National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for optical water depths

  1. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol optical depth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sky-Scanning, Sun Tracking Atmospheric Research SAM : Sun and Aureole Measurement UAV-GNAT : UAV-General Atomics GNAT Value-Added Products AOD : Aerosol Optical Depth, derived from ...

  2. Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B.; Rohde, C. A.; Tellier, L. L.; Ho, Cheng,

    2002-01-01

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

  3. Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

    2013-11-13

    4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research), the worlds first hyperspectral airborne tracking sunphotometer, acquired aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 1 Hz during all July 2012 flights of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Root-mean square differences from AERONET ground-based observations were 0.01 at wavelengths between 500-1020 nm, 0.02 at 380 and 1640 nm and 0.03 at 440 nm in four clear-sky fly-over events, and similar in ground side-by-side comparisons. Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3-km-deep spirals were typically consistent with integrals of coincident in situ (on DOE Gulfstream 1 with 4STAR) and lidar (on NASA B200) extinction measurements within 0.01, 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02 at 355, 450, 532, 550, 700, 1064 nm, respectively, despite atmospheric variations and combined measurement uncertainties. Finer vertical differentials of the 4STAR measurements matched the in situ ambient extinction profile within 14% for one homogeneous column. For the AOD observed between 350-1660 nm, excluding strong water vapor and oxygen absorption bands, estimated uncertainties were ~0.01 and dominated by (then) unpredictable throughput changes, up to +/-0.8%, of the fiber optic rotary joint. The favorable intercomparisons herald 4STARs spatially-resolved high-frequency hyperspectral products as a reliable tool for climate studies and satellite validation.

  4. ARM - PI Product - Niamey Aerosol Optical Depths

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Optical Depths ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Niamey Aerosol Optical Depths MFRSR irradiance data collected during the ACRF AMF deployment in Niamey, Niger have been used to derive AOD for five wavelength channels of the MFRSR. These data have been corrected to adjust for filter drift over the course of the campaign and contamination due to forward scattering as a result of

  5. Hyperspectral aerosol optical depths from TCAP flights (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Hyperspectral aerosol optical depths from TCAP flights Citation Details ... DOE Contract Number: DE-AC02-98CH10886 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: ...

  6. ARM - Evaluation Product - MicroPulse LIDAR Cloud Optical Depth...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from the MPLNOR (Micro Pulse Lidar Normalized Backscatter) and radiosonde thermodynamic profiles. The optical depth retrieval is derived following Comstock et al. (2001),...

  7. A Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Visible Optical Depth Derived from...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Visible Optical Depth Derived from Lidar Lo, Chaomei Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Comstock, Jennifer Pacific Northwest National Laboratory...

  8. Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koontz, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, J; Flynn, C; Michalsky, J

    2013-03-17

    This document describes the process applied to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSR) and normal incidence multifilter radiometers (NIMFR) operated at the ARM Climate Research Facility’s ground-based facilities.

  9. Assessing the Radiative Impact of Clouds of Low Optical Depth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Radiative Impact of Clouds of Low Optical Depth W. O'Hirok and P. Ricchiazzi Institute for Computational Earth System Science University of California Santa Barbara, California C. Gautier Department of Geography and Institute for Computational Earth System Science University of California Santa Barbara, California Introduction Analysis from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) reveals that the global mean cloud optical depth is surprisingly low (i.e., τ = 3.8).

  10. Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves By Water Depth, 2009

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth, 2009 1 Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth The Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore region (GOM ...

  11. Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product for the SAS-He Instrument...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product for the SAS-He Instrument Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product for the SAS-He Instrument ...

  12. Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves By Water Depth, 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth, 2009 1 Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth The Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore region (GOM Fed) has long been one of the Nation's principal sources of proved reserves. At the end of 2009, the GOM Fed accounted for close to one-fifth of oil proved reserves (second only to Texas) and just over four percent of natural gas proved reserves (the country's seventh largest reporting region). 1 Natural gas proved

  13. Analysis of Langley optical depth data, with aerosol and gas retrievals,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for the RSS 103 instrument in Barrow, Alaska Analysis of Langley optical depth data, with aerosol and gas retrievals, for the RSS 103 instrument in Barrow, Alaska Gianelli, Scott Columbia University - NASA/GISS Lacis, Andrew NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies Carlson, Barbara NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies Category: Aerosols Bimodal aerosol retrievals, and high-resolution retrevals of nitrogen dioxide, are performed on the Langley optical depth data from the RSS 103 device

  14. Comparison of Cloud Top Height and Optical Depth Histograms from ISCCP,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MISR, and MODIS Comparison of Cloud Top Height and Optical Depth Histograms from ISCCP, MISR, and MODIS Marchand, Roger Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Ackerman, Thomas Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Category: Cloud Properties Joint histograms of Cloud Top Height (CTH) and Optical Depth (OD) derived by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) are being widely used by the climate modeling community in evaluating global climate models. Similar joint histograms

  15. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol depolarization profiles and single layer cloud optical depths from first Turner algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    1998-03-01

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol depolarization profiles and single layer cloud optical depths from first Turner algorithm

  16. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol depolarization profiles and single layer cloud optical depths from first Turner algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol depolarization profiles and single layer cloud optical depths from first Turner algorithm

  17. LINKING Lyα AND LOW-IONIZATION TRANSITIONS AT LOW OPTICAL DEPTH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaskot, A. E.; Oey, M. S.

    2014-08-20

    We suggest that low optical depth in the Lyman continuum (LyC) may relate the Lyα emission, C II and Si II absorption, and C II* and Si II* emission seen in high-redshift galaxies. We base this analysis on Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph spectra of four Green Pea (GP) galaxies, which may be analogs of z > 2 Lyα emitters (LAEs). In the two GPs with the strongest Lyα emission, the Lyα line profiles show reduced signs of resonant scattering. Instead, the Lyα profiles resemble the Hα line profiles of evolved star ejecta, suggesting that the Lyα emission originates from a low column density and similar outflow geometry. The weak C II absorption and presence of non-resonant C II* emission in these GPs support this interpretation and imply a low LyC optical depth along the line of sight. In two additional GPs, weak Lyα emission and strong C II absorption suggest a higher optical depth. These two GPs differ in their Lyα profile shapes and C II* emission strengths, however, indicating different inclinations of the outflows to our line of sight. With these four GPs as examples, we explain the observed trends linking Lyα, C II, and C II* in stacked LAE spectra, in the context of optical depth and geometric effects. Specifically, in some galaxies with strong Lyα emission, a low LyC optical depth may allow Lyα to escape with reduced scattering. Furthermore, C II absorption, C II* emission, and Lyα profile shape can reveal the optical depth, constrain the orientation of neutral outflows in LAEs, and identify candidate LyC emitters.

  18. Borehole sounding device with sealed depth and water level sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skalski, Joseph C.; Henke, Michael D.

    2005-08-02

    A borehole device having proximal and distal ends comprises an enclosure at the proximal end for accepting an aircraft cable containing a plurality of insulated conductors from a remote position. A water sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the enclosure and contains means for detecting water, and sending a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating water has been detected. A bottom sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the water sensing enclosure for determining when the borehole device encounters borehole bottom and sends a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating that borehole bottom has been encountered.

  19. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-129 Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product A Koontz C Flynn G Hodges J Michalsky J Barnard March 2013 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use

  20. An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles The water vapor ...

  1. ARM - Routine AAF Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Discovery Channel Earth Live Blog News & Press RACORO Backgrounder (PDF, 528K) ... will obtain representative statistics of cloud microphysical, aerosol, and ...

  2. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-133 Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product for the SAS-He Instrument B Ermold CJ Flynn J Barnard September 2013 Version 1.0 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or

  3. Active probing of cloud thickness and optical depth using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B.; Rohde, C. A.; Tellier, L. L.; Ho, Cheng,

    2002-01-01

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60{sup o} full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Section 2 covers the up-to-date evolution of the nighttime WAIL instrument at LANL. Section 3 reports our progress towards daytime capability for WAIL, an important extension to full diurnal cycle monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter. Section 4 describes briefly how the important cloud properties can be inferred from WAIL signals.

  4. Aerosol optical depth derived from solar radiometry observations at northern mid-latitude sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laulainen, N.S.; Larson, N.R.; Michalsky, J.J.; Harrison, L.C.

    1994-01-01

    Routine, automated solar radiometry observations began with the development of the Mobile Automated Scanning Photometer (MASP) and its installation at the Rattlesnake Mountain Observatory (RMO). We have introduced a microprocessor controlled rotating shadowband radiometer (RSR), both the single detector and the multi-filter/detector (MFRSR) versions to replace the MASP. The operational mode of the RSRs is substantially different than the MASP or other traditional sun-tracking radiometers, because, by virtue of the automated rotating shadowband, the total and diffuse irradiance on a horizontal plane are measured and the direct-normal component deduced through computation from the total and diffuse components by the self-contained microprocessor. Because the three irradiance components are measured using the same detector for a given wavelength, the calibration coefficients are identical for each component, thus reducing errors when comparing them. The MFRSR is the primary radiometric instrument in the nine-station Quantitative Links Network (QLN) established in the eastern United States in late 1991. Data from this network are being used to investigate how cloud- and aerosol-induced radiative effects vary in time and with cloud structure and type over a mid-latitude continental region. This work supports the DOE Quantitative Links Program to quantify linkages between changes in atmospheric composition and climate forcing. In this paper we describe the setup of the QLN and present aerosol optical depth results from the on-going measurements at PNL/RMO, as well as preliminary results from the QLN. From the time-series of data at each site, we compare seasonal variability and geographical differences, as well as the effect of the perturbation to the stratosphere by Mt. Pinatubo. Analysis of the wavelength dependence of optical depth also provides information on the evolution and changes in the size distribution of the aerosols.

  5. Wave like signatures in aerosol optical depth and associated radiative impacts over the central Himalayan region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shukla, K. K.; Phanikumar, D. V.; Kumar, Niranjan; Reddy, Kishore; Kotamarthi, Veerabhadra R.; Newsom, Rob K.; Ouarda, Taha B.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we present a case study on 16 October 2011 to show the first observational evidence of the influence of short period gravity waves in aerosol transport during daytime over the central Himalayan region. The Doppler lidar data has been utilized to address the daytime boundary layer evolution and related aerosol dynamics over the site. Mixing layer height is estimated by wavelet covariance transform method and found to be ~ 0.7 km, AGL. Aerosol optical depth observations during daytime revealed an asymmetry showing clear enhancement during afternoon hours as compared to forenoon. Interestingly, Fourier and wavelet analysis of vertical velocity and attenuated backscatter showed similar 50-90 min short period gravity wave signatures during afternoon hours. Moreover, our observations showed that gravity waves are dominant within the boundary layer implying that the daytime boundary layer dynamics is playing a vital role in transporting the aerosols from surface to the top of the boundary layer. Similar modulations are also evident in surface parameters like temperature, relative humidity and wind speed indicating these waves are associated with the dynamical aspects over Himalayan region. Finally, time evolution of range-23 height indicator snapshots during daytime showed strong upward velocities especially during afternoon hours implying that convective processes through short period gravity waves plays a significant role in transporting aerosols from the nearby valley region to boundary layer top over the site. These observations also establish the importance of wave induced daytime convective boundary layer dynamics in the lower Himalayan region.

  6. Quantifying Aerosol Direct Effects from Broadband Irradiance and Spectral Aerosol Optical Depth Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creekmore, Torreon N.; Joseph, Everette; Long, Charles N.; Li, Siwei

    2014-05-16

    We outline a methodology using broadband and spectral irradiances to quantify aerosol direct effects on the surface diffuse shortwave (SW) irradiance. Best Estimate Flux data span a 13 year timeframe at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Screened clear-sky irradiances and aerosol optical depth (AOD), for solar zenith angles ≤ 65°, are used to estimate clear-sky diffuse irradiances. We validate against detected clear-sky observations from SGP’s Basic Radiation System (BRS). BRS diffuse irradiances were in accordance with estimates, producing a root-mean-square error and mean bias errors of 4.0 W/m2 and -1.4 W/m2, respectively. Absolute differences show 99% of estimates within ±10 W/m2 (10%) of the mean BRS observations. Clear-sky diffuse estimates are used to derive quantitative estimates of aerosol radiative effects, represented as the aerosol diffuse irradiance (ADI). ADI is the contribution of diffuse SW to global SW, attributable to scattering of atmospheric transmission by natural plus anthropogenic aerosols. Estimated slope for the ADI as a function of AOD indicates an increase of ~22 W/m2 in diffuse SW for every 0.1 increase in AOD. Such significant increases in the diffuse fraction could possibly increase photosynthesis. Annual mean ADI is 28.2 W/m2, and heavy aerosol loading at SGP provides up to a maximum increase of 120 W/m2 in diffuse SW over background conditions. With regard to seasonal variation, the mean diffuse forcings are 17.2, 33.3, 39.0, and 23.6 W/m2 for winter, spring, summer, and fall, respectively.

  7. Ground-based retrievals of optical depth, effective radius, and composition of airborne mineral dust above the Sahel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    retrievals of optical depth, effective radius, and composition of airborne mineral dust above the Sahel Dave Turner Space Science and Engineering Center University of Wisconsin - Madison Aerosol Working Group Breakout Session 10 March 2008 ARM STM, Norfolk, VA Background and Objectives * Many airborne minerals have absorption features in the thermal infrared (8-13 µm) * These absorption features can be used to determine the "radiatively relevant" mineral composition of atmospheric

  8. Niamey Aerosol Optical Depths

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Flynn, Connor

    2008-10-01

    MFRSR irradiance data collected during the ACRF AMF deployment in Niamey, Niger have been used to derive AOD for five wavelength channels of the MFRSR. These data have been corrected to adjust for filter drift over the course of the campaign and contamination due to forward scattering as a result of large dust particles in the atmosphere around Niamey.

  9. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, Paul

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma.

  10. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, P.

    1998-06-02

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma. 5 figs.

  11. Tsunami and acoustic-gravity waves in water of constant depth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendin, Gali; Stiassnie, Michael

    2013-08-15

    A study of wave radiation by a rather general bottom displacement, in a compressible ocean of otherwise constant depth, is carried out within the framework of a three-dimensional linear theory. Simple analytic expressions for the flow field, at large distance from the disturbance, are derived. Realistic numerical examples indicate that the Acoustic-Gravity waves, which significantly precede the Tsunami, are expected to leave a measurable signature on bottom-pressure records that should be considered for early detection of Tsunami.

  12. SU-F-BRE-12: Optical Resonator Water Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J; DeMarco, J; Low, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Water calorimetry based on resistance thermometry has matured as a primary standard. Developing an optical technique hold the promise to push the boundaries of what is currently achievable with dosimetry. We will present a feasibility study and the current progress of construction of a Fabry-Perot resonator for dose to water measurement. Additionally, estimations of the theoretical limits resonator sensitivity and potential sources of noise for the system are described. Methods: A temperature change from the dose to water would be measured by the change in the index of refraction from the water in the cavity. Calculations are presented of the expected signal from the resonator for dose to water. The Fabry-Perot resonator constructed from optical quality narrowband mirrors is described. A water cell will be inserted into the cavity gap to provide the medium swept cavity length technique is explored as a specific implementation of this technique. Results: Calculations indicate that a dose to water on the order of a Gray is measureable with a reasonably implementable system. A resonator is currently under construction and progress towards a proof of principle measurement will be presented. The primary sources of noise, in order of importance, are expected to be; optical absorption by the medium, mechanical perturbations of the cavity length and thermal expansion of the optical mounts. Estimations of these noise sources and mitigation techniques will be discussed. Conclusion: A Fabry-Perot resonator is a promising technique for measuring the absorbed dose to water from a radiotherapy beam. This technique has the potential to serve as a check on the current primary standard for dose to water measurements. As well, i0074 may be the foundation for a new class of optical property based dosimetry measurement.

  13. Development of RAMS-CMAQ to Simulate Aerosol Optical Depth and Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing and Its Application to East Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Xin, Jin-Yuan; Wang, Li-Li

    2009-11-16

    The air quality modeling system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality) is developed to simulate the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol direct forcing (DF). The aerosol-specific extinction, single scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor are parameterized based on Mie theory taking into account the aerosol size distribution, composition, refractive index, and water uptake of solution particles. A two-stream solar radiative model considers all gaseous molecular absorption, Rayleigh scattering, and aerosols and clouds. RAMSCMAQ is applied to simulate all major aerosol concentrations (e.g., sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, organic carbon, black carbon, fine soil, and sea salt) and AOD and DF over East Asia in 2005. To evaluate its performance, the simulated AOD values were compared with ground-based in situ measurements. The comparison shows that RAMSCMAQ performed well in most of the model domain and generally captured the observed variations. High AOD values (0.2−1.0) mainly appear in the Sichuan Basin as well as in central and southeastern China. The geographic distribution of DF generally follows the AOD distribution patterns, and the DF at the top-of-the-atmosphere is less than −25 and −20 W m−2 in clear-sky and all-sky over the Sichuan Basin. Both AOD and DF exhibit seasonal variations with lower values in July and higher ones in January. The DF could obviously be impacted by high cloud fractions.

  14. Potential-well depth at amorphous-LaAlO{sub 3}/crystalline-SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces measured by optical second harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Luca, Gabriele; Rubano, Andrea; Gennaro, Emiliano di; Khare, Amit; Granozio, Fabio Miletto; Uccio, Umberto Scotti di; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Paparo, Domenico

    2014-06-30

    By a combination of optical second harmonic generation and transport measurements, we have investigated interfaces formed by either crystalline or amorphous thin films of LaAlO{sub 3} grown on TiO{sub 2}-terminated SrTiO{sub 3}(001) substrates. Our approach aims at disentangling the relative role of intrinsic and extrinsic doping mechanisms in the formation of the two-dimensional electron gas. The different nature of the two mechanisms is revealed when comparing the sample response variation as a function of temperature during annealing in air. However, before the thermal treatment, the two types of interfaces show almost the same intensity of the second harmonic signal, provided the overlayer thickness is the same. As we will show, the second harmonic signal is proportional to the depth of the potential well confining the charges at the interface. Therefore, our result demonstrates that this depth is about the same for the two different material systems. This conclusion supports the idea that the electronic properties of the two-dimensional electron gas are almost independent of the doping mechanism of the quantum well.

  15. Estimation of m.w.e (meter water equivalent) depth of the salt mine of Slanic Prahova, Romania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitrica, B.; Margineanu, R.; Stoica, S.; Petcu, M.; Brancus, I. M.; Petre, M.; Toma, G.; Saftoiu, A.; Apostu, A.; Jipa, A.; Lazanu, I.; Sima, O.; Haungs, A.; Rebel, H.

    2010-11-24

    A new mobile detector was developed in IFIN-HH, Romania, for measuring muon flux at surface and in underground. The measurements have been performed in the salt mines of Slanic Prahova, Romania. The muon flux was determined for 2 different galleries of the Slanic mine at different depths. In order to test the stability of the method, also measurements of the muon flux at surface at different altitudes were performed. Based on the results, the depth of the 2 galleries was established at 610 and 790 m.w.e. respectively.

  16. ARM - Measurement - Cloud optical depth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TWST : Three Waveband Spectrally-agile Technique Sensor WRF-CHEM : Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model Output Value-Added Products LBTM-MINNIS : Minnis Cloud Products...

  17. How do A-train Sensors Intercompare in the Retrieval of Above-Cloud Aerosol Optical Depth? A Case Study-based Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jethva, Hiren T.; Torres, Omar; Waquet, Fabien; Chand, Duli; Hu, Yong X.

    2014-01-15

    We inter-compare the above-cloud aerosol optical depth (ACAOD) of biomass burning plumes retrieved from different A-train sensors, i.e., MODIS, CALIOP, POLDER, and OMI. These sensors have shown independent capabilities to detect and retrieve aerosol loading above marine boundary layer clouds--a kind of situation often found over the Southeast Atlantic Ocean during dry burning season. A systematic one-to-one comparison reveals that, in general, all passive sensors and CALIOP-based research methods derive comparable ACAOD with differences mostly within 0.2 over homogeneous cloud fields. The 532-nm ACAOD retrieved by CALIOP operational algorithm is largely underestimated; however, it’s 1064-nm AOD when converted to 500 nm shows closer agreement to the passive sensors. Given the different types of sensor measurements processed with different algorithms, the close agreement between them is encouraging. Due to lack of adequate direct measurements above cloud, the validation of satellite-based ACAOD retrievals remains an open challenge. The inter-satellite comparison, however, can be useful for the relative evaluation and consistency check.

  18. Measurement of the Muon Atmospheric Production Depth with the Water Cherenkov Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molina Bueno, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) are particles of uncertain origin and composition, with energies above 1 EeV (1018 eV or 0.16 J). The measured flux of UHECR is a steeply decreasing function of energy. The largest and most sensitive apparatus built to date to record and study cosmic ray Extensive Air Showers (EAS) is the Pierre Auger Observatory. The Pierre Auger Observatory has produced the largest and finest amount of data ever collected for UHECR. A broad physics program is being carried out covering all relevant topics of the field. Among them, one of the most interesting is the problem related to the estimation of the mass composition of cosmic rays in this energy range. Currently the best measurements of mass are those obtained by studying the longitudinal development of the electromagnetic part of the EAS with the Fluorescence Detector. However, the collected statistics is small, specially at energies above several tens of EeV. Although less precise, the volume of data gathered with the Surface Detector is nearly a factor ten larger than the fluorescence data. So new ways to study composition with data collected at the ground are under investigation. The subject of this thesis follows one of those new lines of research. Using preferentially the time information associated with the muons that reach the ground, we try to build observables related to the composition of the primaries that initiated the EAS. A simple phenomenological model relates the arrival times with the depths in the atmosphere where muons are produced. The experimental confirmation that the distributions of muon production depths (MPD) correlate with the mass of the primary particle has opened the way to a variety of studies, of which this thesis is a continuation, with the aim of enlarging and improving its range of applicability. We revisit the phenomenological model which is at the root of the analysis and discuss a new way to improve some aspects of the model. We carry

  19. Temperature and Water Depth Monitoring Within Chum Salmon Spawning Habitat Below Bonneville Dam -- Annual Report -- October 2007-September 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntzen, Evan V.

    2009-07-14

    The overall goal of the project described in this report is to provide a sound scientific basis for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance chum salmon populations----a species listed in March 1999 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The study objective during fiscal year 2008 was to provide real-time data on Ives Island area water temperature and water surface elevations from the onset of chum salmon spawning through the end of chum salmon emergence. Sampling locations included areas where riverbed temperatures were elevated, potentially influencing alevin development and emergence timing. In these locations, hydrosystem operation caused large, frequent changes in river discharge that affected salmon habitat by dewatering redds and altering egg pocket temperatures. The 2008 objective was accomplished using temperature and water-level sensors deployed inside piezo¬meters. Sensors were integrated with a radio telemetry system such that real-time data could be downloaded remotely and posted hourly on the Internet.

  20. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

  1. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2013-08-31

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

  2. Temperature and Water Depth Monitoring Within Chum Salmon Spawning Habitat Below Bonneville Dam : Annual Report October 2007-September 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntzen, E.V.

    2009-07-14

    The overall goal of the project described in this report is to provide a sound scientific basis for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance chum salmon populations - a species listed in March 1999 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The study objective during fiscal year 2008 was to provide real-time data on Ives Island area water temperature and water surface elevations from the onset of chum salmon spawning through the end of chum salmon emergence. Sampling locations included areas where riverbed temperatures were elevated, potentially influencing alevin development and emergence timing. In these locations, hydrosystem operation caused large, frequent changes in river discharge that affected salmon habitat by dewatering redds and altering egg pocket temperatures. The 2008 objective was accomplished using temperature and water-level sensors deployed inside piezometers. Sensors were integrated with a radio telemetry system such that real-time data could be downloaded remotely and posted hourly on the Internet. During our overall monitoring period (October 2007 through June 2008), mean temperature in chum spawning areas was nearly 2 C warmer within the riverbed than in the overlying river. During chum salmon spawning (mid-November 2007 through December2007), mean riverbed temperature in the Ives Island area was 14.5 C, more than 5 C higher than in the river, where mean temperature was 9.4 C. During the incubation period (January 2008 through mid-May 2008), riverbed temperature was approximately 3 C greater than in the overlying river (10.5 C and 7.2 C, respectively). Chum salmon preferentially select spawning locations where riverbed temperatures are elevated; consequently the incubation time of alevin is shortened before they emerge in the spring.

  3. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Corrie E.; Harto, Christopher B.; Schroeder, Jenna N.; Martino, Louis E.; Horner, Robert M.

    2013-11-05

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges. This report is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to assess the water consumption of geothermal technologies and identify areas where water availability may present a challenge to utility-scale geothermal development. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or nongeothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. The geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as EGSs that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists, but where water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 2

  4. Multi-frequency optical-depth maps and the case for free-free absorption in two compact symmetric radio sources: The CSO candidate J1324 + 4048 and the CSO J0029 + 3457

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, J. M.; Read, J.; Morris, A. O.; Perry, T. M.; Taylor, G. B.

    2014-01-10

    We obtained dual-polarization very long baseline interferometry observations at six frequencies of the compact symmetric object J0029 + 3457 and the compact symmetric object candidate J1324 + 4048. By comparing the three lower-frequency maps with extrapolations of the high-frequency maps, we produced maps of the optical depth as a function of frequency. The morphology of the optical-depth maps of J1324 + 4048 is strikingly smooth, suggestive of a foreground screen of absorbing gas. The spectra at the intensity peaks fit a simple free-free absorption (FFA) model, with ?{sub ?}{sup 2}?2, better than a simple synchrotron self-absorption model, in which ?{sub ?}{sup 2}?3.5--5.5. We conclude that the case for FFA in J1324 + 4048 is strong. The optical-depth maps of J0029 + 3457 exhibit structure, but the morphology does not correlate with that in the intensity maps. The fit of the spectra at the peaks to a simple FFA model yields ?{sub ?}{sup 2}?1, but because the turnover is gradual, the fit is relatively insensitive to the input parameters. We find that FFA by a thin amount of gas in J0029 + 3457 is likely but not definitive. One compact feature in J0029 + 3457 has an inverted spectrum even at the highest frequencies. We infer this to be the location of the core and estimate an upper limit to the magnetic field of order 3 Gauss at a radius of order 1 pc. In comparison with maps from observations at earlier epochs, no apparent growth in either J1324 + 4048 or J0029 + 3457 is apparent, with upper limits of 0.03 and 0.02 mas yr{sup 1}, corresponding to maximum linear separation speeds of 0.6c and 0.4c.

  5. Design of an optical cell for pulse radiolysis of supercritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Kenji; Cline, Jason A.; Bartels, David M.; Jonah, Charles D.

    2000-09-01

    The design of a flow cell that is applicable to pulse radiolysis/transient absorption experiments on supercritical water is described. The cell is designed to minimize dead volume and prevent the accumulation of radiolytic products. It is also necessary to minimize emission and absorption of sapphire windows from high energy electron beam irradiation. To obtain an optical throughput of f/4, the inner diameter is 6 mm, and distance between windows is 25 mm. The effective optical path length is 20 mm for irradiation from the side through a thin Hastelloy wall. Belleville spring washers were used to keep a constant force on the 3 mm sapphire windows, which were sealed to the Hastelloy body with copper gaskets. An application of this cell to measurements of solvated electrons in supercritical water is demonstrated. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  6. ARM - Measurement - Snow depth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Measurement : Snow depth Snow depth measured at the surface Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  7. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  8. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, Roland L.; Cannon, Theodore W.

    1988-01-01

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain ND6B, an Oil-Degrading Isolate from Eastern Mediterranean Sea Water Collected at a Depth of 1,210 Meters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Harris, Austin P.; Techtmann, Stephen M.; Stelling, Savannah C.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Alshibli, Noor K.; Brown, Steven D.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2014-11-26

    We report the draft genome of Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain ND6B, which is able to grow with crude oil as a carbon source. Strain ND6B was isolated from eastern Mediterranean Sea deep water at a depth of 1,210 m. The genome of strain ND6B provides insight into the oil-degrading ability of the Pseudoalteromonas species.

  10. The hydrogen-bond network of water supports propagating optical phonon-like modes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elton, Daniel C.; Fernández-Serra, Marivi

    2016-01-04

    The local structure of liquid water as a function of temperature is a source of intense research. This structure is intimately linked to the dynamics of water molecules, which can be measured using Raman and infrared spectroscopies. The assignment of spectral peaks depends on whether they are collective modes or single-molecule motions. Vibrational modes in liquids are usually considered to be associated to the motions of single molecules or small clusters. Using molecular dynamics simulations, here we find dispersive optical phonon-like modes in the librational and OH-stretching bands. We argue that on subpicosecond time scales these modes propagate through water’smore » hydrogen-bond network over distances of up to 2 nm. In the long wavelength limit these optical modes exhibit longitudinal–transverse splitting, indicating the presence of coherent long-range dipole–dipole interactions, as in ice. Lastly, our results indicate the dynamics of liquid water have more similarities to ice than previously thought.« less

  11. Depth Optimization Study

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kawase, Mitsuhiro

    2009-11-22

    The zipped file contains a directory of data and routines used in the NNMREC turbine depth optimization study (Kawase et al., 2011), and calculation results thereof. For further info, please contact Mitsuhiro Kawase at kawase@uw.edu. Reference: Mitsuhiro Kawase, Patricia Beba, and Brian Fabien (2011), Finding an Optimal Placement Depth for a Tidal In-Stream Conversion Device in an Energetic, Baroclinic Tidal Channel, NNMREC Technical Report.

  12. Assessment of primary production and optical variability in shelf and slope waters near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redalje, Donald G.; Lohrenz, Stevern E.

    2001-02-12

    In this project we determined primary production and optical variability in the shelf and slope waters off of Cape Hatteras, N.C. These processes were addressed in conjunction with other Ocean Margins Program investigators, during the Spring Transition period and during Summer. We found that there were significant differences in measured parameters between Spring and Summer, enabling us to develop seasonally specific carbon production and ecosystem models as well as seasonal and regional algorithm improvements for use in remote sensing applications.

  13. Variable depth core sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, Peter M.; Reger, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

  14. Variable depth core sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

    1996-02-20

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus is described comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member. 7 figs.

  15. Confocal volume in laser Raman microscopy depth profiling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maruyama, Yutaka; Kanematsu, Wataru

    2011-11-15

    To clarify the degradation of confocality in laser Raman microscopy depth profiling (optical sectioning) and the influence of pinhole filtering on it, we investigate the confocal volume in detail based on Gaussian beam optics and scalar wave optics. Theoretical depth profiles of a homogeneous transparent sample for four different pinhole sizes, which are computed using the measured incident beam waist radius w{sub 0} and only a few optical system specific parameters such as a numerical aperture (NA) and a focal length, show a good agreement with the corresponding measured depth profiles. The computed confocal volume demonstrates that the pinhole size affects the actual probe depth as well as the axial resolution and the total intensity loss.

  16. Controlled synthesis and optical properties of BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} crystals via ethanol/water solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Qinghua; Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10039 ; Li, Zhi; Ma, Wangjing; Shi, Yao; Yang, Xinmin

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: A facile and cost-effective approach for the controlled synthesis of BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} crystals is introduced. The structures and morphologies of the obtained products are affected by the amount of water and ethanol in the solvent mixtures. Highlights: ► Precipitation route for preparing BaFBr nano and micro crystals in water/ethanol solvent mixtures. ► Controlled growth of BaFBr nano crystals by tuning the volume ratio of Ethanol/water. ► Luminescence properties after annealing at 200 °C are investigated. ► Short lifetimes of photoluminescence and photostimulated luminescence in BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} nano crystals are presented. ► Shortened lifetimes in BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} nano crystals demonstrate that they are promising materials for use in X-ray imaging systems. -- Abstract: BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} crystals with different structures were successfully fabricated via a simple precipitation method using ethanol/water mixtures as solvents. The amount of ethanol in the solvent mixtures played a significant role in the formation of final products, enabling the well-controlled growth of the BaFBr crystals. A possible formation mechanism was proposed based on the results of controlled experiments. The phases and morphologies of the resulting samples were systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and elementary analysis. The optical properties of the annealed BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} nano-cuboids were investigated using photoluminescence (PL), photo-stimulated luminescence spectroscopy (PSL) and kinetic decays. Faster decay behaviors demonstrate that these BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors are promising materials for applications in optical storage fields. Furthermore, it is envisaged that this environmentally benign method can be extended to prepare other fluoride halides.

  17. Morphology Of Diesel Soot Residuals From Supercooled Water Droplets And Ice Crystals: Implications For Optical Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    China, Swarup; Kulkarni, Gourihar; Scarnatio, Barbara; Sharma, Noopur; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shilling, John E.; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Chand, Duli; Liu, Shang; Aiken, Allison; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Laskin, Alexander; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Mazzoleni, Claudio

    2015-11-04

    Freshly emitted soot particles are fractal-like aggregates, but atmospheric processing often transforms their morphology. Morphology of soot particles plays an important role in determining their optical properties, life cycle and hence their effect on Earth’s radiative balance. However, little is known about the morphology of soot particles that participated in cold cloud processes. Here we report results from laboratory experiments that simulate cold cloud processing of diesel soot particles by allowing them to form supercooled droplets and ice crystals at -20 and -40°C, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that soot residuals from ice crystals were more compact (roundness~0.55) than those from supercooled droplets (roundness ~0.45), while nascent soot particles were the least compact (roundness~0.41). Optical simulations using the discrete dipole approximation showed that the more compact structure enhances soot single scattering albedo by a factor up to 1.4, thereby reducing the top-of-the-atmosphere direct radiative forcing by ~63%. These results underscore that climate models should consider the morphological evolution of soot particles due to cold cloud processing to improve the estimate of direct radiative forcing of soot.

  18. Video-rate optical dosimetry and dynamic visualization of IMRT and VMAT treatment plans in water using Cherenkov radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glaser, Adam K. E-mail: Brian.W.Pogue@dartmouth.edu; Andreozzi, Jacqueline M.; Davis, Scott C.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Pogue, Brian W. E-mail: Brian.W.Pogue@dartmouth.edu; Fox, Colleen J.; Gladstone, David J.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A novel technique for optical dosimetry of dynamic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans was investigated for the first time by capturing images of the induced Cherenkov radiation in water. Methods: A high-sensitivity, intensified CCD camera (ICCD) was configured to acquire a two-dimensional (2D) projection image of the Cherenkov radiation induced by IMRT and VMAT plans, based on the Task Group 119 (TG-119) C-Shape geometry. Plans were generated using the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) and delivered using 6 MV x-rays from a Varian TrueBeam Linear Accelerator (Linac) incident on a water tank doped with the fluorophore quinine sulfate. The ICCD acquisition was gated to the Linac target trigger pulse to reduce background light artifacts, read out for a single radiation pulse, and binned to a resolution of 512 × 512 pixels. The resulting videos were analyzed temporally for various regions of interest (ROI) covering the planning target volume (PTV) and organ at risk (OAR), and summed to obtain an overall light intensity distribution, which was compared to the expected dose distribution from the TPS using a gamma-index analysis. Results: The chosen camera settings resulted in 23.5 frames per second dosimetry videos. Temporal intensity plots of the PTV and OAR ROIs confirmed the preferential delivery of dose to the PTV versus the OAR, and the gamma analysis yielded 95.9% and 96.2% agreement between the experimentally captured Cherenkov light distribution and expected TPS dose distribution based upon a 3%/3 mm dose difference and distance-to-agreement criterion for the IMRT and VMAT plans, respectively. Conclusions: The results from this initial study demonstrate the first documented use of Cherenkov radiation for video-rate optical dosimetry of dynamic IMRT and VMAT treatment plans. The proposed modality has several potential advantages over alternative methods including the real

  19. The nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the propagation of weakly nonlinear waves in optical fibers and on the water surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chabchoub, A.; Kibler, B.; Finot, C.; Millot, G.; Onorato, M.; Dudley, J.M.; Babanin, A.V.

    2015-10-15

    The dynamics of waves in weakly nonlinear dispersive media can be described by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). An important feature of the equation is that it can be derived in a number of different physical contexts; therefore, analogies between different fields, such as for example fiber optics, water waves, plasma waves and Bose–Einstein condensates, can be established. Here, we investigate the similarities between wave propagation in optical Kerr media and water waves. In particular, we discuss the modulation instability (MI) in both media. In analogy to the water wave problem, we derive for Kerr-media the Benjamin–Feir index, i.e. a nondimensional parameter related to the probability of formation of rogue waves in incoherent wave trains.

  20. Rotating drum variable depth sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nance, Thomas A.; Steeper, Timothy J.

    2008-07-01

    A sampling device for collecting depth-specific samples in silt, sludge and granular media has three chambers separated by a pair of iris valves. Rotation of the middle chamber closes the valves and isolates a sample in a middle chamber.

  1. EVOLUTION OF SNOW LINE IN OPTICALLY THICK PROTOPLANETARY DISKS: EFFECTS OF WATER ICE OPACITY AND DUST GRAIN SIZE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oka, Akinori; Nakamoto, Taishi; Ida, Shigeru, E-mail: akinorioka1@gmail.com, E-mail: nakamoto@geo.titech.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-09-10

    Evolution of a snow line in an optically thick protoplanetary disk is investigated with numerical simulations. The ice-condensing region in the disk is obtained by calculating the temperature and the density with the 1+1D approach. The snow line migrates as the mass accretion rate ( M-dot ) in the disk decreases with time. Calculations are carried out from an early phase with high disk accretion rates ( M-dot {approx}10{sup -7} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) to a later phase with low disk accretion rates ( M-dot {approx}10{sup -12} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) using the same numerical method. It is found that the snow line moves inward for M-dot {approx}>10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, while it gradually moves outward in the later evolution phase with M-dot {approx}<10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. In addition to the silicate opacity, the ice opacity is taken into consideration. In the inward migration phase, the additional ice opacity increases the distance of the snow line from the central star by a factor of 1.3 for dust grains {approx}< 10 {mu}m in size and of 1.6 for {approx}> 100 {mu}m. It is inevitable that the snow line comes inside Earth's orbit in the course of the disk evolution if the viscosity parameter {alpha} is in the range 0.001-0.1, the dust-to-gas mass ratio is higher than a tenth of the solar abundance value, and the dust grains are smaller than 1 mm. The formation of water-devoid planetesimals in the terrestrial planet region seems to be difficult throughout the disk evolution, which imposes a new challenge to planet formation theory.

  2. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Good, Morris S.; Schuster, George J.; Skorpik, James R.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part.

  3. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Good, M.S.; Schuster, G.J.; Skorpik, J.R.

    1997-07-08

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part. 12 figs.

  4. Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product Report (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Koontz, A ; Hodges, G ; Barnard, J ; Flynn, C ; Michalsky, J Publication Date: 2013-03-17 OSTI Identifier: 1092419 Report Number(s): DOESC-ARMTR-129 PNNL-22260 DOE ...

  5. Practical Analysis of materials with depth varying compositions using FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.F. McClelland; R.W. Jones; Siquan Luo

    2004-09-30

    FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is discussed as a nondestructive method to probe the molecular composition of materials versus depth on the basis of the analysis of layers of experimentally controllable thickness, which are measured from the sample surface to depths of some tens of micrometers, depending on optical and thermal properties. Computational methods are described to process photoacoustic amplitude and phase spectra for both semi-quantitative and quantitative depth analyses. These methods are demonstrated on layered and gradient samples.

  6. Observations of regional and local variability in the optical properties of maritime clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, A.B.

    1996-04-01

    White and Fairall (1995) calculated the optical properties of the marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds observed during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) and compared their results with the results obtained by Fairall et al. for the MBL clouds observed during the First International Satellite Climatology Program (ISSCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE). They found a factor of two difference in the optical depth versus liquid water relationship that applies to the clouds observed in each case. In the present study, we present evidence to support this difference. We also investigate the local variability exhibited in the ASTEX optical properties using measurements of the boundary layer aerosol concentration.

  7. Property:Depth(m) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Depth(m) Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Pages using the property "Depth(m)" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 1 1.5-ft...

  8. Uterine caliper and depth gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Loyd L.; Wheeler, Robert G.; Fish, Thomas M.

    1977-01-01

    A uterine caliper and sound consisting of an elongated body having outwardly biased resilient caliper wings and a spring-loaded slidable cervical stop. A slide on the body is operatively connected to the wings by a monofilament and operates with respect to a first scale on the body as a width indicator. A rod extending longitudinally on the body is connected to the cervical stop and cooperates with a second scale on the body as a depth indicator. The instrument can be positioned to measure the distance from the outer cervical ostium to the fundus, as read on said second scale. The wings may be allowed to open by moving the slide, and when the wings engage the utero-tubal junctions, the width may be read on said first scale. By adjustment of the caliper wings the instrument may be retracted until the resistance of the inner ostium of the cervix is felt, enabling the length of the cervical canal to be read directly by the position of the longitudinal indicator rod with respect to said second scale. The instrument may be employed to measure the width of the uterine cavity at any position between the inner ostium of the cervix and the fundus.

  9. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects Citation Details ...

  10. Quantum Optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum Optics - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  11. Split image optical display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    2005-05-31

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  12. Split image optical display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    2007-05-29

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  13. Optical cone beam tomography of Cherenkov-mediated signals for fast 3D dosimetry of x-ray photon beams in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glaser, Adam K. E-mail: Brian.W.Pogue@dartmouth.edu; Andreozzi, Jacqueline M.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Pogue, Brian W. E-mail: Brian.W.Pogue@dartmouth.edu; Gladstone, David J.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To test the use of a three-dimensional (3D) optical cone beam computed tomography reconstruction algorithm, for estimation of the imparted 3D dose distribution from megavoltage photon beams in a water tank for quality assurance, by imaging the induced Cherenkov-excited fluorescence (CEF). Methods: An intensified charge-coupled device coupled to a standard nontelecentric camera lens was used to tomographically acquire two-dimensional (2D) projection images of CEF from a complex multileaf collimator (MLC) shaped 6 MV linear accelerator x-ray photon beam operating at a dose rate of 600 MU/min. The resulting projections were used to reconstruct the 3D CEF light distribution, a potential surrogate of imparted dose, using a Feldkamp–Davis–Kress cone beam back reconstruction algorithm. Finally, the reconstructed light distributions were compared to the expected dose values from one-dimensional diode scans, 2D film measurements, and the 3D distribution generated from the clinical Varian ECLIPSE treatment planning system using a gamma index analysis. A Monte Carlo derived correction was applied to the Cherenkov reconstructions to account for beam hardening artifacts. Results: 3D light volumes were successfully reconstructed over a 400 × 400 × 350 mm{sup 3} volume at a resolution of 1 mm. The Cherenkov reconstructions showed agreement with all comparative methods and were also able to recover both inter- and intra-MLC leaf leakage. Based upon a 3%/3 mm criterion, the experimental Cherenkov light measurements showed an 83%–99% pass fraction depending on the chosen threshold dose. Conclusions: The results from this study demonstrate the use of optical cone beam computed tomography using CEF for the profiling of the imparted dose distribution from large area megavoltage photon beams in water.

  14. Fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor: Detection of volatile chlorinated compounds in air and water using ultra-thin membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, N.C. Jr.; Olsen, K.B.; Osantowski, R.E.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Griffin, J.W.

    1993-05-01

    Prior work on the fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor called HaloSnif{trademark} has been extended to include an ultra-thin membrane which allows passage of volatile organic chlorinated compounds (VOCl). The membrane has been demonstrated to exclude H{sub 2}O during VOCl monitoring. The system is capable of measuring VOCl in gas-phase samples or aqueous solutions over a wide linear dynamic range. The lower limit of detection for trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), and other related compounds in the gas-phase is 1 to 5 ppm{sub v/v}, and in the aqueous-phase is 5 to 10 mg/L. Waste site characterization and remediation activities often require chemical analysis in the vadose zone and in groundwater. These analyses are typically performed in analytical laboratories using widely accepted standardized methods such as gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The new developments with HaloSnif provide rapid field screening which can augment the standardized methods.

  15. Cloud Optical Properties from the Multifilter Shadowband Radiometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Min and Harrison (1996) developed an inversion method to infer the optical depth of liquid ... Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) measurements (Harrison et al. 1994). ...

  16. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS

  17. Control of electrode depth in electroslag remelting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melgaard, David K.; Shelmidine, Gregory J.; Damkroger, Brian K.

    2002-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace by driving the electrode at a nominal speed based upon melting rate and geometry while making minor proportional adjustments based on a measured metric of the electrode immersion depth. Electrode drive speed is increased if a measured metric of electrode immersion depth differs from a set point by a predetermined amount, indicating that the tip is too close to the surface of a slag pool. Impedance spikes are monitored to adjust the set point for the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon one or more properties of the impedance spikes.

  18. Stereoscopic optical viewing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallman, C.S.

    1986-05-02

    An improved optical system which provides the operator with a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

  19. Stereoscopic optical viewing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallman, Clifford S.

    1987-01-01

    An improved optical system which provides the operator a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

  20. WATER TREATMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitman, R.W.; Conley, W.R. Jr.

    1962-12-01

    An automated system for adding clarifying chemicals to water in a water treatment plant is described. To a sample of the floc suspension polyacrylamide or similar filter aid chemicals are added, and the sample is then put through a fast filter. The resulting filtrate has the requisite properties for monitoring in an optical turbidimeter to control the automated system. (AEC)

  1. Using the depth-velocity-size diagram to interpret equilibrium bed configurations in river flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southard, J.B. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Data from flume studies that report equilibrium bed configuration as well as water temperature, flow depth, flow velocity, and sediment size were used to develop the best approximation to the relationships among the various bed phases (ripples, dunes, lower regime plane bed, upper regime plane bed, and antidunes) in a three-axis graph (depth-velocity-size diagram) with dimensionless measures of mean flow depth, mean flow velocity, and sediment size along the axis. Relationships are shown in a series of depth-velocity and velocity-size sections through the diagram. Boundaries between bed-phase stability fields are drawn as surfaces that minimize, misplacement of data points. A large subset of the data, for which reliable values of bed shear stress are reported, was also used to represent the stability relationships in a graph of dimensionless boundary shear stress against dimensionless sediment size, but with results less useful for fluvial flow interpretation. The diagram covers about one order of magnitude in flow depth. To be useful for river flows, the diagram must be extrapolated in flow depth by about one more order of magnitude, but this is not a serious problem for approximate work. The depth-velocity-size diagram permits prediction of equilibrium bed configuration in river flows when the approximate flow depth and mean flow velocity are known. Because the diagram is essentially dimensionless, the effect of water temperature (via the fluid viscosity) on the bed configuration is easily accounted for by use of the diagram.

  2. TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

    2007-11-12

    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

  3. Final Optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    final optics Final Optics Schematic layout of NIF's final optics assembly (FOA). The suite of optics for one beamline is on the right. The final optics assemblies (FOAs) are the last element of the main laser system and the first of the target area systems. Each FOA contains four integrated optics modules (IOMs) that incorporate beam conditioning, frequency conversion, focusing, diagnostic sampling, and debris shielding capabilities into a single compact assembly. These optics are shown in the

  4. Laser Acoustic Molten Metal Depth Sensing in Titanium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. B. Walter; K. L. Telschow; R. E. Haun

    1999-09-22

    A noncontacting ultrasonic method has been investigated for probing the solidification front in molten titanium for the purposes of profiling the channel depth in a plasma hearth re-melter. The method, known as Laser Ultrasonics, utilized a pulsed laser for generation of ultrasonic waves at the surface of a molten metal pool. The ultrasonic waves propagated into the liquid titanium reflected from the solidification front and the boundaries of the solid plug. A Fabry-Perot interferometer, driven by a second laser, demodulated the small displacements caused by the ultrasonic wave motion at the liquid surface. The method and results of measurements taken within a small research plasma melting furnace will be described. Successful results were obtained even directly beneath the plasma arc using this all-optical approach.

  5. Laser Acoustic Molten Metal Depth Sensing in Titanium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, John Bradley; Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Haun, R.E.

    1999-08-01

    A noncontacting ultrasonic method has been investigated for probing the solidification front in molten titanium for the purposes of profiling the channel depth in plasma hearth re-melter. The method, known as Laser Ultrasonics, utilized a pulsed laser for generation of ultrasonic waves at the surface of a molten metal pool. The ultrasonic waves propagated into the liquid titanium reflected from the solidification front and the boundaries of the solid plug. A Fabry-Perot interferometer, driven by a second laser, demodulated the small displacements caused by the ultrasonic wave motion at the liquid surface. The method and results of measurements taken within a small research plasma melting furnace will be described. Successful results were obtained even directly beneath the plasma arc using this all optical approach.

  6. Cloud Optical Properties from the Multifilter Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSRCLDOD). An ARM Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, D. D.; McFarlane, S. A.; Riihimaki, L.; Shi, Y.; Lo, C.; Min, Q.

    2014-02-01

    The microphysical properties of clouds play an important role in studies of global climate change. Observations from satellites and surface-based systems have been used to infer cloud optical depth and effective radius. Min and Harrison (1996) developed an inversion method to infer the optical depth of liquid water clouds from narrow band spectral Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) measurements (Harrison et al. 1994). Their retrieval also uses the total liquid water path (LWP) measured by a microwave radiometer (MWR) to obtain the effective radius of the warm cloud droplets. Their results were compared with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) retrieved values at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site (Min and Harrison 1996). Min et al. (2003) also validated the retrieved cloud optical properties against in situ observations, showing that the retrieved cloud effective radius agreed well with the in situ forward scattering spectrometer probe observations. The retrieved cloud optical properties from Min et al. (2003) were used also as inputs to an atmospheric shortwave model, and the computed fluxes were compared with surface pyranometer observations.

  7. Quantum Optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Frontier Research Centers: Solid-State Lighting Science Center for Frontiers of ... Quantum Optics HomeEnergy ResearchEFRCsSolid-State Lighting Science EFRCQuantum Optics ...

  8. Defense-in-Depth, How Department of Energy Implements Radiation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Defense-in-Depth, How Department of Energy Implements Radiation Protection in Low Level Waste Disposal Defense-in-Depth, How Department of Energy Implements Radiation Protection in ...

  9. Fiber optic hydrophone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuzmenko, P.J.; Davis, D.T.

    1994-05-10

    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer is disclosed. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optical fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends. 2 figures.

  10. Fiber optic hydrophone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Davis, Donald T.

    1994-01-01

    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optic fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends.

  11. Optical microspectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2004-05-25

    An optical microspectrometer comprises a grism to disperse the spectra in a line object. A single optical microspectrometer can be used to sequentially scan a planar object, such as a dye-tagged microchip. Because the optical microspectrometer is very compact, multiple optical microspectrometers can be arrayed to provide simultaneous readout across the width of the planar object The optical microspectrometer can be fabricated with lithographic process, such as deep X-ray lithography (DXRL), with as few as two perpendicular exposures.

  12. Dental optical coherence domain reflectometry explorer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Da Silva, Luiz B.

    2001-01-01

    A hand-held, fiber optic based dental device with optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) sensing capabilities provides a profile of optical scattering as a function of depth in the tissue at the point where the tip of the dental explorer touches the tissue. This system provides information on the internal structure of the dental tissue, which is then used to detect caries and periodontal disease. A series of profiles of optical scattering or tissue microstructure are generated by moving the explorer across the tooth or other tissue. The profiles are combined to form a cross-sectional, or optical coherence tomography (OCT), image.

  13. Optical probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hencken, Kenneth; Flower, William L.

    1999-01-01

    A compact optical probe is disclosed particularly useful for analysis of emissions in industrial environments. The instant invention provides a geometry for optically-based measurements that allows all optical components (source, detector, rely optics, etc.) to be located in proximity to one another. The geometry of the probe disclosed herein provides a means for making optical measurements in environments where it is difficult and/or expensive to gain access to the vicinity of a flow stream to be measured. Significantly, the lens geometry of the optical probe allows the analysis location within a flow stream being monitored to be moved while maintaining optical alignment of all components even when the optical probe is focused on a plurality of different analysis points within the flow stream.

  14. Optical keyboard

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.; Feichtner, John D.; Phillips, Thomas E.

    2001-01-01

    An optical keyboard includes an optical panel having optical waveguides stacked together. First ends of the waveguides define an inlet face, and opposite ends thereof define a screen. A projector transmits a light beam outbound through the waveguides for display on the screen as a keyboard image. A light sensor is optically aligned with the inlet face for sensing an inbound light beam channeled through the waveguides from the screen upon covering one key of the keyboard image.

  15. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  16. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  17. Optical Switch

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    seven wonders / optical switch Optical Switch A key component in the laser chain, an optical switch called a plasma electrode Pockels cell (PEPC), was invented and developed at LLNL. A Pockels cell rotates the polarization of a laser beam when a voltage is applied across an electro-optic crystal. Depending on the voltage applied, the Pockels cell either allows light to pass through or to reflect off a polarizer, creating an optical switch. For each of NIF's 192 beamlines, a PEPC allows the laser

  18. Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

    This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

  19. Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

    2014-01-10

    This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

  20. Rooting depths of plants relative to biological and environmental factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foxx, T S; Tierney, G D; Williams, J M

    1984-11-01

    In 1981 to 1982 an extensive bibliographic study was completed to document rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. In this paper the data were analyzed for rooting depths as related to life form, soil type, geographical region, root type, family, root depth to shoot height ratios, and root depth to root lateral ratios. Average rooting depth and rooting frequencies were determined and related to present low-level waste site maintenance.

  1. Fiber optic coupled optical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, Kevin J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A displacement sensor includes a first optical fiber for radiating light to a target, and a second optical fiber for receiving light from the target. The end of the first fiber is adjacent and not axially aligned with the second fiber end. A lens focuses light from the first fiber onto the target and light from the target onto the second fiber.

  2. Front lighted optical tooling method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, William J.

    1985-06-18

    An optical tooling method and apparatus uses a front lighted shadowgraphic technique to enhance visual contrast of reflected light. The apparatus includes an optical assembly including a fiducial mark, such as cross hairs, reflecting polarized light with a first polarization, a polarizing element backing the fiducial mark and a reflective surface backing the polarizing element for reflecting polarized light bypassing the fiducial mark and traveling through the polarizing element. The light reflected by the reflecting surface is directed through a second pass of the polarizing element toward the frontal direction with a polarization differing from the polarization of the light reflected by the fiducial mark. When used as a tooling target, the optical assembly may be mounted directly to a reference surface or may be secured in a mounting, such as a magnetic mounting. The optical assembly may also be mounted in a plane defining structure and used as a spherometer in conjunction with an optical depth measuring instrument. A method of measuring a radius of curvature of an unknown surface includes positioning the spherometer on a surface between the surface and a depth measuring optical instrument. As the spherometer is frontally illuminated, the distance from the depth measuring instrument to the fiducial mark and the underlying surface are alternately measured and the difference in these measurements is used as the sagittal height to calculate a radius of curvature.

  3. Method and apparatus of prefetching streams of varying prefetch depth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gara, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Sugavanam, Krishnan; Hoenicke, Dirk

    2012-01-24

    Method and apparatus of prefetching streams of varying prefetch depth dynamically changes the depth of prefetching so that the number of multiple streams as well as the hit rate of a single stream are optimized. The method and apparatus in one aspect monitor a plurality of load requests from a processing unit for data in a prefetch buffer, determine an access pattern associated with the plurality of load requests and adjust a prefetch depth according to the access pattern.

  4. Microtopographic and depth controls on active layer chemistry in Arctic polygonal ground

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newman, Brent D.; Throckmorton, Heather M.; Graham, David E.; Gu, Baohua; Hubbard, Susan S.; Liang, Liyuan; Wu, Yuxin; Heikoop, J. M.; Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Wilson, Cathy; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-03-24

    Polygonal ground is a signature characteristic of Arctic lowlands, and carbon release from permafrost thaw can alter feedbacks to Arctic ecosystems and climate. This study describes the first comprehensive spatial examination of active layer biogeochemistry that extends across high- and low-centered, ice wedge polygons, their features, and with depth. Water chemistry measurements of 54 analytes were made on surface and active layer pore waters collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA. Significant differences were observed between high- and low-centered polygons suggesting that polygon types may be useful for landscape-scale geochemical classification. However, differences were found for polygon features (centers and troughs) for analytes that were not significant for polygon type, suggesting that finer-scale features affect biogeochemistry differently from polygon types. Depth variations were also significant, demonstrating important multidimensional aspects of polygonal ground biogeochemistry. These results have major implications for understanding how polygonal ground ecosystems function, and how they may respond to future change.

  5. Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense in Depth Strategies ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cyber Security: Defense in Depth Strategies Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense in ... strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a ...

  6. Bouguer gravity anomalies, depth to bedrock, and shallow temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bouguer gravity anomalies, depth to bedrock, and shallow temperature in the Humboldt House geothermal area, Pershing County, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  7. Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal Exploration Using 3D Gravity Inversion In Walker Valley, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  8. Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 2 (in-depth...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 2 (in-depth) Data Collection for Improved Cold Temperature Thermal Modeling Advanced Technology ...

  9. Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product for the SAS-He Instrument

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ermold, B; Flynn, CJ; Barnard, J

    2013-11-27

    The Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer – Hemispheric (SAS-He) is a ground-based, shadowband instrument that measures the direct and diffuse solar irradiance. In this regard, the instrument is similar to the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) – an instrument that has been in the ARM suite of instruments for more than 15 years. However, the two instruments differ significantly in wavelength resolution and range. In particular, the MFRSR only observes the spectrum in six discrete wavelength channels of about 10 nm width from 415 to 940 nm. The SAS-He, in contrast, incorporates two fiber-coupled grating spectrometers: a Si CCD spectrometer with over 2000 pixels covering the range from 325-1040 nm with ~ 2.5 nm resolution ,and an InGaAs array spectrometer with 256 pixels covering the wavelength range from 960-1700 nm with ~ 6 nm resolution.

  10. Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report | Department of Energy Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths - Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths - Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal

  11. Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melgaard, David K.; Beaman, Joseph J.; Shelmidine, Gregory J.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

  12. Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohsuka, Shinji; Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro; Nakano, Tomoyasu; Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao

    2014-09-15

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen Kα x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-μm scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

  13. Intermediate depth burial of classified transuranic wastes in arid alluvium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Risk and Decision Analysis Dept.; Crowe, B.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Geologic Integration Group; Di Sanza, F. [Dept. of Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Nevada Operations Office

    1999-04-01

    Intermediate depth disposal operations were conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the DOE`s Nevada Test Site (NTS) from 1984 through 1989. These operations emplaced high-specific activity low-level wastes (LLW) and limited quantities of classified transuranic (TRU) wastes in 37 m (120-ft) deep, Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes. The GCD boreholes are 3 m (10 ft) in diameter and founded in a thick sequence of arid alluvium. The bottom 15 m (50 ft) of each borehole was used for waste emplacement and the upper 21 m (70 ft) was backfilled with native alluvium. The bottom of each GCD borehole is almost 200 m (650 ft) above the water table. The GCD boreholes are located in one of the most arid portions of the US, with an average precipitation of 13 cm (5 inches) per year. The limited precipitation, coupled with generally warm temperatures and low humidities results in a hydrologic system dominated by evapotranspiration. The US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) 40 CFR 191 defines the requirements for protection of human health from disposed TRU wastes. This EPA standard sets a number of requirements, including probabilistic limits on the cumulative releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment for 10,000 years. The DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has contracted with Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) to conduct a performance assessment (PA) to determine if the TRU wastes emplaced in the GCD boreholes complies with the EPA`s 40 CFR 191 requirements. This paper describes DOE`s actions undertaken to evaluate whether the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes will, or will not, endanger human health. Based on preliminary modeling, the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes meet the EPA`s requirements, and are, therefore, protective of human health.

  14. Optical coupler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2004-06-15

    In a camera or similar radiation sensitive device comprising a pixilated scintillation layer, a light guide and an array of position sensitive photomultiplier tubes, wherein there exists so-called dead space between adjacent photomultiplier tubes the improvement comprising a two part light guide comprising a first planar light spreading layer or portion having a first surface that addresses the scintillation layer and optically coupled thereto at a second surface that addresses the photomultiplier tubes, a second layer or portion comprising an array of trapezoidal light collectors defining gaps that span said dead space and are individually optically coupled to individual position sensitive photomultiplier tubes. According to a preferred embodiment, coupling of the trapezoidal light collectors to the position sensitive photomultiplier tubes is accomplished using an optical grease having about the same refractive index as the material of construction of the two part light guide.

  15. Optical analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, A.D.

    1987-09-28

    An optical analyzer wherein a sample of particulate matter, and particularly of organic matter, which has been collected on a quartz fiber filter is placed in a combustion tube, and light from a light source is passed through the sample. The temperature of the sample is raised at a controlled rate and in a controlled atmosphere. The magnitude of the transmission of light through the sample is detected as the temperature is raised. A data processor, differentiator and a two pen recorder provide a chart of the optical transmission versus temperature and the rate of change of optical transmission versus temperature signatures (T and D) of the sample. These signatures provide information as to physical and chemical processes and a variety of quantitative and qualitative information about the sample. Additional information is obtained by repeating the run in different atmospheres and/or different rates or heating with other samples of the same particulate material collected on other filters. 7 figs.

  16. Optical memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  17. Optical detection dental disease using polarized light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Fried, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    A polarization sensitive optical imaging system is used to detect changes in polarization in dental tissues to aid the diagnosis of dental disease such as caries. The degree of depolarization is measured by illuminating the dental tissue with polarized light and measuring the polarization state of the backscattered light. The polarization state of this reflected light is analyzed using optical polarimetric imaging techniques. A hand-held fiber optic dental probe is used in vivo to direct the incident beam to the dental tissue and collect the reflected light. To provide depth-resolved characterization of the dental tissue, the polarization diagnostics may be incorporated into optical coherence domain reflectometry and optical coherence tomography (OCDR/OCT) systems, which enables identification of subsurface depolarization sites associated with demineralization of enamel or bone.

  18. Front lighted optical tooling method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, W.J.

    1983-06-30

    An optical tooling method and apparatus uses a front lighted shadowgraphic technique to enhance visual contrast of reflected light. The apparatus includes an optical assembly including a fiducial mark, such as cross hairs, reflecting polarized light with a first polarization, a polarizing element backing the fiducial mark and a reflective surface backing the polarizing element for reflecting polarized light bypassing the fiducial mark and traveling through the polarizing element. The light reflected by the reflecting surface is directed through a second pass of the polarizing element toward the frontal direction with a polarization differing from the polarization of the light reflected by the fiducial mark. When used as a tooling target, the optical assembly may be mounted directly to a reference surface or may be secured in a mounting, such as a magnetic mounting. The optical assembly may also be mounted in a plane defining structure and used as a spherometer in conjunction with an optical depth measuring instrument.

  19. Possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers for percent depth-dose measurements in clinical electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, Takeshi; Araki, Fujio; Yoshiyama, Fumiaki

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: This study investigated the possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers for percent depth-dose (PDD) measurements in high-energy clinical electron beams. Methods: The cavity correction factor, P{sub cav}, for cylindrical chambers with various diameters was calculated as a function of depth from the surface to R{sub 50}, in the energy range of 6-18 MeV electrons with the EGSnrc C ++ -based user-code CAVITY. The results were compared with those for IBA NACP-02 and PTW Roos parallel-plate ionization chambers. The effective point of measurement (EPOM) for the cylindrical chamber and the parallel-plate chamber was positioned according to the IAEA TRS-398 code of practice. The overall correction factor, P{sub Q}, and the percent depth-ionization (PDI) curve for a PTW30013 Farmer-type chamber were also compared with those of NACP-02 and Roos chambers. Results: The P{sub cav} values at depths between the surface and R{sub 50} for cylindrical chambers were all lower than those with parallel-plate chambers. However, the variation in depth for cylindrical chambers equal to or less than 4 mm in diameter was equivalent to or smaller than that for parallel-plate chambers. The P{sub Q} values for the PTW30013 chamber mainly depended on P{sub cav}, and for parallel-plate chambers depended on the wall correction factor, P{sub wall}, rather than P{sub cav}. P{sub Q} at depths from the surface to R{sub 50} for the PTW30013 chamber was consequently a lower value than that with parallel-plate chambers. However, the variation in depth was equivalent to that of parallel-plate chambers at electron energies equal to or greater than 9 MeV. The shift to match calculated PDI curves for the PTW30013 chamber and water (perturbation free) varied from 0.65 to 0 mm between 6 and 18 MeV beams. Similarly, the shifts for NACP-02 and Roos chambers were 0.5-0.6 mm and 0.2-0.3 mm, respectively, and were nearly independent of electron energy. Conclusions: Calculated PDI curves for PTW

  20. Optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reedy, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    An optical switching device (10) is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber (16) or a second glass fiber (14) may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber (18). Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system (26, 28, 30). In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber (16) is reflected by a planar mirror (36) into the third glass fiber (18). In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber (14) passes directly into the third glass fiber (18). The planar mirror (36) is attached to a rotatable table (32) which is rotated to provide the optical switching.

  1. Optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reedy, R.P.

    1987-11-10

    An optical switching device is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber or a second glass fiber may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber. Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system. In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber is reflected by a planar mirror into the third glass fiber. In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber passes directly into the third glass fiber. The planar mirror is attached to a rotatable table which is rotated to provide the optical switching. 3 figs.

  2. A single centre water splitting dye complex adsorbed on rutile TiO{sub 2}(110): Photoemission, x-ray absorption, and optical spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weston, Matthew; Britton, Andrew J.; Handrup, Karsten; O'Shea, James N.; Reade, Thomas J.; Champness, Neil R.

    2011-09-21

    A single centre water splitting dye complex (aqua(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid)-(2,2':6',6''-terpyridine)Ruthenium(II)), along with a related complex ((2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid)-(2,2':6',6''-terpyridine)chloride Ruthenium(II)), has been investigated using photoemission and compared to molecules with similar structures. Dye molecules were deposited in situ using ultra-high vacuum electrospray deposition, which allows for the deposition of thermally labile molecules, such as these dye molecules. Adsorption of the dye molecules on the rutile TiO{sub 2}(110) surface has been studied using core-level and valence photoemission. Core-level photoemission spectra reveal that each complex bonds to the surface via deprotonation of its carboxylic acid groups. A consideration of the energy level alignments reveals that both complexes are capable of charge transfer from the adsorbed molecules to the conduction band of the rutile TiO{sub 2} substrate.

  3. Depth-resolved magnetic and structural analysis of relaxing epitaxial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Depth-resolved magnetic and structural analysis of relaxing epitaxial Sr 2 CrReO 6 <...

  4. Heat Flow At Standard Depth | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Heat Flow At Standard Depth Abstract Secular and long-term periodic changes in surface...

  5. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Defense-in-Depth Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward G. Wallace; Karl N. Fleming; Edward M. Burns

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to (1) document the definition of defense-in-depth and the pproach that will be used to assure that its principles are satisfied for the NGNP project and (2) identify the specific questions proposed for preapplication discussions with the NRC. Defense-in-depth is a safety philosophy in which multiple lines of defense and conservative design and evaluation methods are applied to assure the safety of the public. The philosophy is also intended to deliver a design that is tolerant to uncertainties in knowledge of plant behavior, component reliability or operator performance that might compromise safety. This paper includes a review of the regulatory foundation for defense-in-depth, a definition of defense-in-depth that is appropriate for advanced reactor designs based on High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology, and an explanation of how this safety philosophy is achieved in the NGNP.

  6. Method and apparatus to measure the depth of skin burns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickey, Fred M.; Holswade, Scott C.

    2002-01-01

    A new device for measuring the depth of surface tissue burns based on the rate at which the skin temperature responds to a sudden differential temperature stimulus. This technique can be performed without physical contact with the burned tissue. In one implementation, time-dependent surface temperature data is taken from subsequent frames of a video signal from an infrared-sensitive video camera. When a thermal transient is created, e.g., by turning off a heat lamp directed at the skin surface, the following time-dependent surface temperature data can be used to determine the skin burn depth. Imaging and non-imaging versions of this device can be implemented, thereby enabling laboratory-quality skin burn depth imagers for hospitals as well as hand-held skin burn depth sensors the size of a small pocket flashlight for field use and triage.

  7. Preliminary Results of in-situ Measurements of Aerosol Optical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Aerosol Optical and Water Uptake Properties from the ARM Mobile Facility in Niger Jefferson, Anne NOAA CMDL Ogren, John NOAACMDL Category: Field Campaigns The second...

  8. Optical humidity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarvin, Jeffrey A.

    1987-01-01

    An optical dielectric humidity sensor which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors.

  9. Optical humidity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarvin, J.A.

    1987-02-10

    An optical dielectric humidity sensor is disclosed which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors. 2 figs.

  10. Optical analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, Anthony D.

    1989-01-01

    An optical analyzer (10) wherein a sample (19) of particulate matter, and particularly of organic matter, which has been collected on a quartz fiber filter (20) is placed in a combustion tube (11), and light from a light source (14) is passed through the sample (19). The temperature of the sample (19) is raised at a controlled rate and in a controlled atmosphere. The magnitude of the transmission of light through the sample (19) is detected (18) as the temperature is raised. A data processor (23), differentiator (28) and a two pen recorder (24) provide a chart of the optical transmission versus temperature and the rate of change of optical transmission versus temperature signatures (T and D) of the sample (19). These signatures provide information as to physical and chemical processes and a variety of quantitative and qualitative information about the sample (19). Additional information is obtained by repeating the run in different atmospheres and/or different rates of heating with other samples of the same particulate material collected on other filters.

  11. NREL: Water Power Research - Economic and Power System Modeling...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The model represents the initial capital investment of offshore projects, considering project size, water depth, distance from shore, and turbine technology. NREL also develops ...

  12. Origin And Characterization Of Geothermal Waters At Desert Queen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    energy potential. Further investigation by drilling is necessary to determine the true nature of the waters at depth. Authors Laura Garchar and Greg Arehart Published GRC, 2008 DOI...

  13. Fiber optic monitoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Samborsky, James K.

    1993-01-01

    A device for the purpose of monitoring light transmissions in optical fibers comprises a fiber optic tap that optically diverts a fraction of a transmitted optical signal without disrupting the integrity of the signal. The diverted signal is carried, preferably by the fiber optic tap, to a lens or lens system that disperses the light over a solid angle that facilitates viewing. The dispersed light indicates whether or not the monitored optical fiber or system of optical fibers is currently transmitting optical information.

  14. Optical penetration sensor for pulsed laser welding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Essien, Marcelino; Keicher, David M.; Schlienger, M. Eric; Jellison, James L.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining the penetration of the weld pool created from pulsed laser welding and more particularly to an apparatus and method of utilizing an optical technique to monitor the weld vaporization plume velocity to determine the depth of penetration. A light source directs a beam through a vaporization plume above a weld pool, wherein the plume changes the intensity of the beam, allowing determination of the velocity of the plume. From the velocity of the plume, the depth of the weld is determined.

  15. Power optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apollonov, V V

    2014-02-28

    By using the theory we developed in the early 1970s, a broad range of phenomena is considered for an optical surface of a solid body that is exposed to radiation arbitrarily varying in time and producing temperature fields, thermoelastic stresses and thermal deformations on the surface layer. The examination is based on the relations (which are similar to Duhamel's integral formula from the theory of heat conduction) between the quantities characterising the thermal stress state in any nonstationary regimes of energy input into a solid. A peculiar feature of the analysis of the thermal stress state in this case consists in the fact that this relation comprises time as a parameter, which in turn is a consequence of incoherence of the quasi-stationary problem of thermoelasticity. This phenomenon is particularly important for the optics of high-power, high-pulse repetition rate lasers, which are being actively developed. In the review, we have recently published in Laser Physics, the thermal stress state of a solid is analysed. In this state, time is treated as an independent variable used in differentiation. Such an approach greatly reduces the applicability of the method. The review published contains data on the use of capillary porous structures made of various materials with different degrees of the surface development. Moreover, such structures can be efficiently employed to increase the heat exchange at a temperature below the boiling point of the coolant. In the present review we discuss the dependences of the limiting laser intensities on the duration of a pulse or a pulse train, corresponding to the three stages of the state of the reflecting surface and leading to unacceptable elastic deformations of the surface, to the plastic yield of the material accompanied by the formation of residual stresses and to the melting of the surface layer. We also analyse the problem of heat exchange in the surface layer with a liquid metal coolant pumped through it. The

  16. Measuring depth profiles of residual stress with Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enloe, W.S.; Sparks, R.G.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Knowledge of the variation of residual stress is a very important factor in understanding the properties of machined surfaces. The nature of the residual stress can determine a part`s susceptibility to wear deformation, and cracking. Raman spectroscopy is known to be a very useful technique for measuring residual stress in many materials. These measurements are routinely made with a lateral resolution of 1{mu}m and an accuracy of 0.1 kbar. The variation of stress with depth; however, has not received much attention in the past. A novel technique has been developed that allows quantitative measurement of the variation of the residual stress with depth with an accuracy of 10nm in the z direction. Qualitative techniques for determining whether the stress is varying with depth are presented. It is also demonstrated that when the stress is changing over the volume sampled, errors can be introduced if the variation of the stress with depth is ignored. Computer aided data analysis is used to determine the depth dependence of the residual stress.

  17. Parallel optical sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Skogen, Erik J; Vawter, Gregory A

    2014-05-20

    An optical sampler includes a first and second 1.times.n optical beam splitters splitting an input optical sampling signal and an optical analog input signal into n parallel channels, respectively, a plurality of optical delay elements providing n parallel delayed input optical sampling signals, n photodiodes converting the n parallel optical analog input signals into n respective electrical output signals, and n optical modulators modulating the input optical sampling signal or the optical analog input signal by the respective electrical output signals, and providing n successive optical samples of the optical analog input signal. A plurality of output photodiodes and eADCs convert the n successive optical samples to n successive digital samples. The optical modulator may be a photodiode interconnected Mach-Zehnder Modulator. A method of sampling the optical analog input signal is disclosed.

  18. Report on the Depth Requirements for a Massive Detector at Homestake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadel, Richard W.; Bernstein, Adam; Blucher, Edward; Cline, David B.; Diwan, Milind V.; Fleming, Bonnie; Kearns, Edward; Klein, Joshua; Lande, Kenneth; Lanni, Francesco; Lissauer, David; McKeown, Robert; Morse, William; Rameika, Regina; Scholberg, Kate; Smy, Michael; Sobel, Henry; Sullivan, Gregory; Svoboda, Robert; Vagins, Mark; Walter, Christopher; Zwaska, Robert

    2008-12-23

    This report provides the technical justification for locating a large detector underground in a US based Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory. A large detector with a fiducial mass greater than 100 kTon will most likely be a multipurpose facility. The main physics justification for such a device is detection of accelerator generated neutrinos, nucleon decay, and natural sources of neutrinos such as solar, atmospheric and supernova neutrinos. The requirement on the depth of this detector will be guided by the rate of signals from these sources and the rate of backgrounds from cosmic rays over a very wide range of energies (from solar neutrino energies of 5 MeV to high energies in the range of hundreds of GeV). For the present report, we have examined the depth requirement for a large water Cherenkov detector and a liquid argon time projection chamber. There has been extensive previous experience with underground water Cherenkov detectors such as IMB, Kamioka, and most recently, Super-Kamiokande which has a fiducial mass of 22 kTon and a total mass of 50 kTon at a depth of 2700 meters-water-equivalent in a mountain. Projections for signal and background capability for a larger and deeper(or shallower) detectors of this type can be scaled from these previous detectors. The liquid argon time projection chamber has the advantage of being a very fine-grained tracking detector, which should provide enhanced capability for background rejection. We have based background rejection on reasonable estimates of track and energy resolution, and in some cases scaled background rates from measurements in water. In the current work we have taken the approach that the depth should be sufficient to suppress the cosmogenic background below predicted signal rates for either of the above two technologies. Nevertheless, it is also clear that the underground facility that we are examining must have a long life and will most likely be used either for future novel uses of the

  19. Optical microphone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    2000-01-11

    An optical microphone includes a laser and beam splitter cooperating therewith for splitting a laser beam into a reference beam and a signal beam. A reflecting sensor receives the signal beam and reflects it in a plurality of reflections through sound pressure waves. A photodetector receives both the reference beam and reflected signal beam for heterodyning thereof to produce an acoustic signal for the sound waves. The sound waves vary the local refractive index in the path of the signal beam which experiences a Doppler frequency shift directly analogous with the sound waves.

  20. Optical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaves, Julio C.; Falicoff, Waqidi; Minano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Dross, Oliver; Parkyn, Jr., William A.

    2010-07-13

    An optical manifold for efficiently combining a plurality of blue LED outputs to illuminate a phosphor for a single, substantially homogeneous output, in a small, cost-effective package. Embodiments are disclosed that use a single or multiple LEDs and a remote phosphor, and an intermediate wavelength-selective filter arranged so that backscattered photoluminescence is recycled to boost the luminance and flux of the output aperture. A further aperture mask is used to boost phosphor luminance with only modest loss of luminosity. Alternative non-recycling embodiments provide blue and yellow light in collimated beams, either separately or combined into white.

    1. Optical microfluidics

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Kotz, K.T.; Noble, K.A.; Faris, G.W. [Molecular Physics Laboratory, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

      2004-09-27

      We present a method for the control of small droplets based on the thermal Marangoni effect using laser heating. With this approach, droplets covering five orders of magnitude in volume ({approx}1.7 {mu}L to 14 pL), immersed in decanol, were moved on an unmodified polystyrene surface, with speeds of up to 3 mm/s. When two droplets were brought into contact, they spontaneously fused and rapidly mixed in less than 33 ms. This optically addressed microfluidic approach has many advantages for microfluidic transport, including exceptional reconfigurability, low intersample contamination, large volume range, extremely simple substrates, no electrical connections, and ready scaling to large arrays.

    2. Optical interconnect assembly

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Laughlin, Daric; Abel, Philip

      2015-06-09

      An optical assembly includes a substrate with a first row of apertures and a second row of apertures. A first optical die includes a first plurality of optical transducer elements and is mounted on the substrate such that an optical signal interface of each transducer element is aligned with an aperture of the first row of optical apertures. A second optical die includes a second plurality of optical transducer elements and is mounted on the substrate such that an optical signal interface of each of the second plurality of optical transducer elements is aligned with an aperture of the second row of optical apertures. A connector configured to mate with the optical assembly supports a plurality of optical fibers. A terminal end of each optical fiber protrudes from the connector and extends into one of the apertures when the connector is coupled with the optical assembly.

    3. Report on the Depth Requirements for a Massive Detector at Homestake

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Bernstein,A.; Blucher, E.; Cline, D. B.; Diwan, M. V.; Fleming, b.; Kadel, R.; Kearns, E.; Klein, J.; Lande, K.; Lanni, F.; Lissauer, D.; McKeown, R.; Morse, W.; Radeika, R.; Scholberg, K.; Smy, M.; Sobel, H.; Sullivan, G.; Svoboda, R.; Vagins, M.; Walter, C.; Zwaska, R.

      2008-12-22

      This report provides the technical justification for locating a large detector underground in a US based Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory. A large detector with a fiducial mass greater than 100 kTon will most likely be a multipurpose facility. The main physics justification for such a device is detection of accelerator generated neutrinos, nucleon decay, and natural sources of neutrinos such as solar, atmospheric and supernova neutrinos. The requirement on the depth of this detector will be guided by the rate of signals from these sources and the rate of backgrounds from cosmic rays over a very wide range of energies (from solar neutrino energies of 5 MeV to high energies in the range of tens of GeV). For the present report, we have examined the depth requirement for a large water Cherenkov detector and a liquid argon time projection chamber. There has been extensive previous experience with underground water Cherenkov detectors such as IMB, Kamioka, and most recently, Super-Kamiokande which has a fiducial mass of 22 kTon and a total mass of 50 kTon at a depth of 2700 meters-water-equivalent. Projections for signal and background capability for a larger and deeper (or shallower) detectors of this type can be scaled from these previous detectors. The liquid argon time projection chamber has the advantage of being a very fine-grained tracking detector, which provides enhanced capability for background rejection. In the current work we have taken the approach that the depth should be sufficient to suppress the cosmogenic background below predicted signal rates for either of the above two technologies. Nevertheless, it is also clear that the underground facility that we are examining must have a long life and will most likely be used either for future novel uses of the currently planned detectors or new technologies. Therefore the depth requirement also needs to be made on the basis of sound judgment regarding possible future use. In particular, the

    4. Continuous Snow Depth, Intensive Site 1, Barrow, Alaska

      DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

      Bob Busey; Larry Hinzman; Vladimir Romanovsky; William Cable

      2014-11-06

      Continuous Snow depth data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow, Alaska. These data are being collected to better understand the energy dynamics above the active layer and permafrost. They complement in-situ snow and soil measurements at this location. The data could also be used as supporting measurements for other research and modeling activities.

    5. Continuous Snow Depth, Intensive Site 1, Barrow, Alaska

      DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

      Bob Busey; Larry Hinzman; Vladimir Romanovsky; William Cable

      Continuous Snow depth data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow, Alaska. These data are being collected to better understand the energy dynamics above the active layer and permafrost. They complement in-situ snow and soil measurements at this location. The data could also be used as supporting measurements for other research and modeling activities.

    6. Depth-resolved confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy for characterizing GaN-based light emitting diode structures

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Chen, Wei-Liang; Lee, Yu-Yang; Chang, Yu-Ming; Chang, Chiao-Yun; Huang, Huei-Min; Lu, Tien-Chang

      2013-11-15

      In this work, we demonstrate that depth-resolved confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy can be used to characterize the active layer of GaN-based LEDs. By taking the depth compression effect due to refraction index mismatch into account, the axial profiles of Raman peak intensities from the GaN capping layer toward the sapphire substrate can correctly match the LED structural dimension and allow the identification of unique Raman feature originated from the 0.3 μm thick active layer of the studied LED. The strain variation in different sample depths can also be quantified by measuring the Raman shift of GaN A{sub 1}(LO) and E{sub 2}(high) phonon peaks. The capability of identifying the phonon structure of buried LED active layer and depth-resolving the strain distribution of LED structure makes this technique a potential optical and remote tool for in operando investigation of the electronic and structural properties of nitride-based LEDs.

    7. Optical manifold

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Falicoff, Waqidi; Chaves, Julio C.; Minano, Juan Carlos; Benitez, Pablo; Dross, Oliver; Parkyn, Jr., William A.

      2010-02-23

      Optical systems are described that have at least one source of a beam of blue light with divergence under 15.degree.. A phosphor emits yellow light when excited by the blue light. A collimator is disposed with the phosphor and forms a yellow beam with divergence under 15.degree.. A dichroic filter is positioned to transmit the beam of blue light to the phosphor and to reflect the beam of yellow light to an exit aperture. In different embodiments, the beams of blue and yellow light are incident upon said filter with central angles of 15.degree., 22.degree., and 45.degree.. The filter may reflect all of one polarization and part of the other polarization, and a polarization rotating retroreflector may then be provided to return the unreflected light to the filter.

    8. Microtopographic and depth controls on active layer chemistry in Arctic polygonal ground

      DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

      Newman, Brent D.; Throckmorton, Heather M.; Graham, David E.; Gu, Baohua; Hubbard, Susan S.; Liang, Liyuan; Wu, Yuxin; Heikoop, J. M.; Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Phelps, Tommy J.; et al

      2015-03-24

      Polygonal ground is a signature characteristic of Arctic lowlands, and carbon release from permafrost thaw can alter feedbacks to Arctic ecosystems and climate. This study describes the first comprehensive spatial examination of active layer biogeochemistry that extends across high- and low-centered, ice wedge polygons, their features, and with depth. Water chemistry measurements of 54 analytes were made on surface and active layer pore waters collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA. Significant differences were observed between high- and low-centered polygons suggesting that polygon types may be useful for landscape-scale geochemical classification. However, differences were found for polygon features (centers and troughs) formore » analytes that were not significant for polygon type, suggesting that finer-scale features affect biogeochemistry differently from polygon types. Depth variations were also significant, demonstrating important multidimensional aspects of polygonal ground biogeochemistry. These results have major implications for understanding how polygonal ground ecosystems function, and how they may respond to future change.« less

    9. LANL selects two small businesses for water monitoring work

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      LLC and Eberline Services, Inc. April 12, 2011 LANL monitors water at more than 200 wells and sample ports at various depths. LANL monitors water at more than 200 wells and...

    10. Optical sedimentation recorder

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Bishop, James K.B.

      2014-05-06

      A robotic optical sedimentation recorder is described for the recordation of carbon flux in the oceans wherein both POC and PIC particles are captured at the open end of a submersible sampling platform, the captured particles allowed to drift down onto a collection plate where they can be imaged over time. The particles are imaged using three separate light sources, activated in sequence, one source being a back light, a second source being a side light to provide dark field illumination, and a third source comprising a cross polarized light source to illuminate birefringent particles. The recorder in one embodiment is attached to a buoyancy unit which is capable upon command for bringing the sedimentation recorder to a programmed depth below the ocean surface during recordation mode, and on command returning the unit to the ocean surface for transmission of recorded data and receipt of new instructions. The combined unit is provided with its own power source and is designed to operate autonomously in the ocean for extended periods of time.

    11. ARM - Campaign Instrument - csphot

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Aerosol optical properties Cloud optical depth Cloud droplet size Particle number concentration Particle size distribution Precipitable water Shortwave narrowband radiance...

    12. Optical data latch

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Vawter, G. Allen

      2010-08-31

      An optical data latch is formed on a substrate from a pair of optical logic gates in a cross-coupled arrangement in which optical waveguides are used to couple an output of each gate to an photodetector input of the other gate. This provides an optical bi-stability which can be used to store a bit of optical information in the latch. Each optical logic gate, which can be an optical NOT gate (i.e. an optical inverter) or an optical NOR gate, includes a waveguide photodetector electrically connected in series with a waveguide electroabsorption modulator. The optical data latch can be formed on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate (e.g. an InP or GaAs substrate) from III-V compound semiconductor layers. A number of optical data latches can be cascaded to form a clocked optical data shift register.

    13. RFID tag modification for full depth backscatter modulation

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Scott, Jeffrey Wayne [Pasco, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

      2010-07-20

      A modulated backscatter radio frequency identification device includes a diode detector configured to selectively modulate a reply signal onto an incoming continuous wave; communications circuitry configured to provide a modulation control signal to the diode detector, the diode detector being configured to modulate the reply signal in response to be modulation control signal; and circuitry configured to increase impedance change at the diode detector which would otherwise not occur because the diode detector rectifies the incoming continuous wave while modulating the reply signal, whereby reducing the rectified signal increases modulation depth by removing the reverse bias effects on impedance changes. Methods of improving depth of modulation in a modulated backscatter radio frequency identification device are also provided.

    14. Optical absorption measurement system

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Morton, Richard G.; Sawicki, Richard H.; Bissinger, Horst D.

      1989-01-01

      The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

    15. Monte Carlo study of the depth-dependent fluence perturbation in parallel-plate ionization chambers in electron beams

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Zink, K.; Czarnecki, D.; Voigts-Rhetz, P. von; Looe, H. K.; Harder, D.

      2014-11-01

      Purpose: The electron fluence inside a parallel-plate ionization chamber positioned in a water phantom and exposed to a clinical electron beam deviates from the unperturbed fluence in water in absence of the chamber. One reason for the fluence perturbation is the well-known inscattering effect, whose physical cause is the lack of electron scattering in the gas-filled cavity. Correction factors determined to correct for this effect have long been recommended. However, more recent Monte Carlo calculations have led to some doubt about the range of validity of these corrections. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to reanalyze the development of the fluence perturbation with depth and to review the function of the guard rings. Methods: Spatially resolved Monte Carlo simulations of the dose profiles within gas-filled cavities with various radii in clinical electron beams have been performed in order to determine the radial variation of the fluence perturbation in a coin-shaped cavity, to study the influences of the radius of the collecting electrode and of the width of the guard ring upon the indicated value of the ionization chamber formed by the cavity, and to investigate the development of the perturbation as a function of the depth in an electron-irradiated phantom. The simulations were performed for a primary electron energy of 6 MeV. Results: The Monte Carlo simulations clearly demonstrated a surprisingly large in- and outward electron transport across the lateral cavity boundary. This results in a strong influence of the depth-dependent development of the electron field in the surrounding medium upon the chamber reading. In the buildup region of the depth-dose curve, the inout balance of the electron fluence is positive and shows the well-known dose oscillation near the cavity/water boundary. At the depth of the dose maximum the inout balance is equilibrated, and in the falling part of the depth-dose curve it is negative, as shown here the first time

    16. Advanced Optical Technologies

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      The Advanced Optical Components and Technologies program develops, creates and provides critical optical components for laser-based missions at LLNL. Past projects focused on ...

    17. Optical extensometer

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Walker, Ray A.; Reich, Fred R.; Russell, James T.

      1978-01-01

      An optical extensometer is described using sequentially pulsed light beams for measuring the dimensions of objects by detecting two opposite edges of the object without contacting the object. The light beams may be of different distinguishable light characteristics, such as polarization or wave length, and are time modulated in an alternating manner at a reference frequency. The light characteristics are of substantially the same total light energy and are distributed symmetrically. In the preferred embodiment two light beam segments of one characteristic are on opposite sides of a middle segment of another characteristic. As a result, when the beam segments are scanned sequentially across two opposite edges of the object, they produce a readout signal at the output of a photoelectric detector that is compared with the reference signal by a phase comparator to produce a measurement signal with a binary level transition when the light beams cross an edge. The light beams may be of different cross sectional geometries, including two superimposed and concentric circular beam cross sections of different diameter, or two rectangular cross sections which intersect with each other substantially perpendicular so only their central portions are superimposed. Alternately, a row of three light beams can be used including two outer beams on opposite sides and separate from a middle beam. The three beams may all be of the same light characteristic. However it is preferable that the middle beam be of a different characteristic but of the same total energy as the two outer beams.

    18. Semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical water splitting at the limit of very wide depletion region

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Liu, Mingzhao; Lyons, John L.; Yan, Danhua H.; Hybertsen, Mark S.

      2015-11-23

      In semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, carrier separation and delivery largely relies on the depletion region formed at the semiconductor/water interface. As a Schottky junction device, the trade-off between photon collection and minority carrier delivery remains a persistent obstacle for maximizing the performance of a water splitting photoelectrode. Here, it is demonstrated that the PEC water splitting efficiency for an n-SrTiO3 (n-STO) photoanode is improved very significantly despite its weak indirect band gap optical absorption (α < 10⁴ cm⁻¹), by widening the depletion region through engineering its doping density and profile. Graded doped n-SrTiO3 photoanodes are fabricated with their bulk heavily doped with oxygen vacancies but their surface lightly doped over a tunable depth of a few hundred nanometers, through a simple low temperature re-oxidation technique. The graded doping profile widens the depletion region to over 500 nm, thus leading to very efficient charge carrier separation and high quantum efficiency (>70%) for the weak indirect transition. As a result, this simultaneous optimization of the light absorption, minority carrier (hole) delivery, and majority carrier (electron) transport by means of a graded doping architecture may be useful for other indirect band gap photocatalysts that suffer from a similar problem of weak optical absorption.

    19. Semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical water splitting at the limit of very wide depletion region

      DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

      Liu, Mingzhao; Lyons, John L.; Yan, Danhua H.; Hybertsen, Mark S.

      2015-11-23

      In semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, carrier separation and delivery largely relies on the depletion region formed at the semiconductor/water interface. As a Schottky junction device, the trade-off between photon collection and minority carrier delivery remains a persistent obstacle for maximizing the performance of a water splitting photoelectrode. Here, it is demonstrated that the PEC water splitting efficiency for an n-SrTiO3 (n-STO) photoanode is improved very significantly despite its weak indirect band gap optical absorption (α < 10⁴ cm⁻¹), by widening the depletion region through engineering its doping density and profile. Graded doped n-SrTiO3 photoanodes are fabricated with their bulkmore » heavily doped with oxygen vacancies but their surface lightly doped over a tunable depth of a few hundred nanometers, through a simple low temperature re-oxidation technique. The graded doping profile widens the depletion region to over 500 nm, thus leading to very efficient charge carrier separation and high quantum efficiency (>70%) for the weak indirect transition. As a result, this simultaneous optimization of the light absorption, minority carrier (hole) delivery, and majority carrier (electron) transport by means of a graded doping architecture may be useful for other indirect band gap photocatalysts that suffer from a similar problem of weak optical absorption.« less

    20. Optical NAND gate

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Skogen, Erik J.; Raring, James; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna

      2011-08-09

      An optical NAND gate is formed from two pair of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each pair of the optical waveguide devices consisting of an electroabsorption modulator and a photodetector. One pair of the optical waveguide devices is electrically connected in parallel to operate as an optical AND gate; and the other pair of the optical waveguide devices is connected in series to operate as an optical NOT gate (i.e. an optical inverter). The optical NAND gate utilizes two digital optical inputs and a continuous light input to provide a NAND function output. The optical NAND gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.

    1. Advanced Imaging Optics Utilizing Wavefront Coding.

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Scrymgeour, David; Boye, Robert; Adelsberger, Kathleen

      2015-06-01

      Image processing offers a potential to simplify an optical system by shifting some of the imaging burden from lenses to the more cost effective electronics. Wavefront coding using a cubic phase plate combined with image processing can extend the system's depth of focus, reducing many of the focus-related aberrations as well as material related chromatic aberrations. However, the optimal design process and physical limitations of wavefront coding systems with respect to first-order optical parameters and noise are not well documented. We examined image quality of simulated and experimental wavefront coded images before and after reconstruction in the presence of noise. Challenges in the implementation of cubic phase in an optical system are discussed. In particular, we found that limitations must be placed on system noise, aperture, field of view and bandwidth to develop a robust wavefront coded system.

    2. SPIE Optics + Photonics 2011

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      SPIE Optics + Photonics 2011 August 21-25, 2011 San Diego Convention Center San Diego

    3. Cleaning process for EUV optical substrates

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Weber, Frank J.; Spiller, Eberhard A.

      1999-01-01

      A cleaning process for surfaces with very demanding cleanliness requirements, such as extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) optical substrates. Proper cleaning of optical substrates prior to applying reflective coatings thereon is very critical in the fabrication of the reflective optics used in EUV lithographic systems, for example. The cleaning process involves ultrasonic cleaning in acetone, methanol, and a pH neutral soap, such as FL-70, followed by rinsing in de-ionized water and drying with dry filtered nitrogen in conjunction with a spin-rinse.

    4. Optical XOR gate

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Vawter, G. Allen

      2013-11-12

      An optical XOR gate is formed as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) from two sets of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each set of the optical waveguide devices including an electroabsorption modulator electrically connected in series with a waveguide photodetector. The optical XOR gate utilizes two digital optical inputs to generate an XOR function digital optical output. The optical XOR gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.

    5. Fiber optic connector

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Rajic, S.; Muhs, J.D.

      1996-10-22

      A fiber optic connector and method for connecting composite materials within which optical fibers are imbedded are disclosed. The fiber optic connector includes a capillary tube for receiving optical fibers at opposing ends. The method involves inserting a first optical fiber into the capillary tube and imbedding the unit in the end of a softened composite material. The capillary tube is injected with a coupling medium which subsequently solidifies. The composite material is machined to a desired configuration. An external optical fiber is then inserted into the capillary tube after fluidizing the coupling medium, whereby the optical fibers are coupled. 3 figs.

    6. Optical NOR gate

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Skogen, Erik J.; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna

      2011-09-06

      An optical NOR gate is formed from two pair of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each pair of the optical waveguide devices consisting of an electroabsorption modulator electrically connected in series with a waveguide photodetector. The optical NOR gate utilizes two digital optical inputs and a continuous light input to provide a NOR function digital optical output. The optical NOR gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.

    7. Identification Of Rippability And Bedrock Depth Using Seismic Refraction

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Ismail, Nur Azwin; Saad, Rosli; Nawawi, M. N. M; Muztaza, Nordiana Mohd; El Hidayah Ismail, Noer; Mohamad, Edy Tonizam

      2010-12-23

      Spatial variability of the bedrock with reference to the ground surface is vital for many applications in geotechnical engineering to decide the type of foundation of a structure. A study was done within the development area of Mutiara Damansara utilising the seismic refraction method using ABEM MK8 24 channel seismograph. The geological features of the subsurface were investigated and velocities, depth to the underlying layers were determined. The seismic velocities were correlated with rippability characteristics and borehole records. Seismic sections generally show a three layer case. The first layer with velocity 400-600 m/s predominantly consists of soil mix with gravel. The second layer with velocity 1600-2000 m/s is suggested to be saturated and weathered area. Both layers forms an overburden and generally rippable. The third layer represents granite bedrock with average depth and velocity 10-30 m and >3000 m/s respectively and it is non-rippable. Steep slope on the bedrock are probably the results of shear zones.

    8. Campbell penetration depth in Fe-based superconductors

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Prommapan, Plegchart

      2011-08-15

      A 'true' critical current density, j{sub c}, as opposite to commonly measured relaxed persistent (Bean) current, j{sub B}, was extracted from the Campbell penetration depth, {lambda}{sub c}(T,H) measured in single crystals of LiFeAs, and optimally electron-doped Ba(Fe{sub 0.954}Ni{sub 0.046}){sub 2}As{sub 2} (FeNi122). In LiFeAs, the effective pinning potential is nonparabolic, which follows from the magnetic field - dependent Labusch parameter {alpha}. At the equilibrium (upon field - cooling), {alpha}(H) is non-monotonic, but it is monotonic at a finite gradient of the vortex density. This behavior leads to a faster magnetic relaxation at the lower fields and provides a natural dynamic explanation for the fishtail (second peak) effect. We also find the evidence for strong pinning at the lower fields.The inferred field dependence of the pinning potential is consistent with the evolution from strong pinning, through collective pinning, and eventually to a disordered vortex lattice. The value of j{sub c}(2 K) {approx_equal} 1.22 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} provide an upper estimate of the current carrying capability of LiFeAs. Overall, vortex behavior of almost isotropic, fully-gapped LiFeAs is very similar to highly anisotropic d-wave cuprate superconductors, the similarity that requires further studies in order to understand unconventional superconductivity in cuprates and pnictides. In addition to LiFeAs, we also report the magnetic penetration depth in BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} based superconductors including irradiation of FeNi122. In unirradiated FeNi122, the maximum critical current value is, j{sub c}(2K) {approx_equal} 3.3 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2}. The magnetic-dependent feature was observed near the transition temperature in FeTe{sub 0.53}Se{sub 0.47} and irradiated FeNi122. Because of this feature, further studies are required in order to properly calibrate the Campbell penetration depth. Finally, we detected the crossing between the magnetic penetration depth and

    9. Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope Adaptive Optics...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Systems You are accessing a ...

    10. Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope Adaptive Optics...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      ThesisDissertation: Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope ...

    11. Highly Sensitive Electro-Optic Modulators

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      DeVore, Peter S

      2015-10-26

      There are very important diagnostic and communication applications that receive faint electrical signals to be transmitted over long distances for capture. Optical links reduce bandwidth and distance restrictions of metal transmission lines; however, such signals are only weakly imprinted onto the optical carrier, resulting in low fidelity transmission. Increasing signal fidelity often necessitates insertion of radio-frequency (RF) amplifiers before the electro-optic modulator, but (especially at high frequencies) RF amplification results in large irreversible distortions. We have investigated the feasibility of a Sensitive and Linear Modulation by Optical Nonlinearity (SALMON) modulator to supersede RF-amplified modulators. SALMON uses cross-phase modulation, a manifestation of the Kerr effect, to enhance the modulation depth of an RF-modulated optical wave. This ultrafast process has the potential to result in less irreversible distortions as compared to a RF-amplified modulator due to the broadband nature of the Kerr effect. Here, we prove that a SALMON modulator is a feasible alternative to an RFamplified modulator, by demonstrating a sensitivity enhancement factor greater than 20 and significantly reduced distortion.

    12. Latching micro optical switch

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A

      2013-05-21

      An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.

    13. Femtosecond optical clock

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Bagaev, Sergei N; Denisov, Vladimir I; Zakharyash, Valerii F; Kashirsky, Aleksandr V; Klementyev, Vasilii M; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Korel', I I; Pivtsov, V S

      2004-12-31

      New advances in the field of synthesis of optical frequencies and the development of a new generation of optical clocks are considered. The use of mode-locked femtosecond lasers and fibre emission-spectrum stretchers allows the synthesis of any frequencies (from radio-frequencies to the UV region) and drastically simplifies the structure of an optical clock. The schemes of femtosecond optical clock are presented and the application of tapered optical fibres in them is described. (optical metrology and quantum frequency standards)

    14. Water Quality

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface ...

    15. Water Quality

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

    16. Aqueous medium induced optical transitions in cerium oxide nanoparticles

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Inerbaev, Talgat M.; Karakoti, Ajay S.; Kuchibhatla, S. V. N. T.; Kumar, Amit; Masunov, Artem E.; Seal, Sudipta

      2015-03-07

      Experimental and theoretical investigations were performed to investigate the effect of water on optical properties of nanoceria as a function of Ce3+ concentration. Theoretical studies based on density functional plane-wave calculations reveal that the indirect optical transitions in bare ceria nanoparticles are red-shifted with an increase in the concentration of Ce3+. However, ceria nanoparticles model with adsorbed water molecules show a blue shift in the indirect optical spectra under identical conditions. Direct optical transitions are almost independent of Ce3+ concentration but show a pronounced blue shift in the aqueous environment relative to the bare nanoparticles. The theoretical study is consistent with our experimental observation in difference of shift behaviour in bare and aqueous suspended ceria nanoparticles. This change from red- to blue-shift in indirect optical transitions is associated with the polarization effect of water molecules on f-electron states.

    17. Active optical zoom system

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Wick, David V.

      2005-12-20

      An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

    18. Ultrathin Optical Panel And A Method Of Making An Ultrathin Optical Panel.

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Biscardi, Cyrus; Brewster, Calvin; DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

      2005-02-15

      An ultrathin optical panel, and a method of producing an ultrathin optical panel, are disclosed, including stacking a plurality of glass sheets, which sheets may be coated with a transparent cladding substance or may be uncoated, fastening together the plurality of stacked coated glass sheets using an epoxy or ultraviolet adhesive, applying uniform pressure to the stack, curing the stack, sawing the stack to form an inlet face on a side of the stack and an outlet face on an opposed side of the stack, bonding a coupler to the inlet face of the stack, and fastening the stack, having the coupler bonded thereto, within a rectangular housing having an open front which is aligned with the outlet face, the rectangular housing having therein a light generator which is optically aligned with the coupler. The light generator is preferably placed parallel to and proximate with the inlet face, thereby allowing for a reduction in the depth of the housing.

    19. Ultrathin optical panel and a method of making an ultrathin optical panel

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Biscardi, Cyrus; Brewster, Calvin; DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

      2001-10-09

      An ultrathin optical panel, and a method of producing an ultrathin optical panel, are disclosed, including stacking a plurality of glass sheets, which sheets may be coated with a transparent cladding substance or may be uncoated, fastening together the plurality of stacked coated glass sheets using an epoxy or ultraviolet adhesive, applying uniform pressure to the stack, curing the stack, sawing the stack to form an inlet face on a side of the stack and an outlet face on an opposed side of the stack, bonding a coupler to the inlet face of the stack, and fastening the stack, having the coupler bonded thereto, within a rectangular housing having an open front which is aligned with the outlet face, the rectangular housing having therein a light generator which is optically aligned with the coupler. The light generator is preferably placed parallel to and proximate with the inlet face, thereby allowing for a reduction in the depth of the housing.

    20. Ultrathin optical panel and a method of making an ultrathin optical panel

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Biscardi, Cyrus; Brewster, Calvin; DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

      2003-02-11

      An ultrathin optical panel, and a method of producing an ultrathin optical panel, are disclosed, including stacking a plurality of glass sheets, which sheets may be coated with a transparent cladding substance or may be uncoated, fastening together the plurality of stacked coated glass sheets using an epoxy or ultraviolet adhesive, applying uniform pressure to the stack, curing the stack, sawing the stack to form an inlet face on a side of the stack and an outlet face on an opposed side of the stack, bonding a coupler to the inlet face of the stack, and fastening the stack, having the coupler bonded thereto, within a rectangular housing having an open front which is aligned with the outlet face, the rectangular housing having therein a light generator which is optically aligned with the coupler. The light generator is preferably placed parallel to and proximate with the inlet face, thereby allowing for a reduction in the depth of the housing.

    1. Ultrathin Optical Panel And A Method Of Making An Ultrathin Optical Panel.

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Biscardi, Cyrus; Brewster, Calvin; DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

      2005-05-17

      An ultrathin optical panel, and a method of producing an ultrathin optical panel, are disclosed, including stacking a plurality of glass sheets, which sheets may be coated with a transparent cladding substance or may be uncoated, fastening together the plurality of stacked coated glass sheets using an epoxy or ultraviolet adhesive, applying uniform pressure to the stack, curing the stack, sawing the stack to form an inlet face on a side of the stack and an outlet face on an opposed side of the stack, bonding a coupler to the inlet face of the stack, and fastening the stack, having the coupler bonded thereto, within a rectangular housing having an open front which is aligned with the outlet face, the rectangular housing having therein a light generator which is optically aligned with the coupler. The light generator is preferably placed parallel to and proximate with the inlet face, thereby allowing for a reduction in the depth of the housing.

    2. Ultrathin optical panel and a method of making an ultrathin optical panel

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Biscardi, Cyrus; Brewster, Calvin; DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

      2002-01-01

      An ultrathin optical panel, and a method of producing an ultrathin optical panel, are disclosed, including stacking a plurality of glass sheets, which sheets may be coated With a transparent cladding substance or may be uncoated, fastening together the plurality of stacked coated glass sheets using an epoxy or ultraviolet adhesive, applying uniform pressure to the stack, curing the stack, sawing the stack to form an inlet face on a side of the stack and an outlet face on an opposed side of the stack, bonding a coupler to the inlet face of the stack, and fastening the stack, having the coupler bonded thereto, within a rectangular housing having an open front which is aligned with the outlet face, the rectangular housing having therein a light generator which is optically aligned with the coupler. The light generator is preferably placed parallel to and proximate with the inlet face, thereby allowing for a reduction in the depth of the housing.

    3. SU-E-I-11: Cascaded Linear System Model for Columnar CsI Flat Panel Imagers with Depth Dependent Gain and Blur

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Peng, B; Lubinsky, A; Zheng, H; Zhao, W; Teymurazyan, A

      2014-06-01

      Purpose: To implement a depth dependent gain and blur cascaded linear system model (CLSM) for optimizing columnar structured CsI indirect conversion flat panel imager (FPI) for advanced imaging applications. Methods: For experimental validation, depth dependent escape efficiency, e(z), was extracted from PHS measurement of different CsI scintillators (thickness, substrate and light output). The inherent MTF and DQE of CsI was measured using high resolution CMOS sensor. For CLSM, e(z) and the depth dependent MTF(f,z), were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation (Geant4) of optical photon transport through columnar CsI. Previous work showed that Monte Carlo simulation for CsI was hindered by the non-ideality of its columnar structure. In the present work we allowed variation in columnar width with depth, and assumed diffusive reflective backing and columns. Monte Carlo simulation was performed using an optical point source placed at different depth of the CsI layer, from which MTF(z,f) and e(z) were computed. The resulting e(z) with excellent matching with experimental measurements were then applied to the CLSM, Monte Carlo simulation was repeated until the modeled MTF, DQE(f) also match experimental measurement. Results: For a 150 micron FOS HL type CsI, e(z) varies between 0.56 to 0.45, and the MTF at 14 cycles/mm varies between 62.1% to 3.9%, from the front to the back of the scintillator. The overall MTF and DQE(f) at all frequencies are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements at all frequencies. Conclusion: We have developed a CLSM for columnar CsI scintillators with depth dependent gain and MTF, which were estimated from Monte Carlo simulation with novel optical simulation settings. Preliminary results showed excellent agreement between simulation results and experimental measurements. Future work is aimed at extending this approach to optimize CsI screen optic design and sensor structure for achieving higher DQE(f) in cone-beam CT, which uses

    4. ''Atomic Optics'': Nonimaging Optics on the Nanoscale

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Roland Winston Joseph O'Gallagher

      2005-01-15

      This is the final report for a one year close out extension of our basic research program that was established at the University of Chicago more than sixteen years ago to explore and develop the optical sub-discipline that has come to be known as ''nonimaging optics''. This program has been extremely fruitful, having both broadened the range of formalism available for workers in this field and led to the discovery of many new families of optical devices. These devices and techniques have applications wherever the efficient transport and transformation of light distributions are important, in particular in illumination, fiber optics, collection and concentration of sunlight, and the detection of faint light signals in physics and astrophysics. Over the past thirty years, Nonimaging Optics (Welford and Winston, 1989) has brought a fresh approach to the analysis of many problems in classical macro-scale optics. Through the application of phase-space concepts, statistical methods, thermodynamic arguments, etc., many previously established performance limits were able to be broken and many technical surprises with exciting practical applications were discovered. The most recent three-year phase of our long-term continuing program ended in late 2002 and emphasized extending our work in geometrical optics and expanding it to include some interesting questions in physical optics as well as in the new field of statistical optics. This report presents a survey of the basic history and concepts of nonimaging optics and reviews highlights and significant accomplishments over the past fifteen years. This is followed by a more detailed summary of recent research directions and accomplishments during the last three years. This most recent phase was marked by the broadening in scope to include a separate project involving a collaboration with an industrial partner, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). This effort was proposed and approved in 1998 and was

    5. High bandwidth optical mount

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Bender, D.A.; Kuklo, T.

      1994-11-08

      An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage. 5 figs.

    6. High bandwidth optical mount

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Bender, Donald A.; Kuklo, Thomas

      1994-01-01

      An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage.

    7. Optical voltage reference

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

      1994-04-26

      An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

    8. Reflective optical imaging system

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Shafer, David R.

      2000-01-01

      An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

    9. Fiber optic micro accelerometer

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Swierkowski, Steve P.

      2005-07-26

      An accelerometer includes a wafer, a proof mass integrated into the wafer, at least one spring member connected to the proof mass, and an optical fiber. A Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by a partially reflective surface on the proof mass and a partially reflective surface on the end of the optical fiber. The two partially reflective surfaces are used to detect movement of the proof mass through the optical fiber, using an optical detection system.

    10. Optical voltage reference

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Rankin, Richard; Kotter, Dale

      1994-01-01

      An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

    11. Taking Oil and Gas Exploration to New Depths | GE Global Research

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Taking Oil and Gas Exploration to New Depths Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new ... Taking Oil and Gas Exploration to New Depths Oliver Astley 2014.11.12 The challenges of ...

    12. Gamma-ray irradiated polymer optical waveguides

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Lai, C.-C.; Wei, T.-Y.; Chang, C.-Y.; Wang, W.-S.; Wei, Y.-Y.

      2008-01-14

      Optical waveguides fabricated by gamma-ray irradiation on polymer through a gold mask are presented. The gamma-ray induced index change is found almost linearly dependent on the dose of the irradiation. And the measured propagation losses are low enough for practical application. Due to the high penetrability of gamma ray, uniform refractive index change in depth can be easily achieved. Moreover, due to large-area printing, the uniformity of waveguide made by gamma-ray irradiation is much better than that by e-beam direct writing.

    13. Nikon PTIPHOT-88 Optical Microscope

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      OPTIPHOT-88 Optical Microscope micro1.jpg (69171 bytes)

    14. Optical modulator including grapene

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

      2016-06-07

      The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

    15. Fiber optic vibration sensor

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Dooley, J.B.; Muhs, J.D.; Tobin, K.W.

      1995-01-10

      A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity. 2 figures.

    16. Fiber optic vibration sensor

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Dooley, Joseph B.; Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Tobin, Kenneth W.

      1995-01-01

      A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity.

    17. Omnidirectional fiber optic tiltmeter

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.

      1983-06-30

      A tiltmeter is provided which is useful in detecting very small movements such as earth tides. The device comprises a single optical fiber, and an associated weight affixed thereto, suspended from a support to form a pendulum. A light source, e.g., a light emitting diode, mounted on the support transmits light through the optical fiber to a group of further optical fibers located adjacent to but spaced from the free end of the single optical fiber so that displacement of the single optical fiber with respect to the group will result in a change in the amount of light received by the individual optical fibers of the group. Photodetectors individually connectd to the fibers produce corresponding electrical outputs which are differentially compared and processed to produce a resultant continuous analog output representative of the amount and direction of displacement of the single optical fiber.

    18. Optical films for solar energy applications

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Lampert, C.M.

      1983-05-01

      A number of solar energy conversion materials and coatings are considered stratified media. They are generally classified as graded-index media or layered media. With index coatings, two components (such as air and SiO/sub 2/ or Cr and Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/) are created in a non-linear fashion with depth into the coating. By simple materials admixing, a coating is formed with varying optical constants (n, k). Layered media generally consist of interference films, films with thicknesses below the wavelength of light, made of alternating dissimilar media such as a dielectric and metal combination. This paper presents details of the properties of stratified coatings. Coatings that serve as antireflection films, transparent optical insulation (silica aerogel), thermal heat mirrors, or selective absorbers are also discussed. Both interference and semiconductor types of heat mirrors are evaluated. Four types of selective absorbers are also covered: dendritic optical trapping, graded composite, metal/dielectric tandems, and optical interference techniques.

    19. RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations. 2. Large...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      Facility AAF Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths CLOWD Optical Radiative ... droplet number concentration with liquid water content (LWC), corresponding to the ...

    20. RACORO Extended-Term Aircraft Observations of Boundary-Layer...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      the Routine AAF Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative ... SURFACES; THERMAL RADIATION; USA; WATER RACORO Extended-Term; Aircraft ...

    1. Final Report on the Development of an Improved Cloud Microphysical...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      Facilities (AAF) Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative ... integrated over all bin sizes, liquid water content LWC, extinction of liquid clouds ...

    2. In-plane ultrasonic needle tracking using a fiber-optic hydrophone

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Xia, Wenfeng Desjardins, Adrien E.; Mari, Jean Martial; West, Simeon J.; Ginsberg, Yuval; David, Anna L.; Ourselin, Sebastien

      2015-10-15

      the needle tip in water, the SNR of the needle tip varied with insertion angle, attaining values of 284 at 27° and 501 at 68°. In swine tissue ex vivo, the SNR decreased from 80 at 15° to 16 at 61°. In swine tissue in vivo, the SNR varied with depth, from 200 at 17.5 mm to 48 at 26 mm, with a constant insertion angle of 40°. In ovine tissue in vivo, within the uterine cavity, the SNR varied from 46.4 at 25 mm depth to 18.4 at 32 mm depth, with insertion angles in the range of 26°–65°. Conclusions: A fiber-optic ultrasound receiver integrated into the needle cannula in combination with single-element transmissions from the imaging probe allows for direct visualization of the needle tip within the ultrasound imaging plane. Visualization of the needle tip was achieved at depths and insertion angles that are encountered during nerve blocks and fetal interventions. The method presented in this paper has strong potential to improve the safety and efficiency of ultrasound-guided needle insertions.

    3. Water Security

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Water Security HomeTag:Water Security Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity use by (a) ...

    4. Water Power

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Stationary PowerEnergy Conversion EfficiencyWater Power Water Power Tara Camacho-Lopez 2016-06-01T22:32:54+00:00 Enabling a successful water power industry. Hydropower ...

    5. Transpiration purged optical probe

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      2004-01-06

      An optical apparatus for clearly viewing the interior of a containment vessel by applying a transpiration fluid to a volume directly in front of the external surface of the optical element of the optical apparatus. The fluid is provided by an external source and transported by means of an annular tube to a capped end region where the inner tube is perforated. The perforation allows the fluid to stream axially towards the center of the inner tube and then axially away from an optical element which is positioned in the inner tube just prior to the porous sleeve. This arrangement draws any contaminants away from the optical element keeping it free of contaminants. In one of several embodiments, the optical element can be a lens, a viewing port or a laser, and the external source can provide a transpiration fluid having either steady properties or time varying properties.

    6. Multichannel optical sensing device

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Selkowitz, S.E.

      1985-08-16

      A multichannel optical sensing device is disclosed, for measuring the outdoor sky luminance or illuminance or the luminance or illuminance distribution in a room, comprising a plurality of light receptors, an optical shutter matrix including a plurality of liquid crystal optical shutter elements operable by electrical control signals between light transmitting and light stopping conditions, fiber optical elements connected between the receptors and the shutter elements, a microprocessor based programmable control unit for selectively supplying control signals to the optical shutter elements in a programmable sequence, a photodetector including an optical integrating spherical chamber having an input port for receiving the light from the shutter matrix and at least one detector element in the spherical chamber for producing output signals corresponding to the light, and output units for utilizing the output signals including a storage unit having a control connection to the microprocessor based programmable control unit for storing the output signals under the sequence control of the programmable control unit.

    7. Multichannel optical sensing device

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Selkowitz, Stephen E.

      1990-01-01

      A multichannel optical sensing device is disclosed, for measuring the outr sky luminance or illuminance or the luminance or illuminance distribution in a room, comprising a plurality of light receptors, an optical shutter matrix including a plurality of liquid crystal optical shutter elements operable by electrical control signals between light transmitting and light stopping conditions, fiber optic elements connected between the receptors and the shutter elements, a microprocessor based programmable control unit for selectively supplying control signals to the optical shutter elements in a programmable sequence, a photodetector including an optical integrating spherical chamber having an input port for receiving the light from the shutter matrix and at least one detector element in the spherical chamber for producing output signals corresponding to the light, and output units for utilizing the output signals including a storage unit having a control connection to the microprocessor based programmable control unit for storing the output signals under the sequence control of the programmable control unit.

    8. Soil bacterial and fungal community responses to nitrogen addition across soil depth and microhabitat in an arid shrubland

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Mueller, Rebecca C.; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

      2015-09-04

      Arid shrublands are stressful environments, typified by alkaline soils low in organic matter, with biologically-limiting extremes in water availability, temperature, and UV radiation. The widely-spaced plants and interspace biological soil crusts in these regions provide soil nutrients in a localized fashion, creating a mosaic pattern of plant- or crust-associated microhabitats with distinct nutrient composition. With sporadic and limited rainfall, nutrients are primarily retained in the shallow surface soil, patterning biological activity. We examined soil bacterial and fungal community responses to simulated nitrogen (N) deposition in an arid Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa field experiment in southern Nevada, USA, using high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes. To examine potential interactions among the N application, microhabitat and soil depth, we sampled soils associated with shrub canopies and interspace biological crusts at two soil depths (0–0.5 or 0–10 cm) across the N-amendment gradient (0, 7, and 15 kg ha–1 yr–1). We hypothesized that localized compositional differences in soil microbiota would constrain the impacts of N addition to a microhabitat distribution that would reflect highly localized geochemical conditions and microbial community composition. The richness and community composition of both bacterial and fungal communities differed significantly by microhabitat and with soil depth in each microhabitat. Only bacterial communities exhibited significant responses to the N addition. Community composition correlated with microhabitat and depth differences in soil geochemical features. Provided the distinct roles of soil bacteria and fungi in major nutrient cycles, the resilience of fungi and sensitivity of bacteria to N amendments suggests that increased N input predicted for many arid ecosystems could shift nutrient cycling toward pathways driven primarily by fungal communities.

    9. Soil bacterial and fungal community responses to nitrogen addition across soil depth and microhabitat in an arid shrubland

      DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

      Mueller, Rebecca C.; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

      2015-09-04

      Arid shrublands are stressful environments, typified by alkaline soils low in organic matter, with biologically-limiting extremes in water availability, temperature, and UV radiation. The widely-spaced plants and interspace biological soil crusts in these regions provide soil nutrients in a localized fashion, creating a mosaic pattern of plant- or crust-associated microhabitats with distinct nutrient composition. With sporadic and limited rainfall, nutrients are primarily retained in the shallow surface soil, patterning biological activity. We examined soil bacterial and fungal community responses to simulated nitrogen (N) deposition in an arid Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa field experiment in southern Nevada, USA, using high-throughput sequencing ofmore » ribosomal RNA genes. To examine potential interactions among the N application, microhabitat and soil depth, we sampled soils associated with shrub canopies and interspace biological crusts at two soil depths (0–0.5 or 0–10 cm) across the N-amendment gradient (0, 7, and 15 kg ha–1 yr–1). We hypothesized that localized compositional differences in soil microbiota would constrain the impacts of N addition to a microhabitat distribution that would reflect highly localized geochemical conditions and microbial community composition. The richness and community composition of both bacterial and fungal communities differed significantly by microhabitat and with soil depth in each microhabitat. Only bacterial communities exhibited significant responses to the N addition. Community composition correlated with microhabitat and depth differences in soil geochemical features. Provided the distinct roles of soil bacteria and fungi in major nutrient cycles, the resilience of fungi and sensitivity of bacteria to N amendments suggests that increased N input predicted for many arid ecosystems could shift nutrient cycling toward pathways driven primarily by fungal communities.« less

    10. Optical monitor for real time thickness change measurements via lateral-translation induced phase-stepping interferometry

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Rushford, Michael C.

      2002-01-01

      An optical monitoring instrument monitors etch depth and etch rate for controlling a wet-etching process. The instrument provides means for viewing through the back side of a thick optic onto a nearly index-matched interface. Optical baffling and the application of a photoresist mask minimize spurious reflections to allow for monitoring with extremely weak signals. A Wollaston prism enables linear translation for phase stepping.

    11. Optical atomic magnetometer

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Budker, Dmitry; Higbie, James; Corsini, Eric P

      2013-11-19

      An optical atomic magnetometers is provided operating on the principles of nonlinear magneto-optical rotation. An atomic vapor is optically pumped using linearly polarized modulated light. The vapor is then probed using a non-modulated linearly polarized light beam. The resulting modulation in polarization angle of the probe light is detected and used in a feedback loop to induce self-oscillation at the resonant frequency.

    12. water scarcity

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

    13. water savings

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

    14. water infrastructure

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

    15. Water Demand

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

    16. drinking water

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      drinking water - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ...

    17. Water Power

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Water Power Sandia's 117-scale WEC device with being tested in the maneuvering and ... EC, News, Renewable Energy, Water Power Sandia National Laboratories Uses Its Wave Energy ...

    18. Water Efficiency

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership ...ate.mcmordie@pnnl.gov * Francis Wheeler - Water Savers, LLC * fwheeler@watersaversllc.com ...

    19. Water Power

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

    20. Water Security

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Water Security - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ...

    1. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

      2003-06-10

      An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

    2. Prismatic optical display

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Veligdan, James T.; DeSanto, Leonard; Brewster, Calvin

      2004-06-29

      A spatially modulated light beam is projected, reflected, and redirected through a prismatic optical panel to form a video image for direct viewing thereon.

    3. Optical amplifiers and lasers

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Klimov, Victor I.; Mikhailovski, Alexandre; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Leatherdale, Catherine A.; Bawendi, Moungi G.

      2004-11-16

      An optical amplifier and laser having both broad band and wide range specific band capability can be based on semiconductor nanocrystal solids.

    4. Optical limiting materials

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      McBranch, Duncan W.; Mattes, Benjamin R.; Koskelo, Aaron C.; Heeger, Alan J.; Robinson, Jeanne M.; Smilowitz, Laura B.; Klimov, Victor I.; Cha, Myoungsik; Sariciftci, N. Serdar; Hummelen, Jan C.

      1998-01-01

      Optical limiting materials. Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO.sub.2) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400-1100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes.

    5. Optical contact micrometer

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Jacobson, Steven D.

      2014-08-19

      Certain examples provide optical contact micrometers and methods of use. An example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable lenses to receive an object and immobilize the object in a position. The example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable mirrors positioned with respect to the pair of lenses to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses. The example optical contact micrometer includes a microscope to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses via the mirrors; and an interferometer to obtain one or more measurements of the object.

    6. Clinal morphological variation along a depth gradient in the living scleractinian reef coral Favia pallida: Effects on perceived evolutionary tempos in the fossil record

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Cuffey, R.J. ); Pachut, J.F. )

      1990-12-01

      The Holocene reef-building coral Favia pallida was sampled at 4.5 m depth increments (to 40 m) from two reefs on Enewetak Atoll to examine intraspecific environmental effects. An exposed outer reef was massive and wall-like, whereas a sheltered lagoonal reef grew as a slender pinnacle. Corallite diameter and growth rate, two attributes retrievable in fossil corals, were measured with data partitioned into shallow (<20 m), intermediate (20 to 29 m), and deep-water (>29 m) subsets. Highly significant differences between depth zone populations were found for both corallite diameters and growth rates in analyses of individual and combined reef data sets. Canonical variates analyses (CVA) separated populations from depth zones along single, highly significant, functions. Centroids and 95% confidence intervals, calculated from CVA scores of colonies in each population, are widely separated for the lagoon reef and combined data sets. Conversely, populations from shallow and intermediate depths on the outer reef display overlapping confidence bars indicative of more gradational morphologic changes. When CV's were used to classify specimens to groups, misassignments of intermediate depth specimens to shallow or deep-water populations underscored the gradational nature of the environment. Completely intergrading populations of Favia pallida collected from different depths can be morphologically separated into statistically distinct groupings. A stratigraphic succession of such morphotypes might be interpreted as abruptly appearing separate species if sampling were not as uniform, systematic, and detailed as was possible on modern reefs. Analyses of evolutionary patterns must carefully assess potential effects of clinal variation if past evolutionary patterns are to be interpreted correctly.

    7. Method and apparatus for acoustic imaging of objects in water

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Deason, Vance A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

      2005-01-25

      A method, system and underwater camera for acoustic imaging of objects in water or other liquids includes an acoustic source for generating an acoustic wavefront for reflecting from a target object as a reflected wavefront. The reflected acoustic wavefront deforms a screen on an acoustic side and correspondingly deforms the opposing optical side of the screen. An optical processing system is optically coupled to the optical side of the screen and converts the deformations on the optical side of the screen into an optical intensity image of the target object.

    8. Optical lattice clock with atoms confined in a shallow trap

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Lemonde, Pierre; Wolf, Peter

      2005-09-15

      We study the trap depth requirement for the realization of an optical clock using atoms confined in a lattice. We show that site-to-site tunneling leads to a residual sensitivity to the atom dynamics hence requiring large depths [(50-100)E{sub r} for Sr] to avoid any frequency shift or line broadening of the atomic transition at the 10{sup -17}-10{sup -18} level. Such large depths and the corresponding laser power may, however, lead to difficulties (e.g., higher-order light shifts, two-photon ionization, technical difficulties) and therefore one would like to operate the clock in much shallower traps. To circumvent this problem we propose the use of an accelerated lattice. Acceleration lifts the degeneracy between adjacents potential wells which strongly inhibits tunneling. We show that using the Earth's gravity, much shallower traps (down to 5E{sub r} for Sr) can be used for the same accuracy goal.

    9. Multimode optical fiber

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre

      2014-11-04

      A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).

    10. Flexible optical panel

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Veligdan, James T.

      2001-01-01

      A flexible optical panel includes laminated optical waveguides, each including a ribbon core laminated between cladding, with the core being resilient in the plane of the core for elastically accommodating differential movement thereof to permit winding of the panel in a coil.

    11. Stepped inlet optical panel

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Veligdan, James T.

      2001-01-01

      An optical panel includes stacked optical waveguides having stepped inlet facets collectively defining an inlet face for receiving image light, and having beveled outlet faces collectively defining a display screen for displaying the image light channeled through the waveguides by internal reflection.

    12. XrayOpticsConstants

      Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

      2005-06-20

      This application (XrayOpticsConstants) is a tool for displaying X-ray and Optical properties for a given material, x-ray photon energy, and in the case of a gas, pressure. The display includes fields such as the photo-electric absorption attenuation length, density, material composition, index of refraction, and emission properties (for scintillator materials).

    13. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

      Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

      2005-07-28

      The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The defaultmore » parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST« less

    14. Dual frequency optical cavity

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      George, E. Victor; Schipper, John F.

      1985-01-01

      Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a "T" configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

    15. Dual frequency optical cavity

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      George, E.V.; Schipper, J.F.

      Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a T configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

    16. Optical scanning apparatus

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Villarreal, R.A.

      1985-11-06

      An optical scanner employed in a radioactive environment for reading indicia imprinted about a cylindrical surface of an article by means of an optical system including metallic reflective and mirror surfaces resistant to degradation and discoloration otherwise imparted to glass surfaces exposed to radiation is described.

    17. Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector (Patent) | DOEPatents

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      JAUNDICE; DIAGNOSIS; NEONATES; SKIN; INVENTIONS; EPIDERMIS; QUANTITATIVE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS; OPTICAL SYSTEMS; FIBER OPTICS 440600; 550600; OPTICAL INSTRUMENTATION; MEDICINE

    18. PoroTomo Subtask 6.8 - Brady Well Coordinates and Observation Sensor Depths

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      (Dataset) | SciTech Connect 8 - Brady Well Coordinates and Observation Sensor Depths Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PoroTomo Subtask 6.8 - Brady Well Coordinates and Observation Sensor Depths Contains metadata associated with the wells used in the 2016 Spring Campaign led partially by UW - Madison, LBNL, and LLNL scientists. Included with the well coordinates are the depths to the pressure sensors used in observation and pumping wells. Read me files are included for each .csv

    19. LANL selects two small businesses for water monitoring work

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      LANL selects two small businesses for water monitoring work LANL selects two small businesses for water monitoring work The two companies selected are TerranearPMC, LLC and Eberline Services, Inc. April 12, 2011 LANL monitors water at more than 200 wells and sample ports at various depths. LANL monitors water at more than 200 wells and sample ports at various depths. Contact Fred deSousa Communications Office (505) 665-3430 Email Subcontract worth up to $80 million over five years LOS ALAMOS,

    20. Distinct optical properties of relativistically degenerate matter

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

      2014-06-15

      In this paper, we use the collisional quantum magnetohydrodynamic (CQMHD) model to derive the transverse dielectric function of a relativistically degenerate electron fluid and investigate various optical parameters, such as the complex refractive index, the reflection and absorption coefficients, the skin-depth and optical conductivity. In this model we take into accounts effects of many parameters such as the atomic-number of the constituent ions, the electron exchange, electron diffraction effect and the electron-ion collisions. Study of the optical parameters in the solid-density, the warm-dense-matter, the big-planetary core, and the compact star number-density regimes reveals that there are distinct differences between optical characteristics of the latter and the former cases due to the fundamental effects of the relativistic degeneracy and other quantum mechanisms. It is found that in the relativistic degeneracy plasma regime, such as found in white-dwarfs and neutron star crusts, matter possess a much sharper and well-defined step-like reflection edge beyond the x-ray electromagnetic spectrum, including some part of gamma-ray frequencies. It is also remarked that the magnetic field intensity only significantly affects the plasma reflectivity in the lower number-density regime, rather than the high density limit. Current investigation confirms the profound effect of relativistic degeneracy on optical characteristics of matter and can provide an important plasma diagnostic tool for studying the physical processes within the wide scope of quantum plasma regimes be it the solid-density, inertial-confined, or astrophysical compact stars.

    1. Digital optical conversion module

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.

      1991-02-26

      A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

    2. Digital optical conversion module

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

      1988-07-19

      A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

    3. Wide-angle imaging LIDAR (WAIL): a ground-based instrument for monitoring the thickness and density of optically thick clouds.

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B.; Rohde, C. A.; Ho, Cheng,

      2001-01-01

      Traditional lidar provides little information on dense clouds beyond the range to their base (ceilometry), due to their extreme opacity. At most optical wavelengths, however, laser photons are not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, and thus eventually escape the cloud via multiple scattering, producing distinctive extended space- and time-dependent patterns which are, in essence, the cloud's radiative Green functions. These Green functions, essentially 'movies' of the time evolution of the spatial distribution of escaping light, are the primary data products of a new type of lidar: Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). WAIL data can be used to infer both optical depth and physical thickness of clouds, and hence the cloud liquid water content. The instrumental challenge is to accommodate a radiance field varying over many orders of magnitude and changing over widely varying time-scales. Our implementation uses a high-speed microchannel plate/crossed delay line imaging detector system with a 60-degree full-angle field of view, and a 532 nm doubled Nd:YAG laser. Nighttime field experiments testing various solutions to this problem show excellent agreement with diffusion theory, and retrievals yield plausible values for the optical and geometrical parameters of the observed cloud decks.

    4. Dielectric Resonator Metamasurfaces: Optical Magnetism Emission...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      Optical Magnetism Emission and Optical Devices. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dielectric Resonator Metamasurfaces: Optical Magnetism Emission and Optical Devices. ...

    5. SU-E-T-111: Development of Proton Dosimetry System Using Fiber-Optic Cerenkov Radiation Sensor Array

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Son, J; Kim, M; Shin, D; Lim, Y; Lee, S; Kim, J; Kim, J; Hwang, U; Yoon, M

      2014-06-01

      Purpose: We had developed and evaluated a new dosimetric system for proton therapy using array of fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor (FOCRS) which can measure a percent depth dose (PDD) instantly. In this study, the Bragg peaks and spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) of the proton beams measured by FOCRS array were compared with those measured by an ion chamber. Methods and Method: We fabricated an optical fiber array of FOCRS in a handmade phantom which is composed of poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA). There are 75 holes of 1mm diameter inside the phantom which is designed to be exposed in direction of beam when it is emerged in water phantom. The proton beam irradiation was carried out using IBA cyclotron PROTEUS 235 at national cancer center in Korea and a commercial data acquisition system was used to digitize the analog signal. Results: The measured Bragg peak and SOBP for the proton ranges of 7? 20 cm were well matched with the result from ion chamber. The comparison results show that the depth of proton beam ranges and the width of SOBP measured by array of FOCRS are comparable with the measurement from multi-layer ion chamber (MLIC) although there are some uncertainty in the measurement of FOCRS array for some specific beam ranges. Conclusion: The newly developed FOCRS array based dosimetric system for proton therapy can efficiently reduce the time and effort needed for proton beam range measurement compared to the conventional method and has the potential to be used for the proton pencil beam application.

    6. The solvated electron in supercritical water

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Bartels, D. M.; Takahashi, K.; Cline, J.; Jonah, C. D.

      2000-03-09

      In order to investigate the feasibility for high-efficiency supercritical-water-cooled nuclear reactors, a study of radiation chemistry in supercritical water has been undertaken. Preliminary results in measurement of the optical absorption of the hydrated electron are reported, and compared with recent anion cluster data.

    7. Projection optics box

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Hale, Layton C.; Malsbury, Terry; Hudyma, Russell M.; Parker, John M.

      2000-01-01

      A projection optics box or assembly for use in an optical assembly, such as in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system using 10-14 nm soft x-ray photons. The projection optics box utilizes a plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors, each mounted on a precision actuator, and which reflects an optical image, such as from a mask, in the EUVL system onto a point of use, such as a target or silicon wafer, the mask, for example, receiving an optical signal from a source assembly, such as a developed from laser system, via a series of highly reflective mirrors of the EUVL system. The plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors are mounted in a housing assembly comprised of a series of bulkheads having wall members secured together to form a unit construction of maximum rigidity. Due to the precision actuators, the mirrors must be positioned precisely and remotely in tip, tilt, and piston (three degrees of freedom), while also providing exact constraint.

    8. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol optical properties

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      : Aerosol optical properties The optical properties of aerosols, including asymmetry factor, phase-function, single-scattering albedo, refractive index, and backscatter...

    9. Concentrator Optics | Open Energy Information

      Open Energy Info (EERE)

      Concentrator Optics Jump to: navigation, search Name: Concentrator Optics Place: Marburg, Germany Zip: 35037 Product: A Germany-based company engaged in the design and production...

    10. Fiber optic laser rod

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Erickson, G.F.

      1988-04-13

      A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.

    11. Optical limiting materials

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      McBranch, D.W.; Mattes, B.R.; Koskelo, A.C.; Heeger, A.J.; Robinson, J.M.; Smilowitz, L.B.; Klimov, V.I.; Cha, M.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Hummelen, J.C.

      1998-04-21

      Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO{sub 2}) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400--1,100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes. 5 figs.

    12. Solitons in nonlinear optics

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Maimistov, Andrei I

      2010-11-13

      The classic examples of optical phenomena resulting in the appearance of solitons are self-focusing, self-induced transparency, and parametric three-wave interaction. To date, the list of the fields of nonlinear optics and models where solitons play an important role has significantly expanded. Now long-lived or stable solitary waves are called solitons, including, for example, dissipative, gap, parametric, and topological solitons. This review considers nonlinear optics models giving rise to the appearance of solitons in a narrow sense: solitary waves corresponding to the solutions of completely integrable systems of equations basic for the models being discussed. (review)

    13. Scalable optical quantum computer

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Manykin, E A; Mel'nichenko, E V [Institute for Superconductivity and Solid-State Physics, Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow (Russian Federation)

      2014-12-31

      A way of designing a scalable optical quantum computer based on the photon echo effect is proposed. Individual rare earth ions Pr{sup 3+}, regularly located in the lattice of the orthosilicate (Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}) crystal, are suggested to be used as optical qubits. Operations with qubits are performed using coherent and incoherent laser pulses. The operation protocol includes both the method of measurement-based quantum computations and the technique of optical computations. Modern hybrid photon echo protocols, which provide a sufficient quantum efficiency when reading recorded states, are considered as most promising for quantum computations and communications. (quantum computer)

    14. Silicon fiber optic sensors

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Pocha, Michael D.; Swierkowski, Steve P.; Wood, Billy E.

      2007-10-02

      A Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by a partially or wholly reflective surface on the free end of an integrated elongate channel or an integrated bounding wall of a chip of a wafer and a partially reflective surface on the end of the optical fiber. Such a constructed device can be utilized to detect one or more physical parameters, such as, for example, strain, through the optical fiber using an optical detection system to provide measuring accuracies of less than aboutb0.1%.

    15. Tuned optical cavity magnetometer

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

      2010-11-02

      An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which utilizes an optical cavity formed from a grating and a mirror, with a vapor cell containing an alkali metal vapor located inside the optical cavity. Lasers are used to magnetically polarize the alkali metal vapor and to probe the vapor and generate a diffracted laser beam which can be used to sense a magnetic field. Electrostatic actuators can be used in the magnetometer for positioning of the mirror, or for modulation thereof. Another optical cavity can also be formed from the mirror and a second grating for sensing, adjusting, or stabilizing the position of the mirror.

    16. DEPTH-CHARGE static and time-dependent perturbation/sensitivity system for nuclear reactor core analysis. Revision I. [DEPTH-CHARGE code

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      White, J.R.

      1985-04-01

      This report provides the background theory, user input, and sample problems required for the efficient application of the DEPTH-CHARGE system - a code black for both static and time-dependent perturbation theory and data sensitivity analyses. The DEPTH-CHARGE system is of modular construction and has been implemented within the VENTURE-BURNER computational system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The DEPTH module (coupled with VENTURE) solves for the three adjoint functions of Depletion Perturbation Theory and calculates the desired time-dependent derivatives of the response with respect to the nuclide concentrations and nuclear data utilized in the reference model. The CHARGE code is a collection of utility routines for general data manipulation and input preparation and considerably extends the usefulness of the system through the automatic generation of adjoint sources, estimated perturbed responses, and relative data sensitivity coefficients. Combined, the DEPTH-CHARGE system provides, for the first time, a complete generalized first-order perturbation/sensitivity theory capability for both static and time-dependent analyses of realistic multidimensional reactor models. This current documentation incorporates minor revisions to the original DEPTH-CHARGE documentation (ORNL/CSD-78) to reflect some new capabilities within the individual codes.

    17. Method for determining depth and shape of a sub-surface conductive object

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Wayland, Jr.

      1984-06-27

      The depth to and size of an underground object may be determined by sweeping a controlled source audio magnetotelluric (CSAMT) signal and locating a peak response when the receiver spans the edge of the object. The depth of the object is one quarter wavelength in the subsurface media of the frequency of the peak. 3 figures.

    18. Two weight system for measuring depth and sediment in slurry-supported excavations

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Deming, P.; Good, D.

      1999-07-01

      This paper describes a two weight system using bar and flat shaped weights for measuring depth and detecting sediment at the bottom of slurry-supported excavations. Currently there are no standard depth measurement weights or methods for reliably identifying bottom sediment. Two weights and a procedural system for using the weights is described. Details suitable for manufacture are provided.

    19. Gregorian optical system with non-linear optical technology for protection against intense optical transients

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Ackermann, Mark R.; Diels, Jean-Claude M.

      2007-06-26

      An optical system comprising a concave primary mirror reflects light through an intermediate focus to a secondary mirror. The secondary mirror re-focuses the image to a final image plane. Optical limiter material is placed near the intermediate focus to optically limit the intensity of light so that downstream components of the optical system are protected from intense optical transients. Additional lenses before and/or after the intermediate focus correct optical aberrations.

    20. Reusing Water

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into ...

    1. Water Summit

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      host Water Summit March 21, 2016 Los Alamos watershed research among featured projects LOS ALAMOS, N.M., March 21, 2016-On Tuesday, March 22, 2016-World Water Day-the ...

    2. Reusing Water

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into...

    3. Multi-tipped optical component

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      D'Urso, Brian R.; Simpson, John T.

      2010-04-13

      An optical component has a plurality of parallel noncontiguous optical conduits of at least one protrusive phase material embedded in a recessive phase material that acts as a support structure. The optical conduits extend from a proximal surface to a distal surface of the optical component. The distal surface has a plurality of spaced apart surface features of the protrusive phase material. Each independent optical conduits act as waveguides for a wavelength or range of wavelengths. The optical component can be formed such that the protruding surface features at the distal end of the component form an ordered array. An optical instrument can include the optical component in conjunction with a light source for illuminating a sample and a detector in optical communication optical component via the optical conduits.

    4. Optical gamma thermometer

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Koster, Glen Peter; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon Kwee

      2013-08-06

      An optical gamma thermometer includes a metal mass having a temperature proportional to a gamma flux within a core of a nuclear reactor, and an optical fiber cable for measuring the temperature of the heated metal mass. The temperature of the heated mass may be measured by using one or more fiber grating structures and/or by using scattering techniques, such as Raman, Brillouin, and the like. The optical gamma thermometer may be used in conjunction with a conventional reactor heat balance to calibrate the local power range monitors over their useful in-service life. The optical gamma thermometer occupies much less space within the in-core instrument tube and costs much less than the conventional gamma thermometer.

    5. Optical displacement sensor

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Carr, Dustin W.

      2008-04-08

      An optical displacement sensor is disclosed which uses a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coupled to an optical cavity formed by a moveable membrane and an output mirror of the VCSEL. This arrangement renders the lasing characteristics of the VCSEL sensitive to any movement of the membrane produced by sound, vibrations, pressure changes, acceleration, etc. Some embodiments of the optical displacement sensor can further include a light-reflective diffractive lens located on the membrane or adjacent to the VCSEL to control the amount of lasing light coupled back into the VCSEL. A photodetector detects a portion of the lasing light from the VCSEL to provide an electrical output signal for the optical displacement sensor which varies with the movement of the membrane.

    6. Optical fiber switch

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

      2002-01-01

      Optical fiber switches operated by electrical activation of at least one laser light modulator through which laser light is directed into at least one polarizer are used for the sequential transport of laser light from a single laser into a plurality of optical fibers. In one embodiment of the invention, laser light from a single excitation laser is sequentially transported to a plurality of optical fibers which in turn transport the laser light to separate individual remotely located laser fuel ignitors. The invention can be operated electro-optically with no need for any mechanical or moving parts, or, alternatively, can be operated electro-mechanically. The invention can be used to switch either pulsed or continuous wave laser light.

    7. Erected mirror optical switch

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Allen, James J.

      2005-06-07

      A microelectromechanical (MEM) optical switching apparatus is disclosed that is based on an erectable mirror which is formed on a rotatable stage using surface micromachining. An electrostatic actuator is also formed on the substrate to rotate the stage and mirror with a high angular precision. The mirror can be erected manually after fabrication of the device and used to redirect an incident light beam at an arbitrary angel and to maintain this state in the absence of any applied electrical power. A 1.times.N optical switch can be formed using a single rotatable mirror. In some embodiments of the present invention, a plurality of rotatable mirrors can be configured so that the stages and mirrors rotate in unison when driven by a single micromotor thereby forming a 2.times.2 optical switch which can be used to switch a pair of incident light beams, or as a building block to form a higher-order optical switch.

    8. Metasurface optical antireflection coating

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Zhang, Boyang; Hendrickson, Joshua; Nader, Nima; Chen, Hou -Tong; Guo, Junpeng

      2014-12-15

      Light reflection at the boundary of two different media is one of the fundamental phenomena in optics, and reduction of reflection is highly desirable in many optical systems. Traditionally, optical antireflection has been accomplished using single- or multiple-layer dielectric films and graded index surface structures in various wavelength ranges. However, these approaches either impose strict requirements on the refractive index matching and film thickness, or involve complicated fabrication processes and non-planar surfaces that are challenging for device integration. Here, we demonstrate an antireflection coating strategy, both experimentally and numerically, by using metasurfaces with designer optical properties in the mid-wave infrared. Our results show that the metasurface antireflection is capable of eliminating reflection and enhancing transmission over a broad spectral band and a wide incidence angle range. The demonstrated antireflection technique has no requirement on the choice of materials and is scalable to other wavelengths.

    9. Metasurface optical antireflection coating

      DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

      Zhang, Boyang; Hendrickson, Joshua; Nader, Nima; Chen, Hou -Tong; Guo, Junpeng

      2014-12-15

      Light reflection at the boundary of two different media is one of the fundamental phenomena in optics, and reduction of reflection is highly desirable in many optical systems. Traditionally, optical antireflection has been accomplished using single- or multiple-layer dielectric films and graded index surface structures in various wavelength ranges. However, these approaches either impose strict requirements on the refractive index matching and film thickness, or involve complicated fabrication processes and non-planar surfaces that are challenging for device integration. Here, we demonstrate an antireflection coating strategy, both experimentally and numerically, by using metasurfaces with designer optical properties in the mid-wave infrared.more » Our results show that the metasurface antireflection is capable of eliminating reflection and enhancing transmission over a broad spectral band and a wide incidence angle range. The demonstrated antireflection technique has no requirement on the choice of materials and is scalable to other wavelengths.« less

    10. Methods for globally treating silica optics to reduce optical damage

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Miller, Philip Edward; Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Bude, Jeffrey Devin; Shen, Nan; Steele, William Augustus; Laurence, Ted Alfred; Feit, Michael Dennis; Wong, Lana Louie

      2012-11-20

      A method for preventing damage caused by high intensity light sources to optical components includes annealing the optical component for a predetermined period. Another method includes etching the optical component in an etchant including fluoride and bi-fluoride ions. The method also includes ultrasonically agitating the etching solution during the process followed by rinsing of the optical component in a rinse bath.

    11. Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

      1991-03-30

      Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

    12. Relaying an optical wavefront

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Sweatt, William C.; Vawter, G. Allen

      2007-03-06

      A wavefront rely devices samples an incoming optical wavefront at different locations, optically relays the samples while maintaining the relative position of the samples and the relative phase between the samples. The wavefront is reconstructed due to interference of the samples. Devices can be designed for many different wavelengths, including for example the ultraviolet, visible, infrared and even longer wavelengths such as millimeter waves. In one application, the device function as a telescope but with negligible length.

    13. Fiber optics welder

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Higgins, R.W.; Robichaud, R.E.

      A system is described for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45/sup 0/ angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

    14. Binary Optics Toolkit

      Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

      1996-04-02

      This software is a set of tools for the design and analysis of binary optics. It consists of a series of stand-alone programs written in C and some scripts written in an application-specific language interpreted by a CAD program called DW2000. This software can be used to optimize the design and placement of a complex lens array from input to output and produce contours, mask designs, and data exported for diffractive optic analysis.

    15. Method of and device for detecting oil pollutions on water surfaces

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Belov, Michael Leonidovich; Gorodnichev, Victor Aleksandrovich; Kozintsev, Valentin Ivanovich; Smimova, Olga Alekseevna; Fedotov, Yurii Victorovich; Khroustaleva, Anastasiva Michailovnan

      2008-08-26

      Detection of oil pollution on water surfaces includes providing echo signals obtained from optical radiation of a clean water area at two wavelengths, optically radiating an investigated water area at two wavelengths and obtaining echo signals from the optical radiation of the investigated water area at the two wavelengths, comparing the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the investigated area at two wavelengths with the echo signals obtained from the radiation of the clean water area, and based on the comparison, determining presence or absence of oil pollution in the investigated water area.

    16. Optical pumping in a whispering mode optical waveguide

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Kurnit, Norman A.

      1984-01-01

      A device and method for optical pumping in a whispering mode optical waveguide. Both a helical ribbon and cylinder are disclosed which incorporate an additional curvature for confining the beam to increase intensity. An optical pumping medium is disposed in the optical path of the beam as it propagates along the waveguide. Optical pumping is enhanced by the high intensities of the beam and long interaction pathlengths which are achieved in a small volume.

    17. Optical pumping in a whispering-mode optical waveguide

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Kurnit, N.A.

      1981-08-11

      A device and method for optical pumping in a whispering mode optical waveguide are described. Both a helical ribbon and cylinder are disclosed which incorporate an additional curvature for confining the beam to increase intensity. An optical pumping medium is disposed in the optical path of the beam as it propagates along the waveguide. Optical pumping is enhanced by the high intensities of the beam and long interaction path lengths which are achieved in a small volume.

    18. Fibre optics: Forty years later

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Dianov, Evgenii M

      2010-01-31

      This paper presents a brief overview of the state of the art in fibre optics and its main applications: optical fibre communications, fibre lasers and fibre sensors for various physical property measurements. The future of fibre optics and the status of this important area of the modern technology in Russia are discussed. (fiber optics)

    19. Fault location in optical networks

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Stevens, Rick C.; Kryzak, Charles J.; Keeler, Gordon A.; Serkland, Darwin K.; Geib, Kent M.; Kornrumpf, William P.

      2008-07-01

      One apparatus embodiment includes an optical emitter and a photodetector. At least a portion of the optical emitter extends a radial distance from a center point. The photodetector provided around at least a portion of the optical emitter and positioned outside the radial distance of the portion of the optical emitter.

    20. Seasonal and optical characterisation of cirrus clouds over Indian sub-continent using LIDAR

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Jayeshlal, G. S. Satyanarayana, Malladi Dhaman, Reji K. Motty, G. S.

      2014-10-15

      Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) is an important remote sensing technique to study about the cirrus clouds. The subject of cirrus clouds and related climate is challenging one. The received scattered signal from Lidar contains information on the physical and optical properties of cirrus clouds. The Lidar profile of the cirrus cloud provides information on the optical characteristics like depolarisation ratio, lidar ratio and optical depth, which give knowledge about possible phase, structure and orientation of cloud particle that affect the radiative budgeting of cirrus clouds. The findings from the study are subjected to generate inputs for better climatic modelling.

    1. Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water | Department

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      of Energy Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water Volumes I & II (October 1996) Optical character recognition has been applied to these files, but full search capabilities are not guaranteed. Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water-Volume I (10.79 MB) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water-Volume II

    2. Embedded fiducials in optical surfaces

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Sommargren, Gary E.

      2000-01-01

      Embedded fiducials are provided in optical surfaces and a method for embedding the fiducials. Fiducials, or marks on a surface, are important for optical fabrication and alignment, particularly when individual optical elements are aspheres. Fiducials are used during the course of the polishing process to connect interferometric data, and the equation describing the asphere, to physical points on the optic. By embedding fiducials below the surface of the optic and slightly outside the clear aperture of the optic, the fiducials are not removed by polishing, do not interfere with the polishing process, and do not affect the performance of the finished optic.

    3. Biogeochemistry of Metalliferous Peats: Sulfur Speciation and Depth Distributions of dsrAB Genes and Cd, Fe, Mn, S, and Zn in Soil Cores

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Martinez,C.; Yanez, C.; Yoon, S.; Bruns, M.

      2007-01-01

      Spatial relationships between concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mn, S, and Zn and bacterial genes for dissimilatory sulfate reduction were studied in soils of the Manning peatland region in western New York. Peat cores were collected within a field exhibiting areas of Zn phytotoxicity, and pH and elemental concentrations were determined with depth. The oxidation states of S were estimated using S-XANES spectroscopy. Soil microbial community DNA was extracted from peat soils for ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) of diversity profiles with depth. To assess the presence of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM), DNA extracts were also used as templates for PCR detection of dsrAB genes coding for dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase. Elemental distributions, S redox speciation, and detection of dsrAB genes varied with depth and water content. The pH of peat soils increased with depth. The highest concentrations of Zn, Cd, and S occurred at intermediate depths, whereas Mn concentrations were highest in the topmost peat layers. Iron showed a relatively uniform distribution with depth. Concentrations of redox sensitive elements, S and Mn, but not Fe, seemed to respond to variations in water content and indicated vertical redox stratification in peat cores where topmost peats were typically acidic and oxidizing and deeper peats were typically circumneutral and reducing. Even then, S-XANES analyses showed that surface peats contained >50% of the total S in reduced forms while deep peats contained generally <5% of the total S in oxidized forms. While bacterial RISA profiles of the peats were diverse, dsrAB gene detection followed redox stratification chemistry closely. For the most part, dsrAB genes were detected in deeper peats, where S accumulation was evident, while they were not detected in topmost peat layers where Mn accumulation indicated oxic conditions. Combined chemical, spectroscopic, and microbiological analyses indicated that prolonged exposure to dry

    4. Transparent electrode for optical switch

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

      1984-10-19

      The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.

    5. Preliminary 3d depth migration of a network of 2d seismic lines for fault

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      imaging at a Pyramid Lake, Nevada geothermal prospect (Conference) | SciTech Connect Preliminary 3d depth migration of a network of 2d seismic lines for fault imaging at a Pyramid Lake, Nevada geothermal prospect Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preliminary 3d depth migration of a network of 2d seismic lines for fault imaging at a Pyramid Lake, Nevada geothermal prospect Roxanna Frary, John N. Louie, Sathish Pullammanappallil, Amy Eisses, 2011, Preliminary 3d depth migration of a

    6. Progress of the LANL Low Temperature/Low Frequency Air Opacity Project - Optical Theory for HET-project: an update, April 2015

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Timmermans, Eddy Marcel Elvire; Nisoli, Cristiano; Mozyrsky, Dima; Hakel, Peter; Sherrill, Manolo; Duffy, Leanne

      2015-05-20

      Light radiated from a hot, opaque thermal emitter originates mostly from near the surface at which the object becomes opaque (the surface of last scattering). To be specific, we define the “optical surface” as the surface at which the optical depth, as observed from a detector, takes on the value of 1. The optical depth along a line of sight depends on the wavelength dependent. Accumulating light in different spectral bands, spectral detector then records light from different surfaces, a structure that we can picture somewhat like the layers of an onion. The theoretical framework that predicts the emitted spectral signal is radioactive transfer.

    7. Optics Supply Planning System

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Gaylord, J

      2009-04-30

      The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system

    8. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

      1992-10-06

      An apparatus and method are described for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading by a single spectrophotometer. 4 figs.

    9. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

      1991-01-01

      Apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading, by a single spectrophotometer.

    10. Optical high acidity sensor

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

      1997-07-22

      An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

    11. Optical high acidity sensor

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Jorgensen, Betty S.; Nekimken, Howard L.; Carey, W. Patrick; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

      1997-01-01

      An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

    12. Optical key system

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Hagans, Karla G.; Clough, Robert E.

      2000-01-01

      An optical key system comprises a battery-operated optical key and an isolated lock that derives both its operating power and unlock signals from the correct optical key. A light emitting diode or laser diode is included within the optical key and is connected to transmit a bit-serial password. The key user physically enters either the code-to-transmit directly, or an index to a pseudorandom number code, in the key. Such person identification numbers can be retained permanently, or ephemeral. When a send button is pressed, the key transmits a beam of light modulated with the password information. The modulated beam of light is received by a corresponding optical lock with a photovoltaic cell that produces enough power from the beam of light to operate a password-screen digital logic. In one application, an acceptable password allows a two watt power laser diode to pump ignition and timing information over a fiberoptic cable into a sealed engine compartment. The receipt of a good password allows the fuel pump, spark, and starter systems to each operate. Therefore, bypassing the lock mechanism as is now routine with automobile thieves is pointless because the engine is so thoroughly disabled.

    13. Optical key system

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Hagans, K.G.; Clough, R.E.

      2000-04-25

      An optical key system comprises a battery-operated optical key and an isolated lock that derives both its operating power and unlock signals from the correct optical key. A light emitting diode or laser diode is included within the optical key and is connected to transmit a bit-serial password. The key user physically enters either the code-to-transmit directly, or an index to a pseudorandom number code, in the key. Such person identification numbers can be retained permanently, or ephemeral. When a send button is pressed, the key transmits a beam of light modulated with the password information. The modulated beam of light is received by a corresponding optical lock with a photovoltaic cell that produces enough power from the beam of light to operate a password-screen digital logic. In one application, an acceptable password allows a two watt power laser diode to pump ignition and timing information over a fiberoptic cable into a sealed engine compartment. The receipt of a good password allows the fuel pump, spark, and starter systems to each operate. Therefore, bypassing the lock mechanism as is now routine with automobile thieves is pointless because the engine is so thoroughly disabled.

    14. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Buchanan, Bruce R.; Prather, William S.

      1992-01-01

      An apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading by a single spectrophotometer.

    15. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      ConferenceEvent Journal Article Miscellaneous ... Facility Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) ... , American Meteorological Society Structural, magnetic, and ...

    16. Water pollution

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Not Available

      1990-06-01

      Ballast water, which is sea water that is carried in oil tankers to provide stability, can become contaminated with oil. Alyeska Pipeline Service Company runs a water treatment plant at its pipeline terminal at Prot Valdez, Alaska, to treat ballast water before it is discharged into the sea. GAO reviewed EPA's recently reissued National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit for the Port Valdez facility. In this report, GAO compares the effluent limits and other requirements under the reissued permit with those of the old permit, determines the reasons for changes in the reissued permit, and examines Alyeska's initial efforts to comply with the reissued permit's effluent limits and reporting requirements.

    17. Method of varying a physical property of a material through its depth

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Daniel, Claus

      2015-04-21

      A method is disclosed for varying a mechanical property of a material at two depths. The method involves the application of at least two laser pulses of different durations. The method involves a determination of the density of the material from the surface to each depth, a determination of the heat capacity of the material from the surface to each depth, and a determination of the thermal conductivity of the material from the surface to each depth. Each laser pulse may affect the density, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity of the material, so it may be necessary to re-evaluate those parameters after each laser pulse and prior to the next pulse. The method may be applied to implantation materials to improve osteoblast and osteoclast activity.

    18. Depth Profiling of SiC Lattice Damage Using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      (OAS) was used for establishing the opacity (and therefore the probing depth) of the damaged layer to the 632.8 nm wavelength of the He-Ne laser used for CMR throughout this study. ...

    19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking- Level 2 (in-depth)

      Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

      Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about level 2 (in-depth...

    20. Depth-dependent ordering, two-length-scale phenomena, and crossover...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      a skin layer with defects Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Depth-dependent ordering, two-length-scale phenomena, and crossover behavior in a crystal featuring a skin ...

    1. Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent magnetization in an exchange-biased sample. These results provide atomic-level ...

    2. Light scattering from laser induced pit ensembles on high power laser optics

      DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

      Feigenbaum, Eyal; Elhadj, Selim; Matthews, Manyalibo J.

      2015-01-01

      Far-field light scattering characteristics from randomly arranged shallow Gaussian-like shaped laser induced pits, found on optics exposed to high energy laser pulses, is studied. Closed-form expressions for the far-field intensity distribution and scattered power are derived for individual pits and validated using numerical calculations of both Fourier optics and FDTD solutions to Maxwells equations. It is found that the scattered power is proportional to the square of the pit width and approximately also to the square of the pit depth, with the proportionality factor scaling with pit depth. As a result, the power scattered from shallow pitted optics is expectedmoreto be substantially lower than assuming complete scattering from the total visible footprint of the pits.less

    3. Light scattering from laser induced pit ensembles on high power laser optics

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Feigenbaum, Eyal [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Elhadj, Selim [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Matthews, Manyalibo J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

      2015-01-01

      Far-field light scattering characteristics from randomly arranged shallow Gaussian-like shaped laser induced pits, found on optics exposed to high energy laser pulses, is studied. Closed-form expressions for the far-field intensity distribution and scattered power are derived for individual pits and validated using numerical calculations of both Fourier optics and FDTD solutions to Maxwells equations. It is found that the scattered power is proportional to the square of the pit width and approximately also to the square of the pit depth, with the proportionality factor scaling with pit depth. As a result, the power scattered from shallow pitted optics is expected to be substantially lower than assuming complete scattering from the total visible footprint of the pits.

    4. Interactive optical panel

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Veligdan, James T.

      1995-10-03

      An interactive optical panel assembly 34 includes an optical panel 10 having a plurality of ribbon optical waveguides 12 stacked together with opposite ends thereof defining panel first and second faces 16, 18. A light source 20 provides an image beam 22 to the panel first face 16 for being channeled through the waveguides 12 and emitted from the panel second face 18 in the form of a viewable light image 24a. A remote device 38 produces a response beam 40 over a discrete selection area 36 of the panel second face 18 for being channeled through at least one of the waveguides 12 toward the panel first face 16. A light sensor 42,50 is disposed across a plurality of the waveguides 12 for detecting the response beam 40 therein for providing interactive capability.

    5. Interactive optical panel

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Veligdan, J.T.

      1995-10-03

      An interactive optical panel assembly includes an optical panel having a plurality of ribbon optical waveguides stacked together with opposite ends thereof defining panel first and second faces. A light source provides an image beam to the panel first face for being channeled through the waveguides and emitted from the panel second face in the form of a viewable light image. A remote device produces a response beam over a discrete selection area of the panel second face for being channeled through at least one of the waveguides toward the panel first face. A light sensor is disposed across a plurality of the waveguides for detecting the response beam therein for providing interactive capability. 10 figs.

    6. Ground-water data for 1990--91 and ground-water withdrawals for 1951--91, Nevada Test Site and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Wood, D.B.; Reiner, S.R.

      1996-12-31

      This report presents selected ground-water data collected from wells and test holes at and in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site. Depth-to-water measurements were made at 74 sites at and in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site during water years 1990--91. Measured depths to water ranged from 301 to 2,215 feet below land surface and measured altitudes of the ground-water surface at the Nevada Test Site ranged from 2,091 to 6,083 feet above sea level. Depth-to-water measurements were obtained by a combination of wire-line, electric-tape, iron-horse, and steel-tape methods. Available historic withdrawal and depth-to-water data for ground-water supply wells have been included to show changes through time. Water samples were collected and analyzed for tritium concentrations at 15 sites during water years 1990--91. Tritium concentrations in bailed water samples ranged from below detection limits to 5,550,000 picocuries per liter. Tritium concentrations in samples from three wells exceeded drinking water standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. All three wells are separate piezometers contained within a single test hole near an area of extensive underground nuclear testing.

    7. Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print The phenomenon known as exchange bias at the interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is currently a subject of intense research because of its applications in the magnetic recording and read-head industries. An international collaboration headed by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has used resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent

    8. Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print The phenomenon known as exchange bias at the interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is currently a subject of intense research because of its applications in the magnetic recording and read-head industries. An international collaboration headed by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has used resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent

    9. Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print The phenomenon known as exchange bias at the interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is currently a subject of intense research because of its applications in the magnetic recording and read-head industries. An international collaboration headed by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has used resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent

    10. Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print The phenomenon known as exchange bias at the interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is currently a subject of intense research because of its applications in the magnetic recording and read-head industries. An international collaboration headed by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has used resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent

    11. Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print The phenomenon known as exchange bias at the interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is currently a subject of intense research because of its applications in the magnetic recording and read-head industries. An international collaboration headed by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has used resonant x-ray scattering and polarized-neutron reflectometry to determine the depth-dependent

    12. Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Depth Profile of Uncompensated Spins in an Exchange-Bias System Print Wednesday, 25 January 2006 00:00 The phenomenon known as exchange bias at the interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is currently a subject of intense research because of its applications in the magnetic recording and read-head industries. An international collaboration headed by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has used

    13. Absolute calibration of optical flats

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Sommargren, Gary E.

      2005-04-05

      The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

    14. Solid state optical microscope

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Young, Ian T.

      1983-01-01

      A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

    15. Solid state optical microscope

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Young, I.T.

      1983-08-09

      A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

    16. Nonimaging optical illumination system

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Winston, R.; Ries, H.

      1996-12-17

      A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source, a light reflecting surface, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line with the reflecting surface defined in terms of the reference line as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line to the reflection surface along the desired edge ray through the point. 35 figs.

    17. Nonimaging optical illumination system

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Winston, R.; Ries, H.

      1998-10-06

      A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source a light reflecting surface, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line with the reflecting surface defined in terms of the reference lines a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line to the reflection surface along the desired edge ray through the point. 35 figs.

    18. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Deri, R. J.

      2015-10-13

      The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

    19. Full spectrum optical safeguard

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Ackerman, Mark R.

      2008-12-02

      An optical safeguard device with two linear variable Fabry-Perot filters aligned relative to a light source with at least one of the filters having a nonlinear dielectric constant material such that, when a light source produces a sufficiently high intensity light, the light alters the characteristics of the nonlinear dielectric constant material to reduce the intensity of light impacting a connected optical sensor. The device can be incorporated into an imaging system on a moving platform, such as an aircraft or satellite.

    20. Non-destructive in-situ method and apparatus for determining radionuclide depth in media

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Xu, X. George; Naessens, Edward P.

      2003-01-01

      A non-destructive method and apparatus which is based on in-situ gamma spectroscopy is used to determine the depth of radiological contamination in media such as concrete. An algorithm, Gamma Penetration Depth Unfolding Algorithm (GPDUA), uses point kernel techniques to predict the depth of contamination based on the results of uncollided peak information from the in-situ gamma spectroscopy. The invention is better, faster, safer, and/cheaper than the current practice in decontamination and decommissioning of facilities that are slow, rough and unsafe. The invention uses a priori knowledge of the contaminant source distribution. The applicable radiological contaminants of interest are any isotopes that emit two or more gamma rays per disintegration or isotopes that emit a single gamma ray but have gamma-emitting progeny in secular equilibrium with its parent (e.g., .sup.60 Co, .sup.235 U, and .sup.137 Cs to name a few). The predicted depths from the GPDUA algorithm using Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) simulations and laboratory experiments using .sup.60 Co have consistently produced predicted depths within 20% of the actual or known depth.

    1. Measurement of sound speed vs. depth in South Pole ice: pressure waves and shear waves

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer

      2009-06-04

      We have measured the speed of both pressure waves and shear waves as a function of depth between 80 and 500 m depth in South Pole ice with better than 1% precision. The measurements were made using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), an array of transmitters and sensors deployed in the ice at the South Pole in order to measure the acoustic properties relevant to acoustic detection of astrophysical neutrinos. The transmitters and sensors use piezoceramics operating at {approx}5-25 kHz. Between 200 m and 500 m depth, the measured profile is consistent with zero variation of the sound speed with depth, resulting in zero refraction, for both pressure and shear waves. We also performed a complementary study featuring an explosive signal propagating vertically from 50 to 2250 m depth, from which we determined a value for the pressure wave speed consistent with that determined for shallower depths, higher frequencies, and horizontal propagation with the SPATS sensors. The sound speed profile presented here can be used to achieve good acoustic source position and emission time reconstruction in general, and neutrino direction and energy reconstruction in particular. The reconstructed quantities could also help separate neutrino signals from background.

    2. Optical Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Not Available

      2011-10-01

      This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Optical Characterization Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The Optical Characterization Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) conducts optical characterization of large solar concentration devices. Concentration solar power (CSP) mirror panels and concentrating solar systems are tested with an emphasis is on measurement of parabolic trough mirror panels. The Optical Characterization Laboratory provides state-of-the-art characterization and testing capabilities for assessing the optical surface quality and optical performance for various CSP technologies including parabolic troughs, linear Fresnel, dishes, and heliostats.

    3. Vibrational spectroscopy of water interfaces

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Du, Q.

      1994-12-01

      The second order nonlinear optical processes of second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are powerful and versatile tools for studying all kinds of surfaces. They possess unusual surface sensitivity due to the symmetry properties of the second order nonlinear susceptibility. The technique of infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG) is particularly attractive because it offers a viable way to do vibrational spectroscopy on any surfaces accessible to light with submonolayer sensitivity. In this thesis, the author applies SFG to study a number of important water interfaces. At the air/water interface, hydrophobic solid/water and liquid/water interfaces, it was found that approximately 25% of surface water molecules have one of their hydrogen pointing away from the liquid water. The large number of unsatisfied hydrogen bonds contributes significantly to the large interfacial energy of the hydrophobic surfaces. At the hydrophilic fused quartz/water interface and a fatty acid monolayer covered water surface, the structure and orientation of surface water molecules are controlled by the hydrogen bonding of water molecules with the surface OH groups and the electrostatic interaction with the surface field from the ionization of surface groups. A change of pH value in the bulk water can significantly change the relative importance of the two interactions and cause a drastic change in orientation of the surface water molecules. SFG has also been applied to study the tribological response of some model lubricant films. Monolayers of Langmuir-Blodgett films were found to disorder orientationaly under mildly high pressure and recover promptly upon removal of the applied pressure.

    4. Water Wars

      Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

      2012-09-11

      Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder rolesmore » and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.« less

    5. Optically switchable natural silk

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Krasnov, Igor Müller, Martin; Krekiehn, Nicolai R.; Jung, Ulrich; Magnussen, Olaf M.; Krywka, Christina; Zillohu, Ahnaf U.; Strunskus, Thomas; Elbahri, Mady

      2015-03-02

      An optically active bio-material is created by blending natural silk fibers with photoisomerizable chromophore molecules—azobenzenebromide (AzBr). The material converts the energy of unpolarized light directly into mechanical work with a well-defined direction of action. The feasibility of the idea to produce optically driven microsized actuators on the basis of bio-material (silk) is proven. The switching behavior of the embedded AzBr molecules was studied in terms of UV/Vis spectroscopy. To test the opto-mechanical properties of the modified fibers and the structural changes they undergo upon optically induced switching, single fiber X-ray diffraction with a micron-sized synchrotron radiation beam was combined in situ with optical switching as well as with mechanical testing and monitoring. The crystalline regions of silk are not modified by the presence of the guest molecules, hence occupy only the amorphous part of the fibers. It is shown that chromophore molecules embedded into fibers can be reversibly switched between the trans and cis conformation by illumination with light of defined wavelengths. The host fibers respond to this switching with a variation of the internal stress. The amplitude of the mechanical response is independent of the applied external stress and its characteristic time is shorter than the relaxation time of the usual mechanical response of silk.

    6. High throughput optical scanner

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Basiji, David A. (Seattle, WA); van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA)

      2001-01-01

      A scanning apparatus is provided to obtain automated, rapid and sensitive scanning of substrate fluorescence, optical density or phosphorescence. The scanner uses a constant path length optical train, which enables the combination of a moving beam for high speed scanning with phase-sensitive detection for noise reduction, comprising a light source, a scanning mirror to receive light from the light source and sweep it across a steering mirror, a steering mirror to receive light from the scanning mirror and reflect it to the substrate, whereby it is swept across the substrate along a scan arc, and a photodetector to receive emitted or scattered light from the substrate, wherein the optical path length from the light source to the photodetector is substantially constant throughout the sweep across the substrate. The optical train can further include a waveguide or mirror to collect emitted or scattered light from the substrate and direct it to the photodetector. For phase-sensitive detection the light source is intensity modulated and the detector is connected to phase-sensitive detection electronics. A scanner using a substrate translator is also provided. For two dimensional imaging the substrate is translated in one dimension while the scanning mirror scans the beam in a second dimension. For a high throughput scanner, stacks of substrates are loaded onto a conveyor belt from a tray feeder.

    7. Superlattice optical device

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Biefeld, Robert M.; Fritz, Ian J.; Gourley, Paul L.; Osbourn, Gordon C.

      1986-01-01

      A semiconductor optical device which includes a superlattice having direct transitions between conduction band and valence band states with the same wave vector, the superlattice being formed from a plurality of alternating layers of two or more different materials, at least the material with the smallest bandgap being an indirect bandgap material.

    8. Superlattice optical device

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Biefeld, R.M.; Fritz, I.J.; Gourley, P.L.; Osbourn, G.C.

      A semiconductor optical device which includes a superlattice having direct transitions between conduction band and valence band states with the same wave vector, the superlattice being formed from a plurality of alternating layers of two or more different materials, at least the material with the smallest bandgap being an indirect bandgap material.

    9. Optical apparatus for forming correlation spectrometers and optical processors

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Butler, M.A.; Ricco, A.J.; Sinclair, M.B.; Senturia, S.D.

      1999-05-18

      Optical apparatus is disclosed for forming correlation spectrometers and optical processors. The optical apparatus comprises one or more diffractive optical elements formed on a substrate for receiving light from a source and processing the incident light. The optical apparatus includes an addressing element for alternately addressing each diffractive optical element thereof to produce for one unit of time a first correlation with the incident light, and to produce for a different unit of time a second correlation with the incident light that is different from the first correlation. In preferred embodiments of the invention, the optical apparatus is in the form of a correlation spectrometer; and in other embodiments, the apparatus is in the form of an optical processor. In some embodiments, the optical apparatus comprises a plurality of diffractive optical elements on a common substrate for forming first and second gratings that alternately intercept the incident light for different units of time. In other embodiments, the optical apparatus includes an electrically-programmable diffraction grating that may be alternately switched between a plurality of grating states thereof for processing the incident light. The optical apparatus may be formed, at least in part, by a micromachining process. 24 figs.

    10. Optical apparatus for forming correlation spectrometers and optical processors

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Butler, Michael A.; Ricco, Antonio J.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Senturia, Stephen D.

      1999-01-01

      Optical apparatus for forming correlation spectrometers and optical processors. The optical apparatus comprises one or more diffractive optical elements formed on a substrate for receiving light from a source and processing the incident light. The optical apparatus includes an addressing element for alternately addressing each diffractive optical element thereof to produce for one unit of time a first correlation with the incident light, and to produce for a different unit of time a second correlation with the incident light that is different from the first correlation. In preferred embodiments of the invention, the optical apparatus is in the form of a correlation spectrometer; and in other embodiments, the apparatus is in the form of an optical processor. In some embodiments, the optical apparatus comprises a plurality of diffractive optical elements on a common substrate for forming first and second gratings that alternately intercept the incident light for different units of time. In other embodiments, the optical apparatus includes an electrically-programmable diffraction grating that may be alternately switched between a plurality of grating states thereof for processing the incident light. The optical apparatus may be formed, at least in part, by a micromachining process.

    11. Search for: All records | DOE PAGES

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      (ARM) Aerial Facility Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative ... dissipation rate are also explored. less February 2016 , American Meteorological Society

    12. Determining Best Estimates and Uncertainties in Cloud Microphysical...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS) Experiment and the Routine AAF Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign, over the North ...

    13. Final Report fir DE-SC0005507 (A1618): The Development of an...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) in order to develop an integrated product of cloud microphysical properties (number ...

    14. Optical fiber stripper positioning apparatus

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Fyfe, Richard W.; Sanchez, Jr., Amadeo

      1990-01-01

      An optical fiber positioning apparatus for an optical fiber stripping device is disclosed which is capable of providing precise axial alignment between an optical fiber to be stripped of its outer jacket and the cutting blades of a stripping device. The apparatus includes a first bore having a width approximately equal to the diameter of an unstripped optical fiber and a counter bore axially aligned with the first bore and dimensioned to precisely receive a portion of the stripping device in axial alignment with notched cutting blades within the stripping device to thereby axially align the notched cutting blades of the stripping device with the axis of the optical fiber to permit the notched cutting blades to sever the jacket on the optical fiber without damaging the cladding on the optical fiber. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus further includes a fiber stop which permits determination of the length of jacket to be removed from the optical fiber.

    15. Crooker named Optical Society Fellow

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Condensed Matter and Magnet Science group is a 2014 Fellow of the Optical Society (OSA). The Society selected 71 new Fellows based on their overall impact on optics, as...

    16. 4-ID-D optics

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      4-ID-D Beamline Optics A schetch of the major optical components for beam line 4-ID-D are shown above. All these components located in the B-station upstream from the D...

    17. Magneto-optic current sensor

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Lanagan, Michael T.; Valsko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Fisher, Brandon L.; Welp, Ulrich

      2003-10-07

      An optical current transducer configured to sense current in the conductor is disclosed. The optical current transducer includes a light source and a polarizer that generates linearly polarized light received from a the light source. The light is communicated to a magneto-optic garnet that includes, among other elements, bismuth, iron and oxygen and is coupled to the conductor. The magneto-optic garnet is configured to rotate the polarization of the linearly polarized light received from the polarizer. The optical current transducer also includes an analyzer in optical communication with the magneto-optic garnet. The analyzer detects the rotation of the linearly polarized light caused by the magneto-optic garnet.

    18. Optimizing optical absorption of TiO{sub 2} by alloying with...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      Title: Optimizing optical absorption of TiOsub 2 by alloying with TiSsub 2 TiOsub 2 is an attractive material for photocatalytic water splitting, but its band gap is too ...

    19. Optics learning through affordable kit

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      P, Anusha N E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com Shaji, Chitra E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com Sharan, Alok E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com

      2014-10-15

      An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

    20. Depth profiling analysis of solar wind helium collected in diamond-like carbon film from Genesis

      DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

      Bajo, Ken-ichi; Olinger, Chad T.; Jurewicz, Amy J.G.; Burnett, Donald S.; Sakaguchi, Isao; Suzuki, Taku; Itose, Satoru; Ishihara, Morio; Uchino, Kiichiro; Wieler, Rainer; et al

      2015-10-01

      The distribution of solar-wind ions in Genesis mission collectors, as determined by depth profiling analysis, constrains the physics of ion solid interactions involving the solar wind. Thus, they provide an experimental basis for revealing ancient solar activities represented by solar-wind implants in natural samples. We measured the first depth profile of ⁴He in a collector; the shallow implantation (peaking at <20 nm) required us to use sputtered neutral mass spectrometry with post-photoionization by a strong field. The solar wind He fluence calculated using depth profiling is ~8.5 x 10¹⁴ cm⁻². The shape of the solar wind ⁴He depth profile ismore » consistent with TRIM simulations using the observed ⁴He velocity distribution during the Genesis mission. It is therefore likely that all solar-wind elements heavier than H are completely intact in this Genesis collector and, consequently, the solar particle energy distributions for each element can be calculated from their depth profiles. Ancient solar activities and space weathering of solar system objects could be quantitatively reproduced by solar particle implantation profiles.« less

    1. Daily snow depth measurements from 195 stations in the United States

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Allison, L.J.; Easterling, D.R.; Jamason, P.; Bowman, D.P.; Hughes, P.Y.; Mason, E.H.

      1997-02-01

      This document describes a database containing daily measurements of snow depth at 195 National Weather Service (NWS) first-order climatological stations in the United States. The data have been assembled and made available by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina. The 195 stations encompass 388 unique sampling locations in 48 of the 50 states; no observations from Delaware or Hawaii are included in the database. Station selection criteria emphasized the quality and length of station records while seeking to provide a network with good geographic coverage. Snow depth at the 388 locations was measured once per day on ground open to the sky. The daily snow depth is the total depth of the snow on the ground at measurement time. The time period covered by the database is 1893--1992; however, not all station records encompass the complete period. While a station record ideally should contain daily data for at least the seven winter months (January through April and October through December), not all stations have complete records. Each logical record in the snow depth database contains one station`s daily data values for a period of one month, including data source, measurement, and quality flags.

    2. Extraction of depth-dependent perturbation factors for silicon diodes using a plastic scintillation detector

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Lacroix, Frederic; Guillot, Mathieu; McEwen, Malcolm; Gingras, Luc; Beaulieu, Luc

      2011-10-15

      Purpose: This work presents the experimental extraction of the perturbation factor in megavoltage electron beams for three models of silicon diodes (IBA Dosimetry, EFD and SFD, and the PTW 60012 unshielded) using a plastic scintillation detector (PSD). Methods: The authors used a single scanning PSD mounted on a high-precision scanning tank to measure depth-dose curves in 6-, 12-, and 18-MeV clinical electron beams. They also measured depth-dose curves using the IBA Dosimetry, EFD and SFD, and the PTW 60012 unshielded diodes. The authors used the depth-dose curves measured with the PSD as a perturbation-free reference to extract the perturbation factors of the diodes. Results: The authors found that the perturbation factors for the diodes increased substantially with depth, especially for low-energy electron beams. The experimental results show the same trend as published Monte Carlo simulation results for the EFD diode; however, the perturbations measured experimentally were greater. They found that using an effective point of measurement (EPOM) placed slightly away from the source reduced the variation of perturbation factors with depth and that the optimal EPOM appears to be energy dependent. Conclusions: The manufacturer recommended EPOM appears to be incorrect at low electron energy (6 MeV). In addition, the perturbation factors for diodes may be greater than predicted by Monte Carlo simulations.

    3. Large core fiber optic cleaver

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Halpin, J.M.

      1996-03-26

      The present invention relates to a device and method for cleaving optical fibers which yields cleaved optical fiber ends possessing high damage threshold surfaces. The device can be used to cleave optical fibers with core diameters greater than 400 {micro}m. 30 figs.

    4. Large core fiber optic cleaver

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Halpin, John M.

      1996-01-01

      The present invention relates to a device and method for cleaving optical fibers which yields cleaved optical fiber ends possessing high damage threshold surfaces. The device can be used to cleave optical fibers with core diameters greater than 400 .mu.m.

    5. Aerogel-clad optical fiber

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Sprehn, Gregory A. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Sandler, Pamela H. (San Marino, CA)

      1997-01-01

      An optical fiber is surrounded by an aerogel cladding. For a low density aerogel, the index of refraction of the aerogel is close to that of air, which provides a high numerical aperture to the optical fiber. Due to the high numerical aperture, the aerogel clad optical fiber has improved light collection efficiency.

    6. Aerogel-clad optical fiber

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Sprehn, G.A.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Poco, J.F.; Sandler, P.H.

      1997-11-04

      An optical fiber is surrounded by an aerogel cladding. For a low density aerogel, the index of refraction of the aerogel is close to that of air, which provides a high numerical aperture to the optical fiber. Due to the high numerical aperture, the aerogel clad optical fiber has improved light collection efficiency. 4 figs.

    7. Water Power

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      ...016-03-01T17:12:00+00:00 March 1st, 2016|News, News & Events, Water Power, Workshops|0 Comments Read More Wave energy distribution example Permalink Gallery Sandia releases 2nd ...

    8. MRF Applications: Measurement of Process-dependent Subsurface Damage in Optical Materials using the MRF Wedge Technique

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Menapace, J A; Davis, P J; Steele, W A; Wong, L L; Suratwala, T I; Miller, P E

      2005-11-02

      Understanding the behavior of fractures and subsurface damage in the processes used during optic fabrication plays a key role in determining the final quality of the optical surface finish. During the early stages of surface preparation, brittle grinding processes induce fractures at or near an optical surface whose range can extend from depths of a few mm to hundreds of mm depending upon the process and tooling being employed. Controlling the occurrence, structure, and propagation of these sites during subsequent grinding and polishing operations is highly desirable if one wishes to obtain high-quality surfaces that are free of such artifacts. Over the past year, our team has made significant strides in developing a diagnostic technique that combines magnetorheological finishing (MRF) and scanning optical microscopy to measure and characterize subsurface damage in optical materials. The technique takes advantage of the unique nature of MRF to polish a prescribed large-area wedge into the optical surface without propagating existing damage or introducing new damage. The polished wedge is then analyzed to quantify subsurface damage as a function of depth from the original surface. Large-area measurement using scanning optical microscopy provides for improved accuracy and reliability over methods such as the COM ball-dimple technique. Examples of the technique's use will be presented that illustrate the behavior of subsurface damage in fused silica that arises during a variety of intermediate optical fabrication process steps.

    9. Fiber optic moisture sensor

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Kirkham, R.R.

      1984-08-03

      A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

    10. Nonimaging optical illumination system

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Winston, Roland; Ries, Harald

      1998-01-01

      A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source 102, a light reflecting surface 108, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line 104 with the reflecting surface 108 defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

    11. Nonimaging optical illumination system

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Winston, Roland; Ries, Harald

      1996-01-01

      A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source 102, a light reflecting surface 108, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line 104 with the reflecting surface 108 defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

    12. Nonimaging optical illumination system

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Winston, Roland; Ries, Harald

      2000-01-01

      A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source 102, a light reflecting surface 108, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line 104 with the reflecting surface 108 defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

    13. Modular optical detector system

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Horn, Brent A.; Renzi, Ronald F.

      2006-02-14

      A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

    14. Thin optical display panel

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Veligdan, James Thomas

      1997-01-01

      An optical display includes a plurality of optical waveguides each including a cladding bound core for guiding internal display light between first and second opposite ends by total internal reflection. The waveguides are stacked together to define a collective display thickness. Each of the cores includes a heterogeneous portion defining a light scattering site disposed longitudinally between the first and second ends. Adjacent ones of the sites are longitudinally offset from each other for forming a longitudinal internal image display over the display thickness upon scattering of internal display light thereagainst for generating a display image. In a preferred embodiment, the waveguides and scattering sites are transparent for transmitting therethrough an external image in superposition with the display image formed by scattering the internal light off the scattering sites for defining a heads up display.

    15. Black optic display

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Veligdan, James T.

      1997-01-01

      An optical display includes a plurality of stacked optical waveguides having first and second opposite ends collectively defining an image input face and an image screen, respectively, with the screen being oblique to the input face. Each of the waveguides includes a transparent core bound by a cladding layer having a lower index of refraction for effecting internal reflection of image light transmitted into the input face to project an image on the screen, with each of the cladding layers including a cladding cap integrally joined thereto at the waveguide second ends. Each of the cores is beveled at the waveguide second end so that the cladding cap is viewable through the transparent core. Each of the cladding caps is black for absorbing external ambient light incident upon the screen for improving contrast of the image projected internally on the screen.

    16. Nonimaging Optical Illumination System

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Winston, Roland

      1994-02-22

      A nonimaging illumination or concentration optical device. An optical device is provided having a light source, a light reflecting surface with an opening and positioned partially around the light source which is opposite the opening of the light reflecting surface. The light reflecting surface is disposed to produce a substantially uniform intensity output with the reflecting surface defined in terms of a radius vector R.sub.i in conjunction with an angle .phi..sub.i between R.sub.i, a direction from the source and an angle .theta..sub.i between direct forward illumination and the light ray reflected once from the reflecting surface. R.sub.i varies as the exponential of tan (.phi..sub.i -.theta..sub.i)/2 integrated over .phi..sub.i.

    17. Triggered optical biosensor

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Song, Xuedong; Swanson, Basil I.

      2001-10-02

      An optical biosensor is provided for the detection of a multivalent target biomolecule, the biosensor including a substrate having a bilayer membrane thereon, a recognition molecule situated at the surface, the recognition molecule capable of binding with the multivalent target biomolecule, the recognition molecule further characterized as including a fluorescence label thereon and as being movable at the surface and a device for measuring a fluorescence change in response to binding between the recognition molecule and the multivalent target biomolecule.

    18. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Homuth, Emil F.

      1991-01-01

      A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

    19. MicroSight Optics

      ScienceCinema (OSTI)

      None

      2013-05-28

      MicroSight is an innovative gunsight technology that allows a marksman's eye to focus on both the front gunsight and the intended target. The MicroSight improves both firearm safety and performance by imaging two objects at different focal distances. The MicroSight was developed at Idaho National Laboratory, and has been licensed by Apollo Optical Systems. You can learn more about INL's research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

    20. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Fraser, J.S.; Sheffield, R.L.

      1985-05-20

      An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radiofrequency-powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

    1. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Fraser, John S.; Sheffield, Richard L.

      1987-01-01

      An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radio frequency powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

    2. ToF-SIMS Depth Profiling Of Insulating Samples, Interlaced Mode Or Non-interlaced Mode?

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Wang, Zhaoying; Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Wang, Fuyi; Zhu, Zihua

      2014-11-01

      Dual beam depth profiling strategy has been widely adopted in ToF-SIMS depth profiling, in which two basic operation modes, interlaced mode and non-interlaced mode, are commonly used. Generally, interlaced mode is recommended for conductive or semi-conductive samples, whereas non-interlaced mode is recommended for insulating samples, where charge compensation can be an issue. Recent publications, however, show that the interlaced mode can be used effectively for glass depth profiling, despite the fact that glass is an insulator. In this study, we provide a simple guide for choosing between interlaced mode and non-interlaced mode for insulator depth profiling. Two representative cases are presented: (1) depth profiling of a leached glass sample, and (2) depth profiling of a single crystal MgO sample. In brief, the interlaced mode should be attempted first, because (1) it may provide reasonable-quality data, and (2) it is time-saving for most cases, and (3) it introduces low H/C/O background. If data quality is the top priority and measurement time is flexible, non-interlaced mode is recommended because interlaced mode may suffer from low signal intensity and poor mass resolution. A big challenge is tracking trace H/C/O in a highly insulating sample (e.g., MgO), because non-interlaced mode may introduce strong H/C/O background but interlaced mode may suffer from low signal intensity. Meanwhile, a C or Au coating is found to be very effective to improve the signal intensity. Surprisingly, the best analyzing location is not on the C or Au coating, but at the edge (outside) of the coating.

    3. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Lyons, Peter B.; Looney, Larry D.

      1993-01-01

      A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resitance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation.

    4. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

      1993-11-30

      A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures.

    5. Optical polarizer material

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Ebbers, Christopher A.

      1999-01-01

      Several crystals have been identified which can be grown using standard single crystals growth techniques and which have a high birefringence. The identified crystals include Li.sub.2 CO.sub.3, LiNaCO.sub.3, LiKCO.sub.3, LiRbCO.sub.3 and LiCsCO.sub.3. The condition of high birefringence leads to their application as optical polarizer materials. In one embodiment of the invention, the crystal has the chemical formula LiK.sub.(1-w-x-y) Na.sub.(1-w-x-z) Rb.sub.(1-w-y-z) Cs.sub.(1-x-y-z) CO.sub.3, where w+x+y+z=1. In another embodiment, the crystalline material may be selected from a an alkali metal carbonate and a double salt of alkali metal carbonates, where the polarizer has a Wollaston configuration, a Glan-Thompson configuration or a Glan-Taylor configuration. A method of making an LiNaCO.sub.3 optical polarizer is described. A similar method is shown for making an LiKCO.sub.3 optical polarizer.

    6. Optical polarizer material

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Ebbers, C.A.

      1999-08-31

      Several crystals have been identified which can be grown using standard single crystals growth techniques and which have a high birefringence. The identified crystals include Li.sub.2 CO.sub.3, LiNaCO.sub.3, LiKCO.sub.3, LiRbCO.sub.3 and LiCsCO.sub.3. The condition of high birefringence leads to their application as optical polarizer materials. In one embodiment of the invention, the crystal has the chemical formula LiK.sub.(1-w-x-y) Na.sub.(1-w-x-z) Rb.sub.(1-w-y-z) Cs.sub.(1-x-y-z) CO.sub.3, where w+x+y+z=1. In another embodiment, the crystalline material may be selected from a an alkali metal carbonate and a double salt of alkali metal carbonates, where the polarizer has a Wollaston configuration, a Glan-Thompson configuration or a Glan-Taylor configuration. A method of making an LiNaCO.sub.3 optical polarizer is described. A similar method is shown for making an LiKCO.sub.3 optical polarizer.

    7. Optical fiber inspection system

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Moore, F.W.

      1985-04-05

      A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected. 10 figs.

    8. Optical fiber inspection system

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Moore, Francis W.

      1987-01-01

      A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected.

    9. Optical ionization detector

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Wuest, Craig R.; Lowry, Mark E.

      1994-01-01

      An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium.

    10. Optical ionization detector

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Wuest, C.R.; Lowry, M.E.

      1994-03-29

      An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium. 3 figures.

    11. Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments Title: Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments Authors: Bahns, ...

    12. Bonded, walk-off compensated optical elements

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Ebbers, Christopher A.

      2003-04-08

      A bonded, walk-off compensated crystal, for use with optical equipment, and methods of making optical components including same.

    13. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Ayers, Marion Jay; Ayers, Shannon Lee

      2010-08-24

      A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

    14. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Ayers, Marion Jay; Ayers, Shannon Lee

      2012-10-09

      A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

    15. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      .........9 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Surface Water Quality Data Static Water Level Data ...

    16. Methods for Quantifying Shallow-Water Habitat Availability in the Missouri River

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Larson, Kyle B.

      2012-04-09

      As part of regulatory requirements for shallow-water habitat (SWH) restoration, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) completes periodic estimates of the quantity of SWH available throughout the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River. To date, these estimates have been made by various methods that consider only the water depth criterion for SWH. The USACE has completed estimates of SWH availability based on both depth and velocity criteria at four river bends (hereafter called reference bends), encompassing approximately 8 river miles within the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River. These estimates were made from the results of hydraulic modeling of water depth and velocity throughout each bend. Hydraulic modeling of additional river bends is not expected to be completed for deriving estimates of available SWH. Instead, future estimates of SWH will be based on the water depth criterion. The objective of this project, conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the USACE Omaha District, was to develop geographic information system methods for estimating the quantity of available SWH based on water depth only. Knowing that only a limited amount of water depth and channel geometry data would be available for all the remaining bends within the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River, the intent was to determine what information, if any, from the four reference bends could be used to develop methods for estimating SWH at the remaining bends. Specifically, we examined the relationship between cross-section channel morphology and relative differences between SWH estimates based on combined depth and velocity criteria and the depth-only criterion to determine if a correction factor could be applied to estimates of SWH based on the depth-only criterion. In developing these methods, we also explored the applicability of two commonly used geographic information system interpolation methods (TIN and ANUDEM) for estimating SWH using four different elevation data

    17. WATER CONSERVATION PLAN

      National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

      ... Average water consumers can save thousands of gallons of water per year by being aware of ... program on the water distribution systems to include water saving replacement parts. ...

    18. Thermo-optical Properties of Nanofluids

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Ortega, Maria Alejandra; Echevarria, Lorenzo; Rodriguez, Luis; Castillo, Jimmy; Fernandez, Alberto

      2008-04-15

      In this work, we report thermo-optical properties of nanofluids. Spherical gold nanoparticles obtained by laser ablation in condensed media were characterized using thermal lens spectroscopy in SDS-water solution pumping at 532 nm with a 10 ns pulsed laser-Nd-YAG system. Nanoparticles obtained by laser ablation were stabilized in the time by surfactants (Sodium Dodecyl-Sulfate or SDS) in different molar concentrations. The morphology and size of the gold nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The plasmonic resonance bands in gold nanoparticles are responsible of the light optical absorption of this wavelength. The position of the absorption maximum and width band in the UV-Visible spectra is given by the morphological characteristics of these systems. The thermo-optical constant such as thermal diffusion, thermal conductivity and dn/dT are functions of nanoparticles sizes and dielectric constant of the media. The theoretical model existents do not describe completely this relations because is not possible separate the contributions due to nanoparticles size, factor form and dielectric constant. The thermal lens signal obtained is also dependent of nanoparticles sizes. This methodology can be used in order to evaluate nanofluids and characterizing nanoparticles in different media. These results are expected to have an impact in bioimaging, biosensors and other technological applications such as cooler system.

    19. Pedestal substrate for coated optics

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Hale, Layton C.; Malsbury, Terry N.; Patterson, Steven R.

      2001-01-01

      A pedestal optical substrate that simultaneously provides high substrate dynamic stiffness, provides low surface figure sensitivity to mechanical mounting hardware inputs, and constrains surface figure changes caused by optical coatings to be primarily spherical in nature. The pedestal optical substrate includes a disk-like optic or substrate section having a top surface that is coated, a disk-like base section that provides location at which the substrate can be mounted, and a connecting cylindrical section between the base and optics or substrate sections. The connecting cylindrical section may be attached via three spaced legs or members. However, the pedestal optical substrate can be manufactured from a solid piece of material to form a monolith, thus avoiding joints between the sections, or the disk-like base can be formed separately and connected to the connecting section. By way of example, the pedestal optical substrate may be utilized in the fabrication of optics for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography imaging system, or in any optical system requiring coated optics and substrates with reduced sensitivity to mechanical mounts.

    20. All-optical switching in optically induced nonlinear waveguide couplers

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Diebel, Falko Boguslawski, Martin; Rose, Patrick; Denz, Cornelia; Leykam, Daniel; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

      2014-06-30

      We experimentally demonstrate all-optical vortex switching in nonlinear coupled waveguide arrays optically induced in photorefractive media. Our technique is based on multiplexing of nondiffracting Bessel beams to induce various types of waveguide configurations. Using double- and quadruple-well potentials, we demonstrate precise control over the coupling strength between waveguides, the linear and nonlinear dynamics and symmetry-breaking bifurcations of guided light, and a power-controlled optical vortex switch.

    1. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Homuth, E.F.

      1991-03-19

      A fiber optic geophysical sensor is described in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figures.

    2. Nonimaging Optical Illumination System

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Winston, Roland

      1994-08-02

      A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing selected intensity output over an angular range. The device includes a light reflecting surface (24, 26) around a light source (22) which is disposed opposite the aperture opening of the light reflecting surface (24, 26). The light source (22) has a characteristic dimension which is small relative to one or more of the distance from the light source (22) to the light reflecting surface (24, 26) or the angle subtended by the light source (22) at the light reflecting surface (24, 26).

    3. Ferroelectric optical image comparator

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Butler, Michael A.; Land, Cecil E.; Martin, Stephen J.; Pfeifer, Kent B.

      1993-01-01

      A ferroelectric optical image comparator has a lead lanthanum zirconate titanate thin-film device which is constructed with a semi-transparent or transparent conductive first electrode on one side of the thin film, a conductive metal second electrode on the other side of the thin film, and the second electrode is in contact with a nonconducting substrate. A photoinduced current in the device represents the dot product between a stored image and an image projected onto the first electrode. One-dimensional autocorrelations are performed by measuring this current while displacing the projected image.

    4. Integrated optical XY coupler

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Vawter, G.A.; Hadley, G.R.

      1997-05-06

      An integrated optical XY coupler having two converging input waveguide arms meeting in a central section and a central output waveguide arm and two diverging flanking output waveguide arms emanating from the central section. In-phase light from the input arms constructively interferes in the central section to produce a single mode output in the central output arm with the rest of the light being collected in the flanking output arms. Crosstalk between devices on a substrate is minimized by this collection of the out-of-phase light by the flanking output arms of the XY coupler. 9 figs.

    5. Integrated optical XY coupler

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Vawter, G. Allen; Hadley, G. Ronald

      1997-01-01

      An integrated optical XY coupler having two converging input waveguide arms meeting in a central section and a central output waveguide arm and two diverging flanking output waveguide arms emanating from the central section. In-phase light from the input arms constructively interfers in the central section to produce a single mode output in the central output arm with the rest of the light being collected in the flanking output arms. Crosstalk between devices on a substrate is minimized by this collection of the out-of-phase light by the flanking output arms of the XY coupler.

    6. Ferroelectric optical image comparator

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Butler, M.A.; Land, C.E.; Martin, S.J.; Pfeifer, K.B.

      1993-11-30

      A ferroelectric optical image comparator has a lead lanthanum zirconate titanate thin-film device which is constructed with a semi-transparent or transparent conductive first electrode on one side of the thin film, a conductive metal second electrode on the other side of the thin film, and the second electrode is in contact with a nonconducting substrate. A photoinduced current in the device represents the dot product between a stored image and an image projected onto the first electrode. One-dimensional autocorrelations are performed by measuring this current while displacing the projected image. 7 figures.

    7. Nonlinear optical coupler using a doped optical waveguide

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Pantell, Richard H.; Sadowski, Robert W.; Digonnet, Michel J. F.; Shaw, Herbert J.

      1994-01-01

      An optical mode coupling apparatus includes an Erbium-doped optical waveguide in which an optical signal at a signal wavelength propagates in a first spatial propagation mode and a second spatial propagation mode of the waveguide. The optical signal propagating in the waveguide has a beat length. The coupling apparatus includes a pump source of perturbational light signal at a perturbational wavelength that propagates in the waveguide in the first spatial propagation mode. The perturbational signal has a sufficient intensity distribution in the waveguide that it causes a perturbation of the effective refractive index of the first spatial propagation mode of the waveguide in accordance with the optical Kerr effect. The perturbation of the effective refractive index of the first spatial propagation mode of the optical waveguide causes a change in the differential phase delay in the optical signal propagating in the first and second spatial propagation modes. The change in the differential phase delay is detected as a change in the intensity distribution between two lobes of the optical intensity distribution pattern of an output signal. The perturbational light signal can be selectively enabled and disabled to selectively change the intensity distribution in the two lobes of the optical intensity distribution pattern.

    8. Method for optical and mechanically coupling optical fibers

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Toeppen, J.S.

      1996-10-01

      A method and apparatus are disclosed for splicing optical fibers. A fluorescing solder glass frit having a melting point lower than the melting point of first and second optical fibers is prepared. The solder glass frit is then attached to the end of the first optical fiber and/or the end of the second optical fiber. The ends of the optical fibers are aligned and placed in close proximity to each other. The solder glass frit is then heated to a temperature which is lower than the melting temperature of the first and second optical fibers, but which is high enough to melt the solder glass frit. A force is applied to the first and second optical fibers pushing the ends of the fibers towards each other. As the solder glass flit becomes molten, the layer of molten solder glass is compressed into a thin layer between the first and second optical fibers. The thin compressed layer of molten solder glass is allowed to cool such that the first and second optical fibers are bonded to each other by the hardened layer of solder glass. 6 figs.

    9. Method for optical and mechanically coupling optical fibers

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Toeppen, John S. (Livermore, CA)

      1996-01-01

      A method and apparatus for splicing optical fibers. A fluorescing solder glass frit having a melting point lower than the melting point of first and second optical fibers is prepared. The solder glass frit is then attached to the end of the first optical fiber and/or the end of the second optical fiber. The ends of the optical fibers are aligned and placed in close proximity to each other. The solder glass frit is then heated to a temperature which is lower than the melting temperature of the first and second optical fibers, but which is high enough to melt the solder glass frit. A force is applied to the first and second optical fibers pushing the ends of the fibers towards each other. As the solder glass flit becomes molten, the layer of molten solder glass is compressed into a thin layer between the first and second optical fibers. The thin compressed layer of molten solder glass is allowed to cool such that the first and second optical fibers are bonded to each other by the hardened layer of solder glass.

    10. Selenium semiconductor core optical fibers

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Tang, G. W.; Qian, Q. Peng, K. L.; Wen, X.; Zhou, G. X.; Sun, M.; Chen, X. D.; Yang, Z. M.

      2015-02-15

      Phosphate glass-clad optical fibers containing selenium (Se) semiconductor core were fabricated using a molten core method. The cores were found to be amorphous as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and corroborated by Micro-Raman spectrum. Elemental analysis across the core/clad interface suggests that there is some diffusion of about 3 wt % oxygen in the core region. Phosphate glass-clad crystalline selenium core optical fibers were obtained by a postdrawing annealing process. A two-cm-long crystalline selenium semiconductor core optical fibers, electrically contacted to external circuitry through the fiber end facets, exhibit a three times change in conductivity between dark and illuminated states. Such crystalline selenium semiconductor core optical fibers have promising utility in optical switch and photoconductivity of optical fiber array.

    11. Optical oxygen concentration monitor

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Kebabian, Paul

      1997-01-01

      A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

    12. Optical oxygen concentration monitor

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Kebabian, P.

      1997-07-22

      A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen`s A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2,000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest. 4 figs.

    13. Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Kronberg, J.W.

      1991-03-04

      This invention consists of a transcutaneous bilirubin detector comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient.

    14. Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Kronberg, James W.

      1993-01-01

      A transcutaneous bilirubin detector comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient.

    15. Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Kronberg, J.W.

      1993-11-09

      A transcutaneous bilirubin detector is designed comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient. 6 figures.

    16. Bundled monocapillary optics

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Hirsch, Gregory

      2002-01-01

      A plurality of glass or metal wires are precisely etched to form the desired shape of the individual channels of the final polycapillary optic. This shape is created by carefully controlling the withdrawal speed of a group of wires from an etchant bath. The etched wires undergo a subsequent operation to create an extremely smooth surface. This surface is coated with a layer of material which is selected to maximize the reflectivity of the radiation being used. This reflective surface may be a single layer of material, or a multilayer coating for optimizing the reflectivity in a narrower wavelength interval. The collection of individual wires is assembled into a close-packed multi-wire bundle, and the wires are bonded together in a manner which preserves the close-pack configuration, irrespective of the local wire diameter. The initial wires are then removed by either a chemical etching procedure or mechanical force. In the case of chemical etching, the bundle is generally segmented by cutting a series of etching slots. Prior to removing the wire, the capillary array is typically bonded to a support substrate. The result of the process is a bundle of precisely oriented radiation-reflecting hollow channels. The capillary optic is used for efficiently collecting and redirecting the radiation from a source of radiation which could be the anode of an x-ray tube, a plasma source, the fluorescent radiation from an electron microprobe, a synchrotron radiation source, a reactor or spallation source of neutrons, or some other source.

    17. Tapered capillary optics

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Hirsch, Gregory

      1998-01-01

      A metal or glass wire is etched with great precision into a very narrowly tapering cone which has the shape of the desired final capillary-optics bore. By controlling the rate of removal of the wire from an etchant bath, a carefully controlled taper is produced. A sensor measures the diameter of the wire as it leaves the surface of the etchant. This signal is used for feedback control of the withdrawal speed. The etched wire undergoes a treatment to produce an extremely low surface-roughness. The etched and smoothed wire is coated with the material of choice for optimizing the reflectivity of the radiation being focused. This could be a vacuum evaporation, sputtering, CVD or aqueous chemical process. The coated wire is either electroplated, built up with electroless plating, or encapsulated in a polymer cylinder such as epoxy to increase the diameter of the wire for easier handling and greater robustness. During this process, the wire is vertically oriented and tensioned to assure that the wire is absolutely straight. The coated and electroformed wire is bonded to a flat, rigid substrate and is then periodically segmented by cutting or etching a series of narrow slits or grooves into the wire. The wire is vertically oriented and tensioned during the bonding process to assure that it is straight. The original wire material is then chemically etched away through the slits or otherwise withdrawn to leave the hollow internal bore of the final tapered-capillary optical element.

    18. System for testing optical fibers

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Golob, J.E.; Looney, L.D.; Lyons, P.B.; Nelson, M.A.; Davies, T.J.

      1980-07-15

      A system for measuring a combination of optical transmission properties of fiber optic waveguides. A polarized light pulse probe is injected into one end of the optical fiber. Reflections from discontinuities within the fiber are unpolarized whereas reflections of the probe pulse incident to its injection remain polarized. The polarized reflections are prevented from reaching a light detector whereas reflections from the discontinuities reaches the detector. 2 figs.

    19. Spatial optic multiplexer/diplexer

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Tremblay, Paul L.

      1991-01-01

      An apparatus for simultaneous transmission of optic signals having different wavelengths over a single optic fiber. Multiple light signals are transmitted through optic fibers that are formed into a circumference surrounding a central core fiber. The multiple light signals are directed by a lens into a single receiving fiber where the light combines and is then focused into the central core fiber which transmits the light to a wavelength discriminating receiver assembly.

    20. System for testing optical fibers

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Golob, John E. [Olathe, KS; Looney, Larry D. [Los Alamos, NM; Lyons, Peter B. [Los Alamos, NM; Nelson, Melvin A. [Santa Barbara, CA; Davies, Terence J. [Santa Barbara, CA

      1980-07-15

      A system for measuring a combination of optical transmission properties of fiber optic waveguides. A polarized light pulse probe is injected into one end of the optical fiber. Reflections from discontinuities within the fiber are unpolarized whereas reflections of the probe pulse incident to its injection remain polarized. The polarized reflections are prevented from reaching a light detector whereas reflections from the discontinuities reaches the detector.

    1. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: Part I. Water and solute movement

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Bern, Carleton R.; Breit, George N.; Healy, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.; Hammack, Richard

      2013-02-01

      Water co-produced with coal-bed methane (CBM) in the semi-arid Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana commonly has relatively low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios that can degrade soil permeability where used for irrigation. Nevertheless, a desire to derive beneficial use from the water and a need to dispose of large volumes of it have motivated the design of a deep subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system capable of utilizing that water. Drip tubing is buried 92 cm deep and irrigates at a relatively constant rate year-round, while evapotranspiration by the alfalfa and grass crops grown is seasonal. We use field data from two sites and computer simulations of unsaturated flow to understand water and solute movements in the SDI fields. Combined irrigation and precipitation exceed potential evapotranspiration by 300480 mm annually. Initially, excess water contributes to increased storage in the unsaturated zone, and then drainage causes cyclical rises in the water table beneath the fields. Native chloride and nitrate below 200 cm depth are leached by the drainage. Some CBM water moves upward from the drip tubing, drawn by drier conditions above. Chloride from CBM water accumulates there as root uptake removes the water. Year over year accumulations indicated by computer simulations illustrate that infiltration of precipitation water from the surface only partially leaches such accumulations away. Field data show that 7% and 27% of added chloride has accumulated above the drip tubing in an alfalfa and grass field, respectively, following 6 years of irrigation. Maximum chloride concentrations in the alfalfa field are around 45 cm depth but reach the surface in parts of the grass field, illustrating differences driven by crop physiology. Deep SDI offers a means of utilizing marginal quality irrigation waters and managing the accumulation of their associated solutes in the crop rooting zone.

    2. Sandia Energy - Sensors & Optical Diagnostics

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      & Optical Diagnostics Home CRF Permalink Gallery CRF Article Chosen by The Journal of Chemical Physics to Commemorate 80th Anniversary CRF, Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events,...

    3. Low noise optical position sensor

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Spear, J.D.

      1999-03-09

      A novel optical position sensor is described that uses two component photodiodes electrically connected in parallel, with opposing polarities. A lens provides optical gain and restricts the acceptance angle of the detector. The response of the device to displacements of an optical spot is similar to that of a conventional bi-cell type position sensitive detector. However, the component photodiode design enables simpler electronic amplification with inherently less electrical noise than the bi-cell. Measurements by the sensor of the pointing noise of a focused helium-neon laser as a function of frequency demonstrate high sensitivity and suitability for optical probe beam deflection experiments. 14 figs.

    4. Low noise optical position sensor

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Spear, Jonathan David

      1999-01-01

      A novel optical position sensor is described that uses two component photodiodes electrically connected in parallel, with opposing polarities. A lens provides optical gain and restricts the acceptance angle of the detector. The response of the device to displacements of an optical spot is similar to that of a conventional bi-cell type position sensitive detector. However, the component photodiode design enables simpler electronic amplification with inherently less electrical noise than the bi-cell. Measurements by the sensor of the pointing noise of a focused helium-neon laser as a function of frequency demonstrate high sensitivity and suitability for optical probe beam deflection experiments.

    5. Optically stimulated differential impedance spectroscopy

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Maxey, Lonnie C; Parks, II, James E; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A; Partridge, Jr., William P

      2014-02-18

      Methods and apparatuses for evaluating a material are described. Embodiments typically involve use of an impedance measurement sensor to measure the impedance of a sample of the material under at least two different states of illumination. The states of illumination may include (a) substantially no optical stimulation, (b) substantial optical stimulation, (c) optical stimulation at a first wavelength of light, (d) optical stimulation at a second wavelength of light, (e) a first level of light intensity, and (f) a second level of light intensity. Typically a difference in impedance between the impedance of the sample at the two states of illumination is measured to determine a characteristic of the material.

    6. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

      1991-05-21

      A compact and portable diffraction grating maker is comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate. 4 figures.

    7. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Deason, Vance A.; Ward, Michael B.

      1991-01-01

      A compact and portable diffraction grating maker comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate.

    8. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      Salmon, Mississippi, Site, Water Sampling Location Map .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

    9. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Surface Water Quality Data Equipment Blank Data ...

    10. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      .........1 Water Sampling Locations at the Rulison, .........3 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

    11. Design and manufacturing of complex optics: the dragonfly eye optic.

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Claudet, Andre A.; Sweatt, William C.; Hodges, V. Carter; Adams, David Price; Gill, David Dennis; Vasile, Michael J.

      2006-01-01

      The ''Design and Manufacturing of Complex Optics'' LDRD sought to develop new advanced methods for the design and manufacturing of very complex optical systems. The project team developed methods for including manufacturability into optical designs and also researched extensions of manufacturing techniques to meet the challenging needs of aspherical, 3D, multi-level lenslet arrays on non-planar surfaces. In order to confirm the applicability of the developed techniques, the team chose the Dragonfly Eye optic as a testbed. This optic has arrays of aspherical micro-lenslets on both the exterior and the interior of a 4mm diameter hemispherical shell. Manufacturing of the dragonfly eye required new methods of plunge milling aspherical optics and the development of a method to create the milling tools using focused ion beam milling. The team showed the ability to create aspherical concave milling tools which will have great significance to the optical industry. A prototype dragonfly eye exterior was created during the research, and the methods of including manufacturability in the optical design process were shown to be successful as well.

    12. Gulf of Mexico pipelines heading into deeper waters

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      True, W.R.

      1987-06-08

      Pipeline construction for Gulf of Mexico federal waters is following drilling and production operations into deeper waters, according to U.S. Department of Interior (DOI) Minerals Management Service (MMS) records. Review of MMS 5-year data for three water depth categories (0-300 ft, 300-600 ft, and deeper than 600 ft) reveals this trend in Gulf of Mexico pipeline construction. Comparisons are shown between pipeline construction applications that were approved by the MMS during this period and projects that have been reported to the MMS as completed. This article is the first of annual updates of MMS gulf pipeline data. Future installments will track construction patterns in water depths, diameter classifications, and mileage. These figures will also be evaluated in terms of pipeline-construction cost data.

    13. Systems and methods that generate height map models for efficient three dimensional reconstruction from depth information

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Frahm, Jan-Michael; Pollefeys, Marc Andre Leon; Gallup, David Robert

      2015-12-08

      Methods of generating a three dimensional representation of an object in a reference plane from a depth map including distances from a reference point to pixels in an image of the object taken from a reference point. Weights are assigned to respective voxels in a three dimensional grid along rays extending from the reference point through the pixels in the image based on the distances in the depth map from the reference point to the respective pixels, and a height map including an array of height values in the reference plane is formed based on the assigned weights. An n-layer height map may be constructed by generating a probabilistic occupancy grid for the voxels and forming an n-dimensional height map comprising an array of layer height values in the reference plane based on the probabilistic occupancy grid.

    14. Effect of Ion Skin Depth on Relaxation of Merging Spheromaks to a Field-Reversed Configuration

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Kawamori, Eiichirou; Ono, Yasushi

      2005-08-19

      The effect of ion skin depth on the relaxation of merging spheromaks to a field-reversed configuration (FRC) is studied experimentally for a wide range of size parameter S* (ratio of minor radius to ion skin depth) from 1 to 7. The two merging spheromaks are observed to relax to an FRC or a new spheromak depending on whether the initial poloidal eigenvalue is smaller or larger than a threshold value. The bifurcation value is found to increase with decreasing size parameter S{sup *}, indicating that the low-S* condition provides a wide bifurcated range of relaxation to an FRC. The FRC-style relaxation under the low-S* conditions was accompanied by the suppression of the low-n modes (n is the toroidal mode number) activity. The fast rotations of the modes were followed by suppression of the low-n modes.

    15. Surface hardening of titanium alloys with melting depth controlled by heat sink

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Oden, Laurance L.; Turner, Paul C.

      1995-01-01

      A process for forming a hard surface coating on titanium alloys includes providing a piece of material containing titanium having at least a portion of one surface to be hardened. The piece having a portion of a surface to be hardened is contacted on the backside by a suitable heat sink such that the melting depth of said surface to be hardened may be controlled. A hardening material is then deposited as a slurry. Alternate methods of deposition include flame, arc, or plasma spraying, electrodeposition, vapor deposition, or any other deposition method known by those skilled in the art. The surface to be hardened is then selectively melted to the desired depth, dependent on the desired coating thickness, such that a molten pool is formed of the piece surface and the deposited hardening material. Upon cooling a hardened surface is formed.

    16. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Sopori, Bhushan L.

      2014-08-05

      An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

    17. NREL Takes First In-Depth Look at Solar Project Completion Timelines - News

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Releases | NREL Takes First In-Depth Look at Solar Project Completion Timelines Report examines new data to show how long the PV interconnection process takes in the U.S. February 11, 2015 The Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has gathered and analyzed data for more than 30,000 solar photovoltaic (PV) installations across the United States to better understand how interconnection regulations align with actual project completion timelines. The findings indicate

    18. Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings J. Woods, J. Winkler, and D. Christensen National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-57441 January 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401

    19. Small-angle Compton Scattering to Determine the Depth of a Radioactive Source in Matter

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Oberer, R. B.; Gunn, C. A.; Chiang, L. G.; Valiga, R. E.; Cantrell, J. A.

      2011-04-01

      A gamma-ray peak in a spectrum is often accompanied by a discontinuity in the Compton continuum at the peak. The Compton continuum results from Compton scattering in the detector. The discontinuity at a peak results from small-angle Compton scattering by the gamma rays in matter situated directly between the gamma-ray source and the detector. The magnitude of this discontinuity with respect to the gamma-ray peak is therefore an indicator of the amount of material or shielding between the gamma-ray source and the detector. This small-angle scattering was used to determine the depth of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) solution standards in a concrete floor mockup. The empirical results of the use of this small-angle scattering discontinuity in a concrete floor experiment will be described. A Monte Carlo calculation of the experiment will also be described. In addition, the depth determined from small-angle scattering was used in conjunction with differential attenuation to more accurately measure the uranium content of the mockup. Following these empirical results, the theory of small-angle scattering will be discussed. The magnitude of the discontinuity compared to the peak count rate is directly related to the depth of the gamma-ray source in matter. This relation can be described by relatively simple mathematical expressions. This is the first instance that we are aware of in which the small-angle Compton scattering has been used to determine the depth of a radioactive source. Furthermore this is the first development of the theoretical expressions for the magnitude of the small-angle scattering discontinuity.

    20. Multilayer optical dielectric coating

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Emmett, John L.

      1990-01-01

      A highly damage resistant, multilayer, optical reflective coating includes alternating layers of doped and undoped dielectric material. The doping levels are low enough that there are no distinct interfaces between the doped and undoped layers so that the coating has properties nearly identical to the undoped material. The coating is fabricated at high temperature with plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques to eliminate defects, reduce energy-absorption sites, and maintain proper chemical stoichiometry. A number of differently-doped layer pairs, each layer having a thickness equal to one-quarter of a predetermined wavelength in the material are combined to form a narrowband reflective coating for a predetermined wavelength. Broadband reflectors are made by using a number of narrowband reflectors, each covering a portion of the broadband.

    1. Bevalac external beamline optics

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

      1987-04-01

      This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested.

    2. Integrated optical sensor

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Watkins, Arthur D.; Smartt, Herschel B.; Taylor, Paul L.

      1994-01-01

      An integrated optical sensor for arc welding having multifunction feedback control. The sensor, comprising generally a CCD camera and diode laser, is positioned behind the arc torch for measuring weld pool position and width, standoff distance, and post-weld centerline cooling rate. Computer process information from this sensor is passed to a controlling computer for use in feedback control loops to aid in the control of the welding process. Weld pool position and width are used in a feedback loop, by the weld controller, to track the weld pool relative to the weld joint. Sensor standoff distance is used in a feedback loop to control the contact tip to base metal distance during the welding process. Cooling rate information is used to determine the final metallurgical state of the weld bead and heat affected zone, thereby controlling post-weld mechanical properties.

    3. Integrated optical sensor

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Watkins, A.D.; Smartt, H.B.; Taylor, P.L.

      1994-01-04

      An integrated optical sensor for arc welding having multifunction feedback control is described. The sensor, comprising generally a CCD camera and diode laser, is positioned behind the arc torch for measuring weld pool position and width, standoff distance, and post-weld centerline cooling rate. Computer process information from this sensor is passed to a controlling computer for use in feedback control loops to aid in the control of the welding process. Weld pool position and width are used in a feedback loop, by the weld controller, to track the weld pool relative to the weld joint. Sensor standoff distance is used in a feedback loop to control the contact tip to base metal distance during the welding process. Cooling rate information is used to determine the final metallurgical state of the weld bead and heat affected zone, thereby controlling post-weld mechanical properties. 6 figures.

    4. Optically transduced MEMS magnetometer

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Nielson, Gregory N; Langlois, Eric

      2014-03-18

      MEMS magnetometers with optically transduced resonator displacement are described herein. Improved sensitivity, crosstalk reduction, and extended dynamic range may be achieved with devices including a deflectable resonator suspended from the support, a first grating extending from the support and disposed over the resonator, a pair of drive electrodes to drive an alternating current through the resonator, and a second grating in the resonator overlapping the first grating to form a multi-layer grating having apertures that vary dimensionally in response to deflection occurring as the resonator mechanically resonates in a plane parallel to the first grating in the presence of a magnetic field as a function of the Lorentz force resulting from the alternating current. A plurality of such multi-layer gratings may be disposed across a length of the resonator to provide greater dynamic range and/or accommodate fabrication tolerances.

    5. Fluorescent optical position sensor

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Weiss, Jonathan D.

      2005-11-15

      A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

    6. Method for the depth corrected detection of ionizing events from a co-planar grids sensor

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Carini, Gabriella

      2009-05-12

      A method for the detection of ionizing events utilizing a co-planar grids sensor comprising a semiconductor substrate, cathode electrode, collecting grid and non-collecting grid. The semiconductor substrate is sensitive to ionizing radiation. A voltage less than 0 Volts is applied to the cathode electrode. A voltage greater than the voltage applied to the cathode is applied to the non-collecting grid. A voltage greater than the voltage applied to the non-collecting grid is applied to the collecting grid. The collecting grid and the non-collecting grid are summed and subtracted creating a sum and difference respectively. The difference and sum are divided creating a ratio. A gain coefficient factor for each depth (distance between the ionizing event and the collecting grid) is determined, whereby the difference between the collecting electrode and the non-collecting electrode multiplied by the corresponding gain coefficient is the depth corrected energy of an ionizing event. Therefore, the energy of each ionizing event is the difference between the collecting grid and the non-collecting grid multiplied by the corresponding gain coefficient. The depth of the ionizing event can also be determined from the ratio.

    7. STARSPOTS-TRANSIT DEPTH RELATION OF THE EVAPORATING PLANET CANDIDATE KIC 12557548b

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Kawahara, Hajime; Kurosaki, Kenji; Ito, Yuichi; Ikoma, Masahiro; Hirano, Teruyuki

      2013-10-10

      Violent variation of transit depths and an ingress-egress asymmetry of the transit light curve discovered in KIC 12557548 have been interpreted as evidence of a catastrophic evaporation of atmosphere with dust ( M-dot {sub p}?>1 M{sub ?} Gyr{sup 1}) from a close-in small planet. To explore what drives the anomalous atmospheric escape, we perform time-series analysis of the transit depth variation of Kepler archival data for ?3.5 yr. We find a ?30% periodic variation of the transit depth with P {sub 1} = 22.83 0.21 days, which is within the error of the rotation period of the host star estimated using the light curve modulation, P {sub rot} = 22.91 0.24 days. We interpret the results as evidence that the atmospheric escape of KIC 12557548b correlates with stellar activity. We consider possible scenarios that account for both the mass loss rate and the correlation with stellar activity. X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV)-driven evaporation is possible if one accepts a relatively high XUV flux and a high efficiency for converting the input energy to the kinetic energy of the atmosphere. Star-planet magnetic interaction is another possible scenario, though huge uncertainty remains for the mass loss rate.

    8. Letter Report: Borehole Flow and Horizontal Hydraulic Conductivity with Depth at Well ER-12-4

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Phil L. Oberlander; Charles E. Russell

      2005-12-31

      Borehole flow and fluid temperature during pumping were measured at well ER-12-4 at the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. This well was constructed to characterize the carbonate aquifer. The well is cased from land surface to the total depth at 1,132 m (3,713 ft bgs) below ground surface (bgs). The screened section of the well consists of alternating sections of slotted well screen and blank casing from 948 to 1,132 m bgs (3,111 to 3,713 ft bgs). Borehole flow velocity (LT-1) with depth was measured with an impeller flowmeter from the top of the screened section to the maximum accessible depth while the well was pumped and under ambient conditions. A complicating factor to data interpretation is that the well was not filter packed and there is upward and downward vertical flow in the open annulus under ambient and pumping conditions. The open annulus in the well casing likely causes the calculated borehole flow rates being highly nonrepresentative of inflow from the formation. Hydraulic conductivities calculated under these conditions would require unsupportable assumptions and would be subject to very large uncertainties. Borehole hydraulic conductivities are not presented under these conditions.

    9. Monolithic fiber optic sensor assembly

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Sanders, Scott

      2015-02-10

      A remote sensor element for spectrographic measurements employs a monolithic assembly of one or two fiber optics to two optical elements separated by a supporting structure to allow the flow of gases or particulates therebetween. In a preferred embodiment, the sensor element components are fused ceramic to resist high temperatures and failure from large temperature changes.

    10. Bi-stable optical actuator

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.

      2000-01-01

      The present invention is a bi-stable optical actuator device that is depowered in both stable positions. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition from one state to another. The optical actuator device may be maintained in a stable position either by gravity or a restraining device.

    11. Semiconductor-based optical refrigerator

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Epstein, Richard I.; Edwards, Bradley C.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

      2002-01-01

      Optical refrigerators using semiconductor material as a cooling medium, with layers of material in close proximity to the cooling medium that carries away heat from the cooling material and preventing radiation trapping. In addition to the use of semiconducting material, the invention can be used with ytterbium-doped glass optical refrigerators.

    12. Optical set-reset latch

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Skogen, Erik J.

      2013-01-29

      An optical set-reset (SR) latch is formed from a first electroabsorption modulator (EAM), a second EAM and a waveguide photodetector (PD) which are arranged in an optical and electrical feedback loop which controls the transmission of light through the first EAM to latch the first EAM in a light-transmissive state in response to a Set light input. A second waveguide PD controls the transmission of light through the second EAM and is used to switch the first EAM to a light-absorptive state in response to a Reset light input provided to the second waveguide PD. The optical SR latch, which may be formed on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate (e.g. an InP or a GaAs substrate) as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC), stores a bit of optical information and has an optical output for the logic state of that bit of information.

    13. Miniature mechanical transfer optical coupler

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Abel, Philip; Watterson, Carl

      2011-02-15

      A miniature mechanical transfer (MT) optical coupler ("MMTOC") for optically connecting a first plurality of optical fibers with at least one other plurality of optical fibers. The MMTOC may comprise a beam splitting element, a plurality of collimating lenses, and a plurality of alignment elements. The MMTOC may optically couple a first plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a first MT connector with a second plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a second MT connector and a third plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a third MT connector. The beam splitting element may allow a portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to pass through to the second plurality of fibers and simultaneously reflect another portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to the third plurality of fibers.

    14. Method of fabricating optical waveguides by ion implantation doping

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Appleton, B.R.; Ashley, P.R.; Buchal, C.J.

      1987-03-24

      A method for fabricating high-quality optical waveguides in optical quality oxide crystals by ion implantation doping and controlled epitaxial recrystallization is provided. Masked LiNbO/sub 3/ crystals are implanted with high concentrations of Ti dopant at ion energies of about 360 keV while maintaining the crystal near liquid nitrogen temperature. Ion implantation doping produces an amorphous, Ti-rich nonequilibrium phase in the implanted region. Subsequent thermal annealing in a water-saturated oxygen atmosphere at up to 1000/degree/C produces solid-phase epitaxial regrowth onto the crystalline substrate. A high-quality crystalline layer results which incorporates the Ti into the crystal structure at much higher concentrations than is possible by standard diffusion techniques, and this implanted region has excellent optical waveguiding properties.

    15. Method of fabricating optical waveguides by ion implantation doping

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Appleton, Bill R.; Ashley, Paul R.; Buchal, Christopher J.

      1989-01-01

      A method for fabricating high-quality optical waveguides in optical quality oxide crystals by ion implantation doping and controlled epitaxial recrystallization is provided. Masked LiNbO.sub.3 crystals are implanted with high concentrations of Ti dopant at ion energies of about 350 keV while maintaining the crystal near liquid nitrogen temperature. Ion implantation doping produces an amorphous, Ti-rich nonequilibrium phase in the implanted region. Subsequent thermal annealing in a water-saturated oxygen atmosphere at up to 1000.degree. C. produces solid-phase epitaxial regrowth onto the crystalline substrate. A high-quality single crystalline layer results which incorporates the Ti into the crystal structure at much higher concentrations than is possible by standard diffusion techniques, and this implanted region has excellent optical waveguides properties.

    16. The role of lanthanides in optical materials

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Weber, M.J.

      1995-05-01

      A survey is presented of the use of the lanthanides as chemical components in transmitting optical materials and as activators in materials for luminescent, electro-optic, magneto-optic, and various photosensitive applications.

    17. Southwest conference on optics. SPIE volume 540

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Not Available

      1985-01-01

      These proceedings are organized into the following sections: 1.) General papers; 2.) Invited papers; 3.) Optical components, materials and design; 3.) Lasers and laser systems; 4.) Spectroscopic applications; 5.) Applications of optics; 6.) Optics along the Rio Grande Research Corridor.

    18. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on steelhead survival in air-supersaturated water

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Knittel, M.D.; Chapman, G.A.; Garton, R.R.

      1980-11-01

      Juvenile steelheads (Salmo gairdneri) were placed in cages and suspended at various depths in water supersaturated with air at levels from 120 to 140% of normal atmospheric gas pressure. Survival times of fish held at 10, 50, and 100 cm depth increased with increasing depth at a given level of supersaturation. When the hydrostatic pressure (7.4 mm Hg per 10 cm of water depth) was subtracted from the excess gas pressure (relative to surface barometric pressure) mortality curves (times to 50% mortality versus excess gas pressure) for fish at all three depths essentially coincided. The significant measure of supersaturation appears to be the pressure of dissolved gases in excess of the sum of barometric and hydrostatic pressures. Steelheads held near the surface in supersaturated water for a near-lethal period and then lowered to a depth providing total hydrostatic compensation appeared to recover completely in about 2 hours. The longer fish remained at depth, the longer their survival time when they subsequently were reexposed to surface conditions.

    19. Polyhedral integrated and free space optical interconnection

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Erteza, Ireena A.

      1998-01-01

      An optical communication system uses holographic optical elements to provide guided wave and non-guided communication, resulting in high bandwidth, high connectivity optical communications. Holograms within holographic optical elements route optical signals between elements and between nodes connected to elements. Angular and wavelength multiplexing allow the elements to provide high connectivity. The combination of guided and non-guided communication allows compact polyhedral system geometries. Guided wave communications provided by multiplexed substrate-mode holographic optical elements eases system alignment.

    20. Polyhedral integrated and free space optical interconnection

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Erteza, I.A.

      1998-01-06

      An optical communication system uses holographic optical elements to provide guided wave and non-guided communication, resulting in high bandwidth, high connectivity optical communications. Holograms within holographic optical elements route optical signals between elements and between nodes connected to elements. Angular and wavelength multiplexing allow the elements to provide high connectivity. The combination of guided and non-guided communication allows compact polyhedral system geometries. Guided wave communications provided by multiplexed substrate-mode holographic optical elements eases system alignment. 7 figs.

    1. Forecasting Water Quality & Biodiversity

      Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

      Forecasting Water Quality & Biodiversity March 25, 2015 Cross-cutting Sustainability ... that measure feedstock production, water quality, water quantity, and biodiversity. ...

    2. Efficient Water Use & Management

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy ...

    3. Efficient Water Use & Management

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy...

    4. Photosynthetic water oxidation versus photovoltaic water electrolysis

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Center News Research Highlights Center Research News Media about Center Center Video Library Bisfuel Picture Gallery Photosynthetic water oxidation versus photovoltaic water ...

    5. Power inverter with optical isolation

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Duncan, Paul G.; Schroeder, John Alan

      2005-12-06

      An optically isolated power electronic power conversion circuit that includes an input electrical power source, a heat pipe, a power electronic switch or plurality of interconnected power electronic switches, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the input power source, a mechanism for connecting comprising an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or input bus bars, an optically isolated drive circuit connected to the switch, a heat sink assembly upon which the power electronic switch or switches is mounted, an output load, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the output load, the mechanism for connecting including an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or output bus bars, at least one a fiber optic temperature sensor mounted on the heat sink assembly, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar, and at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar.

    6. Method of lightening radiation darkened optical elements

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Reich, Frederich R.; Schwankoff, Albert R.

      1980-01-01

      A method of lightening a radiation-darkened optical element in wich visible optical energy or electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the range of from about 2000 to about 20,000 angstroms is directed into the radiation-darkened optical element; the method may be used to lighten radiation-darkened optical element in-situ during the use of the optical element to transmit data by electronically separating the optical energy from the optical output by frequency filtering, data cooling, or interlacing the optic energy between data intervals.

    7. Influence of optically quenched superconductivity on quasiparticle...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      Influence of optically quenched superconductivity on quasiparticle relaxation rates in Bi ... Title: Influence of optically quenched superconductivity on quasiparticle relaxation rates ...

    8. Visualizing Individual Carbon Nanotubes with Optical Microscopy...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      Published Article: Visualizing Individual Carbon Nanotubes with Optical Microscopy Title: Visualizing Individual Carbon Nanotubes with Optical Microscopy Authors: Novak, Michael A. ...

    9. Optical Magnetism from Dielectric Resonator Metamaterials. (Conference...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      Optical Magnetism from Dielectric Resonator Metamaterials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical Magnetism from Dielectric Resonator Metamaterials. Abstract not ...

    10. Microfabricated Optical Compressive Load Sensors (Conference...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      Microfabricated Optical Compressive Load Sensors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microfabricated Optical Compressive Load Sensors Authors: Cole, G D ; Lin, K L ; ...

    11. Chameleon Optics Inc | Open Energy Information

      Open Energy Info (EERE)

      Chameleon Optics Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Chameleon Optics Inc Place: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Zip: PA 19104 Sector: Wind energy Product: Has invented low-cost,...

    12. Metasurface optical antireflection coating (Journal Article)...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      at the boundary of two different media is one of the fundamental phenomena in optics, and reduction of reflection is highly desirable in many optical systems....

    13. Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments Authors: ...

    14. Optical Society of America (OSA) Fellows

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      in optics and photonics. Since 1916, OSA has worked to bring together scientists, engineers, educators, technicians and business leaders in the fields of optics and photonics. ...

    15. Fiber optic temperature sensor

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Rabold, D.

      1995-12-01

      Our fiber optic temperature measurement sensor and system is a major improvement over methods currently in use in most industrial processes, and it delivers all of the attributes required simplicity, accuracy, and cost efficiency-to help improve all of these processes. Because temperature is a basic physical attribute of nearly every industrial and commercial process, our system can eventually result in significant improvements in nearly every industrial and commercial process. Many finished goods, and the materials that go into them, are critically dependent on the temperature. The better the temperature measurement, the better quality the goods will be and the more economically they can be produced. The production and transmission of energy requires the monitoring of temperature in motors, circuit breakers, power generating plants, and transmission line equipment. The more reliable and robust the methods for measuring these temperature, the more available, stable, and affordable the supply of energy will become. The world is increasingly realizing the threats to health and safety of toxic or otherwise undesirable by products of the industrial economy in the environment. Cleanup of such contamination often depends on techniques that require the constant monitoring of temperature in extremely hazardous environments, which can damage most conventional temperature sensors and which are dangerous for operating personnel. Our system makes such monitoring safer and more economical.

    16. Polyplanar optical display electronics

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      DeSanto, L.; Biscardi, C.

      1997-07-01

      The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD{trademark} chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. The authors discuss the operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with various video formats (CVBS, Y/C or S-video and RGB) including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.

    17. Optical and magneto-optical studies of martensitic transformation...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      Magneto-optical spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry were measured in the sample temperature range from 297 to 373 K and photon energy range from 1.2 to 6.5 eV. ...

    18. Thin-film optical initiator

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Erickson, Kenneth L.

      2001-01-01

      A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film. The resultant thin-film optical initiator system also comprises a fiber-optic cable connected to a low-energy laser source, an output charge, and an initiator housing. The reactive thin film, which may contain very thin embedded layers or be a co-deposit of a light-absorbing material such as carbon, absorbs the incident laser light, is volumetrically heated, and explodes against the output charge, imparting about 5 to 20 times more energy than in the incident laser pulse.

    19. Optic probe for semiconductor characterization

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Sopori, Bhushan L.; Hambarian, Artak

      2008-09-02

      Described herein is an optical probe (120) for use in characterizing surface defects in wafers, such as semiconductor wafers. The optical probe (120) detects laser light reflected from the surface (124) of the wafer (106) within various ranges of angles. Characteristics of defects in the surface (124) of the wafer (106) are determined based on the amount of reflected laser light detected in each of the ranges of angles. Additionally, a wafer characterization system (100) is described that includes the described optical probe (120).

    20. Optical switches and switching methods

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Doty, Michael

      2008-03-04

      A device and method for collecting subject responses, particularly during magnetic imaging experiments and testing using a method such as functional MRI. The device comprises a non-metallic input device which is coupled via fiber optic cables to a computer or other data collection device. One or more optical switches transmit the subject's responses. The input device keeps the subject's fingers comfortably aligned with the switches by partially immobilizing the forearm, wrist, and/or hand of the subject. Also a robust nonmetallic switch, particularly for use with the input device and methods for optical switching.

    1. Terahertz wave electro-optic measurements with optical spectral filtering

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Ilyakov, I. E. Shishkin, B. V.; Kitaeva, G. Kh.; Akhmedzhanov, R. A.

      2015-03-23

      We propose electro-optic detection techniques based on variations of the laser pulse spectrum induced during pulse co-propagation with terahertz wave radiation in a nonlinear crystal. Quantitative comparison with two other detection methods is made. Substantial improvement of the sensitivity compared to the standard electro-optic detection technique (at high frequencies) and to the previously shown technique based on laser pulse energy changes is demonstrated in experiment.

    2. Observed damage during Argon gas cluster depth profiles of compound semiconductors

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Barlow, Anders J. Portoles, Jose F.; Cumpson, Peter J.

      2014-08-07

      Argon Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) sources have become very popular in XPS and SIMS in recent years, due to the minimal chemical damage they introduce in the depth-profiling of polymer and other organic materials. These GCIB sources are therefore particularly useful for depth-profiling polymer and organic materials, but also (though more slowly) the surfaces of inorganic materials such as semiconductors, due to the lower roughness expected in cluster ion sputtering compared to that introduced by monatomic ions. We have examined experimentally a set of five compound semiconductors, cadmium telluride (CdTe), gallium arsenide (GaAs), gallium phosphide (GaP), indium arsenide (InAs), and zinc selenide (ZnSe) and a high-? dielectric material, hafnium oxide (HfO), in their response to argon cluster profiling. An experimentally determined HfO etch rate of 0.025?nm/min (3.95??10{sup ?2}?amu/atom in ion) for 6?keV Ar gas clusters is used in the depth scale conversion for the profiles of the semiconductor materials. The assumption has been that, since the damage introduced into polymer materials is low, even though sputter yields are high, then there is little likelihood of damaging inorganic materials at all with cluster ions. This seems true in most cases; however, in this work, we report for the first time that this damage can in fact be very significant in the case of InAs, causing the formation of metallic indium that is readily visible even to the naked eye.

    3. Results of Hg speciation testing on tanks 30, 32, and 37 depth samples

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Bannochie, C. J.

      2015-11-30

      The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. in Seattle, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Task Team. The twelfth shipment of samples was designated to include 3H evaporator system Tank 30, 32, and 37 depth samples. The Tank 30 depth sample (HTF-30-15-70) was taken at 190 inches from the tank bottom and the Tank 32 depth sample (HTF-32-15-68) was taken at 89 inches from the tank bottom and both were shipped to SRNL on June 29, 2015 in an 80 mL stainless steel dip bottles. The Tank 37 surface sample (HTF-37-15-94) was taken around 253.4 inches from the tank bottom and shipped to SRNL on July 21, 2015 in an 80 mL stainless steel dip bottle. All samples were placed in the SRNL Shielded Cells and left unopened until intermediate dilutions were made on July 24, 2015 using 1.00 mL of sample diluted to 100.00 mL with deionized H2O. A 30 mL Teflon® bottle was rinsed twice with the diluted tank sample and then filled leaving as little headspace as possible. It was immediately removed from the Shielded Cells and transferred to refrigerated storage where it remained at 4 °C until final dilutions were made on October 20. A second portion of the cells diluted tank sample was poured into a shielded polyethylene bottle and transferred to Analytical Development for radiochemical analysis data needed for Hazardous Material Transportation calculations.

    4. A microwave resonator for limiting depth sensitivity for electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of surfaces

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Sidabras, Jason W.; Varanasi, Shiv K.; Hyde, James S.; Mett, Richard R.; Swarts, Steven G.; Swartz, Harold M.

      2014-10-15

      A microwave Surface Resonator Array (SRA) structure is described for use in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The SRA has a series of anti-parallel transmission line modes that provides a region of sensitivity equal to the cross-sectional area times its depth sensitivity, which is approximately half the distance between the transmission line centers. It is shown that the quarter-wave twin-lead transmission line can be a useful element for design of microwave resonators at frequencies as high as 10 GHz. The SRA geometry is presented as a novel resonator for use in surface spectroscopy where the region of interest is either surrounded by lossy material, or the spectroscopist wishes to minimize signal from surrounding materials. One such application is in vivo spectroscopy of human finger-nails at X-band (9.5 GHz) to measure ionizing radiation dosages. In order to reduce losses associated with tissues beneath the nail that yield no EPR signal, the SRA structure is designed to limit depth sensitivity to the thickness of the fingernail. Another application, due to the resonator geometry and limited depth penetration, is surface spectroscopy in coating or material science. To test this application, a spectrum of 1.44 μM of Mg{sup 2+} doped polystyrene 1.1 mm thick on an aluminum surface is obtained. Modeling, design, and simulations were performed using Wolfram Mathematica (Champaign, IL; v. 9.0) and Ansys High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS; Canonsburg, PA; v. 15.0). A micro-strip coupling circuit is designed to suppress unwanted modes and provide a balanced impedance transformation to a 50 Ω coaxial input. Agreement between simulated and experimental results is shown.

    5. Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Woods, J.; Winkler, J.; Christensen, D.

      2013-01-01

      This study examines the effective moisture penetration depth (EMPD) model, and its suitability for building simulations. The EMPD model is a compromise between the simple, inaccurate effective capacitance approach and the complex, yet accurate, finite-difference approach. Two formulations of the EMPD model were examined, including the model used in the EnergyPlus building simulation software. An error in the EMPD model we uncovered was fixed with the release of EnergyPlus version 7.2, and the EMPD model in earlier versions of EnergyPlus should not be used.

    6. Apparatus for in-situ calibration of instruments that measure fluid depth

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Campbell, Melvin D.

      1994-01-01

      The present invention provides a method and apparatus for in-situ calibration of distance measuring equipment. The method comprises obtaining a first distance measurement in a first location, then obtaining at least one other distance measurement in at least one other location of a precisely known distance from the first location, and calculating a calibration constant. The method is applied specifically to calculating a calibration constant for obtaining fluid level and embodied in an apparatus using a pressure transducer and a spacer of precisely known length. The calibration constant is used to calculate the depth of a fluid from subsequent single pressure measurements at any submerged position.

    7. Apparatus for in-situ calibration of instruments that measure fluid depth

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Campbell, M.D.

      1994-01-11

      The present invention provides a method and apparatus for in-situ calibration of distance measuring equipment. The method comprises obtaining a first distance measurement in a first location, then obtaining at least one other distance measurement in at least one other location of a precisely known distance from the first location, and calculating a calibration constant. The method is applied specifically to calculating a calibration constant for obtaining fluid level and embodied in an apparatus using a pressure transducer and a spacer of precisely known length. The calibration constant is used to calculate the depth of a fluid from subsequent single pressure measurements at any submerged position. 8 figures.

    8. Engineering optical soliton bistability in colloidal media

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Matuszewski, Michal

      2010-01-15

      We consider a mixture consisting of two species of spherical nanoparticles dispersed in a liquid medium. We show that with an appropriate choice of refractive indices and particle diameters, it is possible to observe the phenomenon of optical soliton bistability in two spatial dimensions in a broad beam power range. Previously, this possibility was ruled out in the case of a single-species colloid. As a particular example, we consider the system of hydrophilic silica particles and gas bubbles generated in the process of electrolysis in water. The interaction of two soliton beams can lead to switching of the lower branch solitons to the upper branch, and the interaction of solitons from different branches is phase independent and always repulsive.

    9. Optical analog-to-digital converter

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Vawter, G. Allen; Raring, James; Skogen, Erik J.

      2009-07-21

      An optical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is disclosed which converts an input optical analog signal to an output optical digital signal at a sampling rate defined by a sampling optical signal. Each bit of the digital representation is separately determined using an optical waveguide interferometer and an optical thresholding element. The interferometer uses the optical analog signal and the sampling optical signal to generate a sinusoidally-varying output signal using cross-phase-modulation (XPM) or a photocurrent generated from the optical analog signal. The sinusoidally-varying output signal is then digitized by the thresholding element, which includes a saturable absorber or at least one semiconductor optical amplifier, to form the optical digital signal which can be output either in parallel or serially.

    10. Birefringence imaging in biological tissue using polarization sensitive optical coherent tomography

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      De Boer, Johannes F.; Milner, Thomas E.; Nelson, J. Stuart

      2001-01-01

      Employing a low coherence Michelson interferometer, two dimensional images of optical birefringence in turbid samples as a function of depth are measured. Polarization sensitive detection of the signal formed by interference of backscattered light from the sample and a mirror or reference plane in the reference arm which defines a reference optical path length, give the optical phase delay between light propagating along the fast and slow axes of the birefringence sample. Images showing the change in birefringence in response to irradiation of the sample are produced as an example of the detection apparatus and methodology. The technique allow rapid, noncontact investigation of tissue or sample diagnostic imaging for various medical or materials procedures.

    11. Optical ionization detector (Patent) | DOEPatents

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. ...

    12. Scintillator fiber optic long counter

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      McCollum, Tom; Spector, Garry B.

      1994-01-01

      A flat response position sensitive neutron detector capable of providing neutron spectroscopic data utilizing scintillator fiber optic filaments embedded in a neutron moderating housing having an open end through which neutrons enter to be detected.

    13. Scintillator fiber optic long counter

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      McCollum, T.; Spector, G.B.

      1994-03-29

      A flat response position sensitive neutron detector capable of providing neutron spectroscopic data utilizing scintillator fiber optic filaments embedded in a neutron moderating housing having an open end through which neutrons enter to be detected is described. 11 figures.

    14. Ion optics of RHIC EBIS

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Pikin, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Kponou, A.; Okamura, M.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Tan, Y.; Kuznetsov, G.

      2011-09-10

      RHIC EBIS has been commissioned to operate as a versatile ion source on RHIC injection facility supplying ion species from He to Au for Booster. Except for light gaseous elements RHIC EBIS employs ion injection from several external primary ion sources. With electrostatic optics fast switching from one ion species to another can be done on a pulse to pulse mode. The design of an ion optical structure and the results of simulations for different ion species are presented. In the choice of optical elements special attention was paid to spherical aberrations for high-current space charge dominated ion beams. The combination of a gridded lens and a magnet lens in LEBT provides flexibility of optical control for a wide range of ion species to satisfy acceptance parameters of RFQ. The results of ion transmission measurements are presented.

    15. Waters LANL Protects

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Waters LANL Protects Waters LANL Protects LANL watersheds source in the Jemez Mountains and end at the Rio Grande.

    16. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      4 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites .........7 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

    17. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      and Surface Water Sampling at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site August 2014 LMSGRN.........7 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

    18. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      .........7 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Static Water Level Data Time-Concentration Graphs ...

    19. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      and May 2014 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal .........9 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

    20. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site October 2014 LMSRBLS00514 .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

    1. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site November 2014 LMS.........3 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

    2. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      .........9 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Data Durango Processing Site Surface Water Quality Data Equipment Blank Data Static ...

    3. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      .........3 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Surface Water Quality Data Natural Gas Analysis Data ...

    4. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Static Water Level Data Hydrographs Time-Concentration ...

    5. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Static Water Level Data Hydrograph Time-Concentration ...

    6. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      5 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site October 2015 LMS.........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

    7. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Surface Water Quality Data Time-Concentration Graph ...

    8. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Processing Site July 2015 LMSMNT.........7 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

    9. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Quality Data Equipment Blank Data Static Water Level Data Time-Concentration Graphs ...

    10. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Static Water Level Data Time-Concentration Graphs ...

    11. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site .........9 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

    12. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site October 2015 LMSRBLS00515 .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

    13. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      5 Produced Water Sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site May 2015 LMSRULS00115 Available .........3 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

    14. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site December 2013 .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

    15. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      Produced Water Sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site January 2016 LMSRULS00915 .........3 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

    16. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      3 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site .........7 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

    17. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      July 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

    18. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Processing Site July 2014 LMSMNT.........7 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

    19. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      3 Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Processing Site January 2014 LMSMNTS01013 This .........7 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

    20. September 2004 Water Sampling

      Office of Legacy Management (LM)

      and Surface Water Sampling at the Naturita, Colorado Processing Site October 2013 LMSNAP.........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...