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) reveals that the global mean cloud optical depth is surprisingly low (i.e., Ï„ = 3.8). While this value is probably dominated by extensive fields of cirrus, the average for liquid water clouds is also likely smaller than expected. It is in this regime (Ï„ <10) where remote measurements of cloud optical thickness or liquid water path (LWP)

7

ARM - Evaluation Product - Aerosol Optical Depths from SASHE  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ProductsAerosol Optical Depths from SASHE ProductsAerosol Optical Depths from SASHE Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Aerosol Optical Depths from SASHE Site(s) PVC SGP General Description The Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer Hemispheric (SASHE) is a ground-based instrument that measures both direct and diffuse shortwave irradiance. In this regard, the instrument is similar to the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR)-an instrument that has been in the ARM Facility stable for more than 15 years. However, the two instruments differ significantly in wavelength resolution and range. In particular, the SASHE provides hyperspectral measurements from about 350 nm to 1700 nm at a wavelength resolution from 1 to several nanometers, while the MFRSR only

8

Correction to “Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights”  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the paper “Hyperspectral aerosol optical depths from TCAP flights” by Y. Shinozuka et al. (Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118, doi:10.1002/2013JD020596, 2013), Tables 1 and 2 were published with the column heads out of order. Tables 1 and 2 are published correctly here. The publisher regrets the error.

Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

2014-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

9

Eight-year Climatology of Dust Optical Depth on Mars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have produced a multiannual climatology of airborne dust from Martian year 24 to 31 using multiple datasets of retrieved or estimated column optical depths. The datasets are based on observations of the Martian atmosphere from April 1999 to July 2013 made by different orbiting instruments: the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) aboard Mars Global Surveyor, the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) aboard Mars Odyssey, and the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) aboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The procedure we have adopted consists of gridding the available retrievals of column dust optical depth (CDOD) from TES and THEMIS nadir observations, as well as the estimates of this quantity from MCS limb observations. Our gridding method calculates averages and uncertainties on a regularly spaced, but possibly incomplete, spatio-temporal grid, using an iterative procedure weighted in space, time, and retrieval uncertainty. In order to evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the resulting gridded maps, we validat...

Montabone, L; Millour, E; Wilson, R J; Lewis, S R; Cantor, B A; Kass, D; Kleinboehl, A; Lemmon, M; Smith, M D; Wolff, M J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves By Water Depth, 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth, 2009 Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth, 2009 1 Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth The Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore region (GOM Fed) has long been one of the Nation's principal sources of proved reserves. At the end of 2009, the GOM Fed accounted for close to one-fifth of oil proved reserves (second only to Texas) and just over four percent of natural gas proved reserves (the country's seventh largest reporting region). 1 Natural gas proved reserves from the GOM Fed have gradually diminished, both volumetrically and as a percentage of overall U.S. proved reserves. The latter is especially true in recent years as onshore additions (particularly those associated with shale gas activity) have increased considerably. Proved oil reserves from

11

Magnetic Flares and the Observed Optical Depth in Seyfert Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We here consider the pressure equilibrium during an intense magnetic flare above the surface of a cold accretion disk. Under the assumption that the heating source for the plasma trapped within the flaring region is an influx of energy transported inwards with a group velocity close to $c$, e.g., by magnetohydrodynamic waves, this pressure equilibrium can constrain the Thomson optical depth $\\tau_T$ to be of order unity. We suggest that this may be the reason why $\\tau_T\\sim 1$ in Seyfert Galaxies. We also consider whether current data can distinguish between the spectrum produced by a single X-ray emitting region with $\\tau_T\\sim 1$ and that formed by many different flares spanning a range of $\\tau_T$. We find that the current observations do not yet have the required energy resolution to permit such a differentiation. Thus, it is possible that the entire X-ray/$\\gamma$-ray spectrum of Seyfert Galaxies is produced by many independent magnetic flares with an optical depth $0.5<\\tau_T<2$.

Sergei Nayakshin; Fulvio Melia

1997-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

12

Wave-current interaction in water of finite depth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, the nonlinear interaction of waves and current in water of finite depth is studied. Wind is not included. In the first part, a 2D theory for the wave effect on a turbulent current over rough or smooth bottom ...

Huang, Zhenhua, 1967-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

ARM - Evaluation Product - MicroPulse LIDAR Cloud Optical Depth (MPLCOD)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ProductsMicroPulse LIDAR Cloud Optical Depth ProductsMicroPulse LIDAR Cloud Optical Depth (MPLCOD) Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : MicroPulse LIDAR Cloud Optical Depth (MPLCOD) 1999.05.01 - 2004.05.14 Site(s) SGP General Description The MPLCOD VAP retrieves the column cloud visible optical depth using LIDAR derived backscatter from the MPLNOR (Micro Pulse Lidar Normalized Backscatter) and radiosonde thermodynamic profiles. The optical depth retrieval is derived following Comstock et al. (2001), which retrieves visible optical depth and layer average backscatter-to-extinction ratio (k) at the lidar wavelength for each backscatter profile. Data Information Data Directory Contacts Principal Investigator Jennifer Comstock (509) 372-424

14

Calibrations of filter radiometers for determination of atmospheric optical depth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric optical depths are determined by relating ground-based measurements of direct solar radiation to the extraterrestrial value, I0, that a filter radiometer would read outside the atmosphere. Usually I0 is determined by the Langley extrapolation technique from a high-altitude site, where clear and highly stable atmospheric conditions may be found. Alternatively, I0 can be measured in situ from a stratospheric balloon experiment. We have employed both methods and found agreement to better than 1 %. Filter radiometers tend to change over time, especially when used operationally outdoors. Absolute calibrations in the laboratory are used to monitor the radiometric stability of filter radiometers at the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD/WRC, Switzerland). A spectral calibration facility based on a calibrated trap detector from the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Germany) is used to relate the filter radiometer to an accurate and long-term traceable standard. An FEL-lamp-based standard, previously used for several years, was compared with the new trap standard via a filter radiometer at four wavelengths between 368 nm and 862 nm and revealed a systematic difference of the order of 5 %. The link between radiometric and I0 calibration is the value of the extraterrestrial solar spectrum at the filter radiometer wavelengths which can be determined from these two calibrations and compared with published values.

Ch Wehrli

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

A Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Visible Optical Depth Derived from Lidar  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Visible Optical Depth Derived from Lidar Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Visible Optical Depth Derived from Lidar Lo, Chaomei Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Comstock, Jennifer Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Flynn, Connor Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Category: Cloud Properties Optically thin clouds (e.g. optical depth < 3) can have a significant impact on radiative heating in the atmosphere, particularly in the cold upper troposphere. Currently, there is no value-added product (VAP) in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program archive that produces thin cloud optical depth, particularly at the Tropical Western Pacific and North Slope of Alaska sites. A VAP is under development to obtain the cirrus cloud visible optical depth from the MPLNOR (Micro Pulse Lidar Normalized

16

Project of Aerosol Optical Depth Change in South America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AerosolDepth Brazil Bolivia French Guiana Suriname Guyana Venezuela Colombia Ecuador Peru Chile Argentina Suriname Guyana Venezuela Colombia Ecuador Peru Chile Argentina Paraguay Uruguay #12;Statistics of Aerosol M ean D ec 01 to 06 Mean Month AerosolDepth Brazil Bolivia French Guiana Suriname Guyana Venezuela

Frank, Thomas D.

17

Analysis of Langley optical depth data, with aerosol and gas retrievals,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Analysis of Langley optical depth data, with aerosol and gas retrievals, Analysis of Langley optical depth data, with aerosol and gas retrievals, for the RSS 103 instrument in Barrow, Alaska Gianelli, Scott Columbia University - NASA/GISS Lacis, Andrew NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies Carlson, Barbara NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies Category: Aerosols Bimodal aerosol retrievals, and high-resolution retrevals of nitrogen dioxide, are performed on the Langley optical depth data from the RSS 103 device that was situated in Barrow, Alaska between March and August in 1999. The results show a higher fine mode aerosol optical depth on average than was retrieved by the RSS 102 at the SGP site. The seasonal cycle is also reversed with high values at Barrow occurring in the spring and low values in the summer. The fine mode effective radius also appears to

18

Remote Sensing of Cirrus Cloud Particle Size and Optical Depth Using Polarimetric Sensor Measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a conceptual approach toward the remote sensing of cirrus cloud particle size and optical depth using the degree of polarization and polarized reflectance associated with the first three Stokes parameters, I, Q, and U, for the ...

S. C. Ou; K. N. Liou; Y. Takano; R. L. Slonaker

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

DOE/SC-ARM/TR-129 Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Optical Depth Value-Added Product A Koontz C Flynn G Hodges J Michalsky J Barnard March 2013 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S....

20

Seismic evidence of negligible water carried below 400-km depth in subducting lithosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... .1038/nature09401 Seismic evidence of negligible water carried below 400-km depth in subducting lithosphereHarry W.Green IIH W

Harry W. Green II; Wang-Ping Chen; Michael R. Brudzinski

2010-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

CHARACTERISATION OF AGED HDPE PIPES FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION: INVESTIGATION OF CRACK DEPTH BY NOL RING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHARACTERISATION OF AGED HDPE PIPES FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION: INVESTIGATION OF CRACK DEPTH are used for the transport of drinking water. However, disinfectants in water seem to have a strong impact for the distribution of drinking water. HDPE pipes are exposed to an internal pressure due to water flow. Furthermore

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

22

Comparison of Cloud Top Height and Optical Depth Histograms from ISCCP,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Comparison of Cloud Top Height and Optical Depth Histograms from ISCCP, Comparison of Cloud Top Height and Optical Depth Histograms from ISCCP, MISR, and MODIS Marchand, Roger Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Ackerman, Thomas Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Category: Cloud Properties Joint histograms of Cloud Top Height (CTH) and Optical Depth (OD) derived by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) are being widely used by the climate modeling community in evaluating global climate models. Similar joint histograms of CTH-OD are now being produced by the NASA Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments. There are notable differences in the histograms being produced by these three projects. In this poster we analyze some of the differences and discuss how the

23

Taphonomic Trends Along a Forereef Slope: Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas. I. Location and Water Depth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...contribution focuses on the influence of EOD and water depth. The dimension of time...locations were selected to be representative of EOD depth ranges. The location and transect...the influence of dissolution was much more EOD specific. Dissolution was highest in Codakia...

W. RUSSELL CALLENDER; GEORGE M. STAFF; KARLA M. PARSONS-HUBBARD; ERIC N. POWELL; GILBERT T. ROWE; SALLY E. WALKER; CARLTON E. BRETT; ANNE RAYMOND; DONNA D. CARLSON; SUZANNE WHITE; ELIZABETH A. HEISE

24

Shear wave seismic velocity profiling and depth to water table earthquake site  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

..................................................................................................... 6 Summary of seismic refraction/reflection methodsShear wave seismic velocity profiling and depth to water table ­ earthquake site response measurements for Valley County, Idaho Lee M. Liberty and Gabriel M. Gribler, Boise State University Center

Barrash, Warren

25

Limiting Gravity Waves in Water of Finite Depth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Consequently the accuracy even of recent solutions on modern computers can be improved upon, except at the deep-water end of the...This term is now supplemented by a second term, proposed by Grant in a study of the flow near the crest. Solutions comprising...

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Rapid optical method for logging dust concentration versus depth in glacial ice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to a cable that can lower the device down a 3-in. 7.5-cm borehole filled with butyl acetate. LED photons to the attenuation by particles.6 The AMANDA collaboration recently completed a large observatory, buried in deep a hot-water drilling tech- nique, they melted cylindrical holes down to depths of 2000 m in which were

Price, P. Buford

27

Constraints on primordial magnetic fields from the optical depth of the cosmic microwave background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Damping of magnetic fields via ambipolar diffusion and decay of magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) turbulence in the post decoupling era heats the intergalactic medium (IGM). Collisional ionization weakly ionizes the IGM, producing an optical depth to scattering of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The optical depth generated at $z\\gg 10$ does not affect the "reionization bump" of the CMB polarization power spectrum at low multipoles, but affects the temperature and polarization power spectra at high multipoles. Using the Planck 2013 temperature and lensing data together with the WMAP 9-year polarization data, we constrain the present-day field strength, $B_0$, smoothed over the damping length at the decoupling epoch as a function of the spectral index, $n_B$. We find the 95% upper bounds of $B_0<0.56$, 0.31, and 0.14 nG for $n_B=-2.9$, $-2.5$, and $-1.5$, respectively. For these spectral indices, the optical depth is dominated by dissipation of the decaying MHD turbulence that occurs shortly after the decou...

Kunze, Kerstin E

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

The impact of water depth on safety and environmental performance in offshore oil and gas production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports on an empirical analysis of company-reported incidents on oil and gas production platforms in the Gulf of Mexico between 1996 and 2010. During these years, there was a dramatic increase in the water depths at which offshore oil and gas is extracted. Controlling for platform characteristics such as age, quantity of oil and gas produced, and number of producing wells, we find that incidents (such as blowouts, injuries, and oil spills) are positively correlated with deeper water. Controlling for these and other characteristics, for an average platform, each 100 feet of added depth increases the probability of a company-reported incident by 8.5%. While further research into the causal connections between water depth and platform risks is warranted, this study highlights the potential value of increased monitoring of deeper water platforms.

Lucija Muehlenbachs; Mark A. Cohen; Todd Gerarden

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Feasibility of the Application of a Spar-type Wind Turbine at a Moderate Water Depth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The feasibility of the application of a spar-type wind turbine at a moderate water depth is studied in this paper. In the oil and gas industries, spar-type offshore platforms are widely applied in deep water. The same idea is used in offshore wind technology to present the Hywind concept based on a catenary moored spar in deep water. The draft of the spar limits the application of spar-type wind turbines in shallow water. However, it is possible to design spar-type wind turbines for moderate water depths. The present article studies the feasibility and performance of such a design. A spar-type wind turbine at a moderate water depth called “ShortSpar” is introduced in the present article. A catenary moored spar-type support structure is applied as a base for the 5-MW NREL land-based turbine. The power performance, structural integrity and dynamic responses of a 5-MW catenary moored spar-type wind turbine in deep water (DeepSpar) have previously been studied. In the present article, the responses of the spar-type wind turbines, ShortSpar and DeepSpar, are compared. The HAWC2 code is used to carry out the coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic analyses. Different environmental conditions are used to compare the responses. A dynamic link library (DLL) is used to feed the mooring forces at each time step into the HAWC2 code. The force-displacement relationships are obtained from the Simo-Riflex code. The comparison of the responses of ShortSpar and DeepSpar in different load cases indicates the feasibility of implementation of spar-type wind turbine in moderate water depths. The results show that the spar-type wind turbine at a moderate water depth exhibits good performance, and its responses are reasonable compared with those associated with a spar-type wind turbine in deep water. The total mass (the structural mass plus the ballast) of ShortSpar is 35% less than the mass of DeepSpar, while the statistical characteristics of the generated power are almost the same for both spars. This mass reduction for ShortSpar helps to achieve a more cost-effective solution for floating wind turbines at a moderate water depth.

Madjid Karimirad; Torgeir Moan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Unravelling the influence of water depth and wave energy on the facies diversity of shelf carbonates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Unravelling the influence of water depth and wave energy on the facies diversity of shelf their production is tied to light and wave energy, carbonate sediments are most effectively produced in shallow processes of storm and wave reworking influence the seabed through submarine erosion and sediment

Purkis, Sam

31

Water Pearls Optics Challenges for Everybody  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Waterpearls are superabsorbent polyacrylate beads that can expand about 200 times when submerged in water and are often used for decorative purposes in flower vases. A bag of pearls costs about a dollar. The pearls are very useful for teaching science especially optics.1 Since waterpearls are mainly made of water their index of refraction matches the index of refraction of water. Consequently they become invisible while submerged in it (Fig. 1). A spherical shape and the transparency of waterpearls make them almost “perfect” spherical waterlenses (Fig. 2).

Marina Milner-Bolotin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

A statistical study of the depth of precipitable water in western Texas and eastern New Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the followi ig pages follow the style of the Journal of AppLied Meteomologi. . . 1. 5 MEAN PRECIPITATION MEAN PRECIPITABLE WATER N IJI I. O Z / / 0. 0 J F M A M J J A S 0 N D FIG. I. PRECIPITABLE WATER AND PRECIPITA- TION VS Tl ME OF YEA R ( EL.... 2 14 1. 6 2. 0 3. 0 4. 0 5. 0 10 20 30 40 50 100 200 500 RETURN PERIOD T (YEARS) FIG. 4. A PLOT OF DEPTH OF PRECITI TABLE WATER vs RETURN PERIOD FOR EL PASO, TEXAS. 39 where n a =? x (?) and Y n X =X-o f x o n (32) The theoretical...

Baker, Samuel Erick

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

33

Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth in Vicinity of Broken Clouds from Reflectance Ratios: Case Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A recently developed reflectance ratio (RR) method for the retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD) is evaluated using extensive airborne and ground-based data sets collected during the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) and the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS), which took place in June 2007 over the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site. A detailed case study is performed for a field of single-layer shallow cumuli observed on June 12, 2007. The RR method is applied to retrieve the spectral values of AOD from the reflectance ratios measured by the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) for two pairs of wavelengths (660 and 470 nm and 870 and 470 nm) collected at a spatial resolution of 0.05 km. The retrieval is compared with an independent AOD estimate from three ground-based Multi-filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSRs). The interpolation algorithm that is used to project MFRSR point measurements onto the aircraft flight tracks is tested using AOD derived from NASA Langley High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). The RR AOD estimates are in a good agreement (within 5%) with the MFRSR-derived AOD values for the 660-nm wavelength. The AODs obtained from MAS reflectance ratios overestimate those derived from MFRSR measurements by 15-30% for the 470-nm wavelength and underestimate the 870-nm AOD by the same amount.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Berg, Larry K.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Flynn, Connor J.; Ferrare, Richard; Hostetler, Chris A.; Alexandrov, Mikhail

2010-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

34

Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth in Vicinity of Broken Clouds from Reflectance Ratios: Sensitivity Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We conducted a sensitivity study to better understand the potential of a new method for retrieving aerosol optical depth (AOD) under partly cloudy conditions. This method exploits reflectance ratios in the visible spectral range and provides an effective way to avoid three-dimensional (3D) cloud effects. The sensitivity study is performed for different observational conditions and random errors in input data. The results of the sensitivity study suggest that this ratio method has the ability to detect clear pixels even in close proximity to clouds. Such detection does not require a statistical analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) horizontal distribution of reflected solar radiation, and thus it could be customized for operational retrievals. In comparison with previously suggested approaches, the ratio method has the capability to increase the "harvest" of clear pixels. Similar to the traditional Independent Pixel Approximation (IPA), the ratio method has a low computational cost for retrieving AOD. In contrast to the IPA method, the ratio method provides much more accurate estimations of the AOD values under broken cloud conditions: pixel-based and domain-averaged estimations of errors in AOD are about 25% and 10%, respectively. Finally, both the ratio-based cloud screening and the accuracy of domain-averaged ratio-based AOD values do not suffer greatly when 5% random errors are introduced in the reflectances.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Ovtchinnikov, Mikhail; Berg, Larry K.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Flynn, Connor J.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Dust aerosol, clouds, and the atmospheric optical depth record over 5 Mars years of the Mars Exploration Rover mission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dust aerosol plays a fundamental role in the behavior and evolution of the Martian atmosphere. The first five Mars years of Mars Exploration Rover data provide an unprecedented record of the dust load at two sites. This record is useful for characterization of the atmosphere at the sites and as ground truth for orbital observations. Atmospheric extinction optical depths have been derived from solar images after calibration and correction for time-varying dust that has accumulated on the camera windows. The record includes local, regional, and globally extensive dust storms. Comparison with contemporaneous thermal infrared data suggests significant variation in the size of the dust aerosols, with a 1 {\\mu}m effective radius during northern summer and a 2 {\\mu}m effective radius at the onset of a dust lifting event. The solar longitude (LS) 20-136{\\deg} period is also characterized by the presence of cirriform clouds at the Opportunity site, especially near LS=50 and 115{\\deg}. In addition to water ice clouds, ...

Lemmon, Mark T; Bell, James F; Smith, Michael D; Cantor, Bruce A; Smith, Peter H

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Free-surface hydrodynamics of a submerged prolate spheroid in finite water depth based on the method of multipole expansions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......particular, we employ the following fundamental relation that expresses any exterior...Also, it appears that the water depth does not affect considerably the degree needed...M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover Publications......

Ioannis K. Chatjigeorgiou; Touvia Miloh

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Offshore oil: Investigating production parameters of fields of varying size, location and water depth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper derives empirical estimates of field depletion level, depletion rate, decline rate and characteristic time intervals in offshore oil production based on a global field-by-field database containing 603 offshore oil fields. Statistical distributions as well as arithmetic and weighted averages of production parameters are derived for different categories of fields specified by size, location and water depth. A significant tendency of small fields having higher depletion and decline rates is found. Similarly, OECD countries generally have higher rates compared to non-OECD countries. Trends related to water depth are not clearly distinguishable and require additional investigation of time related aspects. Resulting spreads in derived parameter estimates are found to be well described by positively skewed probability distributions. Also, in line with theory, a strong correlation between depletion and decline rate is found. According to the study, the net share of global offshore production from smaller and deeper fields is increasing. A continuation of these trends would likely have implications for future aggregate offshore production behaviour, most notably, increasing global aggregate decline rates.

David Sällh; Henrik Wachtmeister; Xu Tang; Mikael Höök

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

The optical depth of the Universe to ultrahigh energy cosmic ray scattering in the magnetized large scale structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper provides an analytical description of the transport of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays in an inhomogeneously magnetized intergalactic medium. This latter is modeled as a collection of magnetized scattering centers such as radio cocoons, magnetized galactic winds, clusters or magnetized filaments of large scale structure, with negligible magnetic fields in between. Magnetic deflection is no longer a continuous process, it is rather dominated by scattering events. We study the interaction between high energy cosmic rays and the scattering agents. We then compute the optical depth of the Universe to cosmic ray scattering and discuss the phenomological consequences for various source scenarios. For typical parameters of the scattering centers, the optical depth is greater than unity at 5x10^{19}eV, but the total angular deflection is smaller than unity. One important consequence of this scenario is the possibility that the last scattering center encountered by a cosmic ray be mistaken with the source of this cosmic ray. In particular, we suggest that part of the correlation recently reported by the Pierre Auger Observatory may be affected by such delusion: this experiment may be observing in part the last scattering surface of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays rather than their source population. Since the optical depth falls rapidly with increasing energy, one should probe the arrival directions of the highest energy events beyond 10^{20}eV on an event by event basis to circumvent this effect.

Kumiko Kotera; Martin Lemoine

2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

39

Stability of gravity-capillary waves generated by a moving pressure disturbance in water of finite depth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stability of gravity-capillary waves generated by a moving pressure disturbance in water of finite pressure distribution moving with constant speed U in water of finite depth h . Localized solitary waves can only exist in subcritical flows where the Froude number F = U/(gh)1/2

40

Preprocessing issues associated with multiple attenuation in water depths of less than 150 meters: ISMA and predictive deconvolution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In order to study these challenges associated with acquisition and processing of shallow-water data, synthetic seismic data for 150, 75 and 25 m water depths were generated using a fully elastic, finite difference algorithm. The direct wave was removed...

Walsh, Jeffrey Robert

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

In-depth analysis of CIGS film for solar cells, structural and optical characterization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Space-resolved X-ray diffraction measurements performed on gradient-etched CuIn$_{1-x}$Ga$_x$Se$_2$ (CIGS) solar cells provide information about stress and texture depth profiles in the absorber layer. An important parameter for CIGS layer growth dynamics, the absorber thickness-dependent stress in the molybdenum back contact is analyzed. Texturing of grains and quality of the polycrystalline absorber layer are correlated with the intentional composition gradients (band gap grading). Band gap gradient is determined by space-resolved photoluminescence measurements and correlated with composition and strain profiles.

Slobodskyy, A; ~Ulyanenkova, T; ~Doyle, S; Powalla, M; ~Baumbach, T; ~Lemmer, U

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Halite depositional facies in a solar salt pond: A key to interpreting physical energy and water depth in ancient deposits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Subaqueous deposits of aragonite, gypsum, and halite are accumulating in shallow solar salt ponds constructed in the Pekelmeer, a sea-level salina on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Several halite facies are deposited in the crystallizer ponds in response to difference in water depth and wave energy. Cumulate halite, which originates as floating rafts, is present only along the protected, upwind margins of ponds where low-energy conditions foster their formation and preservation. Cornet crystals with peculiar mushroom- and mortarboard-shaped caps precipitate in centimetre-deep brine sheets within a couple of metres of the upwind or low-energy margins. Downwind from these margins, cornet and chevron halite precipitate on the pond floors in water depths ranging from a few centimetres to {approximately} 60 cm. Halite pisoids with radial-concentric structure are precipitated in the swash zone along downwind high-energy shorelines where they form pebbly beaches. This study suggests that primary halite facies are energy and/or depth dependent and that some primary features, if preserved in ancient halite deposits, can be used to infer physical energy conditions, subenvironments such as low- to high-energy shorelines, and extremely shallow water depths in ancient evaporite basins.

Handford, C.R. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (USA))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Optical monitor for water vapor concentration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma. 5 figs.

Kebabian, P.

1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

44

Optical monitor for water vapor concentration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma.

Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

A strip theory approximation for wave forces on submerged vehicles in finite depth water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV's) are becoming of increasing use in shallow waters for oceanographic data collection, coastal mapping, and military operations such as mine surveillance along enemy coastlines. Currently ...

Rybka Jan A. (Jan Andrzej)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal Andre Morel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal Andre´ Morel Laboratoire de Physique et, California Abstract. The apparent optical properties (AOPs) of oceanic case 1 waters were previously analyzed describing the trophic conditions of water bodies. From these empirical relationships a bio-optical model

California at Santa Barbara, University of

47

Depth-resolved monitoring of diffusion of hyperosmotic agents in normal and malignant human esophagus tissues using optical coherence tomography in-vitro  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Depth-resolved monitoring with differentiation and quantification of glucose diffusion in healthy and abnormal esophagus tissues has been studied in vitro. Experiments have been performed using human normal esophagus and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues by the optical coherence tomography (OCT). The images have been continuously acquired for 120 min in the experiments, and the depth-resolved and average permeability coefficients of the 40 % glucose solution have been calculated by the OCT amplitude (OCTA) method. We demonstrate the capability of the OCT technique for depth-resolved monitoring, differentiation, and quantifying of glucose diffusion in normal esophagus and ESCC tissues. It is found that the permeability coefficients of the 40 % glucose solution are not uniform throughout the normal esophagus and ESCC tissues and increase from (3.30 {+-} 0.09) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} and (1.57 {+-} 0.05) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} cm s{sup -1} at the mucous membrane of normal esophagus and ESCC tissues to (1.82 {+-} 0.04) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} and (3.53 {+-} 0.09) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} cm s{sup -1} at the submucous layer approximately 742 {mu}m away from the epithelial surface of normal esophagus and ESCC tissues, respectively. (optical coherence tomography)

Zhao Qingliang; Guo Zhouyi; Wei Huajiang; Yang Hongqin; Xie Shusen

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

48

Molecular imaging of water binding state and diffusion in breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy and diffusion weighted MRI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molecular imaging of water binding state and diffusion inChung et al. , “In vivo water state measurements in breastby measuring tis- sue water state using diffuse optical

Chung, So Hyun; Yu, Hon; Su, Min-Ying; Cerussi, Albert E.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Polarization-dependent all-optical modulator with ultra-high modulation depth based on a stereo graphene-microfiber structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report an in-line polarization-dependent all-optical fiber modulator based on a stereo graphene-microfiber structure (GMF) by utilizing the lab-on-rod technique. Owing to the unique spring-like geometry, an ultra-long GMF interaction length can be achieved, and an ultra-high modulation depth (MD) of ~7.5 dB and a high modulation efficiency (ME) of ~0.2 dB/mW were demonstrated for one polarization state. The MD and ME are more than one order larger than those of other graphene-waveguide hybrid all-optical modulators. By further optimizing the transferring and cleaning process, the modulator can quickly switch between transparent and opaque states for both the two polarization states with a maximized MD of tens of decibels. This modulator is compatible with current fiber-optic communication systems and may be applied in the near future to meet the impending need for ultrafast optical signal processing.

Xu, Fei; Zheng, Bi-cai; Shao, Guang-hao; Ge, Shi-jun; Lu, Yan-qing

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

A New Algorithm for Finding Mixed Layer Depths with Applications to Argo Data and Subantarctic Mode Water Formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new hybrid method for finding the mixed layer depth (MLD) of individual ocean profiles models the general shape of each profile, searches for physical features in the profile, and calculates threshold and gradient MLDs to assemble a suite of ...

James Holte; Lynne Talley

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

How do A-train Sensors Intercompare in the Retrieval of Above-Cloud Aerosol Optical Depth? A Case Study-based Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We inter-compare the above-cloud aerosol optical depth (ACAOD) of biomass burning plumes retrieved from different A-train sensors, i.e., MODIS, CALIOP, POLDER, and OMI. These sensors have shown independent capabilities to detect and retrieve aerosol loading above marine boundary layer clouds--a kind of situation often found over the Southeast Atlantic Ocean during dry burning season. A systematic one-to-one comparison reveals that, in general, all passive sensors and CALIOP-based research methods derive comparable ACAOD with differences mostly within 0.2 over homogeneous cloud fields. The 532-nm ACAOD retrieved by CALIOP operational algorithm is largely underestimated; however, it’s 1064-nm AOD when converted to 500 nm shows closer agreement to the passive sensors. Given the different types of sensor measurements processed with different algorithms, the close agreement between them is encouraging. Due to lack of adequate direct measurements above cloud, the validation of satellite-based ACAOD retrievals remains an open challenge. The inter-satellite comparison, however, can be useful for the relative evaluation and consistency check.

Jethva, H. T.; Torres, O.; Waquet, F.; Chand, Duli; Hu, Yong X.

2014-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

52

Fiber Optic Evanescent Field Sensor for Hydrocarbon Monitoring in Air and Water applying UV Absorption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A fiber optic sensor for the monitoring of organic pollutants in air and water is presented. The UV absorption spectra of hydrocarbon soluble in special polymer fiber claddings are...

Schwotzer, G; Latka, I; Lehmann, H; Willsch, R

53

Theoretical and practical response evaluation of a fiber optic sensor for chlorinated hydrocarbons in water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The response behavior of a polymer-coated mid-infrared fiber optical sensor for chlorinated hydrocarbons in water is evaluated practically and theoretically. The sensor ... - and tetrachloroethylene obtained in a...

E. Rosenberg; R. Krska; R. Kellner

54

Temperature and Water Depth Monitoring Within Chum Salmon Spawning Habitat Below Bonneville Dam : Annual Report October 2007-September 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of the project described in this report is to provide a sound scientific basis for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance chum salmon populations - a species listed in March 1999 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The study objective during fiscal year 2008 was to provide real-time data on Ives Island area water temperature and water surface elevations from the onset of chum salmon spawning through the end of chum salmon emergence. Sampling locations included areas where riverbed temperatures were elevated, potentially influencing alevin development and emergence timing. In these locations, hydrosystem operation caused large, frequent changes in river discharge that affected salmon habitat by dewatering redds and altering egg pocket temperatures. The 2008 objective was accomplished using temperature and water-level sensors deployed inside piezometers. Sensors were integrated with a radio telemetry system such that real-time data could be downloaded remotely and posted hourly on the Internet. During our overall monitoring period (October 2007 through June 2008), mean temperature in chum spawning areas was nearly 2 C warmer within the riverbed than in the overlying river. During chum salmon spawning (mid-November 2007 through December2007), mean riverbed temperature in the Ives Island area was 14.5 C, more than 5 C higher than in the river, where mean temperature was 9.4 C. During the incubation period (January 2008 through mid-May 2008), riverbed temperature was approximately 3 C greater than in the overlying river (10.5 C and 7.2 C, respectively). Chum salmon preferentially select spawning locations where riverbed temperatures are elevated; consequently the incubation time of alevin is shortened before they emerge in the spring.

Arntzen, E.V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

55

Structure detection in a libration vibration spectrum of water molecules by methods of nonlinear optics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In exciting water possessing an enhanced optical strength by the radiation of a YAG : Nd{sup 3+} laser with 20-ps pulses, nonlinear scattering of light was detected in the frequency range of the optical second harmonic. A relationship was established of the signal of the nonlinear scattering with a stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of the laser radiation in water. Near the SRS threshold, the structure was observed in the spectrum of nonlinear scattering, which is related to intermolecular libration vibrations of water molecules. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Babenko, V A; Sychev, Andrei A [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

56

Optical absorption of pure water in the blue and ultraviolet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Patel.53 ...............81 FIGURE V-11 The fundamental vibrational modes of the water molecule. ..................82 xiv Page FIGURE V-12 The ICAM VERSION-II results for the absorption of pure water. A large arrow with a boldface interger n indicates...

Lu, Zheng

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

57

Doped, porous iron oxide films and their optical functions and anodic photocurrents for solar water splitting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fabrication and morphological, optical, and photoelectrochemical characterization of doped iron oxide films is presented. The complex index of refraction and absorption coefficient of polycrystalline films are determined through measurement and modeling of spectral transmission and reflection data using appropriate dispersion relations. Photoelectrochemical characterization for water photo-oxidation reveals that the conversion efficiencies of electrodes are strongly influenced by substrate temperature during their oblique-angle physical vapor deposition. These results are discussed in terms of the films' morphological features and the known optoelectronic limitations of iron oxide films for application in solar water splitting devices.

Kronawitter, Coleman X.; Mao, Samuel S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Antoun, Bonnie R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

58

Testing and Performance of Two-Dimensional Optical Array Spectrometers with Greyscale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two laboratory optical array spectrometers with greyscale were evaluated for their sizing, depth of field and timing performance; these three factors are necessary to calculate concentrations and liquid water contents. The probes were of 10 and ...

Paul Joe; Roland List

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Optical Kerr effect of liquid and supercooled water: the experimental and data analysis perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The time-resolved optical Kerr effect spectroscopy (OKE) is a powerful experimental tool enabling accurate investigations of the dynamic phenomena in molecular liquids. We introduced innovative experimental and fitting procedures, that permit a safe deconvolution of sample response function from the instrumental function. This is a critical issue in order to measure the dynamics of sample presenting weak signal, e.g. liquid water. We report OKE data on water measuring intermolecular vibrations and the structural relaxation processes in an extended temperature range, inclusive of the supercooled states. The unpreceded data quality makes possible a solid comparison with few theoretical models; the multi-mode Brownian oscillator model, the Kubo's discrete random jump model and the schematic mode-coupling model. All these models produce reasonable good fits of the OKE data of stable liquid water, i.e. over the freezing point. The features of water dynamics in the OKE data becomes unambiguous only at lower temperatures, i.e. for water in the metastable supercooled phase. Hence this data enable a valid comparison between the model fits. We found that the schematic mode-coupling model provides the more rigorous and complete model for water dynamics, even if is intrinsic hydrodynamic approach hide the molecular information.

A. Taschin; P. Bartolini; R. Eramo; R. Righini; R. Torre

2014-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

60

Spectral purification and stabilization of an acousto-optic tunable filter based on water-filled solid-core microstructured fiber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Compared with its air-filled counterpart, experimental results show that the acousto-optic tunable filter employing water-filled microstructured fiber exhibits certain red shift in...

Qiu, Minghui; Zhang, Hao; Miao, Yinping; Liu, Bo; Liu, Lihui

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Optical  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Optical Optical fiber-based single-shot picosecond transient absorption spectroscopy Andrew R. Cook a͒ and Yuzhen Shen Department of Chemistry, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA ͑Received 27 January 2009; accepted 29 May 2009; published online 17 July 2009͒ A new type of single-shot transient absorption apparatus is described based on a bundle of optical fibers. The bundle contains 100 fibers of different lengths, each successively giving ϳ15 ps longer optical delay. Data are collected by imaging light from the exit of the bundle into a sample where it is overlapped with an electron pulse or laser excitation pulse, followed by imaging onto a charge coupled device ͑CCD͒ detector where the intensity of light from each fiber is measured simultaneously. Application to both ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy and pulse radiolysis is demonstrated. For pulse

62

Optics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Optical components such as lenses, mirrors and diffraction gratings are widely used in many inspection systems. These include not only those for visual inspection with CCD cameras, but also in areas of distanc...

C. Loughlin

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Effect of rooting depth, plant density and planting date on maize (Zea mays L.) yield and water use efficiency in semi-arid Zimbabwe: Modelling with AquaCrop  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Under low and poorly distributed rainfall higher food production can be achieved by increasing crop water use efficiency (WUE) through optimum soil fertility management and selection of deep-rooting cultivars, appropriate plant density and planting dates. We explored AquaCrop's applicability in selecting adaptive practices for improving maize yield and WUE under rainfed smallholder farming in semi-arid Zimbabwe. AquaCrop was first tested using field measurements without calibration. The model was subsequently applied to estimate the effect of effective rooting depth (ERD), plant density and planting date on maize yield. Simulations were done with daily rainfall data for 25 seasons. During model testing AquaCrop simulated canopy cover development well and simulated biomass accumulation showed good agreement with measured values. The model overestimated soil water, and observed final biomass and grain yield were 96 and 92% of simulated values, respectively. Model application showed that increasing ERD from 0.40 m at 32,500 plants ha?1 to 0.60 m at 44,400 plants ha?1 increased grain yield from 6.0 to 7.8 t ha?1, biomass water use efficiency by 20.5%, grain water use efficiency by 23.6% and transpiration water use efficiency by 26.8%. At 0.60 and 0.80 m ERD and 44,400 plants ha?1, biomass and grain yield, and WUE, were similar. Drainage below the rootzone was ?40% of non-productive water losses in normal and wet seasons whilst soil evaporation contributed 47% in dry seasons at 0.80 m ERD. To improve yield and WUE, we recommend: incorporation of deep-rooting legumes, deeper-rooting cultivars (?0.60 m effective rooting depth) and practices that improve ERD, a plant density of 44,400 plants ha?1; and practices that reduce soil evaporation e.g. mulching and addition of organic fertilisers to improve soils’ available water capacity and enhance response to mineral fertilisers. Further research should include field testing of results from this study with farmers.

Innocent Wadzanayi Nyakudya; Leo Stroosnijder

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Adaptive Optics Observations of 3 micron Water Ice in Silhouette Disks in the Orion Nebula Cluster and M43  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the near-infrared images and spectra of four silhouette disks in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC; M42) and M43 using the Subaru Adaptive Optics system. While d053-717 and d141-1952 show no water ice feature at 3.1 micron, a moderately deep (tau~0.7) water ice absorption is detected toward d132-1832 and d216-0939. Taking into account the water ice so far detected in the silhouette disks, the critical inclination angle to produce a water ice absorption feature is confirmed to be 65-75deg. As for d216-0939, the crystallized water ice profile is exactly the same as in the previous observations taken 3.63 years ago. If the water ice material is located at 30AU, then the observations suggest it is uniform at a scale of about 3.5AU.

Terada, Hiroshi; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Minowa, Yosuke; Hayano, Yutaka; Oya, Shin; Watanabe, Makoto; Hattori, Masayuki; Saito, Yoshihiko; Ito, Meguru; Takami, Hideki; Iye, Masanori

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

New IR Fiber-Optic Chemical Sensor for in Situ Measurements of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work the development and validation of a new MIR fiber-optic physicochemical sensor system for the continuous in situ analysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs) in...

Krska, R; Taga, K; Kellner, R

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Depth dependence of ambient noise in the northeastern Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Omnidirectional ambient noise levels were measured at two deep?water locations in the northeastern Pacific Ocean.Hydrophones were positioned throughout the water column at depths ranging from about 200 m below the surface to about 150 m above the sea bottom. Analyses of the data over the frequencies from 15 to 800 Hz show that at low frequencies the noise levels decrease with increasing depth. The decrease with depth is greater below the critical depth than it is in the sound channel. These low?frequency noise levels and their depth dependence are independent of the wind speed. At higher frequencies the noise levels and the depth dependence are controlled by the wind?generated noise. At low wind speeds there is a decrease in levels below the critical depth but above this depth both increases and decreases in levels with depth were noted. At these high frequencies during high wind speeds the noise levels not only rise but also fill the water column to the extent that there is little decrease in level with increasing depth even for the region below the critical depth.

Gerald B. Morris

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Variable depth core sampler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

Bourgeois, Peter M. (Hamburg, NY); Reger, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Variable depth core sampler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A variable depth core sampler apparatus is described comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member. 7 figs.

Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

69

Measuring optical absorption coefficient of pure water in UV using the integrating cavity absorption meter.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

................................................................ 50 2. Water purification system ............................................................. 51 3. Sample preparation........................................................................ 54 viii CHAPTER Page V APPARATUS... ................................................................ 50 2. Water purification system ............................................................. 51 3. Sample preparation........................................................................ 54 viii CHAPTER Page V APPARATUS...

Wang, Ling

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

70

NOTES ON NEUTRON DEPTH PROFILING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NOTES ON NEUTRON DEPTH PROFILING by J.K. Shultis Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering College of Engineering Kansas State University Manhattan, Kansas 66506 Dec. 2003 #12;Notes on Neutron Depth Profiling J. Kenneth Shultis December 2003 1 Introduction The purpose of neutron depth profiling

Shultis, J. Kenneth

71

Controlled synthesis and optical properties of BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} crystals via ethanol/water solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: A facile and cost-effective approach for the controlled synthesis of BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} crystals is introduced. The structures and morphologies of the obtained products are affected by the amount of water and ethanol in the solvent mixtures. Highlights: ? Precipitation route for preparing BaFBr nano and micro crystals in water/ethanol solvent mixtures. ? Controlled growth of BaFBr nano crystals by tuning the volume ratio of Ethanol/water. ? Luminescence properties after annealing at 200 °C are investigated. ? Short lifetimes of photoluminescence and photostimulated luminescence in BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} nano crystals are presented. ? Shortened lifetimes in BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} nano crystals demonstrate that they are promising materials for use in X-ray imaging systems. -- Abstract: BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} crystals with different structures were successfully fabricated via a simple precipitation method using ethanol/water mixtures as solvents. The amount of ethanol in the solvent mixtures played a significant role in the formation of final products, enabling the well-controlled growth of the BaFBr crystals. A possible formation mechanism was proposed based on the results of controlled experiments. The phases and morphologies of the resulting samples were systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and elementary analysis. The optical properties of the annealed BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} nano-cuboids were investigated using photoluminescence (PL), photo-stimulated luminescence spectroscopy (PSL) and kinetic decays. Faster decay behaviors demonstrate that these BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors are promising materials for applications in optical storage fields. Furthermore, it is envisaged that this environmentally benign method can be extended to prepare other fluoride halides.

Liang, Qinghua [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), 29 zhongguancun East Road, Beijing 100190 (China) [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), 29 zhongguancun East Road, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10039 (China); Li, Zhi, E-mail: lizhi@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), 29 zhongguancun East Road, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), 29 zhongguancun East Road, Beijing 100190 (China); Ma, Wangjing; Shi, Yao [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), 29 zhongguancun East Road, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), 29 zhongguancun East Road, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang, Xinmin, E-mail: xmyang@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), 29 zhongguancun East Road, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), 29 zhongguancun East Road, Beijing 100190 (China)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

72

Chemical Potential of Water from Measurements of Optic Axial Angle of Zeolites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...a purified sample collected at a new occurrence near Chena Hot Springs, Alaska. The chemical analysis of the sample from which...1-methyl-5-nitroimidazole-2-carboxalde-hyde thiosemicarbazone (2) in hot water. Recrystallized from dimethylformamide, the sample...

G. Donald Eberlein; C. L. Christ

1968-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

73

Property:Depth(m) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Depth(m) Depth(m) Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Pages using the property "Depth(m)" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 1 1.5-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.9 + 10-ft Wave Flume Facility + 1.5 + 11-ft Wave Flume Facility + 1.8 + 2 2-ft Flume Facility + 1.8 + 3 3-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.9 + 5 5-ft Wave Flume Facility + 1.5 + 6 6-ft Wave Flume Facility + 1.8 + A Alden Large Flume + 3.0 + Alden Small Flume + 1.8 + Alden Tow Tank + 1.2 + Alden Wave Basin + 1.2 + B Breakwater Research Facility + 0.8 + Bucknell Hydraulic Flume + 0.6 + C Carderock 2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel + 0.6 + Carderock 3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel + 0.7 + Carderock Circulating Water Channel + 2.7 +

74

New depths with mobile rig  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magee-Poole Drilling Company, a drilling contractor operating out of the south Texas drilling center of Alice, claims it operates the largest mobile drilling rig in the world. That is, it's the only wheel mounted portable rig that drills to 16,000 feet with 4 1/2-inch drill pipe - at least 3000 feet deeper than the previous mobile drilling rig ratings. The unit is designated the Ingersoll-Rand 1500 Series. What's more significant, according to co-owner Don Magee, is that the rig's portability gets the rotary table turning to the right sooner; it drills more footage per year. It rigs up in 1 1/2 days versus 3 to 4 days for a conventional skid type rig normally used at these depths. The unit's compact arrangement, with more components combined into single loads, makes possible its higher mobility. A conventional skid rig might require 25 to 30 truckloads to move the rig components, mud system, fuel and water tank, houses for utilities, storage and crew change, generators, and drill pipe. The new rig moves in anywhere from four to nine loads less. Further, the rig components weigh less without sacrificing durability.

Not Available

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Bubble entrainment by breaking waves and their influence on optical scattering in the upper ocean  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubble entrainment by breaking waves and their influence on optical scattering in the upper ocean's surface inject bubbles and turbulence into the water column. During periods of rough weather the scales and the turbulent transport of bubbles to depth. Depending on their concentrations and size distribution

Stramski, Dariusz

76

Atmospheric Aerosol Optical Properties in the Persian Gulf  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aerosol optical depth measurements over Bahrain acquired through the ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) are analyzed. Optical depths obtained from ground-based sun/sky radiometers showed a pronounced temporal trend, with a maximum ...

Alexander Smirnov; Brent N. Holben; Oleg Dubovik; Norm T. O'Neill; Thomas F. Eck; Douglas L. Westphal; Andreas K. Goroch; Christophe Pietras; Ilya Slutsker

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Mapping Indigenous Depth of Place  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AMERICAN INDIAN CULTURE AND RESEARCH JOURNAL 32:3 (2008) 107–126 107 Mapping Indigenous Depth of Place MARGARET WICKENS PEARCE AND RENEE PUALANI LOUIS INTRODUCTION Indigenous communities have successfully used Western geospatial technolo- gies (GT... of geog- raphy at Ohio University in Athens, Ohio. Renee Pualani Louis is Hawaiian and recently completed her doctorate in geography at the University of Hawai‘i at Ma¯noa, Honolulu, Hawai‘i. Published as M. Pearce and R. Louis. Mapping Indigenous depth...

Pearce, Margaret Wickens; Louis, Renee Pualani

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Video-rate optical dosimetry and dynamic visualization of IMRT and VMAT treatment plans in water using Cherenkov radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: A novel technique for optical dosimetry of dynamic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans was investigated for the first time by capturing images of the induced Cherenkov radiation in water. Methods: A high-sensitivity, intensified CCD camera (ICCD) was configured to acquire a two-dimensional (2D) projection image of the Cherenkov radiation induced by IMRT and VMAT plans, based on the Task Group 119 (TG-119) C-Shape geometry. Plans were generated using the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) and delivered using 6 MV x-rays from a Varian TrueBeam Linear Accelerator (Linac) incident on a water tank doped with the fluorophore quinine sulfate. The ICCD acquisition was gated to the Linac target trigger pulse to reduce background light artifacts, read out for a single radiation pulse, and binned to a resolution of 512 × 512 pixels. The resulting videos were analyzed temporally for various regions of interest (ROI) covering the planning target volume (PTV) and organ at risk (OAR), and summed to obtain an overall light intensity distribution, which was compared to the expected dose distribution from the TPS using a gamma-index analysis. Results: The chosen camera settings resulted in 23.5 frames per second dosimetry videos. Temporal intensity plots of the PTV and OAR ROIs confirmed the preferential delivery of dose to the PTV versus the OAR, and the gamma analysis yielded 95.9% and 96.2% agreement between the experimentally captured Cherenkov light distribution and expected TPS dose distribution based upon a 3%/3 mm dose difference and distance-to-agreement criterion for the IMRT and VMAT plans, respectively. Conclusions: The results from this initial study demonstrate the first documented use of Cherenkov radiation for video-rate optical dosimetry of dynamic IMRT and VMAT treatment plans. The proposed modality has several potential advantages over alternative methods including the real-time nature of the acquisition, and upon future refinement may prove to be a robust and novel dosimetry method with both research and clinical applications.

Glaser, Adam K., E-mail: Adam.K.Glaser@dartmouth.edu, E-mail: Brian.W.Pogue@dartmouth.edu; Andreozzi, Jacqueline M.; Davis, Scott C. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)] [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Zhang, Rongxiao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Pogue, Brian W., E-mail: Adam.K.Glaser@dartmouth.edu, E-mail: Brian.W.Pogue@dartmouth.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Fox, Colleen J.; Gladstone, David J. [Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766 (United States)] [Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766 (United States)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

ARM - Field Campaign - Routine AAF CLOWD Optical Radiative Observations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govCampaignsRoutine AAF CLOWD Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) govCampaignsRoutine AAF CLOWD Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) Campaign Links RACORO Website Related Campaigns Surface Radiation Comparison Transfer Measurements for RACORO 2009.01.20, Long, SGP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Routine AAF CLOWD Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) 2009.01.22 - 2009.06.30 Website : http://acrf-campaign.arm.gov/racoro/ Lead Scientist : Andrew Vogelmann For data sets, see below. Description The ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) supported the Routine AAF Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign, led by principal investigator Andrew Vogelmann. During this long-term campaign, the AAF conducted routine flights at the ACRF Southern

80

EVOLUTION OF SNOW LINE IN OPTICALLY THICK PROTOPLANETARY DISKS: EFFECTS OF WATER ICE OPACITY AND DUST GRAIN SIZE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Evolution of a snow line in an optically thick protoplanetary disk is investigated with numerical simulations. The ice-condensing region in the disk is obtained by calculating the temperature and the density with the 1+1D approach. The snow line migrates as the mass accretion rate ( M-dot ) in the disk decreases with time. Calculations are carried out from an early phase with high disk accretion rates ( M-dot {approx}10{sup -7} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) to a later phase with low disk accretion rates ( M-dot {approx}10{sup -12} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) using the same numerical method. It is found that the snow line moves inward for M-dot {approx}>10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, while it gradually moves outward in the later evolution phase with M-dot {approx}<10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. In addition to the silicate opacity, the ice opacity is taken into consideration. In the inward migration phase, the additional ice opacity increases the distance of the snow line from the central star by a factor of 1.3 for dust grains {approx}< 10 {mu}m in size and of 1.6 for {approx}> 100 {mu}m. It is inevitable that the snow line comes inside Earth's orbit in the course of the disk evolution if the viscosity parameter {alpha} is in the range 0.001-0.1, the dust-to-gas mass ratio is higher than a tenth of the solar abundance value, and the dust grains are smaller than 1 mm. The formation of water-devoid planetesimals in the terrestrial planet region seems to be difficult throughout the disk evolution, which imposes a new challenge to planet formation theory.

Oka, Akinori; Nakamoto, Taishi; Ida, Shigeru, E-mail: akinorioka1@gmail.com, E-mail: nakamoto@geo.titech.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

2011-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal Exploration Using 3D Gravity Inversion In Walker Valley, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal Exploration Using 3D Gravity Inversion In Walker Valley, Nevada Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The Southern Walker Lake Basin, situated in the Walker Lake structural domain, consists of primarily E-W directed extension along N-NNW striking normal faults. Water well drilling on the eastern slopes of the Wassuk Range, west of the city of Hawthorne, Nevada showed elevated temperatures. Two recent drill holes reaching downhole depths of more than 4000 ft give some insight to the geologic picture, but more information

82

Atmospheric Plasma Jet Machining of Optical Surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Deterministic surface machining with high spatial resolution and nanometric depth accuracy is urgently required in the fabrication of high-end optics. Thus, plasma jet tools with...

Böhm, Georg; Eichentopf, Inga-Maria; Arnold, Thomas

83

Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part.

Good, Morris S. (Richland, WA); Schuster, George J. (Kennewick, WA); Skorpik, James R. (Kennewick, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Anisotropic poststack depth migration, eastern Venezuela  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is known that in areas with significant shale content, the isotropic assumption in depth migration is not correct, and this can lead to incorrect depth positioning if not properly accounted for. In this paper, we performed isotropic and anisotropic poststack depth migrations on a dataset from Eastern Venezuela to study the influence of anisotropy over the depth migration process. When interval velocities derived from surface seismic are compared with those velocities from check shots, significant differences are observed specially for depths associated with a thick sequence of shales identified in the area. These differences in interval velocities are used to obtain estimations of the anisotropic constants used in the anisotropic depth migration process. The anisotropic depth-migrated section allows to position correctly in depth known geological markers identified in well logs, while the results in the isotropic depth-migration show some mismatch with the depths obtained from well-log information.

Uzcategui, O.J.; Mujica, D.L.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

85

Climatology of aerosol optical depth in northcentral Oklahoma: 19922008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of aerosol models; for identification of aerosols from spe- cific events (e.g., the Central American fires Radiation Measurement Program central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, since the fall of 1992. Most dimming; that is, the decrease in solar radiation reaching Earth's surface. Additionally, the wavelength

86

Depth to bedrock using gravimetry in the Reno and Carson City, Nevada, basins Robert E. Abbott and John N. Louie  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of geothermal wells, and one wildcat oil well. Depths in Carson City are consistent with depths from existing needed to model ground motion in the Mexico City basin. Frankel and Vidale (1992) used water well depth shaking at the surface. Poor existing gravity and well-data coverage of the basins below the rapidly

87

Infrared Spectroscopy and Optical Constants of Porous Amorphous...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Spectroscopy and Optical Constants of Porous Amorphous Solid Water. Infrared Spectroscopy and Optical Constants of Porous Amorphous Solid Water. Abstract: Reflection-absorption...

88

Split image optical display  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

2007-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

89

Recommended Practice: Defense-in-Depth  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Report # INL/EXT-06-11478 Report # INL/EXT-06-11478 Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense in Depth Strategies May 2006 Prepared by Idaho National Laboratory Recommended Best Practice: Defense in Depth 2 Table of Contents Keywords............................................................................................................................. 3 Introduction......................................................................................................................... 3 Background ......................................................................................................................... 3 Overview of Contemporary Control System Architectures................................................. 4 Security Challenges in Control Systems .............................................................................

90

SUBJECT INDEX advection, pore water, A:3031  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, A:29 Atlantic Ocean, hydrothermal processes, B2:1­12 Azimuthal Resistivity Imager, Site 395A, A:4 calcium pore water, A:31 vs. depth, A:32 caliper logs, vs. depth, A:18; B2:10 carbonate content. depth, A:31, 33 computed gamma ray logs, vs. depth, A:19 crust, oceanic, off-axis hydrothermal processes

91

Vertical Spatial Sensitivity and Exploration Depth of Low-Induction-Number Electromagnetic-Induction Instruments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...overestimates of d e and poor estimates of layer thickness and composition, water content, or depth to interfaces such as the water...agricultural fields with GPR and EMI to identify offsite movement of agrochemicals. J. Appl. Geophys. 47:251-259. georef;2007029067...

James B. Callegary; Ty P. A. Ferré; R. W. Groom

92

High-resolution subsurface water-ice distributions on Mars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Theoretical models indicate that water ice is stable in the shallow subsurface (depths of water-ice table that steadily increases in depth with decreasing latitude. More detailed modelling has ...

Joshua L. Bandfield

2007-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

93

Cathode depth sensing in CZT detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measuring the depth of interaction in thick Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) detectors allows improved imaging and spectroscopy for hard X-ray imaging above 100 keV. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) will employ relatively thick (5 - 10 mm) CZT detectors, which are required to perform the broad energy-band sky survey. Interaction depth information is needed to correct events to the detector "focal plane" for correct imaging and can be used to improve the energy resolution of the detector at high energies by allowing event-based corrections for incomplete charge collection. Background rejection is also improved by allowing low energy events from the rear and sides of the detector to be rejected. We present experimental results of interaction depth sensing in a 5 mm thick pixellated Au-contact IMARAD CZT detector. The depth sensing was done by making simultaneous measurements of cathode and anode signals, where the interaction depth at a given energy is proportional to the ratio of cathode/anode signals. We demonstrate how a simple empirical formula describing the event distributions in the cathode/anode signal space can dramatically improve the energy resolution. We also estimate the energy and depth resolution of the detector as a function of the energy and the interaction depth. We also show a depth-sensing prototype system currently under development for EXIST in which cathode signals from 8, 16 or 32 crystals can be read-out by a small multi-channel ASIC board that is vertically edge-mounted on the cathode electrode along every second CZT crystal boundary. This allows CZT crystals to be tiled contiguously with minimum impact on throughput of incoming photons. The robust packaging is crucial in EXIST, which will employ very large area imaging CZT detector arrays.

J. Hong; E. C. Bellm; J. E. Grindlay; T. Narita

2003-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

94

A shallow-water system for sampling macrobenthic infauna  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oct 1, 1973 ... of materials between water and sediments. ... water estuarine areas penetrated to a depth of 2O- .... pelled by a 7 hp outboard motor, which.

1999-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

95

Absolute Approximation of Tukey Depth: Theory and Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Absolute Approximation of Tukey Depth: Theory and Experiments Dan Chen School of Computer Science¨ur Theoretische Informatik Abstract A Monte Carlo approximation algorithm for the Tukey depth problem in high. Keywords: Tukey depth, computational geometry 1. Introduction Tukey depth is also known as location depth

Morin, Pat

96

Stereoscopic optical viewing system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved optical system which provides the operator with a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

Tallman, C.S.

1986-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

97

Detecting Cirrus-Overlapping-Water Clouds and Retrieving their...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

channel (0.6 m) to retrieve cloud optical depth. Both channels are common to all weather satellite sensors. Because cirrus clouds are mostly semitransparent at infrared...

98

PublicationsmailagreementNo.40014024 maximum depth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and a video camera to complete installation of the world's first regional cabled ocean observatory. NEPTUNE- tion systems that--using power and the internet--provide continuous, long-term monitoring of oceanPublicationsmailagreementNo.40014024 THE 2.7km maximum depth beneath the ocean surface of neptune

Pedersen, Tom

99

Optical Fibers Optics and Photonics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical Fibers Optics and Photonics Dr. Palffy-Muhoray Ines Busuladzic Department of Theoretical and Applied Mathematics The University of Akron April 21, 2008 #12;Outline · History of optical fibers · What are optical fibers? · How are optical fibers made? · Light propagation through optical fibers · Application

Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

100

Fast neutron background measurements at shallow depths  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on measurements of the neutron backgrounds for neutrino experiments at shallow depth (such as the proposed San Onofre neutrino oscillation experiment). A detector capable of pulse-shape discrimination measured the flux of fast neutrons at 20 mwe depth in the Stanford Underground Facility to be (1.07 {+-} 0.30) X 10{sup -6} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. An experiment, situated in the Tendon Gallery of the San Onofre Unit 2 reactor. studied spallation neutrons from muons traversing Pb and Cu. An underground experiment in the SUF, employing a detector filled with Gd-loaded liquid scintillator, is measuring the neutron production rate and multiplicity for muon spallation in low-A material (hydrocarbon-based liquid scintillator).

Chen, M.; Hertenberger, R.; Novikov, V. [Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dougherty, B.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Tomographic image reconstruction from optical projections in light-diffusing media  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The recent developments in light generation and detection techniques have opened new possibilities for optical medical imaging, tomography, and diagnosis at tissue penetration depths...

Colak, S B; Papaioannou, D G; ’t Hooft, G W; van der Mark, M B; Schomberg, H; Paasschens, J C J; Melissen, J B M; van Asten, N A A J

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Evolution of the optical properties of biomass-burning aerosol during the 2003 southeast Australian bushfires  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During January and February 2003, drought conditions led to major bushfires across southeast Australia, causing considerable damage. We have examined aerosol optical depth (AOD) data...

Radhi, Majed; Box, Michael A; Box, Gail P; Gupta, Pawan; Christopher, Sundar A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

The effect of Immersion oil in optical tweezers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we report on theoretical investigation of the effect of refractive index of immersion oil on the position of optimal depth and optical trap quality in optical tweezers. Using simple numerical calculation presented here, one can study the optical trapping in different samples, after multi interfaces and find the best choice of immersion oil for a particular case.

Mahmoudi, Ali

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Fiber optic hydrophone  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optic fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends.

Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Davis, Donald T. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Fiber optic hydrophone  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer is disclosed. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optical fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends. 2 figures.

Kuzmenko, P.J.; Davis, D.T.

1994-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

106

Seasonal Variations of Snow Depth on Mars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...rises above the CO2 condensation temperature, and...and has a lower atmospheric pressure, and as...observations of atmospheric water vapor during some...to be a locus of atmospheric CO2 condensation (12, 25, 26...

David E. Smith; Maria T. Zuber; Gregory A. Neumann

2001-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

107

Global Patterns of Groundwater Table Depth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...case study from a crystalline-rock watershed in southern India...E. Ingebritsen S. E. , Permeability of the continental crust: Implications...with exponentially decreasing permeability and porosity . Water Resour. Res. 46...

Y. Fan; H. Li; G. Miguez-Macho

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

108

Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

109

Metal nano-strip optical resonators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Rectangular gold and silver nano-strips embedded in glass or water are considered as optical resonators. Their scattering cross section and field enhancements in the case of...

Søndergaard, Thomas; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Depth profiling ambient noise in the deep ocean  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

al. , 2005). The vertical profile of wind speed over the seavertical directionality…………… Depth-dependence of wind speedVertical noise directional density function versus depth. 93 Measured and acoustically estimated wind speeds.

Barclay, David Readshaw

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Clinical prototype of a plastic water-equivalent scintillating fiber dosimeter array for QA applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A clinical prototype of a scintillating fiber dosimeter array for quality assurance applications is presented. The array consists of a linear array of 29 plastic scintillation detectors embedded in a water-equivalent plastic sheet coupled to optical fibers used to guide optical photons to a charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The CCD is packaged in a light-tight, radiation-shielded housing designed for convenient transport. A custom designed connector is used to ensure reproducible mechanical positioning of the optical fibers relative to the CCD. Profile and depth dose characterization measurements are presented and show that the prototype provides excellent dose measurement reproducibility ({+-}0.8%) in-field and good accuracy ({+-}1.6% maximum deviation) relative to the dose measured with an IC10 ionization chamber.

Lacroix, Frederic; Archambault, Louis; Gingras, Luc; Guillot, Mathieu; Beddar, A. Sam; Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec, G1K 7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec, Quebec G1R2J6 (Canada); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec, Quebec G1R2J6 (Canada); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec, G1K 7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec, Quebec G1R2J6 (Canada)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

112

OPTICS5  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Optics5 (5.1.02) Knowledge Base Optics5 (5.1.02) Knowledge Base Last Updated: 09/11/13 Table of Contents INSTALLATION EXECUTION bullet ** Operating Systems -- Microsoft Windows 7 and Vista ** bullet ** Running Optics5 with Microsoft Windows 7 and Vista ** bullet ** Running Optics5 with Microsoft Windows 7 and Vista 64 bit ** Optics5 may not work correctly with regional/locale settings using "," as a decimal separator. bullet Which Windows operating systems can be used to run Optics? "Class Does Not Support Automation or Expected Interface" error message bullet How much hard disk space should be available to install Optics? Optics user manual bullet I receive a virus warning (nimda-virus) when installing Optics. What should I do? NFRC Procedure for Applied Films bullet I have installed Optics but I can't find the program or the icon.

113

Output-Sensitive Algorithms for Tukey Depth and Related Problems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Output-Sensitive Algorithms for Tukey Depth and Related Problems David Bremner University of New de Bruxelles Pat Morin Carleton University Abstract The Tukey depth (Tukey 1975) of a point p halfspace that contains p. Algorithms for computing the Tukey depth of a point in various dimensions

Morin, Pat

114

Fiber optic fluid detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

Angel, S.M.

1987-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

115

Implications of the UHECRs penetration depth measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The simple interpretation of PAO's UHECRs' penetration depth measurements suggests a transition at the energy range $1.1 - 35 \\cdot 10^{18} $ eV from protons to heavier nuclei. A detailed comparison of this data with air shower simulations reveals strong restrictions on the amount of light nuclei (protons and He) in the observed flux. We find a robust upper bound on the observed proton fraction of the UHECRs flux and we rule out a composition dominated by protons and He. Acceleration and propagation effects lead to an observed composition that is different from the one at the source. Using a simple toy model that take into account these effects, we show that the observations requires an extreme metallicity at the sources with metals to protons mass ratio of 1:1, a ratio that is larger by a factor of a hundred than the solar abundance. This composition imposes an almost impossible constraint on all current astrophysical models for UHECRs accelerators. This may provide a first hint towards new physics that emerges at $\\sim 100$ TeV and leads to a larger proton cross section at these energies.

Nimrod Shaham; Tsvi Piran

2012-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

116

Water quality Water quantity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

01-1 · Water quality · Water quantity · Remediation strategies MinE 422: Water Resources: Younger, Banwart and Hedin. 2002. Mine Water. Hydrology, Pollution, Remediation. Impacts of mining on water mining ­ Often the largest long term issue ­ Water quality affected, surface/ground water pollution

Boisvert, Jeff

117

Water quality Water quantity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Water quality · Water quantity · Remediation strategies MinE 422: Water Resources: Younger, Banwart and Hedin. 2002. Mine Water. Hydrology, Pollution, Remediation. Impacts of mining on water mining ­ Often the largest long term issue ­ Water quality affected, surface/ground water pollution

Boisvert, Jeff

118

Nonimaging Optics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The nonimaging optical system, by definition, does not produce an image of the light source. Instead, it is designed to concentrate radiation at a density as high as theoretically possible. Nonimaging optics h...

Dr. Ralf Leutz; Dr. Akio Suzuki

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Optical Switch  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

seven wonders Optical Switch A key component in the laser chain, an optical switch called a plasma electrode Pockels cell (PEPC), was invented and developed at LLNL. A Pockels cell...

120

Using radiative transfer models to study the atmospheric water vapor content and to eliminate telluric lines from high-resolution optical spectra  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) and the retrieval algorithm, incorporated in the SCIATRAN 2.2 software package developed at the Institute of Remote Sensing/Institute of Enviromental Physics of Bremen University (Germany), allows to simulate, among other things, radiance/irradiance spectra in the 2400-24 000 {\\AA} range. In this work we present applications of RTM to two case studies. In the first case the RTM was used to simulate direct solar irradiance spectra, with different water vapor amounts, for the study of the water vapor content in the atmosphere above Sierra Nevada Observatory. Simulated spectra were compared with those measured with a spectrometer operating in the 8000-10 000 {\\AA} range. In the second case the RTM was used to generate telluric model spectra to subtract the atmospheric contribution and correct high-resolution stellar spectra from atmospheric water vapor and oxygen lines. The results of both studies are discussed.

Gardini, A; Pérez, E; Quesada, J A; Funke, B

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Recovery of SIMS depth profiles with account for nonstationary effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work we consider a method of accounting for the nonstationary effects in recovery of SIMS depth profiles. The depth resolution function (DRF) is described by Hofmann's nonstationary MRI (mixing-roughness-information depth) model using the depth-dependent parameters. The effects in question include the nonstationary atomic mixing and development of surface roughness. A mathematical description of the nonstationary depth profiling process by the Fredholm integral equation of the first kind is proposed. The inverse problem is solved using an algorithm based on the Tikhonov regularization method. The proposed nonstationary recovery method is tested on both model and real structures. The development of surface roughness in SIMS depth profiling of the real structure was observed. Grazing incidence x-ray reflectometry (XRR) technique was used to verify the results of SIMS profiles restoration for periodic structure containing thin Ge layers in the Si matrix. The advantages of the proposed recovery algorithm to allow for the nonstationary effects are shown.

Pavel Andreevich Yunin; Yurii Nikolaevich Drozdov; Mikhail Nikolaevich Drozdov; Dmitry Vladimirovich Yurasov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Defense-in-Depth, How Department of Energy Implements Radiation...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

is implemented using a defense-in-depth approach taking into account the combination of natural and engineered barriers, performance objectives, long-term risk assessments,...

123

Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 2 (in-depth...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Evaluation Meeting vss031rask2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 2 (in-depth) Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab...

124

Are Cluster Ion Analysis Beams Good Choices for Hydrogen Depth...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cluster Ion Analysis Beams Good Choices for Hydrogen Depth Profiling Using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry? Are Cluster Ion Analysis Beams Good Choices for Hydrogen...

125

Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense in Depth Strategies ...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture. Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense in Depth Strategies More Documents &...

126

BOUDREAU, BERNARD P. Mean mixed depth of sediments: The ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

bioturbation. Bioturbation is the mixing of surficial sediments as a re- sult of the activity .... that the mixed depth is limited by the increasing energy costs of deeper

2000-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

127

Chemical Depth Profiling from Neutron Reflectometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The material profile of a thin film can be analyzed by placing the film on a substrate and by sending a neutron beam onto it at various angles of incidence. Technically, the scattering length density of the film needs to be determined as a function of depth. A reflectometer is used to measure the amount of reflection (reflectivity) as a function of the angle of incidence. Mathematically, this is equivalent to sending the neutron beam onto the film at every energy but at a fixed angle of incidence. The film profile needs to be recovered from the measured reflectivity data. Unfortunately, the unique recovery is impossible, and many distinct unrelated profiles may correspond to the same reflectivity data. In our DOE/EPSCoR sponsored research, we have developed an analytical method to uniquely recover the profile of a thin film from the measured reflectivity data. We have shown that by taking reflectivity measurements with two different substrates, one can uniquely determine the film profile. Previously, it was known that one could uniquely recover the profile by taking reflectivity measurements with three different substrates, and our findings indicate that the same goal can be accomplished by using fewer measurements. At Mississippi State University we started an informal weekly seminar (called ''the reflectometry meeting'') at to attract various undergraduate and graduate students into the field. There were about 3 undergraduate students, 6 graduate students, and 2 faculty members attending these seminars. The PI has collaborated with Dr. Norm Berk at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) on various aspects of neutron reflectometry, from which various interesting problems of theoretical and practical importance have arisen. One of these problems is closely related to the important mathematical problem known as analytic extrapolation. Under appropriate conditions (known to hold in neutron reflectometry), the reflection data taken in a finite interval of neutron energies uniquely determines the data at all energies. Even though the uniqueness is assured mathematically, there are currently no available methods for analytic extrapolation. Currently, we are working on this problem as it arises in neutron reflectometry and looking for mathematical and numerical methods to extrapolate reflection data to higher and lower neutron energies. A solution to this problem is expected to have a big impact not only in neutron reflectometry, but in many areas of physics and engineering. The PI has collaborated with Prof. Paul Sacks of Iowa State University, Prof. Daniil Sarkissian of Mississippi State University, and Prof. Levon Babadzanjanz of St. Petersburg State University, Russia on mathematical and numerical aspects of neutron reflectometry. These researchers jointly worked with the PI towards the preparation of numerical routines to extract the film profile from the reflection data. We have prepared a Mathematica interface running Fortran 95 algorithms to produce reflection data from a given profile. These Fortran 95 algorithms have been prepared by updating and modifying Prof. Sacks' Fortran 77 routine and by updating Dr. Gian Felcher's (of Argonne National Laboratory) Fortran 77 routine. We are also preparing similar algorithms written in Mathematica so that they can be used without needing Fortran. We are also working towards preparing algorithms in Fortran 95 and in Mathematica to produce the film profile from the given sets of reflectivity data.

Tuncay Aktosun

2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

128

IMPROVED BOUSSINESQ-TYPE EQUATIONS FOR HIGHLY-VARIABLE DEPTH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IMPROVED BOUSSINESQ-TYPE EQUATIONS FOR HIGHLY-VARIABLE DEPTH JUAN CARLOS MU~NOZ GRAJALES AND ANDR´E NACHBIN Abstract. Intermediate depth, Boussinesq-type modeling is used to generalize previously known are extended from the analysis of KdV-type models to include the improved Boussinesq systems in contrast

Nachbin, André

129

Depth, and Motion inVision CMSC 436/636  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, perceived depth related #12;Head Motion Parallax Bruce and Green 90, p. 231. Kinetic Depth Effect Bruce displacement) #12;Structure from Motion Bruce and Green 90, pg. 328. #12;Image Segmentation Discontinuities Representation techniques parameters #12;Experimental Findings Control necessary for development Held

Rheingans, Penny

130

SEU sensitive depth in a submicron SRAM technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work determines experimentally and by simulation the SEU sensitive depth in a 0.6 {micro}m SRAM technology. A good correlation is obtained between the two studies in the case of heavy ions deposing energy close to the critical energy. Other simulation results complete the first investigation by studying the minimum sensitive depth for ions deposing higher energies (at greater LET).

Detcheverry, C.; Bruguier, G.; Palau, J.M.; Gasiot, J. [Univ. Montpellier II (France)] [Univ. Montpellier II (France); Ecoffet, R. [CNES, Toulouse (France)] [CNES, Toulouse (France); Duzellier, S. [DERTS, Toulouse (France)] [DERTS, Toulouse (France); Barak, J.; Lifshitz, Y. [Soreq NRC, Yahvne (Israel)] [Soreq NRC, Yahvne (Israel)

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

On depth and deep points: a calculus Ivan Mizera  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Tukey's median) plays a fundamental role similar to that of linear functions in the mathematical (1929) and Chamberlin (1933). For multivariate location, the proposal of Tukey (1975) was developed halfspace or Tukey's depth; for other brands of depth in multivariate location see Liu, Parelius and Singh

Mizera, Ivan

132

Animal Environmental Systems Goal: Colorado State University will enhance its focus, depth, and integration in undergraduate education, graduate education,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of environmental management systems for air and water quality protection related to animal production systems are to develop new approaches for animal environmental system research management to be more cohesive and moreAnimal Environmental Systems Goal: Colorado State University will enhance its focus, depth

133

OPTICS 5  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

OPTICS (Version 5.1.02) OPTICS (Version 5.1.02) Release notes NOTE: See the Optics Knowledge Base for how to run this version of Optics on the Microsoft Vista and Microsoft Windows 7 operating systems March 5, 2003: Release Maintenance Pack 2 New ! January 7, 2003: Release Maintenance Pack 1 October 23, 2002: Release Optics 5.1.01 September 27, 2002: Release Optics 5.1.00 (only released on CDs at NFRC Annual Fall Meeting) Release notes Maintenance Pack 2 Bug fixes: New features: bullet Applied films that were created could not be saved or exported. This has been fixed. bullet Exporting glazing systems generated a message that the operation failed because the glazing system type is unknown. Glazing systems can now be exported to file (e.g. to view the spectral data), but the structure information will be lost.

134

Property:AvgReservoirDepth | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AvgReservoirDepth AvgReservoirDepth Jump to: navigation, search Property Name AvgReservoirDepth Property Type Quantity Description Average depth to reservoir Use this type to express a quantity of length. The default unit is the meter (m). Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: Meters - 1 m, meter, meters Meter, Meters, METER, METERS Kilometers - 0.001 km, kilometer, kilometers, Kilometer, Kilometers, KILOMETERS, KILOMETERS Miles - 0.000621371 mi, mile, miles, Mile, Miles, MILE, MILES Feet - 3.28084 ft, foot, feet, Foot, Feet, FOOT, FEET Yards - 1.09361 yd, yard, yards, Yard, Yards, YARD, YARDS Pages using the property "AvgReservoirDepth" Showing 24 pages using this property. A Amedee Geothermal Area + 213 m0.213 km 0.132 mi 698.819 ft 232.939 yd + B Beowawe Hot Springs Geothermal Area + 850 m0.85 km

135

Optical Magnetism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Magnetic dipole radiation one fourth as intense as electric dipole radiation, as well as a novel nonlinear magneto-optical effect are reported in dielectric media.

Oliveira, Samuel L; Rand, Stephen C

136

Water, water everywhere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... available water resources, either locally or globally, are by no means exhausted. At present desalination -- the removal of salt from sea water or brackish water -- is very ... or brackish water -- is very expensive, mainly because it consumes so much energy. Desalination provides less than 0.2 per cent of all the water used in the world ...

Philip Ball

2000-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

137

Optical Expanders with Applications in Optical Computing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical Expanders with Applications in Optical Computing John H. Reif Akitoshi Yoshida July 20, 1999 Abstract We describe and investigate an optical system which we call an optical expander. An optical expander elec- trooptically expands an optical boolean pattern encoded in d bits into an optical

Reif, John H.

138

Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water Volumes I & II (October 1996) Optical character recognition has been applied to these files, but full search capabilities...

139

Contour Charts of SOFAR Speed and Axis Depth in the Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sound speeds calculated from the physical properties of sea water as measured at hydrographic stations were used to construct contour charts of SOFAR?speed and SOFAR?axis depth for the Pacific Ocean. Wilson's formula was used for the calculation of speed. Data were averaged for 1° squares plotted and smooth contours were drawn manually. Speeds averaged along great?circle paths are compared with those measured for explosions. The charts show steep gradients along the Antarctic convergence and at the convergence of the Oyashio and Kuroshio extension. The region of highest speed as well as greatest axis depth was that extending eastward from Australia to about the 150°W. The charts are used in a program for calculating source coordinates of earthquakeT phases.

Rockne H. Johnson; Roger A. Norris

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Validation of Surface Retrieved Cloud Optical Properties with in situ Measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) South Great Plains Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The surface inferred cloud optical properties from a multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer have been validated against the in situ measurements during the second ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE II) field campaign at the ARM South Great Plains (SGP) site. On the basis of eight effective radius profiles measured by the in situ Forward Spectra Scattering Probe (FSSP), our retrieved cloud effective radii for single-layer warm water clouds agree well with in situ measurements, within 5.5%. The sensitivity study also illustrates that for this case a 13% uncertainty in observed liquid water path (LWP, 20 g/m2) results in 1.5% difference in retrieved cloud optical depth and 12.7% difference in referred cloud effective radius, on average. The uncertainty of the LWP measured by the microwave radiometer (MWR) is the major contributor to the uncertainty of retrieved cloud effective radius. Further, we conclude that the uncertainty of our inferred cloud optical properties is better than 5% for warm water clouds based on a surface closure study, in which cloud optical properties inferred from narrowband irradiances are applied to a shortwave model and the modeled broadband fluxes are compared to a surface pyranometer.

Min, Qilong; Duan, M.; Marchand, Roger T.

2003-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

Sohoni, Milind

142

Optical Glass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... space of time. In the forefront of such vital industries is the manufacture of optical glass. However great the other resources in men and material may be, it would be ... be, it would be quite impossible to wage successful warfare without adequate supplies of optical glass ior binocular field- ...

1919-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

143

A Multidisciplinary Investigation of the Intermediate Depths of the Atlantic Ocean: AAIW delta^13C Variability During the Younger Dryas and Lithoherms in the Straits of Florida  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A transect of cores ranging from 798 m to 1585 m water depth in the South Atlantic Ocean document the relative intermediate water mass nutrient geometry and stable isotopic variability of AAIW during the Younger Dryas cooling event. The data reveal...

Brookshire, Brian

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

144

Understanding the thermal evolution of deep-water continental margins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... exploration risks are potentially much higher. The bulk of major hydrocarbon fields located in shallow-water depths (that is, up to 200 m) have probably been located, if one ... Over the past ten years, there has been a relentless drive to explore ever-increasing water depths. This drive has been stimulated by an engineering technology that has allowed us ...

Nicky White; Mark Thompson; Tony Barwise

2003-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

145

Fiber optic coupled optical sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A displacement sensor includes a first optical fiber for radiating light to a target, and a second optical fiber for receiving light from the target. The end of the first fiber is adjacent and not axially aligned with the second fiber end. A lens focuses light from the first fiber onto the target and light from the target onto the second fiber.

Fleming, Kevin J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Extended depth secondary recovery: more coal for the 80's  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are a variety of surface mining techniques presently in use which are physically or economically unable to recover all of the coal available. A new technique known as extended depth secondary recovery is presently available in the form of the Thin Seam Miner, which is able to recover 80-85% of this otherwise lost coal, to depths of 220 feet. Extended depth secondary recovery began with the auger, which has enjoyed moderate success, despite major drawbacks. Punch mining, longwall and shortwall technologies and the push-button miner all attempted to economically remine areas, with very little success. The Thin Seam Miner, on the other hand, not only recovers 80-85% of the coal in place to depths of 220 feet, but is environmentally sound, economically feasible, safe, and adapted to mine under all the seam conditions and grades of coal found in Appalachia.

Shearer, L.K.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Method and apparatus to measure the depth of skin burns  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new device for measuring the depth of surface tissue burns based on the rate at which the skin temperature responds to a sudden differential temperature stimulus. This technique can be performed without physical contact with the burned tissue. In one implementation, time-dependent surface temperature data is taken from subsequent frames of a video signal from an infrared-sensitive video camera. When a thermal transient is created, e.g., by turning off a heat lamp directed at the skin surface, the following time-dependent surface temperature data can be used to determine the skin burn depth. Imaging and non-imaging versions of this device can be implemented, thereby enabling laboratory-quality skin burn depth imagers for hospitals as well as hand-held skin burn depth sensors the size of a small pocket flashlight for field use and triage.

Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM); Holswade, Scott C. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal Exploration Using 3D Gravity Inversion In Walker Valley, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

149

Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of silicon supersaturated with sulfur  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the luminescence of Si supersaturated with S (Si:S) using depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy as the S concentration is varied over 2 orders of magnitude ...

Fabbri, Filippo

150

Next Generation Nuclear Plant Defense-in-Depth Approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to (1) document the definition of defense-in-depth and the pproach that will be used to assure that its principles are satisfied for the NGNP project and (2) identify the specific questions proposed for preapplication discussions with the NRC. Defense-in-depth is a safety philosophy in which multiple lines of defense and conservative design and evaluation methods are applied to assure the safety of the public. The philosophy is also intended to deliver a design that is tolerant to uncertainties in knowledge of plant behavior, component reliability or operator performance that might compromise safety. This paper includes a review of the regulatory foundation for defense-in-depth, a definition of defense-in-depth that is appropriate for advanced reactor designs based on High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology, and an explanation of how this safety philosophy is achieved in the NGNP.

Edward G. Wallace; Karl N. Fleming; Edward M. Burns

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Molecular Depth Profiling of Sucrose Films: A Comparative Study...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cs and O Ions. Abstract: Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) depth profiling of sucrose thin films were investigated using 10 keV C60+, 20 keV...

152

Property:FirstWellDepth | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

FirstWellDepth FirstWellDepth Jump to: navigation, search Property Name FirstWellDepth Property Type Quantity Use this type to express a quantity of length. The default unit is the meter (m). Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: Meters - 1 m, meter, meters Meter, Meters, METER, METERS Kilometers - 0.001 km, kilometer, kilometers, Kilometer, Kilometers, KILOMETERS, KILOMETERS Miles - 0.000621371 mi, mile, miles, Mile, Miles, MILE, MILES Feet - 3.28084 ft, foot, feet, Foot, Feet, FOOT, FEET Yards - 1.09361 yd, yard, yards, Yard, Yards, YARD, YARDS Pages using the property "FirstWellDepth" Showing 5 pages using this property. B Blue Mountain Geothermal Area + 672 m0.672 km 0.418 mi 2,204.724 ft 734.906 yd + K Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area + 1,968 m1.968 km

153

Prediction of sinkage depth of footings on soft marine sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

instability on the side walls of the cavity. Footing size and sinkage depth of prototype footings are expected to have a significant effect on side- wall instability. (6) Tests in a geotechnical centrifuge are recommended as one means of studying gravity... instability on the side walls of the cavity. Footing size and sinkage depth of prototype footings are expected to have a significant effect on side- wall instability. (6) Tests in a geotechnical centrifuge are recommended as one means of studying gravity...

Yen, Shihchieh

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

154

Case depth verification of hardened samples with Barkhausen noise sweeps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An interesting topic of recent Barkhausen noise (BN) method studies is the application of the method to case depth evaluation of hardened components. The utilization of BN method for this purpose is based on the difference in the magnetic properties between the hardened case and the soft core. Thus, the detection of case depth with BN can be achieved. The measurements typically have been carried out by using low magnetizing frequencies which have deeper penetration to the ferromagnetic samples than the conventional BN measurement. However, the penetration depth is limited due to eddy current damping of the signal. We introduce here a newly found sweep measurement concept for the case depth evaluation. In this study sweep measurements were carried out with various magnetizing frequencies and magnetizing voltages to detect the effect of different frequency and voltage and their correspondence to the actual case depth values verified from destructive characterization. Also a BN measurement device that has an implemented sweep analysis option was utilised. The samples were either induction or case-hardened samples and sample geometry contained both rod samples and gear axle samples with different case depth values. Samples were also further characterized with Xray diffraction to study the residual stress state of the surface. The detailed data processing revealed that also other calculated features than the maximum slope division of the 1st derivative of the BN signal could hold the information about the case depth value of the samples. The sweep method was able to arrange the axles into correct order according to the case depth value even though the axles were used.

Santa-aho, Suvi; Vippola, Minnamari; Lepistö, Toivo [Tampere University of Technology, Department of Materials Science, P.O. Box 589, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Hakanen, Merja [Stresstech Oy, Tikkutehtaantie 1, 40800 Vaajakoski (Finland); Sorsa, Aki; Leiviskä, Kauko [University of Oulu, Control Engineering Laboratory, P.O. Box 4300, FIN-90014 University of Oulu (Finland)

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

155

Compact light-emitting-diode sun photometer for atmospheric optical depth measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new compact light-emitting diode (LED) sun photometer, in which a LED is used as a spectrally selective photodetector as well as a nonlinear feedback element in the operational...

Acharya, Y B; Jayaraman, A; Ramachandran, S; Subbaraya, B H

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Aerosol radiative forcing and the accuracy of satellite aerosol optical depth retrieval  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, New Mexico, USA Michael Mishchenko Goddard Institute for Space Studies, NASA, New York, New York, USA between t = 0.1 and t = 0.8. The Department of Energy research satellite instrument, the Multispectral [Hobbs et al., 1997]. The aerosols' direct effect involves their interaction with solar and terrestrial

157

Aerosol Optical Depth Prediction from Satellite Observations by Multiple Instance Regression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

airborne particles that both reflect and absorb incoming solar radiation and whose effect on the Earth's radiation budget is one of the biggest challenges of current climate research. To help address requirement for the success of the ensuing scientific studies. Among the most challenging climate research

Vucetic, Slobodan

158

Depth-resolved optical imaging and microscopy of vascular compartment dynamics during somatosensory stimulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,a Jesse Skoch,d Brian J. Bacskai,d Anders M. Dale,b and David A. Boasa a Athinoula A. Martinos Center poor specificity to neuronal events: The MRI-based blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal evolves (Attwell and Iadecola, 2002; Iadecola, 2004). To date, the hemodynamic response has largely just

159

The use of satellite-measured aerosol optical depth to constrain biomass burning emissions source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products, effective fuel load, and species emission factors as alternative inputs and daily versions, Fire Radiative Power (FRP)-based Quick Fire Emission Data set QFED, and 11 calculated, Earth Science Directorate, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 613, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA

Chin, Mian

160

Optical depth measurements by shadow-band radiometers and their uncertainties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Atmospheric Administration Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) Network, and NASA Solar Irradiance Research Network important product of Sun-photometric measurements. [According to the American Meteoro- logical Society (AMS Measurement (ARM) Program [7]. This network con- sists of 21 instruments located at the SGP Central (CF

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Nonlinear optics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

Bloembergen, Nicolaas

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Report on the Depth Requirements for a Massive Detector at Homestake  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides the technical justification for locating a large detector underground in a US based Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory. A large detector with a fiducial mass greater than 100 kTon will most likely be a multipurpose facility. The main physics justification for such a device is detection of accelerator generated neutrinos, nucleon decay, and natural sources of neutrinos such as solar, atmospheric and supernova neutrinos. The requirement on the depth of this detector will be guided by the rate of signals from these sources and the rate of backgrounds from cosmic rays over a very wide range of energies (from solar neutrino energies of 5 MeV to high energies in the range of hundreds of GeV). For the present report, we have examined the depth requirement for a large water Cherenkov detector and a liquid argon time projection chamber. There has been extensive previous experience with underground water Cherenkov detectors such as IMB, Kamioka, and most recently, Super-Kamiokande which has a fiducial mass of 22 kTon and a total mass of 50 kTon at a depth of 2700 meters-water-equivalent in a mountain. Projections for signal and background capability for a larger and deeper(or shallower) detectors of this type can be scaled from these previous detectors. The liquid argon time projection chamber has the advantage of being a very fine-grained tracking detector, which should provide enhanced capability for background rejection. We have based background rejection on reasonable estimates of track and energy resolution, and in some cases scaled background rates from measurements in water. In the current work we have taken the approach that the depth should be sufficient to suppress the cosmogenic background below predicted signal rates for either of the above two technologies. Nevertheless, it is also clear that the underground facility that we are examining must have a long life and will most likely be used either for future novel uses of the currently planned detectors or new technologies. Therefore the depth requirement also needs to be made on the basis of sound judgment regarding possible future use. In particular, the depth should be sufficient for any possible future use of these cavities or the level which will be developed for these large structures.Along with these physics justifications there are practical issues regarding the existing infrastructure at Homestake and also the stress characteristics of the Homestake rock formations. In this report we will examine the various depth choices at Homestake from the point of view of the particle and nuclear physics signatures of interest. We also have sufficient information about the existing infrastructure and the rock characteristics to narrow the choice of levels for the development of large cavities with long lifetimes. We make general remarks on desirable ground conditions for such large cavities and then make recommendations on how to start examining these levels to make a final choice. In the appendix we have outlined the initial requirements for the detectors. These requirements will undergo refinement during the course of the design. Finally, we strongly recommend that the geotechnical studies be commenced at the 4850 ft level, which we find to be the most suitable, in a timely manner.

Kadel, Richard W.; Bernstein, Adam; Blucher, Edward; Cline, David B.; Diwan, Milind V.; Fleming, Bonnie; Kearns, Edward; Klein, Joshua; Lande, Kenneth; Lanni, Francesco; Lissauer, David; McKeown, Robert; Morse, William; Rameika, Regina; Scholberg, Kate; Smy, Michael; Sobel, Henry; Sullivan, Gregory; Svoboda, Robert; Vagins, Mark; Walter, Christopher; Zwaska, Robert

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

163

Optical Expanders with Applications in Optical Computing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical Expanders with Applications in Optical Computing John H. Reif \\Lambda Akitoshi Yoshida \\Lambda July 20, 1999 Abstract We describe and investigate an optical system which we call an optical expander. An optical expander elec­ trooptically expands an optical boolean pattern encoded in d bits

Reif, John H.

164

Report on the Depth Requirements for a Massive Detector at Homestake  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides the technical justification for locating a large detector underground in a US based Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory. A large detector with a fiducial mass greater than 100 kTon will most likely be a multipurpose facility. The main physics justification for such a device is detection of accelerator generated neutrinos, nucleon decay, and natural sources of neutrinos such as solar, atmospheric and supernova neutrinos. The requirement on the depth of this detector will be guided by the rate of signals from these sources and the rate of backgrounds from cosmic rays over a very wide range of energies (from solar neutrino energies of 5 MeV to high energies in the range of tens of GeV). For the present report, we have examined the depth requirement for a large water Cherenkov detector and a liquid argon time projection chamber. There has been extensive previous experience with underground water Cherenkov detectors such as IMB, Kamioka, and most recently, Super-Kamiokande which has a fiducial mass of 22 kTon and a total mass of 50 kTon at a depth of 2700 meters-water-equivalent. Projections for signal and background capability for a larger and deeper (or shallower) detectors of this type can be scaled from these previous detectors. The liquid argon time projection chamber has the advantage of being a very fine-grained tracking detector, which provides enhanced capability for background rejection. In the current work we have taken the approach that the depth should be sufficient to suppress the cosmogenic background below predicted signal rates for either of the above two technologies. Nevertheless, it is also clear that the underground facility that we are examining must have a long life and will most likely be used either for future novel uses of the currently planned detectors or new technologies. Therefore the depth requirement also needs to be made on the basis of sound judgment regarding possible future use. In particular, the depth should be sufficient for any possible future use of these cavities or the level which will be developed for these large structures. Along with these physics justifications there are practical issues regarding the existing infrastructure at Homestake and also the stress characteristics of the Homestake rock formations. In this report we will examine the various depth choices at Homestake from the point of view of the particle and nuclear physics signatures of interest. We also have sufficient information about the existing infrastructure and the rock characteristics to narrow the choice of levels for the development of large cavities with long lifetimes. We make general remarks on desirable ground conditions for such large cavities and then make recommendations on how to start examining these levels to make a final choice. In the appendix we have outlined the initial requirements for the detectors. These requirements will undergo refinement during the course of the design. Finally, we strongly recommend that the geotechnical studies be commenced at the 4850 ft level, which we find to be the most suitable, in a timely manner.

Bernstein,A.; Blucher, E.; Cline, D. B.; Diwan, M. V.; Fleming, b.; Kadel, R.; Kearns, E.; Klein, J.; Lande, K.; Lanni, F.; Lissauer, D.; McKeown, R.; Morse, W.; Radeika, R.; Scholberg, K.; Smy, M.; Sobel, H.; Sullivan, G.; Svoboda, R.; Vagins, M.; Walter, C.; Zwaska, R.

2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

165

Measuring depth profiles of residual stress with Raman spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Knowledge of the variation of residual stress is a very important factor in understanding the properties of machined surfaces. The nature of the residual stress can determine a part`s susceptibility to wear deformation, and cracking. Raman spectroscopy is known to be a very useful technique for measuring residual stress in many materials. These measurements are routinely made with a lateral resolution of 1{mu}m and an accuracy of 0.1 kbar. The variation of stress with depth; however, has not received much attention in the past. A novel technique has been developed that allows quantitative measurement of the variation of the residual stress with depth with an accuracy of 10nm in the z direction. Qualitative techniques for determining whether the stress is varying with depth are presented. It is also demonstrated that when the stress is changing over the volume sampled, errors can be introduced if the variation of the stress with depth is ignored. Computer aided data analysis is used to determine the depth dependence of the residual stress.

Enloe, W.S.; Sparks, R.G.; Paesler, M.A.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Water Efficiency  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Wheeler - Water Savers, LLC * fwheeler@watersaversllc.com Topics * Performance contracting analysis * Water industry terms * Federal reduction goals * Water balance * Water...

167

Cone Depth and the Center Vertex Theorem Gary L. Miller Todd Phillips Don Sheehy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract We generalize the Tukey depth to use cones instead of halfspaces. We prove a generalization of the most enduring definitions of data depth is the Tukey depth, also known as the half-space depth. The Tukey depth of a point p relative to a point set S is defined as the minimum number of points on one

Miller, Gary L.

168

Heat Flow At Standard Depth | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Heat Flow At Standard Depth Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Heat Flow At Standard Depth Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Secular and long-term periodic changes in surface temperature cause perturbations to the geothermal gradient which may be significant to depths of at least 1000 m, and major corrections are required to determine absolute values of heat flow from the Earth's interior. However, detailed climatic models remain contentious and estimates of error in geothermal gradients differ widely. Consequently, regions of anomalous heat flow which

169

Penetration depth scaling for impact into wet granular packings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present experimental measurements of penetration depths for the impact of spheres into wetted granular media. We observe that the penetration depth in the liquid saturated case scales with projectile density, size, and drop height in a fashion consistent with the scaling observed in the dry case, but that penetration depths into saturated packings tend to be smaller. This result suggests that, for the range of impact energies observed, the stopping force is set by static contact forces between grains within the bed, and that the presence of liquid serves, primarily, to enhance these contact forces. The enhancement to the stopping force has a complicated dependence on liquid fraction, accompanied by a change in the drop-height dependence, that must be the consequence of accompanying changes in the conformation of the liquid phase in the interstices.

Theodore A. Brzinski III; Jorin Schug; Kelly Mao; Douglas J. Durian

2015-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

170

Optical memory  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

171

Depth of Interaction Enhanced Gamma-Ray Imaging for Medical Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A novel design for an inexpensive depth of interaction capable detector for gamma rays, suitable for nuclear medical applications, especially Positron Emission Tomography, has been developed. The design takes advantage of the strong correlation between the width of the scintillation light distribution in continuous crystals and the depth of interaction of the gamma-ray. For measuring the distribution width, an inexpensive modification of the commonly used charge dividing circuits that allows analogue and instantaneous computation of the 2nd moment has been developed and is presented in this work. The method has been tested with a detector made of a continuous LSO-scintillator of dimensions 42x42x10 cubic mm and optically coupled to the compact large area position sensitive photomultiplier H8500 from Hamamatsu. The mean resolution in all non-trivial moments was found to be smaller than 5% but their direct use as estimates for the three-dimensional photoconversion position turned out to be unsuitable. Standard polynomial interpolation in higher dimensions has been adopted to reconstruct the impact positions of the gamma-rays from the measured moments. When using the reconstructed impact positions, the intrinsic mean spatial resolution of the detector was found to be 1.9 mm for the transverse components and 3.9 mm for the depth of interaction. Using directly the bare moments as position estimate, the intrinsic mean spatial resolution of the detector was found to be 3.4 mm and 4.9 mm, respectively. The cost for the required detector improvements are essentially negligible.

Christoph W. Lerche

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Peakons arising as particle paths beneath small-amplitude water waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new kind of particle path in constant vorticity water of finite depth, within the framework of small-amplitude waves.

Delia Ionescu-Kruse

2011-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

173

An Investigation of Hydrogen Depth Profiling Using ToF-SIMS....  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Investigation of Hydrogen Depth Profiling Using ToF-SIMS. An Investigation of Hydrogen Depth Profiling Using ToF-SIMS. Abstract: Hydrogen depth distributions in silicon, zinc oxide...

174

X-ray microlaminography with polycapillary optics K. M. Dbrowski, D. T. Dul, A. Wrbel, and P. Korecki  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray microlaminography with polycapillary optics K. M. Dbrowski, D. T. Dul, A. Wróbel, and P://apl.aip.org/features/most_downloaded Information for Authors: http://apl.aip.org/authors #12;X-ray microlaminography with polycapillary optics K. M demonstrate layer-by-layer x-ray microimaging using polycapillary optics. The depth resolution is achieved

Korecki, Pawe³

175

Does footprint depth correlate with foot motion and pressure?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...correlations found across the foot by Hatala et al. [11], D'Aout...and in the heel and mid-foot, when depth was compared with...difference in the predictive power of peak pressure and the PT...applied by the trackmaker's foot during print formation is the...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Continuous Snow Depth, Intensive Site 1, Barrow, Alaska  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Continuous Snow depth data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow, Alaska. These data are being collected to better understand the energy dynamics above the active layer and permafrost. They complement in-situ snow and soil measurements at this location. The data could also be used as supporting measurements for other research and modeling activities.

Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Hinzman, Larry; Busey, Bob

2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

177

Steady periodic waves bifurcating for fixed-depth rotational flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-current interactions [29, 37] or flows generated by wind-shear [30] (see [6] for a comprehensive discussion than the mass-flux. It is important to note that fixing the mass-flux p0 does not fix the depth d

178

Human Activities Recognition with RGB-Depth Camera using HMM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In this paper, we propose a method to detect fall using a system made up of RGB-Depth cameras. The major benefit. An evaluation has been conducted within a real smart environment with 26 subjects which were performing any]), Gaussian Mixture Model [6], least median of squares [1], occupancy grid [5]. Then the second stage

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

179

Parameterised structured light imaging for depth edge detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, [amin, amax], from the projector/camera', `width of horizontal stripes, w', and `minimum detectable depth difference, rmin'. As can be seen in Fig. 1a, amax and rmin are given as the input parameters of [amin, amax] are guaranteed to be detected. However, awkwardly enough, amin is found at a later step

California at Santa Barbara, University of

180

WaveCurrent Interactions in Finite Depth JEROME A. SMITH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wave­Current Interactions in Finite Depth JEROME A. SMITH Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La (Longuet-Higgins 1969; Hasselmann 1971; Garrett and Smith 1976; and many others). In particular, Hassel) changes in wave momentum that absorb some of the radiation stress gradients. Garrett and Smith (1976

Smith, Jerome A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Continuous Snow Depth, Intensive Site 1, Barrow, Alaska  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Continuous Snow depth data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow, Alaska. These data are being collected to better understand the energy dynamics above the active layer and permafrost. They complement in-situ snow and soil measurements at this location. The data could also be used as supporting measurements for other research and modeling activities.

Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Hinzman, Larry; Busey, Bob

182

Optics and Diagnostics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 14 | Next | Last Back to Index Optics Line up of optics after cleaning. Photo Number: 2013-048779...

183

Cosmogenic Backgrounds in Borexino at 3800 m water-equivalent depth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solar neutrino experiment Borexino, which is located in the Gran Sasso underground laboratories, is in a unique position to study muon-induced backgrounds in an organic liquid scintillator. In this study, a large sample of cosmic muons is identified and tracked by a muon veto detector external to the liquid scintillator, and by the specific light patterns observed when muons cross the scintillator volume. The yield of muon-induced neutrons is found to be Y{sub n} = (3.10±0.11)·10{sup ?4} n/(?·(g/cm{sup 2})). The distance profile between the parent muon track and the neutron capture point has the average value ? = (81.5±2.7) cm. Additionally the yields of a number of cosmogenic radioisotopes are measured for {sup 12}N, {sup 12}B, {sup 8}He, {sup 9}C, {sup 9}Li, {sup 8}B, {sup 6}He, {sup 8}Li, {sup 11}Be, {sup 10}C and {sup 11}C. All results are compared with Monte Carlo simulation predictions using the FLUKA and GEANT4 packages. General agreement between data and simulation is observed for the cosmogenic production yields with a few exceptions, the most prominent case being {sup 11}C yield for which both codes return about 50% lower values. The predicted ?-n distance profile and the neutron multiplicity distribution are found to be overall consistent with data.

Bellini, G.; Avanzini, M. Buizza; Caccianiga, B.; D'Angelo, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi e INFN, Milano 20133 (Italy); Benziger, J. [Chemical Engineering Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Bick, D. [University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Bonfini, G.; Cavalcante, P.; Fomenko, K. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi 67010 (Italy); Bravo, D. [Physics Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Cadonati, L. [Physics Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 01003 (United States); Calaprice, F.; Chavarria, A.; Galbiati, C. [Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Chepurnov, A. [Lomonosov Moscow State University Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow 119234 (Russian Federation); Davini, S.; Empl, A. [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Derbin, A. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina 188350 (Russian Federation); Etenko, A. [NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Franco, D., E-mail: spokeperson-borex@lngs.infn.it [APC, Univ. Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France); and others

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Risk assessment and evaluation of the conductor setting depth in shallow water, Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

theories and their explanations have been proposed and many predictive methods have been advocated via technical journals. In this section, the basic formation pressure and stress concepts will be introduced and analyzed for both hydrostatic and non... environment of the GOM. 2.3 Stress The depositional environments are the basis for formation stresses and along with the earth?s gravitational forces, stress fields were developed around the globe. There are many possibilities which lead...

Tu, Yong B.

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

185

Parallel optical sampler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An optical sampler includes a first and second 1.times.n optical beam splitters splitting an input optical sampling signal and an optical analog input signal into n parallel channels, respectively, a plurality of optical delay elements providing n parallel delayed input optical sampling signals, n photodiodes converting the n parallel optical analog input signals into n respective electrical output signals, and n optical modulators modulating the input optical sampling signal or the optical analog input signal by the respective electrical output signals, and providing n successive optical samples of the optical analog input signal. A plurality of output photodiodes and eADCs convert the n successive optical samples to n successive digital samples. The optical modulator may be a photodiode interconnected Mach-Zehnder Modulator. A method of sampling the optical analog input signal is disclosed.

Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Skogen, Erik J; Vawter, Gregory A

2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

186

Drilling/producing depths; Two records and a revision  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that record depths for natural gas or oil well drilling or producing continue to be rare occurrences, although one or two still come in each year. Records fell in Texas Railroad Commission (RRC) District 9 and in the California area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) Pacific Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) in 1990. Deep drilling and production has traditionally been defined as well depths greater than 15,000 ft. Smith Tool reported that 9.4% of all active rotary rigs were dedicated to targets below 15,000 ft at the beginning of 1991. Deep rigs had dropped to 8.1% by year-end 1991, but remained above the 1989 and 1990 levels of 8.4 and 7.6%, respectively. In 1988 about 11% of active rigs were drilling deep at any given time.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Joint Depth Estimation and Camera Shake Removal from Single Blurry Image Ming-Hsuan Yang1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. While depth information is critical in blur removal, the blur im- age provides an additional cueJoint Depth Estimation and Camera Shake Removal from Single Blurry Image Zhe Hu1 Li Xu2 Ming contain depth information which can be exploited. We propose to jointly estimate scene depth and remove

Yang, Ming-Hsuan

188

An Optimal Randomized Algorithm for Maximum Tukey Depth Timothy M. Chan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Optimal Randomized Algorithm for Maximum Tukey Depth Timothy M. Chan Abstract We present the first optimal algorithm to compute the maximum Tukey depth (also known as location or halfspace depth , the Tukey depth of a point q IRd is defined as: min{|P | : over all halfspaces containing q}. We

Chan, Timothy M.

189

Optical Packet Switching -1 Optical Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical Packet Switching - 1 Optical Networks: from fiber transmission to photonic switching Optical Packet Switching Fabio Neri and Marco Mellia TLC Networks Group ­ Electronics Department e.mellia@polito.it ­ tel. 011 564 4173 #12;Optical Packet Switching - 2 · This work is licensed under the Creative Commons

Mellia, Marco

190

Infrared cloud imaging in support of Earth-space optical communication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Infrared cloud imaging in support of Earth- space optical communication Paul W. Nugent,1 Joseph A to the communication platform, so there is a need to measure spatial and temporal statistics of clouds at potential to provide continuous day-night cloud detection and classification according to the cloud optical depth

Shaw, Joseph A.

191

Spatial association between the locations of roots and water flow paths in highly structured soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Considerable evidence exists that the majority of low tension water flow through highly structured clayey soil occurs in a small fraction of total pore space and that the flow paths converge as depth increases. In structured clayey soils, water...

Gardiner, Nathan Thomas

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

192

Optics and Optical Engineering Program Assessment Plan Program Learning Objectives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optics and Optical Engineering Program Assessment Plan Program Learning, and processes that underlie optics and optical engineering. 2. Strong understanding of the fundamental science, mathematics, and processes that underlie optics and optical

Cantlon, Jessica F.

193

Optical sedimentation recorder  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A robotic optical sedimentation recorder is described for the recordation of carbon flux in the oceans wherein both POC and PIC particles are captured at the open end of a submersible sampling platform, the captured particles allowed to drift down onto a collection plate where they can be imaged over time. The particles are imaged using three separate light sources, activated in sequence, one source being a back light, a second source being a side light to provide dark field illumination, and a third source comprising a cross polarized light source to illuminate birefringent particles. The recorder in one embodiment is attached to a buoyancy unit which is capable upon command for bringing the sedimentation recorder to a programmed depth below the ocean surface during recordation mode, and on command returning the unit to the ocean surface for transmission of recorded data and receipt of new instructions. The combined unit is provided with its own power source and is designed to operate autonomously in the ocean for extended periods of time.

Bishop, James K.B.

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

194

Optical microphone  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical microphone includes a laser and beam splitter cooperating therewith for splitting a laser beam into a reference beam and a signal beam. A reflecting sensor receives the signal beam and reflects it in a plurality of reflections through sound pressure waves. A photodetector receives both the reference beam and reflected signal beam for heterodyning thereof to produce an acoustic signal for the sound waves. The sound waves vary the local refractive index in the path of the signal beam which experiences a Doppler frequency shift directly analogous with the sound waves.

Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

2000-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

195

Distribution, formation, and seasonal variability of Okhotsk Sea Mode Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the deep Ohkotsk Sea of dense shelf water (DSW) produced in the Okhotsk Sea polynyas. Isopycnal analysis to depths greater than 200 m, in the southern Kuril Basin also produces freezing water with density greater of ventilation at 26.7­27.0 sq is dense shelf water (DSW) produced by brine rejection in coastal polynyas during

Talley, Lynne D.

196

An impending water crisis in Canada's western prairie provinces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...snow has remained on the ground and the maximum depths...more than half of the water they currently do...weather, snowpack, and water quality and quantity...inexpensive, or timely remediation. Major societies in the past have faced extended water shortages, often...

D. W. Schindler; W. F. Donahue

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

The deep water gas charged accumulator and its possible replacements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

not be affected by the increasing hydrostatic pressure of water as a function of water depth. Springs and heavy weights will be discussed as two options to replace nitrogen in accumulators. Efficient deep water accumulators would reduce the number of accumulators...

Mir Rajabi, Mehdi

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

198

Isolating Effects of Water Table Dynamics, Terrain, and Soil Moisture Heterogeneity on the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Using Coupled Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

depth (PBLD), (b) vertical wind speed (w), (c) latent heatdepth (PBLD), (b) vertical wind speed (w), (c) latent heatdepth (PBLD) and (b) vertical wind speed (w) versus water

Rihani, Jehan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Wave runup on cylinders subject to deep water random waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was measured close to the test cylinders are analyzed. These data on wave runup in deepwater random waves were generated at similar water depths with significant wave heights and spectral peak periods. Statistical parameters, zero crossing analysis...

Indrebo, Ann Kristin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

200

Incursion of the Pacific Ocean Water into the Indian Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using the data collected during the International Indian Ocean Expedition, maps showing the distribution of depth ... became clear that low-salinity water from the Pacific intrudes into the western Indian Ocean t...

G S Sharma; A D Gouveia…

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Propionic-Acid-Terminated Silicon Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Optical Characterization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

producing water-dispersible, propionic-acid-terminated particles. From transmission electron microscope (TEM oxidation of the nanocrystals. The silicon nanocrystals could be transferred into water or methanol in acrylic acid, water, and methanol and showed essentially the same optical properties in all three solvents

Swihart, Mark T.

202

Average Depth of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Depth of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Wells Depth of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Wells (Feet per Well) Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 View History Exploratory and Development Wells 5,426 5,547 5,508 5,613 6,064 5,964 1949-2008 Crude Oil 4,783 4,829 4,836 4,846 5,111 5,094 1949-2008 Natural Gas 5,616 5,757 5,777 5,961 6,522 6,500 1949-2008 Dry Holes 5,744 5,848 5,405 5,382 5,578 5,540 1949-2008 Exploratory Wells 6,744 6,579 6,272 6,187 6,247 6,322 1949-2008 Crude Oil 6,950 8,136 8,011 7,448 7,537 7,778 1949-2008 Natural Gas 6,589 5,948 5,732 5,770 5,901 5,899 1949-2008 Dry Holes 6,809 6,924 6,437 6,340 6,307 6,232 1949-2008

203

Optical data latch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical data latch is formed on a substrate from a pair of optical logic gates in a cross-coupled arrangement in which optical waveguides are used to couple an output of each gate to an photodetector input of the other gate. This provides an optical bi-stability which can be used to store a bit of optical information in the latch. Each optical logic gate, which can be an optical NOT gate (i.e. an optical inverter) or an optical NOR gate, includes a waveguide photodetector electrically connected in series with a waveguide electroabsorption modulator. The optical data latch can be formed on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate (e.g. an InP or GaAs substrate) from III-V compound semiconductor layers. A number of optical data latches can be cascaded to form a clocked optical data shift register.

Vawter, G. Allen (Corrales, NM)

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

204

Campbell penetration depth in Fe-based superconductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 'true' critical current density, j{sub c}, as opposite to commonly measured relaxed persistent (Bean) current, j{sub B}, was extracted from the Campbell penetration depth, {lambda}{sub c}(T,H) measured in single crystals of LiFeAs, and optimally electron-doped Ba(Fe{sub 0.954}Ni{sub 0.046}){sub 2}As{sub 2} (FeNi122). In LiFeAs, the effective pinning potential is nonparabolic, which follows from the magnetic field - dependent Labusch parameter {alpha}. At the equilibrium (upon field - cooling), {alpha}(H) is non-monotonic, but it is monotonic at a finite gradient of the vortex density. This behavior leads to a faster magnetic relaxation at the lower fields and provides a natural dynamic explanation for the fishtail (second peak) effect. We also find the evidence for strong pinning at the lower fields.The inferred field dependence of the pinning potential is consistent with the evolution from strong pinning, through collective pinning, and eventually to a disordered vortex lattice. The value of j{sub c}(2 K) {approx_equal} 1.22 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} provide an upper estimate of the current carrying capability of LiFeAs. Overall, vortex behavior of almost isotropic, fully-gapped LiFeAs is very similar to highly anisotropic d-wave cuprate superconductors, the similarity that requires further studies in order to understand unconventional superconductivity in cuprates and pnictides. In addition to LiFeAs, we also report the magnetic penetration depth in BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} based superconductors including irradiation of FeNi122. In unirradiated FeNi122, the maximum critical current value is, j{sub c}(2K) {approx_equal} 3.3 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2}. The magnetic-dependent feature was observed near the transition temperature in FeTe{sub 0.53}Se{sub 0.47} and irradiated FeNi122. Because of this feature, further studies are required in order to properly calibrate the Campbell penetration depth. Finally, we detected the crossing between the magnetic penetration depth and London penetration depth in optimally hold-doped Ba{sub 0.6}K{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (BaK122) and isovalent doped BaFe{sub 2}(As{sub 0.7}P{sub 0.3}){sub 2} (BaP122). These phenomena probably coincide with anomalous Meissner effect reported in pnicitde superconductors [Prozorov et al. (2010b)] however more studies are needed in order to clarify this.

Prommapan, Plegchart

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Simplified Method for Estimating Future Scour Depth at Existing Bridges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bridge scour is the term which describes the erosion of soil surrounding a bridge foundation due to water. Bridge scour can cause the reduction of the load carrying capacity of bridge foundations, excessive foundation settlements, and damage...

V Govindasamy, Anand

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

206

VARIABLE DEPTH KDV EQUATIONS AND GENERALIZATIONS TO MORE NONLINEAR REGIMES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

used in coastal oceanography, including: shallow-water equations, Boussinesq systems, Kadomtsev [21], the only member of the wider family of BBM-type equations [4] that is integrable and relevant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

207

ULTRASHORT LASER PULSE PROPAGATION IN WATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We simulate ultrashort pulse propagation through water by numerical methods, which is a kind of optical communication research. Ultrashort pulses have been known to have non Beer-Lambert behavior, whereas continuous waves (CW) obey the Beer...

Byeon, Joong-Hyeok

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

208

Optics and Diagnostics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1 14 | Next | Last Back to Index Optics Optics processing of Target Wedged Focus Lens into cleaningcoating frame. Photo Number: 2013-048765...

209

Optics and Diagnostics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 14 | Next | Last Back to Index Optics Alignment Conducting an optics alignment after replacement of a Pockels Cell in the clean room. Photo Number: 2013-050691...

210

Optics and Diagnostics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

9 14 | Next | Last Back to Index Optics Processing Optics for the National Ignition Facility must be manufactured to exacting standards. To ensure quality, precise measurements...

211

water from the CO  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

water from the CO water from the CO 2 stream and then compresses the dry CO 2 to a supercritical phase. The compressed CO 2 then travels through a 1 mile- long pipeline to the wellhead where it is injected into the Mt. Simon Sandstone at a depth of about 7,000 feet. November 21, 2011, http:// www.netl.doe.gov/publications/press/2011/111121_co2_injection. html. Fossil Energy Techline, "Midwest Has Potential to Store Hundreds of Years of CO 2 Emissions." Injection field tests conducted by the Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP) indicate that their region has the geologic potential to store hundreds of years of regional carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions primarily in deep saline formations. The MRCSP Phase II field tests included seven small-scale field validation tests: three

212

Water Electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this chapter, water electrolysis technology and its applications for nuclear hydrogen ... of the chapter, a general classification of water electrolysis systems is given, the fundamentals of water electrolysis

Greg F. Naterer; Ibrahim Dincer…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Water Intoxication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. “Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

Lingampalli, Nithya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampler supplementary testing - AEAT doc 2926-2-002  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of cold testing, completed by AEAT, as part of the proof-of-principle testing for a proposed nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampling system. This sampling system will provide waste samples from the PHMC feed tank to support the privatization contract with BNFL. Proof-of-principle tests were completed with 2 wt% and 10 wt% sand/water and 25 wt% kaolin clay/water simulants with a test setup that spanned the 24 ft to 57 ft height required in the feed tank. The tests demonstrated that the system could pump and sample waste materials with low and with high solids content. In addition, the tests demonstrated a need for some design upgrades to the sampling system, as there was material loss when the sample bottle was removed from the sampling needle. These were complementary tests, completed as part of an EM-50 Tank Focus Area (TFA) to develop a sampling system for validating LAW and HLW waste batches for the Privatization Contract.

REICH, F.R.

1999-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

215

Vertically Loaded Anchor: Drag Coefficient, Fall Velocity, and Penetration Depth using Laboratory Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The offshore oilfield industry is continuously developing unique and break-through technologies and systems to extract hydrocarbons from ever increasing ocean depths. Due to the extreme depths being explored presently, large anchors are being...

Cenac, William

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

216

E-Print Network 3.0 - adjustable penetration depth Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2002; 54:365398 (DOI: 10.1002nme.427) Summary: data with the help of ash X-ray, e.g. penetration depth, rate of rod consumption, mass e ciency... conguration is the depth of...

217

Taking Oil and Gas Exploration to New Depths | GE Global Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Taking Oil and Gas Exploration to New Depths Taking Oil and Gas Exploration to New Depths Oliver Astley 2014.11.12 The challenges of offshore, deep sea drilling are, in a word,...

218

Optical NAND gate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An optical NAND gate is formed from two pair of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each pair of the optical waveguide devices consisting of an electroabsorption modulator and a photodetector. One pair of the optical waveguide devices is electrically connected in parallel to operate as an optical AND gate; and the other pair of the optical waveguide devices is connected in series to operate as an optical NOT gate (i.e. an optical inverter). The optical NAND gate utilizes two digital optical inputs and a continuous light input to provide a NAND function output. The optical NAND gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.

Skogen, Erik J. (Albuquerque, NM); Raring, James (Goleta, CA); Tauke-Pedretti, Anna (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

219

Control Systems Cyber Security:Defense in Depth Strategies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems Access to facilities via remote data link or modem Public facing services for customer or corporate operations A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

David Kuipers; Mark Fabro

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Primal--Dual Algorithms for Data Depth David Bremner, Komei Fukuda, and Vera Rosta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as the generalization of the median of S by Tukey. The computation of the halfspace depth of a point is equivalent as multivariate generalizations of ranks to complement classical multivariate analysis, by Tukey (1974), Oja (1983 out that the halfspace depth of Tukey and the regression depth of Rousseeuw and Hu­ bert have all

Bremner, David

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Ultrathin optical panel and a method of making an ultrathin optical panel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ultrathin optical panel, and a method of producing an ultrathin optical panel, are disclosed, including stacking a plurality of glass sheets, which sheets may be coated with a transparent cladding substance or may be uncoated, fastening together the plurality of stacked coated glass sheets using an epoxy or ultraviolet adhesive, applying uniform pressure to the stack, curing the stack, sawing the stack to form an inlet face on a side of the stack and an outlet face on an opposed side of the stack, bonding a coupler to the inlet face of the stack, and fastening the stack, having the coupler bonded thereto, within a rectangular housing having an open front which is aligned with the outlet face, the rectangular housing having therein a light generator which is optically aligned with the coupler. The light generator is preferably placed parallel to and proximate with the inlet face, thereby allowing for a reduction in the depth of the housing.

Biscardi, Cyrus (Bellport, NY); Brewster, Calvin (North Patchogue, NY); DeSanto, Leonard (Patchogue, NY); Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

2001-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

222

Fiber optic connector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic connector and method for connecting composite materials within which optical fibers are imbedded. The fiber optic connector includes a capillary tube for receiving optical fibers at opposing ends. The method involves inserting a first optical fiber into the capillary tube and imbedding the unit in the end of a softened composite material. The capillary tube is injected with a coupling medium which subsequently solidifies. The composite material is machined to a desired configuration. An external optical fiber is then inserted into the capillary tube after fluidizing the coupling medium, whereby the optical fibers are coupled.

Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenior City, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Optical NOR gate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical NOR gate is formed from two pair of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each pair of the optical waveguide devices consisting of an electroabsorption modulator electrically connected in series with a waveguide photodetector. The optical NOR gate utilizes two digital optical inputs and a continuous light input to provide a NOR function digital optical output. The optical NOR gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.

Skogen, Erik J. (Albuquerque, NM); Tauke-Pedretti, Anna (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

224

BAKER, KAREN S., AND RAYMOND C. SMITH. Bio-optical ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Apr 27, 1981 ... (Smith and Baker 1978u) to represent a measure of the total effect of biological material on the optical properties of nat- ural waters. WC then ...

2000-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

225

Late Holocene Radiocarbon Variability in Northwest Atlantic Slope Waters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deep-sea gorgonian corals secrete a 2-part skeleton of calcite, derived from dissolved inorganic carbon at depth, and gorgonin, derived from recently fixed and exported particulate organic matter. Radiocarbon contents of the calcite and gorgonin provide direct measures of seawater radiocarbon at depth and in the overlying surface waters, respectively. Using specimens collected from Northwest Atlantic slope waters, we generated radiocarbon records for surface and upper intermediate water layers spanning the pre- and post bomb-{sup 14}C eras. In Labrador Slope Water (LSW), convective mixing homogenizes the pre-bomb {Delta}{sup 14}C signature (-67 {+-} 4{per_thousand}) to at least 1000 m depth. Surface water bomb-{sup 14}C signals were lagged and damped (peaking at {approx} +45{per_thousand} in the early 1980s) relative to other regions of the northwest Atlantic, and intermediate water signals were damped further. Off southwest Nova Scotia, the vertical gradient in {Delta}{sup 14}C is much stronger. In surface water, pre-bomb {Delta}{sup 14}C averaged -75 {+-} 5{per_thousand}. At 250-475 m depth, prebomb {Delta}{sup 14}C oscillated quasi-decadally between -80 and -100{per_thousand}, likely reflecting interannual variability in the presence of Labrador Slope Water vs. Warm Slope Water (WSW). Finally, subfossil corals reveal no systematic changes in vertical {Delta}{sup 14}C gradients over the last 1200 years.

Sherwood, O; Edinger, E; Guilderson, T P; Ghaleb, B; Risk, M J; Scott, D B

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

226

Earthquakes With Normal Focal Depths-Tables/Graphs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...seismoaraphs are in operation at the observatory...Mountain area are fairly cold. In the rugged area...Hallo Lagoon are in operation. Vol. XXI EARTHQUAKE...ionosphere specialists, a weather man, three glaciologists...comfortably at 70 by oil heaters. The men slapt two...every type. Hot and cold running water ware...

227

Diving depths and energy requirements of king penguins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...require a serious swimming effort by the penguins...of the body water pool (Table 1). The...expend-ed half as much energy per time as P6...the birds were in energy balance during this...12. The average energy content of squid...the assimilation efficiency is 80 percent [J...

GL Kooyman; RW Davis; JP Croxall; DP Costa

1982-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

228

Marketing water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

management, water conservation programs Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 17 public information programs and materials that increase awareness about regional water issues. The company recently opened the TecH2O, a water resource learning center...tx H2O | pg. 16 W ith rapid population growth and the memory of the worst drought in 50 years, cities and groups are promoting programs that educate their constituents about water quality, water conservation, and landscape management. Many...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

A cantilever optical-fiber accelerometer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple fiber-optic acceleration sensor has been designed and evaluated. It is an amplitude-modulation sensor, which employs inexpensive electronic instrumentation. The construction and technology of the sensor are presented. The influence of some construction parameters on sensor characteristics has been considered and measured. It is proved that simple construction modifications allow some sensor parameters to be tuned. The sensor characteristic is nonlinear. The amplitude-modulation depth reaches 50% at an acceleration of 250 m/s2 for a cantilever length of 40 mm. The maximum operating frequency is dependent on cantilever length and for length 20 mm is 125 Hz.

Jerzy Kalenik; Ryszard Paj?k

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Latching micro optical switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.

Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

231

Incorporating Optics into a Coupled Physical-Biological Forecasting System in the Monterey Bay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Incorporating Optics into a Coupled Physical-Biological Forecasting System in the Monterey Bay Fei://www.marine.maine.edu/~eboss/index.html http://ourocean.jpl.nasa.gov/ LONG-TERM GOALS Modeling and predicting ocean optical properties for coastal waters requires linking optical properties with the physical, chemical, and biological processes

Boss, Emmanuel S.

232

High bandwidth optical mount  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage.

Bender, Donald A. (Dublin, CA); Kuklo, Thomas (Oakdale, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Optics and Diagnostics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

test optic after receiving chemical process called AMP2.5, which is under development for increasing the damage threshold of 3 fused silica optics. Photo Number: 2013-05031...

234

NIF Final Optics Assemblies  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NIF Final Optics Assemblies The Final Optics Assemblies (FOAs) are the last element of the main laser system and the first of the target area systems. Each FOA contains four...

235

Optic Orientation in Stereo  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The visualization and representation of optic orientation is the nittygritty of practical optical mineralogy. A complete description is concisely made with the use of a stereographic projection. Perspective dr...

Richard E. Stoiber; Stearns A. Morse

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Colored optical glass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Lytkarino Optical Glass Factory manufactures various types of colored optical glasses: yellow, orange, and red glasses and glasses that are transparent in the IR region, as well as...

Mogil’naya, L G; Zinov’eva, O B; Firsova, Yu A; Gulyukin, M N

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

''Atomic Optics'': Nonimaging Optics on the Nanoscale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report for a one year close out extension of our basic research program that was established at the University of Chicago more than sixteen years ago to explore and develop the optical sub-discipline that has come to be known as ''nonimaging optics''. This program has been extremely fruitful, having both broadened the range of formalism available for workers in this field and led to the discovery of many new families of optical devices. These devices and techniques have applications wherever the efficient transport and transformation of light distributions are important, in particular in illumination, fiber optics, collection and concentration of sunlight, and the detection of faint light signals in physics and astrophysics. Over the past thirty years, Nonimaging Optics (Welford and Winston, 1989) has brought a fresh approach to the analysis of many problems in classical macro-scale optics. Through the application of phase-space concepts, statistical methods, thermodynamic arguments, etc., many previously established performance limits were able to be broken and many technical surprises with exciting practical applications were discovered. The most recent three-year phase of our long-term continuing program ended in late 2002 and emphasized extending our work in geometrical optics and expanding it to include some interesting questions in physical optics as well as in the new field of statistical optics. This report presents a survey of the basic history and concepts of nonimaging optics and reviews highlights and significant accomplishments over the past fifteen years. This is followed by a more detailed summary of recent research directions and accomplishments during the last three years. This most recent phase was marked by the broadening in scope to include a separate project involving a collaboration with an industrial partner, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). This effort was proposed and approved in 1998 and was incorporated into this project (September, 1998) with the required additional funding provided through this already existing grant.

Roland Winston Joseph O'Gallagher

2005-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

238

Optics and Diagnostics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

10 14 | Next | Last Back to Index Optics Diffraction Gratings for APPOLON laser. Photo Number: 2011-020040...

239

Optical voltage reference  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

240

Thermodynamics of Optical Tweezers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We discuss the measurement of the gradient and scattering forces based on a thermodynamic treatment of optical tweezers.

Stilgoe, Alexander B; Nguyen, Lan T P; Nieminen, Timo A; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Computing a Maximal Depth Point in the Plane Stefan Langerman # William Steiger +  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

], [7],[10],[11]. One of the more familiar ones was proposed by John Tukey [12], a natural extension to d > 1 of the notion in (1). Given a set S = {P 1 , . . . , Pn} of n points in R d , the Tukey depth is a point µ of maximal depth, and we write # # = #(S) for the Tukey depth of a median. For integer k > 0 let

Langerman, Stefan

242

Method of and device for detecting oil pollutions on water surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Detection of oil pollution on water surfaces includes providing echo signals obtained from optical radiation of a clean water area at two wavelengths, optically radiating an investigated water area at two wavelengths and obtaining echo signals from the optical radiation of the investigated water area at the two wavelengths, comparing the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the investigated area at two wavelengths with the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the clean water area, and based on the comparison, determining presence or absence of oil pollution in the investigated water area.

Belov, Michael Leonidovich (Moscow, RU); Gorodnichev, Victor Aleksandrovich (Moscow, RU); Kozintsev, Valentin Ivanovich (Moscow, RU); Smimova, Olga Alekseevna (Moscow, RU); Fedotov, Yurii Victorovich (Moscow, RU); Khroustaleva, Anastasiva Michailovnan (Moscow, RU)

2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

243

Optical Diagnostics Thomas Tsang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical Diagnostics Thomas Tsang · tight environment · high radiation area · non-serviceable area · passive components · optics only, no active electronics · transmit image through flexible fiber bundle #12;New imaging fiber bundle Core size: 12 µm, diameter: 1/8" Optical Diagnostics Total fiber counts ~50

McDonald, Kirk

244

REVIEW ARTICLE Optical trapping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REVIEW ARTICLE Optical trapping Keir C. Neuman and Steven M. Blocka) Department of Biological ago, optical traps have emerged as a powerful tool with broad-reaching applications in biology--and the measurement of nanometer-level displacements of--optically trapped objects. We review progress

Block, Steven

245

Temporary Waters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Temporary waters are lakes, ponds, streams, seeps, microhabitats, and other areas that hold water periodically and then dry. They occur across the globe, at all latitudes, and in all biomes, wherever water can collect long enough for aquatic life to develop. These waters are numerous, mostly small, and easily studied. Their biological communities are diverse, have much among-site variation, often include endemic species, and differ from those in permanent waters, contributing to regional biodiversity. Organisms survive through species-specific behavioral, physiological, and life-history adaptations. Community composition and structure change in response to environmental variations. Temporary waters are highly productive and their food webs are relatively simple. For all of these reasons, temporary waters lend themselves to surveys and experimental manipulations designed to test hypotheses about biological adaptation, population regulation, evolutionary processes, community composition and structure, and ecosystem functioning. In many parts of the world, most temporary waters have been lost. The conservation and restoration of vulnerable temporary waters is a major thrust of applied ecology. Also important are applications of ecological understanding to the control of disease vectors, especially pathogen-transmitting mosquitoes, from temporary water habitats. This article describes temporary waters, examines their biota and adaptations, and summarizes key questions about their ecology.

E.A. Colburn

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Optical Frequency Stabilization and Optical Phase Locked Loops: Golden Threads of Precision Measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stabilization of lasers through locking to optical cavities, atomic transitions, and molecular transitions has enabled the field of precision optical measurement since shortly after the invention of the laser. Recent advances in the field have produced an optical clock that is orders of magnitude more stable than those of just a few years prior. Phase locking of one laser to another, or to a frequency offset from another, formed the basis for linking stable lasers across the optical spectrum, such frequency chains exhibiting progressively finer precision through the years. Phase locking between the modes within a femtosecond pulsed laser has yielded the optical frequency comb, one of the most beautiful and useful instruments of our time. This talk gives an overview of these topics, from early work through to the latest 1E-16 thermal noise-limited precision recently attained for a stable laser, and the ongoing quest for ever finer precision and accuracy. The issues of understanding and measuring line widths and shapes are also studied in some depth, highlighting implications for servo design for sub-Hz line widths.

Taubman, Matthew S.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Water Bugs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bugs Bugs Nature Bulletin No. 221-A March 12, 1966 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Seymour Simon, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation WATER BUGS It is fascinating to lie in a boat or on a log at the edge of the water and watch the drama that unfolds among the small water animals. Among the star performers in small streams and ponds are the Water Bugs. These are aquatic members of that large group of insects called the "true bugs", most of which live on land. Moreover, unlike many other types of water insects, they do not have gills but get their oxygen directly from the air. Those that do go beneath the surface usually carry an oxygen supply with them in the form of a shiny glistening sheath of air imprisoned among a covering of fine waterproof hairs. The common water insect known to small boys at the "Whirligig Bug" is not a water bug but a beetle.

248

High-energy x-ray diffractometer for nondestructive strain depth profile measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a lab-based high-energy x-ray diffraction system and a new approach to nondestructively measuring strain profiles in polycrystalline samples. This technique utilizes the tungsten K{sub ?1} characteristic radiation from a standard industrial x-ray tube. We introduce a simulation model that is used to determine strain values from data collected with this system. Examples of depth profiling are shown for shot peened aluminum and titanium samples. Profiles to 1 mm depth in aluminum and 300 ?m depth in titanium with a depth resolution of 20 ?m are presented.

Al-Shorman, M. Y. [Department of Physics, Yarmouk University, 21163 Irbid (Jordan)] [Department of Physics, Yarmouk University, 21163 Irbid (Jordan); Jensen, T. C.; Gray, J. N. [Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)] [Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

249

A new high luminosity UHV orange type magnetic spectrometer used for depth selective Mössbauer spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) a combination with an electrostatic retardation field around the sample will provide an even higher resolution. For depth selective conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy...

B. Stahl; R. Gellert; G. Klingelhöfer…

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Drazen, Jeffrey C., and Brad A. Seibel. Depth-related trends in ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

constant levels of enzymatic activity in the brains and hearts of fishes regardless of depth (Childress and Somero. 1979; Sullivan and Somero 1980; Siebenaller ...

2007-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

251

Effect of speckles on the depth sensitivity of laser Doppler perfusion imaging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A theoretical model is presented and experimentally validated that allows the prediction of the effect of speckles on the depth sensitivity of laser Doppler perfusion imaging. It is...

Rajan, V; Varghese, B; van Leeuwen, T G; Steenbergen, W

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

A depth-16 circuit for the AES S-box joan@imada.sdu.dk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

metric (gate count, depth, energy consumption, etc.). In practice, no known techniques can reliably find. Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Southern Denmark. Partially sup- ported

253

A Measurement of Time-Averaged Aerosol Optical Depth using Air-Showers Observed in Stereo by HiRes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.F. Hanlon,1 C.M. Hoffman,2 M.H. Holzscheiter,2 G.A. Hughes,6 P. H¨untemeyer,1 C.C.H. Jui,1 M.A. Kirn,3 BZvi,5 D.R. Bergman,6 J.H. Boyer,4 C.T. Cannon,1 Z. Cao,1 B.M. Connolly,5 Y. Fedorova,1 C.B. Finley,5 W K. Reil,1 M.D. Roberts,8 S.R. Schnetzer,6 M. Seman,4 G. Sinnis,2 J.D. Smith,1 P. Sokolsky,1 C. Song

254

Spatial characteristics of the difference between MISR and MODIS aerosol optical depth retrievals over mainland Southeast Asia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

autoregressive (SAR) model Spatial clustering Data assimilation Mainland Southeast Asia The difference between satellite, aerosol products generated using data from these two sensors often exhibit noticeable differences Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the NASA Earth Observation System's Terra satellite

Shi, Tao

255

University of Central Florida College of Optics & Photonics Optics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University of Central Florida College of Optics & Photonics Optics Spring 2010 OSE-6432: Principles of guided wave optics; electro -optics, acousto-optics and optoelectronics. Location: CREOL-A-214 or by Appointment Reference Materials: 1. Class Notes. 2. "Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides", K. Okamoto, Academic

Van Stryland, Eric

256

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKAíS WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH with a vision, thereís an untapped market using resources right under our feet,î the University of Nebraska outdoors in India, Bangladesh, China and Viet- nam. Thousands of them have been grown to harvest

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

257

Carderock Circulating Water Channel | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Circulating Water Channel Circulating Water Channel Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name Carderock Circulating Water Channel Overseeing Organization United States Naval Surface Warfare Center Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Channel Length(m) 18.3 Beam(m) 6.7 Depth(m) 2.7 Water Type Freshwater Cost(per day) Contact POC Special Physical Features The Circulating Water Channel is a vertical plane, open to the atmosphere test section with a free surface in a closed recirculating water circuit, variable speed, rectangular cross-sectional shape facility. There are 10 large viewing windows on either side of the test section at different elevations and 9 in the bottom; movable bridge spans the test section for ease and versatility in mounting models, rigging bridge is capable of taking towing loads at any one of numerous points up to 35,584 N

258

water pipeline gallery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

water pipeline gallery, water pipeline drift; water pipeline tunnel (US) ? Wasserleitungsrohrstollen m

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

Chen, Tsuhan

260

Near perfect optics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses a novel fabrication process to produce nearly perfect optics. The process utilizes vacuum deposition techniques to optimally modify polished optical substrate surfaces. The surface figure, i.e. contour of a polished optical element, is improved by differentially filling in the low spots on the surface using flux from a physical vapor deposition source through an appropriate mask. The process is expected to enable the manufacture of diffraction-limited optical systems for the UV, extreme UV, and soft X-ray spectral regions, which would have great impact on photolithography and astronomy. This same technique may also reduce the fabrication cost of visible region optics with aspheric surfaces.

Goeke, R.; Farnsworth, A.V.; Neumann, C.C.; Sweatt, W.C.; Warren, M.E.; Weed, J.W.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Modular Optical PDV System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A modular optical photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV) detector system has been developed by using readily available optical components with a 20-GHz Miteq optical detector into eight channels of single-wide modules integrated into a 3U rack unit (1U = 1.75 inches) with a common power supply. Optical fibers were precisely trimmed, welded, and timed within each unit. This system has been used to collect dynamic velocity data on various physics experiments. An optical power meter displays the laser input power to the module and optical power at the detector. An adjustable micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) optical attenuator is used to adjust the amount of unshifted light entering the detector. Front panel LEDs show the presence of power to the module. A fully loaded chassis with eight channels consumes 45 watts of power. Each chassis requires 1U spacing above and below for heat management. Modules can be easily replaced.

Araceli Rutkowski, David Esquibel

2008-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

262

Fiber optic vibration sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity.

Dooley, Joseph B. (Harriman, TN); Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Tobin, Kenneth W. (Harriman, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Fiber optic vibration sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity. 2 figures.

Dooley, J.B.; Muhs, J.D.; Tobin, K.W.

1995-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

264

Reusing Water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reusing Water Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into the environment. April 12, 2012 Water from cooling the supercomputer is release to maintain a healthy wetland. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email We reuse the same water up to six times before releasing it back into the environment cleaner than when it was pumped. How many times does LANL reuse water? Wastewater is generated from some of the facilities responsible for the Lab's biggest missions, such as the cooling towers of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, one of the Lab's premier science research

265

Stability of steady gravity waves generated by a moving localised pressure disturbance in water of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

disturbance in water of finite depth. The steady waves take the form of a downstream wavetrain for subcritical and , the subcritical solutions were wavetrains solutions similar to those found in deep water, and became dragStability of steady gravity waves generated by a moving localised pressure disturbance in water

266

Effects of Woody Vegetation Removal on Soil Water Dynamics in a South Texas Shrubland  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

removal on various soil textures we studied changes in soil water, rooting depth, and the role of water redistribution by woody vegetation. Woody vegetation was removed using common methods of cut-stump and roller chop across three soil types. Soil water...

Mattox, April Marie

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

267

Borehole-Wall Imaging with Acoustic and Optical Televiewers for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Borehole-Wall Imaging with Acoustic and Optical Televiewers for Borehole-Wall Imaging with Acoustic and Optical Televiewers for Fractured-Bedrock Aquifer Investigations Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Borehole-Wall Imaging with Acoustic and Optical Televiewers for Fractured-Bedrock Aquifer Investigations Abstract Imaging with acoustic and optical televiewers results in continuous and oriented 360 degree views of the borehole wall from which the character and orientation of lithologic and structural features can be defined for fractured-bedrock aquifer investigations. Fractures are more clearly defined under a wider range of conditions on acoustic images than on optical images including dark-colored rocks, cloudy borehole water, and coated borehole walls. However, optical images allow for the direct viewing

268

Water Management  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Management This department applies multi-disciplinary science and technology-based modeling to assess complex environmental systems. It integrates ecology, anthropology, and...

269

From Low-Cost Depth Sensors to CAD: Cross-Domain 3D Shape Retrieval via  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

applications for 3D shape retrieval, such as high-quality 3D scanning, manipulation and printing. NoteFrom Low-Cost Depth Sensors to CAD: Cross-Domain 3D Shape Retrieval via Regression Tree Fields Yan@us.ibm.com Abstract. The recent advances of low-cost and mobile depth sensors dramatically extend the potential of 3D

Chang, Shih-Fu

270

Total Sediment Load from SEMEP Using Depth-Integrated Concentration Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Total Sediment Load from SEMEP Using Depth-Integrated Concentration Measurements Seema C. Shah sediment load calculations on the basis of depth-integrated sediment concentration measurements for channels with significant sediment transport in suspension. The series expansion of the modified Einstein

Julien, Pierre Y.

271

Discussion of "Location-Scale Depth" by I. Mizera and C. H. Muller  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the distance from zi (or any monotonic function of the distance) recovers the classical no- tion of Tukey depth to Tukey depth in hyperbolic space School of Information & Computer Science, Univ. of California, Irvine. By standard techniques for modeling hyperbolic space in Euclidean spaces, all the previous machinery of Tukey

Eppstein, David

272

Ecient computation of location depth contours by methods of computational geometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and the center of the deepest contour is called the Tukey median. The only available implemented algorithms for the depth contours and the Tukey median are slow, which limits their usefulness. In this paper we describe practice. Keywords: Bagplot, Bivariate Median, Graphical Display, Robust Estimation, Tukey Depth 1

Souvaine, Diane

273

Depth of cure and compressive strength of dental composites cured with blue light emitting diodes (LEDs)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Depth of cure and compressive strength of dental composites cured with blue light emitting diodes with either a light emitting diode (LED) based light curing unit (LCU) or a conventional halogen LCU do reserved. Keywords: Blue light emitting diodes; Light curing unit; Composites; Irradiance; Spectrum; Depth

Ashworth, Stephen H.

274

Stream-bed scour, egg burial depths, and the influence of salmonid spawning on bed surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stream-bed scour, egg burial depths, and the influence of salmonid spawning on bed surface mobility-Hames, and Thomas P. Quinn Abstract: Bed scour, egg pocket depths, and alteration of stream-bed surfaces by spawning chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) were measured in two Pacific Northwest gravel-bedded streams. Close

Montgomery, David R.

275

Method for determining depth and shape of a sub-surface conductive object  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The depth to and size of an underground object may be determined by sweeping a controlled source audio magnetotelluric (CSAMT) signal and locating a peak response when the receiver spans the edge of the object. The depth of the object is one quarter wavelength in the subsurface media of the frequency of the peak. 3 figures.

Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Wayland, Jr.

1984-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

276

Ground penetrating radar characterization of wood piles and the water table in Back Bay, Boston  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys are performed to determine the depth to the water table and the tops of wood piles beneath a residential structure at 122 Beacon Street in Back Bay, Boston. The area of Boston known ...

LeFrançois, Suzanne O'Neil, 1980-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

E-Print Network 3.0 - atlantic slope waters Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the southern South Atlantic the high... long as the pressure does not vary. If a water parcel moves to a different depth, the slope and value... Atlantic. The continuity of this...

278

Trace metal cycling in the surface water of the South China Sea ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ABSTRACT: We deployed floating traps in the surface waters of the South China Sea on four occasions at depths of 30 m, 100 m, and 160 m from 2006 to 2007 ...

279

Influence of river discharge and ocean currents on coastal optical properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The variability in the optical properties of a coastal region influenced by river runoff and multiple ocean currents in a southern hemisphere setting has been studied. The study area, Tasmanian coastal waters, is influenced by subtropical currents such as the East Australian Current (EAC) and the Zeehan Current (ZC) mix with cooler sub-Antarctic water (SAW). Freshwater discharges from rivers around the island and their mixing with the ocean currents also influence Tasmanian coastal waters. This study was performed to understand the influence of hydrodynamic processes on coastal optical properties and underwater light propagation. Physical, biogeochemical and optical properties were measured in Tasmanian coastal water during the austral autumn of 2007. In this study we found that physical properties have a good correlation with optical properties indicating the role played by hydrodynamic processes in distribution of optically active substances, optical properties of the water mass and underwater light propagation. Analysis of in situ salinity and temperature confirmed the presence of relatively cooler ZC in the South-West region, a cooler mixture of the ZC and SAW in the South-East, warm and saline EAC waters along the East coast and relatively cooler and fresh Bass straight waters along the North coast. In Tasmanian coastal waters light absorption in the water column is controlled by Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) with regionally varying contributions from Non-Algal Particulate (NAP) matter and phytoplankton. Absorption due to CDOM and NAP show a conservative mixing behaviour indicating that these biogeochemical components were delivered by the river and diluted in the coastal water. Suspended particulate matter in Tasmanian coastal water are highly scattering in nature and the beam attenuation is mainly due to light scattering. Variability in probability of light backscattering was mainly due to varying availability of non-algal particulate matter in the surface waters, which is controlled by river discharges in the region. Beam attenuation was high in coastal waters that are influenced by river runoff and increasing beam attenuation had constrained the underwater light propagation in these coastal waters. In the absence of major rivers along the East coast, optical properties were mainly influenced by the EAC water mass. Optical properties of the East coast were clearly different from the rest of the Tasmanian regions. In other regions the influence of ocean currents is subtle due to strong mixing between river discharges and ocean water mass. Overall, analysis of bio-optical properties shows that optical properties are constrained by regional hydrodynamic processes. Results presented highlight importance of using hydrodynamic process specific bio-optical properties and parameterisation in modelling light propagation in coastal ecosystems that are influenced by multiple ocean currents and river discharges.

Nagur Cherukuru; Vittorio E. Brando; Thomas Schroeder; Lesley A. Clementson; Arnold G. Dekker

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Distinct optical properties of relativistically degenerate matter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we use the collisional quantum magnetohydrodynamic (CQMHD) model to derive the transverse dielectric function of a relativistically degenerate electron fluid and investigate various optical parameters, such as the complex refractive index, the reflection and absorption coefficients, the skin-depth and optical conductivity. In this model we take into accounts effects of many parameters such as the atomic-number of the constituent ions, the electron exchange, electron diffraction effect and the electron-ion collisions. Study of the optical parameters in the solid-density, the warm-dense-matter, the big-planetary core, and the compact star number-density regimes reveals that there are distinct differences between optical characteristics of the latter and the former cases due to the fundamental effects of the relativistic degeneracy and other quantum mechanisms. It is found that in the relativistic degeneracy plasma regime, such as found in white-dwarfs and neutron star crusts, matter possess a much sharper and well-defined step-like reflection edge beyond the x-ray electromagnetic spectrum, including some part of gamma-ray frequencies. It is also remarked that the magnetic field intensity only significantly affects the plasma reflectivity in the lower number-density regime, rather than the high density limit. Current investigation confirms the profound effect of relativistic degeneracy on optical characteristics of matter and can provide an important plasma diagnostic tool for studying the physical processes within the wide scope of quantum plasma regimes be it the solid-density, inertial-confined, or astrophysical compact stars.

Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz 51745-406 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum D-44780 (Germany)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Muon-induced neutron and pion production in an organic liquid scintillator at a shallow depth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of fast neutrons and pions by inelastic interactions of cosmic-ray muons in an organic liquid scintillator has been investigated. A detector filled with 190 liters of a 0.09% gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator was installed in the Stanford Underground Facility, at an underground depth of approximately 20 meters water equivalent. The detector served as the target material for hadron production. Our measurements find a single-neutron production yield of (4.3{plus_minus}0.3{plus_minus}0.8){times}10{sup {minus}5} neutrons per muon g/cm{sup 2} and a double-neutron production yield of (1.6{plus_minus}0.2{plus_minus}0.5){times}10{sup {minus}5} double neutrons per muon g/cm{sup 2}. We measured a {pi}{sup +} production yield of (3.5{plus_minus}0.2{plus_minus}0.7){times}10{sup {minus}6} pions per muon g/cm{sup 2}. Nearly all the {pi}{sup +} produced were accompanied by neutrons. These yields were dependent on the energy threshold of the muon trigger, revealing an enhancement associated with hadronic showers initiated by muons. The production yield due to nonshowering muons was lower: 2{times}10{sup {minus}5} neutrons per muon g/cm{sup 2}, with a single-to-double neutron multiplicity ratio of roughly 4:1. The nonshowering muon {pi}{sup +} production probability was 2.5{times}10{sup {minus}6} pions per muon g/cm{sup 2}, with about half of these nonshowering {pi}{sup +} events accompanied by neutrons.

Hertenberger, R.; Chen, M. [Norman Bridge Laboratory of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)] [Norman Bridge Laboratory of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Dougherty, B.L. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Transpiration purged optical probe  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical apparatus for clearly viewing the interior of a containment vessel by applying a transpiration fluid to a volume directly in front of the external surface of the optical element of the optical apparatus. The fluid is provided by an external source and transported by means of an annular tube to a capped end region where the inner tube is perforated. The perforation allows the fluid to stream axially towards the center of the inner tube and then axially away from an optical element which is positioned in the inner tube just prior to the porous sleeve. This arrangement draws any contaminants away from the optical element keeping it free of contaminants. In one of several embodiments, the optical element can be a lens, a viewing port or a laser, and the external source can provide a transpiration fluid having either steady properties or time varying properties.

2004-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

283

Quantum optical waveform conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Currently proposed architectures for long-distance quantum communication rely on networks of quantum processors connected by optical communications channels [1,2]. The key resource for such networks is the entanglement of matter-based quantum systems with quantum optical fields for information transmission. The optical interaction bandwidth of these material systems is a tiny fraction of that available for optical communication, and the temporal shape of the quantum optical output pulse is often poorly suited for long-distance transmission. Here we demonstrate that nonlinear mixing of a quantum light pulse with a spectrally tailored classical field can compress the quantum pulse by more than a factor of 100 and flexibly reshape its temporal waveform, while preserving all quantum properties, including entanglement. Waveform conversion can be used with heralded arrays of quantum light emitters to enable quantum communication at the full data rate of optical telecommunications.

D Kielpinski; JF Corney; HM Wiseman

2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

284

Study of chirally motivated low-energy $K^-$ optical potentials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The $K^-$ optical potential in the nuclear medium is evaluated self consistently from a free-space $K^-N$ $t$ matrix constructed within a coupled-channel chiral approach to the low-energy $\\bar K N$ data. The chiral-model parameters are fitted to a select subset of the low-energy data {\\it plus} the $K^-$ atomic data throughout the periodic table. The resulting attractive $K^-$ optical potentials are relatively `shallow', with central depth of the real part about 55 MeV, for a fairly reasonable reproduction of the atomic data with $\\chi^2 / N \\approx 2.2$. Relatively `deep' attractive potentials of depth about 180 MeV, which result in other phenomenological approaches with $\\chi^2 / N \\approx 1.5$, are ruled out within chirally motivated models. Different physical data input is required to distinguish between shallow and deep $K^-$ optical potentials. The ($K^{-}_{\\rm stop},\\pi$) reaction could provide such a test, with exclusive rates differing by over a factor of three for the two classes of potentials. Finally, forward ($K^-,p$) differential cross sections for the production of relatively narrow deeply bound $K^-$ {\\it nuclear} states are evaluated for deep $K^-$ optical potentials, yielding values considerably lower than those estimated before.

A. Cieply; E. Friedman; A. Gal; J. Mares

2001-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

285

Bose-Einstein Condensates in Optical Lattices: The Superfluid to Mott Insulator Phase Transition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY May 2008 c Massachusetts depth for the superfluid-to-MI transition. When a one-dimensional gas was loaded into a moving optical their clock shifts, and their spatial density profile could be imaged ("shell structure"). With increasing

286

Optical atomic magnetometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical atomic magnetometers is provided operating on the principles of nonlinear magneto-optical rotation. An atomic vapor is optically pumped using linearly polarized modulated light. The vapor is then probed using a non-modulated linearly polarized light beam. The resulting modulation in polarization angle of the probe light is detected and used in a feedback loop to induce self-oscillation at the resonant frequency.

Budker, Dmitry; Higbie, James; Corsini, Eric P

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

287

Optics in Brazil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For Brazilian scientists, optics is considered a leading field in technology transfer. The discipline plays a large role in the country?s ongoing scientific ...

Bagnato, Vanderlei; Brito Cruz, Carlos H de

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

LSST Camera Optics Design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) uses a novel, three-mirror, telescope design feeding a camera system that includes a set of broad-band filters and three refractive corrector lenses to produce a flat field at the focal plane with a wide field of view. Optical design of the camera lenses and filters is integrated in with the optical design of telescope mirrors to optimize performance. We discuss the rationale for the LSST camera optics design, describe the methodology for fabricating, coating, mounting and testing the lenses and filters, and present the results of detailed analyses demonstrating that the camera optics will meet their performance goals.

Riot, V J; Olivier, S; Bauman, B; Pratuch, S; Seppala, L; Gilmore, D; Ku, J; Nordby, M; Foss, M; Antilogus, P; Morgado, N

2012-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

289

Optically measuring interior cavities  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.

Stone, Gary Franklin (Livermore, CA)

2008-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

290

Optical limiting materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Optical limiting materials. Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO.sub.2) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400-1100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes.

McBranch, Duncan W. (Santa Fe, NM); Mattes, Benjamin R. (Santa Fe, NM); Koskelo, Aaron C. (Los Alamos, NM); Heeger, Alan J. (Santa Barbara, CA); Robinson, Jeanne M. (Los Alamos, NM); Smilowitz, Laura B. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM); Cha, Myoungsik (Goleta, CA); Sariciftci, N. Serdar (Santa Barbara, CA); Hummelen, Jan C. (Groningen, NL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Nanotechnology for Optical Networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Transparent optical networks will rely on electronics for control and monitoring. Integrating infrared optoelectronic devices such as lasers, modulators, and detectors onto silicon...

Sargent, Edward

292

Transverse Optical Magnetism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Magnetic interactions with light are usually so small that they are ignored, even in nonlinear optics. Scientists have discovered that parametric processes can drive the interactions...

Rand, Stephen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Optical contact micrometer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Certain examples provide optical contact micrometers and methods of use. An example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable lenses to receive an object and immobilize the object in a position. The example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable mirrors positioned with respect to the pair of lenses to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses. The example optical contact micrometer includes a microscope to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses via the mirrors; and an interferometer to obtain one or more measurements of the object.

Jacobson, Steven D.

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

294

Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water levels were monitored in 28 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1995. Seventeen wells representing 18 depth intervals were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, 2 wells representing 3 depth intervals were monitored hourly, and 9 wells representing 15 depth intervals were monitored both periodically and hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks except one that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes, a multiconductor cable unit, and/or pressure transducers. Mean water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 to about 1,034 meters above sea level during 1995. The mean water-level altitude in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks was about 753 meters above sea level during 1995. Mean water level altitudes were only an average of about 0.01 meters higher than 1994 mean water level altitudes. A single-well aquifer test was conducted on well UE-25 WT{number_sign}12 during August and September 1995. Well USW 0-2 was also pumped during October and November 1995, in preparation for single-well aquifer test at that well. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

Graves, R.P.; Goemaat, R.L.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

The existence of supercooled liquid water at 150?K  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... previously. The growth conditions used here produce optically flat non-porous water films,. A roughened interface between the isotopic layers, which in the worst case would result in intermixing ...

R. Scott Smith; Bruce D. Kay

1999-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

296

Agreement Between Local and Global Measurements of the London Penetration Depth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent measurements of the superconducting penetration depth in Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} appeared to disagree on the magnitude and curvature of {delta}{lambda}{sub ab}(T), even near optimal doping. These measurements were carried out on different samples grown by different groups. To understand the discrepancy, we use scanning SQUID susceptometry and a tunnel diode resonator to measure the penetration depth in a single sample. The penetration depth observed by the two techniques is identical with no adjustments. We conclude that any discrepancies arise from differences between samples, either in growth or crystal preparation.

Lippman, Thomas M.; Kalisky, Beena; Kim, Hyunsoo; Tanatar, Makariy; Budko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Prozorov, Ruslan; Moler, Kathryn A.

2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

297

Influence of a local change of depth on the behavior of bouncing oil drops  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The work of Couder \\textit{et al} (see also Bush \\textit{et al}) inspired consideration of the impact of a submerged obstacle, providing a local change of depth, on the behavior of oil drops in the bouncing regime. In the linked videos, we recreate some of their results for a drop bouncing on a uniform depth bath of the same liquid undergoing vertical oscillations just below the conditions for Faraday instability, and show a range of new behaviors associated with change of depth. This article accompanies a fluid dynamics video entered into the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 66th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics.

Carmigniani, Remi; Symon, Sean; McKeon, Beverley J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

AN INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM OPTICS...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM OPTICS... ...the light as you've never seen before... Optics:http://science.howstuffworks.com/laser5.htm #12;5 DEFINITION Quantum Optics: "Quantum optics is a field in quantum physics, dealing OPTICS OPERATORS Light is described in terms of field operators for creation and annihilation of photons

Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

299

Investigating Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................................................... 193 Lesson 11 Water and Pollution........................................................................................................................ 195 Activity 11.1, Pollution, Pollution, Everywhere...! ............................................................................. 205 Record Sheet 11.1, Pollution, Pollution, Everywhere! ..................................................................... 207 Activity 11.2, Pollution at Its Source...

Howard Jr., Ronald A.

2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

300

Water Privatisation   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation deals with the policy issues of large-scale, urban water privatisation projects in the face of uncertainty and variability. The main objective is to evaluate whether a single policy approach, namely privatisation associated...

Zölls, Elisa

2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Computerized Waters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with WRAP. TWRI Technical Report 283, April 2005. This report serves as an introductory tutorial to help new users apply the model quickly for basic water availability modeling applications. ? Comparative Evaluation of Generalized Reservoir...

Wythe, Kathy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Water Electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Production of ammonium sulfate fertilizer via synthetic ammonia was a national project in Japan just after World War II, and water electrolysis as the source of hydrogen was active....3 of hydrogen and 700 Nm3 of...

Fumio Hine

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Water Pollution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal bed methane (CBM) gas recovery techniques are unique compared to other production methods. Formation water must be removed, or “dewatered” as it holds the methane gas in the coal seam by hydrostatic pressure...

Alireza Bahadori; Malcolm Clark; Bill Boyd

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Future of Optical Astronomy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... I BELIEVE that optical astronomy in Great Britain has now reached, for virtually the first time in its history, ... studied in universities and in Government and industrial laboratories; but with two exceptions, optical astronomy is studied almost entirely in university laboratories only, and its future largely depends on ...

D. E. BLACKWELL

1962-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Optical fuel pin scanner  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane at a cylindrical outside surface by use of an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image of an encircled cylindrical surface area to a stationary photodiode array.

Kirchner, Tommy L. (Richland, WA); Powers, Hurshal G. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Optical scanning apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical scanner employed in a radioactive environment for reading indicia imprinted about a cylindrical surface of an article by means of an optical system including metallic reflective and mirror surfaces resistant to degradation and discoloration otherwise imparted to glass surfaces exposed to radiation is described.

Villarreal, R.A.

1985-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

307

Vibration insensitive optical cavity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An optical cavity is designed and implemented that is insensitive to vibration in all directions. The cavity is mounted with its optical axis in the horizontal plane. A minimum response of 0.1 (3.7)kHz?ms?2 is achieved for low-frequency vertical (horizontal) vibrations.

S. A. Webster; M. Oxborrow; P. Gill

2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

308

Multimode optical fiber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).

Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

309

Optics, Acoustics and Stress in Situ (OASIS): Effects of Aggregation, Vertical Structure, and Relation to Physical Forcing.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optics, Acoustics and Stress in Situ (OASIS): Effects of Aggregation, Vertical Structure. Arlington, VA 22203-1995 TITLE: Optics, Acoustics and Stress in Situ (OASIS): Effects of Aggregation of Research and Sponsored Programs #12;Abstract Nearbed optical and acoustical properties in coastal waters

Boss, Emmanuel S.

310

Effective electro-optical modulation with high extinction ratio by a graphene-silicon microring resonator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene opens up for novel optoelectronic applications thanks to its high carrier mobility, ultra-large absorption bandwidth, and extremely fast material response. In particular, the opportunity to control optoelectronic properties through tuning of Fermi level enables electro-optical modulation, optical-optical switching, and other optoelectronics applications. However, achieving a high modulation depth remains a challenge because of the modest graphene-light interaction in the graphene-silicon devices, typically, utilizing only a monolayer or few layers of graphene. Here, we comprehensively study the interaction between graphene and a microring resonator, and its influence on the optical modulation depth. We demonstrate graphene-silicon microring devices showing a high modulation depth of 12.5 dB with a relatively low bias voltage of 8.8 V. On-off electro-optical switching with an extinction ratio of 3.8 dB is successfully demonstrated by applying a square-waveform with a 4 V peak-to-peak voltage.

Ding, Yunhong; Xiao, Sanshui; Hu, Hao; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Mortensen, N Asger; Yvind, Kresten

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Optical calibration hardware for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The optical properties of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) heavy water Cherenkov neutrino detector are measured in situ using a light diffusing sphere ("laserball"). This diffuser is connected to a pulsed nitrogen/dye laser via specially developed underwater optical fibre umbilical cables. The umbilical cables are designed to have a small bending radius, and can be easily adapted for a variety of calibration sources in SNO. The laserball is remotely manipulated to many positions in the D2O and H2O volumes, where data at six different wavelengths are acquired. These data are analysed to determine the absorption and scattering of light in the heavy water and light water, and the angular dependence of the response of the detector's photomultiplier tubes. This paper gives details of the physical properties, construction, and optical characteristics of the laserball and its associated hardware.

B. A. Moffat; R. J. Ford; F. A. Duncan; K. Graham; A. L. Hallin; C. A. W. Hearns; J. Maneira; P. Skensved; D. R. Grant

2005-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

312

Digital optical conversion module  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

Kotter, Dale K. (North Shelley, ID); Rankin, Richard A. (Ammon, ID)

1991-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

313

Digital optical conversion module  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

314

Use of Rapid Temperature Measurements at a 2-Meter Depth to Augment Deeper  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Use of Rapid Temperature Measurements at a 2-Meter Depth to Augment Deeper Use of Rapid Temperature Measurements at a 2-Meter Depth to Augment Deeper Temperature Gradient Drilling Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Use of Rapid Temperature Measurements at a 2-Meter Depth to Augment Deeper Temperature Gradient Drilling Abstract Temperature gradient drilling has historically been a key tool in the exploration for geothermal resources in the Great Basin, USA, but regulatory, environmental, and accessibility issues, as well as the expense of drilling, are increasingly limiting its use. In cases where thermal groundwater is not overlain by near-surface cold aquifers, it is possible to augment temperature gradient drilling with temperatures measured from a 2-meter depth. We discuss the development of a rapid, efficient, and

315

Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Depth Profile of Uncompensated Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print Wednesday, 25 January 2006 00:00 The phenomenon known as exchange bias at the interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is currently a subject of intense research because of its applications in the magnetic recording and read-head industries. An international collaboration headed by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has used resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent magnetization in an exchange-biased sample. These results provide atomic-level insights into the mechanism of exchange bias, specifically the involvement of mutual interactions between two kinds of uncompensated spins in the antiferromagnet and spins in the ferromagnet.

316

Influence of planting depth on landscape establishment of container-grown trees  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and productivity (sustainability) of trees within terrestrial ecosystems. Tree planting depth, i.e. location of the root collar relative to soil grade, is of particular concern for tree growth, development, and performance in the landscape. A series of model...

Bryan, Donita Lynn

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

317

Latent heating contribution from precipitation systems with different sizes, depths and intensities in the tropics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Latent Heating (LH) from precipitation systems with different sizes, depths and convective intensities are quantified with 15 years of LH retrievals from Version 7 Precipitation Radar (PR) products of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)...

Chuntao Liu; Shoichi Shige; Yukari N. Takayabu; Edward Zipser

318

U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

319

U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory Wells Drilled ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

320

E-Print Network 3.0 - affect perceived depth Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Medicine 36 Department of Computer Science & Engineering WUCSE-2006-17 Summary: of the effect of color on perceived depth began in latter half of the 19th century (see Payne...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Ciliate diversity and distribution across an environmental and depth gradient in Long Island  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ciliate diversity and distribution across an environmental and depth gradient in Long Island Sound- trichia (Spirotrichea) and Choreotrichia (Spirotrichea) across an environmental gradient. We assessed SSU- tion showed any clear relationship to measured environmental parameters (temperature, salinity

Katz, Laura

322

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking- Level 2 (in-depth)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about level 2 (in-depth...

323

E-Print Network 3.0 - aes depth profile Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

73, No. 2, 1996, pp. 259--272. Summary: zone parameters Y and S, its depth H cz and the opacity (T ; ae; Y ). The basic assumption here... in mind that for a given sound speed...

324

E-Print Network 3.0 - antiproton depth dose Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the depth of the potential well... of antiprotons G. Gabrielse a , J. Estrada a , J.N. Tan a , P. Yesley a , N.S. Bowden a , P. Oxley a , T. Roach a... Positrons are used...

325

Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the University of California, San Diego, has used resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent magnetization in an exchange-biased...

326

Uncertainty in Contaminant Concentration Fields Resulting from Atmospheric Boundary Layer Depth Uncertainty  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The relationship between atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) depth uncertainty and uncertainty in atmospheric transport and dispersion (ATD) simulations is investigated by examining profiles of predicted concentrations of a contaminant. Because ...

Brian P. Reen; Kerrie J. Schmehl; George S. Young; Jared A. Lee; Sue Ellen Haupt; David R. Stauffer

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Optically Interconnected MulticomputersUsing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optically Interconnected MulticomputersUsing Inverted-GraphTopologies Tosuccessfullyexploitthebenefitsofopticaltechnologyinatightlycoupledmulticomputer, the architecturaldesignmust reflectboth the advantages and limitationsof optics. This article systems. Although optics have con- tributed dramatically to long-distance communi- cation and more

Krchnavek, Robert R.

328

Optical amplifier-powered quantum optical amplification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I show that an optical amplifier, when combined with photon subtraction, can be used for quantum state amplification, adding noise at a level below the standard minimum. The device could be used to significantly decrease the probability of incorrectly identifying coherent states chosen from a finite set.

John Jeffers

2011-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

329

Seasonal cycles in whole-body proximate composition and energy content of forage fish vary with water depth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Quantifying the nutritional quality of forage fish is integral for understanding upper trophic levels as forage fish are the dominant prey for top predator fish, marine mammals, and sea birds. Many existing repor...

Johanna J. Vollenweider; Ron A. Heintz; Lawrence Schaufler…

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Simulations of crescent water wave patterns on finite depth . Kristiansen, D. Fructus, D. Clamond, and J. Grue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and J. Grue Department of Mathematics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1053 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo, Norway waves," Phys. Fluids 27, 2595 1984 . Also, a recurrent five-wave instability can boost the energy. For this purpose, small nonconservative effects resembling weak wind and weak breaking were added to the otherwise

Clamond, Didier

331

Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice: pressure waves and shear waves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have measured the speed of both pressure waves and shear waves as a function of depth between 80 and 500 m depth in South Pole ice with better than 1% precision. The measurements were made using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), an array of transmitters and sensors deployed in the ice at the South Pole in order to measure the acoustic properties relevant to acoustic detection of astrophysical neutrinos. The transmitters and sensors use piezoceramics operating at {approx}5-25 kHz. Between 200 m and 500 m depth, the measured profile is consistent with zero variation of the sound speed with depth, resulting in zero refraction, for both pressure and shear waves. We also performed a complementary study featuring an explosive signal propagating vertically from 50 to 2250 m depth, from which we determined a value for the pressure wave speed consistent with that determined for shallower depths, higher frequencies, and horizontal propagation with the SPATS sensors. The sound speed profile presented here can be used to achieve good acoustic source position and emission time reconstruction in general, and neutrino direction and energy reconstruction in particular. The reconstructed quantities could also help separate neutrino signals from background.

IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer

2009-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

332

Science, Optics and You: Shadows  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

http:micro.magnet.fsu.eduopticstutorialsindex.html INTRODUCTION SHADOWS MODULE m5 SCIENCE, OPTICS & YOU GUIDEBOOK - 96 - SCIENCE, OPTICS & YOU GUIDEBOOK - 97 - m5: Shadows...

333

Optical Modulation of Molecular Conductance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Optical Modulation of Molecular Conductance Authors: Battacharyya, S., Kibel, A., Kodis, G., Liddell, P. A., Gervaldo, M., Gust, D., and Lindsay, S. Title: Optical Modulation of...

334

Crop Water Requirement and Water Use Efficiency  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water use efficiency is defined as ratio of yield to irrigation water requirement (De Pascale and Maggio 2005) WUE=yield/irrigation water requirement (kg crop/m3 irrigation water) ...

Christian von Zabeltitz

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

programs) · Audience: homeowners Outcome 4: Increase water reuse and recycling programs · Example program: Water harvesting ­ rain barrels and cisterns · Audience: home owners #12;: Water conservation. Conserve Florida's finite water resources by teaching rural, suburban and urban

Kane, Andrew S.

336

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

337

Holographic interferometry of oil films and droplets in water with a single-beam mirror-type scheme  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Application of single-beam reflective laser optical interferometry for oil films and droplets in water detection and characterization is discussed. Oil films can be detected by the...

Kukhtarev, Nickolai; Kukhtareva, Tatiana; Gallegos, Sonia C

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Water Boatman  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Boatman Water Boatman Name: Joshua Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I am doing a research on water boatman. I go through your web, I only find little information about it. Can you give me its habitat, its appearance, life cycles and communication between themselves and they defenses themselves? Replies: Find a good book in the library on insects, also on pond biology/ecology, as boatmen live in ponds and marshes. It should be easy to find. J.Elliott Try this web site: http://www.dnr.state.il.us/ctap.ctaphome.htm or http://www.dnr.state.il.us/nredu/nredpage.htm this is the state of Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources homepage and somewhere on there is a page called "bugpage". They have pictures and characteristics of aquatic insects there. good luck

339

Gregorian optical system with non-linear optical technology for protection against intense optical transients  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical system comprising a concave primary mirror reflects light through an intermediate focus to a secondary mirror. The secondary mirror re-focuses the image to a final image plane. Optical limiter material is placed near the intermediate focus to optically limit the intensity of light so that downstream components of the optical system are protected from intense optical transients. Additional lenses before and/or after the intermediate focus correct optical aberrations.

Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Diels, Jean-Claude M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

340

Silicon fiber optic sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by a partially or wholly reflective surface on the free end of an integrated elongate channel or an integrated bounding wall of a chip of a wafer and a partially reflective surface on the end of the optical fiber. Such a constructed device can be utilized to detect one or more physical parameters, such as, for example, strain, through the optical fiber using an optical detection system to provide measuring accuracies of less than aboutb0.1%.

Pocha, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Wood, Billy E. (Livermore, CA)

2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Optical Quadratic Measure Eigenmodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report a mathematically rigorous technique which facilitates the optimization of various optical properties of electromagnetic fields. The technique exploits the linearity of electromagnetic fields along with the quadratic nature of their interaction with matter. In this manner we may decompose the respective fields into optical quadratic measure eigenmodes (QME). Key applications include the optimization of the size of a focused spot, the transmission through photonic devices, and the structured illumination of photonic and plasmonic structures. We verify the validity of the QME approach through a particular experimental realization where the size of a focused optical field is minimized using a superposition of Bessel beams.

Michael Mazilu; Joerg Baumgartl; Sebastian Kosmeier; Kishan Dholakia

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

342

Fiber optic laser rod  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.

Erickson, G.F.

1988-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

343

Tuned optical cavity magnetometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which utilizes an optical cavity formed from a grating and a mirror, with a vapor cell containing an alkali metal vapor located inside the optical cavity. Lasers are used to magnetically polarize the alkali metal vapor and to probe the vapor and generate a diffracted laser beam which can be used to sense a magnetic field. Electrostatic actuators can be used in the magnetometer for positioning of the mirror, or for modulation thereof. Another optical cavity can also be formed from the mirror and a second grating for sensing, adjusting, or stabilizing the position of the mirror.

Okandan, Murat (Edgewood, NM); Schwindt, Peter (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

344

Penn Large Water Tunnel | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Penn Large Water Tunnel Penn Large Water Tunnel Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name Penn Large Water Tunnel Overseeing Organization Pennsylvania State University Hydrodynamics Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Tunnel Length(m) 4.3 Beam(m) 1.2 Depth(m) 1.2 Water Type Freshwater Cost(per day) Contact POC Special Physical Features Closed loop; Turbulence level = 0.1%; Pressure range = 3-60psi; Controlled cavitation = # >0.1; Control Air content = >1ppm per mole Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities None Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities None Channel/Tunnel/Flume Channel/Tunnel/Flume Yes Velocity(m/s) 16.8 Recirculating Yes Pressure Range(Psi) 3 - 60 Wind Capabilities Wind Capabilities None Control and Data Acquisition Description National Instruments steady 24 bit

345

Penn Small Water Tunnel | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Tunnel Water Tunnel Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name Penn Small Water Tunnel Overseeing Organization Pennsylvania State University Hydrodynamics Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Tunnel Length(m) 0.8 Beam(m) 0.3 Depth(m) 0.3 Water Type Freshwater Cost(per day) Contact POC Special Physical Features Closed loop; Turbulence level = 0.1%; Pressure range = 3-60psi; Controlled cavitation = # >0.1; Control Air content = >1ppm per mole Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities None Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities None Channel/Tunnel/Flume Channel/Tunnel/Flume Yes Velocity(m/s) 21 Recirculating Yes Pressure Range(Psi) 3 - 60 Wind Capabilities Wind Capabilities None Control and Data Acquisition Description National Instruments dynamic analyzer, 24-bit

346

OUTPUT-SENSITIVE ALGORITHMS FOR TUKEY DEPTH AND RELATED PROBLEMS David Bremner Dan Chen John Iacono Stefan Langerman Pat Morin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OUTPUT-SENSITIVE ALGORITHMS FOR TUKEY DEPTH AND RELATED PROBLEMS David Bremner Dan Chen John Iacono Stefan Langerman Pat Morin ABSTRACT. The Tukey depth (Tukey 1975) of a point p with respect to a finite p. Algorithms for computing the Tukey depth of a point in various dimensions are considered

Bremner, David

347

Jessen/Deutsch, "Optical Lattices" 1 OPTICAL LATTICES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jessen/Deutsch, "Optical Lattices" 1 OPTICAL LATTICES P. S. JESSEN Optical Sciences Center@rhea.opt-sci.arizona.edu I. H. DEUTSCH Center for Advanced Studies University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM, 87131 Phone, 1996). #12;Jessen/Deutsch, "Optical Lattices" 2 CONTENTS I. Introduction

Jessen, Poul S.

348

Adaptive optics enhanced simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive optics enhanced simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy David Merino and Chris Dainty Applied Optics Group, Department of Experimental Physics, National and Adrian Gh. Podoleanu Applied Optics Group, School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent at Canterbury

Dainty, Chris

349

Effects of cavern depth on surface subsidence and storage loss of oil-filled caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Finite element analyses of oil-filled caverns were performed to investigate the effects of cavern depth on surface subsidence and storage loss, a primary performance criteria of SPR caverns. The finite element model used for this study was axisymmetric, approximating an infinite array of caverns spaced at 750 ft. The stratigraphy and cavern size were held constant while the cavern depth was varied between 1500 ft and 3000 ft in 500 ft increments. Thirty year simulations, the design life of the typical SPR cavern, were performed with boundary conditions modeling the oil pressure head applied to the cavern lining. A depth dependent temperature gradient of 0.012{degrees}F/ft was also applied to the model. The calculations were performed using ABAQUS, a general purpose of finite element analysis code. The user-defined subroutine option in ABAQUS was used to enter an elastic secondary creep model which includes temperature dependence. The calculations demonstrated that surface subsidence and storage loss rates increase with increasing depth. At lower depths the difference between the lithostatic stress and the oil pressure is greater. Thus, the effective stresses are greater, resulting in higher creep rates. Furthermore, at greater depths the cavern temperatures are higher which also produce higher creep rates. Together, these factors result in faster closure of the cavern. At the end of the 30 year simulations, a 1500 ft-deep cavern exhibited 4 percent storage loss and 4 ft of subsidence while a 3000 ft-deep cavern exhibited 33 percent storage loss and 44 ft of subsidence. The calculations also demonstrated that surface subsidence is directly related to the amount of storage loss. Deeper caverns exhibit more subsidence because the caverns exhibit more storage loss. However, for a given amount of storage loss, nearly the same magnitude of surface subsidence was exhibited, independent of cavern depth.

Hoffman, E.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Variability in the Relative Penetration of Ultraviolet Radiation to Photosynthetically Available Radiation in Temperate Coastal Waters, Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

UVR and PAR wavelengths are attenuated to different extents within the water column, causing variations in spectral composition with depth. The present investigation (a) describes the variability of UVR and PA...

Victor S. Kuwahara; Tatsuki Toda; Koji Hamasaki…

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Water Revisited  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...explains the su-percooling behavior. The important issue...Hydrophobic Interactions The behavior of water toward non-polar...structures ofthe clath-rate hydrates for many ofthese nonpolar...underlying the anomalous behavior of supercooled wa-ter...Schuster, G. Zundel, C. Sand-SCIENCE, VOL. 209...

Frank H. Stillinger

1980-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

352

Whither water?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... proposal for the future seems to have been ruled out for some time to come. Desalination has been widely mooted as a practical system of obtaining pure water in Britain, ... addition, the environment lobby, which by and large seems to favour the idea of desalination, has not, perhaps, taken full account of the impact on the coastal environment ...

John Gribbin

1974-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

353

Optical Landau damping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the transfer of energy from an optical potential to atomic and molecular gases and demonstrate that this process is analogous to collisionless Landau damping of electrostatic potentials in plasmas and gravitational potentials observed on astrophysical scales. We show that a signficant fraction of the light attenuation within a cavity can be attributed to this mechanism when the cavity is filled with a gas at high density. The resulting motion of particles created by optical Landau damping can be used to induce transport when a periodic potential produced by two counterpropagating high-intensity pulsed optical fields is used. Bulk drift of the gas also appears feasible even when the mean kinetic energy is much greater that the maximum optical potential.

Shneider, M.N.; Barker, P.F. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Department of Physics, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriott-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, Scotland (United Kingdom)

2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

Cryogenic optical refrigeration.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis compiles recent achievements in optical refrigeration, cooling a 5 wt. % ytterbium doped yttrium lithium fluoride (Yb+3:YLF) crystal through anti-Stokes fluorescence to a… (more)

Melgaard, Seth

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Intracoronary Optical Diagnostics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical coherence tomography (OCT), is a novel intravascular imaging modality analogous to intravascular ultrasound but uses light instead of sound. This review details the background, development, and status of current ...

Lowe, Harry C.

356

Optical displacement sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical displacement sensor is disclosed which uses a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coupled to an optical cavity formed by a moveable membrane and an output mirror of the VCSEL. This arrangement renders the lasing characteristics of the VCSEL sensitive to any movement of the membrane produced by sound, vibrations, pressure changes, acceleration, etc. Some embodiments of the optical displacement sensor can further include a light-reflective diffractive lens located on the membrane or adjacent to the VCSEL to control the amount of lasing light coupled back into the VCSEL. A photodetector detects a portion of the lasing light from the VCSEL to provide an electrical output signal for the optical displacement sensor which varies with the movement of the membrane.

Carr, Dustin W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

357

Optical Quantum Computing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In 2001 all-optical quantum computing became feasible with the discovery that scalable quantum computing is possible using only single photon sources, linear optical elements, and single photon detectors. Although it was in principle scalable, the massive resource overhead made the scheme practically daunting. However, several simplifications were followed by proof-of-principle demonstrations, and recent approaches based on cluster states or error encoding have dramatically reduced this worrying resource overhead, making an all-optical architecture a serious contender for the ultimate goal of a large-scale quantum computer. Key challenges will be the realization of high-efficiency sources of indistinguishable single photons, low-loss, scalable optical circuits, high efficiency single photon detectors, and low-loss interfacing of these components.

Jeremy L. O'Brien

2008-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

358

Optical gamma thermometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical gamma thermometer includes a metal mass having a temperature proportional to a gamma flux within a core of a nuclear reactor, and an optical fiber cable for measuring the temperature of the heated metal mass. The temperature of the heated mass may be measured by using one or more fiber grating structures and/or by using scattering techniques, such as Raman, Brillouin, and the like. The optical gamma thermometer may be used in conjunction with a conventional reactor heat balance to calibrate the local power range monitors over their useful in-service life. The optical gamma thermometer occupies much less space within the in-core instrument tube and costs much less than the conventional gamma thermometer.

Koster, Glen Peter; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon Kwee

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

359

Absorbance modulation optical lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, the concept of absorbance-modulation optical lithography (AMOL) is described, and the feasibility experimentally verified. AMOL is an implementation of nodal lithography, which is not bounded by the diffraction ...

Tsai, Hsin-Yu Sidney

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Electro-Optical Characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the Electro-Optical Characterization group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we use various electrical and optical experimental techniques to relate photovoltaic device performance to the methods and materials used to produce them. The types of information obtained by these techniques range from small-scale atomic-bonding information to large-scale macroscopic quantities such as optical constants and electron-transport properties. Accurate and timely measurement of the electro-optical properties as a function of device processing provides researchers and manufacturers with the knowledge needed to troubleshoot problems and develop the knowledge base necessary for reducing cost, maximizing efficiency, improving reliability, and enhancing manufacturability. We work collaboratively with you to solve materials- and device-related R&D problems. This sheet summarizes our primary techniques and capabilities.

Not Available

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

13.4.8. Options for Water-level Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the development and management of wetlands is the maximization of the amount of flooded habitat. Consequently be flooded to depths that preclude foraging by some water birds. W A T E R F O W L M A N A G E M E N T H A NMurry Avenue, Fort Collins, Colorado 80525. 3 Present address: Ducks Unlimited, Inc., Western Regional Office

Gray, Matthew

362

Optical Quantum Computation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the field of Optical Quantum Computation, considering the various implementations that have been proposed and the experimental progress that has been made toward realizing them. We examine both linear and nonlinear approaches and both particle and field encodings. In particular we discuss the prospects for large scale optical quantum computing in terms of the most promising physical architectures and the technical requirements for realizing them.

T. C. Ralph; G. J. Pryde

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

363

Relaying an optical wavefront  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A wavefront rely devices samples an incoming optical wavefront at different locations, optically relays the samples while maintaining the relative position of the samples and the relative phase between the samples. The wavefront is reconstructed due to interference of the samples. Devices can be designed for many different wavelengths, including for example the ultraviolet, visible, infrared and even longer wavelengths such as millimeter waves. In one application, the device function as a telescope but with negligible length.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Vawter, G. Allen (Corrales, NM)

2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

364

Extraction of depth-dependent perturbation factors for silicon diodes using a plastic scintillation detector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: This work presents the experimental extraction of the perturbation factor in megavoltage electron beams for three models of silicon diodes (IBA Dosimetry, EFD and SFD, and the PTW 60012 unshielded) using a plastic scintillation detector (PSD). Methods: The authors used a single scanning PSD mounted on a high-precision scanning tank to measure depth-dose curves in 6-, 12-, and 18-MeV clinical electron beams. They also measured depth-dose curves using the IBA Dosimetry, EFD and SFD, and the PTW 60012 unshielded diodes. The authors used the depth-dose curves measured with the PSD as a perturbation-free reference to extract the perturbation factors of the diodes. Results: The authors found that the perturbation factors for the diodes increased substantially with depth, especially for low-energy electron beams. The experimental results show the same trend as published Monte Carlo simulation results for the EFD diode; however, the perturbations measured experimentally were greater. They found that using an effective point of measurement (EPOM) placed slightly away from the source reduced the variation of perturbation factors with depth and that the optimal EPOM appears to be energy dependent. Conclusions: The manufacturer recommended EPOM appears to be incorrect at low electron energy (6 MeV). In addition, the perturbation factors for diodes may be greater than predicted by Monte Carlo simulations.

Lacroix, Frederic; Guillot, Mathieu; McEwen, Malcolm; Gingras, Luc; Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Centre hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal (CHUM), 1560 Sherbrooke est, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1, Canada and Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Pavillon Roger-Gaudry (D-428), 2900 Boul. Edouard-Montpetit, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec G1K 7P4, Quebec, Canada and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Ionizing Radiation Standards, Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council (NRC), Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec G1K 7P4, Quebec, Canada and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

365

The depth of the oil/brine interface and crude oil leaks in SPR caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monitoring wellhead pressure evolution is the best method of detecting crude oil leaks in SPR caverns while oil/brine interface depth measurements provide additional insight. However, to fully utilize the information provided by these interface depth measurements, a thorough understanding of how the interface movement corresponds to cavern phenomena, such as salt creep, crude oil leakage, and temperature equilibration, as well as to wellhead pressure, is required. The time evolution of the oil/brine interface depth is a function of several opposing factors. Cavern closure due to salt creep and crude oil leakage, if present, move the interface upward. Brine removal and temperature equilibration of the oil/brine system move the interface downward. Therefore, the relative magnitudes of these factors determine the net direction of interface movement. Using a mass balance on the cavern fluids, coupled with a simplified salt creep model for closure in SPR caverns, the movement of the oil/brine interface has been predicted for varying cavern configurations, including both right-cylindrical and carrot-shaped caverns. Three different cavern depths and operating pressures have been investigated. In addition, the caverns were investigated at four different points in time, allowing for varying extents of temperature equilibration. Time dependent interface depth changes of a few inches to a few feet were found to be characteristic of the range of cases studied. 5 refs, 19 figs., 1 tab.

Heffelfinger, G.S.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Daily snow depth measurements from 195 stations in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes a database containing daily measurements of snow depth at 195 National Weather Service (NWS) first-order climatological stations in the United States. The data have been assembled and made available by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina. The 195 stations encompass 388 unique sampling locations in 48 of the 50 states; no observations from Delaware or Hawaii are included in the database. Station selection criteria emphasized the quality and length of station records while seeking to provide a network with good geographic coverage. Snow depth at the 388 locations was measured once per day on ground open to the sky. The daily snow depth is the total depth of the snow on the ground at measurement time. The time period covered by the database is 1893--1992; however, not all station records encompass the complete period. While a station record ideally should contain daily data for at least the seven winter months (January through April and October through December), not all stations have complete records. Each logical record in the snow depth database contains one station`s daily data values for a period of one month, including data source, measurement, and quality flags.

Allison, L.J. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Easterling, D.R.; Jamason, P.; Bowman, D.P.; Hughes, P.Y.; Mason, E.H. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Asheville, NC (United States). National Climatic Data Center

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Fault location in optical networks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

One apparatus embodiment includes an optical emitter and a photodetector. At least a portion of the optical emitter extends a radial distance from a center point. The photodetector provided around at least a portion of the optical emitter and positioned outside the radial distance of the portion of the optical emitter.

Stevens, Rick C. (Apple Valley, MN); Kryzak, Charles J. (Mendota Heights, MN); Keeler, Gordon A. (Albuquerque, NM); Serkland, Darwin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Geib, Kent M. (Tijeras, NM); Kornrumpf, William P. (Schenectady, NY)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Optical computing Damien Woods a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical computing Damien Woods a aDepartment of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Institute, Vierimaantie 5, 84100 Ylivieska, Finland Abstract In this survey we consider optical computers of such optical computing archi- tectures, including descriptions of the type of hardware commonly used in optical

Woods, Damien

369

Optical Solitons and their applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical Solitons and their applications By: Mohammad Nopoush Supervisor: Professor Palffy-Muhoray #12;Definition Optical: Non-changing optical field during propagation due to delicate balance between nonlinear and linear effects. Nonlinear effects: Due to the optical Kerr effect (AC Kerr effect

Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

370

Undergraduate Handbook Dear Optics student,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Undergraduate Handbook Fall 2013 #12;2 Dear Optics student, It is my great pleasure to welcome you to The Institute of Optics. The Institute of Optics has been educating the next generation of leaders in the field since it was founded in 1929 as the first optics department in the country

Cantlon, Jessica F.

371

Embedded fiducials in optical surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Embedded fiducials are provided in optical surfaces and a method for embedding the fiducials. Fiducials, or marks on a surface, are important for optical fabrication and alignment, particularly when individual optical elements are aspheres. Fiducials are used during the course of the polishing process to connect interferometric data, and the equation describing the asphere, to physical points on the optic. By embedding fiducials below the surface of the optic and slightly outside the clear aperture of the optic, the fiducials are not removed by polishing, do not interfere with the polishing process, and do not affect the performance of the finished optic.

Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Resource Management Services, Part 609: Reclassification of Waters (New  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Services, Part 609: Reclassification of Waters Services, Part 609: Reclassification of Waters (New York) Resource Management Services, Part 609: Reclassification of Waters (New York) < Back Eligibility Commercial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Program Info State New York Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider NY Department of Environmental Conservation These regulations provide procedures to propose a reclassification of State waters for permitting purposes. Requests must address the factual basis for reclassification, including the size, depth, surface area covered, volume, direction and rate of flow, stream gradient and temperature of the water; character of the district bordering said waters and its suitability for

373

E-Print Network 3.0 - apparent optical properties Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mayaguez Collection: Geosciences 7 SIL PUBLICATIONS YEARS 2000 2004 Summary: . 1-13. Armstrong, R.A., J.M. Lpez, and F. Gilbes, "Apparent Water Optical Properties... Properties...

374

Wave Interactions with Arrays of Bottom-Mounted Circular Cylinders: Investigation of Optical and Acoustical Analogies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wave scattering by arrays of cylinders has received special attention by many authors and analytical solutions have been derived. The investigation of optical and acoustical analogies to the problem of interaction of water waves with rigid...

Baquet, Aldric

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

375

Bubbly Flow Experiment in Channel Using an Optical Probe and Tracking Algorithm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

communication between the computer and optoelectronic unit. The probe takes advantage of the physics between two mediums, air and water (Fig. 8). The optical fiber, manufactured from glass, relays the signal in the probe. Internal reflection allows...

Khan, Abdul

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

376

Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print The phenomenon known as exchange bias at the interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is currently a subject of intense research because of its applications in the magnetic recording and read-head industries. An international collaboration headed by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has used resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent magnetization in an exchange-biased sample. These results provide atomic-level insights into the mechanism of exchange bias, specifically the involvement of mutual interactions between two kinds of uncompensated spins in the antiferromagnet and spins in the ferromagnet.

377

In-Depth: Cleantech at the National Labs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

In-Depth: Cleantech at the National Labs In-Depth: Cleantech at the National Labs In-Depth: Cleantech at the National Labs January 7, 2014 - 5:30pm Addthis These solar power collection dishes at Sandia National Labs' National Solar Thermal Test Facility are capable of some of the highest solar to electricity conversion. In January 2008, this technology set a new solar-to-grid system conversion efficiency record of 31.25 percent net efficiency rate; the technology is still available to benefit the U.S. by delivering power at all hours of the day by implementing thermal energy storage. CSP with storage provides important benefits to integrate more renewable energy to our electric power supply by mitigating resource variability and satisfying peak demand after sunset. | Photo courtesy of Sandia National Laboratories.

378

Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print The phenomenon known as exchange bias at the interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is currently a subject of intense research because of its applications in the magnetic recording and read-head industries. An international collaboration headed by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has used resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent magnetization in an exchange-biased sample. These results provide atomic-level insights into the mechanism of exchange bias, specifically the involvement of mutual interactions between two kinds of uncompensated spins in the antiferromagnet and spins in the ferromagnet.

379

Development of directional capabilities to an ultradeep water dynamic kill simulator and simulations runs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the increasing demand of oil and gas is the impetus to search for oil in more difficult and challenging areas. One challenging area is offshore in ultradeep water, with water depths greater than 5000 ft. This is the new arena for drilling technology...

Meier, Hector Ulysses

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

E-Print Network 3.0 - applied optical metrology Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Optical Sciences Summary: Research - Quantum Optics Applied Optics & Photonics - Optoelectronics - Optical Communications - Medical... Optics Engineering - Optical System Design...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF OPTICS A: PURE AND APPLIED OPTICS Polarization Optics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF OPTICS A: PURE AND APPLIED OPTICS EDITORIAL Polarization Optics Guest Editors Jari Turunen University of Joensuu, Finland Asher A Friesem Weizmann Institute This special issue on Polarization Optics contains one review article and 23 research papers, many of which

Friesem, Asher A.

382

Retail market test: An in-depth evaluation of a new product concept for lamb.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RETAIL NAREET TS ST. AN IN-DEPTH EVALUATION Oi' A NET' PRODUCT CONCEPT FOH L&ivn A Thesis RUPERT KENNETH NA. LOS Submitted to the Oraduate College of the Texas Af:N University in partial fulfillment oi the ". Suire::ants for the degree... or FLASIcg 0: Sl IENCE August 1967 Najor Subject: Agricultural Economics RETAIL RAPE T. TEST: AN IN-DEPTH EVALUATION OF A N N PRODUCT CONCEPT FOR itANB A Thesis By ROBEPT KENNEIil NA YIOR Apptoved ia to stvi' and content by: (C'noise~an o: Convii...

Naylor, Robert Kenneth

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

383

An empirical equation for penetration depth of ogive-nose projectiles into concrete targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We develop an empirical equation for penetration depth of ogive-nose projectiles penetrating concrete targets at normal impact. Our penetration equation contains a single, dimensionless empirical constant that depends only on the unconfined compressive strength of the target. We determine the empirical constant from penetration depth versus striking velocity data for targets with unconfined compressive strengths of nominally 14 MPa (2 ksi), 35 MPa (5 ksi), and 97 MPa (14 ksi). Predictions are in good agreement with six sets of penetration data for striking velocities between 250 and 800 m/s.

Forrestal, M J; Altman, B S [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cargile, J D [Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States)] [Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States); Hanchak, S J [Dayton Univ., OH (United States). Research Inst.] [Dayton Univ., OH (United States). Research Inst.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Water|Energy Energy|Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water|Energy Energy|Water ... This issue of Environmental Science & Technology features articles addressing the concept of the “water–energy nexus”. ... Perrone et al. invoke the concept in their title, in creating a tool to account for the “energy [used] for water and water [used] for energy” (Environ. ...

Darcy J. Gentleman

2011-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

385

Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CS232615A Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans National Center for Environmental Health). Water Safety Plans A Water Safety Plan (WSP) is a preventive management approach used to manage threats to a drinking water system--from catchment to consumer. It helps in the · Management of activities

386

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and energy are inextricably bound. Energy is consumed and sometimes produced by every form of water resourcesWATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, water resources professionals squarely faced the fact that water

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

387

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also connected to surface waters, and maintains the flow of rivers and streams and the level of wetlands- tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water

Saldin, Dilano

388

Regional Water Management: Adapting to Uncertain Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regional Water Management: Adapting to Uncertain Water Supply and Demand Jim Schneider, Ph · How Nebraska manages water · Dealing with uncertain water supplies: adaptive management #12;Regional-wide, systematic approach · Flexible--Adaptive Management Adaptive Manageme nt #12;Integrated Water Management

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

389

Fiber optic hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading by a single spectrophotometer.

Buchanan, Bruce R. (1985 Willis, Batesburg, SC 29006); Prather, William S. (2419 Dickey Rd., Augusta, GA 30906)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Optical high acidity sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Nekimken, Howard L. (Los Alamos, NM); Carey, W. Patrick (Lynnwood, WA); O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Fiber optic hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading, by a single spectrophotometer.

Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Fiber optic hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method are described for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading by a single spectrophotometer. 4 figs.

Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

1992-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

393

Optical quantum memory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum memory is important to quantum information processing in many ways: a synchronization device to match various processes within a quantum computer, an identity quantum gate that leaves any state unchanged, and a tool to convert heralded photons to photons-on-demand. In addition to quantum computing, quantum memory would be instrumental for the implementation of long-distance quantum communication using quantum repeaters. The importance of this basic quantum gate is exemplified by the multitude of optical quantum memory mechanisms being studied: optical delay lines, cavities, electromagnetically-induced transparency, photon-echo, and off-resonant Faraday interaction. Here we report on the state-of-the-art in the field of optical quantum memory, including criteria for successful quantum memory and current performance levels.

A. I. Lvovsky; B. C. Sanders; W. Tittel

2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

394

Human Motion Capture Using 3D Reconstruction Based on Multiple Depth Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Human motion is a critical aspect of interacting, even between people. It has become an interesting field to exploit in human-robot interaction. Even with today's computing power, it remains a difficult task to successfully follow the human's motion ... Keywords: human posture reconstruction, depth sensing, sensor fusion, machine learning, voxel

Wassim Filali; Jean-Thomas Masse; Frederic Lerasle; Jean-Louis Boizard; Michel Devy

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Synchronized B and 13 C Diamond Delta Structures for an Ultimate In-Depth Chemical Characterization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) profiles in diamond was achieved by the determination of the depth resolution function (DRF). The measurement of this DRF was performed thanks to isotopic-enriched diamond. Applied to boron delta-doped diamond structures, this analysis has resolved edge widths close to 0.3 nm

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

396

Estimates of heat flow from Cenozoic seafloor using global depth and age data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-independent estimate of the total heat output of Cenozoic seafloor is 18.6 to 20.5 TW, which leads to a global output: Oceanic heat flow; Global heat budget; Subsidence rate 1. Introduction The total heat output of the EarthEstimates of heat flow from Cenozoic seafloor using global depth and age data Meng Wei , David

Sandwell, David T.

397

Effects of high-frequency wind sampling on simulated mixed layer depth and upper ocean temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of high-frequency wind sampling on simulated mixed layer depth and upper ocean temperature. Citation: Lee, T., and W. T. Liu (2005), Effects of high-frequency wind sampling on simulated mixed layer 2005. [1] Effects of high-frequency wind sampling on a near-global ocean model are studied by forcing

Talley, Lynne D.

398

Estimates of North American summertime planetary boundary layer depths derived from space-borne lidar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), are sensitive to empirical parameters in addition to the diagnostic method chosen and verification by direct determines the PBL depth using the TKE (turbulent kinetic energy) method. This method identifies the PBL exchanges of energy, moisture, momentum, carbon, and pollutants between the surface and the atmosphere

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

399

Neutron production by cosmic-ray muons at shallow depth J. Busenitz,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutron production by cosmic-ray muons at shallow depth F. Boehm,3 J. Busenitz,1 B. Cook,3 G Received 23 June 2000; published 12 October 2000 The yield of neutrons produced by cosmic ray muons of one and two neutron captures was determined. Modeling the neutron capture efficiency allowed us

Piepke, Andreas G.

400

Influence of sample degradation and tissue depth on blubber cortisol in beluga whales  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Cortisol concentrations in a variety of biological tissues have been used to obtain short-term to long-term estimates of activation of the physiological stress response. In recent years, blubber has been demonstrated to be a good candidate tissue from which to extract steroid hormones, but no method for extracting cortisol from blubber of any marine mammal has been published and the effects of sample storage and variation in blubber depth on cortisol concentrations are unknown. The objectives of this study were to identify a method for extracting cortisol from blubber in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and to evaluate the concentration of hormones in relation to blubber depth and degradation from long-term storage using samples collected and archived over the past 30 years. Cortisol was extracted from blubber of beluga whales by modifying an existing progesterone-blubber extraction method. Cortisol concentrations were lower in degraded samples, but time in storage did not affect cortisol after controlling for sample quality. Cortisol concentrations increased with blubber depth, with highest concentrations in blubber closest to the muscle. These results show that although cortisol in blubber samples collected and archived prior to extraction may be degraded, high quality samples without visible degradation after long-term storage can still yield useful measures of cortisol. Additionally, sample depth should be controlled for during sample collection. These findings provide necessary information for developing accurate sampling protocols for extracting cortisol from blubber of marine mammals, including sampling by biopsy dart.

Marci R. Trana; James D. Roth; Gregg T. Tomy; W. Gary Anderson; Steven H. Ferguson

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Alkyl nitrate (C 1 -C 3 ) depth profiles in the tropical Pacific Ocean  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

concentrations with a [ iPr]/[Et] ratio of 0.1±0.0. Noat all depths with an [iPr]/[Et] ratio of 0.2 ± 0.0. Thiswith ethyl nitrate with an [iPr]/[Et] ratio of 0.2 ± 0.0.

Dahl, E. E; Yvon-Lewis, S. A; Saltzman, E. S

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Scene-adaptive accurate and fast vertical crowd counting via joint using depth and color information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reliable and real-time crowd counting is one of the most important tasks in intelligent visual surveillance systems. Most previous works only count passing people based on color information. Owing to the restrictions of color information influences themselves ... Keywords: Crowd counting, Multimodal joint multimedia processing, Ordinary depth camera, Real time system, Scene-adaptive scheme

Huiyuan Fu, Huadong Ma, Hongtian Xiao

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

The TUM Gait from Audio, Image and Depth (GAID) database: Multimodal recognition of subjects and traits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recognizing people by the way they walk-also known as gait recognition-has been studied extensively in the recent past. Recent gait recognition methods solely focus on data extracted from an RGB video stream. With this work, we provide a means for multimodal ... Keywords: Acoustic gait recognition, Depth gradient histogram energy image, Gait energy image, Gait recognition, Multimodal fusion, Soft biometrics

Martin Hofmann; Jürgen Geiger; Sebastian Bachmann; Björn Schuller; Gerhard Rigoll

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Creating a stereoscopic magic-lens to improve depth perception in handheld augmented reality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Handheld Augmented Reality (AR) is often presented using the magic-lens paradigm where the handheld device is portrayed as if it was transparent. Such a virtual transparency is usually implemented using video captured by a single camera rendered on the ... Keywords: binocular disparity, depth perception, handheld, mobile, parallax, stereoscopic rendering, user study, virtual transparency

Klen ?opi? Pucihar; Paul Coulton; Jason Alexander

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Pose Estimation from a Single Depth Image for Arbitrary Kinematic Skeletons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for a variety of applications (eg. [8]). While recent tech- nological advances have made capturing depth images Saxena2 and Hod Lipson1 1 School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 2 Department of Computer Science Cornell University, Ithaca, NY dll73@cornell.edu, asaxena@cs.cornell.edu, hod

Wikswo, John

406

Planetary boundary layer depth in Global climate models induced biases in surface climatology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Earth has warmed in the last century with the most rapid warming occurring near the surface in the arctic. This enhanced surface warming in the Arctic is partly because the extra heat is trapped in a thin layer of air near the surface due to the persistent stable-stratification found in this region. The warming of the surface air due to the extra heat depends upon the amount of turbulent mixing in the atmosphere, which is described by the depth of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). In this way the depth of the ABL determines the effective response of the surface air temperature to perturbations in the climate forcing. The ABL depth can vary from tens of meters to a few kilometers which presents a challenge for global climate models which cannot resolve the shallower layers. Here we show that the uncertainties in the depth of the ABL can explain up to 60 percent of the difference between the simulated and observed surface air temperature trends and 50 percent of the difference in temperature variability...

Davy, Richard

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Effects of induced flow on the depths of active back-arc basins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The depth of active back-arc basins, younger than 10 Ma is correlated to the angle of subduction, in that the deepest basins are associated with steep angles of subduction, and the shallowest to small angles of subduction. A two-dimensional comer...

Tomlins, Robynn Lee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

408

Probing the Depths of CSP-M: A new fdr-compliant Validation Tool  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Probing the Depths of CSP-M: A new fdr-compliant Validation Tool Michael Leuschel and Marc Fontaine,fontaine}@cs.uni-duesseldorf.de Abstract. We present a new animation and model checking tool for CSP. The tool covers the CSP-M language in the source code, has an LTL model checker and can be used for combined CSP B specifications. During

Southampton, University of

409

Grassmannian Representation of Motion Depth for 3D Human Gesture and Action Recognition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

benefit from the geometric structure of the Grassmaniann manifold. The experimental evaluation- care systems and smart home systems [3]. The main challenges in almost action recognition system al. [5], represent each depth map sequence as a 4D grid by dividing the space and time axes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

410

Depth and controls of Ca-rhodochrosite precipitation in bioturbated sediments of the Eastern Equatorial Pacific,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Depth and controls of Ca-rhodochrosite precipitation in bioturbated sediments of the Eastern Road, Moss Landing, CA 95039-9647, USA ABSTRACT The occurrence of early diagenetic Ca-rhodochrosite [(Mn,Ca)CO3] is reported in association with `griotte'-type nodular limestones from basinal settings

Gilli, Adrian

411

Proper management of wildlife populations requires an in-depth knowledge of habitat require-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proper management of wildlife populations requires an in-depth knowledge of habitat require- ments not call at wind speeds > 4.8 km/h and with clear to foggy skies. Frogs called at tempera- tures > 14°C and wind speeds

McCallum, Malcolm

412

The E-utilities In-Depth: Parameters, Syntax and More Eric Sayers, PhD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The E-utilities In-Depth: Parameters, Syntax and More Eric Sayers, PhD NCBI sayers@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Introduction This chapter serves as a reference for all supported parameters for the E-utilities, along with accepted values and usage guidelines. This information is provided for each E-utility in sections below

Levin, Judith G.

413

Intermediate-depth Circulation of the Indian and South Pacific Oceans Measured by Autonomous Floats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Intermediate-depth Circulation of the Indian and South Pacific Oceans Measured by Autonomous Floats of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, 306 autonomous floats were deployed in the tropical and South autonomous floats that are not acoustically tracked, but rather surface at regular intervals to be located by

Davis, Russ

414

London penetration depth and coherence length of SU(3) vacuum flux tubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The transverse profile of the chromoelectric field generated by a quark-antiquark pair in the SU(3) vacuum is analysed within the dual superconductor scenario, then the London penetration depth and coherence length are extracted. The color field is determined on the lattice through a connected correlator of two Polyakov loops measured on smeared configurations.

Paolo Cea; Leonardo Cosmai; Francesca Cuteri; Alessandro Papa

2014-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

415

3D MODEL RETRIEVAL BASED ON DEPTH LINE DESCRIPTOR Mohamed Chaouch and Anne Verroust-Blondet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3D MODEL RETRIEVAL BASED ON DEPTH LINE DESCRIPTOR Mohamed Chaouch and Anne Verroust-Blondet INRIA.verroust}@inria.fr. ABSTRACT In this paper, we propose a novel 2D/3D approach for 3D model matching and retrieving. Each model information provides a more accurate description of 3D shape boundaries than using other 2D shape descriptors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

416

3D VIDEO QUALITY EVALUATION WITH DEPTH QUALITY VARIATIONS Gustavo Leon, Hari Kalva, and Borko Furht  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3D VIDEO QUALITY EVALUATION WITH DEPTH QUALITY VARIATIONS Gustavo Leon, Hari Kalva, and Borko Furht on 3D video perception on autostereoscopic displays. This study was done using objective as well image quality and compression on the perceived 3D experience. Another objective is to evaluate the use

Kalva, Hari

417

Oil and Gas CDT Predicting fault permeability at depth: incorporating natural  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oil and Gas CDT Predicting fault permeability at depth: incorporating natural permeability controls on fluid flow in oil and gas reservoirs. Fault zones are composed of many deformation elements will receive 20 weeks bespoke, residential training of broad relevance to the oil and gas industry: 10 weeks

Henderson, Gideon

418

Water Permits (Louisiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Water Permits Division authorizes permits administered under the Water Quality Regulations. Louisiana's Water Quality Regulations require permits for the discharge of pollutants from any point...

419

Light Water Reactor Sustainability  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4 Light Water Reactor Sustainability ACCOMPLISHMENTS REPORT 2014 Accomplishments Report | Light Water Reactor Sustainability 2 T he mission of the Light Water Reactor...

420

Optical dichroism in nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Utilizing the line-group symmetry of single-wall nanotubes, we have assigned their electron-energy bands by symmetry-based quantum numbers. The selection rules for optical absorption are presented in terms of these quantum numbers. Different interband transitions become allowed as the polarization of incident light is varied, and we predict a substantial optical dichroism. We suggest how to observe this effect in experiments on a single nanotube, and how it can be used to control quantum transport in nanotubes to obtain information about the structure.

I. Božovi?; N. Božovi?; M. Damnjanovi?

2000-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Solid state optical microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

Young, I.T.

1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

422

Solid state optical microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

Young, Ian T. (Pleasanton, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Full spectrum optical safeguard  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical safeguard device with two linear variable Fabry-Perot filters aligned relative to a light source with at least one of the filters having a nonlinear dielectric constant material such that, when a light source produces a sufficiently high intensity light, the light alters the characteristics of the nonlinear dielectric constant material to reduce the intensity of light impacting a connected optical sensor. The device can be incorporated into an imaging system on a moving platform, such as an aircraft or satellite.

Ackerman, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

424

Experimental study of integrated collector storage solar water heaters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three Integrated Collector Storage Solar Water Heaters (ICSSWH) have been designed, constructed and experimentally studied in comparison to a Flat Plate Thermosiphonic Unit (FPTU). Each of the ICS experimental models consists of one cylindrical tank horizontally mounted in a stationary symmetrical Compound Parabolic Concentrating (CPC) reflector trough. The main objective is the design and construction of low cost solar water heaters with improved thermal performance and lower possible depths. The experimental models can be mounted on horizontal as well as on inclined roofs by adopting the lowest possible depth. The results show that these solar devices perform more than effectively all year long. This could contribute significantly on the development of ICS type solar water heaters.

M. Souliotis; D. Chemisana; Y.G. Caouris; Y. Tripanagnostopoulos

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

Bond, D

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Photosynthetic water oxidation versus photovoltaic water electrolysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

News Media about Center Center Video Library Bisfuel Picture Gallery Photosynthetic water oxidation versus photovoltaic water electrolysis 13 May 2011 Professor Tom Moore, a...

427

High-index-contrast electromechanical optical switches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

System developers are looking to replace protocol-dependent, bandwidth-limited optical networks with intelligent optically-transparent integrated photonic networks. Several electromechanical optical switches are explored ...

Bryant, Reginald (Reginald Eugene), 1978-

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

2.71 Optics, Fall 2001  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction to optical science with elementary engineering applications. Geometrical optics: ray-tracing, aberrations, lens design, apertures and stops, radiometry and photometry. Wave optics: basic electrodynamics, ...

Barbastathis, George

429

Multi-Scale Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods forspeed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3umJ. G. (1991). Optical coherence tomography. Science, 254(

Oliveira, Michael

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

MHK Technologies/Deep water capable hydrokinetic turbine | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

water capable hydrokinetic turbine water capable hydrokinetic turbine < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage 275px Technology Profile Primary Organization Hills Inc Technology Resource Click here Current Technology Type Click here Axial Flow Turbine Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 4 Proof of Concept Technology Description It is an axial flow shrouded turbine direct connected to a water pump that delivers water to an on shore genetator Being completely water proof and submersible the device can operate at any water depth Mooring Configuration An array of turbines are teathered to a cable that is anchored via a dead weight Optimum Marine/Riverline Conditions This system is designed for use in Florida s Gulf Stream however any constant ocean current is suitable

431

Bio-Optical Variability in Mayaguez Bay during the Rainy Season Joel A. Quiones Rivera, ja23_degrees@hotmail.com  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bio-Optical Variability in Mayaguez Bay during the Rainy Season Joel A. Quiñones Rivera, ja23 by suspending particles in the water that affects light penetration. This is critical for the bio-optical from different stations collected with an bio-optical rosette along the Mayagüez Bay and considering

Gilbes, Fernando

432

Water-equivalent dosimeter array for small-field external beam radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the increasing complexity of dose patterns external beam radiotherapy, there is a great need for new types of dosimeters. We studied the first prototype of a new dosimeter array consisting of water-equivalent plastic scintillating fibers for dose measurement in external beam radiotherapy. We found that this array allows precise, rapid dose evaluation of small photon fields. Starting with a dosimeter system constructed with a single scintillating fiber coupled to a clear optical fiber and read using a charge coupled device camera, we looked at the dosimeter's spatial resolution under small radiation fields and angular dependence. Afterward, we analyzed the camera's light collection to determine the maximum array size that could be built. Finally, we developed a prototype made of ten scintillating fiber detectors to study the behavior and precision of this system in simple dosimetric situations. The scintillation detector showed no measurable angular dependence. Comparison of the scintillation detector and a small-volume ion chamber showed agreement except for 1x1 and 0.5x5.0 cm{sup 2} fields where the output factor measured by the scintillator was higher. The actual field of view of the camera could accept more than 4000 scintillating fiber detectors simultaneously. Evaluation of the dose profile and depth dose curve using a prototype with ten scintillating fiber detectors showed precise, rapid dose evaluation even with placement of more than 75 optical fibers in the field to simulate what would happen in a larger array. We concluded that this scintillating fiber dosimeter array is a valuable tool for dose measurement in external beam radiotherapy. It possesses the qualities necessary to evaluate small and irregular fields with various incident angles such as those encountered in intensity-modulated radiotherapy, radiosurgery, and tomotherapy.

Archambault, Louis; Beddar, A. Sam; Gingras, Luc; Lacroix, Frederic; Roy, Rene; Beaulieu, Luc [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, 77030 (United States) and Departement de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, 77030 (United States); Departement de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Departement de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Departement de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec City (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

433

Integrated optics and new wave phenomena in optical waveguides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Research in integrated optics has two goals: One is to apply thin-film technology to the formation of optical devices and circuits. The other is the integration of a large number of optical devices on a small substrate, so forming an optical circuit reminiscent of the integrated circuit in microelectronics. The result is a new breed of optical devices in the form of miniature optical waveguides. They include lasers, modulators, switches, detectors, prisms, lenses, and polarizers, and many of them have efficiencies better than their bulk counterparts. Simple integrated optical circuits have also been constructed, and rapidly advancing semiconductor technology indicates that monolithic integrated optical circuits can readily be developed using GaAs-related compounds. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art of integrated optics and explore new wave phenomena in optical circuits. The specific topics to be discussed are: light-wave couplers and m-line spectroscopy, refraction and reflection of light in thin films, normal modes of the uniform, the graded and the metal-clad waveguides, optics in tapered films, theory of corrugated waveguides, and more importantly, physics of various thin-film optical devices and the method of the circuit formation.

P. K. Tien

1977-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Alligator Ridge District, East-Central Nevada: Carlin-Type Gold Mineralization at Shallow Depths  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...i´34Svalues could have been produced by thermochemical reduction...such as localground water. View larger version...sulfur isotope shifts produced by closed-system...sulfideminerals by meteoric water. Thus, the sulfate...the dilatant Mooney Basin fault system into theadjacent...forcirculation of meteoric water to the brittle-ductile...

Constance J. Nutt; Albert H. Hofstra

435

Bachelor of Science Degree in Optics Bachelor of Science Degree in Optical Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bachelor of Science Degree in Optics Bachelor of Science Degree in Optical Engineering The Institute of Optics Major Requirements OPT 201 Geometrical Optics Lab (2 cr.) OPT 202 Physical Optics Lab (2 Theory of Optics OPT 225 Optical Sources and Detectors OPT 241 Geometrical Optics OPT 242 Aberrations

436

Bachelor of Science Degree in Optics Bachelor of Science Degree in Optical Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bachelor of Science Degree in Optics Bachelor of Science Degree in Optical Engineering The Institute of Optics Major Requirements OPT 197 Geometrical Optics Lab (2 cr.) OPT 198 Physical Optics Lab (2 Theory of Optics OPT 225 Optical Sources and Detectors OPT 241 Geometrical Optics OPT 242 Aberrations

Mahon, Bradford Z.

437

High throughput optical scanner  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A scanning apparatus is provided to obtain automated, rapid and sensitive scanning of substrate fluorescence, optical density or phosphorescence. The scanner uses a constant path length optical train, which enables the combination of a moving beam for high speed scanning with phase-sensitive detection for noise reduction, comprising a light source, a scanning mirror to receive light from the light source and sweep it across a steering mirror, a steering mirror to receive light from the scanning mirror and reflect it to the substrate, whereby it is swept across the substrate along a scan arc, and a photodetector to receive emitted or scattered light from the substrate, wherein the optical path length from the light source to the photodetector is substantially constant throughout the sweep across the substrate. The optical train can further include a waveguide or mirror to collect emitted or scattered light from the substrate and direct it to the photodetector. For phase-sensitive detection the light source is intensity modulated and the detector is connected to phase-sensitive detection electronics. A scanner using a substrate translator is also provided. For two dimensional imaging the substrate is translated in one dimension while the scanning mirror scans the beam in a second dimension. For a high throughput scanner, stacks of substrates are loaded onto a conveyor belt from a tray feeder.

Basiji, David A. (Seattle, WA); van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Quantum Optics (Nir Davidson -  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capacity and Cost Effectiveness Enhancment Technique Using a Combined Time Division and Multilevel California, USA, "Advanced System Functions in Optical Communications Using E-O Technologies" Moshe Nazarathy for fabricating printed circuit boards" Solar Cells (Jeffrey Gordon, Uzi Efron - Ben- Gurion University) David

Ribak, Erez

439

Glass for Optical Purposes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE importance of an adequate supply of optical glass of all the principal types cannot be overestimated. The improvement of the microscope has ... improvement of the microscope has been and is still retarded for the want of suitable glasses, the construction of large telescopes is limited by the capacity of the glassmaker to ...

S. D. CHALMERS

1914-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Optical pumping of ions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Radiofrequency spectroscopy has been extended to positive ions with S ground states by means of optical pumping. The ions are stored in buffer gases or ion traps and are polarized directly by optical pumping or indirectly by spin exchange, change exchange, or Penning ionization with optically pumped atoms. The applied methods are described. The experiments can be divided into two categories: Collisional interactions of the polarized ions are investigated, like the exchange processes mentioned above, spin exchange with free electrons, spin depolarization and hyperfine density shifts in rare gases. For the two latter effects drastic differences are observed between atomic and ionic 2S12 states the explanations of which reveal the influence of the ionic charge on the interactions. The comparison of equivalent processes involving isoelectronic 2S or 2P configurations of atoms and ions provides a test of current collision theories. Precision rf spectroscopy of ionic ground states yields the 2S12 hyperfine structure splittings of 3He+ and group II ions with relative accuracies of up to 10?9, with further improvement possible. Direct and indirect optical pumping of 1S0 ions is used to determine nuclear magnetic moments, diamagnetic shielding coefficients, and chemical shifts. Applications and further developments of the present methods are discussed.

E.W. Weber

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Global Water Sustainability:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Ground Water and Drinking Water EPA 816-R-04-003...oil and gas produced water treatment. Journal of Hazardous...92-99 Jurenka B (2007) Electrodialysis (ED) and Electrodialysis...usbr.gov/pmts/water/publications/reportpdfs...

Kelvin B. Gregory; Radisav D. Vidic; David A. Dzombak

442

Drinking Water Problems: Lead  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lead in drinking water can damage the brain, kidneys, nervous system and red blood cells. This publication explains how lead can enter drinking water, how to have your water tested, and how to eliminate lead from drinking water....

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2004-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

443

Optical imaging of Rydberg atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an experiment exploring electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in Rydberg atoms in order to observe optical nonlinearities at the single photon level. ??Rb atoms are trapped and cooled using a magneto-optical ...

Mazurenko, Anton

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Miniature MT optical assembly (MMTOA)  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical assembly (10) includes a rigid mount (12) with a recess (26) proximate a first side thereof, a substrate (14), and an optical die (16) flip-chip bonded to the substrate (14). The substrate (14) is secured to the first side of the mount and includes a plurality of die bonding elements (40), a plurality of optical apertures (32), and a plurality of external bonding elements (42). A plurality of traces (44) interconnect the die bonding elements (40) and the external bonding elements (42). The optical die (16) includes a plurality of optical elements, each element including an optical signal interface (48), the die being bonded to the plurality of die bonding elements (40) such that the optical signal interface (48) of each element is in registry with an optical aperture (32) of the substrate (14) and the die (16) is at least partially enclosed by the recess (26).

Laughlin, Daric (Overland Park, KS); Abel, Phillip (Overland Park, KS)

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Science, Optics and You Guidebook  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

- i - INTRODUCTION WHAT IS SCIENCE, 0PTICS & YOU? The Science, Optics and You Guidebook is made up as follows: Science, Optics and You is a standards-based interdisciplinary...

446

Science, Optics and You: Introduction  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

- i - INTRODUCTION WHAT IS SCIENCE, 0PTICS & YOU? The Science, Optics and You Guidebook is made up as follows: Science, Optics and You is a standards-based interdisciplinary...

447

Crooker named Optical Society Fellow  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Crooker named Optical Society Fellow January 23, 2014 Scott Crooker of LANL's Condensed Matter and Magnet Science group is a 2014 Fellow of the Optical Society (OSA). The Society...

448

Water Beetles  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Beetles Beetles Nature Bulletin No. 639-A April 29, 1961 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis Supt. of Conservation WATER BEETLES The world is full of beetles. They live everywhere except in the oceans and in the polar regions. There are more of them than any other kind of insect. A quarter of a million species are known and new ones are being discovered every year. Whether it is a microscopic mushroom beetle a hundredth of an inch long, or a giant six-inch Hercules beetle from South America, it can be recognized by its wings. The upper pair forms a hard shell curving like a shield over the thin folded lower wings and the abdomen. In flight, the upper pair is extended like the wings of an airplane and the lower two become buzzing propellers.

449

Water watch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hydropower Generation Report provides generation figures for the largest hydropower producers in each of six regions in the US. The report compares, for each month, the amount of hydroelectricity generated (in thousands of megawatt-hours) by each producers in the last two years to the ten-year average for that month. This database is used to figure long-term generation averages and percent of averages. The producers regularly provide current generation data to update the database. This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on winter snow conditions across the US as of mid-January. In addition, the department provides an outlook of spring flood potential. The information presented is based on data from the US Geological Survey, the National Weather Service, and the Soil Conservation Service.

Not Available

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

The Use of Silicon Structures with Rapid Doping Level Transitions to Explore the Limitations of SIMS Depth Profiling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Semiconductor devices continue to shrink, with an immediate prospect of spatial dimensions ?1µm laterally and SIMS depth resolution of ?lµm (2...

M. G. Dowsett; D. S. McPhail; R. A. A. Kubiak…

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Isotope 18O/16O ratio measurements of water vapor by use of the 950-nm wavelength region with cavity ring-down and photoacoustic spectroscopic techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two optical methods, cavity ring-down spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectroscopy, are applied to the measurement of the isotope ratio 18O/16O in water-vapor...

Samura, Ken; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Hayashida, Akira; Kagi, Eriko; Ishiwata, Takashi; Matsumi, Yutaka

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Water Power Program: Publications  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Water Power Program HOME ABOUT RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL OPPORTUNITIES INFORMATION RESOURCES NEWS EVENTS EERE Water Power Program Information Resources Publications...

453

Erosion behaviour of ceramic bulk and coating materials caused by water droplet impingement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Turbine blades in the low-steam environment of energy generation systems suffer severe erosion due to the impingement of water droplets. Erosion resistance of metallic substrates to droplet impingement could possibly be improved with ceramic coating. However, the erosion resistance of ceramic material has not been sufficiently evaluated with respect to selection and maintenance of component materials in power plant systems. A water-jet apparatus, for which impingement velocity and number of water droplets have been well characterized, was used in this study. Erosion tests were conducted on various ceramic bulk and coating materials and on the metallic substrates to investigate erosion behaviour and resistance. Erosion behaviour was characterized by the incubation period and the subsequent damage depth rate. Some ceramic bulk materials had short incubation periods and significant damage depth rates. Zirconia normally had the longest incubation periods and the lowest damage depths. The erosion rate was calculated from the relationship between logarithms of damage depth and impact velocity. The incubation period was also correlated with the logarithm of impact velocity. Both velocity constants in erosion damage and incubation periods of these ceramic materials were strongly correlated with fracture toughness, but not with hardness of the materials. Damage depth rates calculated from the relationship with impact velocity and fracture toughness were comparable to experimentally measured damage depth rates for various ceramic materials.

Y.I. Oka; H. Miyata

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Water Sustainability Program Challenges to Sustainable Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Drought, Climate Change · Growth and the need for additional supplies · Water and Energy · Water the Southwest, nation, semi-arid and arid regions, and the world. · Today's program provides just a glimpse to and utilization of renewable supplies · Transboundary water issues · The surface water/groundwater interface

Cushing, Jim. M.

455

Water Resources Policy & Economics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics · Appropriative and riparian water institutions · Incentives for conservation · Water rights for in-stream environmental use · Surface water-groundwater management · Water quality regulations · Water markets · Economic and policy

Buehrer, R. Michael

456

Large core fiber optic cleaver  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a device and method for cleaving optical fibers which yields cleaved optical fiber ends possessing high damage threshold surfaces. The device can be used to cleave optical fibers with core diameters greater than 400 {micro}m. 30 figs.

Halpin, J.M.

1996-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

457

Optical computing Damien Woods a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical computing Damien Woods a aDepartment of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Institute, Vierimaantie 5, 84100 Ylivieska, Finland Abstract We consider optical computers that encode data using images and compute by transforming such images. We give an overview of a number of such optical

Woods, Damien

458

Nonlinear optics at maximum coherence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...D. Walls Nonlinear optics at maximum coherence S. E. Harris G. Y. Yin M. Jain H...optical processes which utilize maximum coherence of a non-allowed transition. The nonlinear...frequency. Nonlinear optics at maximum coherence B y S. E. Harris, G. Y. Yin, M...

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Aerogel-clad optical fiber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical fiber is surrounded by an aerogel cladding. For a low density aerogel, the index of refraction of the aerogel is close to that of air, which provides a high numerical aperture to the optical fiber. Due to the high numerical aperture, the aerogel clad optical fiber has improved light collection efficiency.

Sprehn, Gregory A. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Sandler, Pamela H. (San Marino, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Macroscopic three-dimensional physical simulation of water flooding in multi-well fracture-cavity unit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A macroscopic three-dimensional physical simulating model of multi-well fracture-cavity units was designed and constructed based on similarity theory. The characteristics and the water breakthrough pattern of fracture-cavity reservoirs developed in bottom water depletion and water injection modes were investigated by the model. The results show that, in bottom water drive, under the effect of bottom water depletion and water breakthrough, the wells had high productivity in early stage and fast decline. After energy supplement by injecting water, the productivity rebounded in a short time and then began a slow decline. The bottom water tended to coning to the wells at the place of bottom water entry. The water breakthrough pattern is spot pattern and the water breakthrough time is controlled by the well's connectivity to the bottom water; the water injection can inhibit coning and intrusion of bottom water, turning the spot pattern water breakthrough in bottom water drive period into planar line form, and the water breakthrough time in water injection period was mainly influenced by the well depth. The water cut of wells in water flooding multi-well fracture-cavity units changes in three patterns: slow rise, staircase rise and abrupt watered-out, which is influenced by the reservoir type and the coordination number. When the well encounters cavity, the water cut increasing rate slows down with the increase of the coordination number; when the well drilled fractures, the water cut changes in staircase pattern with the increase of coordination number.

Jirui HOU; Haibo LI; Yu JIANG; Ming LUO; Zeyu ZHENG; Li ZHANG; Dengyu YUAN

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Energy Saver Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water heating costs....

462

Water Footprint | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Footprint Blue water represents water withdrawn from surface water and groundwater for feedstock irrigation and refinery processing. Blue water represents water withdrawn from...

463

Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Diffractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne and David G. Grier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical Tweezer Arrays and Optical Substrates Created with Diffractive Optics Eric R. Dufresne optical tweezers from a single laser beam using diffractive optical elements. As a demonstration of this technique, we have implemented a 4 \\Theta 4 square array of optical tweezers -- the hexadeca

Grier, David

464

Seismic interpretation and regional geologic correlation established for offshore Togo, West Africa: a preliminary evaluation of hydrocarbon potential in deep water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3-D seismic data acquired by Petroleum Geo-Services Inc. (PGS), Houston, Texas. The study area ranges from approximately 180 m - 2500 m water depth. Research included regional geologic correlation, seismic interpretation, and structural modeling...

Gray, Max Daniel

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

465

Bonded, walk-off compensated optical elements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A bonded, walk-off compensated crystal, for use with optical equipment, and methods of making optical components including same.

Ebbers, Christopher A. (Livermore, CA)

2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

466

Assess in-depth contributions of selected scenarios to goals across sectors  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

in-depth contributions of selected scenarios to goals across sectors in-depth contributions of selected scenarios to goals across sectors Jump to: navigation, search Stage 3c LEDS Home Introduction to Framework Assess current country plans, policies, practices, and capacities Develop_BAU Stage 4: Prioritizing and Planning for Actions Begin execution of implementation plans 1.0. Organizing the LEDS Process 1.1. Institutional Structure for LEDS 1.2. Workplan to Develop the LEDS 1.3. Roles and responsibilities to develop LEDS 2.1. Assess current country plans, policies, practices, and capacities 2.2. Compile lessons learned and good practices from ongoing and previous sustainable development efforts in the country 2.3. Assess public and private sector capacity to support initiatives 2.4. Assess and improve the national GHG inventory and other

467

Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Evaluation of the Effective Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings J. Woods, J. Winkler, and D. Christensen National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-57441 January 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings J. Woods, J. Winkler, and D. Christensen National Renewable Energy Laboratory Prepared under Task No. BE12.0201

468

[Geothermal system temperature-depth database and model for data analysis]. 5. quarterly technical progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During this first quarter of the second year of the contract activity has involved several different tasks. The author has continued to work on three tasks most intensively during this quarter: the task of implementing the data base for geothermal system temperature-depth, the maintenance of the WWW site with the heat flow and gradient data base, and finally the development of a modeling capability for analysis of the geothermal system exploration data. The author has completed the task of developing a data base template for geothermal system temperature-depth data that can be used in conjunction with the regional data base that he had already developed and is now implementing it. Progress is described.

Blackwell, D.D.

1998-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

469

Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Measurement of atmospheric production depth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides information about the longitudinal development of the muonic component of extensive air showers. Using the timing information from the flash analog-to-digital converter traces of surface detectors far from the shower core, it is possible to reconstruct a muon production depth distribution. We characterize the goodness of this reconstruction for zenith angles around 60 deg. and different energies of the primary particle. From these distributions we define X(mu)max as the depth along the shower axis where the production of muons reaches maximum. We explore the potentiality of X(mu)max as a useful observable to infer the mass composition of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. Likewise, we assess its ability to constrain hadronic interaction models.

Pierre Auger Collaboration

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

470

Effect of Ion Skin Depth on Relaxation of Merging Spheromaks to a Field-Reversed Configuration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of ion skin depth on the relaxation of merging spheromaks to a field-reversed configuration (FRC) is studied experimentally for a wide range of size parameter S* (ratio of minor radius to ion skin depth) from 1 to 7. The two merging spheromaks are observed to relax to an FRC or a new spheromak depending on whether the initial poloidal eigenvalue is smaller or larger than a threshold value. The bifurcation value is found to increase with decreasing size parameter S*, indicating that the low-S* condition provides a wide bifurcated range of relaxation to an FRC. The FRC-style relaxation under the low-S* conditions was accompanied by the suppression of the low-n modes (n is the toroidal mode number) activity. The fast rotations of the modes were followed by suppression of the low-n modes.

Eiichirou Kawamori and Yasushi Ono

2005-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

471

Report on Analysis of Forest Floor Bulk Density and Depth at the Savannah River Site.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The forest floor data from the Savannah River Site consists of two layers, the litter layer and the duff layer. The purpose for the study was to determine bulk density conversion factors to convert litter and duff depth values in inches to forest floor fuel values in tons per acre. The primary objective was to collect litter and duff samples to adequately characterize forest floor depth and bulk density for combinations of 4 common forest types (loblolly/slash pine, longleaf pine, pine and hardwood mix, upland hardwood), 3 age classes (5-20, 20-40, 40+ years old) and 3 categories of burning history (0-3, 3-10, 10+ years since last burn).

Bernard R. Parresol

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Multi-mode wavepath depth imaging for the SEG/EAGE salt model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elastic depth imaging of both P-wave and S-wave prestack seismic reflection data is formulated as a degraded form of Kirchhoff migration known as Wavepath Migration (WM). Applications to the SEG/EAGE salt model show that the method is sufficiently versatile anti relaitively inexpensive. It handles S-wave data with at least the same accuracy as Pwave data when local mode conversions are removed. WM also provides an understanding of multi-mode illumination.

Druzhinin, A. (Alexander); House, L. S. (Leigh S.); Pajchel, J.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

Ayers, Marion Jay (Brentwood, CA); Ayers, Shannon Lee (Brentwood, CA)

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

474

TOF-SIMS/MALDI-TOF combination for the molecular weight depth profiling of polymeric bilayer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A polymeric bilayer composed of two poly(styrene) layers differing by their molecular weights (MW) was elaborated to mimic a MW gradient and analyzed by a combination of TOF-SIMS, MALDI-MS and Nanoscratch (NS). A direct TOF-SIMS profiling conducted using a Cs+ ion beam lead to the detection of fragments from carbonated layers without any data about their MW, making the fine bilayer architecture indistinguishable. Spots of various depths were hence created using the same Cs+ ion bombardment for different sputtering times, and further mass-analyzed by the recently developed Surface-Layer MALDI-MS technique, to evaluate the MW of the very top polymeric layer of each crater. The off-line combination of ion etching and LASER analysis allowed a molecular weight depth profile to be plotted, as a function of the physical depth measured by NS in each crater (instead of the usual sputter time). This original coupling is expected to provide useful molecular and/or molecular weight data about complex organic and/or polymeric multi-layers or gradients.

Thierry Fouquet; Grégory Mertz; Nicolas Desbenoit; Gilles Frache; David Ruch

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Optical Network Testbeds Workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the summary report of the third annual Optical Networking Testbed Workshop (ONT3), which brought together leading members of the international advanced research community to address major challenges in creating next generation communication services and technologies. Networking research and development (R&D) communities throughout the world continue to discover new methods and technologies that are enabling breakthroughs in advanced communications. These discoveries are keystones for building the foundation of the future economy, which requires the sophisticated management of extremely large qualities of digital information through high performance communications. This innovation is made possible by basic research and experiments within laboratories and on specialized testbeds. Initial network research and development initiatives are driven by diverse motives, including attempts to solve existing complex problems, the desire to create powerful new technologies that do not exist using traditional methods, and the need to create tools to address specific challenges, including those mandated by large scale science or government agency mission agendas. Many new discoveries related to communications technologies transition to wide-spread deployment through standards organizations and commercialization. These transition paths allow for new communications capabilities that drive many sectors of the digital economy. In the last few years, networking R&D has increasingly focused on advancing multiple new capabilities enabled by next generation optical networking. Both US Federal networking R&D and other national R&D initiatives, such as those organized by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) of Japan are creating optical networking technologies that allow for new, powerful communication services. Among the most promising services are those based on new types of multi-service or hybrid networks, which use new optical networking technologies. Several years ago, when many of these optical networking research topics were first being investigated, they were the subject of controversial debate. The new techniques challenged many long-held concepts related to architecture and technology. However, today all major networking organizations are transitioning toward infrastructure that incorporates these new concepts. This progress has been assisted through the series of Optical Networking Testbed Workshops (ONT). The first (ONT1) outlined a general framework of key issues and topics and developed a series of recommendations (www.nren.nasa.gov/workshop7). The second (ONT2) developed a common vision of optical network technologies, services, infrastructure, and organizations (www.nren.nasa.gov/workshop8). Processes that allow for a common vision encourage widespread deployment of these types of resources among advanced networking communities. Also, such a shared vision enables key concepts and technologies to migrate from basic research testbeds to wider networking communities. The ONT-3 workshop built on these earlier activities by expanding discussion to include additional considerations of the international interoperability and of greater impact of optical networking technology on networking in general. In accordance with this recognition, the workshop confirmed that future-oriented research and development is indispensable to fundamentally change the current Internet architecture to create a global network incorporating completely new concepts. The workshop also recognized that the first priority to allow for this progress is basic research and development, including international collaborative activities, which are important for the global realization of interoperability of a new generation architecture.

Joe Mambretti

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Modular optical detector system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

Horn, Brent A. (Livermore, CA); Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA)

2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

477

LSST Camera Optics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a unique, three-mirror, modified Paul-Baker design with an 8.4m primary, a 3.4m secondary, and a 5.0m tertiary feeding a camera system that includes corrector optics to produce a 3.5 degree field of view with excellent image quality (<0.3 arcsecond 80% encircled diffracted energy) over the entire field from blue to near infra-red wavelengths. We describe the design of the LSST camera optics, consisting of three refractive lenses with diameters of 1.6m, 1.0m and 0.7m, along with a set of interchangeable, broad-band, interference filters with diameters of 0.75m. We also describe current plans for fabricating, coating, mounting and testing these lenses and filters.

Olivier, S S; Seppala, L; Gilmore, K; Hale, L; Whistler, W

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

478

Fiber optic moisture sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

Kirkham, R.R.

1984-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

479

Existence of Optical Vortices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical vortices arise as phase singularities of the light fields and are of central interest in modern optical physics. In this paper, some existence theorems are established for stationary vortex wave solutions of a general class of nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equations. There are two types of results. The first type concerns the existence of positive-radial-profile solutions which are obtained through a constrained minimization approach. The second type addresses the existence of saddle-point solutions through a mountain-pass-theorem or min-max method so that the wave propagation constant may be arbitrarily prescribed in an open interval. Furthermore some explicit estimates for the lower bound and sign of the wave propagation constant with respect to the light beam power and vortex winding number are also derived for the first type solutions.

Yisong Yang; Ruifeng Zhang

2012-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

480

MicroSight Optics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

MicroSight is an innovative gunsight technology that allows a marksman's eye to focus on both the front gunsight and the intended target. The MicroSight improves both firearm safety and performance by imaging two objects at different focal distances. The MicroSight was developed at Idaho National Laboratory, and has been licensed by Apollo Optical Systems. You can learn more about INL's research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

None

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical water depths" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Optically pulsed electron accelerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radiofrequency-powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

Fraser, J.S.; Sheffield, R.L.

1985-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

482

Fourier optics on graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using numerical simulations, here, we demonstrate that a single sheet of graphene with properly designed inhomogeneous, nonuniform conductivity distributions can act as a convex lens for focusing and collimating the transverse-magnetic (TM) surface plasmon polariton (SPP) surface waves propagating along the graphene. Consequently, we show that the graphene can act as a platform for obtaining spatial Fourier transform of infrared (IR) SPP signals. This may lead to rebirth of the field of Fourier optics on a 1-atom-thick structure.

Ashkan Vakil and Nader Engheta

2012-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

483

Optically Controlled Jitter Generator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new simple circuit producing random pulse trains is proposed and experimentally studied. The circuit is composed of an operational amplifier and two feedback links, one of which comprises two photodiodes. The photodiodes are responsible for nonlinearity in the feedback. By varying the illumination it is possible to control the nonlinearity in the photodiode current-voltage characteristics and change the degree of randomness in the oscillations. The circuit's simplicity and optical control make it attractive for coupled map lattices.

Julia Manasson; V. A. Manasson

2006-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

484

Fiber optic geophysical sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

Homuth, Emil F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Optically pulsed electron accelerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radio frequency powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

Fraser, John S. (Los Alamos, NM); Sheffield, Richard L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

MicroSight Optics  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

MicroSight is an innovative gunsight technology that allows a marksman's eye to focus on both the front gunsight and the intended target. The MicroSight improves both firearm safety and performance by imaging two objects at different focal distances. The MicroSight was developed at Idaho National Laboratory, and has been licensed by Apollo Optical Systems. You can learn more about INL's research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

None

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

487

Partnering to Save Water  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Partnering Partnering to Save Water Phill Consiglio Southern California Edison What We Are Going to Discuss * A Little Bit About Water * The Energy Cost of Water * Water Technologies * What We Have Done * Where We Are Going A Little Bit About Water *The Earth Has A Finite Supply Of Fresh Water. - Water Is Stored In Aquifers, Surface Waters And The Atmosphere - Sometimes Oceans Are Mistaken For Available Water, But The Amount Of Energy Needed To Convert Saline Water To Potable Water Is Prohibitive Today *This Has Created A Water Crisis Due To: - Inadequate Access To Safe Drinking Water For About 884 Million People - Inadequate Access To Water For Sanitation And Waste Disposal For 2.5 Billion People - Groundwater Overdrafting (Excessive Use) Leading To Diminished Agricultural Yields

488

Optical fiber inspection system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected. 10 figs.

Moore, F.W.

1985-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

489

Virtual Optical Comparator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Virtual Optical Comparator, VOC, was conceived as a result of the limitations of conventional optical comparators and vision systems. Piece part designs for mechanisms have started to include precision features on the face of parts that must be viewed using a reflected image rather than a profile shadow. The VOC concept uses a computer generated overlay and a digital camera to measure features on a video screen. The advantage of this system is superior edge detection compared to traditional systems. No vinyl charts are procured or inspected. The part size and expensive fixtures are no longer a concern because of the range of the X-Y table of the Virtual Optical Comparator. Product redesigns require only changes to the CAD image overlays; new vinyl charts are not required. The inspection process is more ergonomic by allowing the operator to view the part sitting at a desk rather than standing over a 30 inch screen. The procurement cost for the VOC will be less than a traditional comparator with a much smaller footprint with less maintenance and energy requirements.

Thompson, Greg

2008-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

490

Optical ionization detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium. 3 figures.

Wuest, C.R.; Lowry, M.E.

1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

491

Optical ionization detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Lowry, Mark E. (Castro Valley, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

American Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida, Maine, and Massachusetts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 American Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida, Maine warming has been happening � What might have caused global warming � Whether global warming

Ford, Andrew

493

Reconstruction of original indium distribution in InGaAs quantum wells from experimental SIMS depth profiles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Depth profiling analysis of InGaAs/GaAs hetero-structures grown by MBE on GaAs (0 0 1) substrates is reported. A novel two-step procedure for de-convolving experimental SIMS depth distribution is employed and the original In distribution in InGaAs quantum wells (QW) is estimated. The QW thickness calculated from the de-convolved profiles is shown to be in good agreement with the cross-sectional TEM images. The experimental In depth profile is shifted from the original In distribution due to the ion mixing process during depth profiling analysis. It is shown that the de-convolution procedure is suitable for reconstruction of the original QW width and depth by SIMS even for relatively high primary ion energies.

Yu. Kudriavtsev; R. Asomoza; S. Gallardo-Hernandez; M. Ramirez-Lopez; M. Lopez-Lopez; V. Nevedomsky; K. Moiseev

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Intermediate-depth circulation of the Indian and South Pacific Oceans measured by autonomous floats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

circulation of the Pacific Ocean: Flow patterns, tracers,of water) for the Pacific Ocean. The irregular contourthrough the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Similar integrated

Davis, Russ E

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Countermeasures to Microbiofouling in Simulated Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Heat Exchangers with Surface and Deep Ocean Waters in Hawaii  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...thermal energy from warm ocean waters. A small fraction...converted to electrical power and waste heat is rejected...water pumped from the ocean depth. Solar energy absorbed by the ocean surface provides the heat...Thermal losses, the power requirements to pump large...

Leslie Ralph Berger; Joyce A. Berger

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting Print Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting Print Hydrogen is an attractive form of fuel because its only by-product is nonpolluting water vapor. The problem, however, is that the production of hydrogen-via the process of water splitting-currently requires the burning of traditional fossil fuels. Therefore, water splitting by photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) fueled by solar power has long been a primary goal of sustainable energy research. One roadblock to this goal is that the search for stable, affordable, high-performance PEC electrodes has so far failed to identify an ideal material. Now, researchers from Switzerland, China, and Berkeley have gained an in-depth understanding of the electronic structure of hematite (iron oxide), a promising PEC photoanode candidate, by performing in situ and operando soft x-ray spectroscopy at ALS Beamline 7.0.1.

497

Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting Print Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting Print Hydrogen is an attractive form of fuel because its only by-product is nonpolluting water vapor. The problem, however, is that the production of hydrogen-via the process of water splitting-currently requires the burning of traditional fossil fuels. Therefore, water splitting by photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) fueled by solar power has long been a primary goal of sustainable energy research. One roadblock to this goal is that the search for stable, affordable, high-performance PEC electrodes has so far failed to identify an ideal material. Now, researchers from Switzerland, China, and Berkeley have gained an in-depth understanding of the electronic structure of hematite (iron oxide), a promising PEC photoanode candidate, by performing in situ and operando soft x-ray spectroscopy at ALS Beamline 7.0.1.

498

Origin And Characterization Of Geothermal Waters At Desert Queen, Nevada |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Origin And Characterization Of Geothermal Waters At Desert Queen, Nevada Origin And Characterization Of Geothermal Waters At Desert Queen, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Origin And Characterization Of Geothermal Waters At Desert Queen, Nevada Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The Desert Queen geothermal system, which is in close proximity to two locations where geothermal energy is currently being harnessed, may host an additional reservoir. A _18O vs _D plot indicates that Desert Queen waters likely originate from the Humboldt River, and reflects Humboldt River water that is clearly evaporated. Temperatures of the reservoir at depth are estimated to be between 92-141°C and were calculated using the _18O(SO4-H2O) geothermometer. It is unclear whether these temperatures

499

Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting Print Two Electron Holes in Hematite Facilitate Water Splitting Print Hydrogen is an attractive form of fuel because its only by-product is nonpolluting water vapor. The problem, however, is that the production of hydrogen-via the process of water splitting-currently requires the burning of traditional fossil fuels. Therefore, water splitting by photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) fueled by solar power has long been a primary goal of sustainable energy research. One roadblock to this goal is that the search for stable, affordable, high-performance PEC electrodes has so far failed to identify an ideal material. Now, researchers from Switzerland, China, and Berkeley have gained an in-depth understanding of the electronic structure of hematite (iron oxide), a promising PEC photoanode candidate, by performing in situ and operando soft x-ray spectroscopy at ALS Beamline 7.0.1.

500

Carderock 2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel 2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name Carderock 2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel Overseeing Organization United States Naval Surface Warfare Center Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Tunnel Beam(m) 0.6 Depth(m) 0.6 Water Type Freshwater Cost(per day) Contact POC Special Physical Features The 2-Foot Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel is a vertical plane, closed recirculating, variable-speed, variable-pressure, open jet test section, closed jet test section, and semi-rectangular test section. Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities None Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities None Channel/Tunnel/Flume Channel/Tunnel/Flume Yes Velocity(m/s) 17 Recirculating Yes