Optical Rain Gauge and Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Comparisons
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Disdrometer and Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Handbook
Bartholomew. MJ
2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Distromet disdrometer model RD-80 and NovaLynx tipping bucket rain gauge model 260-2500E-12 are two devices deployed a few meters apart to measure the character and amount of liquid precipitation. The main purpose of the disdrometer is to measure drop size distribution, which it does over 20 size classes from 0.3 mm to 5.4 mm. The data from both instruments can be used to determine rain rate. The disdrometer results can also be used to infer several properties including drop number density, radar reflectivity, liquid water content, and energy flux. Two coefficients, N0 and ?, from an exponential fit between drop diameter and drop number density, are routinely calculated. Data are collected once a minute. The instruments make completely different kinds of measurements. Rain that falls on the disdrometer sensor moves a plunger on a vertical axis. The disdrometer transforms the plunger motion into electrical impulses whose strength is proportional to drop diameter. The rain gauge is the conventional tipping bucket type. Each tip collects an amount equivalent to 0.01 in. of water, and each tip is counted by a data acquisition system anchored by a Campbell CR1000 data logger.
Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MacArthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.
1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z
A heat flux gauge is disclosed comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. 9 figures.
Wood, Billy E. (Livermore, CA); Groves, Scott E. (Brentwood, CA); Larsen, Greg J. (Brentwood, CA); Sanchez, Roberto J. (Pleasanton, CA)
2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z
A lightweight, small size, high sensitivity gauge for indirectly measuring displacement or absolute gap width by measuring axial strain in an orthogonal direction to the displacement/gap width. The gap gauge includes a preferably titanium base having a central tension bar with springs connecting opposite ends of the tension bar to a pair of end connector bars, and an elongated bow spring connected to the end connector bars with a middle section bowed away from the base to define a gap. The bow spring is capable of producing an axial strain in the base proportional to a displacement of the middle section in a direction orthogonal to the base. And a strain sensor, such as a Fabry-Perot interferometer strain sensor, is connected to measure the axial strain in the base, so that the displacement of the middle section may be indirectly determined from the measurement of the axial strain in the base.
Optical Abelian Lattice Gauge Theories
L. Tagliacozzo; A. Celi; A. Zamora; M. Lewenstein
2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss a general framework for the realization of a family of abelian lattice gauge theories, i.e., link models or gauge magnets, in optical lattices. We analyze the properties of these models that make them suitable to quantum simulations. Within this class, we study in detail the phases of a U(1)-invariant lattice gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions originally proposed by Orland. By using exact diagonalization, we extract the low-energy states for small lattices, up to 4x4. We confirm that the model has two phases, with the confined entangled one characterized by strings wrapping around the whole lattice. We explain how to study larger lattices by using either tensor network techniques or digital quantum simulations with Rydberg atoms loaded in optical lattices where we discuss in detail a protocol for the preparation of the ground state. We also comment on the relation between standard compact U(1) LGT and the model considered.
Comparing TRMM rainfall retrieval with NOAA buoy rain gauge data
Phillips, Amy Blackmore
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
to December of 2001. TRMM's 3G68 product provides instantaneous rain rate data averaged over 0.5? x 0.5? latitude-longitude grid boxes for the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI), Precipitation Radar (PR), and a combined algorithm (COMB). The buoy's rain rate data...
An analysis of radar estimated precipitation to rain gauge measurements
Gleason, Byron Edward
1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
the surface. These levels included 1.0 1.5@ 2.0 @ 2.5 km, and 3.0 km. Radar precipitation estimates were calculated at each 1.4 2 level using Z = 30ORand Z = 25OR" . The precipitation amounts, as measured by both the gauges and the radar,were used...
DeMoss, Jeremy
2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z
in precipitation retrievals from the satellite data alone. We estimate changes in TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and the Precipitation Radar (PR) precipitation retrievals due to the orbit boost by comparing them with surface rain gauges on ocean buoys operated...
Dynamic optical properties in graphene: Length versus velocity gauge
Dong, H. M.; Han, K., E-mail: han6409@263.net [Department of Physics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Xu, W. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China)
2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
The dynamic optical properties of graphene are theoretically investigated in both length gauge and velocity gauge in the presence of ultrafast optical radiation field. The two gauges present different results of dynamic photo-induced carriers and optical conductance due to distinct dependencies on electric field and non-resonant optical absorption, while the two gauges give identical results in the steady state time. It shows that the choice of gauge affects evidently the dynamic optical properties of graphene. The velocity gauge represents an outcome of a real physical experiment.
Optically generated gauge potentials and their effects in cold atoms.
Song, Jianjun
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
??Recent theoretical studies show the possibility of generating optical gauge potentials in neutral atoms using laser beams carrying orbital angular momentum. This is interesting not… (more)
DOE/SC-ARM/TR-079 Disdrometer and Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phases onOrganizationElectronic Reading2Q)38232 Revision 1SC609935 ACRF13
Fiber-optic strain gauge with attached ends and unattached microbend section
Weiss, J.D.
1992-07-21T23:59:59.000Z
A strain gauge is made of an optical fiber into which quasi-sinusoidal microbends have been permanently introduced. The permanent microbends cause a reduction in the fiber's optical transmission, but, when the gauge is attached to a substrate that is subsequently strained, the amplitude of the deformations will diminish and the optical transmission through the fiber will increase. An apparatus and process for manufacturing these microbends into the optical fiber through a heat-set process is employed; this apparatus and process includes a testing and calibration system. 5 figs.
Quantum Simulations of Lattice Gauge Theories using Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices
Erez Zohar; J. Ignacio Cirac; Benni Reznik
2015-03-08T23:59:59.000Z
Can high energy physics can be simulated by low-energy, nonrelativistic, many-body systems, such as ultracold atoms? Such ultracold atomic systems lack the type of symmetries and dynamical properties of high energy physics models: in particular, they manifest neither local gauge invariance nor Lorentz invariance, which are crucial properties of the quantum field theories which are the building blocks of the standard model of elementary particles. However, it turns out, surprisingly, that there are ways to configure atomic system to manifest both local gauge invariance and Lorentz invariance. In particular, local gauge invariance can arise either as an effective, low energy, symmetry, or as an "exact" symmetry, following from the conservation laws in atomic interactions. Hence, one could hope that such quantum simulators may lead to new type of (table-top) experiments, that shall be used to study various QCD phenomena, as the con?nement of dynamical quarks, phase transitions, and other effects, which are inaccessible using the currently known computational methods. In this report, we review the Hamiltonian formulation of lattice gauge theories, and then describe our recent progress in constructing quantum simulation of Abelian and non-Abelian lattice gauge theories in 1 + 1 and 2 + 1 dimensions using ultracold atoms in optical lattices.
Quantum Simulations of Lattice Gauge Theories using Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices
Zohar, Erez; Reznik, Benni
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Can high energy physics can be simulated by low-energy, nonrelativistic, many-body systems, such as ultracold atoms? Such ultracold atomic systems lack the type of symmetries and dynamical properties of high energy physics models: in particular, they manifest neither local gauge invariance nor Lorentz invariance, which are crucial properties of the quantum field theories which are the building blocks of the standard model of elementary particles. However, it turns out, surprisingly, that there are ways to configure atomic system to manifest both local gauge invariance and Lorentz invariance. In particular, local gauge invariance can arise either as an effective, low energy, symmetry, or as an "exact" symmetry, following from the conservation laws in atomic interactions. Hence, one could hope that such quantum simulators may lead to new type of (table-top) experiments, that shall be used to study various QCD phenomena, as the con?nement of dynamical quarks, phase transitions, and other effects, which are inacc...
Turner, R.S.
1990-12-05T23:59:59.000Z
The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.
Nelson, D.A.; Tomich, S.D.; Glover, D.W.; Allen, E.V.; Hales, J.M.; Dana, M.T.
1991-05-14T23:59:59.000Z
The present invention constitutes a rain sampling device adapted for independent operation at locations remote from the user which allows rainfall to be sampled in accordance with any schedule desired by the user. The rain sampling device includes a mechanism for directing wet precipitation into a chamber, a chamber for temporarily holding the precipitation during the process of collection, a valve mechanism for controllably releasing samples of the precipitation from the chamber, a means for distributing the samples released from the holding chamber into vessels adapted for permanently retaining these samples, and an electrical mechanism for regulating the operation of the device. 11 figures.
Nelson, Danny A. (Richland, WA); Tomich, Stanley D. (Richland, WA); Glover, Donald W. (Prosser, WA); Allen, Errol V. (Benton City, WA); Hales, Jeremy M. (Kennewick, WA); Dana, Marshall T. (Richland, WA)
1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The present invention constitutes a rain sampling device adapted for independent operation at locations remote from the user which allows rainfall to be sampled in accordance with any schedule desired by the user. The rain sampling device includes a mechanism for directing wet precipitation into a chamber, a chamber for temporarily holding the precipitation during the process of collection, a valve mechanism for controllably releasing samples of said precipitation from said chamber, a means for distributing the samples released from the holding chamber into vessels adapted for permanently retaining these samples, and an electrical mechanism for regulating the operation of the device.
Supercinski, Danielle
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
and Water Commission, Culberson County Underground Water District and county officials to install a 2,500-gallon rainwater harvesting tank at the Culberson County Courthouse. West Texas Rain Rainwater harvesting demonstration sites save water and money... (Above Left) One of the three rainwater harvesting demonstrations is located at the Culberson County Courthouse in Van Horn. This 2,500-gallon tank has been installed to catch and store the rainwater. (Above Right) Landscape irrigation using...
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Not Available
1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A report is given of an address by Kathleen Bennett, Assistant Administrator of Air, Noise and Radiation, Environmental Protection Agency which was presented to the US Senate Committee on the Environment and Public Works. Bennet explained that in view of the many unknowns about acid rain, and the possible substantial cost burden of additional controls, EPA is proceeding with its program to investigate this environmental malady over a 10-year period. The three major areas of the research program are (1) transport, transformation, and deposition processes, (2) effects of acid deposition, and (3) assessments and policy studies. Other issues discussed were global transboundary air pollution and Senate amendments addressing long-range transport. (JMT)
Jack Rains | Y-12 National Security Complex
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Controlling acid rain : policy issues
Fay, James A.
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The policy and regulatory ramifications of U.S. acid rain control programs are examined; particularly, the alternative of a receptor-oriented strategy as constrasted to emission-oriented proposals (e.g., the Mitchell bill) ...
Betts, Robert E. (Huntsville, AL); Crawford, John F. (Huntsville, AL)
1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.
CHAPTER 13. ACID RAIN Acid rain was discovered in the 19th century by Robert Angus
Jacob, Daniel J.
247 CHAPTER 13. ACID RAIN Acid rain was discovered in the 19th century by Robert Angus Smith, a pharmacist from Manchester (England), who measured high levels of acidity in rain falling over industrial decline of fish populations in the lakes of southern Norway and traced the problem to acid rain. Similar
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Acid rain information book. Draft final report
None
1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Acid rain is one of the most widely publicized environmental issues of the day. The potential consequences of increasingly widespread acid rain demand that this phenomenon be carefully evaluated. Reveiw of the literature shows a rapidly growing body of knowledge, but also reveals major gaps in understanding that need to be narrowed. This document discusses major aspects of the acid rain phenomenon, points out areas of uncertainty, and summarizes current and projected research by responsible government agencies and other concerned organizations.
Sparks, William Joseph
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
fire, a woodchip flaring in his cupped palm as he passed. A fireman had come out after Brusher from the entrance of the fire temple across the way. The king summarily returned the enchanted wave of the man-boy, whose longish face became doubly...
WHAT IS A RAIN BARREL? A rain barrel is any type of container used to catch
Blanchette, Robert A.
or pet consumption. Â· Due to lack of research data, water collected in a rain barrel is not recommended
acid rain controls: Topics by E-print Network
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66 4 2012318 Soon It's Gonna Rain Biotechnology Websites Summary: 4 2012318 NO1. Soon It's Gonna Rain As climate warms, the atmosphere holds more moisture, and increased...
acid rain control: Topics by E-print Network
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66 4 2012318 Soon It's Gonna Rain Biotechnology Websites Summary: 4 2012318 NO1. Soon It's Gonna Rain As climate warms, the atmosphere holds more moisture, and increased...
Modelling and Simulating of Rain Derivatives
Modelling and Simulating of Rain Derivatives Master thesis Cathrin van Emmerich Supervisor, Februar 2005 Cathrin van Emmerich i #12;Table of Contents Table of Contents ii 1 Introduction 1 2
Long range transport of acid rain precursors
Fay, James A.
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A model of the long range transport of primary and secondary pollutants derived by Fay and Rosenzweig (1) is applied to the problem of the transport of acid rain precursors. The model describes the long term average (annual ...
E-Print Network 3.0 - acid rain compliance Sample Search Results
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produces salt and water. 2. Acid rain... is rain that is slightly acidic due to pollution in the air. Acid rain greatly affects the ecosystems... is acid ... Source:...
High temperature pressure gauge
Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)
1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.
acid rain research: Topics by E-print Network
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in rain falling over industrial decline of fish populations in the lakes of southern Norway and traced the problem to acid rain. Similar Jacob, Daniel J. 5 Long range transport...
CONDENSATION OF CHONDRULES: CONDITIONS FOR "FIERY RAIN".
Grossman, Lawrence
CONDENSATION OF CHONDRULES: CONDITIONS FOR "FIERY RAIN". L. Grossman1,2 and A. V. Fedkin1 . 1 Dept little Na condenses above the solidus, and Na2O contents of most chondrules plot above Na2O was condensed at near-liquidus temperatures. In the context of melting chondrule precursors, we showed that Na
Nie, Congling
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
??Using co-located space-borne satellite (TRMM PR, ESCAT on ERS 1/2) measurements, and numerical predicted wind fields (ECMWF), the sensitivity of C-band backscatter measurement to rain… (more)
Original article Effect of simulated acid rain on mycorrhizae
Boyer, Edmond
Original article Effect of simulated acid rain on mycorrhizae of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis in the three experiments. In substrata of neutro-basic pH, short-term exposures to acid rain positively affected ectomycorrhizal fungi, in parti- cular, Suillus species. acid rain / mycorrhizae / pH / Pinus
International negotiations on acid rains in Northern Europe
Toint, Philippe
International negotiations on acid rains in Northern Europe: a discrete time iterative process by M on acid rains in Northern Europe: a discrete time iterative process \\Lambda Marc Germain y Philippe L is provided by Kaitala et al. (1995) in the context of the ``acid rain game'' in Northern Europe, that is
Aldrovandi, R.; Pereira, J.G.
1986-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Because it acts on space-time and is not semisimple, the Poincare group cannot lead to a gauge theory of the usual kind. A candidate model is discussed which keeps itself as close as possible to the typical gauge scheme. Its field equations are the Yang-Mills equations for the Poincare group. It is shown that there exists no Lagrangian for these equations.
Pietro Silvi; Enrique Rico; Tommaso Calarco; Simone Montangero
2014-10-12T23:59:59.000Z
We present a unified framework to describe lattice gauge theories by means of tensor networks: this framework is efficient as it exploits the high amount of local symmetry content native of these systems describing only the gauge invariant subspace. Compared to a standard tensor network description, the gauge invariant one allows to speed-up real and imaginary time evolution of a factor that is up to the square of the dimension of the link variable. The gauge invariant tensor network description is based on the quantum link formulation, a compact and intuitive formulation for gauge theories on the lattice, and it is alternative to and can be combined with the global symmetric tensor network description. We present some paradigmatic examples that show how this architecture might be used to describe the physics of condensed matter and high-energy physics systems. Finally, we present a cellular automata analysis which estimates the gauge invariant Hilbert space dimension as a function of the number of lattice sites and that might guide the search for effective simplified models of complex theories.
The greenhouse effect and acid rain
Traeger, R.K.
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides and chlorofluorocarbons is increasing in the earth's atmosphere. Increased concentrations of these trace gases could lead to global warming, increased acid rain and increased UV radiation on the earth's surface; however, the actual impacts are still uncertain and are also the subject of great debate. Application of clean'' energy sources such as geothermal are obviously desirable for decreasing these effects and improving our overall general environment. This paper briefly summarizes the global environment concerns, providing a backdrop for the following papers which describe the geothermal role in future environmental considerations. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Robert B. Raines | National Nuclear Security Administration
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Rain Machine (Solar Still) | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L dDepartment ofList? |Energy 4/113 ofDepartment of EnergyRain
Gauge Invariance and Holographic Renormalization
Keun-Young Kim; Kyung Kiu Kim; Yunseok Seo; Sang-Jin Sin
2015-02-07T23:59:59.000Z
We study the gauge invariance of physical observables in holographic theories under the local diffeomorphism. We find that gauge invariance is intimately related to the holographic renormalisation: the local counter terms defined in the boundary cancel most of gauge dependences of the on-shell action as well as the divergences. However, there still remain gauge dependent pieces in the on-shell action under some residual gauge transformation, while the equations of motion are invariant. We prove the invariance of the Green's functions under this residual gauge symmetry in the context of constructing numerical solutions by which all related AC transports are computed simultaneously.
Zygmunt Lalak; Stefan Pokorski; Krzysztof Turzynski
2008-08-18T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate O'Raifeartaigh-type models for F-term supersymmetry breaking in gauge mediation scenarios in the presence of gravity. It is pointed out that the vacuum structure of those models is such that in metastable vacua gravity mediation contribution to scalar masses is always suppressed to the level below 1 percent, almost sufficient for avoiding FCNC problem. Close to that limit, gravitino mass can be in the range 10-100 GeV, opening several interesting possibilities for gauge mediation models, including Giudice-Masiero mechanism for mu and Bmu generation. Gravity sector can include stabilized moduli.
Giulio Bonelli; Kazunobu Maruyoshi; Alessandro Tanzini
2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
We study N=2 supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theories coupled to non-Lagrangian superconformal field theories induced by compactifying the six dimensional A_1 (2,0) theory on Riemann surfaces with irregular punctures. These are naturally associated to Hitchin systems with wild ramification whose spectral curves provide the relevant Seiberg-Witten geometries. We propose that the prepotential of these gauge theories on the Omega-background can be obtained from the corresponding irregular conformal blocks on the Riemann surfaces via a generalization of the coherent state construction to the case of higher order singularities.
Cloud Computing: Rain-Clouds System
Harinder Kaur
Abstract — Cloud Computing is the on demand service can be provided to the users at any time. It delivers the software, data access, computing as a service rather than the product. The Cloud application simplifies the computing technology by providing pay-per-use customer relationship. It is the theory that familiar to cheaper devices with low processing power, lower storage capacities, great flexibility and many more things. The security of cloud computing is a major factor as users store sensitive and confidential information with cloud storage providers. The range of these providers may be un trusted and harmful. The purpose of adopting cloud computing in an organization is to decide between a „public cloud ? and „private cloud ? by means of privacy. Public clouds often known as provider clouds are administrated by third parties and services are offered on pay-per-use basis. Private clouds or internal clouds are owned by the single firm but it has some metrics such as lacking of availability of services (such as memory, server) and network resources which leads it to down. Due to this, technology moves toward the concept of “Multi clouds ” or “Rain Clouds”. This paper displays the use of multi-clouds or rain clouds due to its ability to handle the huge amount of data traffic that affect the cloud computing user.
Chiral Gauge Theory for Graphene
R. Jackiw; S. -Y. Pi
2007-05-04T23:59:59.000Z
We construct a chiral gauge theory to describe fractionalization of fermions in graphene. Thereby we extend a recently proposed model, which relies on vortex formation. Our chiral gauge fields provide dynamics for the vortices and also couple to the fermions.
PRODUCTION OF RAIN-FED ALFALFA S. Dennis Cash1
Maxwell, Bruce D.
PRODUCTION OF RAIN-FED ALFALFA S. Dennis Cash1 and David M. Wichman2 ABSTRACT Dryland (rain alfalfa is minor compared to the acreage of native or tame pastures, and the overall production of irrigated alfalfa in this region. However, for ranchers in areas that receive significant snowpack, dryland
E-Print Network 3.0 - acid rain effects Sample Search Results
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of Mexican Mayan monuments. Ingenieria... eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dis- solves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes... Autonomous University of...
Computer modeling of piezoresistive gauges
Nutt, G. L.; Hallquist, J. O.
1981-08-07T23:59:59.000Z
A computer model of a piezoresistive gauge subject to shock loading is developed. The time-dependent two-dimensional response of the gauge is calculated. The stress and strain components of the gauge are determined assuming elastic-plastic material properties. The model is compared with experiment for four cases. An ytterbium foil gauge in a PPMA medum subjected to a 0.5 Gp plane shock wave, where the gauge is presented to the shock with its flat surface both parallel and perpendicular to the front. A similar comparison is made for a manganin foil subjected to a 2.7 Gp shock. The signals are compared also with a calibration equation derived with the gauge and medium properties accounted for but with the assumption that the gauge is in stress equilibrium with the shocked medium.
Infrared Maximally Abelian Gauge
Tereza Mendes; Attilio Cucchieri; Antonio Mihara
2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
The confinement scenario in Maximally Abelian gauge (MAG) is based on the concepts of Abelian dominance and of dual superconductivity. Recently, several groups pointed out the possible existence in MAG of ghost and gluon condensates with mass dimension 2, which in turn should influence the infrared behavior of ghost and gluon propagators. We present preliminary results for the first lattice numerical study of the ghost propagator and of ghost condensation for pure SU(2) theory in the MAG.
Quantization of gauge fields in gauges involving extra ghosts
Henneaux, M.
1983-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
Nielsen's recently proposed quantization rules, with gauge-fixing terms of the form F/sub a/..gamma../sup ab/F/sub b//2..cap alpha.., where ..gamma../sup a/b is field dependent, are shown to lead to an S matrix which is both unitary and gauge independent. The demonstration relies on the canonical form of the path integral.
Relation between hydrogen isotopic ratios of bone collagen and rain
Cormie, A.B.; Schwarcz, H.P. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)); Gray, J. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The hydrogen isotopic value ([delta]D) of deer bone collagen is related to both [delta]D of rain during the growing season and growing season relative humidity (RH). With correction for the effects of RH, bone [delta]D is related to growing season rain [delta]D in a simple manner with a slope of 1.0. This indicates that, with RH correction, there are no additional sources of bias in the [delta]D of bone due to unaccounted for biologic or climatic effects. Due to a low sensitivity of bone [delta]D to RH effects, both yearly and growing season rain [delta]D can be estimated with considerable accuracy (R = 0.97 and R = 0.96) from bone collagen [delta]D and [delta][sup 15]N. Here, [delta][sup 15]N is used to correct bone [delta]D for the effects of RH. From these estimates of rain [delta]D, it may then be possible to evaluate temperature since the [delta]D of rain primarily reflects local temperature. Therefore, the measurement of bone collagen [delta]D has good potential for evaluating paleoclimates.
Gauge invariant hydrogen atom Hamiltonian
Wei-Min Sun; Xiang-Song Chen; Xiao-Fu Lu; Fan Wang
2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z
For quantum mechanics of a charged particle in a classical external electromagnetic field, there is an apparent puzzle that the matrix element of the canonical momentum and Hamiltonian operators is gauge dependent. A resolution to this puzzle is recently provided by us in [2]. Based on the separation of the electromagnetic potential into pure gauge and gauge invariant parts, we have proposed a new set of momentum and Hamiltonian operators which satisfy both the requirement of gauge invariance and the relevant commutation relations. In this paper we report a check for the case of the hydrogen atom problem: Starting from the Hamiltonian of the coupled electron, proton and electromagnetic field, under the infinite proton mass approximation, we derive the gauge invariant hydrogen atom Hamiltonian and verify explicitly that this Hamiltonian is different from the Dirac Hamiltonian, which is the time translation generator of the system. The gauge invariant Hamiltonian is the energy operator, whose eigenvalue is the energy of the hydrogen atom. It is generally time-dependent. In this case, one can solve the energy eigenvalue equation at any specific instant of time. It is shown that the energy eigenvalues are gauge independent, and by suitably choosing the phase factor of the time-dependent eigenfunction, one can ensure that the time-dependent eigenfunction satisfies the Dirac equation.
Remote high-temperature insulatorless heat-flux gauge
Noel, B.W.
1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z
A remote optical heat-flux gauge for use in extremely high temperature environments is described. This application is possible because of the use of thermographic phosphors as the sensing media, and the omission of the need for an intervening layer of insulator between phosphor layers. The gauge has no electrical leads, but is interrogated with ultraviolet or laser light. The luminescence emitted by the two phosphor layers, which is indicative of the temperature of the layers, is collected and analyzed in order to determine the heat flux incident on the surface being investigated. The two layers of thermographic phosphor must be of different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. Spatial heat-flux measurements can be made by scanning the light across the surface of the gauge. 3 figures.
Remote high-temperature insulatorless heat-flux gauge
Noel, Bruce W. (Espanola, NM)
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A remote optical heat-flux gauge for use in extremely high temperature environments is described. This application is possible because of the use of thermographic phosphors as the sensing media, and the omission of the need for an intervening layer of insulator between phosphor layers. The gauge has no electrical leads, but is interrogated with ultraviolet or laser light. The luminescence emitted by the two phosphor layers, which is indicative of the temperature of the layers, is collected and analyzed in order to determine the heat flux incident on the surface being investigated. The two layers of thermographic phosphor must be of different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. Spatial heat-flux measurements can be made by scanning the light across the surface of the gauge.
ENRAF gauge reference level calculations
Huber, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford
1997-02-06T23:59:59.000Z
This document describes the method for calculating reference levels for Enraf Series 854 Level Detectors as installed in the tank farms. The reference level calculation for each installed level gauge is contained herein.
Gauge theory webs and surfaces
Ozan Erdo?an; George Sterman
2015-01-29T23:59:59.000Z
We analyze the perturbative cusp and closed polygons of Wilson lines for massless gauge theories in coordinate space, and express them as exponentials of two-dimensional integrals. These integrals have geometric interpretations, which link renormalization scales with invariant distances.
3D N = 4 Gauge Theory Compactication
Bigelow, Stephen
Outline 3D N = 4 Gauge Theory Compactication Twistors 3D N = 4 Supersymmetric Gauge Theories and HyperkÂ¨ahler Metrics Richard Eager UCSB Friday, October 17th, 2008, 4:00 p.m. Richard Eager UCSB 3D N = 4 Supersymmetric Gauge Theories and HyperkÂ¨ahler M #12;Outline 3D N = 4 Gauge Theory Compactication Twistors
Compatibility of radial, Lorenz and harmonic gauges
Elena Magliaro; Claudio Perini; Carlo Rovelli
2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z
We observe that the radial gauge can be consistently imposed \\emph{together} with the Lorenz gauge in Maxwell theory, and with the harmonic traceless gauge in linearized general relativity. This simple observation has relevance for some recent developments in quantum gravity where the radial gauge is implicitly utilized.
.............................................................................................. 6 RAIN SENSOR BACKGROUND Additional Rain Sensors within the UBC Irrigation System Michael Thiessen, Chelsie Drysdale University of Installing Additional Rain Sensors within the UBC Irrigation System A Business Case Analysis Prepared for: Dr
Building Gauge Theories: The Natural Way
C. A. Garcia Canal; F. A. Schaposnik
2011-10-17T23:59:59.000Z
The construction of a gauge field theory for elementary particles usually starts by promoting global invariance of the matter action to a local one, this in turn implying the introduction of gauge fields. We present here a procedure that runs the other way: starting from the action for gauge fields, matter is gauge invariantly coupled on the basis of Lorentz invariance and charge conservation. This natural approach prevents using the concept of particles separated from gauge fields that mediate interactions.
E-Print Network 3.0 - acid rain information Sample Search Results
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389H)5 389 DIRECT FOLIAR EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN I. DAMAGE, GROWTH... acid rain (pH 5-6, 40, 30 and 2 0) were observed for seedlings of four deciduous tree species...
E-Print Network 3.0 - acid rain researchniva Sample Search Results
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389H)5 389 DIRECT FOLIAR EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN I. DAMAGE, GROWTH... acid rain (pH 5-6, 40, 30 and 2 0) were observed for seedlings of four deciduous tree species...
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389H)5 389 DIRECT FOLIAR EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN I. DAMAGE, GROWTH... acid rain (pH 5-6, 40, 30 and 2 0) were observed for seedlings of four deciduous tree species...
E-Print Network 3.0 - acid rain Sample Search Results
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389H)5 389 DIRECT FOLIAR EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN I. DAMAGE, GROWTH... acid rain (pH 5-6, 40, 30 and 2 0) were observed for seedlings of four deciduous tree species...
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389H)5 389 DIRECT FOLIAR EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN I. DAMAGE, GROWTH... acid rain (pH 5-6, 40, 30 and 2 0) were observed for seedlings of four deciduous tree species...
Atmospheric deposition of ^Be by rain events, in central Argentina
Nacional de San Luis, Universidad
Atmospheric deposition of ^Be by rain events, in central Argentina Juri Ayub, J. , Di Gregorio, B Aplicada San Luis. UniversidadNacional de San Luis - CONICET. Ejercito de los Andes 950. Argentina. 2 Buenos Aires, Argentina 3. Escuela de Cienciay Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin. Martin de
The development of winter hardiness of pine and spruce seedlings in a simulated acid rain experiment
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
The development of winter hardiness of pine and spruce seedlings in a simulated acid rain-April, when the starch grains again appeared (Fig. 4). The exposure to acid rain did not significantly affect.g., Davison and Barnes, 1986; Freer- Smith and Mansfield, 1987). However, the effects of acid rain on conifer
Atmospheric Environment 36 (2002) 503509 Trend of acid rain and neutralization by yellow sand
Atmospheric Environment 36 (2002) 503Â509 Trend of acid rain and neutralization by yellow sand 2001; accepted 11 April 2001 Abstract Acid rain and its neutralization by yellow sand in East Asia were was obtained. Firstly, the trend of the acid rain in East Asia due to the rapid increase of Chinese pollutants
ECOS Inquiries Series -University of Montana Effect of Acid Rain on the Ability of
Brewer, Carol
1 ECOS Inquiries Series - University of Montana Effect of Acid Rain on the Ability of Soil Microbes OF ACID RAIN ON THE ABILITY OF SOIL MICROBES TO DECOMPOSE ORGANIC NITROGEN 3. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES: a ecosystems. One well known example of this is the production of acid rain due to certain air pollutants
Neutralization of soil aerosol and its impact on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia
Neutralization of soil aerosol and its impact on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia. A modified deflation module is designed to provide explicit, and the distribution pattern of acid rain was also altered. The annual mean pH values in northern China and Korea show
Acid rain-the GEGB view G. D. HowellsandA. S. Kallend
Short, Daniel
Acid rain-the GEGB view G. D. HowellsandA. S. Kallend The article by John Franks (CJ'ern. -B conceh wirh acid rain follows thal policy In 1972.when Swedenput hs Case study on acid tain ro rhe United.Leatherhead,Sury Kr22 7SE. to acid rain,which does not justify th6 conlidenceshown by Franks. 'Acid in
An iterative process for international negociations on acid rain in Northern Europe
Toint, Philippe
An iterative process for international negociations on acid rain in Northern Europe using a general 138.48.4.14) #12; An iterative process for international negotiations on acid rain in Northern Europe transboundary pollution problem related to acid rain in Northern Europe. This simulation shows the need
Decrypting gauge-Yukawa cookbooks
Esben Mølgaard
2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z
For many years, theorists have calculated formulas for useful quantities in general gauge-Yukawa theories. However, these cookbooks are often very difficult to use since the general notation is far removed from practical model building. In this paper, we present the structure delta which allows us to use a surprisingly convenient notation that bridges the gap between general gauge-Yukawa theories and specific models. This is particularly useful for the computation of beta functions, but can also be extended to handle spontaneous symmetry breaking, the effective potential and a variety of other quantities. We will introduce it using the standard model of particle physics and a toy model with an SU(N_c) gauge symmetry.
Renormalization in Coulomb gauge QCD
Andrasi, A., E-mail: aandrasi@irb.hr ['Rudjer Boskovic' Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Taylor, John C., E-mail: J.C.Taylor@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Research Highlights: > The Hamiltonian in the Coulomb gauge of QCD contains a non-linear Christ-Lee term. > We investigate the UV divergences from higher order graphs. > We find that they cannot be absorbed by renormalization of the Christ-Lee term. - Abstract: In the Coulomb gauge of QCD, the Hamiltonian contains a non-linear Christ-Lee term, which may alternatively be derived from a careful treatment of ambiguous Feynman integrals at 2-loop order. We investigate how and if UV divergences from higher order graphs can be consistently absorbed by renormalization of the Christ-Lee term. We find that they cannot.
The urban perspectives of acid rain. Workshop summary
Tonn, B.E.
1993-06-04T23:59:59.000Z
This report documents discussions held during a workshop an Urban Perspective of Acid Rain. The workshop was sponsored by the Office of the Director, National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). NAPAP anticipates giving increased emphasis to the benefits in urban areas of emissions reductions. The goal of this informal, exploratory workshop was to serve as a first step towards identifying pollutant monitoring, and research and assessment needs to help answer, from an urban perspective, the two key questions posed to NAPAP by Congress: (1) what are the costs, benefits, and effectiveness of the acid rain control program, and (2) what reductions in deposition, rates are needed in order to prevent adverse effects? The workshop addressed research activities needed to respond to these questions. The discussions focused. sequentially, on data needs, data and model availability, and data and modeling gaps. The discussions concentrated on four areas of effects: human health, materials, urban forests, and visibility.
A General Systems Theory for Rain Formation in Warm Clouds
A. M. Selvam
2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
A cumulus cloud model which can explain the observed characteristics of warm rain formation in monsoon clouds is presented. The model is based on classical statistical physical concepts and satisfies the principle of maximum entropy production. Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal fluctuations that are ubiquitous to all dynamical systems in nature, such as physical, chemical, social, etc and are characterized by inverse power law form for power (eddy energy) spectrum signifying long-range space-time correlations. A general systems theory model for atmospheric flows developed by the author is based on the concept that the large eddy energy is the integrated mean of enclosed turbulent (small scale) eddies. This model gives scale-free universal governing equations for cloud growth processes. The model predicted cloud parameters are in agreement with reported observations, in particular, the cloud dropsize distribution. Rain formation can occur in warm clouds within 30minutes lifetime under favourable conditions of moisture supply in the environment.
Rains County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to: navigation, search RAPIDColoradosource HistoryRaft River SectorRainbow,Rains County,
Multi-step contrast sensitivity gauge
Quintana, Enrico C; Thompson, Kyle R; Moore, David G; Heister, Jack D; Poland, Richard W; Ellegood, John P; Hodges, George K; Prindville, James E
2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z
An X-ray contrast sensitivity gauge is described herein. The contrast sensitivity gauge comprises a plurality of steps of varying thicknesses. Each step in the gauge includes a plurality of recesses of differing depths, wherein the depths are a function of the thickness of their respective step. An X-ray image of the gauge is analyzed to determine a contrast-to-noise ratio of a detector employed to generate the image.
Surveying the Phenomenology of General Gauge Mediation
Linda M. Carpenter
2008-12-11T23:59:59.000Z
I explore the phenomenology, constraints and tuning for several weakly coupled implementations of multi-parameter gauge mediation and compare to minimal gauge mediation. The low energy spectra are distinct from that of minimal gauge mediation, a wide range of NLSPs is found and spectra are significantly compressed thus tunings may be generically reduced to a part in 10 to a part in 20.
Gauge Invariant Spectral Cauchy Characteristic Extraction
Casey J. Handmer; Béla Szilágyi; Jeffrey Winicour
2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z
We present gauge invariant spectral Cauchy characteristic extraction. We compare gravitational waveforms extracted from a head-on black hole merger simulated in two different gauges by two different codes. We show rapid convergence, demonstrating both gauge invariance of the extraction algorithm and consistency between the legacy Pitt null code and the much faster Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC).
Supersymmetric Gauge Theories in 3d
California at Santa Cruz, University of
Supersymmetric Gauge Theories in 3d Nathan Seiberg IAS #12;The Search for Fundamental Physics Dine. 8 #12;Supersymmetric Gauge Theories in 3d Nathan Seiberg IAS Based on work with Aharony, Intriligator, Razamat, and Willett, to appear #12;3d SUSY Gauge Theories Â· New lessons about dynamics
Gauge Configurations for Lattice QCD from The Gauge Connection
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
The Gauge Connection is an experimental archive for lattice QCD and a repository of gauge configurations made freely available to the community. Contributors to the archive include the Columbia QCDSP collaboration, the MILC collaboration, and others. Configurations are stored in QCD archive format, consisting of an ASCII header which defines various parameters, followed by binary data. NERSC has also provided some utilities and examples that will aid users in handling the data. Users may browse the archive, but are required to register for a password in order to download data. Contents of the archive are organized under four broad headings: Quenched (more than 1200 configurations); Dynamical, Zero Temperature (more than 300 configurations); MILC Improved Staggered Asqtad Lattices (more than 7000 configurations); and Dynamical, Finite Temperature (more than 1200 configurations)
Tensor networks for Lattice Gauge Theories and Atomic Quantum Simulation
E. Rico; T. Pichler; M. Dalmonte; P. Zoller; S. Montangero
2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z
We show that gauge invariant quantum link models, Abelian and non-Abelian, can be exactly described in terms of tensor networks states. Quantum link models represent an ideal bridge between high-energy to cold atom physics, as they can be used in cold-atoms in optical lattices to study lattice gauge theories. In this framework, we characterize the phase diagram of a (1+1)-d quantum link version of the Schwinger model in an external classical background electric field: the quantum phase transition from a charge and parity ordered phase with non-zero electric flux to a disordered one with a net zero electric flux configuration is described by the Ising universality class.
Holographic Representation of Higher Spin Gauge Fields
Debajyoti Sarkar; Xiao Xiao
2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z
Extending the results of \\cite{Heem}, \\cite{KLRS} on the holographic representation of local gauge field operators in anti de Sitter space, here we construct the bulk operators for higher spin gauge fields in the leading order of $\\frac{1}{N}$ expansion. Working in holographic gauge for higher spin gauge fields, we show that gauge field operators with integer spin $s>1$ can be represented by an integration over a ball region, which is the interior region of the spacelike bulk lightcone on the boundary. The construction is shown to be AdS-covariant up to gauge transformations, and the two-point function between higher spin gauge fields and boundary higher spin current exhibit singularities on both bulk and boundary lightcones. We also comment on possible extension to the level of three-point functions and carry out a causal construction for higher spin fields in de Sitter spacetime.
E-Print Network 3.0 - african equatorial rain Sample Search Results
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, and K. Walker Painemilla, editors. Hunting and Bushmeat Utilization in the African rain forest... , and the transformation of resource use in Central ... Source: Hardin, Rebecca...
E-Print Network 3.0 - alluvial atlantic rain Sample Search Results
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types of lowland tropical rain forest: alluvial, sandstone hill... , and kerangas (heath) forest. Alluvial soils are more nutrient rich and have higher soil moisture than...
A little rain doesn't fix it: Farmers and ranchers remain cautious as drought continues
Kalisek, Danielle
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A little rain doesn?t fix it Farmers and ranchers remain cautious as drought continues Summer 2012 tx H2O 11 ] Story by Danielle Kalisek Rains in the Brazos Valley early in 2012 helped this grass green up, but more rains are needed now... to help warm-season grasses. Photo by Danielle Kalisek. This might sound like a broken record, but it still rings true: Last year?s drought was historic the worst one-year drought in Texas? history. #31;ough recent rains in some parts of the state...
On the continuum limit of gauge-fixed compact U(1) lattice gauge theory
Subhasish Basak; Asit K De; Tilak Sinha
2003-11-26T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the continuum limit of a compact formulation of the lattice U(1) gauge theory in 4 dimensions using a nonperturbative gauge-fixed regularization. We find clear evidence of a continuous phase transition in the pure gauge theory for all values of the gauge coupling (with gauge symmetry restored). When probed with quenched staggered fermions with U(1) charge, the theory clearly has a chiral transition for large gauge couplings. We identify the only possible region in the parameter space where a continuum limit with nonperturbative physics may appear.
Fluxes, Gaugings and Gaugino Condensates
J. -P. Derendinger; C. Kounnas; P. M. Petropoulos
2006-02-10T23:59:59.000Z
Based on the correspondence between the N = 1 superstring compactifications with fluxes and the N = 4 gauged supergravities, we study effective N = 1 four-dimensional supergravity potentials arising from fluxes and gaugino condensates in the framework of orbifold limits of (generalized) Calabi-Yau compactifications. We give examples in heterotic and type II orientifolds in which combined fluxes and condensates lead to vacua with small supersymmetry breaking scale. We clarify the respective roles of fluxes and condensates in supersymmetry breaking, and analyze the scaling properties of the gravitino mass.
Probing anomalous gauge boson couplings at LEP
Dawson, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Valencia, G. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Physics
1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
We bound anomalous gauge boson couplings using LEP data for the Z {yields} {bar {integral}}{integral} partial widths. We use an effective field theory formalism to compute the one-loop corrections resulting from non-standard model three and four gauge boson vertices. We find that measurements at LEP constrain the three gauge boson couplings at a level comparable to that obtainable at LEPII.
Maps between Deformed and Ordinary Gauge Fields
L. Mesref
2005-04-13T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we introduce a map between the q-deformed gauge fields defined on the GL$_{q}(N) $-covariant quantum hyperplane and the ordinary gauge fields. Perturbative analysis of the q-deformed QED at the classical level is presented and gauge fixing $\\grave{a} $ la BRST is discussed. An other star product defined on the hybrid $(q,h) $% -plane is explicitly constructed .
Influence of concrete fracture on the rain infiltration and thermal performance of building facades
Influence of concrete fracture on the rain infiltration and thermal performance of building facades., Foray G., Roux J.-J., 2013. Influence of concrete fracture on the rain infiltration and thermal is to be accounted for in long-term hygrothermal performance as- sessments of the building envelope. The present work
Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets
Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets David Jon by raindrop impacts. We use high-speed imaging of drop impacts on dry sand to describe the drop (2007), Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets, J
On the infiltration of rain water through the soil with runo# of the excess water
Fasano, Antonio
of drainage networks or other storm water control facilities, especially in urban areas. A complete 3ÂD '' Viale Morgagni 67/A, 50134 Firenze, Italy Abstract This paper deals with the modelling of the rain waterOn the infiltration of rain water through the soil with runo# of the excess water Iacopo Borsi
Smith, Higgin, and Raines Supplementary Data Site-specific folate conjugation to a cytotoxic protein
Raines, Ronald T.
Smith, Higgin, and Raines Supplementary Data ÂS1Â Site-specific folate conjugation to a cytotoxic protein Bryan D. Smith, Joshua J. Higgin, and Ronald T. Raines* Page Contents DNA Synthesis S4 References and Notes S5 1 H NMR Spectrum of Folate Analogue 1 #12;Smith, Higgin
Simultaneous Retreival of Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate using Radar and Radiometer Measurements
Ruf, Christopher
to simultaneously retrieve the vertical profile of precipitation and the near-surface wind speed. ResultsSimultaneous Retreival of Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate using Radar and Radiometer Measurements simultaneously estimates the over ocean near-surface wind speed and rain rate profile using data from a 10.7 GHz
RAIN AND WIND ESTIMATION FROM SEAWINDS IN HURRICANES AT ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION
Long, David G.
function (GMF) which relates wind to backscatter (0 ) is not well understood for extremely high wind speedsRAIN AND WIND ESTIMATION FROM SEAWINDS IN HURRICANES AT ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION Brent A. Williams method for estimating wind and rain in hurricanes from SeaWinds at ultra-high resolution is developed. We
Force measurements in magnetic bearings using fiber optic strain gauges
Raymer, Stephen Geoffrey
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Turbomachinery Laboratory. Two FOSGs were placed approximately 90? apart on two separate poles of one of the bearings, and the strain levels for different load magnitudes and directions were measured. The raw signal has several undesirable attributes...
Energy technology and emissions control for acid rain abatement in Asia
Streets, D.G.
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
After more than ten years of research, acid rain is a sufficiently serious problem in North America to warrant control action. The acid rain problem has become a threat to the Asian continent as well. Emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are already high and announces plans for increases in coal use by countries in the region imply a major increase in emissions in the future. This will inevitably lead to greater incidence of acid rain and probably significant environmental damage in some locations. The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the issues relating to acid-rain-control technology in Asia and to suggest ways to include technology options in integrated simulation models of acid rain in Asia. 14 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs. (FL)
Numerical techniques for lattice gauge theories
Creutz, M.
1981-02-06T23:59:59.000Z
The motivation for formulating gauge theories on a lattice is reviewed. Monte Carlo simulation techniques are then discussed for these systems. Finally, the Monte Carlo methods are combined with renormalization group analysis to give strong numerical evidence for confinement of quarks by non-Abelian gauge fields.
Boson stars from a gauge condensate
V. Dzhunushaliev; K. Myrzakulov; R. Myrzakulov
2006-12-28T23:59:59.000Z
The boson star filled with two interacting scalar fields is investigated. The scalar fields can be considered as a gauge condensate formed by SU(3) gauge field quantized in a non-perturbative manner. The corresponding solution is regular everywhere, has a finite energy and can be considered as a quantum SU(3) version of the Bartnik - McKinnon particle-like solution.
Gauge effects on phase transitions in superconductors
D. V. Shopova; T. E. Tsvetkov; D. I. Uzunov
2007-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
Classic and recent results for gauge effects on the properties of the normal-to-superconducting phase transition in bulk and thin film superconductors are reviewed. Similar problems in the description of other natural systems (liquid crystals, quantum field theory, early universe) are also discussed. The relatively strong gauge effects on the fluctuations of the ordering field at low spatial dimensionality D and, in particular, in thin (quasi-2D) films are considered in details. A special attention is paid to the fluctuations of the gauge field. It is shown that the mechanism in which these gauge fluctuations affect on the order of the phase transition and other phase transition properties varies with the variation of the spatial dimensionality D. The problem for the experimental confirmation of the theoretical predictions about the order of the phase transitions in gauge systems is discussed.
Can (electric-magnetic) duality be gauged?
Bunster, Claudio [Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Henneaux, Marc [Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile); Universite Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)
2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
There exists a formulation of the Maxwell theory in terms of two vector potentials, one electric and one magnetic. The action is then manifestly invariant under electric-magnetic duality transformations, which are rotations in the two-dimensional internal space of the two potentials, and local. We ask the question: Can duality be gauged? The only known and battle-tested method of accomplishing the gauging is the Noether procedure. In its decanted form, it amounts to turning on the coupling by deforming the Abelian gauge group of the free theory, out of whose curvatures the action is built, into a non-Abelian group which becomes the gauge group of the resulting theory. In this article, we show that the method cannot be successfully implemented for electric-magnetic duality. We thus conclude that, unless a radically new idea is introduced, electric-magnetic duality cannot be gauged. The implication of this result for supergravity is briefly discussed.
Can (Electric-Magnetic) Duality Be Gauged?
Claudio Bunster; Marc Henneaux
2014-03-13T23:59:59.000Z
There exists a formulation of the Maxwell theory in terms of two vector potentials, one electric and one magnetic. The action is then manifestly invariant under electric-magnetic duality transformations, which are rotations in the two-dimensional internal space of the two potentials, and local. We ask the question: can duality be gauged? The only known and battled-tested method of accomplishing the gauging is the Noether procedure. In its decanted form, it amounts to turn on the coupling by deforming the abelian gauge group of the free theory, out of whose curvatures the action is built, into a non-abelian group which becomes the gauge group of the resulting theory. In this article, we show that the method cannot be successfully implemented for electric-magnetic duality. We thus conclude that, unless a radically new idea is introduced, electric-magnetic duality cannot be gauged. The implication of this result for supergravity is briefly discussed.
Gauging the cosmic microwave background
J. P. Zibin; Douglas Scott
2008-12-21T23:59:59.000Z
We provide a new derivation of the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and find an exact expression that can be readily expanded perturbatively. Close attention is paid to gauge issues, with the motivation to examine the effect of super-Hubble modes on the CMB. We calculate a transfer function that encodes the behaviour of the dipole, and examine its long-wavelength behaviour. We show that contributions to the dipole from adiabatic super-Hubble modes are strongly suppressed, even in the presence of a cosmological constant, contrary to claims in the literature. We also introduce a naturally defined CMB monopole, which exhibits closely analogous long-wavelength behaviour. We discuss the geometrical origin of this super-Hubble suppression, pointing out that it is a simple reflection of adiabaticity, and hence argue that it will occur regardless of the matter content.
Markus Q. Huber; Reinhard Alkofer; Kai Schwenzer
2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
Functional equations like exact renormalization group and Dyson-Schwinger equations have contributed to a better understanding of non-perturbative phenomena in quantum field theories in terms of the underlying Green functions. In Yang-Mills theory especially the Landau gauge has been used, as it is the most accessible gauge for these methods. The growing understanding obtained in this gauge allows to proceed to other gauges in order to obtain more information about the relation of different realizations of the confinement mechanism. In the maximally Abelian gauge first results are very encouraging as a variant of Abelian infrared dominance is found: The Abelian part of the gauge field propagator is enhanced at low momenta and thereby dominates the dynamics in the infrared. Its role is therefore similar to that of the ghost propagator in the Landau gauge, where one denotes the corresponding phenomenon as ghost dominance. Also the ambiguity of two different types of solutions (decoupling and scaling) exists in both gauges. Here we present how the two solutions are related in the maximally Abelian gauge. The intricacy of the system of functional equations in this gauge required the development of some new tools and methods as, for example, the automated derivation of the equations by the program DoFun. We also present results for linear covariant and ghost anti-ghost symmetric gauges.
Ruf, Christopher
IMPROVED MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING OF HURRICANE WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATES USING THE HURRICANE) that measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track directly beneath the aircraft. This paper presents are presented, which illustrate wind speed and rain rate measurement spatial resolutions and swath coverage. 1
Sigman, Daniel M.
), or nitrate (NO3 Ã? ), is a significant contributor to acid rain, an important species in marineIsotopic evidence for source changes of nitrate in rain at Bermuda Meredith Galanter Hastings O is 68.6% and 76.9% (versus Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water). The few cool season rain events
Rutledge, Steven
information about the rain map cartesian grid and data values of radar reflectivity (dBZ) and rain rate (mm hrSummary of EPIC-2001 Rain Map Files EPIC Rainmap files were generated using all surveillance scans of the surveillance radar scan in UTC. The gif file (1) shows a 1-km height map (CAPPI) of rainfall intensity (mm hr-1
Jiang, Haiyan
Observations and Rain Potential HAIYAN JIANG AND JEFFREY B. HALVERSON Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology 2007) ABSTRACT It has been well known for years that the heavy rain and flooding of tropical cyclones's potential for inland flooding 3Â4 days in advance of landfall. 1. Introduction The combination of rain
The effective action in Coulomb gauge QCD
A. Andrasi; J. C. Taylor
2015-03-29T23:59:59.000Z
At 2-loop order, Feynman integrals in the Coulomb gauge are divergent over the internal energy variables. Nevertheless, it is known how to calculate the effective action provided that the external gluon fields are all transverse. We show that, for the two-gluon Greens function as an example, the method can be extended to include longitudinal external fields. The longitudinal Greens functions appear in the BRST identities. As an intermediate step, we use a flow gauge, which interpolates between the Feynman and Coulomb gauges.
The effective action in Coulomb gauge QCD
A. Andrasi; J. C. Taylor
2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z
At 2-loop order, Feynman integrals in the Coulomb gauge are divergent over the internal energy variables. Nevertheless, it is known how to calculate the effective action provided that the external gluon fields are all transverse. We show that, for the two-gluon Greens function as an example, the method can be extended to include longitudinal external fields. The longitudinal Greens functions appear in the BRST identities. As an intermediate step, we use a flow gauge, which interpolates between the Feynman and Coulomb gauges.
More on the continuum limit of gauge-fixed compact U(1) lattice gauge theory
Asit K. De; Tilak Sinha
2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z
We have verified various proposals that were suggested in our last paper concerning the continuum limit of a compact formulation of the lattice U(1) pure gauge theory in 4 dimensions using a nonperturbative gauge-fixed regularization. Our study reveals that most of the speculations are largely correct. We find clear evidence of a continuous phase transition in the pure gauge theory at "arbitrarily" large couplings. When probed with quenched staggered fermions with U(1) charge, the theory clearly has a chiral transition for large gauge couplings whose intersection with the phase transition in the pure gauge theory continues to be a promising area for nonperturbative physics. We probe the nature of the continuous phase transition by looking at gauge field propagators in the momentum space and locate the region on the critical manifold where free photons can be recovered.
RF/optical shared aperture for high availability wideband communication RF/FSO links
Ruggiero, Anthony J; Pao, Hsueh-yuan; Sargis, Paul
2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z
An RF/Optical shared aperture is capable of transmitting and receiving optical signals and RF signals simultaneously. This technology enables compact wide bandwidth communications systems with 100% availability in clear air turbulence, rain and fog. The functions of an optical telescope and an RF reflector antenna are combined into a single compact package by installing an RF feed at either of the focal points of a modified Gregorian telescope.
The Confinement Problem in Lattice Gauge Theory
Greensite, J.
2003-03-05T23:59:59.000Z
I review investigations of the quark confinement mechanism that have been carried out in the framework of SU(N) lattice gauge theory. The special role of Z(N) center symmetry is emphasized.
Allowance trading activity and state regulatory rulings : evidence from the U.S. Acid Rain Program
Bailey, Elizabeth M.
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The U.S. Acid Rain Program is one of the first, and by far the most extensive, applications of a market based approach to pollution control. From the beginning, there has been concern whether utilities would participate ...
Allowance trading activity and state regulatory rulings : evidence from the U.S. Acid Rain Program
Bailey, Elizabeth M.
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The U.S. Acid Rain Program is one of the first, and by far the most extensive, applications of a market based approach to pollution control. From the beginning, there has been concern whether utilities would participate ...
Acid Rain Program 2 0 0 5 P R O G R E S S R E P O R T
Laughlin, Robert B.
Acid Rain Program 2 0 0 5 P R O G R E S S R E P O R T #12;Acid Rain Program 2005 Progress Report....................................................................................................2 Origins of the Acid Rain Program ................................................................4 Quantifying Costs and Benefits of the Acid Rain Program...........................24 Further National Controls
Higher-Spin Gauge Fields and Duality
D. Francia; C. M. Hull
2005-02-24T23:59:59.000Z
We review the construction of free gauge theories for gauge fields in arbitrary representations of the Lorentz group in $D$ dimensions. We describe the multi-form calculus which gives the natural geometric framework for these theories. We also discuss duality transformations that give different field theory representations of the same physical degrees of freedom, and discuss the example of gravity in $D$ dimensions and its dual realisations in detail.
Noncommutative Gauge Theory with Covariant Star Product
Zet, G. [Physics Department, 'Gh. Asachi' Technical University, 700050 Iasi (Romania)
2010-08-04T23:59:59.000Z
We present a noncommutative gauge theory with covariant star product on a space-time with torsion. In order to obtain the covariant star product one imposes some restrictions on the connection of the space-time. Then, a noncommutative gauge theory is developed applying this product to the case of differential forms. Some comments on the advantages of using a space-time with torsion to describe the gravitational field are also given.
Quantum communication, reference frames and gauge theory
S. J. van Enk
2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z
We consider quantum communication in the case that the communicating parties not only do not share a reference frame but use imperfect quantum communication channels, in that each channel applies some fixed but unknown unitary rotation to each qubit. We discuss similarities and differences between reference frames within that quantum communication model and gauge fields in gauge theory. We generalize the concept of refbits and analyze various quantum communication protocols within the communication model.
Landau gauge condensates from global color model
Zhao Zhang; Wei-qin Zhao
2006-03-23T23:59:59.000Z
We compute the dimension-2 gluon pair condensate $g^2$ and the dimension-4 mixed quark-gluon condensate $$ in Landau gauge within the framework of global color model. The result for the dynamical gluon mass is within the range given by other independent determinations. The obtained mixed Landau gauge condensate $$ is clearly dependent on the definitions of the condensates. We show that the consistent result may be obtained when the same definitions are used.
Harada–Tsutsui gauge recovery procedure: From Abelian gauge anomalies to the Stueckelberg mechanism
Lima, Gabriel Di Lemos Santiago, E-mail: gabriellemos3@hotmail.com
2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
Revisiting a path-integral procedure developed by Harada and Tsutsui for recovering gauge invariance from anomalous effective actions, it is shown that there are two ways to achieve gauge symmetry: one already presented by the authors, which is shown to preserve the anomaly in the sense of standard current conservation law, and another one which is anomaly-free, preserving current conservation. It is also shown that the application of the Harada–Tsutsui technique to other models which are not anomalous but do not exhibit gauge invariance allows the identification of the gauge invariant formulation of the Proca model, also done by the referred authors, with the Stueckelberg model, leading to the interpretation of the gauge invariant map as a generalization of the Stueckelberg mechanism. -- Highlights: • A gauge restoration technique from Abelian anomalous models is discussed. • It is shown that there is another way that leads to gauge symmetry restoration from such technique. • It is shown that the first gauge restoration preserves the anomaly, while the proposed second one is free from anomalies. • It is shown that the proposed gauge symmetry restoration can be identified with the Stueckelberg mechanism.
New Mechanisms of Gauge-Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking
Lisa Randall
1997-06-23T23:59:59.000Z
We review the motivation for Gauge-Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking and discuss some recent advances.
A Higgs Boson Composed of Gauge Bosons
Himpsel, F J
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
It is proposed to replace the Higgs boson of the standard model by a Lorentz- and gauge-invariant combination of SU(2) gauge bosons. A pair of Higgs bosons is identified with pairs of gauge bosons by setting their mass Lagrangians equal to each other. That immediately determines the mass of this composite Higgs boson. It becomes simply half of the vacuum expectation value of the standard Higgs boson and matches the observed mass with tree-level accuracy (2%). The two parameters of the standard Higgs potential are replaced by one-loop self-interactions of the SU(2) gauge bosons. The Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking is generalized from scalars to vectors. The transverse components acquire finite vacuum expectation values which generate masses for the gauge bosons. This concept leads beyond the standard model by enabling calculations of the Higgs mass and its potential without adjustable parameters. It can be applied to non-abelian gauge theories in general, such as grand unified mo...
Choice of Gauge in Quantum Gravity
Petr Hajicek
1999-03-24T23:59:59.000Z
This paper is an extended version of the talk given at 19th Texas Symposium of Relativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology, Paris, 1998. It reviews of some recent work; mathematical details are skipped. It is well-known that a choice of gauge in generally covariant models has a twofold pupose: not only to render the dynamics unique, but also to define the spacetime points. A geometric way of choosing gauge that is not based on coordinate conditions---the so-called covariant gauge fixing---is described. After a covariant gauge fixing, the dynamics is unique and the background manifold points are well-defined, but the description remains invariant with respect to all diffeomorphisms of the background manifold. Transformations between different covariant gauge fixings form the well-known Bergmann-Komar group. Each covariant gauge fixing determines a so-called Kucha\\v{r} decomposition. The construction of the quantum theory is based on the Kucha\\v{r} form of the action and the Dirac method of operator constraints. It is demonstrated that the Bergmann-Komar group is too large to be implementable by unitary maps in the quantum domain.
Integrated Title V/acid rain permits: Transitioning through initial permit issuance and reopenings
Bloomfield, C. [Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States)
1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
Titles IV and V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Act or CAA) created two new stationary source permitting programs, one specific to acid rain (Title IV), and a second for operating permits in general (Title V). The Phase 2 portion of the acid rain program was designed to be implemented through the Title V operating permit program, thereby subjecting all Phase 2 acid rain sources to the requirements of Title V. Permits issued pursuant to Phase 2 of the acid rain program will be viewed as a self-contained portion of the Title V operating permit and will be governed by regulations promulgated under both Title IV and Title V. The requirements imposed by Title IV may not always be consistent with the broader operating permit program requirements of Title V, and when inconsistency occurs, the acid rain requirements will take precedence. This nonalignment will perhaps be most apparent during two stages of initial permitting: (1) the transition period following Title V program approval when permit application, issuance, and effective dates differ between the two programs, and (2) at the point when acid rain permits must be reopened to incorporate Phase 2 NO{sub x} requirements. This paper explores strategies for streamlining implementation of the two programs with particular focus on these two coordination issues.
Morphology of rain water channelization in systematically varied model sandy soils
Y. Wei; C. M. Cejas; R. Barrois; R. Dreyfus; D. J. Durian
2014-03-13T23:59:59.000Z
We visualize the formation of fingered flow in dry model sandy soils under different raining conditions using a quasi-2d experimental set-up, and systematically determine the impact of soil grain diameter and surface wetting property on water channelization phenomenon. The model sandy soils we use are random closely-packed glass beads with varied diameters and surface treatments. For hydrophilic sandy soils, our experiments show that rain water infiltrates into a shallow top layer of soil and creates a horizontal water wetting front that grows downward homogeneously until instabilities occur to form fingered flows. For hydrophobic sandy soils, in contrast, we observe that rain water ponds on the top of soil surface until the hydraulic pressure is strong enough to overcome the capillary repellency of soil and create narrow water channels that penetrate the soil packing. Varying the raindrop impinging speed has little influence on water channel formation. However, varying the rain rate causes significant changes in water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. At a fixed raining condition, we combine the effects of grain diameter and surface hydrophobicity into a single parameter and determine its influence on water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. We also demonstrate the efficiency of several soil water improvement methods that relate to rain water channelization phenomenon, including pre-wetting sandy soils at different level before rainfall, modifying soil surface flatness, and applying superabsorbent hydrogel particles as soil modifiers.
A nanocrystal strain gauge for luminescence detection of mechanical forces
Choi, Charina; Koski, Kristie; Olson, Andrew; Alivisatos, Paul
2010-07-26T23:59:59.000Z
Local microscale stresses play a crucial role in inhomogeneous mechanical processes from cell motility to material failure. However, it remains difficult to spatially resolve stress at these small length scales. While contact-probe and non-contact based techniques have been used to quantify local mechanical behavior in specific systems with high stiffness or stress and spatial resolution, these methods cannot be used to study a majority of micromechanical systems due to spectroscopic and geometrical constraints. We present here the design and implementation of a luminescent nanocrystal strain gauge, the CdSe/CdS core/shell tetrapod. The tetrapod can be incorporated into many materials, yielding a local stress measurement through optical fluorescence spectroscopy of the electronically confined CdSe core states. The stress response of the tetrapod is calibrated and utilized to study mechanical behavior in single polymer fibers. We expect that tetrapods can be used to investigate local stresses in many other mechanical systems.
MINT Optical Layout Yeong Shang Loh1
degradation from misalignment and mounting errors. 1 Advisor: S. Staggs and L. Page #12;2 MINT Optical Layout to obtain the desired beam features. Additionally, DADRA is used to gauge beam degradation from misalignment arrangement on the uv plane to give equal l-space coverage were worked out by Hinderks[4] and Elvis
Optical Fibers Optics and Photonics
Palffy-Muhoray, Peter
Optical Fibers Optics and Photonics Dr. Palffy-Muhoray Ines Busuladzic Department of Theoretical and Applied Mathematics The University of Akron April 21, 2008 #12;Outline Â· History of optical fibers Â· What are optical fibers? Â· How are optical fibers made? Â· Light propagation through optical fibers Â· Application
ARM - Field Campaign - Rain Microphysics Study with Disdrometer and
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD) by Microtops Atmospheric Optical Depth (AOD) byCampaignSTations2008)Polarization Radar
Proposal for feasible experiments of cold-atom quantum simulator of U(1) lattice gauge-Higgs model
Yoshihito Kuno; Kenichi Kasamatsu; Yoshiro Takahashi; Ikuo Ichinose; Tetsuo Matsui
2014-12-24T23:59:59.000Z
Lattice gauge theory has provided us with a crucial non-perturbative method in studying canonical models in high-energy physics such as quantum chromodynamics. Among other models of lattice gauge theory, the lattice gauge-Higgs model is a quite important one because it describes wide variety of phenomena/models related to the Anderson-Higgs mechanism such as superconductivity, the standard model of particle physics, and inflation process of the early universe. In this paper, to realize a quantum simulator of the U(1) lattice gauge-Higgs model on an optical lattice filled by cold atoms, we propose two feasible methods: (i) Wannier states in the excited bands and (ii) dipolar atoms in a multilayer optical lattice. We pay attentions to respect the constraint of Gauss's law and avoid nonlocal gauge interactions. Numerical simulations of the time development of an electric flux by using the Gross-Pitaevskii equations reveal some interesting characteristics of dynamical aspect of the model.
Gauge Theories of Josephson Junction Arrays
M. C. Diamantini; P. Sodano; C. A. Trugenberger
1995-11-23T23:59:59.000Z
We show that the zero-temperature physics of planar Josephson junction arrays in the self-dual approximation is governed by an Abelian gauge theory with periodic mixed Chern-Simons term describing the charge-vortex coupling. The periodicity requires the existence of (Euclidean) topological excitations which determine the quantum phase structure of the model. The electric-magnetic duality leads to a quantum phase transition between a superconductor and a superinsulator at the self-dual point. We also discuss in this framework the recently proposed quantum Hall phases for charges and vortices in presence of external offset charges and magnetic fluxes: we show how the periodicity of the charge-vortex coupling can lead to transitions to anyon superconductivity phases. We finally generalize our results to three dimensions, where the relevant gauge theory is the so-called BF system, with an antisymmetric Kalb-Ramond gauge field.
Feynman rules for Coulomb gauge QCD
Andrasi, A. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)] [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Taylor, J.C., E-mail: jct@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)
2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
The Coulomb gauge in nonabelian gauge theories is attractive in principle, but beset with technical difficulties in perturbation theory. In addition to ordinary Feynman integrals, there are, at 2-loop order, Christ-Lee (CL) terms, derived either by correctly ordering the operators in the Hamiltonian, or by resolving ambiguous Feynman integrals. Renormalization theory depends on the sub-graph structure of ordinary Feynman graphs. The CL terms do not have a sub-graph structure. We show how to carry out renormalization in the presence of CL terms, by re-expressing these as 'pseudo-Feynman' integrals. We also explain how energy divergences cancel. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In Coulomb gauge QCD, we re-express Christ-Lee terms in the Hamiltonian as pseudo-Feynman integrals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This gives a subgraph structure, and allows the ordinary renormalization process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It also leads to cancellation of energy-divergences.
NONE
1995-05-12T23:59:59.000Z
The Acid Rain Program regulations require all affected utility units to continuously measure, record and report SO2, NOx, volumetric flow data and CO2 emissions. All affected units also must continuously measure and record opacity, and must report opacity exceedances to the appropriate State or Local Agency. To ensure that your CEMS and fuel flowmeters are performing at an acceptable level, and providing quality assured data, you are required under 40 CFR 75.53, 75.62 (a) to submit a monitoring plan and certification test data for acid rain CEM certificaton. The purpose of this handbook is to help you fulfill your requirements under the Acid Rain Program. This handbook will walk you through the necessary steps for gaining CEMS certification, including filling out and mailing the proper forms, administering the required tests, and applying for certification and sending in electronic data to EPA.
Fourier Accelerated Conjugate Gradient Lattice Gauge Fixing
R. J. Hudspith
2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z
We provide details of the first implementation of a non-linear conjugate gradient method for Landau and Coulomb gauge fixing with Fourier acceleration. We find clear improvement over the Fourier accelerated steepest descent method, with the average time taken for the algorithm to converge to a fixed, high accuracy, being reduced by a factor of 2 to 4.
Hydropower Potential Scoping Study Gauging Interest
6/19/2013 1 Hydropower Potential Scoping Study Â Gauging Interest Generating Resources Advisory and associated technologies. Â Hydropower upgrades, new hydropower projects 2 Purpose Develop a hydro supply curve to determine the hydropower development potential in the NW region Â Council's Seventh Power Plan
ACCELERATION INDUCED SPIN ITS GAUGE GEOMETRY
Gerlach, Ulrich
@math.ohioÂstate.edu ABSTRACT Does there exist a purely quantum mechanical characterization of gravitation? To this end at each event. A unique and natural law of parallel transport of quantum states between different events conclusion that gravitation is to be identified with the gauge geometry of the group [SU(1; 1)] 1 . #12
National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory
Brower, Richard C.
2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
SciDAC-2 Project The Secret Life of Quarks: National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory, from March 15, 2011 through March 14, 2012. The objective of this project is to construct the software needed to study quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of the strong interactions of sub-atomic physics, and other strongly coupled gauge field theories anticipated to be of importance in the energy regime made accessible by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It builds upon the successful efforts of the SciDAC-1 project National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory, in which a QCD Applications Programming Interface (QCD API) was developed that enables lattice gauge theorists to make effective use of a wide variety of massively parallel computers. This project serves the entire USQCD Collaboration, which consists of nearly all the high energy and nuclear physicists in the United States engaged in the numerical study of QCD and related strongly interacting quantum field theories. All software developed in it is publicly available, and can be downloaded from a link on the USQCD Collaboration web site, or directly from the github repositories with entrance linke http://usqcd-software.github.io
Gauge transformations are canonical transformations, redux
Z. K. Silagadze
2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z
In this short note we return to the old paper by Tai L. Chow (Eur. J. Phys. 18 (1997), 467-468) and correct its erroneous final part. We also note that the main result of that paper, that gauge transformations of mechanics are canonical transformations, was known much earlier.
From Lattice Gauge Theories to Hydrogen Atoms
Manu Mathur; T. P. Sreeraj
2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z
Using canonical transformations we obtain a complete and most economical realization of the loop or physical Hilbert space of pure $SU(2)_{2+1}$ lattice gauge theory in terms of Wigner coupled Hilbert spaces of hydrogen atoms. One hydrogen atom is assigned to every plaquette of the lattice. The SU(2) gauge theory loop basis states over a plaquette are the bound energy eigenstates $|n l m>$ of the corresponding hydrogen atom. The Wigner couplings of these hydrogen atom energy eigenstates on different plaquettes provide a complete SU(2) gauge theory loop basis on the entire lattice. The loop basis is invariant under simultaneous rotations of all hydrogen atoms. The dual description of this basis diagonalizes all Wilson loop operators and is given in terms of hyperspherical harmonics on the SU(2) group manifold $S^3$. The SU(2) loop dynamics is governed by a "SU(2) spin Hamiltonian" without any gauge fields. The relevance of the hydrogen atom basis and its dynamical symmetry group SO(4,2) in SU(2) loop dynamics in weak coupling continuum limit ($g^2\\rightarrow 0$) is emphasized.
Gauge equivalence in stationary radiative transport through media ...
2009-12-02T23:59:59.000Z
Stability of the Gauge Equivalent Classes in Inverse. Stationary Transport. Stephen McDowall† , Plamen Stefanov‡ , and Alexandru. Tamasan§. †
Dimension two vacuum condensates in gauge-invariant theories
D. V. Bykov; A. A. Slavnov
2005-05-11T23:59:59.000Z
Gauge dependence of the dimension two condensate in Abelian and non-Abelian Yang-Mills theory is investigated.
Light-induced gauge fields for ultracold atoms
N. Goldman; G. Juzeliunas; P. Ohberg; I. B. Spielman
2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z
Gauge fields are central in our modern understanding of physics at all scales. At the highest energy scales known, the microscopic universe is governed by particles interacting with each other through the exchange of gauge bosons. At the largest length scales, our universe is ruled by gravity, whose gauge structure suggests the existence of a particle - the graviton - that mediates the gravitational force. At the mesoscopic scale, solid-state systems are subjected to gauge fields of different nature: materials can be immersed in external electromagnetic fields, but they can also feature emerging gauge fields in their low-energy description. In this review, we focus on another kind of gauge field: those engineered in systems of ultracold neutral atoms. In these setups, atoms are suitably coupled to laser fields that generate effective gauge potentials in their description. Neutral atoms "feeling" laser-induced gauge potentials can potentially mimic the behavior of an electron gas subjected to a magnetic field, but also, the interaction of elementary particles with non-Abelian gauge fields. Here, we review different realized and proposed techniques for creating gauge potentials - both Abelian and non-Abelian - in atomic systems and discuss their implication in the context of quantum simulation. While most of these setups concern the realization of background and classical gauge potentials, we conclude with more exotic proposals where these synthetic fields might be made dynamical, in view of simulating interacting gauge theories with cold atoms.
Topics in Noncommutative Gauge Theories and Deformed Relativistic Theories
Nitin Chandra
2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z
This is my PhD thesis. In this thesis we study the gauge theories on noncommutative Moyal space. We find new static solitons and instantons in terms of the so called generalized Bose operators. Generalized Bose operators are constructed to describe reducible representation of the oscillator algebra. They create/annihilate $k$-quanta, $k$ being a positive integer. We start with giving an alternative description to the already found static magnetic flux tube solutions of the noncommutative gauge theories in terms of generalized Bose operators. The Nielsen-Olesen vortex solutions found in terms of these operators reduce to the already found ones. On the contrary we find a class of new instaton solutions which are unitarily inequivalant to the the ones found from ADHM construction on noncommutative space. The charge of the instaton has a description in terms of the index representing the reducibility of the Fock space, i.e., $k$. After studying the static solitonic solutions in noncommutative Minkowski space and the instaton solutions in noncommutative Euclidean space we go on to study the implications of the time-space noncommutativity in Minkowski space. To understand it properly we study the time-dependent transitions of a forced harmonic oscillator in noncommutative 1+1 dimensional spacetime. We also try to understand the implications of the found results in the context of quantum optics. We then shift to the so called DSR theories which are related to a different kind of noncommutative ($\\kappa$-Minkowski) space. DSR (Doubly/Deformed Special Relativity) aims to search for an alternate relativistic theory which keeps a length/energy scale (the Planck scale) and a velocity scale (the speed of light scale) invariant. We study thermodynamics of an ideal gas in such a scenario.
Brierley, Andrew
T he skies open and water gushes off roofs, down gutters and into drains. Heavy rain quickly risk heavy rain will cause flooding. Even if this isn't possible, water can be held in underground overwhelms the drainage network; before long, water backs up and starts creeping towards buildings. In cities
PAR conversion efficiencies of a tropical rain forest R.J. Luxmoore1 J.G. Saldarriaga2
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
-MJ-1 range of PAR energy conversion values derived from Jordan (1971) for 17 forest types, includingPAR conversion efficiencies of a tropical rain forest R.J. Luxmoore1 J.G. Saldarriaga2 1) absorbed during various stages of regeneration of a tropical rain forest in the upper Rio Negro region
Goodman, Robert M.
and shore tour- ism industry came from people pollution Sunny Days for Rain Gardens -- Progress towardsRain Garden construction in Monmouth County has accelerated consid- erably since the early planning
Analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of acid rain electronic data reports
Schott, J. [Entergy Corp., Beaumont, TX (United States)
1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
Entergy Corporation is a Phase II utility with a fossil generation base composed primarily of natural gas and low sulfur coal. This paper presents an analysis of a large Phase II utility`s continuous emissions monitoring data reported to EPA under Title IV Acid Rain. Electric utilities currently report hourly emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, fuel use, and generation through electronic data reports to EPA. This paper describes strengths and weaknesses of the data reported to EPA as determined through an analysis of 1995 data. Emissions reported by this company under acid rain for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} are very different from emissions reported to state agencies for annual emission inventory purposes in past years and will represent a significant break with historic trends. A comparison of emissions has been made of 1995 emissions reported under Electronic Data Reports to the emissions that would have been reported using emission factors and fuel data in past years. In addition, the paper examines the impacts of 40 CFR Part 75 Acid Rain requirements such as missing data substitution and monitor bias adjustments. Measurement system errors including stack flow measurement and false NO{sub x}Lb/MMBtu readings at very low loads are discussed. This paper describes the implications for public policy, compliance, emissions inventories, and business decisions of Part 75 acid rain monitoring and reporting requirements.
With Chest Waders, Hip Boots, Or Rain Gear R. O. Parker Jr.
With Chest Waders, Hip Boots, Or Rain Gear R. O. Parker Jr. Neither chest wade rs, hip boots, nor actually be the safe st. If y ou are wearing bulky clothing in addition toyour boots, and do nothing afte r my head, will my waterlogged boots '~ and clothing cause me to sink? If I plunge in head first
The time it never rained: How Texas water management has changed because of recurring droughts
Wythe, Kathy
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. I get to thinkin? sometimes that maybe drouth is the normal condition here and the rainy years are the #25;eaks.? Charlie Flagg Chapter #23;#21; #31;e Time It Never Rained, by Elmer Kelton ?#30;e drought of the #23;#22;#21;#24;s was a lot...
Adriano Galati Christian Olms Jonathan Haber Kasia Warpas ... let it rain
Subramanian, Sriram
Adriano Galati Christian Olms Jonathan Haber Kasia Warpas ... let it rain Tuesday, 12 July 2011 #12@cs.nott.ac.uk christian.olms@stud.uni-due.de jonhaber@gmail.com kasia.warpas@gmail.com Tuesday, 12 July 2011 #12;
Direct numerical simulation of an iron rain in the magma ocean
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
investigate the conversion of gravitational energy into viscous heating and the thermal equilibration betweenDirect numerical simulation of an iron rain in the magma ocean H. Ichikawa,1,2 S. Labrosse,1 and K of metal in a magma ocean. The model, using a fully Lagrangian approach called the moving particle semi
VALIDATION OF RAIN RATE RETRIEVALS FROM SEVIRI USING WEATHER RADAR OBSERVATIONS
Stoffelen, Ad
and for improving parameterization cloud processes in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models or assimilation in these models. Although operational networks of Weather Radars are expanding over Europe and the United StatesVALIDATION OF RAIN RATE RETRIEVALS FROM SEVIRI USING WEATHER RADAR OBSERVATIONS R. A. Roebeling
Tellus(1985),37A, 209-232 Fractal propertiesof rain, and a fractal model
Lovejoy, Shaun
t i.."* i.. j lv Tellus(1985),37A, 209-232 Fractal propertiesof rain, and a fractal model By S with other approaches. The theory of fractals has been in part motivated by the Hurst effect, which is an empirical observationin hydrology and climatology. A fractal is an unsmooth shapethat is scaling,that is
Tellus (1985),37A, 209-232 Fractal properties of rain, and a fractal model
Lovejoy, Shaun
Tellus (1985),37A, 209-232 Fractal properties of rain, and a fractal model By S. LOVEJOY, EERMICRMD is also compared with other approaches. The theory of fractals has been in part motivated by the Hurst effect. which is an empirical observation in hydrology and climatology. A fractal is an unsmooth shape
Response of shoot growth and gas exchange of Picea abies clones to rain acidity
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Response of shoot growth and gas exchange of Picea abies clones to rain acidity and the addition, particularly the effect of acidity and the addition of a realistic ionic mixture to simulated acidic.0 with a mixture of sulfuric and nitric acids (S02-/NO-weight ratio = 2.4). Ionic concentrations m mg/1were: 4.50 S
Cycling in the wet Wet weather (or at least the threat of rain) puts a
Bristol, University of
lubrication so you may need to check items such as chain and gears on a daily basis during a spell of bad weather. Make sure your brakes are in top condition, tyres well pumped and remember that it takes longer such as painted road markings and metal plates can provide very little friction in the rain and can be extremely
Gauge theory of gravity and supergravity
Kaul, Romesh K. [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai 600 113 (India)
2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
We present a formulation of gravity in terms of a theory based on complex SU(2) gauge fields with a general coordinate invariant action functional quadratic in the field strength. Self-duality or anti-self-duality of the field strength emerges as a constraint from the equations of motion of this theory. This in turn leads to Einstein gravity equations for a dilaton and an axion conformally coupled to gravity for the self-dual constraint. The analysis has also been extended to N=1 and 2 super Yang-Mills theory of complex SU(2) gauge fields. This leads to, besides other equations of motion, self-duality/anti-self-duality of generalized supercovariant field strengths. The self-dual case is then shown to yield as its solutions N=1, 2 supergravity equations, respectively.
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
canopy at KIM catchment excluded about 80% of ambient acid deposition; clean rain was sprinkled under on the south coast in the zone of maximum acid deposition for Norway. The RAIN project used a 1200 m2 roofClimate change as a confounding factor in reversibility of acidification: RAIN and CLIMEX projects
SHIELDING ANALYSIS FOR PORTABLE GAUGING COMBINATION SOURCES
J. TOMPKINS; L. LEONARD; ET AL
2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
Radioisotopic decay has been used as a source of photons and neutrons for industrial gauging operations since the late 1950s. Early portable moisture/density gauging equipment used Americium (Am)-241/Beryllium (Be)/Cesium (Cs)-137 combination sources to supply the required nuclear energy for gauging. Combination sources typically contained 0.040 Ci of Am-241 and 0.010 Ci of CS-137 in the same source capsule. Most of these sources were manufactured approximately 30 years ago. Collection, transportation, and storage of these sources once removed from their original device represent a shielding problem with distinct gamma and neutron components. The Off-Site Source Recovery (OSR) Project is planning to use a multi-function drum (MFD) for the collection, shipping, and storage of AmBe sources, as well as the eventual waste package for disposal. The MFD is an approved TRU waste container design for DOE TRU waste known as the 12 inch Pipe Component Overpack. As the name indicates, this drum is based on a 12 inch ID stainless steel weldment approximately 25 inch in internal length. The existing drum design allows for addition of shielding within the pipe component up to the 110 kg maximum pay load weight. The 12 inch pipe component is packaged inside a 55-gallon drum, with the balance of the interior space filled with fiberboard dunnage. This packaging geometry is similar to the design of a DOT 6M, Type B shipping container.
About consistence between pi N Delta spin-3/2 gauge couplings and electromagnetic gauge invariance
D. Badagnani; C. Barbero; A. Mariano
2015-03-05T23:59:59.000Z
We analyze the consistence between the recently proposed "spin 3/2 gauge" interaction for the Delta resonance with nucleons and pions, and the fundamental electromagnetic gauge invariance in any radiative amplitude. Chiral symmetric pion-derivative pi N Delta couplings can be substituted through a linear transformation to get Delta-derivative ones, which have the property of decoupling the 1/2 field components of the Delta propagator. Nevertheless, the electromagnetic gauge invariance introduced through minimal substitution in all derivatives, can only be fulfilled at a given order n without destroying the spin 3/2 one by dropping n+1 order terms within an effective field theory (EFT) framework with a defined power counting. In addition, we show that the Ward identity for the gamma Delta gamma vertex cannot be fulfilled with a trimmed 3/2 propagator, which should be necessary in order to keep the spin 3/2 gauge symmetry in the radiative case for the gamma Delta gamma amplitude. Finally, it is shown that radiative corrections of the spin 3/2 gauge strong vertexes at one loop, reintroduce the conventional interaction.
Free-Space Optical High-Speed Link in the Urban Area of Southern Rome: Preliminary Experimental
Marzano, Frank Silvio
Free-Space Optical High-Speed Link in the Urban Area of Southern Rome: Preliminary Experimental Set is placed on water particle effects (fog and rain). A semi-empirical model evaluation of these atmospheric, Piazza Pakistan, height 50 m), and the headquarters of the Department of Foreign Trade (point C, Viale
Fluctuation and gauge effects on the critical behavior of superconductors
Diana V. Shopova; Dimo I. Uzunov
2007-02-09T23:59:59.000Z
Gauge effects on the fluctuation properties of the normal-to-superconducting phase transition in bulk and thin film superconductors are reviewed. Similar problems in the description of other natural systems (liquid crystals, quantum field theory, early universe) are also discussed. The relatively strong gauge effects on the fluctuations of the ordering field at low spatial dimensionality $D$ and, in particular, in thin (quasi-2D) films are considered in details. A special attention is paid to the fluctuations of the gauge field. It is shown that the mechanism, in which these gauge fluctuations affect the phase transition order and other phase transition properties varies with the variation of spatial dimensionality $D$. The problem for the experimental confirmation of theoretical predictions about the order of phase transitions in gauge systems is discussed. Related topics: gauge effects on the critical behavior of unconventional superconductors, disorder, quantum fluctuations in a close vicinity of ultra-low phase transition temperatures, are also briefly discussed.
Improved gauge driver for the generalized harmonic Einstein system
Lindblom, Lee; Szilagyi, Bela [Theoretical Astrophysics 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)
2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
A new gauge driver is introduced for the generalized harmonic (GH) representation of Einstein's equation. This new driver allows a rather general class of gauge conditions to be implemented in a way that maintains the hyperbolicity of the combined evolution system. This driver is more stable and effective and, unlike previous drivers, allows stable evolutions using the dual-frame evolution technique. Appropriate boundary conditions for this new gauge driver are constructed, and a new boundary condition for the 'gauge' components of the spacetime metric in the GH Einstein system is introduced. The stability and effectiveness of this new gauge driver are demonstrated through numerical tests, which impose a new damped-wave gauge condition on the evolutions of single black-hole spacetimes.
Vortex and gap generation in gauge models of graphene
O. Oliveira; C. E. Cordeiro; A. Delfino; W. de Paula; T. Frederico
2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z
Effective quantum field theoretical continuum models for graphene are investigated. The models include a complex scalar field and a vector gauge field. Different gauge theories are considered and their gap patterns for the scalar, vector, and fermion excitations are investigated. Different gauge groups lead to different relations between the gaps, which can be used to experimentally distinguish the gauge theories. In this class of models the fermionic gap is a dynamic quantity. The finite-energy vortex solutions of the gauge models have the flux of the "magnetic field" quantized, making the Bohm-Aharonov effect active even when external electromagnetic fields are absent. The flux comes proportional to the scalar field angular momentum quantum number. The zero modes of the Dirac equation show that the gauge models considered here are compatible with fractionalization.
An Improved Gauge Driver for the Generalized Harmonic Einstein System
Lee Lindblom; Bela Szilagyi
2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
A new gauge driver is introduced for the generalized harmonic (GH) representation of Einstein's equation. This new driver allows a rather general class of gauge conditions to be implemented in a way that maintains the hyperbolicity of the combined evolution system. This driver is more stable and effective, and unlike previous drivers, allows stable evolutions using the dual-frame evolution technique. Appropriate boundary conditions for this new gauge driver are constructed, and a new boundary condition for the ``gauge'' components of the spacetime metric in the GH Einstein system is introduced. The stability and effectiveness of this new gauge driver are demonstrated through numerical tests, which impose a new damped-wave gauge condition on the evolutions of single black-hole spacetimes.
Ning Wu
2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z
When we discuss problems on gravity, we can not avoid some fundamental physical problems, such as space-time, inertia, and inertial reference frame. The goal of this paper is to discuss the logic system of gravity theory and the problems of space-time, inertia, and inertial reference frame. The goal of this paper is to set up the theory on space-time in gauge theory of gravity. Based on this theory, it is possible for human kind to manipulate physical space-time on earth, and produce a machine which can physically prolong human's lifetime.
An automated vacuum gauge calibration system
Abbott, P.J. [NIST, GAithersburg, MD (United States); Benner, M.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
An automated system for calibrating vacuum gauges over the pressure range of 10{sup {minus}6} to 0.1 Pa was designed and constructed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Energy (DOE) Primary Standards Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Calculable pressures are generated by passing a known flow of gas through an orifice of known conductance. The orifice conductance is derived from dimensional measurements and accurate flows are generated using metal capillary leaks. The expanded uncertainty (k = 2) in the generated pressure is estimated to be between 1% and 4% over the calibration range. The design, calibration results. and component uncertainties will be discussed.
Metal-Insulator Transition Revisited for Cold Atoms in Non-Abelian Gauge Potentials
Indubala I. Satija; Daniel C. Dakin; Charles W. Clark
2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the possibility of realizing metal-insulator transitions with ultracold atoms in two-dimensional optical lattices in the presence of artificial gauge potentials. Such transitions have been extensively studied for magnetic fields corresponding to Abelian gauges; they occur when the magnetic flux penetrating the lattice plaquette is an irrational multiple of the magnetic flux quantum. Here we present the first study of these transitions for non-Abelian U(2) gauge fields, which can be realized with atoms with two pairs of degenerate internal states. In contrast to the Abelian case, the spectrum and localization transition in the non-Abelian case is strongly influenced by atomic momenta. In addition to determining the localization boundary, the momentum fragments the spectrum and the minimum energy viewed as a function of momentum exhibits a step structure. Other key characteristics of the non-Abelian case include the absence of localization for certain states and satellite fringes around the Bragg peaks in the momentum distribution and an interesting possibility that the transition can be tuned by the atomic momenta.
Natural semidirect gauge mediation and D-branes at singularities
Argurio, Riccardo [Physique Theorique et Mathematique and International Solvay Institutes, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, C.P. 231, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Bertolini, Matteo [SISSA and INFN-Sezione di Trieste Via Beirut 2, I 34014 Trieste (Italy); Ferretti, Gabriele [Department of Fundamental Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Mariotti, Alberto [Theoretische Natuurkunde and International Solvay Institutes, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)
2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
We consider semidirect gauge mediation models of supersymmetry breaking where the messengers are composite fields and their supersymmetric mass is naturally generated through quartic superpotential couplings. We show that such composite messenger models can be easily embedded in quiver gauge theories arising from D-branes at Calabi-Yau singularities, and argue that semidirect gauge mediation is in fact a very natural option for supersymmetry breaking in D-brane models. We provide several explicit examples and discuss their salient phenomenological properties.
A perturbative and gauge invariant treatment of gravitational wave memory
Lydia Bieri; David Garfinkle
2014-04-03T23:59:59.000Z
We present a perturbative treatment of gravitational wave memory. The coordinate invariance of Einstein's equations leads to a type of gauge invariance in perturbation theory. As with any gauge invariant theory, results are more clear when expressed in terms of manifestly gauge invariant quantities. Therefore we derive all our results from the perturbed Weyl tensor rather than the perturbed metric. We derive gravitational wave memory for the Einstein equations coupled to a general energy-momentum tensor that reaches null infinity.
Gauge-flation and Cosmic No-Hair Conjecture
A. Maleknejad; M. M. Sheikh-Jabbari; Jiro Soda
2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z
Gauge-flation, inflation from non-Abelian gauge fields, was introduced in [1,2]. In this work, we study the cosmic no-hair conjecture in gauge-flation. Starting from Bianchi-type I cosmology and through analytic and numeric studies we demonstrate that the isotropic FLRW inflation is an attractor of the dynamics of the theory and that the anisotropies are damped within a few e-folds, in accord with the cosmic no-hair conjecture.
The Quality Assurance Manual and EPA`s acid rain data quality
Bloomer, B.J. [EPA, Washington, DC (United States). Acid Rain Div.; Winkler, J.P. [EPA, Dallas, TX (United States)
1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
November 15, 1990 saw the passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Within this law was the requirements for all electric utility units greater than 25 megawatts of generated electrical capacity to monitor SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, opacity, and volumetric flow of the stack gases. This paper summarizes the Acid Rain Program`s approach to Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) Quality Control and Quality Assurance requirements and their use in the market based pollution control program of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This paper attempts to present the perspective of the authors as to what is important for excellent monitoring system availability and ensuring accurate data acquisition. Emphasis is placed upon the Quality Assurance Manual required by the Acid Rain Regulations for affected unit`s to maintain and follow.
Yong Tang; Yue-Liang Wu
2011-10-30T23:59:59.000Z
We perform an explicit one-loop calculation for the gravitational contributions to the two-, three- and four-point gauge Green's functions with paying attention to the quadratic divergences. It is shown for the first time in the diagrammatic calculation that the Slavnov-Taylor identities are preserved even if the quantum graviton effects are included at one-loop level, such a conclusion is independent of the choice of regularization schemes. We also present a regularization scheme independent calculation based on the gauge condition independent background field framework of Vilkovisky-DeWitt's effective action with focusing on both the quadratic divergence and quartic divergence that is not discussed before. With the harmonic gauge condition, the results computed by using the traditional background field method can consistently be recovered from the Vilkovisky-DeWitt's effective action approach by simply taking a limiting case, and are found to be the same as the ones yielded by the diagrammatic calculation. As a consequence, in all the calculations, the symmetry-preserving and divergent-behavior-preserving loop regularization method can consistently lead to a nontrivial gravitational contribution to the gauge coupling constant with an asymptotic free power-law running at one loop near the Planck scale.
Gauge Theories on an Interval: Unitarity Without a Higgs Boson
Csaki, Csaba; Grojean, Christophe; Murayama, Hitoshi; Luigi, Pilo; Terning, John
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
breaking without a Higgs boson. Gauge Theories on anscattering amplitude. The Higgs boson is localized at y = ?Rreal scalar ?eld, the Higgs boson. At tree level, the
Gribov ambiguities at the Landau -- maximal Abelian interpolating gauge
A. D. Pereira Jr; R. F. Sobreiro
2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
In a previous work, we presented a new method to account for the Gribov ambiguities in non-Abelian gauge theories. The method consists on the introduction of an extra constraint which directly eliminates the infinitesimal Gribov copies without the usual geometric approach. Such strategy allows to treat gauges with non-hermitian Faddeev-Popov operator. In this work, we apply this method to a gauge which interpolates among the Landau and maximal Abelian gauges. The result is a local and power counting renormalizable action, free of infinitesimal Gribov copies. Moreover, the interpolating tree-level gluon propagator is derived.
Beamfilling correction study for retrieval of oceanic rain from passive microwave observations
Chen, Ruiyue
2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
Constant in R-T relationship????????????.??..?.??. 6 2 Spatial resolution for each TMI channel?????????????... 7 3 ARMAR system parameters ?????????.????????... 13 4 The impact of path averaging on STD of rain rate ??????..??? 21 5... except for TMI 19 GHz channel ???????????. 8 3 Same as Fig. 1 except for TMI 10 GHz channel ..????????.??.. 8 4 Comparison between Chiu?s BCF formula and real data BCF calculations???????????????????????.??.. 10 5 ARMAR observational...
Empirical Analysis of the Effects of Rain on Measured Freeway Traffic Parameters1 Meead Saberi K.4
Bertini, Robert L.
Empirical Analysis of the Effects of Rain on Measured Freeway Traffic Parameters1 2 3 Meead Saberi November 200954 55 Word Count: 7,456 (9 figures and 2 tables)56 #12;Saberi and Bertini 2 Abstract
Johnson, Richard H.
. JOHNSON Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado (Manuscript-rain-producing weather systems are organized and the conditions in which they occur, Schumacher and Johnson (2005
Maxwell, Bruce D.
TRACKING THE LITTLE BLACK "RAIN" CLOUDS: AN ENVIRO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION Pollution and Respiratory Health Branch were wonderful research hosts and helpful model critics. Thank you
Montero, Juan Pablo
The U.S. acid rain program, Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, is a pioneering experience in environmental regulation by setting a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and by including ...
The red rain phenomenon of Kerala and its possible extraterrestrial origin
Godfrey Louis; A. Santhosh Kumar
2006-01-02T23:59:59.000Z
A red rain phenomenon occurred in Kerala, India starting from 25th July 2001, in which the rainwater appeared coloured in various localized places that are spread over a few hundred kilometers in Kerala. Maximum cases were reported during the first 10 days and isolated cases were found to occur for about 2 months. The striking red colouration of the rainwater was found to be due to the suspension of microscopic red particles having the appearance of biological cells. These particles have no similarity with usual desert dust. An estimated minimum quantity of 50,000 kg of red particles has fallen from the sky through red rain. An analysis of this strange phenomenon further shows that the conventional atmospheric transport processes like dust storms etc. cannot explain this phenomenon. The electron microscopic study of the red particles shows fine cell structure indicating their biological cell like nature. EDAX analysis shows that the major elements present in these cell like particles are carbon and oxygen. Strangely, a test for DNA using Ethidium Bromide dye fluorescence technique indicates absence of DNA in these cells. In the context of a suspected link between a meteor airburst event and the red rain, the possibility for the extraterrestrial origin of these particles from cometary fragments is discussed.
Rosenfeld, Daniel; Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.
2012-07-04T23:59:59.000Z
Numerical simulations described in previous studies showed that adding cloud condensation nuclei to marine stratocumulus can prevent their breakup from closed into open cells. Additional analyses of the same simulations show that the suppression of rain is well described in terms of cloud drop effective radius (re). Rain is initiated when re near cloud top is around 12-14 um. Cloud water starts to get depleted when column-maximum rain intensity (Rmax) exceeds 0.1 mm h-1. This happens when cloud-top re reaches 14 um. Rmax is mostly less than 0.1 mm h-1 at re<14 um, regardless of the cloud water path, but increases rapidly when re exceeds 14 um. This is in agreement with recent aircraft observations and theoretical observations in convective clouds so that the mechanism is not limited to describing marine stratocumulus. These results support the hypothesis that the onset of significant precipitation is determined by the number of nucleated cloud drops and the height (H) above cloud base within the cloud that is required for cloud drops to reach re of 14 um. In turn, this can explain the conditions for initiation of significant drizzle and opening of closed cells providing the basis for a simple parameterization for GCMs that unifies the representation of both precipitating and non-precipitating clouds as well as the transition between them. Furthermore, satellite global observations of cloud depth (from base to top), and cloud top re can be used to derive and validate this parameterization.
Rain water transport and storage in a model sandy soil with hydrogel particle additives
Y. Wei; D. J. Durian
2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z
We study rain water infiltration and drainage in a dry model sandy soil with superabsorbent hydrogel particle additives by measuring the mass of retained water for non-ponding rainfall using a self-built 3D laboratory set-up. In the pure model sandy soil, the retained water curve measurements indicate that instead of a stable horizontal wetting front that grows downward uniformly, a narrow fingered flow forms under the top layer of water-saturated soil. This rain water channelization phenomenon not only further reduces the available rain water in the plant root zone, but also affects the efficiency of soil additives, such as superabsorbent hydrogel particles. Our studies show that the shape of the retained water curve for a soil packing with hydrogel particle additives strongly depends on the location and the concentration of the hydrogel particles in the model sandy soil. By carefully choosing the particle size and distribution methods, we may use the swollen hydrogel particles to modify the soil pore structure, to clog or extend the water channels in sandy soils, or to build water reservoirs in the plant root zone.
Thermalization in a Holographic Confining Gauge Theory
Ishii, Takaaki; Rosen, Christopher
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Time dependent perturbations of states in a 3+1 dimensional confining gauge theory are considered in the context of holography. The perturbations are induced by varying the gauge theory's coupling to a dimension three scalar operator in time. The dual gravitational theory belongs to a class of Einstein-dilaton theories which exhibit a mass gap at zero temperature and a first order deconfining phase transition at finite temperature. The perturbation is realized in various thermal bulk solutions by specifying time dependent boundary conditions on the scalar, and we solve the fully backreacted Einstein-dilaton equations of motion subject to these boundary conditions. We compute the characteristic time scale of many thermalization processes, noting that in every case we examine, this time scale is determined by the imaginary part of the lowest lying quasi-normal mode of the final state black brane. We quantify the dependence of this final state on parameters of the quench, and construct a dynamical phase diagram....
Nonextensive lattice gauge theories: algorithms and methods
Rafael B. Frigori
2014-04-26T23:59:59.000Z
High-energy phenomena presenting strong dynamical correlations, long-range interactions and microscopic memory effects are well described by nonextensive versions of the canonical Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical mechanics. After a brief theoretical review, we introduce a class of generalized heat-bath algorithms that enable Monte Carlo lattice simulations of gauge fields on the nonextensive statistical ensemble of Tsallis. The algorithmic performance is evaluated as a function of the Tsallis parameter q in equilibrium and nonequilibrium setups. Then, we revisit short-time dynamic techniques, which in contrast to usual simulations in equilibrium present negligible finite-size effects and no critical slowing down. As an application, we investigate the short-time critical behaviour of the nonextensive hot Yang-Mills theory at q- values obtained from heavy-ion collision experiments. Our results imply that, when the equivalence of statistical ensembles is obeyed, the long-standing universality arguments relating gauge theories and spin systems hold also for the nonextensive framework.
The Higgs sector of gravitational gauge theories
M. Leclerc
2005-10-13T23:59:59.000Z
Gravitational gauge theories with de Sitter, Poincare and affine symmetry group are investigated under the aspect of the breakdown of the initial symmetry group down to the Lorentz subgroup. We review the theory of spontaneously broken de Sitter gravity by Stelle and West and apply a similar approach to the case of the Poincare and affine groups. Especially, we find that the groundstate of the metric affine theory leads to the determination of the Lorentzian signature of the metric in the groundstate. We show that the Higgs field remains in its groundstate, i.e., that the metric will have Lorentzian signature, unless we introduce matter fields that explicitely couple to the symmetric part of the connection. We also show that some features, like the necessity of the introduction of a dilaton field, that seem artificial in the context of the affine theory, appear most natural if the gauge group is taken to be the special linear group in five dimensions. Finally, we present an alternative model which is based on the spinor representation of the Lorentz group and is especially adopted to the description of spinor fields in a general linear covariant way, without the use of the infinite dimensional representations which are usually considered to be unavoidable.
Influence of rain on air-sea gas exchange: Lessons from a model ocean David T. Ho,1,2
Ho, David
Influence of rain on air-sea gas exchange: Lessons from a model ocean David T. Ho,1,2 Christopher J-sea gas exchange: Lessons from a model ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C08S18, doi:10.1029/2003JC001806. 1; published 1 July 2004. [1] Rain has been shown to significantly enhance the rate of air-water gas exchange
Ordinary Matter in Nonlinear Affine Gauge Theories of Gravitation
A. López--Pinto; A. Tiemblo; R. Tresguerres
1994-12-16T23:59:59.000Z
We present a general framework to include ordinary fermionic matter in the metric--affine gauge theories of gravity. It is based on a nonlinear gauge realization of the affine group, with the Lorentz group as the classification subgroup of the matter and gravitational fields.
Holography as a Gauge Phenomenon in Higher Spin Duality
Robert de Mello Koch; Antal Jevicki; Joao P. Rodrigues; Junggi Yoon
2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z
Employing the world line spinning particle picture we discuss the appearance of several different `gauges' which we use to gain a deeper explanation of the Collective/Gravity identification. We discuss transformations and algebraic equivalences between them. For a bulk identification we develop a `gauge independent' representation where all gauge constraints are eliminated. This `gauge reduction' of Higher Spin Gravity demonstrates that the physical content of 4D AdS HS theory is represented by the dynamics of an unconstrained scalar field in 6d. It is in this gauge reduced form that HS Theory can be seen to be equivalent to a 3+3 dimensional bi-local collective representation of CFT3.
Gauge invariant composite fields out of connections, with examples
Cédric Fournel; Jordan François; Serge Lazzarini; Thierry Masson
2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we put forward a systematic and unifying approach to construct gauge invariant composite fields out of connections. It relies on the existence in the theory of a group valued field with a prescribed gauge transformation. As an illustration, we detail some examples. Two of them are based on known results: the first one provides a reinterpretation of the symmetry breaking mechanism of the electroweak part of the Standard Model of particle physics; the second one is an application to Einstein's theory of gravity described as a gauge theory in terms of Cartan connections. The last example depicts a new situation: starting with a gauge field theory on Atiyah Lie algebroids, the gauge invariant composite fields describe massive vector fields. Some mathematical and physical discussions illustrate and highlight the relevance and the generality of this approach.
Optical Expanders with Applications in Optical Computing
Reif, John H.
Optical Expanders with Applications in Optical Computing John H. Reif Akitoshi Yoshida July 20, 1999 Abstract We describe and investigate an optical system which we call an optical expander. An optical expander elec- trooptically expands an optical boolean pattern encoded in d bits into an optical
Dynamic C-metrics in (Gauged) Supergravities
H. Lu; Justin F. Vazquez-Poritz
2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z
We construct an exact time-dependent charged dilaton C-metric in four-dimensional ${\\cal N}=4$ gauged supergravity. The scalar field drives the time evolution by transferring energy to the black holes, thereby causing their masses to increase and their acceleration to decrease. The values of the electric/magnetic and scalar charges determine three regions of potential time evolution. This solution holographically describes a strongly-coupled three-dimensional conformal field theory on the background of an evolving black hole. We also find new static charged dilaton C-metrics, which arise in four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories whose scalar potential can be expressed in terms of a superpotential.
Discrete Abelian gauge symmetries and axions
Honecker, Gabriele
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We combine two popular extensions of beyond the Standard Model physics within the framework of intersecting D6-brane models: discrete Zn symmetries and Peccei-Quinn axions. The underlying natural connection between both extensions is formed by the presence of massive U(1) gauge symmetries in D-brane model building. Global intersecting D6-brane models on toroidal orbifolds of the type T6/Z2N and T6/Z2xZ2M with discrete torsion offer excellent playgrounds for realizing these extensions. A generation-dependent Z2 symmetry is identified in a global Pati-Salam model, while global left-right symmetric models give rise to supersymmetric realizations of the DFSZ axion model. In one class of the latter models, the axion as well as Standard Model particles carry a non-trivial Z3 charge.
Discrete Abelian gauge symmetries and axions
Gabriele Honecker; Wieland Staessens
2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z
We combine two popular extensions of beyond the Standard Model physics within the framework of intersecting D6-brane models: discrete Zn symmetries and Peccei-Quinn axions. The underlying natural connection between both extensions is formed by the presence of massive U(1) gauge symmetries in D-brane model building. Global intersecting D6-brane models on toroidal orbifolds of the type T6/Z2N and T6/Z2xZ2M with discrete torsion offer excellent playgrounds for realizing these extensions. A generation-dependent Z2 symmetry is identified in a global Pati-Salam model, while global left-right symmetric models give rise to supersymmetric realizations of the DFSZ axion model. In one class of the latter models, the axion as well as Standard Model particles carry a non-trivial Z3 charge.
Localization of gauge fields and monopole tunnelling
Dvali, G. [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, New York 10003 (United States); Nielsen, H. B. [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen DK 2100 (Denmark); Tetradis, N. [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Zographou 157 84, Athens (Greece)
2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
We study the dynamical localization of a massless gauge field on a lower-dimensional surface (2-brane). In flat space, the necessary and sufficient condition for this phenomenon is the existence of confinement in the bulk. The resulting configuration is equivalent to a dual Josephson junction. This duality leads to an interesting puzzle, as it implies that a localized massless theory, even in the Abelian case, must become confining at exponentially large distances. Through the use of topological arguments we clarify the physics behind this large-distance confinement and identify the instantons of the brane world-volume theory that are responsible for its appearance. We show that they correspond to the (condensed) bulk magnetic charges (monopoles), that occasionally tunnel through the brane and induce weak confinement of the brane theory. We consider the possible generalization of this effect to higher dimensions and discuss phenomenological bounds on the confinement of electric charges at exponentially large distances within our Universe.
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in regions... such as Florida. To overcome some of the gauge placement issues, remote sensing techniques have been introduced... -derived precipitation with gauge...
Fiber optic coupled optical sensor
Fleming, Kevin J. (Albuquerque, NM)
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A displacement sensor includes a first optical fiber for radiating light to a target, and a second optical fiber for receiving light from the target. The end of the first fiber is adjacent and not axially aligned with the second fiber end. A lens focuses light from the first fiber onto the target and light from the target onto the second fiber.
An anticipatory integrated assessment of regional acidification: The RAINS-Asia model
Amann, M. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria); Carmichael, G.R. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Foell, W. [Resource Management Associates, Madison, WI (United States)] [and others
1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
Across large parts of Asia, air pollution problems are becoming more and more evident. Rainfall in some areas, including China, Japan, and Thailand, has been measured to be 10 times more acidic than unpolluted rain. Increasing evidence of acidification damage to ecosystems such as surface waters, soils, and economically important crops, is beginning to appear. In addition, urban air quality in many areas of the region continues to decrease. Current economic forecasts predict continued rapid economic growth in the region, which will bring with it increasing emissions of air pollutants, especially sulfur. The total primary energy demand in Asia currently doubles every twelve years (as compared to a world average of every 28 years). Coal is expected to continue to be the dominant energy source, with coal demand projected to increase by 65 percent per year, a rate that outpaces regional economic growth. If current trends in economic development and energy use in Asia continue, emissions of sulfur dioxide, one of the key components in acid rain, will more than triple within the next 30 years. Many ecosystems will be unable to continue to absorb these increased levels of pollution without harmful effects, thus creating a potential danger for irreversible environmental damage in many areas. In view of the potential environmental consequences of projected growth in Asian energy consumption, emissions, and air pollution, the World Bank, together with the Asian Development Bank, have funded a project to develop and implement an integrated assessment model for the acid deposition phenomenon in Asia. The Regional Air Pollution INformation and Simulation model for Asia (RAINS-Asia) is a software tool to help decision makers assess and project future trends in emissions, transport, and deposition of air pollutants, and their potential environmental effects.
Bloembergen, Nicolaas
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe
Improved Moving Puncture Gauge Conditions for Compact Binary Evolutions
Zachariah B. Etienne; John G. Baker; Vasileios Paschalidis; Bernard J. Kelly; Stuart L. Shapiro
2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z
Robust gauge conditions are critically important to the stability and accuracy of numerical relativity (NR) simulations involving compact objects. Most of the NR community use the highly robust---though decade-old---moving-puncture (MP) gauge conditions for such simulations. It has been argued that in binary black hole (BBH) evolutions adopting this gauge, noise generated near adaptive-mesh-refinement (AMR) boundaries does not converge away cleanly with increasing resolution, severely limiting gravitational waveform accuracy at computationally feasible resolutions. We link this noise to a sharp (short-wavelength), initial outgoing gauge wave crossing into progressively lower resolution AMR grids, and present improvements to the standard MP gauge conditions that focus on stretching, smoothing, and more rapidly settling this outgoing wave. Our best gauge choice greatly reduces gravitational waveform noise during inspiral, yielding less fluctuation in convergence order and $\\sim 40%$ lower waveform phase and amplitude errors at typical resolutions. Noise in other physical quantities of interest is also reduced, and constraint violations drop by more than an order of magnitude. We expect these improvements will carry over to simulations of all types of compact binary systems, as well as other $N$+1 formulations of gravity for which MP-like gauge conditions can be chosen.
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |EnergyonSupport0.pdf5 OPAM SEMIANNUAL REPORTMAMay 20Field6.0855_Raines Draft Rev 4 Microsoft
On the defect induced gauge and Yukawa fields in graphene
Corneliu Sochichiu
2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z
We consider lattice deformations (both continuous and topological) in the hexagonal lattice Hubbard model in the tight binding approximation to graphene, involving operators with the range up to next-to-neighbor. In the low energy limit, we find that these deformations give rise to couplings of the electronic Dirac field to an external scalar (Yukawa) and gauge fields. The fields are expressed in terms of original defects. As a by-product we establish that the next-to-nearest order is the minimal range of deformations which produces the complete gauge and scalar fields. We consider an example of Stone--Wales defect, and find the associated gauge field.
Angular Momentum and Energy-Momentum Densities as Gauge Currents
M. Calcada; J. G. Pereira
2002-07-11T23:59:59.000Z
If we replace the general spacetime group of diffeomorphisms by transformations taking place in the tangent space, general relativity can be interpreted as a gauge theory, and in particular as a gauge theory for the Lorentz group. In this context, it is shown that the angular momentum and the energy-momentum tensors of a general matter field can be obtained from the invariance of the corresponding action integral under transformations taking place, not in spacetime, but in the tangent space, in which case they can be considered as gauge currents.
Optical Expanders with Applications in Optical Computing
Reif, John H.
Optical Expanders with Applications in Optical Computing John H. Reif \\Lambda Akitoshi Yoshida \\Lambda July 20, 1999 Abstract We describe and investigate an optical system which we call an optical expander. An optical expander elecÂ trooptically expands an optical boolean pattern encoded in d bits
Gauge symmetry breaking in orbifold model building
Michele Trapletti
2006-11-02T23:59:59.000Z
We review the gauge symmetry breaking mechanism due to orbifold projections in orbifold model building. We explicitly show the existence of a scale of breaking if such a symmetry breaking is due to freely-acting orbifold operators only, i.e. in case the breaking is realized non-locally in the internal space. We show that such a scale is related to the compactification moduli only, and that there are no extra continuous parameters, at least in semirealistic models with N=1 SUSY in four dimensions. In this sense, the mechanism is peculiarly different from the standard Higgs (or Hosotani) symmetry breaking mechanism. We show that the mechanism also differs from that present in standard orbifold models where, even in presence of discrete Wilson lines, a scale of breaking is generically missing, since the breaking is localized in specific points in the internal space. We review a set of background geometries where the described non-local breaking is realized, both in the case of two and six extra dimensions. In the latter case, relevant in string model building, we consider both heterotic and open string compactifications.
Lepton Flavor Violation in Flavored Gauge Mediation
Lorenzo Calibbi; Paride Paradisi; Robert Ziegler
2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z
We study the anatomy and phenomenology of Lepton Flavor Violation (LFV) in the context of Flavored Gauge Mediation (FGM). Within FGM, the messenger sector couples directly to the MSSM matter fields with couplings controlled by the same dynamics that explains the hierarchies in the SM Yukawas. Although the pattern of flavor violation depends on the particular underlying flavor model, FGM provides a built-in flavor suppression similar to wave function renormalization or SUSY Partial Compositeness. Moreover, in contrast to these models, there is an additional suppression of left-right (LR) flavor transitions by third-generation Yukawas that in particular provides an extra protection against flavor-blind phases. We exploit the consequences of this setup for lepton flavor phenomenology, assuming that the new couplings are controlled by simple U(1) flavor models that have been proposed to accommodate large neutrino mixing angles. Remarkably, it turns out that in the context of FGM these models can pass the impressive constraints from LFV processes and leptonic EDMs even for light superpartners, therefore offering the possibility of resolving the longstanding muon g-2 anomaly.
Suppressions and cascades : insights from gauge/gravity dualities
Ejaz, Qudsia Jabeen
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
At present, there are no non-perturbative analytic methods available for investigating gauge theories at large couplings. Consequently, it is desirable to explore more avenues to gain qualitative and quantitative insights. ...
Gauge-invariant Green function dynamics: A unified approach
Swiecicki, Sylvia D., E-mail: sswiecic@physics.utoronto.ca; Sipe, J.E., E-mail: sipe@physics.utoronto.ca
2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
We present a gauge-invariant description of Green function dynamics introduced by means of a generalized Peirels phase involving an arbitrary differentiable path in space–time. Two other approaches to formulating a gauge-invariant description of systems, the Green function treatment of Levanda and Fleurov [M. Levanda, V. Fleurov, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 6 (1994) 7889] and the usual multipolar expansion for an atom, are shown to arise as special cases of our formalism. We argue that the consideration of paths in the generalized Peirels phase that do not lead to introduction of an effective gauge-invariant Hamiltonian with polarization and magnetization fields may prove useful for the treatment of the response of materials with short electron correlation lengths. -- Highlights: •Peirels phase for an arbitrary path in space–time established. •Gauge-invariant Green functions and the Power–Zienau–Wooley transformation connected. •Limitations on possible polarization and magnetization fields established.
New Mechanisms of Gauge-Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking
Lisa Randall
1996-12-19T23:59:59.000Z
We introduce new mechanisms for the communication of supersymmetry breaking via gauge interactions. These models do not require complicated dynamics to induce a nonvanishing F term for a singlet. The first class of models communicates supersymmetry breaking to the visible sector through a ``mediator" field that transforms under both a messenger gauge group of the dynamical supersymmetry breaking sector and the standard model gauge group. This model has distinctive phenomenology; in particular, the scalar superpartners should be heavier by at least an order of magnitude than the gaugino superpartners. The second class of models has phenomenology more similar to the ``standard" messenger sectors. A singlet is incorporated, but the model does not require complicated mechanisms to generate a singlet F term. The role of the singlet is to couple fields from the dynamical symmetry breaking sector to fields transforming under the standard model gauge group. We also mention a potential solution to the $\\mu$ problem.
Gauge Drivers for the Generalized Harmonic Einstein Equations
Lee Lindblom; Keith D. Matthews; Oliver Rinne; Mark A. Scheel
2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z
The generalized harmonic representation of Einstein's equation is manifestly hyperbolic for a large class of gauge conditions. Unfortunately most of the useful gauges developed over the past several decades by the numerical relativity community are incompatible with the hyperbolicity of the equations in this form. This paper presents a new method of imposing gauge conditions that preserves hyperbolicity for a much wider class of conditions, including as special cases many of the standard ones used in numerical relativity: e.g., K-freezing, Gamma-freezing, Bona-Masso slicing, conformal Gamma-drivers, etc. Analytical and numerical results are presented which test the stability and the effectiveness of this new gauge driver evolution system.
Parity-violating vertices for spin-3 gauge fields
Boulanger, Nicolas; Leclercq, Serge; Cnockaert, Sandrine [Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Academie Wallonie-Bruxelles, Mecanique et Gravitation, Avenue du Champ de Mars 6, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, U.L.B. Campus Plaine, C.P. 231, B-1050, Brussels (Belgium)
2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
The problem of constructing consistent parity-violating interactions for spin-3 gauge fields is considered in Minkowski space. Under the assumptions of locality, Poincare invariance, and parity noninvariance, we classify all the nontrivial perturbative deformations of the Abelian gauge algebra. In space-time dimensions n=3 and n=5, deformations of the free theory are obtained which make the gauge algebra non-Abelian and give rise to nontrivial cubic vertices in the Lagrangian, at first order in the deformation parameter g. At second order in g, consistency conditions are obtained which the five-dimensional vertex obeys, but which rule out the n=3 candidate. Moreover, in the five-dimensional first-order deformation case, the gauge transformations are modified by a new term which involves the second de Wit-Freedman connection in a simple and suggestive way.
Uniform Gauge for D1-brane in General Background
Kluson, J
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We construct uniform gauge D1-brane action in general background. We also discuss how this action transforms under double Wick rotation and determine transformation properties of background fields.
The Higgs boson as a gauge field in extra dimensions
Marco Serone
2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z
I review, at a general non-technical level, the main properties of models in extra dimensions where the Higgs field is identified with some internal component of a gauge field.
affine gauge theory: Topics by E-print Network
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Arrays HEP - Theory (arXiv) Summary: We show that the zero-temperature physics of planar Josephson junction arrays in the self-dual approximation is governed by an Abelian gauge...
Strings and monopoles in strongly interacting gauge theories
Dyer, Ethan Stanley
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this thesis we discuss aspects of strongly coupled gauge theories in two and three dimensions. In three dimensions, we present results for the scaling dimension and transformation properties of monopole operators in ...
General heatbath algorithm for pure lattice gauge theory
Robert W. Johnson
2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z
A heatbath algorithm is proposed for pure SU(N) lattice gauge theory based on the Manton action of the plaquette element for general gauge group N. Comparison is made to the Metropolis thermalization algorithm using both the Wilson and Manton actions. The heatbath algorithm is found to outperform the Metropolis algorithm in both execution speed and decorrelation rate. Results, mostly in D=3, for N=2 through 5 at several values for the inverse coupling are presented.
Towards Unifying Structures in Higher Spin Gauge Symmetry
Anders K. H. Bengtsson
2008-02-04T23:59:59.000Z
This article is expository in nature, outlining some of the many still incompletely understood features of higher spin field theory. We are mainly considering higher spin gauge fields in their own right as free-standing theoretical constructs and not circumstances where they occur as part of another system. Considering the problem of introducing interactions among higher spin gauge fields, there has historically been two broad avenues of approach. One approach entails gauging a non-Abelian global symmetry algebra, in the process making it local. The other approach entails deforming an already local but Abelian gauge algebra, in the process making it non-Abelian. In cases where both avenues have been explored, such as for spin 1 and 2 gauge fields, the results agree (barring conceptual and technical issues) with Yang-Mills theory and Einstein gravity. In the case of an infinite tower of higher spin gauge fields, the first approach has been thoroughly developed and explored by M. Vasiliev, whereas the second approach, after having lain dormant for a long time, has received new attention by several authors lately. In the present paper we briefly review some aspects of the history of higher spin gauge fields as a backdrop to an attempt at comparing the gauging vs. deforming approaches. A common unifying structure of strongly homotopy Lie algebras underlying both approaches will be discussed. The modern deformation approach, using BRST-BV methods, will be described as far as it is developed at the present time. The first steps of a formulation in the categorical language of operads will be outlined. A few aspects of the subject that seems not to have been thoroughly investigated are pointed out.
Superstring dominated early universe and epoch dependent gauge coupling
A. K. Chaudhuri
1997-06-13T23:59:59.000Z
We have explored the possibility that the universe at very early stage was dominated by (macroscopic) heterotic strings. We have found that the dimensionless parameter $G\\mu$ for the heterotic strings varies from $10^{-2}$ to $10^{-4}$ as the universe evolve from the matter dominance to radiation dominance. This led to the interesting consequence of epoch dependent gauge coupling constant. The gauge coupling constant at early times was found to be much stronger than the present strong interaction.
On 3-gauge transformations, 3-curvatures, and Gray-categories
Wang, Wei, E-mail: wwang@zju.edu.cn [Department of Mathematics, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang 310027 (China)] [Department of Mathematics, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang 310027 (China)
2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
In the 3-gauge theory, a 3-connection is given by a 1-form A valued in the Lie algebra g, a 2-form B valued in the Lie algebra h, and a 3-form C valued in the Lie algebra l, where (g,h,l) constitutes a differential 2-crossed module. We give the 3-gauge transformations from one 3-connection to another, and show the transformation formulae of the 1-curvature 2-form, the 2-curvature 3-form, and the 3-curvature 4-form. The gauge configurations can be interpreted as smooth Gray-functors between two Gray 3-groupoids: the path 3-groupoid P{sub 3}(X) and the 3-gauge group G{sup L} associated to the 2-crossed module L, whose differential is (g,h,l). The derivatives of Gray-functors are 3-connections, and the derivatives of lax-natural transformations between two such Gray-functors are 3-gauge transformations. We give the 3-dimensional holonomy, the lattice version of the 3-curvature, whose derivative gives the 3-curvature 4-form. The covariance of 3-curvatures easily follows from this construction. This Gray-categorical construction explains why 3-gauge transformations and 3-curvatures have the given forms. The interchanging 3-arrows are responsible for the appearance of terms with the Peiffer commutator (, )
Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng
2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z
Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.
Majewski, Stanislaw; Weisenberger, Andrew G.
2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
In a camera or similar radiation sensitive device comprising a pixilated scintillation layer, a light guide and an array of position sensitive photomultiplier tubes, wherein there exists so-called dead space between adjacent photomultiplier tubes the improvement comprising a two part light guide comprising a first planar light spreading layer or portion having a first surface that addresses the scintillation layer and optically coupled thereto at a second surface that addresses the photomultiplier tubes, a second layer or portion comprising an array of trapezoidal light collectors defining gaps that span said dead space and are individually optically coupled to individual position sensitive photomultiplier tubes. According to a preferred embodiment, coupling of the trapezoidal light collectors to the position sensitive photomultiplier tubes is accomplished using an optical grease having about the same refractive index as the material of construction of the two part light guide.
Boyer, Edmond
Raindrop size distributions and radar reflectivity-rain rate relationships for radar hydrology 615 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 5(4), 615Â627 (2001) Â© EGS Raindrop size distributions and radar reflectivityÂrain rate relationships for radar hydrology* Remko Uijlenhoet1 Sub-department Water Resources
Toohey, Darin W.
ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Â Problem 11, Spring 2014 We Didn't Get Much into Acid Rain...this shows how rainwater is naturally acidic from atmospheric carbon dioxide alone The pH of fresh water is determined equilibrium, calculate the amount of dissolved CO2 ([H2CO3]) in a rain droplet that is equilibrium with air
Martin, Craig E.; Harris, Fred S.; Norman, Frank J.
1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Ecophysiological responses to drought and a 3-cm rain were measured in seven C3 forb and five C4 grass species on a tallgrass prairie in northeastern Kansas. In general, midday leaf water potentials and conductances increased after rain to a greater...
Low-energy U(1) x USp(2M) gauge theory from simple high-energy gauge group
Sven Bjarke Gudnason; Kenichi Konishi
2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z
We give an explicit example of the embedding of a near BPS low-energy (U(1) x USp(2M))/Z_2 gauge theory into a high-energy theory with a simple gauge group and adjoint matter content. This system possesses degenerate monopoles arising from the high-energy symmetry breaking as well as non-Abelian vortices due to the symmetry breaking at low energies. These solitons of different codimensions are related by the exact homotopy sequences.
Strong-field approximation for intense-laser-atom processes: The choice of gauge
Bauer, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Milosevic, D.B. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Becker, W. [Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Strasse 2a, 12489 Berlin (Germany)
2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
The strong-field approximation (SFA) can be and has been applied in both length gauge and velocity gauge with quantitatively conflicting answers. For ionization of negative ions with a ground state of odd parity, the predictions of the two gauges differ qualitatively: in the envelope of the angular-resolved energy spectrum, dips in one gauge correspond to humps in the other. We show that the length-gauge SFA matches the exact numerical solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation.
Formulation of spinors in terms of gauge fields
Shiv R. Vatsya
2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z
It is shown in the present paper that the transformation relating a parallel transported vector in a Weyl space to the original one is the product of a multiplicative gauge transformation and a proper orthochronous Lorentz transformation. Such a Lorentz transformation admits a spinor representation, which is obtained and used to deduce the transportation properties of a Weyl spinor, which are then expressed in terms of a composite gauge group defined as the product of a multiplicative gauge group and the spinor group. These properties render a spinor amenable to its treatment as a particle coupled to a multidimensional gauge field in the framework of the Kaluza-Klein formulation extended to multidimensional gauge fields. In this framework, a fiber bundle is constructed with a horizontal, base space and a vertical, gauge space, which is a Lie group manifold, termed its structure group. For the present, the base is the Minkowski spacetime and the vertical space is the composite gauge group mentioned above. The fiber bundle is equipped with a Riemannian structure, which is used to obtain the classical description of motion of a spinor. In its classical picture, a Weyl spinor is found to behave as a spinning charged particle in translational motion. The corresponding quantum description is deduced from the Klein-Gordon equation in the Riemann spaces obtained by the methods of path-integration. This equation in the present fiber bundle reduces to the equation for a spinor in the Weyl geometry, which is close to but differs somewhat from the squared Dirac equation.
Dew, fog, and rain as supplementary sources of water in south-western I. Lekoucha,b,c
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
the growing tourist industry. To face the conventional water shortage and rising water prices, the use1 Dew, fog, and rain as supplementary sources of water in south-western Morocco I. Lekoucha,b,c , M as alternative or supplemental sources of water. Four standard dew condensers and a passive fog net collector
Schott, J. [Entergy Corporation, Beaumont, TX (United States)
1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
Entergy Corporation is a Phase II utility with a fossil generation base composed primarily natural gas and low sulfur coal. This paper presents an analysis of a large Phase II utility`s continuous emissions monitoring data reported to EPA under Title IV Acid Rain. Electric utilities currently report hourly emissions of NOx, SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, fuel use, and generation through electronic data reports to EPA. This paper describes strengths and weaknesses of the data reported to EPA as determined through an analysis of 1995 data. Emissions reported by this company tinder acid rain for SO{sub 2} and NOx are very different from emissions reported to state agencies for annual emission inventory purposes in past years and will represent a significant break with historic trends. A comparison of emissions has been made of 1995 emissions reported under Electronic Data Reports to the emissions that would have been reported using emission factors and fuel data in past years. In addition, the paper examines the impacts of 40 CFR Part 75 Acid Rain requirements such as missing data substitution and monitor bias adjustments. Measurement system errors including stack flow measurement and false NOx Lb/MMBtu readings at very low loads are discussed. This paper describes the implications for public policy, compliance, emissions inventories, and business decisions of Part 75 acid rain monitoring and reporting requirements.
Week 4, Rain in my Brain On top of the Harbor Cone, Otago Peninsula, Pacific Ocean in the distance.
Bardsley, John
Week 4, Rain in my Brain On top of the Harbor Cone, Otago Peninsula, Pacific Ocean in the distance of the ocean or of this beautiful city from on-high and it all comes back that we're here, a dream come true
ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Spring 2014 The San Joaquin, acid rain, and using a simple "box" model
Toohey, Darin W.
ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Â Spring 2014 Problem 19 The San Joaquin, acid rain, and using a simple "box-called "acid fogs" in this valley. Assume a "box" of area 1 km2 (1 km x 1km) with the top of the box `box', calculate the steady-state SO2 concentration (in units of molecules cm-3 ). (c) Sulfuric acid
ATOC/CHEM 5151 Fall 2014 The San Joaquin Valley, acid rain, and a simple "box" model
Toohey, Darin W.
ATOC/CHEM 5151 Â Fall 2014 Problem 26 The San Joaquin Valley, acid rain, and a simple "box" model. In this problem, use a simple box model to estimate the formation of so-called "acid fogs" in this valley. Assume the steady-state SO2 concentration (in units of molecules cm-3 ). (2) Sulfuric acid is produced from
Gauge and Lorentz transformation placed on the same foundation
R. Saar; S. Groote; H. Liivat; I. Ots
2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z
In this note we show that a "dynamical" interaction for arbitrary spin can be constructed in a straightforward way if gauge and Lorentz transformations are placed on the same foundation. As Lorentz transformations act on space-time coordinates, gauge transformations are applied to the gauge field. Placing these two transformations on the same ground means that all quantized field like spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 spinors are functions not only of the coordinates but also of the gauge field components. This change of perspective solves a couple of problems occuring for higher spin fields like the loss of causality, bad high-energy properties and the deviation of the gyromagnetic ratio from its constant value g=2 for any spin, as caused by applying the minimal coupling. Starting with a "dynamical" interaction, a non-minimal coupling can be derived which is consistent with causality, the expectation for the gyromagnetic ratio, and well-behaved for high energies. As a consequence, on this stage the (elektromagnetic) gauge field has to be considered as classical field. Therefore, standard quantum field theory cannot be applied. Despite this inconvenience, such a common ground is consistent with an old dream of physicists almost a century ago. Our approach, therefore, indicates a straightforward way to realize this dream.
Gauge-preheating and the end of axion inflation
Adshead, Peter; Scully, Timothy R; Sfakianakis, Evangelos I
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We study the onset of the reheating epoch at the end of axion-driven inflation where the axion is coupled to an Abelian, $U(1)$, gauge field via a Chern-Simons interaction term. We focus primarily on $m^2\\phi^2$ inflation and explore the possibility that preheating can occur for a range of coupling values consistent with recent observations and bounds on the overproduction of primordial black holes. We find that for a wide range of parameters preheating is efficient. In certain cases the inflaton is seen to transfer all its energy to the gauge fields within a few oscillations. We find that the gauge fields on sub-horizon scales end in an unpolarized state, due to the existence of strong rescattering between the inflaton and gauge modes. We also present a preliminary study of an axion monodromy model coupled to $U(1)$ gauge fields, seeing a similarly efficient preheating behavior as well as indications that the coupling strength has an effect on the creation of oscillons.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
2 14 | Next | Last Back to Index Optics Line up of optics after cleaning. Photo Number: 2013-048779...
Smooth interpolation of lattice gauge fields by signal processing methods
James E. Hetrick
1995-09-29T23:59:59.000Z
We digitally filter the Fourier modes of the link angles of an abelian lattice gauge field which produces the Fourier modes of a continuum $A_\\mu(x)$ that exactly reproduces the lattice links through their definition as phases of finite parallel transport. The constructed interpolation is smooth ($C^\\infty$), free from transition functions, and gauge equivariant. After discussing some properties of this interpolation, we discuss the non-abelian generalization of the method, arriving for SU(2), at a Cayley parametrization of the links in terms of the Fourier modes of $A^c_\\mu(x)$. We then discuss the use of a maximum entropy type method to address gauge invariance in the non-abelian case.
Quantized gauge-affine gravity in the superfiber bundle approach
Meziane, A.; Tahiri, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite d'Oran Es-senia, 31100 Oran (Algeria)
2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
The quantization of gauge-affine gravity within the superfiber bundle formalism is proposed. By introducing an even pseudotensorial 1-superform over a principal superfiber bundle with superconnection, we obtain the geometrical Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST transformations of the fields occurring in such a theory. Reducing the four-dimensional general affine group double-covering GA(4,R) to the Poincare group double-covering ISO(1,3) we also find the BRST and anti-BRST transformations of the fields present in Einstein's gravity. Furthermore, we give a prescription leading to the construction of both BRST-invariant gauge-fixing action for gauge-affine gravity and Einstein's gravity.
Landscape of Supersymmetry Breaking Vacua in Geometrically Realized Gauge Theories
Hirosi Ooguri; Yutaka Ookouchi
2006-07-07T23:59:59.000Z
We study vacuum structure of N=1 supersymmetric quiver gauge theories which can be realized geometrically by D brane probes wrapping cycles of local Calabi-Yau three-folds. In particular, we show that the A_2 quiver theory with gauge group U(N_1) \\times U(N_2) with N_1 / 2 landscape of inequivalent meta-stable vacua where supersymmetry is dynamically broken and all the moduli are stabilized. Each vacuum has distinct unbroken gauge symmetry. B-terms generated by the supersymmetry breaking give rise to gaugino masses at one-loop, and we are left with the bosonic pure Yang-Mills theory in the infrared. We also identify the supersymmetric vacua in this model using their infrared free descriptions and show that the decay rates of the supersymmetry breaking vacua into the supersymmetric vacua can be made parametrically small.
Gauge Theory for Spectral Triples and the Unbounded Kasparov Product
Simon Brain; Bram Mesland; Walter D. van Suijlekom
2015-01-17T23:59:59.000Z
We explore factorizations of noncommutative Riemannian spin geometries over commutative base manifolds in unbounded KK-theory. After setting up the general formalism of unbounded KK-theory and improving upon the construction of internal products, we arrive at a natural bundle-theoretic formulation of gauge theories arising from spectral triples. We find that the unitary group of a given noncommutative spectral triple arises as the group of endomorphisms of a certain Hilbert bundle; the inner fluctuations split in terms of connections on, and endomorphisms of, this Hilbert bundle. Moreover, we introduce an extended gauge group of unitary endomorphisms and a corresponding notion of gauge fields. We work out several examples in full detail, to wit Yang--Mills theory, the noncommutative torus and the $\\theta$-deformed Hopf fibration over the two-sphere.
Significance of gauge line error in orifice measurement
Bowen, J.W. [ANR Pipeline Co., Detroit, MI (United States)
1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Pulsation induced gauge line amplification can cause errors in the recorded differential signal used to calculate flow. Its presence may be detected using dual transmitters (one connected at the orifice taps, the other at the end of the gauge lines) and comparing the relative peak to peak amplitudes. Its affect on recorded differential may be determined by averaging both signals with a PC based data acquisition and analysis system. Remedial action is recommended in all cases where amplification is detected. Use of close connect, full opening manifolds, is suggested to decouple the gauge lines` resonant frequency from that of the excitation`s, by positioning the recording device as close to the process signal`s origin as possible.
Conjugate Directions in Lattice Landau and Coulomb Gauge Fixing
R. J. Hudspith
2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z
We provide details expanding on our implementation of a non-linear conjugate gradient method with Fourier acceleration for lattice Landau and Coulomb gauge fixing. We find clear improvement over the Fourier accelerated steepest descent method, with the average time taken for the algorithm to converge to a fixed, high accuracy, being reduced by a factor of 2 to 4. We show such improvement for the logarithmic definition of the gauge fields here, having already shown this to be the case for a more common definition. We also discuss the implementation of an optimal Fourier accelerated steepest descent method.
Dirac monopoles on Kerr black holes: comparing gauges
Yu. P. Goncharov
1998-11-17T23:59:59.000Z
We update our previous work on the description of twisted configurations for complex massless scalar field on the Kerr black holes as the sections of complex line bundles over the Kerr black hole topology. From physical point of view the appearance of twisted configurations is linked with the natural presence of Dirac monopoles that arise as connections in the above line bundles. We consider their description in the gauge inequivalent to the one studied previously and discuss a row of new features appearing in this gauge.
Gauge Theories on de Sitter space and Killing Vectors
Rabin Banerjee
2006-08-14T23:59:59.000Z
We provide a general method for studying a manifestly covariant formulation of $p$-form gauge theories on the de Sitter space. This is done by stereographically projecting the corresponding theories, defined on flat Minkowski space, onto the surface of a de Sitter hyperboloid. The gauge fields in the two descriptions are mapped by conformal Killing vectors allowing for a very transparent analysis and compact presentation of results. As applications, the axial anomaly is computed and the electric-magnetic duality is exhibited. Finally, the zero curvature limit is shown to yield consistent results.
Rapid Thermalization by Baryon Injection in Gauge/Gravity Duality
Koji Hashimoto; Norihiro Iizuka; Takashi Oka
2011-08-26T23:59:59.000Z
Using the AdS/CFT correspondence for strongly coupled gauge theories, we calculate thermalization of mesons caused by a time-dependent change of a baryon number chemical potential. On the gravity side, the thermalization corresponds to a horizon formation on the probe flavor brane in the AdS throat. Since heavy ion collisions are locally approximated by a sudden change of the baryon number chemical potential, we discuss implication of our results to RHIC and LHC experiments, to find a rough estimate of rather rapid thermalization time-scale t_{th} < 1 [fm/c]. We also discuss universality of our analysis against varying gauge theories.
Gauge Invariant Effective Stress-Energy Tensors for Gravitational Waves
Paul R. Anderson
1996-09-09T23:59:59.000Z
It is shown that if a generalized definition of gauge invariance is used, gauge invariant effective stress-energy tensors for gravitational waves and other gravitational perturbations can be defined in a much larger variety of circumstances than has previously been possible. In particular it is no longer necessary to average the stress-energy tensor over a region of spacetime which is larger in scale than the wavelengths of the waves and it is no longer necessary to restrict attention to high frequency gravitational waves.
Muon g-2 Anomaly and Dark Leptonic Gauge Boson
Lee, Hye-Sung [W& M
2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
One of the major motivations to search for a dark gauge boson of MeV-GeV scale is the long-standing muon g-2 anomaly. Because of active searches such as fixed target experiments and rare meson decays, the muon g-2 favored parameter region has been rapidly reduced. With the most recent data, it is practically excluded now in the popular dark photon model. We overview the issue and investigate a potentially alternative model based on the gauged lepton number or U(1)_L, which is under different experimental constraints.
Gauge and Higgs Boson Masses from an Extra Dimension
Graham Moir; Peter Dziennik; Nikos Irges; Francesco Knechtli; Kyoko Yoneyama
2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z
We present novel calculations of the mass hierarchy of the $SU(2)$ pure gauge theory on a space-time lattice with an orbifolded fifth dimension. This theory has three parameters; the gauge coupling $\\beta$, the anisotropy $\\gamma$, which is a measure of the ratio of the lattice spacing in the four dimensions to that in the fifth dimension, and the extent of the extra dimension $N_{5}$. Using a large basis of scalar and vector operators we explore in detail the spectrum along the $\\gamma = 1$ line, and for the first time we investigate the spectrum for $\\gamma \
Maps for currents and anomalies in noncommutative gauge theories
Rabin Banerjee; Kuldeep Kumar
2005-04-13T23:59:59.000Z
We derive maps relating currents and their divergences in non-abelian U(N) noncommutative gauge theory with the corresponding expressions in the ordinary (commutative) description. For the U(1) theory, in the slowly-varying-field approximation, these maps are also seen to connect the star-gauge-covariant anomaly in the noncommutative theory with the standard Adler--Bell--Jackiw anomaly in the commutative version. For arbitrary fields, derivative corrections to the maps are explicitly computed up to O(\\theta^2).
QJT as a Regularization: Origin of the New Gauge Anomalies
T. A. Larsson
2009-05-25T23:59:59.000Z
QJT is considered as a regularization of QFT, where the fields are replaced by finite $p$-jets. The regularized phase space is infinite-dimensional, because not all histories are determined by initial conditions. Gauge symmetries are not fully preserved by the regularization, and gauge anomalies arise. These anomalies are of a new type, not present in QFT. They generically diverge when the regulator is removed, but can be made finite with a particular choice of field content, provided that spacetime has at most four dimensions. The field content appears to include unphysical fields that violate the spin-statistics theorem.
Janis-Newman algorithm: simplifications and gauge field transformation
Harold Erbin
2015-02-16T23:59:59.000Z
The Janis-Newman algorithm is an old but very powerful tool to generate rotating solutions from static ones through a set of complex coordinate transformations. Several solutions have been derived in this way, including solutions with gauge fields. However, the transformation of the latter was so far always postulated as an ad hoc result. In this paper we propose a generalization of the procedure, extending it to the transformation of the gauge field. We also present a simplification of the algorithm due to G. Giampieri. We illustrate our prescription on the Kerr-Newman solution.
Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Skogen, Erik J; Vawter, Gregory A
2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z
An optical sampler includes a first and second 1.times.n optical beam splitters splitting an input optical sampling signal and an optical analog input signal into n parallel channels, respectively, a plurality of optical delay elements providing n parallel delayed input optical sampling signals, n photodiodes converting the n parallel optical analog input signals into n respective electrical output signals, and n optical modulators modulating the input optical sampling signal or the optical analog input signal by the respective electrical output signals, and providing n successive optical samples of the optical analog input signal. A plurality of output photodiodes and eADCs convert the n successive optical samples to n successive digital samples. The optical modulator may be a photodiode interconnected Mach-Zehnder Modulator. A method of sampling the optical analog input signal is disclosed.
Thomas Rotation and Polarised Light: A non-Abelian Geometric Phase in Optics
Joseph Samuel; Supurna Sinha
1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z
We describe a non-Abelian Berry phase in polarisation optics, suggested by an analogy due to Nityananda between boosts in special relativity and the effect of elliptic dichroism on polarised light. The analogy permits a simple optical realization of the non-Abelian gauge field describing Thomas rotation. We also show how Thomas rotation can be understood geometrically on the Poincar\\'{e} sphere in terms of the Pancharatnam phase.
Optical Packet Switching -1 Optical Networks
Mellia, Marco
Optical Packet Switching - 1 Optical Networks: from fiber transmission to photonic switching Optical Packet Switching Fabio Neri and Marco Mellia TLC Networks Group Â Electronics Department e.mellia@polito.it Â tel. 011 564 4173 #12;Optical Packet Switching - 2 Â· This work is licensed under the Creative Commons
Ultrafast optics For optics and photonics course,
Palffy-Muhoray, Peter
ultrafast and ultrashort generally describe pulses of widths in the nanosecond to femtosecond, or shorterUltrafast optics For optics and photonics course, Spring 2012 By :Alireza Moheghi Ultrafast optics, regimes. Â· Interest in ultrashort optical pulses began with the invention of the laser, Â· Ultrashort
Chaves, Julio C.; Falicoff, Waqidi; Minano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Dross, Oliver; Parkyn Jr., William A.
2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z
An optical manifold for efficiently combining a plurality of blue LED outputs to illuminate a phosphor for a single, substantially homogeneous output, in a small, cost-effective package. Embodiments are disclosed that use a single or multiple LEDs and a remote phosphor, and an intermediate wavelength-selective filter arranged so that backscattered photoluminescence is recycled to boost the luminance and flux of the output aperture. A further aperture mask is used to boost phosphor luminance with only modest loss of luminosity. Alternative non-recycling embodiments provide blue and yellow light in collimated beams, either separately or combined into white.
Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)
2000-01-11T23:59:59.000Z
An optical microphone includes a laser and beam splitter cooperating therewith for splitting a laser beam into a reference beam and a signal beam. A reflecting sensor receives the signal beam and reflects it in a plurality of reflections through sound pressure waves. A photodetector receives both the reference beam and reflected signal beam for heterodyning thereof to produce an acoustic signal for the sound waves. The sound waves vary the local refractive index in the path of the signal beam which experiences a Doppler frequency shift directly analogous with the sound waves.
Kotz, K.T.; Noble, K.A.; Faris, G.W. [Molecular Physics Laboratory, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)
2004-09-27T23:59:59.000Z
We present a method for the control of small droplets based on the thermal Marangoni effect using laser heating. With this approach, droplets covering five orders of magnitude in volume ({approx}1.7 {mu}L to 14 pL), immersed in decanol, were moved on an unmodified polystyrene surface, with speeds of up to 3 mm/s. When two droplets were brought into contact, they spontaneously fused and rapidly mixed in less than 33 ms. This optically addressed microfluidic approach has many advantages for microfluidic transport, including exceptional reconfigurability, low intersample contamination, large volume range, extremely simple substrates, no electrical connections, and ready scaling to large arrays.
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicyFeasibility ofSmall15.000TechnologyTuneFewer Faults for
Zutavern, Zachary Scott
2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
output and the FOSG signal conditioning unit (SCU) are acquired using National Instruments hardware and Labview software. The data reduction is performed in MS Excel. A detailed description of the test rig and data acquisition system follows. Test...) steel plates with a 3 in. (76 mm) steel top. NI Hardware and Labview Data Acquisition System The data acquisition system consists of 2 E-series National Instruments PCI cards. The 6035E card has 2, 12 bit, analog output channels and 8, 16 bit...
Wilson lines and gauge invariant off-shell amplitudes
Piotr Kotko
2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z
We study matrix elements of Fourier-transformed straight infinite Wilson lines as a way to calculate gauge invariant tree-level amplitudes with off-shell gluons. The off-shell gluons are assigned "polarization vectors" which (in the Feynman gauge) are transverse to their off-shell momenta and define the direction of the corresponding Wilson line operators. The infinite Wilson lines are first regularized to prove the correctness of the method. We have implemented the method in a computer FORM program that can calculate gluonic matrix elements of Wilson line operators automatically. In addition we formulate the Feynman rules that are convenient in certain applications, e.g. proving the Ward identities. Using both the program and the Feynman rules we calculate a few examples, in particular the matrix elements corresponding to gauge invariant $g^{*}g^{*}g^{*}g$ and $g^{*}g^{*}g^{*}g^{*}g$ processes. An immediate application of the approach is in the high energy scattering, as in a special kinematic setup our results reduce to the form directly related to Lipatov's vertices. Thus the results we present can be directly transformed into Lipatov's vertices, in particular into $RRRP$ and $RRRRP$ vertices with arbitrary "orientation" of reggeized gluons. Since the formulation itself is not restricted to high-energy scattering, we also apply the method to a decomposition of an ordinary on-shell amplitude into a set of gauge invariant objects.
Dark matter at the LHC: EFTs and gauge invariance
Bell, Nicole F; Dent, James B; Leane, Rebecca K; Weiler, Thomas J
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Effective field theory (EFT) formulations of dark matter interactions have proven to be a convenient and popular way to quantify LHC bounds on dark matter. However, some of the non-renormalizable EFT operators considered do not respect the gauge symmetries of the Standard Model. We carefully discuss under what circumstances such operators can arise, and outline potential issues in their interpretation and application.
The monopole mass in the random percolation gauge theory
Pietro Giudice; Ferdinando Gliozzi; Stefano Lottini
2008-11-17T23:59:59.000Z
We study the behaviour of the monopole at finite temperature in the (2+1)-dimensional lattice gauge theory dual to the percolation model; by exploiting the correspondences to statistical systems, we possess powerful tools to evaluate the monopole mass both above and below the critical temperature with high-precision Monte Carlo simulations.
Unification of Gravitation, Gauge Field and Dark Energy
Xin-Bing Huang
2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z
This paper is composed of two correlated topics: 1. unification of gravitation with gauge fields; 2. the coupling between the daor field and other fields and the origin of dark energy. After introducing the concept of ``daor field" and discussing the daor geometry, we indicate that the complex daor field has two kinds of symmetry transformations. Hence the gravitation and SU(1,3) gauge field are unified under the framework of the complex connection. We propose a first-order nonlinear coupling equation of the daor field, which includes the coupling between the daor field and SU(1,3) gauge field and the coupling between the daor field and the curvature, and from which Einstein's gravitational equation can be deduced. The cosmological observations imply that dark energy cannot be zero, and which will dominate the doom of our Universe. The real part of the daor field self-coupling equation can be regarded as Einstein's equation endowed with the cosmological constant. It shows that dark energy originates from the self-coupling of the space-time curvature, and the energy-momentum tensor is proportional to the square of coupling constant \\lambda. The dark energy density given by our scenario is in agreement with astronomical observations. Furthermore, the Newtonian gravitational constant G and the coupling constant \\epsilon of gauge field satisfy G= \\lambda^{2}\\epsilon^{2}.
SU(4) harmonic superspace and supersymmetric gauge theory
B. M. Zupnik
2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z
We consider the harmonic-superspace formalism in the $N=4$ supersymmetry using the $SU(4)/SU(2)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)$ harmonics which was earlier applied to the abelian gauge theory. The N=4 non-abelian constraints in a standard superspace are reformulated as the harmonic-superspace equations for two basic analytic superfields: the independent superfield strength W of a dimension 1 and the dimensionless harmonic gauge 4-prepotential V having the $U(1)$ charge 2. These constraint equations I manifestly depend on the Grassmann coordinates $\\theta$, although they are covariant under the unusual N=4 supersymmetry transformations. We analyze an alternative harmonic formalism of the supergauge theory for two unconstrained nonabelian analytic superfields W and V. The gauge-invariant action A(W,V) in this formalism contains $\\theta$ factors in each term, it is invariant under the $SU(4)$ automorphism group. In this model, the interaction of two infinite-dimensional N=4 supermultiplets with the physical and auxiliary fields arises at the level of component fields. The action A(W,V) generate analytic equations of motion II alternative to the harmonic-superspace superfield constraints I. Both sets of equations give us the equivalent equations for the physical component fields of the $N=4$ gauge supermultiplet, they connect auxiliary and physical fields of two superfields. The nonlinear effective interaction of the abelian harmonic superfield W is constructed.
Vacuum stability of asymptotically safe gauge-Yukawa theories
Litim, Daniel F; Sannino, Francesco
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We study the phase diagram and the stability of the ground state for certain four-dimensional gauge-Yukawa theories whose high-energy behaviour is controlled by an interacting fixed point. We also provide analytical and numerical results for running couplings, their crossover scales, the separatrix, and the Coleman-Weinberg effective potential. Classical and quantum stability of the vacuum is established.
Einstein equations in the null quasi-spherical gauge
Robert Bartnik
1997-05-29T23:59:59.000Z
The structure of the full Einstein equations in a coordinate gauge based on expanding null hypersurfaces foliated by metric 2-spheres is explored. The simple form of the resulting equations has many applications -- in the present paper we describe the structure of timelike boundary conditions; the matching problem across null hypersurfaces; and the propagation of gravitational shocks.
Optics and Optical Engineering Program Assessment Plan Program Learning Objectives
Cantlon, Jessica F.
Optics and Optical Engineering Program Assessment Plan Program Learning, and processes that underlie optics and optical engineering. 2. Strong understanding of the fundamental science, mathematics, and processes that underlie optics and optical
E-Print Network 3.0 - abelian gauge fields Sample Search Results
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If one looks at this history of designing a quantum theory for the non-abelian gauge fields, one... for the non- abelian gauge fields. For this, they have quantized all the...
E-Print Network 3.0 - abelian lattice gauge Sample Search Results
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If one looks at this history of designing a quantum theory for the non-abelian gauge fields, one... for the non- abelian gauge fields. For ... Source: Mathematical Physics...
Improved gauge driver for the generalized harmonic Einstein system Lee Lindblom and Bela Szilagyi
Lindblom, Lee
Improved gauge driver for the generalized harmonic Einstein system Lee Lindblom and BeÂ´la SzilaÂ´gyi
Meson spectra of asymptotically free gauge theories from holography
Johanna Erdmenger; Nick Evans; Marc Scott
2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z
Using holography, we study the low-lying mesonic spectrum of a range of asymptotically free gauge theories. First we revisit a simple top-down holographic model of QCD-like dynamics with predictions in the M_rho-M_pi plane. The meson masses in this model are in very good agreement with lattice gauge theory calculations in the quenched approximation. We show that the key ingredient for the meson mass predictions is the running of the anomalous dimension of the quark condensate, gamma. This provides an explanation for the agreement of holographic and quenched lattice gauge theory calculations. We then study the `Dynamic AdS/QCD model' in which the gauge theory dynamics is included by a choice for the running of gamma. We use the naive two-loop perturbative running of the gauge coupling extrapolated to the non-perturbative regime to estimate the running of gamma across a number of theories. We consider models with quarks in the fundamental, adjoint, two-index symmetric and two-index anti-symmetric representations. We display predictions for M_rho, M_pi, M_sigma and the lightest glueball mass. Many of these theories, where the contribution to the running of gamma is dominated by the gluons, give very similar spectra, which also match with lattice expectations for QCD. On the other hand, a significant difference between spectra in different holographic models is seen for theories where the quark content changes the gradient of the running of gamma around the scale at which chiral symmetry breaking is triggered at gamma approximately 1. For these walking theories we see an enhancement of the rho-mass and a suppression of the sigma-mass. Both phenomena are characteristic for walking behaviour in the physical meson masses.
Current and Future Carbon Budgets of Tropical Rain Forest: A Cross Scale Analysis. Final Report
Oberbauer, S. F.
2004-01-16T23:59:59.000Z
The goal of this project was to make a first assessment of the major carbon stocks and fluxes and their climatic determinants in a lowland neotropical rain forest, the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Our research design was based on the concurrent use of several of the best available approaches, so that data could be cross-validated. A major focus of our effort was to combine meteorological studies of whole-forest carbon exchange (eddy flux), with parallel independent measurements of key components of the forest carbon budget. The eddy flux system operated from February 1998 to February 2001. To obtain field data that could be scaled up to the landscape level, we monitored carbon stocks, net primary productivity components including tree growth and mortality, litterfall, woody debris production, root biomass, and soil respiration in a series of replicated plots stratified across the major environmental gradients of the forest. A second major focus of this project was on the stocks and changes of carbon in the soil. We used isotope studies and intensive monitoring to investigate soil organic stocks and the climate-driven variation of soil respiration down the soil profile, in a set of six 4m deep soil shafts stratified across the landscape. We measured short term tree growth, climate responses of sap flow, and phenology in a suite of ten canopy trees to develop individual models of tree growth to daytime weather variables.
White, Lee JT
An investigation of the effects of commercial mechanised selective logging on rain forest vegetation and mammals, was undertaken in the Lope Reserve, central Gabon, between January 1989 to July 1991. Vegetation in Lope ...
Falicoff, Waqidi; Chaves, Julio C.; Minano, Juan Carlos; Benitez, Pablo; Dross, Oliver; Parkyn, Jr., William A.
2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z
Optical systems are described that have at least one source of a beam of blue light with divergence under 15.degree.. A phosphor emits yellow light when excited by the blue light. A collimator is disposed with the phosphor and forms a yellow beam with divergence under 15.degree.. A dichroic filter is positioned to transmit the beam of blue light to the phosphor and to reflect the beam of yellow light to an exit aperture. In different embodiments, the beams of blue and yellow light are incident upon said filter with central angles of 15.degree., 22.degree., and 45.degree.. The filter may reflect all of one polarization and part of the other polarization, and a polarization rotating retroreflector may then be provided to return the unreflected light to the filter.
NONLINEAR OPTICS AT INTERFACES
Chen, Chenson K.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics (W. A. Benjamin, 1977) p.Research Division NONLINEAR OPTICS AT INTERFACES Chenson K.ED LBL-12084 NONLINEAR OPTICS AT INTERFACES Chenson K. Chen
Shen, Y.R.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, Optics Lett. i, 393 See, for3, 1980 SURFACE NONLINEAR OPTICS Y.R. Shen, C.K. Chen, andde Janiero SURFRACE NONLINEAR OPTICS Y. R. Shen, C. K. Chen,
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The SLS Optics Beamline U. Flechsig ? , R. Abela ? , R.in the ?eld of x-ray optics and synchrotron radiation in-radiation, beamline optics, channel cut monochromator,
Vawter, G. Allen (Corrales, NM)
2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z
An optical data latch is formed on a substrate from a pair of optical logic gates in a cross-coupled arrangement in which optical waveguides are used to couple an output of each gate to an photodetector input of the other gate. This provides an optical bi-stability which can be used to store a bit of optical information in the latch. Each optical logic gate, which can be an optical NOT gate (i.e. an optical inverter) or an optical NOR gate, includes a waveguide photodetector electrically connected in series with a waveguide electroabsorption modulator. The optical data latch can be formed on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate (e.g. an InP or GaAs substrate) from III-V compound semiconductor layers. A number of optical data latches can be cascaded to form a clocked optical data shift register.
Infrared divergences, mass shell singularities and gauge dependence of the dynamical fermion mass
Ashok K. Das; J. Frenkel; C. Schubert
2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z
We study the behavior of the dynamical fermion mass when infrared divergences and mass shell singularities are present in a gauge theory. In particular, in the massive Schwinger model in covariant gauges we find that the pole of the fermion propagator is divergent and gauge dependent at one loop, but the leading singularities cancel in the quenched rainbow approximation. On the other hand, in physical gauges, we find that the dynamical fermion mass is finite and gauge independent at least up to one loop.
All-order Finiteness of the Higgs Boson Mass in the Dynamical Gauge-Higgs Unification
Yutaka Hosotani
2006-07-06T23:59:59.000Z
In the dynamical gauge-Higgs unification, it is shown that the mass of the Higgs boson (4D scalar field) in U(1) gauge theory in $M^4 \\times T^n$ ($n=1,2,3,...$) is finite to all order in perturbation theory as a consequence of the large gauge invariance. It is conjectured that the Higgs boson mass is finite in non-Abelian gauge theory in $M^4 \\times S^1$, $M^4 \\times (S^1/Z_2)$ and the Randall-Sundrum warped spacetime to all order in the rearranged perturbation theory where the large gauge invariance is maintained.
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1 14 | Next | Last Back to Index Optics Optics processing of Target Wedged Focus Lens into cleaningcoating frame. Photo Number: 2013-048765...
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3 14 | Next | Last Back to Index Optics Alignment Conducting an optics alignment after replacement of a Pockels Cell in the clean room. Photo Number: 2013-050691...
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9 14 | Next | Last Back to Index Optics Processing Optics for the National Ignition Facility must be manufactured to exacting standards. To ensure quality, precise measurements...
Holledge gauge failure testing using concurrent information processing algorithm
Weeks, G.E.; Daniel, W.E.; Edwards, R.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Jannarone, R.J. [Rapid Clip Neural Systems, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Joshi, S.N.; Palakodety, S.S.; Qian, D. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States)
1996-04-11T23:59:59.000Z
For several decades, computerized information processing systems and human information processing models have developed with a good deal of mutual influence. Any comprehensive psychology text in this decade uses terms that originated in the computer industry, such as ``cache`` and ``memory``, to describe human information processing. Likewise, many engineers today are using ``artificial intelligence``and ``artificial neural network`` computing tools that originated as models of human thought to solve industrial problems. This paper concerns a recently developed human information processing model, called ``concurrent information processing`` (CIP), and a related set of computing tools for solving industrial problems. The problem of focus is adaptive gauge monitoring; the application is pneumatic pressure repeaters (Holledge gauges) used to measure liquid level and density in the Defense Waste Processing Facility and the Integrated DWPF Melter System.
Thermodynamics of SU(3) gauge theory at fixed lattice spacing
T. Umeda; S. Ejiri; S. Aoki; T. Hatsuda; K. Kanaya; Y. Maezawa; H. Ohno
2008-10-09T23:59:59.000Z
We study thermodynamics of SU(3) gauge theory at fixed scales on the lattice, where we vary temperature by changing the temporal lattice size N_t=(Ta_t)^{-1}. In the fixed scale approach, finite temperature simulations are performed on common lattice spacings and spatial volumes. Consequently, we can isolate thermal effects in observables from other uncertainties, such as lattice artifact, renormalization factor, and spatial volume effect. Furthermore, in the EOS calculations, the fixed scale approach is able to reduce computational costs for zero temperature subtraction and parameter search to find lines of constant physics, which are demanding in full QCD simulations. As a test of the approach, we study the thermodynamics of the SU(3) gauge theory on isotropic and anisotropic lattices. In addition to the equation of state, we calculate the critical temperature and the static quark free energy at a fixed scale.
Infrared finite ghost propagator in the Feynman gauge
A. C. Aguilar; J. Papavassiliou
2007-12-05T23:59:59.000Z
We demonstrate how to obtain from the Schwinger-Dyson equations of QCD an infrared finite ghost propagator in the Feynman gauge. The key ingredient in this construction is the longitudinal form factor of the non-perturbative gluon-ghost vertex, which, contrary to what happens in the Landau gauge, contributes non-trivially to the gap equation of the ghost. The detailed study of the corresponding vertex equation reveals that in the presence of a dynamical infrared cutoff this form factor remains finite in the limit of vanishing ghost momentum. This, in turn, allows the ghost self-energy to reach a finite value in the infrared, without having to assume any additional properties for the gluon-ghost vertex, such as the presence of massless poles. The implications of this result and possible future directions are briefly outlined.
LHC constraints on gauge boson couplings to dark matter
Crivellin, Andreas; Hibbs, Anthony
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Collider searches for energetic particles recoiling against missing transverse energy allow to place strong bounds on the interactions between dark matter (DM) and standard model particles. In this article we update and extend LHC constraints on effective dimension-7 operators involving DM and electroweak gauge bosons. A concise comparison of the sensitivity of the mono-photon, mono-W, mono-Z, mono-W/Z, invisible Higgs-boson decays in the vector boson fusion mode and the mono-jet channel is presented. Depending on the parameter choices, either the mono-photon or the mono-jet data provide the most stringent bounds at the moment. We furthermore explore the potential of improving the current 8 TeV limits at 14 TeV. Future strategies capable of disentangling the effects of the different effective operators involving electroweak gauge bosons are discussed as well.
Gauge mediation scenario with hidden sector renormalization in MSSM
Arai, Masato [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Kawai, Shinsuke [Institute for the Early Universe (IEU), 11-1 Daehyun-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Okada, Nobuchika [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States)
2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
We study the hidden sector effects on the mass renormalization of a simplest gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking scenario. We point out that possible hidden sector contributions render the soft scalar masses smaller, resulting in drastically different sparticle mass spectrum at low energy. In particular, in the 5+5 minimal gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with high messenger scale (that is favored by the gravitino cold dark matter scenario), we show that a stau can be the next lightest superparticle for moderate values of hidden sector self-coupling. This provides a very simple theoretical model of long-lived charged next lightest superparticles, which imply distinctive signals in ongoing and upcoming collider experiments.
Revisiting Noether gauge symmetry approach in quintom cosmology
Ali, Sajid
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Noether gauge symmetry approach is revisited to study various quintom scenarios (those that arise by the presence of two dynamical scalar fields) to comprehend the role of dark energy in our universe. For such models, we obtain smooth parameterizations of the equation of state of dark energy across the boundary of cosmological constant $w_{\\Lambda}=-1$. This study gives rise to two new cases of the potential $V(\\phi, \\sigma)$, due to a quintom field in which nonlinear coupling of the scalar fields arise. Besides we report that a few cases of Noether gauge symmetries and their invariants in [Adnan Aslam, et. al., Astrophys Space Sci (2013), 348:533-540] are incorrect. Consequently, the given cosmological model in their paper is not a feasible quintom model.
Momentum space topology in the lattice gauge theory
M. A. Zubkov
2012-10-06T23:59:59.000Z
Momentum space topology of relativistic gauge theory is considered. The topological invariants in momentum space are introduced for the case, when there is the mass gap while the fermion Green functions admit zeros. The index theorem is formulated that relates the number of massless particles and generalized unparticles at the phase transitions to the jumps of the topological invariants. The pattern is illustrated by the lattice model with overlap fermions.
Continuum Thermodynamics of the SU(N) Gauge Theory
Saumen Datta; Sourendu Gupta
2010-12-30T23:59:59.000Z
The thermodynamics of the deconfined phase of the SU(N) gauge theory is studied. Careful study is made of the approach to the continuum limit. The latent heat of the deconfinement transition is studied, for the theories with 3, 4 and 6 colors. Continuum estimates of various thermodynamic quantities are studied, and the approach to conformality investigated. The bulk thermodynamic quantities at different N are compared, to investigate the validity of 't Hooft scaling at these values of N.
Gauge/gravity Duality and MetastableDynamical Supersymmetry Breaking
Argurio, Riccardo; Bertolini, Matteo; Franco, Sebastian; Kachru, Shamit
2006-10-24T23:59:59.000Z
We engineer a class of quiver gauge theories with several interesting features by studying D-branes at a simple Calabi-Yau singularity. At weak 't Hooft coupling we argue using field theory techniques that these theories admit both supersymmetric vacua and meta-stable non-supersymmetric vacua, though the arguments indicating the existence of the supersymmetry breaking states are not decisive. At strong 't Hooft coupling we find simple candidate gravity dual descriptions for both sets of vacua.
Analysis of inflationary cosmological models in gauge theories of gravitation
A. V. Minkevich; A. S. Garkun
2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z
Inflationary homogeneous isotropic cosmological models filled by scalar fields and ultrarelativistic matter are examined in the framework of gauge theories of gravitation. By using quadratic scalar field potential numerical analysis of flat, open and closed models is curried out. Properties of cosmological models are investigated in dependence on indefinite parameter of cosmological equations and initial conditions at a bounce. Fulfilled analysis demonstrates regular character of all cosmological models.
CFT fusion rules, DHR gauge groups, and CAR algebras
J. B"ockenhauer; J. Fuchs
1997-05-07T23:59:59.000Z
It is demonstrated that several series of conformal field theories, while satisfying braid group statistics, can still be described in the conventional setting of the DHR theory, i.e. their superselection structure can be understood in terms of a compact DHR gauge group. Besides theories with only simple sectors, these include (the untwisted part of) c=1 orbifold theories and level two so(N) WZW theories. We also analyze the relation between these models and theories of complex free fermions.
Covariant phase space, constraints, gauge and the Peierls formula
Igor Khavkine
2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z
It is well known that both the symplectic structure and the Poisson brackets of classical field theory can be constructed directly from the Lagrangian in a covariant way, without passing through the non-covariant canonical Hamiltonian formalism. This is true even in the presence of constraints and gauge symmetries. These constructions go under the names of the covariant phase space formalism and the Peierls bracket. We review both of them, paying more careful attention, than usual, to the precise mathematical hypotheses that they require, illustrating them in examples. Also an extensive historical overview of the development of these constructions is provided. The novel aspect of our presentation is a significant expansion and generalization of an elegant and quite recent argument by Forger & Romero showing the equivalence between the resulting symplectic and Poisson structures without passing through the canonical Hamiltonian formalism as an intermediary. We generalize it to cover theories with constraints and gauge symmetries and formulate precise sufficient conditions under which the argument holds. These conditions include a local condition on the equations of motion that we call hyperbolizability, and some global conditions of cohomological nature. The details of our presentation may shed some light on subtle questions related to the Poisson structure of gauge theories and their quantization.
Tachyon condensation and off-shell gravity/gauge duality
Yun Soo Myung
2006-11-06T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate quasilocal tachyon condensation by using gravity/gauge duality. In order to cure the IR divergence due to a tachyon, we introduce two regularization schemes: AdS space and a d=10 Schwarzschild black hole in a cavity. These provide stable canonical ensembles and thus are good candidates for the endpoint of tachyon condensation. Introducing the Cardy-Verlinde formula, we establish the on-shell gravity/gauge duality. We propose that the stringy geometry resulting from the off-shell tachyon dynamics matches onto the off-shell AdS black hole, where "off-shell" means non-equilibrium configuration. The instability induced by condensation of a tachyon behaves like an off-shell black hole and evolves toward a large stable black hole. The off-shell free energy and its derivative ($\\beta$-function) are used to show the off-shell gravity/gauge duality for the process of tachyon condensation. Further, d=10 Schwarzschild black hole in a cavity is considered for the Hagedorn transition as a possible explanation of the tachyon condensation.
A condensed matter interpretation of SM fermions and gauge fields
I. Schmelzer
2009-08-05T23:59:59.000Z
We present the bundle Aff(3) x C x /(R^3), with a geometric Dirac equation on it, as a three-dimensional geometric interpretation of the SM fermions. Each C x /(R^3) describes an electroweak doublet. The Dirac equation has a doubler-free staggered spatial discretization on the lattice space Aff(3) x C (Z^3). This space allows a simple physical interpretation as a phase space of a lattice of cells in R^3. We find the SM SU(3)_c x SU(2)_L x U(1)_Y action on Aff(3) x C x /(R^3) to be a maximal anomaly-free special gauge action preserving E(3) symmetry and symplectic structure, which can be constructed using two simple types of gauge-like lattice fields: Wilson gauge fields and correction terms for lattice deformations. The lattice fermion fields we propose to quantize as low energy states of a canonical quantum theory with Z_2-degenerated vacuum state. We construct anticommuting fermion operators for the resulting Z_2-valued (spin) field theory. A metric theory of gravity compatible with this model is presented too.
The Static Quark Potential from the Gauge Independent Abelian Decomposition
Cundy, Nigel; Lee, Weonjong
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the relationship between colour confinement and the gauge independent Cho-Duan-Ge Abelian decomposition. The decomposition is defined in terms of a colour field $n$; the principle novelty of our study is that we have defined this field in terms of the eigenvectors of the Wilson Loop. This establishes an equivalence between the path ordered integral of the non-Abelian gauge fields with an integral over an Abelian restricted gauge field which is tractable both theoretically and numerically in lattice QCD. We circumvent path ordering without needing an additional path integral. By using Stokes' theorem, we can compute the Wilson Loop in terms of a surface integral over a restricted field strength, and show that the restricted field strength may be dominated by certain structures, which occur when one of the quantities parametrising the colour field $n$ winds itself around a non-analyticity in the colour field. If they exist, these structures will lead to a area law scaling for the Wilson Loop and ...
Skogen, Erik J. (Albuquerque, NM); Raring, James (Goleta, CA); Tauke-Pedretti, Anna (Albuquerque, NM)
2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z
An optical NAND gate is formed from two pair of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each pair of the optical waveguide devices consisting of an electroabsorption modulator and a photodetector. One pair of the optical waveguide devices is electrically connected in parallel to operate as an optical AND gate; and the other pair of the optical waveguide devices is connected in series to operate as an optical NOT gate (i.e. an optical inverter). The optical NAND gate utilizes two digital optical inputs and a continuous light input to provide a NAND function output. The optical NAND gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.
The Nature of the Vector and Scalar Potentials and Gauge Invariance in the Context of Gauge Theory
T. Stein
2008-07-14T23:59:59.000Z
Modern undergraduate textbooks in electricity and magnetism typically focus on a force representation of electrodynamics with an emphasis on Maxwell's Equations and the Lorentz Force Law. The vector potential $\\mathbf{A}$ and scalar potential $\\Phi$ play a secondary role mainly as quantities used to calculate the electric and magnetic fields. However, quantum mechanics including quantum electrodynamics (QED) and other gauge theories demands a potential ($\\Phi$,$\\mathbf{A}$) oriented representation where the potentials are the more fundamental quantities. Here, we help bridge that gap by showing that the homogeneous Maxwell's equations together with the Lorentz Force Law can be derived from assuming that the potentials represent potential energy and momentum per unit charge. Furthermore, we enumerate the additional assumptions that are needed to derive the inhomogeneous Maxwell's equations. As part of this work we demonstrate the physical nature and importance of gauge invariance.
LABORATORY I: GEOMETRIC OPTICS
Minnesota, University of
Lab I - 1 LABORATORY I: GEOMETRIC OPTICS In this lab, you will solve several problems related to the formation of optical images. Most of us have a great deal of experience with the formation of optical images this laboratory, you should be able to: Â· Describe features of real optical systems in terms of ray diagrams
Optical Properties of a ?-Vacuum
Luis Huerta; Jorge Zanelli
2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z
Chern-Simons (CS) forms generalize the minimal coupling between gauge potentials and point charges, to sources represented by charged extended objects (branes). The simplest example of such a CS-brane coupling is a domain wall coupled to the electromagnetic CS three-form. This describes a topologically charged interface where the CS form AdA is supported, separating two three-dimensional spatial regions in 3+1 spacetime. Electrodynamics at either side of the brane is described by the same Maxwell's equations, but those two regions have different vacua, characterized by a different value of the \\theta-parameter multiplying the Pontryagin form F ^ F. The \\theta-term is the abelian version of the concept introduced by 't Hooft for the resolution of the U(1) problem in QCD. We point out that CS-generalized classical electrodynamics shows new phenomena when two neighboring regions with different \\theta-vacua are present. These topological effects result from surface effects induced by the boundary and we explore the consequences of such boundary effects for the propagation of the electromagnetic field in Maxwell theory. Several features, including optical and electrostatic/magnetostatic responses, which may be observable in condensed matter systems, like topological insulators, are discussed.
Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenior City, TN)
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A fiber optic connector and method for connecting composite materials within which optical fibers are imbedded. The fiber optic connector includes a capillary tube for receiving optical fibers at opposing ends. The method involves inserting a first optical fiber into the capillary tube and imbedding the unit in the end of a softened composite material. The capillary tube is injected with a coupling medium which subsequently solidifies. The composite material is machined to a desired configuration. An external optical fiber is then inserted into the capillary tube after fluidizing the coupling medium, whereby the optical fibers are coupled.
Vawter, G. Allen
2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z
An optical XOR gate is formed as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) from two sets of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each set of the optical waveguide devices including an electroabsorption modulator electrically connected in series with a waveguide photodetector. The optical XOR gate utilizes two digital optical inputs to generate an XOR function digital optical output. The optical XOR gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.
Skogen, Erik J. (Albuquerque, NM); Tauke-Pedretti, Anna (Albuquerque, NM)
2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z
An optical NOR gate is formed from two pair of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each pair of the optical waveguide devices consisting of an electroabsorption modulator electrically connected in series with a waveguide photodetector. The optical NOR gate utilizes two digital optical inputs and a continuous light input to provide a NOR function digital optical output. The optical NOR gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.
Heaton, Larry Royce
1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
FIGURES Chapter I. INTRODUCTIOI'J V1 General Objectives of the Study II. SELFCTIGN ARID Al'JALYSIS GF ThE DATA Basic Data Computation of Areal Precipitation Amounts Precipii, ation Types I I I. COI'JPARATIUo. ERROR G= RAIN& ALL I"IEA, UREJJEIU1... 14 16 Standard Errors of Yleasurement Hourly Precipitation Error Storm Pr- ci pitati on Error 17 19 IU. CALCULATION OF CONDITIGfJAL (TRA'ISITIGNAL I PROBABILITIES Calculations for 2-hr Sequences Comparison of' Probability and Frequency...
A Bicycle Built for Two: The Galilean and U(1) Gauge Invariance of the Schrödinger Field
V. Colussi; S. Wickramasekara
2008-03-04T23:59:59.000Z
This paper undertakes a study of the nature of the force associated with the local U (1) gauge symmetry of a non-relativistic quantum particle. To ensure invariance under local U (1) symmetry, a matter field must couple to a gauge field. We show that such a gauge field necessarily satisfies the Maxwell equations, whether the matter field coupled to it is relativistic or non-relativistic. This result suggests that the structure of the Maxwell equations is determined by gauge symmetry rather than the symmetry transformation properties of space-time. In order to assess the validity of this notion, we examine the transformation properties of the coupled matter and gauge fields under Galilean transformations. Our main technical result is the Galilean invariance of the full equations of motion of the U (1) gauge field.
The Static Quark Potential from the Gauge Independent Abelian Decomposition
Nigel Cundy; Y. M. Cho; Weonjong Lee
2015-03-24T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the relationship between colour confinement and the gauge independent Cho-Duan-Ge Abelian decomposition. The decomposition is defined in terms of a colour field $n$; the principle novelty of our study is that we have defined this field in terms of the eigenvectors of the Wilson Loop. This establishes an equivalence between the path ordered integral of the non-Abelian gauge fields with an integral over an Abelian restricted gauge field which is tractable both theoretically and numerically in lattice QCD. We circumvent path ordering without needing an additional path integral. By using Stokes' theorem, we can compute the Wilson Loop in terms of a surface integral over a restricted field strength, and show that the restricted field strength may be dominated by certain structures, which occur when one of the quantities parametrising the colour field $n$ winds itself around a non-analyticity in the colour field. If they exist, these structures will lead to a area law scaling for the Wilson Loop and provide a mechanism for quark confinement. We search for these structures in quenched lattice QCD. We perform the Abelian decomposition, and compare the electric and magnetic fields with the patterns expected theoretically. We find that the restricted field strength is dominated by objects which may be peaks a single lattice spacing in size or extended string-like lines of electromagnetic flux. The objects are not isolated monopoles, as they generate electric fields in addition to magnetic fields, and the fields are not spherically symmetric, but may be either caused by a monopole/anti-monopole condensate, some other types of topological objects or a combination of these. Removing these peaks removes the area law scaling of the string tension, suggesting that they are responsible for confinement.
PDF uncertainties at large x and gauge boson production
Accardi, Alberto [Hampton U., JLAB
2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
I discuss how global QCD fits of parton distribution functions can make the somewhat separated fields of high-energy particle physics and lower energy hadronic and nuclear physics interact to the benefit of both. In particular, I will argue that large rapidity gauge boson production at the Tevatron and the LHC has the highest short-term potential to constrain the theoretical nuclear corrections to DIS data on deuteron targets necessary for up/down flavor separation. This in turn can considerably reduce the PDF uncertainty on cross section calculations of heavy mass particles such as W' and Z' bosons.
Perturbative Calculations with the First Order Form of Gauge Theories
Brandt, F T
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The first and second order form of gauge theories are classically equivalent; we consider the consequence of quantizing the first order form using the Faddeev-Popov approach. Both the Yang-Mills and the Einstein-Hilbert actions are considered. An advantage of this approach is that the interaction vertices are quite simple, being independent of momenta. It is necessary however to consider the propagator for two fields (including a mixed propagator). We derive the Feynman rules for both models and consider the one loop correction for the thermal energy momentum tensor.
Perturbative Calculations with the First Order Form of Gauge Theories
F. T. Brandt; D. G. C. McKeon
2015-03-09T23:59:59.000Z
The first and second order form of gauge theories are classically equivalent; we consider the consequence of quantizing the first order form using the Faddeev-Popov approach. Both the Yang-Mills and the Einstein-Hilbert actions are considered. An advantage of this approach is that the interaction vertices are quite simple, being independent of momenta. It is necessary however to consider the propagator for two fields (including a mixed propagator). We derive the Feynman rules for both models and consider the one loop correction for the thermal energy momentum tensor.
Infrared Critical Exponents in Finite-Temperature Coulomb Gauge QCD
Klaus Lichtenegger; Daniel Zwanziger
2009-11-28T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the infrared critical exponents of Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory in the limit of very high temperature. This allows us to focus on one scale (the spatial momentum) since all but the lowest Matsubara frequency decouple from the deep infrared. From the first-order Dyson-Schwinger equations in a bare-vertex truncation we obtain infrared exponents which correspond to confining or overconfining (yet mathematically well-defined) solutions. For three spatial dimensions the exponents are close to what is expected for a linearly rising color-Coulomb potential.
Constraint damping in the Z4 formulation and harmonic gauge
Carsten Gundlach; Jose M. Martin-Garcia; Gioel Calabrese; Ian Hinder
2005-07-14T23:59:59.000Z
We show that by adding suitable lower-order terms to the Z4 formulation of the Einstein equations, all constraint violations except constant modes are damped. This makes the Z4 formulation a particularly simple example of a lambda-system as suggested by Brodbeck et al. We also show that the Einstein equations in harmonic coordinates can be obtained from the Z4 formulation by a change of variables that leaves the implied constraint evolution system unchanged. Therefore the same method can be used to damp all constraints in the Einstein equations in harmonic gauge.
The physical observer II: Gauge and diff anomalies
T. A. Larsson
2008-11-06T23:59:59.000Z
In a companion paper we studied field theory in the presence of a physical observer with quantum dynamics. Here we describe the most striking consequence of this assumption: new gauge and diff anomalies arise. The relevant cocycles depend on the observer's spacetime trajectory and can hence not appear in QFT, where this quantity is never introduced. Diff anomalies necessarily arise in every locally nontrivial, non-holographic theory of quantum gravity. Cancellation of the divergent parts of the anomalies only works if spacetime has four dimensions.
Chiral sound waves from a gauge theory of 1D generalized statistics
Silvio J. Benetton Rabello
1996-04-06T23:59:59.000Z
A topological gauge field theory in one spatial dimension is studied, with the gauge fields as generators of two commuting U(1) Ka\\u{c}-Moody algebras. Coupling of these gauge fields to nonrelativistic bosonic matter fields, produces a statistical transmutation of the later, as in the Chern-Simons theory in two dimensions. The sound waves of the model are investigated and proven to be chiral bosonic excitations, with the same spectrum as the density fluctuations of the Luttinger model.
Method for quantifying optical properties of the human lens
Loree, T.R.; Bigio, I.J.; Zuclich, J.A.; Shimada, Tsutomu; Strobl, K.
1999-04-13T23:59:59.000Z
A method is disclosed for quantifying optical properties of the human lens. The present invention includes the application of fiberoptic, OMA-based instrumentation as an in vivo diagnostic tool for the human ocular lens. Rapid, noninvasive and comprehensive assessment of the optical characteristics of a lens using very modest levels of exciting light are described. Typically, the backscatter and fluorescence spectra (from about 300- to 900-nm) elicited by each of several exciting wavelengths (from about 300- to 600-nm) are collected within a few seconds. The resulting optical signature of individual lenses is then used to assess the overall optical quality of the lens by comparing the results with a database of similar measurements obtained from a reference set of normal human lenses having various ages. Several metrics have been identified which gauge the optical quality of a given lens relative to the norm for the subject`s chronological age. These metrics may also serve to document accelerated optical aging and/or as early indicators of cataract or other disease processes. 8 figs.
Method for quantifying optical properties of the human lens
Loree, deceased, Thomas R. (late of Albuquerque, NM); Bigio, Irving J. (Los Alamos, NM); Zuclich, Joseph A. (San Antonio, TX); Shimada, Tsutomu (Los Alamos, NM); Strobl, Karlheinz (Fiskdale, MA)
1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Method for quantifying optical properties of the human lens. The present invention includes the application of fiberoptic, OMA-based instrumentation as an in vivo diagnostic tool for the human ocular lens. Rapid, noninvasive and comprehensive assessment of the optical characteristics of a lens using very modest levels of exciting light are described. Typically, the backscatter and fluorescence spectra (from about 300- to 900-nm) elicited by each of several exciting wavelengths (from about 300- to 600-nm) are collected within a few seconds. The resulting optical signature of individual lenses is then used to assess the overall optical quality of the lens by comparing the results with a database of similar measurements obtained from a reference set of normal human lenses having various ages. Several metrics have been identified which gauge the optical quality of a given lens relative to the norm for the subject's chronological age. These metrics may also serve to document accelerated optical aging and/or as early indicators of cataract or other disease processes.
Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A
2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z
An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.
National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory SciDAC-2 Closeout Report
Mackenzie, Paul [Fermilab] [Fermilab; Brower, Richard [Boston University] [Boston University; Karsch, Frithjof [Brookhaven National Laboratory] [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Christ, Norman [Columbia University] [Columbia University; Gottlieb, Steven [Indiana University] [Indiana University; Negele, John [MIT] [MIT; Richards, David [Jefferson National Laboratory] [Jefferson National Laboratory; Toussaint, Doug [Univ. of Arizona] [Univ. of Arizona; Sugar, Robert [Univ. of California at Santa Barbara] [Univ. of California at Santa Barbara; DeTar, Carleton [Univ. of Utah] [Univ. of Utah; Sharpe, Stephen [Univ. of Washington] [Univ. of Washington; DiPierro, Massimo [DePaul University] [DePaul University; Sun, Xian-He [illinois institute of Technology] [illinois institute of Technology; Fowler, Rob [University of North Carolina] [University of North Carolina; Dubey, Abhishek [Vanderbilt University] [Vanderbilt University
2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z
Under its SciDAC-1 and SciDAC-2 grants, the USQCD Collaboration developed software and algorithmic infrastructure for the numerical study of lattice gauge theories.
E-Print Network 3.0 - american wiring gauge Sample Search Results
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
si12;ed by gauge... in an older aircraft. 1 12; aircraft wiring, and electromagnetic interference issues. Section 4 refutes... the minimum ig- nition energy requirement from...
Standard Model-like D-brane models and gauge couplings
Yuta Hamada; Tatsuo Kobayashi; Shohei Uemura
2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z
We systematically search intersecting D-brane models, which just realize the Standard Model chiral matter contents and gauge symmetry. We construct new classes of non-supersymmetric Standard Model-like models. We also study gauge coupling constants of these models. The tree level gauge coupling is a function of compactification moduli, string scale, string coupling and winding number of D-branes. By tuning them, we examine whether the models can explain the experimental values of gauge couplings. As a result, we find that the string scale should be greater than $10^{14-15}$GeV if the compactification scale and the string scale are the same order.
E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous quartic gauge Sample Search Results
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
to the electroweak gauge boson quartic couplings, growing quadratically with the Higgs boson mass, is reviewed... expressions have been obtained for the two-loop m2 H...
On the existence of affine Landau-Ginzburg phases in gauged linear sigma models
Patrick Clarke; Josh Guffin
2010-09-04T23:59:59.000Z
We prove a simple criterion for the existence of an affine Landau-Ginzburg point in the K\\"ahler moduli space of a gauged linear sigma model.
E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous neutral gauge Sample Search Results
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
to the electroweak gauge boson quartic couplings, growing quadratically with the Higgs boson mass, is reviewed... . The potential of the CERN Large Hadron Collider and e+ e-...
E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous triple gauge Sample Search Results
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
to the electroweak gauge boson quartic couplings, growing quadratically with the Higgs boson mass, is reviewed... . The potential of the CERN Large Hadron Collider and e+ e-...
Hung, Ling-Yan
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We consider a weakly coupled gauge theory where charged particles all have large gaps (ie no Higgs condensation to break the gauge "symmetry") and the field strength fluctuates only weakly. We ask what kind of topological terms can be added to the Lagrangian of such a weakly coupled gauge theory. In this paper, we systematically construct quantized topological terms which are generalization of the Chern-Simons terms and $F\\wedge F$ terms, in space-time dimensions $d$ and for any gauge groups (continuous or discrete), using each element of the topological cohomology classes $H^{d+1}(BG,\\Z)$ on the classifying space $BG$ of the gauge group $G$. In 3$d$ or for finite gauge groups above 3$d$, the weakly coupled gauge theories are gapped. So our results on topological terms can be viewed as a systematic construction of gapped topologically ordered phases of weakly coupled gauge theories. In other cases, the weakly coupled gauge theories are gapless. So our results can be viewed as an attempt to systematically cons...
Wick, David V.
2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z
An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.
Fermion frontiers in vector lattice gauge theories: Proceedings. Volume 8
NONE
1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
The inclusion of fermions into simulations of lattice gauge theories is very difficult both theoretically and numerically. With the presence of Teraflops-scale computers for lattice gauge theory, the authors wanted a forum to discuss new approaches to lattice fermions. The workshop concentrated on approaches which are ripe for study on such large machines. Although lattice chiral fermions are vitally important to understand, there is not technique at hand which is viable on these Teraflops-scale machines for real-world problems. The discussion was therefore focused on recent developments and future prospects for QCD-like theories. For the well-known fermion formulations, the Aoki phase in Wilson fermions, novelties of U{sub A}(1) symmetry and the {eta}{prime} for staggered fermions and new approaches for simulating the determinant for Wilson fermions were discussed. The newer domain-wall fermion formulation was reviewed, with numerical results given by many speakers. The fermion proposal of Friedberg, Lee and Pang was introduced. They also were able to compare and contrast the dependence of QCD and QCD-like SUSY theories on the number of quark flavors. These proceedings consist of several transparencies and a summary page from each speaker. This should serve to outline the major points made in each talk.
Quark masses, the Dashen phase, and gauge field topology
Creutz, Michael, E-mail: creutz@bnl.gov
2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
The CP violating Dashen phase in QCD is predicted by chiral perturbation theory to occur when the up–down quark mass difference becomes sufficiently large at fixed down-quark mass. Before reaching this phase, all physical hadronic masses and scattering amplitudes are expected to behave smoothly with the up-quark mass, even as this mass passes through zero. In Euclidean space, the topological susceptibility of the gauge fields is positive at positive quark masses but diverges to negative infinity as the Dashen phase is approached. A zero in this susceptibility provides a tentative signal for the point where the mass of the up quark vanishes. I discuss potential ambiguities with this determination. -- Highlights: •The CP violating Dashen phase in QCD occurs when the up quark mass becomes sufficiently negative. •Before reaching this phase, all physical hadronic masses and scattering amplitudes behave smoothly with the up-quark mass. •The topological susceptibility of the gauge fields diverges to negative infinity as the Dashen phase is approached. •A zero in the topological susceptibility provides a tentative signal for the point where the mass of the up quark vanishes. •The universality of this definition remains unproven. Potential ambiguities are discussed.
Localization via Automorphisms of the CARs. Local gauge invariance
Hendrik Grundling; Karl-Hermann Neeb
2010-01-07T23:59:59.000Z
The classical matter fields are sections of a vector bundle E with base manifold M. The space L^2(E) of square integrable matter fields w.r.t. a locally Lebesgue measure on M, has an important module action of C_b^\\infty(M) on it. This module action defines restriction maps and encodes the local structure of the classical fields. For the quantum context, we show that this module action defines an automorphism group on the algebra A, of the canonical anticommutation relations on L^2(E), with which we can perform the analogous localization. That is, the net structure of the CAR, A, w.r.t. appropriate subsets of M can be obtained simply from the invariance algebras of appropriate subgroups. We also identify the quantum analogues of restriction maps. As a corollary, we prove a well-known "folk theorem," that the algebra A contains only trivial gauge invariant observables w.r.t. a local gauge group acting on E.
Manifestly Covariant Gauge-invariant Cosmological Perturbation Theory
P. G. Miedema; W. A. van Leeuwen
2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
It is shown that a first-order cosmological perturbation theory for the open, flat and closed Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walker universes admits one, and only one, gauge-invariant variable which describes the perturbation to the energy density and which becomes equal to the usual Newtonian energy density in the non-relativistic limit. The same holds true for the perturbation to the particle number density. Using these two new variables, a new manifestly gauge-invariant cosmological perturbation theory has been developed. Density perturbations evolve diabatically. Perturbations in the total energy density are gravitationally coupled to perturbations in the particle number density, irrespective of the nature of the particles. There is, in first-order, no back-reaction of perturbations to the global expansion of the universe. Small-scale perturbations in the radiation-dominated era oscillate with an increasing amplitude, whereas in older, less precise treatments, oscillating perturbations are found with a decreasing amplitude. This is a completely new and, obviously, important result, since it makes it possible to explain and understand the formation of massive stars after decoupling of matter and radiation.
Gauge field, strings, solitons, anomalies and the speed of life
Antti J. Niemi
2014-07-05T23:59:59.000Z
It's been said that "mathematics is biology's next microscope, only better; biology is mathematics' next physics, only better". Here we aim for something even better. We try to combine mathematical physics and biology into a picoscope of life. For this we merge techniques which have been introduced and developed in modern mathematical physics, largely by Ludvig Faddeev to describe objects such as solitons and Higgs and to explain phenomena such as anomalies in gauge fields. We propose a synthesis that can help to resolve the protein folding problem, one of the most important conundrums in all of science. We apply the concept of gauge invariance to scrutinize the extrinsic geometry of strings in three dimensional space. We evoke general principles of symmetry in combination with Wilsonian universality and derive an essentially unique Landau-Ginzburg energy that describes the dynamics of a generic string-like configuration in the far infrared. We observe that the energy supports topological solitons, that pertain to an anomaly in the manner how a string is framed around its inflection points. We explain how the solitons operate as modular building blocks from which folded proteins are composed. We describe crystallographic protein structures by multi-solitons with experimental precision, and investigate the non-equilibrium dynamics of proteins under varying temperature. We simulate the folding process of a protein at in vivo speed and with close to pico-scale accuracy using a standard laptop computer: With pico-biology as mathematical physics' next pursuit, things can only get better.
''Atomic Optics'': Nonimaging Optics on the Nanoscale
Roland Winston Joseph O'Gallagher
2005-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
This is the final report for a one year close out extension of our basic research program that was established at the University of Chicago more than sixteen years ago to explore and develop the optical sub-discipline that has come to be known as ''nonimaging optics''. This program has been extremely fruitful, having both broadened the range of formalism available for workers in this field and led to the discovery of many new families of optical devices. These devices and techniques have applications wherever the efficient transport and transformation of light distributions are important, in particular in illumination, fiber optics, collection and concentration of sunlight, and the detection of faint light signals in physics and astrophysics. Over the past thirty years, Nonimaging Optics (Welford and Winston, 1989) has brought a fresh approach to the analysis of many problems in classical macro-scale optics. Through the application of phase-space concepts, statistical methods, thermodynamic arguments, etc., many previously established performance limits were able to be broken and many technical surprises with exciting practical applications were discovered. The most recent three-year phase of our long-term continuing program ended in late 2002 and emphasized extending our work in geometrical optics and expanding it to include some interesting questions in physical optics as well as in the new field of statistical optics. This report presents a survey of the basic history and concepts of nonimaging optics and reviews highlights and significant accomplishments over the past fifteen years. This is followed by a more detailed summary of recent research directions and accomplishments during the last three years. This most recent phase was marked by the broadening in scope to include a separate project involving a collaboration with an industrial partner, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). This effort was proposed and approved in 1998 and was incorporated into this project (September, 1998) with the required additional funding provided through this already existing grant.
Bender, Donald A. (Dublin, CA); Kuklo, Thomas (Oakdale, CA)
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
test optic after receiving chemical process called AMP2.5, which is under development for increasing the damage threshold of 3 fused silica optics. Photo Number: 2013-05031...
Bender, D.A.; Kuklo, T.
1994-11-08T23:59:59.000Z
An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage. 5 figs.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
10 14 | Next | Last Back to Index Optics Diffraction Gratings for APPOLON laser. Photo Number: 2011-020040...
Reflective optical imaging system
Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT)
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.
Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.
1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z
An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.
Fred Cooper; Gouranga C. Nayak
2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z
We study the non-perturbative production of gluon pairs from a constant SU(3) chromo-electric background field via the Schwinger mechanism. We fix the covariant background gauge with an arbitrary gauge parameter \\alpha. We determine the transverse momentum distribution of the gluons, as well as the total probability of creating pairs per unit space time volume. We find that the result is independent of the covariant gauge parameter \\alpha used to define arbitrary covariant background gauges. We find that our non-perturbative result is both gauge invariant and gauge parameter \\alpha independent.
Optical Diagnostics Thomas Tsang
McDonald, Kirk
Optical Diagnostics Thomas Tsang Â· tight environment Â· high radiation area Â· non-serviceable area Â· passive components Â· optics only, no active electronics Â· transmit image through flexible fiber bundle #12;New imaging fiber bundle Core size: 12 Âµm, diameter: 1/8" Optical Diagnostics Total fiber counts ~50
REVIEW ARTICLE Optical trapping
Block, Steven
REVIEW ARTICLE Optical trapping Keir C. Neuman and Steven M. Blocka) Department of Biological ago, optical traps have emerged as a powerful tool with broad-reaching applications in biology--and the measurement of nanometer-level displacements of--optically trapped objects. We review progress
University of Central Florida College of Optics & Photonics Optics
Van Stryland, Eric
University of Central Florida College of Optics & Photonics Optics Spring 2010 OSE-6432: Principles of guided wave optics; electro -optics, acousto-optics and optoelectronics. Location: CREOL-A-214 or by Appointment Reference Materials: 1. Class Notes. 2. "Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides", K. Okamoto, Academic
A. Hart; R. W. Haymaker; Y. Sasai
1998-08-28T23:59:59.000Z
We show in the maximal Abelian gauge the dynamical electric charge density generated by the coset fields, gauge fixing and ghosts shows antiscreening as in the case of the non-Abelian charge. We verify that with the completion of the ghost term all contributions to flux are accounted for in an exact lattice Ehrenfest relation.
A Note on Gauge Systems from the Point of View of Lie Algebroids
Barnich, G. [Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)
2010-11-25T23:59:59.000Z
In the context of the variational bi-complex, we re-explain that irreducible gauge systems define a particular example of a Lie algebroid. This is used to review some recent and not so recent results on gauge, global and asymptotic symmetries.
Review of river discharge records and gauging stations in the Rwenzori Mountains of Uganda
Jones, Peter JS
Review of river discharge records and gauging stations in the Rwenzori Mountains of Uganda Richard Department Directorate of Water Development Entebbe, Uganda November 2004 Review of river discharge records and gauging stations in the Rwenzori Mountains of Uganda 1 #12;Summary This report provides an overview
Color Confinement in lattice Landau gauge with unquenched Wilson and KS fermions
Hideo Nakajima; Sadataka Furui
2005-11-24T23:59:59.000Z
The Kugo-Ojima confinement criterion is verified in the unquenched Landau gauge QCD simulation. The valence quark propagator of the Kogut-Susskind fermion with use of the fermion action including the Naik term and the staple contribution is calculated on MILC Asqtad unquenched gauge configurations, and it shows infrared suppression of the quark propagator.
Mass scale effects for the Sudakov form factors in theories with the broken gauge symmetry
A. Barroso; B. I. Ermolaev
2002-03-12T23:59:59.000Z
The off-shell and the on-shell Sudakov form factors in theories with broken gauge symmetry are calculated in the double-logarithmic approximation. We have used different infrared cut-offs, i.e. different mass scales, for virtual photons and weak gauge bosons.
From Peierls brackets to a generalized Moyal bracket for type-I gauge theories
Giampiero Esposito; Cosimo Stornaiolo
2006-07-17T23:59:59.000Z
In the space-of-histories approach to gauge fields and their quantization, the Maxwell, Yang--Mills and gravitational field are well known to share the property of being type-I theories, i.e. Lie brackets of the vector fields which leave the action functional invariant are linear combinations of such vector fields, with coefficients of linear combination given by structure constants. The corresponding gauge-field operator in the functional integral for the in-out amplitude is an invertible second-order differential operator. For such an operator, we consider advanced and retarded Green functions giving rise to a Peierls bracket among group-invariant functionals. Our Peierls bracket is a Poisson bracket on the space of all group-invariant functionals in two cases only: either the gauge-fixing is arbitrary but the gauge fields lie on the dynamical sub-space; or the gauge-fixing is a linear functional of gauge fields, which are generic points of the space of histories. In both cases, the resulting Peierls bracket is proved to be gauge-invariant by exploiting the manifestly covariant formalism. Moreover, on quantization, a gauge-invariant Moyal bracket is defined that reduces to i hbar times the Peierls bracket to lowest order in hbar.
Non-locality and gauge freedom in Deutsch and Hayden's formulation of quantum mechanics
David Wallace; Chris Timpson
2005-03-16T23:59:59.000Z
Deutsch and Hayden have proposed an alternative formulation of quantum mechanics which is completely local. We argue that their proposal must be understood as having a form of `gauge freedom' according to which mathematically distinct states are physically equivalent. Once this gauge freedom is taken into account, their formulation is no longer local.
Heinke, Dietmar
Climate change after Bali If the estimated 10,000 that gathered in London in the rain last Saturday is anything to go by, climate change occupies a marginal place on the global political agenda. In contrast undoubtedly delivered a blow to direct action, yet it is still hard to imagine climate change galvanizing
Lovley, Derek
.com Hydrogen Fuel Cells Buy Commercial & Educational Stacks PEM, Fuel Cell Generators & More! www.TheHydrogenCompany.com Hydrogen Fuel Cell Improve Your Fuel Economy 20 to 50% Begin Saving Fuel Now www.SaveMoreWithHydrogenMicrobial Fuel Cells - Solar Times http://solar.rain-barrel.net/microbial-fuel-cells/ 1 of 3 6
Dooley, Joseph B. (Harriman, TN); Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Tobin, Kenneth W. (Harriman, TN)
1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity.
Dooley, J.B.; Muhs, J.D.; Tobin, K.W.
1995-01-10T23:59:59.000Z
A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity. 2 figures.
Omnidirectional fiber optic tiltmeter
Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.
1983-06-30T23:59:59.000Z
A tiltmeter is provided which is useful in detecting very small movements such as earth tides. The device comprises a single optical fiber, and an associated weight affixed thereto, suspended from a support to form a pendulum. A light source, e.g., a light emitting diode, mounted on the support transmits light through the optical fiber to a group of further optical fibers located adjacent to but spaced from the free end of the single optical fiber so that displacement of the single optical fiber with respect to the group will result in a change in the amount of light received by the individual optical fibers of the group. Photodetectors individually connectd to the fibers produce corresponding electrical outputs which are differentially compared and processed to produce a resultant continuous analog output representative of the amount and direction of displacement of the single optical fiber.
Study of the zero modes of the Faddeev–Popov operator in the maximal Abelian gauge
Capri, M.A.L., E-mail: caprimarcio@gmail.com; Guimaraes, M.S., E-mail: msguimaraes@uerj.br; Lemes, V.E.R., E-mail: vitor@dft.if.uerj.br; Sorella, S.P., E-mail: sorella@uerj.br; Tedesco, D.G., E-mail: dgtedesco@uerj.br
2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
A study of the zero modes of the Faddeev–Popov operator in the maximal Abelian gauge is presented in the case of the gauge group SU(2) and for different Euclidean space–time dimensions. Explicit examples of classes of normalizable zero modes and corresponding gauge field configurations are constructed by taking into account two boundary conditions, namely: (i) the finite Euclidean Yang–Mills action, (ii) the finite Hilbert norm. -- Highlights: •We study the zero modes of the Faddeev–Popov operator in the maximal Abelian gauge. •For d=2 we obtain solutions with finite action but not finite Hilbert norm. •For d=3,4 we obtain solutions with finite action and finite Hilbert norm. •These results can be compared with those previously obtained in the Landau gauge.
Dark Matter and Gauge Coupling Unification in Non-supersymmetric SO(10) Grand Unified Models
Mambrini, Yann; Olive, Keith A; Quevillon, Jeremie; Zheng, Jiaming
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Unlike minimal SU(5), SO(10) provides a straightforward path towards gauge coupling unification by modifying the renormalization group evolution of the gauge couplings above some intermediate scale which may also be related to the seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses. Unification can be achieved for several different choices of the intermediate gauge group below the SO(10) breaking scale. In this work, we consider in detail the possibility that SO(10) unification may also provide a natural dark matter candidate, stability being guaranteed by a left over $Z_2$ symmetry. We systematically examine the possible intermediate gauge groups which allow a non-degenerate, fermionic, Standard Model singlet dark matter candidate while at the same time respecting gauge coupling unification. Our analysis is done at the two-loop level. Surprisingly, despite the richness of SO(10), we find that only two models survive the analysis of phenomenological constraints, which include suitable neutrino masses, proton decay, and rehe...
Sound waves in strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma
Paolo Benincasa
2005-07-04T23:59:59.000Z
Gauge/string correspondence provides an efficient method to investigate gauge theories. In this talk we discuss the results of the paper (to appear) by P. Benincasa, A. Buchel and A. O. Starinets, where the propagation of sound waves is studied in a strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma. In particular, a prediction for the speed of sound as well as for the bulk viscosity is made for the N=2* gauge theory in the high temperature limit. As expected, the results achieved show a deviation from the speed of sound and the bulk viscosity for a conformal theory. It is pointed out that such results depend on the particular gauge theory considered.
Propagating modes of non-Abelian tensor gauge field of second rank
Spyros Konitopoulos; George Savvidy
2007-06-06T23:59:59.000Z
In the recently proposed extension of the YM theory, non-Abelian tensor gauge field of the second rank is represented by a general tensor whose symmetric part describes the propagation of charged gauge boson of helicity two and its antisymmetric part - the helicity zero charged gauge boson. On the non-interacting level these polarizations are similar to the polarizations of the graviton and of the Abelian antisymmetric B field, but the interaction of these gauge bosons carrying non-commutative internal charges cannot be directly identified with the interaction of gravitons or B field. Our intention here is to illustrate this result from different perspectives which would include Bianchi identity for the corresponding field strength tensor and the analysis of the second-order partial differential equation which describes in this theory the propagation of non-Abelian tensor gauge field of the second rank.
Generalized lepton number and dark left-right gauge model
Khalil, Shaaban [Center for Theoretical Physics, British University in Egypt, El Sherouk City, Postal No. 11837, P.O. Box 43 (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Ain Shams University, Faculty of Science, Cairo 11566 (Egypt); Lee, Hye-Sung; Ma, Ernest [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)
2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
In a left-right gauge model of particle interactions, the left-handed fermion doublet ({nu},e){sub L} is connected to its right-handed counterpart (n,e){sub R} through a scalar bidoublet so that e{sub L} pairs with e{sub R}, and {nu}{sub L} with n{sub R} to form mass terms. Suppose the latter link is severed without affecting the former, then n{sub R} is not the mass partner of {nu}{sub L}, and as we show in this paper, becomes a candidate for dark matter which is relevant for the recent PAMELA and ATIC observations. We accomplish this in a specific nonsupersymmetric model, where a generalized lepton number can be defined, so that n{sub R} and W{sub R}{sup {+-}} are odd under R{identical_to}(-1){sup 3B+L+2j}. Fermionic leptoquarks are also predicted.
Surface charge algebra in gauge theories and thermodynamic integrability
Barnich, Glenn [Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Campus Plaine, CP 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Compere, Geoffrey [Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Campus Plaine, CP 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Gravity Group, University of California at Santa Barbara, Broida Hall 9530, California 93106-9530 (United States)
2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Surface charges and their algebra in interacting Lagrangian gauge field theories are constructed out of the underlying linearized theory using techniques from the variational calculus. In the case of exact solutions and symmetries, the surface charges are interpreted as a Pfaff system. Integrability is governed by Frobenius' theorem and the charges associated with the derived symmetry algebra are shown to vanish. In the asymptotic context, we provide a generalized covariant derivation of the result that the representation of the asymptotic symmetry algebra through charges may be centrally extended. Comparison with Hamiltonian and covariant phase space methods is made. All approaches are shown to agree for exact solutions and symmetries while there are differences in the asymptotic context.
Deeply virtual Compton scattering from gauge/gravity duality
Costa, Miguel S.; Djuric, Marko [University of Porto (Portugal)
2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
We use gauge/gravity duality to study deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) in the limit of high center of mass energy at fixed momentum transfer, corresponding to the limit of low Bjorken x, where the process is dominated by the exchange of the pomeron. At strong coupling, the pomeron is described as the graviton Regge trajectory in AdS space, with a hard wall to mimic confinement effects. This model agrees with HERA data in a large kinematical range. The behavior of the DVCS cross section for very high energies, inside saturation, can be explained by a simple AdS black disk model. In a restricted kinematical window, this model agrees with HERA data as well.
Gauge field and geometric control of quantum-thermodynamic engine
Sumiyoshi Abe
2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z
The problem of extracting the work from a quantum-thermodynamic system driven by slowly varying external parameters is discussed. It is shown that there naturally emerges a gauge-theoretic structure. The field strength identically vanishes if the system is in an equilibrium state, i.e., the nonvanishing field strength implies that the system is in a nonequilibrium quasi-stationary state. The work done through a cyclic process in the parameter space is given in terms of the flux of the field. This general formalism is applied to an example of a single spin in a varying magnetic field, and the maximum power output is discussed in a given finite-time cyclic process.
On the teleparallel limit of Poincare gauge theory
M. Leclerc
2005-01-11T23:59:59.000Z
We will address the question of the consistency of teleparallel theories in presence of spinning matter which has been a controversial subject of discussion over the last twenty years. We argue that the origin of the problem is not simply the symmetry or asymmetry of the stress-energy tensor of the matter fields, which has been recently analyzed by several authors, but arises at a more fundamental level, namely from the invariance of the field equatins under a frame change, a problem that has been discussed long time ago by Kopczynski in the framework of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity. More importantly, we show that the problem is not only confined to the purely teleparallel theory but arises actually in every Poincare gauge theory that admits a teleparallel geometry in the absence of spinning sources, i.e. in its classical limit.
Environmental radiological monitoring of air, rain, and snow on and near the Hanford Site, 1945-1957
Hanf, R.W.; Thiede, M.E.
1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The goal of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Members of the HEDR Project`s Environmental Monitoring Data Task have developed databases of historical environmental measurements of such emissions. Hanford documents were searched for information on the radiological monitoring of air, rain, and snow at and near the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The monitoring information was reviewed and summarized. The end product is a yearly overview of air, rain, and snow samples as well as ambient radiation levels in the air that were measured from 1945 through 1957. The following information is provided in each annual summary: the media sampled, the constituents (radionuclides) measured/reported, the sampling locations, the sampling frequencies, the sampling methods, and the document references. For some years a notes category is included that contains additional useful information. For the years 1948 through 1957, tables summarizing the sampling locations for the various sample media are also included in the appendix. A large number of documents were reviewed to obtain the information in this report. A reference list is attached to the end of each annual summary. All of the information summarized here was obtained from reports originating at Hanford. These reports are all publicly available and can be found in the Richland Operations Office (RL) public reading room. The information in this report has been compiled without analysis and should only be used as a guide to the original documents.
Low scale quantum gravity in gauge-Higgs unified models
Jubin Park
2015-01-19T23:59:59.000Z
We consider the scale at which gravity becomes strong in linearized General Relativity coupled to the gauge-Higgs unified(GHU) model. We also discuss the unitarity of S-matrix in the same framework. The Kaluza-Klein(KK) gauge bosons, KK scalars and KK fermions in the GHU models can drastically change the strong gravity scale and the unitarity violation scale. In particular we consider two models GHU_SM and GHU_MSSM which have the zero modes corresponding to the particle content of the Standard Model and the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, respectively. We find that the strong gravity scale could be lowered as much as 10^13 (10^14) GeV in the GHU_SM (GHU_MSSM) for one extra dimension taking 1 TeV as the compactification scale. It is also shown that these scales are proportional to the inverse of the number of extra dimensions d. In the d=10 case, they could be lowered up to 10^5 GeV for both models. We also find that the maximum compactification scales of extra dimensions quickly converge into one special scale M_O near Planck scale or equivalently into one common radius R_0 irrespectively of d as the number of zero modes increases. It may mean that all extra dimensions emerge with the same radius near Planck scale. In addition, it is shown that the supersymmetry can help to remove the discordance between the strong gravity scale and the unitarity violation scale.
Transpiration purged optical probe
2004-01-06T23:59:59.000Z
An optical apparatus for clearly viewing the interior of a containment vessel by applying a transpiration fluid to a volume directly in front of the external surface of the optical element of the optical apparatus. The fluid is provided by an external source and transported by means of an annular tube to a capped end region where the inner tube is perforated. The perforation allows the fluid to stream axially towards the center of the inner tube and then axially away from an optical element which is positioned in the inner tube just prior to the porous sleeve. This arrangement draws any contaminants away from the optical element keeping it free of contaminants. In one of several embodiments, the optical element can be a lens, a viewing port or a laser, and the external source can provide a transpiration fluid having either steady properties or time varying properties.
Entanglement in Classical Optics
Partha Ghose; Anirban Mukherjee
2013-09-12T23:59:59.000Z
The emerging field of entanglement or nonseparability in classical optics is reviewed, and its similarities with and differences from quantum entanglement clearly pointed out through a recapitulation of Hilbert spaces in general, the special restrictions on Hilbert spaces imposed in quantum mechanics and the role of Hilbert spaces in classical polarization optics. The production of Bell-like states in classical polarization optics is discussed, and new theorems are proved to discriminate between separable and nonseparable states in classical wave optics where no discreteness is involved. The influence of the Pancharatnam phase on a classical Bell-like state is deived. Finally, to what extent classical polarization optics can be used to simulate quantum information processing tasks is also discussed. This should be of great practical importance because coherence and entanglement are robust in classical optics but not in quantum systems.
Atmospheric optical calibration system
Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.
1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z
An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.
Quantum optical waveform conversion
D Kielpinski; JF Corney; HM Wiseman
2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z
Currently proposed architectures for long-distance quantum communication rely on networks of quantum processors connected by optical communications channels [1,2]. The key resource for such networks is the entanglement of matter-based quantum systems with quantum optical fields for information transmission. The optical interaction bandwidth of these material systems is a tiny fraction of that available for optical communication, and the temporal shape of the quantum optical output pulse is often poorly suited for long-distance transmission. Here we demonstrate that nonlinear mixing of a quantum light pulse with a spectrally tailored classical field can compress the quantum pulse by more than a factor of 100 and flexibly reshape its temporal waveform, while preserving all quantum properties, including entanglement. Waveform conversion can be used with heralded arrays of quantum light emitters to enable quantum communication at the full data rate of optical telecommunications.
Budker, Dmitry; Higbie, James; Corsini, Eric P
2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z
An optical atomic magnetometers is provided operating on the principles of nonlinear magneto-optical rotation. An atomic vapor is optically pumped using linearly polarized modulated light. The vapor is then probed using a non-modulated linearly polarized light beam. The resulting modulation in polarization angle of the probe light is detected and used in a feedback loop to induce self-oscillation at the resonant frequency.
Optically measuring interior cavities
Stone, Gary Franklin (Livermore, CA)
2008-12-21T23:59:59.000Z
A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.
Valeriy Nazaruk
2014-03-20T23:59:59.000Z
It is shown that an application of optical theorem for the non-unitary S-matrix can lead to the qualitative error in the result.
Riot, V J; Olivier, S; Bauman, B; Pratuch, S; Seppala, L; Gilmore, D; Ku, J; Nordby, M; Foss, M; Antilogus, P; Morgado, N
2012-05-24T23:59:59.000Z
The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) uses a novel, three-mirror, telescope design feeding a camera system that includes a set of broad-band filters and three refractive corrector lenses to produce a flat field at the focal plane with a wide field of view. Optical design of the camera lenses and filters is integrated in with the optical design of telescope mirrors to optimize performance. We discuss the rationale for the LSST camera optics design, describe the methodology for fabricating, coating, mounting and testing the lenses and filters, and present the results of detailed analyses demonstrating that the camera optics will meet their performance goals.
McBranch, Duncan W. (Santa Fe, NM); Mattes, Benjamin R. (Santa Fe, NM); Koskelo, Aaron C. (Los Alamos, NM); Heeger, Alan J. (Santa Barbara, CA); Robinson, Jeanne M. (Los Alamos, NM); Smilowitz, Laura B. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM); Cha, Myoungsik (Goleta, CA); Sariciftci, N. Serdar (Santa Barbara, CA); Hummelen, Jan C. (Groningen, NL)
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Optical limiting materials. Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO.sub.2) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400-1100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes.
Veligdan, James T.; DeSanto, Leonard; Brewster, Calvin
2004-06-29T23:59:59.000Z
A spatially modulated light beam is projected, reflected, and redirected through a prismatic optical panel to form a video image for direct viewing thereon.
Jacobson, Steven D.
2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z
Certain examples provide optical contact micrometers and methods of use. An example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable lenses to receive an object and immobilize the object in a position. The example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable mirrors positioned with respect to the pair of lenses to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses. The example optical contact micrometer includes a microscope to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses via the mirrors; and an interferometer to obtain one or more measurements of the object.
Content Protection for Optical Media Content Protection for Optical Media
Amir, Yair
Content Protection for Optical Media Content Protection for Optical Media A Comparison of Self-Protecting Digital Content and AACS Independent Security Evaluators www.securityevaluators.com May 3, 2005 Copyright for Optical Media 2 #12;Content Protection for Optical Media Content Protection for Optical Media 3 Executive
The ice-limit of Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory
Heinzl, Thomas; Langfeld, Kurt; Lavelle, Martin; McMullan, David
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we describe gauge invariant multi-quark states generalising the path integral framework developed by Parrinello, Jona-Lasinio and Zwanziger to amend the Faddeev-Popov approach. This allows us to produce states such that, in a limit which we call the ice-limit, fermions are dressed with glue exclusively from the fundamental modular region associated with Coulomb gauge. The limit can be taken analytically without difficulties, avoiding the Gribov problem. This is llustrated by an unambiguous construction of gauge invariant mesonic states for which we simulate the static quark--antiquark potential.
Infrared behavior and gauge artifacts in de Sitter spacetime: The photon field
Ahmed Youssef
2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z
We study the infrared (long distance) behavior of the free photon field in de Sitter spacetime. Using a two-parameter family of gauge fixing terms, we show that the infrared (IR) behavior of the two-point function is highly gauge-dependent and ranges from vanishing to growing. This situation is in disagreement with its counterpart in flat spacetime, where the two-point function vanishes in the IR for any choice of the gauge fixing parameters. A criterion to isolate the "physical" part of the two-point function is given and is shown to lead to a well-behaved two-point function in the IR.
Gravity-induced birefringence within the framework of Poincare gauge theory
Oliver Preuss; Sami K. Solanki; M. P. Haugan; Stefan Jordan
2005-07-28T23:59:59.000Z
Gauge theories of gravity provide an elegant and promising extension of general relativity. In this paper we show that the Poincar\\'e gauge theory exhibits gravity-induced birefringence under the assumption of a specific gauge invariant nonminimal coupling between torsion and Maxwell's field. Furthermore we give for the first time an explicit expression for the induced phaseshift between two orthogonal polarization modes within the Poincar\\'e framework. Since such a phaseshift can lead to a depolarization of light emitted from an extended source this effect is, in principle, observable. We use white dwarf polarimetric data to constrain the essential coupling constant responsible for this effect.
The ice-limit of Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory
Thomas Heinzl; Anton Ilderton; Kurt Langfeld; Martin Lavelle; David McMullan
2008-07-29T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we describe gauge invariant multi-quark states generalising the path integral framework developed by Parrinello, Jona-Lasinio and Zwanziger to amend the Faddeev-Popov approach. This allows us to produce states such that, in a limit which we call the ice-limit, fermions are dressed with glue exclusively from the fundamental modular region associated with Coulomb gauge. The limit can be taken analytically without difficulties, avoiding the Gribov problem. This is llustrated by an unambiguous construction of gauge invariant mesonic states for which we simulate the static quark--antiquark potential.
Gouranga C Nayak
2009-10-02T23:59:59.000Z
We study non-perturbative gluon pair production from arbitrary time dependent chromo-electric field E^a(t) with arbitrary color index a =1,2,...8 via Schwinger mechanism in arbitrary covariant background gauge \\alpha. We show that the probability of non-perturbative gluon pair production per unit time per unit volume per unit transverse momentum \\frac{dW}{d^4xd^2p_T} is independent of gauge fixing parameter \\alpha. Hence the result obtained in the Fynman-'t Hooft gauge, \\alpha=1, is the correct gauge invariant and gauge parameter \\alpha independent result.
AN INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM OPTICS...
Palffy-Muhoray, Peter
AN INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM OPTICS... ...the light as you've never seen before... Optics:http://science.howstuffworks.com/laser5.htm #12;5 DEFINITION Quantum Optics: "Quantum optics is a field in quantum physics, dealing OPTICS OPERATORS Light is described in terms of field operators for creation and annihilation of photons
Gauge symmetries decrease the number of Dp-brane dimensions
Nikolic, B.; Sazdovic, B. [Institute of Physics, 11001 Belgrade, P.O. Box 57 (Serbia and Montenegro)
2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
It is known that the presence of the antisymmetric background field B{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}} leads to the noncommutativity of the Dp-brane manifold. The addition of the linear dilaton field in the form {phi}(x)={phi}{sub 0}+a{sub {mu}}x{sup {mu}} causes the appearance of the commutative Dp-brane coordinate x=a{sub {mu}}x{sup {mu}}. In the present article we show that for some particular choices of the background fields, a{sup 2}{identical_to}G{sup {mu}}{sup {nu}}a{sub {mu}}a{sub {nu}}=0 and a-tilde{sup 2}{identical_to}[(G-4BG{sup -1}B){sup -1}]{sup {mu}}{sup {nu}}a{sub {mu}}a{sub {nu}}=0, the local gauge symmetries appear in the theory. They turn some Neuman boundary conditions into the Dirichlet ones, and consequently decrease the number of the Dp-brane dimensions.
Thermodynamics of SU(3) Gauge Theory in 2 + 1 Dimensions
P. Bialas; L. Daniel; A. Morel; B. Petersson
2008-07-21T23:59:59.000Z
The pressure, and the energy and entropy densities are determined for the SU(3) gauge theory in $2 + 1$ dimensions from lattice Monte Carlo calculations in the interval $0.6 \\leq T/T_c \\leq 15$. The finite temperature lattices simulated have temporal extent $N_\\tau = 2, 4, 6$ and 8, and spatial volumes $N_S^2$ such that the aspect ratio is $N_S/N_\\tau = 8$. To obtain the thermodynamical quantities, we calculate the averages of the temporal plaquettes $P_\\tau$ and the spatial plaquettes $P_S$ on these lattices. We also need the zero temperature averages of the plaquettes $P_0$, calculated on symmetric lattices with $N_\\tau = N_S$. We discuss in detail the finite size ($N_S$-dependent) effects. These disappear exponentially. For the zero temperature lattices we find that the coefficient of $N_S$ in the exponent is of the order of the glueball mass. On the finite temperature lattices it lies between the two lowest screening masses. For the aspect ratio equal to eight, the systematic errors coming from the finite size effects are much smaller than our statistical errors. We argue that in the continuum limit, at high enough temperature, the pressure can be parametrized by the very simple formula $p=a-bT_c/T$ where $a$ and $b$ are two constants. Using the thermodynamical identities for a large homogeneous system, this parametrization then determines the other thermodynamical variables in the same temperature range.
Exact Solutions of 2d Supersymmetric Gauge Theories
Abhijit Gadde; Sergei Gukov; Pavel Putrov
2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z
We study dynamics of two-dimensional non-abelian gauge theories with N=(0,2) supersymmetry that include N=(0,2) supersymmetric QCD and its generalizations. In particular, we present the phase diagram of N=(0,2) SQCD and determine its massive and low-energy spectrum. We find that the theory has no mass gap, a nearly constant distribution of massive states, and lots of massless states that in general flow to an interacting CFT. For a range of parameters where supersymmetry is not dynamically broken at low energies, we give a complete description of the low-energy physics in terms of 2d N=(0,2) SCFTs using anomaly matching and modular invariance. Our construction provides a vast landscape of new N=(0,2) SCFTs which, for small values of the central charge, could be used for building novel heterotic models with no moduli and, for large values of the central charge, could be dual to AdS_3 string vacua.
CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory 2010
None
2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z
The CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory is the analytic continuation of the yearly training school of the former EC-RTN string network "Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe". The 2010 edition of the school is supported and organized by the CERN Theory Divison, and will take place from Monday January 25 to Friday January 29, at CERN. As its predecessors, this school is meant primarily for training of doctoral students and young postdoctoral researchers in recent developments in theoretical high-energy physics and string theory. The programme of the school will consist of five series of pedagogical lectures, complemented by tutorial discussion sessions in the afternoons. Previous schools in this series were organized in 2005 at SISSA in Trieste, and in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 at CERN, Geneva. Other similar schools have been organized in the past by the former related RTN network "The Quantum Structure of Spacetime and the Geometric Nature of Fundamental Interactions". This edition of the school is not funded by the European Union. The school is funded by the CERN Theory Division, and the Arnold Sommerfeld Center at Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich. Scientific committee: M. Gaberdiel, D. Luest, A. Sevrin, J. Simon, K. Stelle, S. Theisen, A. Uranga, A. Van Proeyen, E. Verlinde Local organizers: A. Uranga, J. Walcher
Attractive Inverse Square Potential, U(1) Gauge, and Winding Transitions
Cristiano Nisoli; Alan. R. Bishop
2014-10-18T23:59:59.000Z
The inverse square potential arises in a variety of different quantum phenomena, yet notoriously it must be handled with care: it suffers from pathologies rooted in the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics. We show that its recently studied conformality-breaking corresponds to an infinitely smooth winding-unwinding topological transition for the {\\it classical} statistical mechanics of a one-dimensional system: this describes the the tangling/untangling of floppy polymers under a biasing torque. When the ratio between torque and temperature exceeds a critical value the polymer undergoes tangled oscillations, with an extensive winding number. At lower torque or higher temperature the winding number per unit length is zero. Approaching criticality, the correlation length of the order parameter---the extensive winding number---follows a Kosterlitz-Thouless type law. The model is described by the Wilson line of a (0+1) $U(1)$ gauge theory, and applies to the tangling/untangling of floppy polymers and to the winding/diffusing kinetics in diffusion-convection-reactions.
Black Holes with Primary Hair in gauged N=8 Supergravity
Andres Anabalon; Fabrizio Canfora; Alex Giacomini; Julio Oliva
2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we analyze the static solutions for the $U(1)^{4}$ consistent truncation of the maximally supersymmetric gauged supergravity in four dimensions. Using a new parametrization of the known solutions it is shown that for fixed charges there exist three possible black hole configurations according to the pattern of symmetry breaking of the (scalars sector of the) Lagrangian. Namely a black hole without scalar fields, a black hole with a primary hair and a black hole with a secondary hair respectively. This is the first, exact, example of a black hole with a primary scalar hair, where both the black hole and the scalar fields are regular on and outside the horizon. The configurations with secondary and primary hair can be interpreted as a spontaneous symmetry breaking of discrete permutation and reflection symmetries of the action. It is shown that there exist a triple point in the thermodynamic phase space where the three solution coexist. The corresponding phase transitions are discussed and the free energies are written explicitly as function of the thermodynamic coordinates in the uncharged case. In the charged case the free energies of the primary hair and the hairless black hole are also given as functions of the thermodynamic coordinates.
Kirchner, Tommy L. (Richland, WA); Powers, Hurshal G. (Richland, WA)
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane at a cylindrical outside surface by use of an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image of an encircled cylindrical surface area to a stationary photodiode array.
Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A flexible optical panel includes laminated optical waveguides, each including a ribbon core laminated between cladding, with the core being resilient in the plane of the core for elastically accommodating differential movement thereof to permit winding of the panel in a coil.
Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre
2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z
A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).
Villarreal, R.A.
1985-11-06T23:59:59.000Z
An optical scanner employed in a radioactive environment for reading indicia imprinted about a cylindrical surface of an article by means of an optical system including metallic reflective and mirror surfaces resistant to degradation and discoloration otherwise imparted to glass surfaces exposed to radiation is described.
Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Davis, Donald T. (Livermore, CA)
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optic fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends.
Digital optical conversion module
Kotter, Dale K. (North Shelley, ID); Rankin, Richard A. (Ammon, ID)
1991-02-26T23:59:59.000Z
A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.
Digital optical conversion module
Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.
1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z
A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.
Kuzmenko, P.J.; Davis, D.T.
1994-05-10T23:59:59.000Z
A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer is disclosed. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optical fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends. 2 figures.
Optical amplifier-powered quantum optical amplification
John Jeffers
2011-05-16T23:59:59.000Z
I show that an optical amplifier, when combined with photon subtraction, can be used for quantum state amplification, adding noise at a level below the standard minimum. The device could be used to significantly decrease the probability of incorrectly identifying coherent states chosen from a finite set.
Light-cone gauge approach to arbitrary spin fields, currents, and shadows
R. R. Metsaev
2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Totally symmetric arbitrary spin fields in AdS space, conformal fields, conformal currents, and shadow fields in flat space are studied. Light-cone formulation for such fields, currents, and shadows is obtained. Use of the Poincare parametrization of AdS space allows us to treat fields in flat and AdS spaces on equal footing. Light-cone gauge realization of relativistic symmetries for fields, currents, and shadows is also obtained. The light-cone formulation for fields is obtained by using the gauge invariant Lagrangian which is presented in terms of the modified de Donder divergence, while the light-cone formulation for currents and shadows is obtained by using gauge invariant approach to currents and shadows. This allows us to demonstrate explicitly how ladder operators entering the gauge invariant formulation of fields, currents, and shadows manifest themselves in the light-cone formulation for fields, currents, and shadows.
Refined Topological Vertex and Duality of Gauge Theories in Generic Omega Backgrounds
Kei Ito
2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z
The partition functions of refined topological strings(A-models) are computed, which give rise to the circle-compactified five-dimensional supersymmetric linear quiver gauge theories in generic (not necessarily self-dual) Omega backgrounds. Based on the slicing independence conjecture of refined topological string partition functions, it is demonstrated explicitly that the duality exists between $SU(N)^{M-1}$ and $SU(M)^{N-1}$ supersymmetric linear quiver gauge theories, even in generic Omega backgrounds. It is found that the relations between string moduli and gauge moduli are deformed from the self-dual case. However if the duality map which preserves the ratio of the Omega background parameters q and t, is considered, duality maps of the gauge moduli are not changed from the self-dual case.
E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous gauge theories Sample Search...
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theory for non-abelian gauge theories in 3+1 dimensions. 1... to the non-abelian nature of the theory the ... Source: van Baal, Pierre - Leiden Institute of Physics,...
GL(3,R) gauge theory of gravity coupled with an electromagnetic field
Rolando Gaitan; Frank Vera
2006-08-11T23:59:59.000Z
Consistency of $GL(3,R)$ gauge theory of gravity coupled with an external electromagnetic field, is studied. It is shown that possible restrictions on Maxwell field can be avoided through introduction of auxiliary fields.
Semiclassical analysis for a Schrodinger operator with a U(2) artificial gauge: the periodic case
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
: semiclassical asymptotic, spectrum, eigenvalues, Schrodinger, periodic potential, BKW method, width of the first Preliminary: the artificial gauge model 3 3 Proof of Theorem 2.1 5 4 Asymptotic of the first band 6 5 B.K.W
Semiclassical analysis for a Schrodinger operator with a U(2) artificial gauge: the periodic case
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
: semiclassical asymptotic, spectrum, eigenvalues, Schrodinger, periodic potential, BKW method, width of the first Preliminary: the artificial gauge model 3 3 Proof of Theorem 2.1 5 4 Asymptotic of the first band 7 5 B.K.W
Towards a chiral gauge theory by deconstruction in AdS5
Tanmoy Bhattacharya; Rajan Gupta; Matthew R. Martin; Yuri Shirman; Csaba Csaki; John Terning
2005-10-12T23:59:59.000Z
We describe an implementation of a deconstructed gauge theory with charged fermions defined on an interval in five dimensional AdS space. The four dimensional slices are Minkowski, and the end slices support four dimensional chiral zero modes. In such a theory, the energy scales warp down as we move along the fifth dimension. If we augment this theory with localized neutral 4-dimensional Majorana fermions on the low energy end, and implement a Higgs mechanism there, we can arrange the theory such that the lightest gauge boson mode and the chiral mode on the wall at the high energy end are parametrically lighter than all the other states in the theory. If this semiclassical construction does not run into problems at the quantum level, this may provide an explicit construction of a chiral gauge theory. Instanton effects are expected to make the gauge boson heavy only if the resulting effective theory is anomalous.
A LASER STRAIN GAUGE FOR ACCELERATOR TARGETS A. Hassanein, J. Norem, ANL, Argonne, IL 60439
Harilal, S. S.
A LASER STRAIN GAUGE FOR ACCELERATOR TARGETS A. Hassanein, J. Norem, ANL, Argonne, IL 60439 tests using the Brookhaven AGS and the Argonne CHM linac. 1 INTRODUCTION The next generation of particle
E-Print Network 3.0 - abelian chern-simons gauge Sample Search...
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<< < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Entanglement Entropy at 2D quantum critical points, topological fluids and quantum Hall fluids Summary: is Abelian Chern-Simons gauge theory U(1)m for the...
T. P. Shestakova
2008-01-30T23:59:59.000Z
In "extended phase space" approach to quantum geometrodynamics numerical solutions to Schrodinger equation corresponding to various choice of gauge conditions are obtained for the simplest isotropic model. The "extended phase space" approach belongs to those appeared in the last decade in which, as a result of fixing a reference frame, the Wheeler - DeWitt static picture of the world is replaced by evolutionary quantum geometrodynamics. Some aspects of this approach were discussed at two previous PIRT meetings. We are interested in the part of the wave function depending on physical degrees of freedom. Three gauge conditions having a clear physical meaning are considered. They are the conformal time gauge, the gauge producing the appearance of Lambda-term in the Einstein equations, and the one covering the two previous cases as asymptotic limits. The interpretation and discussion of the obtained solutions is given.
Electric/magnetic duality for chiral gauge theories with anomaly cancellation
Jan De Rydt; Torsten T. Schmidt; Mario Trigiante; Antoine Van Proeyen; Marco Zagermann
2009-02-07T23:59:59.000Z
We show that 4D gauge theories with Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation and possible generalized Chern-Simons terms admit a formulation that is manifestly covariant with respect to electric/magnetic duality transformations. This generalizes previous work on the symplectically covariant formulation of anomaly-free gauge theories as they typically occur in extended supergravity, and now also includes general theories with (pseudo-)anomalous gauge interactions as they may occur in global or local N=1 supersymmetry. This generalization is achieved by relaxing the linear constraint on the embedding tensor so as to allow for a symmetric 3-tensor related to electric and/or magnetic quantum anomalies in these theories. Apart from electric and magnetic gauge fields, the resulting Lagrangians also feature two-form fields and can accommodate various unusual duality frames as they often appear, e.g., in string compactifications with background fluxes.
Zafrir, Gabi
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We study the fermionic zero modes around 1 instanton operators for 5d supersymmetric gauge theories of type USp, SO and the exceptional groups. The major motivation is to try to understand the global symmetry enhancement pattern in these theories.
Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- EnergyGauge Summit version 3.14
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Provides required documentation that EnergyGauge Summit version 3.14 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.
Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- EnergyGauge Summit version 3.11
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Provides required documentation that EnergyGauge Summit version 3.11 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.
Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- EnergyGauge Summit version 3.13
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Provides required documentation that EnergyGauge Summit version 3.13 meets Internal Revenue Code §179D, Notice 2006-52, dated June 2, 2006, for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings.
Stability of an oscillon un the SU (2) gauged Higgs model
Markov, Ruza
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Oscillons are localized solutions of nonlinear field theories that oscillate without dissipation. We have numerically found a family of very long-lived oscillons the spherical ansatz of the SU(2) gauged Higgs model -the ...
E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous gauge couplings Sample Search...
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IN p Zb... . Anomalous neutral triple gauge couplings (NTGC), which are not present at tree level in the SM, may induce... .07 0.96 12;Probing Anomalous ... Source: Magiera,...
Infrared behavior and Gribov ambiguity in SU(2) lattice gauge theory
V. G. Bornyakov; V. K. Mitrjushkin; M. Müller--Preussker
2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
For SU(2) lattice gauge theory we study numerically the infrared behavior of the Landau gauge ghost and gluon propagators with the special accent on the Gribov copy dependence. Applying a very efficient gauge fixing procedure and generating up to 80 gauge copies we find that the Gribov copy effect for both propagators is essential in the infrared. In particular, our best copy dressing function of the ghost propagator approaches a plateau in the infrared, while for the random first copy it still grows. Our best copy zero-momentum gluon propagator shows a tendency to decrease with growing lattice size which excludes singular solutions. Our results look compatible with the so-called decoupling solution with a non-singular gluon propagator. However, we do not yet consider the Gribov copy problem to be finally resolved.
Gauge-potential approach to the kinematics of a moving car
Marian Fecko
1997-03-07T23:59:59.000Z
A kinematics of the motion of a car is reformulated in terms of the theory of gauge potentials (connection on principal bundle). E(2)-connection originates in the no-slipping contact of the car with a road.
On the elimination of infinitesimal Gribov ambiguities in non-Abelian gauge theories
A. D. Pereira Jr; R. F. Sobreiro
2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z
An alternative method to account for the Gribov ambiguities in gauge theories is presented. It is shown that, to eliminate Gribov ambiguities, at infinitesimal level, it is required to break the BRST symmetry in a soft manner. This can be done by introducing a suitable extra constraint that eliminates the infinitesimal Gribov copies. It is shown that the present approach is consistent with the well established known cases in the literature, i.e., the Landau and maximal Abelian gauges. The method is valid for gauges depending exclusively on the gauge field and is restricted to classical level. However, occasionally, we deal with quantum aspects of the technique, which are used to improve the results.
E-Print Network 3.0 - abelian 2-form gauge Sample Search Results
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com- ponents B,(i Abelian gauge group, this result reduces to the usual Lorentz force law, - g,(E(q, t) + i, x B(xl, t... .e., the color fluid). The Abelian,...
ARM - Measurement - Aerosol optical depth
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Related InformationAcid RainTheimage ARM Data Discovery
ARM - Measurement - Aerosol optical properties
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Related InformationAcid RainTheimage ARM Data
Optically Interconnected MulticomputersUsing
Krchnavek, Robert R.
Optically Interconnected MulticomputersUsing Inverted-GraphTopologies Tosuccessfullyexploitthebenefitsofopticaltechnologyinatightlycoupledmulticomputer, the architecturaldesignmust reflectboth the advantages and limitationsof optics. This article systems. Although optics have con- tributed dramatically to long-distance communi- cation and more
Localization of a supersymmetric gauge theory in the presence of a surface defect
Joel Lamy-Poirier
2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
We use supersymmetric localization to compute the partition function of N=2 super-Yang-Mills on S^4 in the presence of a gauged linear sigma model surface defect on a S^2 subspace. The result takes the form of a standard partition function on S^4, with a modified instanton partition function and an additional insertion corresponding to a shifted version of the gauged linear sigma model partition function.
Chaos, Scaling and Existence of a Continuum Limit in Classical Non-Abelian Lattice Gauge Theory
Holger Bech Nielsen; Hans Henrik Rugh; Svend Erik Rugh
1996-11-18T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss space-time chaos and scaling properties for classical non-Abelian gauge fields discretized on a spatial lattice. We emphasize that there is a ``no go'' for simulating the original continuum classical gauge fields over a long time span since there is a never ending dynamical cascading towards the ultraviolet. We note that the temporal chaotic properties of the original continuum gauge fields and the lattice gauge system have entirely different scaling properties thereby emphasizing that they are entirely different dynamical systems which have only very little in common. Considered as a statistical system in its own right the lattice gauge system in a situation where it has reached equilibrium comes closest to what could be termed a ``continuum limit'' in the limit of very small energies (weak non-linearities). We discuss the lattice system both in the limit for small energies and in the limit of high energies where we show that there is a saturation of the temporal chaos as a pure lattice artifact. Our discussion focuses not only on the temporal correlations but to a large extent also on the spatial correlations in the lattice system. We argue that various conclusions of physics have been based on monitoring the non-Abelian lattice system in regimes where the fields are correlated over few lattice units only. This is further evidenced by comparison with results for Abelian lattice gauge theory. How the real time simulations of the classical lattice gauge theory may reach contact with the real time evolution of (semi-classical aspects of) the quantum gauge theory (e.g. Q.C.D.) is left as an important question to be further examined.
Chaos, scaling and existence of a continuum limit in classical non-Abelian lattice gauge theory
Nielsen, H.B. [Niels Bohr Inst., Kobenhavn (Denmark); Rugh, H.H. [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Rugh, S.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)
1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss space-time chaos and scaling properties for classical non-Abelian gauge fields discretized on a spatial lattice. We emphasize that there is a {open_quote}no go{close_quotes} for simulating the original continuum classical gauge fields over a long time span since there is a never ending dynamical cascading towards the ultraviolet. We note that the temporal chaotic properties of the original continuum gauge fields and the lattice gauge system have entirely different scaling properties thereby emphasizing that they are entirely different dynamical systems which have only very little in common. Considered as a statistical system in its own right the lattice gauge system in a situation where it has reached equilibrium comes closest to what could be termed a {open_quotes}continuum limit{close_quotes} in the limit of very small energies (weak non-linearities). We discuss the lattice system both in the limit for small energies and in the limit of high energies where we show that there is a saturation of the temporal chaos as a pure lattice artifact. Our discussion focuses not only on the temporal correlations but to a large extent also on the spatial correlations in the lattice system. We argue that various conclusions of physics have been based on monitoring the non-Abelian lattice system in regimes where the fields are correlated over few lattice units only. This is further evidenced by comparison with results for Abelian lattice gauge theory. How the real time simulations of the classical lattice gauge theory may reach contact with the real time evolution of (semi-classical aspects of) the quantum gauge theory (e.g. Q.C.D.) is left an important question to be further examined.
Probing Extra Matter in Gauge Mediation Through the Lightest Higgs Boson Mass
Jason L. Evans; Masahiro Ibe; Tsutomu T. Yanagida
2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the implications of the excesses in LHC Higgs boson searches on the gauge mediated supersymmetric standard model, for the mass range 120-140\\,GeV. We find that a relatively heavy lightest Higgs boson mass in this range can be reconciled with light SUSY particles, $m_{\\rm gluino}Higgs boson. We also find that the mass of this extra matter can be predicted rather precisely in gauge mediation for a given Higgs boson and gluino mass.
Is the $ISO(2,1)$ Gauge Gravity equivalent to the Metric Formulation?
Jin-Ho Cho; Hyuk-jae Lee
1996-08-21T23:59:59.000Z
The quantization of the gravitational Chern-Simons coefficient is investigated in the framework of $ISO(2,1)$ gauge gravity. Some paradoxes involved are cured. The resolution is largely based on the inequivalence of $ISO(2,1)$ gauge gravity and the metric formulation. Both the Lorentzian scheme and the Euclidean scheme lead to the coefficient quantization, which means that the induced spin is not quite exotic in this context.
Broken gauge symmetry in a Bose gas with constant particle number
Alexej Schelle
2014-12-13T23:59:59.000Z
The existence of broken gauge symmetries in Bose-Einstein condensates is still controversially discussed in science, since it would not conserve the total number of particles. Here, it is shown for the first time that non-random condensate and non-condensate phase distributions may arise from local particle number breaking in a Bose gas with constant particle number, while the global U(1)-gauge symmetry of the system is preserved due to particle number conservation.
Topology and $\\theta$ dependence in finite temperature $G_2$ lattice gauge theory
Bonati, Claudio
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this work we study the topological properties of the $G_2$ lattice gauge theory by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We focus on the behaviour of topological quantities across the deconfinement transition and investigate observables related to the $\\theta$ dependence of the free energy. As in $SU(N)$ gauge theories, an abrupt change happens at deconfinement and an instanton gas behaviour rapidly sets in for $T>T_c$.
On the Caudrey-Beals-Coifman System and the Gauge Group Action
Georgi G. Grahovski; Marissa Condon
2007-10-17T23:59:59.000Z
The generalized Zakharov-Shabat systems with complex-valued Cartan elements and the systems studied by Caudrey, Beals and Coifman (CBC systems) and their gauge equivalent are studies. This includes: the properties of fundamental analytical solutions (FAS) for the gauge-equivalent to CBC systems and the minimal set of scattering data; the description of the class of nonlinear evolutionary equations solvable by the inverse scattering method and the recursion operator, related to such systems; the hierarchies of Hamiltonian structures.
T. P. Shestakova
2014-10-16T23:59:59.000Z
In the Batalin - Fradkin - Vilkovisky approach to quantization of gauge theories a principal role is given to the BRST charge which can be constructed as a series in Grassmannian (ghost) variables with coefficients given by generalized structure functions of constraints algebra. Alternatively, the BRST charge can be derived making use of the Noether theorem and global BRST invariance of the effective action. In the case of Yang - Mills fields the both methods lead to the same expression for the BRST charge, but it is not valid in the case of General Relativity. It is illustrated by examples of an isotropic cosmological model as well as by spherically-symmetric gravitational model which imitates the full theory of gravity much better. The consideration is based on Hamiltonian formulation of General Relativity in extended phase space. At the quantum level the structure of the BRST charge is of great importance since BRST invariant quantum states are believed to be physical states. Thus, the definition of the BRST charge at the classical level is inseparably related to our attempts to find a true way to quantize Gravity.
From Peierls brackets to a generalized Moyal bracket for type-I gauge theories
Esposito, G; Esposito, Giampiero; Stornaiolo, Cosimo
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In the space-of-histories approach to gauge fields and their quantization, the Maxwell, Yang--Mills and gravitational field are well known to share the property of being type-I theories, i.e. Lie brackets of the vector fields which leave the action functional invariant are linear combinations of such vector fields, with coefficients of linear combination given by structure constants. The corresponding gauge-field operator in the functional integral for the in-out amplitude is an invertible second-order differential operator. For such an operator, we consider advanced and retarded Green functions giving rise to a Peierls bracket among group-invariant functionals. Our Peierls bracket is a Poisson bracket on the space of all group-invariant functionals in two cases only: either the gauge-fixing is arbitrary but the gauge fields lie on the dynamical sub-space; or the gauge-fixing is a linear functional of gauge fields, which are generic points of the space of histories. In both cases, the resulting Peierls bracke...
Hale, Layton C. (Livermore, CA); Malsbury, Terry (Tracy, CA); Hudyma, Russell M. (San Ramon, CA); Parker, John M. (Tracy, CA)
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A projection optics box or assembly for use in an optical assembly, such as in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system using 10-14 nm soft x-ray photons. The projection optics box utilizes a plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors, each mounted on a precision actuator, and which reflects an optical image, such as from a mask, in the EUVL system onto a point of use, such as a target or silicon wafer, the mask, for example, receiving an optical signal from a source assembly, such as a developed from laser system, via a series of highly reflective mirrors of the EUVL system. The plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors are mounted in a housing assembly comprised of a series of bulkheads having wall members secured together to form a unit construction of maximum rigidity. Due to the precision actuators, the mirrors must be positioned precisely and remotely in tip, tilt, and piston (three degrees of freedom), while also providing exact constraint.
Science, Optics and You: Shadows
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
http:micro.magnet.fsu.eduopticstutorialsindex.html INTRODUCTION SHADOWS MODULE m5 SCIENCE, OPTICS & YOU GUIDEBOOK - 96 - SCIENCE, OPTICS & YOU GUIDEBOOK - 97 - m5: Shadows...
A search for a new gauge boson A'
Jensen, Eric L. [William and Mary College
2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
In the Standard Model, gauge bosons mediate the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces. New forces could have escaped detection only if their mediators are either heavier than order(TeV) or weakly coupled to charged matter. New vector bosons with small coupling {alpha}' arise naturally from a small kinetic mixing with the photon and have received considerable attention as an explanation of various dark matter related anomalies. Such particles can be produced in electron-nucleus fixed-target scattering and then decay to e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs. New light vector bosons and their associated forces are a common feature of Standard Model extensions, but existing constraints are remarkably sparse. The APEX experiment will search for a new vector boson A' with coupling {alpha}'/{alpha}{sub fs} > 6 × 10{sup -8} to electrons in the mass range 65MeV < mass A' < 550MeV. The experiment will study e{sup +}e{sup -} production off an electron beam incident on a high-Z target in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. The e{sup -} and e{sup +} will be detected in the High Resolution Spectrometers (HRSs). The invariant mass spectrum of the e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs will be scanned for a narrow resonance corresponding to the mass of the A'. A test run for the APEX experiment was held in the summer of 2010. Using the test run data, an A' search was performed in the mass range 175-250 MeV. The search found no evidence for an A' --> e{sup +}e{sup -} reaction, and set an upper limit of {alpha}'/{alpha}{sub fs} ~ 10{sup -6}.
Pocha, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Wood, Billy E. (Livermore, CA)
2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z
A Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by a partially or wholly reflective surface on the free end of an integrated elongate channel or an integrated bounding wall of a chip of a wafer and a partially reflective surface on the end of the optical fiber. Such a constructed device can be utilized to detect one or more physical parameters, such as, for example, strain, through the optical fiber using an optical detection system to provide measuring accuracies of less than aboutb0.1%.
Optical Quadratic Measure Eigenmodes
Michael Mazilu; Joerg Baumgartl; Sebastian Kosmeier; Kishan Dholakia
2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z
We report a mathematically rigorous technique which facilitates the optimization of various optical properties of electromagnetic fields. The technique exploits the linearity of electromagnetic fields along with the quadratic nature of their interaction with matter. In this manner we may decompose the respective fields into optical quadratic measure eigenmodes (QME). Key applications include the optimization of the size of a focused spot, the transmission through photonic devices, and the structured illumination of photonic and plasmonic structures. We verify the validity of the QME approach through a particular experimental realization where the size of a focused optical field is minimized using a superposition of Bessel beams.
McBranch, D.W.; Mattes, B.R.; Koskelo, A.C.; Heeger, A.J.; Robinson, J.M.; Smilowitz, L.B.; Klimov, V.I.; Cha, M.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Hummelen, J.C.
1998-04-21T23:59:59.000Z
Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO{sub 2}) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400--1,100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes. 5 figs.
Erickson, G.F.
1988-04-13T23:59:59.000Z
A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.
Tuned optical cavity magnetometer
Okandan, Murat (Edgewood, NM); Schwindt, Peter (Albuquerque, NM)
2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z
An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which utilizes an optical cavity formed from a grating and a mirror, with a vapor cell containing an alkali metal vapor located inside the optical cavity. Lasers are used to magnetically polarize the alkali metal vapor and to probe the vapor and generate a diffracted laser beam which can be used to sense a magnetic field. Electrostatic actuators can be used in the magnetometer for positioning of the mirror, or for modulation thereof. Another optical cavity can also be formed from the mirror and a second grating for sensing, adjusting, or stabilizing the position of the mirror.
Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Diels, Jean-Claude M. (Albuquerque, NM)
2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z
An optical system comprising a concave primary mirror reflects light through an intermediate focus to a secondary mirror. The secondary mirror re-focuses the image to a final image plane. Optical limiter material is placed near the intermediate focus to optically limit the intensity of light so that downstream components of the optical system are protected from intense optical transients. Additional lenses before and/or after the intermediate focus correct optical aberrations.
T. P. Shestakova
2005-12-09T23:59:59.000Z
In the earlier works on quantum geometrodynamics in extended phase space it has been argued that a wave function of the Universe should satisfy a Schrodinger equation. Its form, as well as a measure in Schrodinger scalar product, depends on a gauge condition (a chosen reference frame). It is known that the geometry of an appropriate Hilbert space is determined by introducing the scalar product, so the Hilbert space structure turns out to be in a large degree depending on a chosen gauge condition. In the present work we analyse this issue from the viewpoint of the path integral approach. We consider how the gauge condition changes as a result of gauge transformations. In this respect, three kinds of gauge transformations can be singled out: Firstly, there are residual gauge transformations, which do not change the gauge condition. The second kind is the transformations whose parameters can be related by homotopy. Then the change of gauge condition could be described by smoothly changing function. In particular, in this context time dependent gauges could be discussed. We also suggest that this kind of gauge transformations leads to a smooth changing of solutions to the Schrodinger equation. The third kind of the transformations includes those whose parameters belong to different homotopy classes. They are of the most interest from the viewpoint of changing the Hilbert space structure. In this case the gauge condition and the very form of the Schrodinger equation would change in discrete steps when we pass from a spacetime region with one gauge condition to another region with another gauge condition. In conclusion we discuss the relation between quantum gravity and fundamental problems of ordinary quantum mechanics.
I REMARKS ON THE TOPOLOGY OF GAUGE FIELDS*
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching. | EMSL Bubblesstructure eind ExcBAECC: -... .Â» ;
Adaptive optics enhanced simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography
Dainty, Chris
Adaptive optics enhanced simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy David Merino and Chris Dainty Applied Optics Group, Department of Experimental Physics, National and Adrian Gh. Podoleanu Applied Optics Group, School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent at Canterbury
Methods for globally treating silica optics to reduce optical damage
Miller, Philip Edward; Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Bude, Jeffrey Devin; Shen, Nan; Steele, William Augustus; Laurence, Ted Alfred; Feit, Michael Dennis; Wong, Lana Louie
2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z
A method for preventing damage caused by high intensity light sources to optical components includes annealing the optical component for a predetermined period. Another method includes etching the optical component in an etchant including fluoride and bi-fluoride ions. The method also includes ultrasonically agitating the etching solution during the process followed by rinsing of the optical component in a rinse bath.
Jessen/Deutsch, "Optical Lattices" 1 OPTICAL LATTICES
Jessen, Poul S.
Jessen/Deutsch, "Optical Lattices" 1 OPTICAL LATTICES P. S. JESSEN Optical Sciences Center@rhea.opt-sci.arizona.edu I. H. DEUTSCH Center for Advanced Studies University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM, 87131 Phone, 1996). #12;Jessen/Deutsch, "Optical Lattices" 2 CONTENTS I. Introduction
Carr, Dustin W. (Albuquerque, NM)
2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z
An optical displacement sensor is disclosed which uses a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coupled to an optical cavity formed by a moveable membrane and an output mirror of the VCSEL. This arrangement renders the lasing characteristics of the VCSEL sensitive to any movement of the membrane produced by sound, vibrations, pressure changes, acceleration, etc. Some embodiments of the optical displacement sensor can further include a light-reflective diffractive lens located on the membrane or adjacent to the VCSEL to control the amount of lasing light coupled back into the VCSEL. A photodetector detects a portion of the lasing light from the VCSEL to provide an electrical output signal for the optical displacement sensor which varies with the movement of the membrane.
Jeremy L. O'Brien
2008-03-11T23:59:59.000Z
In 2001 all-optical quantum computing became feasible with the discovery that scalable quantum computing is possible using only single photon sources, linear optical elements, and single photon detectors. Although it was in principle scalable, the massive resource overhead made the scheme practically daunting. However, several simplifications were followed by proof-of-principle demonstrations, and recent approaches based on cluster states or error encoding have dramatically reduced this worrying resource overhead, making an all-optical architecture a serious contender for the ultimate goal of a large-scale quantum computer. Key challenges will be the realization of high-efficiency sources of indistinguishable single photons, low-loss, scalable optical circuits, high efficiency single photon detectors, and low-loss interfacing of these components.
Koster, Glen Peter; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon Kwee
2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z
An optical gamma thermometer includes a metal mass having a temperature proportional to a gamma flux within a core of a nuclear reactor, and an optical fiber cable for measuring the temperature of the heated metal mass. The temperature of the heated mass may be measured by using one or more fiber grating structures and/or by using scattering techniques, such as Raman, Brillouin, and the like. The optical gamma thermometer may be used in conjunction with a conventional reactor heat balance to calibrate the local power range monitors over their useful in-service life. The optical gamma thermometer occupies much less space within the in-core instrument tube and costs much less than the conventional gamma thermometer.
Stereoscopic optical viewing system
Tallman, Clifford S. (Walnut Creek, CA)
1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An improved optical system which provides the operator a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.
Optical adhesive property study
Sundvold, P.D.
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Tests were performed to characterize the mechanical and thermal properties of selected optical adhesives to identify the most likely candidate which could survive the operating environment of the Direct Optical Initiation (DOI) program. The DOI system consists of a high power laser and an optical module used to split the beam into a number of channels to initiate the system. The DOI requirements are for a high shock environment which current military optical systems do not operate. Five candidate adhesives were selected and evaluated using standardized test methods to determine the adhesives` physical properties. EC2216, manufactured by 3M, was selected as the baseline candidate adhesive based on the test results of the physical properties.
Stereoscopic optical viewing system
Tallman, C.S.
1986-05-02T23:59:59.000Z
An improved optical system which provides the operator with a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.
Absorbance modulation optical lithography
Tsai, Hsin-Yu Sidney
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this thesis, the concept of absorbance-modulation optical lithography (AMOL) is described, and the feasibility experimentally verified. AMOL is an implementation of nodal lithography, which is not bounded by the diffraction ...
Angel, S.M.
1987-02-27T23:59:59.000Z
Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.
Intracoronary Optical Diagnostics
Lowe, Harry C.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT), is a novel intravascular imaging modality analogous to intravascular ultrasound but uses light instead of sound. This review details the background, development, and status of current ...
Electro-Optical Characterization
Not Available
2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
In the Electro-Optical Characterization group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we use various electrical and optical experimental techniques to relate photovoltaic device performance to the methods and materials used to produce them. The types of information obtained by these techniques range from small-scale atomic-bonding information to large-scale macroscopic quantities such as optical constants and electron-transport properties. Accurate and timely measurement of the electro-optical properties as a function of device processing provides researchers and manufacturers with the knowledge needed to troubleshoot problems and develop the knowledge base necessary for reducing cost, maximizing efficiency, improving reliability, and enhancing manufacturability. We work collaboratively with you to solve materials- and device-related R&D problems. This sheet summarizes our primary techniques and capabilities.
Allen, James J.
2005-06-07T23:59:59.000Z
A microelectromechanical (MEM) optical switching apparatus is disclosed that is based on an erectable mirror which is formed on a rotatable stage using surface micromachining. An electrostatic actuator is also formed on the substrate to rotate the stage and mirror with a high angular precision. The mirror can be erected manually after fabrication of the device and used to redirect an incident light beam at an arbitrary angel and to maintain this state in the absence of any applied electrical power. A 1.times.N optical switch can be formed using a single rotatable mirror. In some embodiments of the present invention, a plurality of rotatable mirrors can be configured so that the stages and mirrors rotate in unison when driven by a single micromotor thereby forming a 2.times.2 optical switch which can be used to switch a pair of incident light beams, or as a building block to form a higher-order optical switch.
T. C. Ralph; G. J. Pryde
2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z
We review the field of Optical Quantum Computation, considering the various implementations that have been proposed and the experimental progress that has been made toward realizing them. We examine both linear and nonlinear approaches and both particle and field encodings. In particular we discuss the prospects for large scale optical quantum computing in terms of the most promising physical architectures and the technical requirements for realizing them.
Supersymmetric transparent optical intersections
Stefano Longhi
2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z
Supersymmetric (SUSY) optical structures provide a versatile platform to manipulate the scattering and localization properties of light, with potential applications to mode conversion, spatial multiplexing and invisible devices. Here we show that SUSY can be exploited to realize broadband transparent intersections between guiding structures in optical networks for both continuous and discretized light. These include transparent crossing of high-contrast-index waveguides and directional couplers, as well as crossing of guiding channels in coupled resonator lattices.
Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Vawter, G. Allen (Corrales, NM)
2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z
A wavefront rely devices samples an incoming optical wavefront at different locations, optically relays the samples while maintaining the relative position of the samples and the relative phase between the samples. The wavefront is reconstructed due to interference of the samples. Devices can be designed for many different wavelengths, including for example the ultraviolet, visible, infrared and even longer wavelengths such as millimeter waves. In one application, the device function as a telescope but with negligible length.
Optical pumping in a whispering mode optical waveguide
Kurnit, Norman A. (Santa Fe, NM)
1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A device and method for optical pumping in a whispering mode optical waveguide. Both a helical ribbon and cylinder are disclosed which incorporate an additional curvature for confining the beam to increase intensity. An optical pumping medium is disposed in the optical path of the beam as it propagates along the waveguide. Optical pumping is enhanced by the high intensities of the beam and long interaction pathlengths which are achieved in a small volume.
Optical pumping in a whispering-mode optical waveguide
Kurnit, N.A.
1981-08-11T23:59:59.000Z
A device and method for optical pumping in a whispering mode optical waveguide are described. Both a helical ribbon and cylinder are disclosed which incorporate an additional curvature for confining the beam to increase intensity. An optical pumping medium is disposed in the optical path of the beam as it propagates along the waveguide. Optical pumping is enhanced by the high intensities of the beam and long interaction path lengths which are achieved in a small volume.
Fault location in optical networks
Stevens, Rick C. (Apple Valley, MN); Kryzak, Charles J. (Mendota Heights, MN); Keeler, Gordon A. (Albuquerque, NM); Serkland, Darwin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Geib, Kent M. (Tijeras, NM); Kornrumpf, William P. (Schenectady, NY)
2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
One apparatus embodiment includes an optical emitter and a photodetector. At least a portion of the optical emitter extends a radial distance from a center point. The photodetector provided around at least a portion of the optical emitter and positioned outside the radial distance of the portion of the optical emitter.
Optical computing Damien Woods a
Woods, Damien
Optical computing Damien Woods a aDepartment of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Institute, Vierimaantie 5, 84100 Ylivieska, Finland Abstract In this survey we consider optical computers of such optical computing archi- tectures, including descriptions of the type of hardware commonly used in optical
Optical Solitons and their applications
Palffy-Muhoray, Peter
Optical Solitons and their applications By: Mohammad Nopoush Supervisor: Professor Palffy-Muhoray #12;Definition Optical: Non-changing optical field during propagation due to delicate balance between nonlinear and linear effects. Nonlinear effects: Due to the optical Kerr effect (AC Kerr effect
Undergraduate Handbook Dear Optics student,
Cantlon, Jessica F.
Undergraduate Handbook Fall 2013 #12;2 Dear Optics student, It is my great pleasure to welcome you to The Institute of Optics. The Institute of Optics has been educating the next generation of leaders in the field since it was founded in 1929 as the first optics department in the country
A Bicycle Built for Two: The Galilean and U(1) Gauge Invariance of the Schr\\"odinger Field
Colussi, V
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper undertakes a study of the nature of the force associated with the local U (1) gauge symmetry of a non-relativistic quantum particle. To ensure invariance under local U (1) symmetry, a matter field must couple to a gauge field. We show that such a gauge field necessarily satisfies the Maxwell equations, whether the matter field coupled to it is relativistic or non-relativistic. This result suggests that the structure of the Maxwell equations is determined by gauge symmetry rather than the symmetry transformation properties of space-time. In order to assess the validity of this notion, we examine the transformation properties of the coupled matter and gauge fields under Galilean transformations. Our main technical result is the Galilean invariance of the full equations of motion of the U (1) gauge field.
Embedded fiducials in optical surfaces
Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA)
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Embedded fiducials are provided in optical surfaces and a method for embedding the fiducials. Fiducials, or marks on a surface, are important for optical fabrication and alignment, particularly when individual optical elements are aspheres. Fiducials are used during the course of the polishing process to connect interferometric data, and the equation describing the asphere, to physical points on the optic. By embedding fiducials below the surface of the optic and slightly outside the clear aperture of the optic, the fiducials are not removed by polishing, do not interfere with the polishing process, and do not affect the performance of the finished optic.
Purdue University
PURDUE UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS & OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS LABORATORY Photonic RF Waveform, Shijun Xiao Funding from ARO, DARPA, and NSF #12;PURDUE UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS & OPTICAL FIBER performance (spectral engineering, dispersion compensation) #12;PURDUE UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS & OPTICAL
PURDUE UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS AND OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS LABORATORY Femtosecond Pulse
Purdue University
as new pulse sequence processing functionalities. #12;PURDUE UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS AND OPTICAL UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS AND OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS LABORATORY CLEO 2002 One Guide Â One PulsePURDUE UNIVERSITY ULTRAFAST OPTICS AND OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS LABORATORY CLEO 2002
Transparent electrode for optical switch
Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.
1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z
The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.
Cosmological Consequences of Classical Flavor-Space Locked Gauge Field Radiation
Jannis Bielefeld; Robert R. Caldwell
2015-03-17T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a classical SU(2) gauge field in a flavor-space locked configuration as a species of radiation in the early universe, and show that it would have a significant imprint on a primordial stochastic gravitational wave spectrum. In the flavor-space locked configuration, the electric and magnetic fields of each flavor are parallel and mutually orthogonal to other flavors, with isotropic and homogeneous stress-energy. Due to the non-Abelian coupling, the gauge field breaks the symmetry between left- and right-circularly polarized gravitational waves. This broken chiral symmetry results in a unique signal: non-zero cross correlation of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization, $TB$ and $EB$, both of which should be zero in the standard, chiral symmetric case. We forecast the ability of current and future CMB experiments to constrain this model. Furthermore, a wide range of behavior is shown to emerge, depending on the gauge field coupling, abundance, and allocation into electric and magnetic field energy density. The fluctuation power of primordial gravitational waves oscillates back and forth into fluctuations of the gauge field. In certain cases, the gravitational wave spectrum is shown to be suppressed or amplified by up to an order of magnitude depending on the initial conditions of the gauge field.
Finding the effective Polyakov line action for SU(3) gauge theories at finite chemical potential
Jeff Greensite; Kurt Langfeld
2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z
Motivated by the sign problem, we calculate the effective Polyakov line action corresponding to certain SU(3) lattice gauge theories on a ${16^3 \\times 6}$ lattice via the "relative weights" method introduced in our previous articles. The calculation is carried out at $\\beta=5.6,5.7$ for the pure gauge theory, and at $\\beta=5.6$ for the gauge field coupled to a relatively light scalar particle. In the latter example we determine the effective theory also at finite chemical potential, and show how observables relevant to phase structure can be computed in the effective theory via mean field methods. In all cases a comparison of Polyakov line correlators in the effective theory and the underlying lattice gauge theory, computed numerically at zero chemical potential, shows accurate agreement down to correlator magnitudes of order $10^{-5}$. We also derive the effective Polyakov line action corresponding to a gauge theory with heavy quarks and large chemical potential, and apply mean field methods to extract observables.
Chaos, Scaling and Existence of a Continuum Limit in Classical Non-Abelian Lattice Gauge Theory
Nielsen, Holger Bech; Rugh, S E; Nielsen, Holger Bech; Rugh, Hans Henrik; Rugh, Svend Erik
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss space-time chaos and scaling properties for classical non-Abelian gauge fields discretized on a spatial lattice. We emphasize that there is a ``no go'' for simulating the original continuum classical gauge fields over a long time span since there is a never ending dynamical cascading towards the ultraviolet. We note that the temporal chaotic properties of the original continuum gauge fields and the lattice gauge system have entirely different scaling properties thereby emphasizing that they are entirely different dynamical systems which have only very little in common. Considered as a statistical system in its own right the lattice gauge system in a situation where it has reached equilibrium comes closest to what could be termed a ``continuum limit'' in the limit of very small energies (weak non-linearities). We discuss the lattice system both in the limit for small energies and in the limit of high energies where we show that there is a saturation of the temporal chaos as a pure lattice artifact. ...
Canonical Gauge Coupling Unification in the Standard Model with High-Scale Supersymmetry Breaking
Yun-Jie Huo; Tianjun Li; Dimitri V. Nanopoulos
2011-08-24T23:59:59.000Z
Inspired by the string landscape and the unified gauge coupling relation in the F-theory Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) and GUTs with suitable high-dimensional operators, we study the canonical gauge coupling unification and Higgs boson mass in the Standard Model (SM) with high-scale supersymmetry breaking. In the SM with GUT-scale supersymmetry breaking, we achieve the gauge coupling unification at about 5.3 x 10^{13} GeV, and the Higgs boson mass is predicted to range from 130 GeV to 147 GeV. In the SM with supersymmetry breaking scale from 10^4 GeV to 5.3 x 10^{13} GeV, gauge coupling unification can always be realized and the corresponding GUT scale M_U is from 10^{16} GeV to 5.3 x 10^{13} GeV, respectively. Also, we obtain the Higgs boson mass from 114.4 GeV to 147 GeV. Moreover, the discrepancies among the SM gauge couplings at the GUT scale are less than about 4-6%. Furthermore, we present the SU(5) and SO(10) models from the F-theory model building and orbifold constructions, and show that we do not have the dimension-five and dimension-six proton decay problems even if M_U \\le 5 x 10^{15} GeV.
Anselmi, Damiano
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We prove the Adler-Bardeen theorem in a large class of general gauge theories, including nonrenormalizable ones. We assume that the gauge symmetries are general covariance, local Lorentz symmetry and Abelian and non-Abelian Yang-Mills symmetries, and that the local functionals of vanishing ghost number satisfy a variant of the Kluberg-Stern--Zuber conjecture. We show that if the gauge anomalies are trivial at one loop, for every truncation of the theory there exists a subtraction scheme where they manifestly vanish to all orders, within the truncation. Outside the truncation the cancellation of gauge anomalies can be enforced by fine-tuning local counterterms. The framework of the proof is worked out by combining a recently formulated chiral dimensional regularization with a gauge invariant higher-derivative regularization. If the higher-derivative regularizing terms are placed well beyond the truncation, and the energy scale $\\Lambda$ associated with them is kept fixed, the theory is super-renormalizable and...
Tests gauge LED sensors for fuel-dye measurements
Ozanich, Richard M.; Lucke, Richard B.; Melville, Angela M.; Wright, Bob W.
2009-10-19T23:59:59.000Z
The goal of this work was to develop a low cost, robust sensor to allow direct measurement of Solvent Red 164 dye concentration in off-road fuel at refineries and fuel terminals. Optical absorption sensors based on light emitting diodes (LEDs) are rugged, low-cost, have low power consumption, and can be designed to be intrinsically safe.LED-based systems have been used in a variety of chemical detection applications including heavy metals, pH, CO2, and O2. The approach for this work was to develop a sensor that could be mounted on a pipeline sight glass, precluding the need for direct contact of the sensor with the fuel. Below is described the design and testing of three different LED/photodiode sensors utilizing reflectance spectrometry for the measurement of dye concentration.
INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF OPTICS A: PURE AND APPLIED OPTICS Polarization Optics
Friesem, Asher A.
INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF OPTICS A: PURE AND APPLIED OPTICS EDITORIAL Polarization Optics Guest Editors Jari Turunen University of Joensuu, Finland Asher A Friesem Weizmann Institute This special issue on Polarization Optics contains one review article and 23 research papers, many of which
Buchanan, Bruce R. (1985 Willis, Batesburg, SC 29006); Prather, William S. (2419 Dickey Rd., Augusta, GA 30906)
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading by a single spectrophotometer.
Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Nekimken, Howard L. (Los Alamos, NM); Carey, W. Patrick (Lynnwood, WA); O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)
1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.
Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.
1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading, by a single spectrophotometer.
Hagans, Karla G. (Livermore, CA); Clough, Robert E. (Danville, CA)
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An optical key system comprises a battery-operated optical key and an isolated lock that derives both its operating power and unlock signals from the correct optical key. A light emitting diode or laser diode is included within the optical key and is connected to transmit a bit-serial password. The key user physically enters either the code-to-transmit directly, or an index to a pseudorandom number code, in the key. Such person identification numbers can be retained permanently, or ephemeral. When a send button is pressed, the key transmits a beam of light modulated with the password information. The modulated beam of light is received by a corresponding optical lock with a photovoltaic cell that produces enough power from the beam of light to operate a password-screen digital logic. In one application, an acceptable password allows a two watt power laser diode to pump ignition and timing information over a fiberoptic cable into a sealed engine compartment. The receipt of a good password allows the fuel pump, spark, and starter systems to each operate. Therefore, bypassing the lock mechanism as is now routine with automobile thieves is pointless because the engine is so thoroughly disabled.
Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.
1992-10-06T23:59:59.000Z
An apparatus and method are described for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading by a single spectrophotometer. 4 figs.
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Renormalization of composite operators in Yang-Mills theories using a general covariant gauge
Collins, J.C.; Scalise, R.J. (The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Physics, 104 Davey Laboratory, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States))
1994-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
Essential to QCD applications of the operator product expansion, etc., is a knowledge of those operators that mix with gauge-invariant operators. A standard theorem asserts that the renormalization matrix is triangular: Gauge-invariant operators have alien'' gauge-variant operators among their counterterms, but, with a suitably chosen basis, the necessary alien operators have only themselves as counterterms. Moreover, the alien operators are supposed to vanish in physical matrix elements. A recent calculation by Hamberg and van Neerven apparently contradicts these results. By explicit calculations with the energy-momentum tensor, we show that the problems arise because of subtle infrared singularities that appear when gluonic matrix elements are taken on shell at zero momentum transfer.
Note on Gauge Theories on M/G and the AdS/CFT Correspondence
Gary T. Horowitz; Ted Jacobson
2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z
It is well known that a weakly coupled U(N) gauge theory on a torus with sides of length L has extra light states with energies of order 1/NL. We show that a similar result holds for gauge theories on M/G where M is any compact Riemannian manifold and G is any freely acting discrete isometry group. As in the toroidal case, this is achieved by adding a suitable nontrivial flat connection. As one application, we consider the AdS/CFT correspondence on spacetimes asymptotic to AdS_5/G. By considering finite size effects at nonzero temperature, we show that consistency requires these extra light states of the gauge theory on S^3/G.
Spectrum of SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two adjoint Dirac flavours
Ari J. Hietanen; Jarno Rantaharju; Kari Rummukainen; Kimmo Tuominen
2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z
An SU(2) gauge theory with two fermions transforming under the adjoint representation of the gauge group may appear conformal or almost conformal in the infrared. We use lattice simulations to study the spectrum of this theory and present results on the masses of several gauge singlet states as a function of the physical quark mass determined through the axial Ward identity and find indications of a change from chiral symmetry breaking to a phase consistent with conformal behaviour at beta_L ~ 2. However, the measurement of the spectrum is not alone sufficient to decisively confirm the existence of conformal fixed point in this theory as we show by comparing to similar measurements with fundamental fermions. Based on the results we sketch a possible phase diagram of this lattice theory and discuss the applicability and importance of these results for the future measurement of the evolution of the coupling constant.
Absolute calibration of optical flats
Sommargren, Gary E.
2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z
The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.
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Optical position meters analyzed in the non-inertial reference frames
Sergey P. Tarabrin; Alexander A. Seleznyov
2008-09-03T23:59:59.000Z
In the framework of General Relativity we develop a method for analysis of the operation of the optical position meters in their photodetectors proper reference frames. These frames are non-inertial in general due to the action of external fluctuative forces on meters test masses, including detectors. For comparison we also perform the calculations in the laboratory (globally inertial) reference frame and demonstrate that for certain optical schemes laboratory-based analysis results in unmeasurable quantities, in contrast to the detector-based analysis. We also calculate the response of the simplest optical meters to weak plane gravitational waves and fluctuative motions of their test masses. It is demonstrated that for the round-trip meter analysis in both the transverse-traceless (TT) and local Lorentz (LL) gauges produces equal results, while for the forward-trip meter corresponding results differ in accordance with different physical assumptions (e.g. procedure of clocks synchronization) implicitly underlying the construction of the TT and LL gauges.
Nonimaging optical illumination system
Winston, R.; Ries, H.
1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z
A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source a light reflecting surface, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line with the reflecting surface defined in terms of the reference lines a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line to the reflection surface along the desired edge ray through the point. 35 figs.
Nonimaging optical illumination system
Winston, R.; Ries, H.
1996-12-17T23:59:59.000Z
A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source, a light reflecting surface, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line with the reflecting surface defined in terms of the reference line as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line to the reflection surface along the desired edge ray through the point. 35 figs.