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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical particle counter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Condensation Particle Counter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model 3007 Condensation Particle Counter Operation and Service Manual 1930035, Revision C August 2002 P a r t i c l e I n s t r u m e n t s #12;#12;Model 3007 Condensation Particle Counter Operation............................................................................V 1. UNPACKING AND PARTS IDENTIFICATION..................................1 Unpacking the Condensation

Weber, Rodney

2

Scintillator fiber optic long counter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A flat response position sensitive neutron detector capable of providing neutron spectroscopic data utilizing scintillator fiber optic filaments embedded in a neutron moderating housing having an open end through which neutrons enter to be detected.

McCollum, Tom (Sterling, VA); Spector, Garry B. (Fairfax, VA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Scintillator fiber optic long counter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A flat response position sensitive neutron detector capable of providing neutron spectroscopic data utilizing scintillator fiber optic filaments embedded in a neutron moderating housing having an open end through which neutrons enter to be detected is described. 11 figures.

McCollum, T.; Spector, G.B.

1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

4

of the filter were measured using condensation particle counters (TSI Inc. model 3022A). Submicrometer particles entering the counters are  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Standard for High Efficiency Air Filters (HEPA and ULPA), Beuth Verlag GmbH, Berlin, Germany 1995. [11] Tof the filter were measured using condensation particle counters (TSI Inc. model 3022A). Submicrometer particles entering the counters are grown into micrometer sized droplets by condensation

Gruner, George

5

High Resolution Particle Beam Monitoring and Ionization Counters with the Help of Single Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

After a short review of modern beam monitors, ionization and proportional counters and discussion on the necessity to have thinner wires, we propose and consider construction and parameters of nanotube particle beam monitors and counters

K. A. Ispirian; R. K. Ispiryan; A. T. Margarian

2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

6

Development of a Mobile Ice Nucleus Counter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An ice nucleus counter has been constructed. The instrument uses built-in refrigeration systems for wall cooling. A cascade refrigeration system will allow the cold wall to operate as low as -70 deg C, and a single stage system can operate the warm wall at -45 deg C. A unique optical particle counter has been constructed using polarization detection of the scattered light. This allows differentiation of the particles exiting the chamber to determine if they are ice or liquid.

Kok, Gregory; Kulkarni, Gourihar

2014-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

7

Quantum limited particle sensing in optical tweezers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Particle sensing in optical tweezers systems provides information on the position, velocity and force of the specimen particles. The conventional quadrant detection scheme is applied ubiquitously in optical tweezers experiments to quantify these parameters. In this paper we show that quadrant detection is non-optimal for particle sensing in optical tweezers and propose an alternative optimal particle sensing scheme based on spatial homodyne detection. A formalism for particle sensing in terms of transverse spatial modes is developed and numerical simulations of the efficacy of both quadrant and spatial homodyne detection are shown. We demonstrate that an order of magnitude improvement in particle sensing sensitivity can be achieved using spatial homodyne over quadrant detection.

Jian Wei Tay; Magnus T. L. Hsu; Warwick P. Bowen

2009-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

8

Particle-optical self-trapping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation of a self-guided beam pattern via optical trapping in a suspension of Rayleigh scatterers is studied. An analytic self-guided solution is presented that is valid for low intensities. A numerical solution of the coupled diffusion and optical-wave equations is presented, which shows an evolution toward a steady state that is independent of the initial optical beam shape. At higher intensities, the numerical solution shows the influence of higher-order nonlinearities, which lead to instability. We define a critical optical intensity, in terms of the particle size, refractive index contrast, and thermal energy, that characterizes the onset of higher-order effects. Instability is found that is consistent with past parametric studies of solitons.

Gordon, R.; Blakely, J. T.; Sinton, D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada V8P 5C2 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada V8W 2Y2 (Canada)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

Electrical Mobility Spectrometer Using a Diethylene Glycol Condensation Particle Counter for Measurement of Aerosol Size Distributions Down to 1 nm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a new scanning mobility particle spectrometer (SMPS) for measuring number size distributions of particles down to {approx}1 nm mobility diameter. This SMPS includes an aerosol charger, a TSI 3085 nano differential mobility analyzer (nanoDMA), an ultrafine condensation particle counter (UCPC) using diethylene glycol (DEG) as the working fluid, and a conventional butanol CPC (the 'booster') to detect the small droplets leaving the DEG UCPC. The response of the DEG UCPC to negatively charged sodium chloride particles with mobility diameters ranging from 1-6 nm was measured. The sensitivity of the DEG UCPC to particle composition was also studied by comparing its response to positively charged 1.47 and 1.70 nm tetra-alkyl ammonium ions, sodium chloride, and silver particles. A high resolution differential mobility analyzer was used to generate the test particles. These results show that the response of this UCPC to sub-2 nm particles is sensitive to particle composition. The applicability of the new SMPS for atmospheric measurement was demonstrated during the Nucleation and Cloud Condensation Nuclei (NCCN) field campaign (Atlanta, Georgia, summer 2009). We operated the instrument at saturator and condenser temperatures that allowed the efficient detection of sodium chloride particles but not of air ions having the same mobility. We found that particles as small as 1 nm were detected during nucleation events but not at other times. Factors affecting size distribution measurements, including aerosol charging in the 1-10 nm size range, are discussed. For the charger used in this study, bipolar charging was found to be more effective for sub-2 nm particles than unipolar charging. No ion induced nucleation inside the charger was observed during the NCCN campaign.

Jiang, J.; Kuang, C.; Chen, M.; Attoui, M.; McMurry, P. H.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Optically active biological particle distinguishing apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure is directed to organic particle sorting and identification. High frequency pulses of circularly polarized light, alternating between left and right, intersect a fast moving stream of organic particles. Circular intensity differential scattering and linear intensity differential scattering are monitored to uniquely identify a variety of organic particles.

Salzman, Gary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Kupperman, Robert H. (Washington, DC)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Detection of Minimum-Ionizing Particles and Nuclear Counter Effect with Pure BGO and BSO Crystals with Photodiode Read-out  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Long BGO (Bismuth Germanate) and BSO (Bismuth Silicate) crystals coupled with silicon photodiodes have been used to detect minimum-ionizing particles(MIP). With a low noise amplifier customized for this purpose, the crystals can detect MIPs with an excellent signal-to-noise ratio. The NCE(Nuclear Counter Effect} is also clearly observed and measured. Effect of full and partial wrapping of a reflector around the crystal on light collection is also studied.

K. Ueno; S. K. Sahu; K. C. Peng; W. S. Hou; C. H. Wang

1997-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

12

Optics of spin-1 particles from gravity-induced phases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Maxwell and Maxwell-de Rham equations can be solved exactly to first order in an external gravitational field. The gravitational background induces phases in the wave functions of spin-1 particles. These phases yield the optics of the particles without requiring any thin lens approximation.

G. Papini; G. Scarpetta; A. Feoli; G. Lambiase

2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

13

Alpha-particle optical potential proofs at astrophysically relevant energies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

$(\\alpha,\\gamma)$ and $(\\alpha$,n) reaction cross sections recently measured close to the reaction thresholds are rather well described by a previously developed regional optical potential. Thus, particular features of the $\\alpha$-particle optical potential at energies below the Coulomb barrier, besides parameters describing $\\alpha$-particle elastic scattering at higher energies are confirmed. Additional limitations of similar statistical model calculations for minor reaction channels are shown to be most likely due to an overlooked process or critical values of statistical model parameters around closed nuclear shells.

M. Avrigeanu; V. Avrigeanu

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Chamber for the optical manipulation of microscopic particles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A particle control chamber enables experiments to be carried out on biological cells and the like using a laser system to trap and manipulate the particles. A manipulation chamber provides a plurality of inlet and outlet ports for the particles and for fluids used to control or to contact the particles. A central manipulation area is optically accessible by the laser and includes first enlarged volumes for containing a selected number of particles for experimentation. A number of first enlarged volumes are connected by flow channels through second enlarged volumes. The second enlarged volumes act as bubble valves for controlling the interconnections between the first enlarged volumes. Electrode surfaces may be applied above the first enlarged volumes to enable experimentation using the application of electric fields within the first enlarged volumes. A variety of chemical and environmental conditions may be established within individual first enlarged volumes to enable experimental conditions for small scale cellular interactions.

Buican, Tudor N. (Los Alamos, NM); Upham, Bryan D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Quantum Optics, Diffraction Theory, and Elementary Particle Physics  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Physical optics has expanded greatly in recent years. Though it remains part of the ancestry of elementary particle physics, there are once again lessons to be learned from it. I shall discuss several of these, including some that have emerged at CERN and Brookhaven.

None

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

16

The Assembly of the Belle II TOP Counter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new type of ring-imaging Cherenkov counter, called TOP counter, has been developed for particle identification at the Belle II experiment to run at the SuperKEKB accelerator in KEK, Japan. The detector consists of 16 identical modules arranged azimuthally around the beam line. The assembly procedure for a TOP module is described. This procedure includes acceptance testing of the quartz mirror, prism, and quartz bar radiators. The acceptance tests include a chip search and measurements of bulk transmittance and total internal reflectance. The process for aligning and gluing the optical components together is described.

Wang, Boqun

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

The Assembly of the Belle II TOP Counter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new type of ring-imaging Cherenkov counter, called TOP counter, has been developed for particle identification at the Belle II experiment to run at the SuperKEKB accelerator in KEK, Japan. The detector consists of 16 identical modules arranged azimuthally around the beam line. The assembly procedure for a TOP module is described. This procedure includes acceptance testing of the quartz mirror, prism, and quartz bar radiators. The acceptance tests include a chip search and measurements of bulk transmittance and total internal reflectance. The process for aligning and gluing the optical components together is described.

Boqun Wang; for the Belle II PID Group

2015-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

18

Discharge source with gas curtain for protecting optics from particles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas curtain device is employed to deflect debris that is generated by an extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation discharge source such as an electric discharge plasma source. The gas curtain device projects a stream of gas over the path of the radiation to deflect debris particles into a direction that is different from that of the path of the radiation. The gas curtain can be employed to prevent debris accumulation on the optics used in photolithography.

Fornaciari, Neal R.; Kanouff, Michael P.

2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

19

Particle acceleration in sub-cycle optical cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A single laser pulse with spot size smaller than half its wavelength ($w_0 particles. In this paper, we discuss the properties of an optical cell consisting of $N$ sub-cycle pulses that propagate in the direction perpendicular to the electron motion. We show that the energy gain produced by the cell is proportional to $N$ and it is sizable even for $\\mathcal{O}(1\\mathrm{~TW})$ pulses.

F. Terranova

2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

20

Performance evaluation of PM?? and high-volume air samplers using a Coulter Counter Particle Size Analyzer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the HiVol/Coulter process. The HiVol/Coulter process includes the determination of the percent of particles less than 10 um (AED) on a total suspended particulate matter filter. Representative particle size distributions were obtained for cotton dust... with an aerodynamic equivalent diameter (AED) larger than 10 micrometers (um) were seldom found in the air spaces of the lungs, Particles larger than 10 um (AED) do not pass the filtering mechanisms of the respiratory tract and are of less concern (AMA, 1963...

Herber, Douglas John

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical particle counter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Optical closure in a complex coastal environment: particle Grace Chang,1,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical closure in a complex coastal environment: particle effects Grace Chang,1, * Andrew Barnard October 2007 An optical dataset was collected on a mooring in the Santa Barbara Channel. Radiative optical properties and the slope of the particle size distribution ( ) were strongly related

Chang, Grace C.

22

Radiation induced by charged particles in optical fibers Xavier Artru and Cedric Ray  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation induced by charged particles in optical fibers Xavier Artru and C´edric Ray Universit, 4, 5]. Let us mention two other uses of optical fibers as particle detectors : (i) as dosimeters, through the effect of darkening by irradiation [6]; (ii) in scintillating glass fibers for particle

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

23

Optical guiding of absorbing nanoclusters in air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical guiding of absorbing nanoclusters in air Vladlen G. Shvedov1-3, Anton S. Desyatnikov1124@rsphysse.anu.edu.au Abstract: We suggest a novel approach in all-optical trapping employing number of particles in a dual beam optical trap created by two counter-propagating and co

24

Parameterization of shortwave ice cloud optical properties for various particle habits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Remote sensing; KEYWORDS: clouds, optical properties, radiative transfer, ice particles 1. IntroductionParameterization of shortwave ice cloud optical properties for various particle habits Jeffrey R 2001; accepted 1 December 2001; published 12 July 2002. [1] The relative importance of ice clouds

Baum, Bryan A.

25

Distributed performance counters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A plurality of first performance counter modules is coupled to a plurality of processing cores. The plurality of first performance counter modules is operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of processing cores respectively. A plurality of second performance counter modules are coupled to a plurality of L2 cache units, and the plurality of second performance counter modules are operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of L2 cache units respectively. A central performance counter module may be operable to coordinate counter data from the plurality of first performance counter modules and the plurality of second performance modules, the a central performance counter module, the plurality of first performance counter modules, and the plurality of second performance counter modules connected by a daisy chain connection.

Davis, Kristan D; Evans, Kahn C; Gara, Alan; Satterfield, David L

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

26

{alpha}-particle optical potentials for nuclear astrophysics (NA) and nuclear technology (NT)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high precision of recent measurements for low-energy {alpha}-particle elastic-scattering as well as induced-reaction data makes possible the understanding of actual limits and possible improvement of the global optical model potentials parameters. Involvement of recent optical potentials for reliable description of both the elastic scattering and emission of {alpha}-particles, of equal interest for nuclear astrophysics (NA) and nuclear technology (NT) for fusion devices, is discussed in the present work.

Avrigeanu, V.; Avrigeanu, M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, POBox MG-6, 077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania)

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

27

Optical trapping and rotation of airborne absorbing particles with a single focused laser beam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We measure the periodic circular motion of single absorbing aerosol particles that are optically trapped with a single focused Gaussian beam and rotate around the laser propagation direction. The scattered light from the trapped particle is observed to be directional and change periodically at 0.420?kHz. The instantaneous positions of the moving particle within a rotation period are measured by a high-speed imaging technique using a charge coupled device camera and a repetitively pulsed light-emitting diode illumination. The centripetal acceleration of the trapped particle as high as ?20 times the gravitational acceleration is observed and is attributed to the photophoretic forces.

Lin, Jinda; Li, Yong-qing, E-mail: liy@ecu.edu [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353 (United States)] [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353 (United States)

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

28

Pyrochemical multiplicity counter development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Impure plutonium-bearing materials from pyrochemical processes often display both significant self-multiplication and variable ({alpha},n) reaction rates. Standard neutron coincidence counting techniques usually fail to accurately measure these materials. Neutron multiplicity counters measure the third moment of the neutron multiplicity distribution and thus make it possible to deduce the fertile plutonium mass of a sample even when both the self-multiplication and the ({alpha},n) reaction rate are unknown. A multiplicity counter suitable for measuring pyrochemical materials has been designed and built. This paper describes the results of characterization studies for the new counter. The counter consists of 126 helium-3 tubes arranged in 4 concentric rings in a polyethylene moderator; the average spacing between the tubes is 1.59 cm. The end plugs for the counter are made of graphite, and the 24.1- by 37.5-cm sample cavity is cadmium lined. The counter consists of two distinct halves from which the neutron counts are summed. The counter is capable of operation in either a freestanding mode with the two halves coupled together by an external cabinet or in a glove-box mode with the two halves placed around a glovebox well and then mated. For a {sup 252}Cf source centered in the sample cavity, the measured efficiency of the new multiplicity counter is 57.7% and its die-away time is 47.2{mu}s. 8 refs., 9 figs.

Langner, D.G.; Dytlewski, N.; Krick, M.S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Particle-induced bit errors in high performance fiber optic data links for satellite data management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental test methods and analysis tools are demonstrated to assess particle-induced bit errors on fiber optic link receivers for satellites. Susceptibility to direct ionization from low LET particles is quantified by analyzing proton and helium ion data as a function of particle LET. Existing single event analysis approaches are shown to apply, with appropriate modifications, to the regime of temporally (rather than spatially) distributed bits, even though the sensitivity to single events exceeds conventional memory technologies by orders of magnitude. The cross-section LET dependence follows a Weibull distribution at data rates from 200 to 1,000 Mbps and at various incident optical power levels. The LET threshold for errors is shown, through both experiment and modeling, to be 0 in all cases. The error cross-section exhibits a strong inverse dependence on received optical power in the LET range where most orbital single events would occur, thus indicating that errors can be minimized by operating links with higher incident optical power. Also, an analytic model is described which incorporates the appropriate physical characteristics of the link as well as the optical and receiver electrical characteristics. Results indicate appropriate steps to assure suitable link performance even in severe particle orbits.

Marshall, P.W.; Carts, M.A. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States) SFA, Inc., Landover, MD (United States)); Dale, C.J. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); LaBel, K.A. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States))

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Three-body model of the optical potential for particle-nucleus scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We give an approximate closed form solution to the three-body model of the optical potential which is valid in the case of arbitrary medium energy projectiles. Binding effects as well as off-shell corrections to the underlying projectile-bound-target-nucleon amplitude may be accounted for in that way. Our resulting optical potential will thus comprise a very useful tool, in regard to more realistic nuclear scattering calculations with, e.g., nucleons and/or particles as projectiles.

Rihan, T.H.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Apparatus for preventing particle deposition from process streams on optical access windows  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrostatic precipitator is disposed inside and around the periphery of the window of a viewing port communicating with a housing through which a particle-laden gas stream is being passed. The precipitator includes a pair of electrodes around the periphery of the window, spaced apart and connected to a unidirectional voltage source. Application of high voltage from the source to the electrodes causes air molecules in the gas stream to become ionized, attaching to solid particles and causing them to be deposited on a collector electrode. This prevents the particles from being deposited on the window and keeps the window clean for viewing and making optical measurements.

Logan, Ronald G. (Fredericksburg, VA); Grimm, Ulrich (Morgantown, WV)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Internal Space-time Symmetries of Particles derivable from Periodic Systems in Optics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

While modern optics is largely a physics of harmonic oscillators and two-by-two matrices, it is possible to learn about some hidden properties of the two-by-two matrix from optical systems. Since two-by-two matrices can be divided into three conjugate classes depending on their traces, optical systems force us to establish continuity from one class to another. It is noted that those three classes are equivalent to three different branches of Wigner's little groups dictating the internal space-time symmetries massive, massless, and imaginary-mass particles. It is shown that the periodic systems in optics can also be described by have the same class-based matrix algebra. The optical system allow us to make continuous, but not analytic, transitions from massiv to massless, and massless to imaginary-mass cases.

Y. S. Kim

2010-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

33

Optical determination of incipient soot particle concentrations in ethene laminar diffusion flames.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent studies in premixed flames have shown the existence of ''transparent particles.'' These particles, 2 nm in size and in high number densities are considered to be a phase transitional between the gas phase PAH species and particulate soot. In the present study, various optical diagnostics were evaluated for measuring the concentration of these particles in situ, Through such evaluations, a technique using extinction at two wavelengths was found to be ideal. While employing such a technique, the volume fractions of these particles in an ethene laminar diffusion flame were measured. Low in the flame, these particles were found to be concentrated in the fuel rich core, while at higher locations, they could be found with appreciable volume fractions even in the soot laden regions. Having given due consideration for the errors due to uncertainties in the optical constants, we report the existence of these particles in an ethene flame with volume fractions comparable to those of soot. Also, similar measurements performed in a low sooting ethene/methanol flame show the concentration of these particles to be of the same order of magnitude as in a pure ethene flame.

Gupta, S. B.; Santoro, R. J.

1999-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

34

Optical Investigations of Dust Particles Distribution in RF and DC Discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optical emission spectroscopy is used to study dust particles movement and conditions of a formation of ordered plasma-dust structures in a capacitively coupled RF discharge. 3D binocular diagnostics of plasma-dust structures in dc discharge was made.

Ramazanov, T. S.; Dosbolayev, M. K.; Jumabekov, A. N.; Amangaliyeva, R. Zh. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, IETP, 96a Tole Bi St., Almaty 050012 (Kazakhstan); Filatova, I. I.; Azharonok, V. V. [B. I. Stepanov Institute of Physics NAS of Belarus, Nezavisimosti Ave., 68, 220072, Minsk (Belarus)

2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

35

Statics and dynamics of colloidal particles on optical tray arrays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examine the statics and dynamics of charged colloids interacting with periodic optical trap arrays. In particular we study the regime where more than one colloid is confined in each trap, creating effective dimer, trimer, and higher order states called colloidal molecular crystals. The n-mer states have all effective orientational degree of freedom which can be controlled with an external driving field. In general, the external field causes a polarization effect where the orientation of the n-mers aligns with the external field, similar to liquid crystal systems. Additionally, under a rotating external drive the n-mers can rotate with the drive. In some cases a series of structural transitions in the colloidal crystal states occur in the rotating field due to a competition between the ordering of the colloidal molecular crystals and the polarization effect which orients the n-mers in the direction of the drive. We also show that for some parameters, the n-mers continuously rotate with the drive without witching, that depinning transitions can occur where the colloids jump from well to well, and that there are a number of distinct dynamical transitions between the phases. Finally, we illustrate colloidal orderings at fillings of more than four colloids per trap, indicating that it is possible to create higher order colloidal crystal cluster phases.

Reichardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Rod-like plasmonic nanoparticles as optical building blocks: how differences in particle shape and structural geometry influence optical signal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gold nanoparticles, particularly those with an anisotropic shape, have become a popular optical probe for experiments involving work on the nanoscale. However, to carry out such delicate and intricate experiments, it is first necessary to understand the detailed behavior of individual nanoparticles. In this series of experiments, optical and electron microscopy were utilized for the characterization of individual nanoparticles and small assemblies of nanoparticles. In the first experiment, gold nanorods were investigated. Single, isolated nanorods exhibit two maxima of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), which are associated with the two nanorod axes. Upon the physical rotation of a nanorod at one of its LSPR wavelengths under polarized illumination, the optical behavior varies in a sinusoidal fashion. A dimer of nanorods exhibits optical behavior quite similar to a nanorod, except the LSPR maxima are shifted and broader. Under differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, a pair of nanorods separated by a distance below the diffraction limit can be distinguished from a single nanorod due to its optical behavior upon rotation. Dark field microscopy is unable to distinguish the two geometries. For the second set of experiments, the optical behavior of single gold nanorods at non-plasmonic wavelengths was investigated. The same nanorod was rotated with respect to a polarized light source under DIC, dark field, and polarized light microscopy. DIC microscopy was found to produce diffraction pattern peaks at non-plasmonic wavelengths, which could be altered by adjusting the setting of the polarizer. In the third set of experiments, the optical behavior of a single gold dumbbell and several simple dumbbell geometries were investigated with microscopy and simulations. The single dumbbell displayed behavior quite similar to that of a nanorod, but dumbbells exhibit a shift in both LSPR wavebands. Moreover, the shape of dumbbell particles allows them to interlock with one another quite easily. The dimers that form as a result display optical behavior that differs from what has been previously reported about nanorod dimers. Simulated surface charge density patterns reveal that hybridization of LSPR modes occurs readily along the lobes of individual dumbbells in some situations. A pentamer of dumbbells also displays hybridization of modes, and hot spots are observed at junctions between pairings of dumbbells. In the final set of experiments, the assembly behavior of nanoparticles in solution was observed in real time. In general, large assemblies of nanoparticles display backbone-like rigidity, but an interesting variety of movements is permitted within the larger structures.

Stender, Anthony [Ames Laboratory

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

Laboratory Eleven Simplified Counter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-to-low transition. The decade (BCD) count sequence is illustrated on Page 3 of the Data Sheets. However, you VHDL code for this module as an asynchronous sequential circuit. The detailed specifications are given for the counter outputs to test the performance of your circuit. iv. Revise your VHDL code to use a push button

Grantner, Janos L.

38

Application of the discontinuous Galerkin time domain method in the simulation of the optical properties of dielectric particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) and longwave (infrared) cases are considered, with particle size parameters 50 and 100. Ice in shortwave and longwave cases is absorptive and non-absorptive, respectively. The comparisons between DG solutions and the exact solutions in computing the optical...

Tang, Guanglin

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

39

Acne treatments (over-the-counter) Acupuncture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-the- counter) Corneal keratotomy Cough drops & sore throat lozenges (over-the-counter) Cough syrup (over & flu prevention Over-the-counter cough drops & sore throat lozenges Over-the-counter cough syrup Over

Bordenstein, Seth

40

The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called non-blinking quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to find the 3D orientation of stationary metallic anisotropic nanoparticles utilizing only long-axis SPR enhancement. The polarization direction of the illuminating light was rotated causing the relative intensity of p-polarized and s-polarized light within the evanescent field to change. The interaction of the evanescent field with the particles is dependent on the orientation of the particle producing an intensity curve. This curve and the in-plane angle can be compared with simulations to accurately determine the 3D orientation. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is another non-invasive far-field technique based upon interferometry that does not rely on staining or other contrast enhancing techniques. In addition, high numerical aperture condensers and objectives can be used to give a very narrow depth of field allowing for the optical tomography of samples, which makes it an ideal candidate to study biological systems. DIC microscopy has also proven itself in determining the orientation of gold nanorods in both engineered environments and within cells. Many types of nanoparticles and nanostructures have been synthesized using lithographic techniques on silicon wafer substrates. Traditionally, reflective mode DIC microscopes have been developed and applied to the topographical study of reflective substrates and the imaging of chips on silicon wafers. Herein, a laser-illuminated reflected-mode DIC was developed for studying nanoparticles on reflective surfaces.

Marchuk, Kyle

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical particle counter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Neutron counter based on beryllium activation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction {sup 9}Be(n, ?){sup 6}He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, {sup 6}He, decays with half-life T{sub 1/2} = 0.807 s emitting ?{sup ?} particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of ?particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known ?source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of ?{sup ?} particles emitted from radioactive {sup 6}He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Paducha, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM), Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Scholz, M.; Igielski, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS (IFJPAN), Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Karpinski, L. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszow (Poland); Pytel, K. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Soltana 7, 05-400 Otwock - Swierk (Poland)

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

42

Equilibrium Theory for a Particle Pulled by a Moving Optical Trap  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The viscous drag on a colloidal particle pulled through solution by an optical trap is large enough that on experimentally relavant time scales the mechanical force exerted by the trap is equal and op- posite the viscous drag force. The rapid mechanical equilibritation allows the system to be modeled using equilibrium theory, where the effects of the energy dissipation (thermodynamic disequilibrium) show up only in the coordinate transformations that map the system from the laboratory frame of reference, relative to which the particle is moving, to a frame of reference in which the particle is, on average, stationary and on which the stochastic dynamics is governed by a canonical equilib- rium distribution function. The simple equations in the stationary frame can be analyzed using the Onsager-Machlup theory for stochastic systems and provide generalizations of equilibrium and near equilibrium concepts such as detailed balance and fluctuation-dissipation relations applicable to a wide range of systems including molecular motors, pumps, and other nano-scale machines.

R. Dean Astumian

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

43

Low latency counter event indication  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hybrid counter array device for counting events with interrupt indication includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each for counting signals representing event occurrences and providing a first count value representing lower order bits. An overflow bit device associated with each respective counter device is additionally set in response to an overflow condition. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits. An operatively coupled control device monitors each associated overflow bit device and initiates incrementing a second count value stored at a corresponding memory location in response to a respective overflow bit being set. The incremented second count value is compared to an interrupt threshold value stored in a threshold register, and, when the second counter value is equal to the interrupt threshold value, a corresponding "interrupt arm" bit is set to enable a fast interrupt indication. On a subsequent roll-over of the lower bits of that counter, the interrupt will be fired.

Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Salapura, Valentina (Chappaqua, NY)

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

44

Space and power efficient hybrid counters array  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Salapura, Valentina (Chappaqua, NY)

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

45

The development of a planar multiwire proportional counter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

140 THEORY 1. Proportional Counter Theory A proportional counter operates on the principle of using the ionization produced in a gas by a charged particle passing through it (or an x-ray stopping in it) to create an avalanche of secondari- ly... distance approximately equal to the beam width in figures 15 and 16, where x-rays were used. In figure 17, where alpha particles ivere completely stopping in the detector gas, the fall-off in efficiency occurs over a distance much greater than the 0. 82...

Hensley, John Richard

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

OPTICAL NANOSENSOR PARTICLES FOR DETECTION OF pH IN LIVING CELLS A. M. Scharff-Poulsena  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H sensitive dye and the reference dye permit intracellular pH measurements by fluorescence ratio imagingOPTICAL NANOSENSOR PARTICLES FOR DETECTION OF pH IN LIVING CELLS A. M. Scharff-Poulsena , H. Suna is limited by the lack of tools for measuring of metabolite levels in living cells with high spatial

47

Alternatives for Helium-3 in Multiplicity Counters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alternatives to helium-3 are being actively pursued due to the shortage and rising costs of helium-3. For safeguards applications, there are a number of ongoing investigations to find alternatives that provide the same capability in a cost-effective manner. One of the greatest challenges is to find a comparable alternative for multiplicity counters, since they require high efficiency and short collection or die-away times. Work has been progressing on investigating three commercially available alternatives for high efficiency multiplicity counters: boron trifluoride (BF3) filled proportional tubes, boron-lined proportional tubes, and lithium fluoride with zinc sulfide coated light guides. The baseline multiplicity counter used for the investigation is the Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter with 121 helium-3 filled tubes at 10 atmosphere pressure, which is a significant capability to match. The primary tool for the investigation has been modeling and simulation using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) radiation transport program, with experiments to validate the models. To directly calculate the coincidence rates in boron-lined (and possibly other) detectors, the MCNPX code has been enhanced to allow the existing coincidence tally to be used with energy deposition rather than neutron capture reactions. This allows boron-lined detectors to be modeled more accurately. Variations of tube number and diameter along with variations in the amount of inter-tube moderator have been conducted for the BF3 and boron-lined cases. Tube pressure was investigated for BF3, up to two atmospheres, as well as optimal boron thickness in the boron-lined tubes. The lithium fluoride was modeled as sheets of material with light guides in between, and the number and thickness of the sheets investigated. The amount of light guide, which in this case doubles as a moderator, was also optimized. The results of these modeling and simulation optimization investigations are described and results presented.

Ely, James H.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

A 300 MHz OPTICAL DISCRIMINATOR-COUNTER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrical pulse pair with 2 ns pulse width at FWHH LEVEL CROSSING DISCRIMINATOR THRESHOLD DISCRIMINATOR TRIGGER THRESHOLD VS

Turko, B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Microwave Photon Counter Based on Josephson Junctions Y.-F. Chen,1,* D. Hover,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microwave Photon Counter Based on Josephson Junctions Y.-F. Chen,1,* D. Hover,1 S. Sendelbach,1 L on the current-biased Josephson junction. The junction is tuned to absorb single microwave photons from optical photon counters, it is natural to consider the Josephson junction--a nonlinear, nondissipative

Saffman, Mark

50

Variation in Morphology, Hygroscopicity, and Optical Properties of Soot Particles Coated by Dicarboxylic Acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

particles upon coating with succinic and glutaric acids. The effective densities, fractal dimensions and dynamic shape factors of fresh and coated soot aerosol particles have been determined. Significant size-dependent increases of soot particle mobility...

Xue, Huaxin

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

51

Developing new optical imaging techniques for single particle and molecule tracking in live cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is a far-field as well as wide-field optical imaging technique. Since it is non-invasive and requires no sample staining, DIC microscopy is suitable for tracking the motion of target molecules in live cells without interfering their functions. In addition, high numerical aperture objectives and condensers can be used in DIC microscopy. The depth of focus of DIC is shallow, which gives DIC much better optical sectioning ability than those of phase contrast and dark field microscopies. In this work, DIC was utilized to study dynamic biological processes including endocytosis and intracellular transport in live cells. The suitability of DIC microscopy for single particle tracking in live cells was first demonstrated by using DIC to monitor the entire endocytosis process of one mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) into a live mammalian cell. By taking advantage of the optical sectioning ability of DIC, we recorded the depth profile of the MSN during the endocytosis process. The shape change around the nanoparticle due to the formation of a vesicle was also captured. DIC microscopy was further modified that the sample can be illuminated and imaged at two wavelengths simultaneously. By using the new technique, noble metal nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes were selectively imaged. Among all the examined metal nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles in rod shapes were found to be especially useful. Due to their anisotropic optical properties, gold nanorods showed as diffraction-limited spots with disproportionate bright and dark parts that are strongly dependent on their orientation in the 3D space. Gold nanorods were developed as orientation nanoprobes and were successfully used to report the self-rotation of gliding microtubules on kinesin coated substrates. Gold nanorods were further used to study the rotational motions of cargoes during the endocytosis and intracellular transport processes in live mammalian cells. New rotational information was obtained: (1) during endocytosis, cargoes lost their rotation freedom at the late stage of internalization; (2) cargoes performed train-like motion when they were transported along the microtubule network by motor proteins inside live cells; (3) During the pause stage of fast axonal transport, cargoes were still bound to the microtubule tracks by motor proteins. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) is another non-invasive and far-field optical imaging technique. Because of its near-field illumination mechanism, TIRFM has better axial resolution than epi-fluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy. In this work, an auto-calibrated, prism type, angle-scanning TIRFM instrument was built. The incident angle can range from subcritical angles to nearly 90{sup o}, with an angle interval less than 0.2{sup o}. The angle precision of the new instrument was demonstrated through the finding of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) angle of metal film coated glass slide. The new instrument improved significantly the precision in determining the axial position. As a result, the best obtained axial resolution was {approx} 8 nm, which is better than current existing instruments similar in function. The instrument was further modified to function as a pseudo TIRF microscope. The illumination depth can be controlled by changing the incident angle of the excitation laser beam or adjusting the horizontal position of the illumination laser spot on the prism top surface. With the new technique, i.e., variable-illumination-depth pseudo TIRF microscopy, the whole cell body from bottom to top was scanned.

Sun, Wei

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

52

Monte Carlo simulations of solid walled proportional counters with different site size for HZE radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Characterizing high z high energy (HZE) particles in cosmic radiation is of importance for the study of the equivalent dose to astronauts. Low pressure, tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) are routinely used to evaluate radiation...

Wang, Xudong

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

Optical Model Potential Parameters for p, d, {sup 3}He and Alpha-Particle Scattering on Lithium Nuclei  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analysis of the p, d, {sup 3}He and {alpha}-particles elastic scattering on the {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li nuclei has been done in the framework of the optical model at the beam energies up to 72 MeV. It was shown that the account of the cluster exchange mechanism together with the potential scattering allow reproducing the experimental cross-sections in the whole angular range.

Burtebayev, N.; Nassurlla, Marzhan; Nassurlla, Maulen; Kerimkulov, Zh. K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Sakuta, S. B. [Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

54

Measurements of the chemical, physical, and optical properties of single aerosol particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in air quality near a copper smelter, Science of the TotalParticles from a Copper Smelter, Environmental Science &

Moffet, Ryan Christopher

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Complementary optical-potential analysis of alpha-particle elastic scattering and induced reactions at low energies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A previously derived semi-microscopic analysis based on the Double Folding Model, for alpha-particle elastic scattering on A~100 nuclei at energies below 32 MeV, is extended to medium mass A ~ 50-120 nuclei and energies from ~13 to 50 MeV. The energy-dependent phenomenological imaginary part for this semi-microscopic optical model potential was obtained including the dispersive correction to the microscopic real potential, and used within a concurrent phenomenological analysis of the same data basis. A regional parameter set for low-energy alpha-particles entirely based on elastic-scattering data analysis was also obtained for nuclei within the above-mentioned mass and energy ranges. Then, an ultimate assessment of (alpha,gamma), (alpha,n) and (alpha,p) reaction cross sections concerned target nuclei from 45Sc to 118Sn and incident energies below ~12 MeV. The former diffuseness of the real part of optical potential as well as the surface imaginary-potential depth have been found responsible for the actual difficulties in the description of these data, and modified in order to obtain an optical potential which describe equally well both the low energy elastic-scattering and induced-reaction data of alpha-particles.

M. Avrigeanu; A. C. Obreja; F. L. Roman; V. Avrigeanu; W. von Oertzen

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

56

Aerogel Cerenkov Counter for the BELLE Experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the BELLE experiment at KEKB, a threshold Cerenkov counter system based on silica aerogels will be used to provide a =K separation in the momentum region from 0.8 to 3.5 GeV/c. The detector design, recent progresses in R&D's and results of beam tests are reviewed in this talk. 1 Introduction Particle identification, in particular the identification of charged pions and kaons, plays an important role for the studies of CP -violation in B-factory experiments. In the BELLE experiment at KEKB, a threshold aerogel Cerenkov counter (ACC) will be used to extend the momentum region beyond the reach of dE=dx and time-of-flight (TOF) measurements [1]. This paper gives a brief description of the detector design, recent progresses in R&D's and results of beam tests. 2 Detector design Figure 1 shows the design of the BELLE ACC system, which consists of a barrel ACC and a forward endcap ACC. The barrel ACC is a 900-element array, segmented into 15 and 60 in z and OE directions, respectivel...

Iijima Adachi; Belle Preprint

57

Study of particle suspensions in microfluidics for the development of optical devices.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The vision of this PhD research project is to create a microfluidic system for controlling the locations of suspended particles in order to form three (more)

Kayani, A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism

Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; David Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Countering Nuclear Terrorism and Trafficking | National Nuclear...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Countering Nuclear Terrorism and Trafficking | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing...

60

Optical pin apparatus for measuring the arrival time and velocity of shock waves and particles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for the detection of the arrival and for the determination of the velocity of disturbances such as shock-wave fronts and/or projectiles. Optical pins using fluid-filled microballoons as the light source and an optical fiber as a link to a photodetector have been used to investigate shock-waves and projectiles. A microballoon filled with a noble gas is affixed to one end of a fiber-optic cable, and the other end of the cable is attached to a high-speed streak camera. As the shock-front or projectile compresses the microballoon, the gas inside is heated and compressed producing a bright flash of light. The flash of light is transmitted via the optic cable to the streak camera where it is recorded. One image-converter streak camera is capable of recording information from more than 100 microballoon-cable combinations simultaneously.

Benjamin, R.F.

1983-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical particle counter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Monte-Carlo Simulation for an Aerogel Cherenkov Counter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have developed a Monte-Carlo simulation code for an aerogel \\v Cerenkov Counter which is operated under a strong magnetic field such as 1.5T. This code consists of two parts: photon transportation inside aerogel tiles, and one-dimensional amplification in a fine-mesh photomultiplier tube. It simulates the output photoelectron yields as accurately as 5% with only a single free parameter. This code is applied to simulations for a B-Factory particle-identification system.

Ryuji Suda et al

1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

62

Optical and Physical Properties from Primary On-Road Vehicle ParticleEmissions And Their Implications for Climate Change  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the summers of 2004 and 2006, extinction and scattering coefficients of particle emissions inside a San Francisco Bay Area roadway tunnel were measured using a combined cavity ring-down and nephelometer instrument. Particle size distributions and humidification were also measured, as well as several gas phase species. Vehicles in the tunnel traveled up a 4% grade at a speed of approximately 60 km h{sup -1}. The traffic situation in the tunnel allows the apportionment of emission factors between light duty gasoline vehicles and diesel trucks. Cross-section emission factors for optical properties were determined for the apportioned vehicles to be consistent with gas phase and particulate matter emission factors. The absorption emission factor (the absorption cross-section per mass of fuel burned) for diesel trucks (4.4 {+-} 0.79 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}) was 22 times larger than for light-duty gasoline vehicles (0.20 {+-} 0.05 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}). The single scattering albedo of particles - which represents the fraction of incident light that is scattered as opposed to absorbed - was 0.2 for diesel trucks and 0.3 for light duty gasoline vehicles. These facts indicate that particulate matter from motor vehicles exerts a positive (i.e., warming) radiative climate forcing. Average particulate mass absorption efficiencies for diesel trucks and light duty gasoline vehicles were 3.14 {+-} 0.88 m{sup 2} g{sub PM}{sup -1} and 2.9 {+-} 1.07 m{sup 2} g{sub PM}{sup -1}, respectively. Particle size distributions and optical properties were insensitive to increases in relative humidity to values in excess of 90%, reinforcing previous findings that freshly emitted motor vehicle particulate matter is hydrophobic.

Strawa, A.W.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Hallar, A.G.; Ban-Weiss, G.A.; McLaughlin, J.P.; Harley, R.A.; Lunden, M.M.

2009-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

63

Measurements of the chemical, physical, and optical properties of single aerosol particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the 3-km zone of lead/zinc smelters, Environmental Science &in air quality near a copper smelter, Science of the TotalParticles from a Copper Smelter, Environmental Science &

Moffet, Ryan Christopher

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Boron-10 Lined Proportional Counter Wall Effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report provides information about how variations in proportional counter radius and gas pressure in a typical coincident counter design might affect the observed signal from boron-lined tubes. A discussion comparing tubes to parallel plate counters is also included.

Siciliano, Edward R.; Kouzes, Richard T.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Low Power Front-End Electronics for the BESS-Polar Time-of-Flight Counter and Aerogel Cherenkov Counter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low Power Front-End Electronics for the BESS-Polar Time-of-Flight Counter and Aerogel Cherenkov Counter

Sasaki, M

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Analysis of Vision Loss Caused by Radiation-Induced Optic Neuropathy After Particle Therapy for Head-and-Neck and Skull-Base Tumors Adjacent to Optic Nerves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To assess the incident rates of vision loss (VL; based on counting fingers or more severe) caused by radiation-induced optic neuropathy (RION) after particle therapy for tumors adjacent to optic nerves (ONs), and to evaluate factors that may contribute to VL. Methods and Materials: From August 2001 to August 2006, 104 patients with head-and-neck or skull-base tumors adjacent to ONs were treated with carbon ion or proton radiotherapy. Among them, 145 ONs of 75 patients were irradiated and followed for greater than 12 months. The incident rate of VL and the prognostic factors for occurrence of VL were evaluated. The late effects of carbon ion and proton beams were compared on the basis of a biologically effective dose at alpha/beta = 3 gray equivalent (GyE{sub 3}). Results: Eight patients (11%) experienced VL resulting from RION. The onset of VL ranged from 17 to 58 months. The median follow-up was 25 months. No significant difference was observed between the carbon ion and proton beam treatment groups. On univariate analysis, age (>60 years), diabetes mellitus, and maximum dose to the ON (>110 GyE{sub 3}) were significant, whereas on multivariate analysis only diabetes mellitus was found to be significant for VL. Conclusions: The time to the onset of VL was highly variable. There was no statistically significant difference between carbon ion and proton beam treatments over the follow-up period. Based on multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus correlated with the occurrence of VL. A larger study with longer follow-up is warranted.

Demizu, Yusuke, E-mail: y_demizu@nifty.co [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan); Murakami, Masao; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Niwa, Yasue [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan); Akagi, Takashi [Department of Accelerator Managing, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan); Sasaki, Ryohei [Division of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Terashima, Kazuki [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan); Suga, Daisaku [Department of Radiation Technology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan); Kamae, Isao [Division of Medical Statistics, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Hishikawa, Yoshio [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan)

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

A Beta-Particle Hodoscope Constructed Using Scintillating Optical Fibers and Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A hodoscopic detector was constructed using a position-sensitive plastic scintillator active area to determine the location of beta-active micron-sized particulates on air filters. The ability to locate beta active particulates on airsample filters is a tool for environmental monitoring of anthropogenic production of radioactive material. A robust, field-deployable instrument can provide localization of radioactive particulate with position resolution of a few millimeters. The detector employs a novel configuration of scintillating plastic elements usually employed at much higher charged particle energies. A filter is placed on this element for assay. The detector is intended to be sensitive to activity greater than 1 Bq. The physical design, position reconstruction method, and expected detector sensitivity are reported.

Orrell, John L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Day, Anthony R.; Fast, Jim; Hossbach, Todd W.; Lidey, Lance S.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Schrom, Brian T.

2006-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

68

Measurement of photon correlations with multipixel photon counters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Development of reliable photon number resolving detectors (PNRD), devices which are capable to distinguish 1,2,3.. photons, is of a great importance for quantum optics and its applications. A new class of affordable PNRD is based on multipixel photon counters (MPPC). Here we review results of experiments on using MPPCs for direct characterization of squeezed vacuum (SV) states, generated via parametric downconversion (PDC). We use MPPCs to measure the second order normalized intensity correlation function (g^(2)) and directly detect the two-mode squeezing of SV states. We also present a method of calibration of crosstalk probability in MPPCs based on g^(2) measurements of coherent states.

Dmitry Kalashnikov; Leonid A. Krivitsky

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

acid cycle counters: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Design to Counter Electromagnetic Interrogation of Targets Mathematics Websites Summary: Stealth Design to Counter Electromagnetic Interrogation of Targets H.T. Banks, K. Ito,...

70

Identification of high transverse-momentum hadrons with a ring-imaging Cerenkov counter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have constructed and operated a large aperture ring-imaging Cerenkov counter in a high transverse-momentum experiment at Fermilab. We used multistep proportional chambers with a He/TEA photosensitive gas mixture to observe approximately 3.5 photons per relativistic particle. Hadron identification is obtained with good efficiency from threshold to 250 GeV/c.

Glass, H.; Adams, M.; Charpak, G.; Coutrakon, G.; Finley, D.; Hubbard, J.R.; Jaffe, D.; Kirz, J.; Mangeot, P.; McCarthy, R.; Peisert, A.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Quantitative analysis of in situ optical diagnostics for inferring particle/aggregate parameters in flames: Implications for soot surface growth and total emissivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An in situ particulate diagnostic/analysis technique is outlined based on the Rayleigh-Debye-Gans polydisperse fractal aggregate (RDG/PFA) scattering interpretation of absolute angular light scattering and extinction measurements. Using proper particle refractive index, the proposed data analysis method can quantitatively yield all aggregate parameters (particle volume fraction, f{sub v}, fractal dimension, D{sub f}, primary particle diameter, d{sub p}, particle number density, n{sub p}, and aggregate size distribution, pdf(N)) without any prior knowledge about the particle-laden environment. The present optical diagnostic/interpretation technique was applied to two different soot-containing laminar and turbulent ethylene/air nonpremixed flames in order to assess its reliability. The aggregate interpretation of optical measurements yielded D{sub f}, d{sub p}, and pdf(N) that are in excellent agreement with ex situ thermophoretic sampling/transmission electron microscope (TS/TEM) observations within experimental uncertainties. However, volume-equivalent single particle models (Rayleigh/Mie) overestimated d{sub p} by about a factor of 3, causing an order of magnitude underestimation in n{sub p}. Consequently, soot surface areas and growth rates were in error by a factor of 3, emphasizing that aggregation effects need to be taken into account when using optical diagnostics for a reliable understanding of soot formation/evolution mechanism in flames. The results also indicated that total soot emissivities were generally underestimated using Rayleigh analysis (up to 50%), mainly due to the uncertainties in soot refractive indices at infrared wavelengths. This suggests that aggregate considerations may not be essential for reasonable radiation heat transfer predictions from luminous flames because of fortuitous error cancellation, resulting in typically a 10 to 30% net effect.

Koeylue, U.O. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Aquatic manoeuvering with counter-propagating waves: a novel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aquatic manoeuvering with counter-propagating waves: a novel locomotive strategy Oscar M. Curet1 of these inward counter-propagating waves. In addition, we compare the flow structure and upward force generated by inward counter-propagating waves to standing waves, unidirectional waves, and outward counter-propagating

Lauder, George V.

73

Low-temperature Bessel beam trap for single submicrometer aerosol particle studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on a new instrument for single aerosol particle studies at low temperatures that combines an optical trap consisting of two counter-propagating Bessel beams (CPBBs) and temperature control down to 223 K (?50?C). The apparatus is capable of capturing and stably trapping individual submicrometer- to micrometer-sized aerosol particles for up to several hours. First results from studies of hexadecane, dodecane, and water aerosols reveal that we can trap and freeze supercooled droplets ranging in size from ?450 nm to 5500 nm (radius). We have conducted homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing experiments, freezing-melting cycles, and evaporation studies. To our knowledge, this is the first reported observation of the freezing process for levitated single submicrometer-sized droplets in air using optical trapping techniques. These results show that a temperature-controlled CPBB trap is an attractive new method for studying phase transitions of individual submicrometer aerosol particles.

Lu, Jessica W.; Chasovskikh, Egor; Stapfer, David [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zrich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, CH-8093 Zrich (Switzerland); Isenor, Merrill; Signorell, Ruth [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zrich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, CH-8093 Zrich (Switzerland); Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Magneto-optical granulometry: on the determination of the statistics of magnetically induced particle chains in concentrated ferrofluids from linear dichroism experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An analytical theoretical model for the influence of the magnetically induced nanoparticle chaining on the linear dichroism in ferrofluids was developed. The model is based on a statistical theory for magnetic nanoparticle chaining in ferrofluids. Together with appropriate experimental approach and data processing strategy, the model grounds a magneto-optical granulometry method able to determine the magnetic field dependence of the statistics of magnetically induced particle chains in concentrated ferrofluids.

V. Socoliuc; L. B. Popescu

2014-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

75

Effects of volatile coatings on the morphology and optical detection of combustion-generated black carbon particles.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have measured time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (LII) from combustion-generated mature soot extracted from a burner and (1) coated with oleic acid or (2) coated with oleic acid and then thermally denuded using a thermodenuder. The soot samples were size selected using a differential mobility analyser and characterized with a scanning mobility particle sizer, centrifugal particle mass analyser, and transmission electron microscope. The results demonstrate a strong influence of coatings particle morphology and on the magnitude and temporal evolution of the LII signal. For coated particles higher laser fluences are required to reach LII signal levels comparable to those of uncoated particles. This effect is predominantly attributable to the additional energy needed to vaporize the coating while heating the particle. LII signals are higher and signal decay rates are significantly slower for thermally denuded particles relative to coated or uncoated particles, particularly at low and intermediate laser fluences.

Bambha, Ray P.; Dansson, Mark Alex; Schrader, Paul E.; Michelsen, Hope A.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH European Laboratory for Particle Physics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH European Laboratory for Particle Physics Internal Note performance of the counter for the detection of one MIP 3 #12;(Minimum Ionizing Particle). Their hardness

Boyer, Edmond

77

Electromagnetically Induced Guiding and Superradiant Amplification of Counter-Propagating Lasers in Plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of counter-propagating laser pulses in a plasma in considered. When the frequencies of the two lasers are close, nonlinear modification of the refraction index results in the mutual focusing of the two beams. A short (of order the plasma period) laser pulse can be nonlinearly focused by a long counter-propagating beam which extends over the entire guiding length. It is also demonstrated that a short (< 1/ omega (sub p)) laser pulse can be superradiantly amplified by a counter-propagating long low-intensity pump while remaining ultra-short. Particle-in-Cell simulations indicate that pump depletion can be as high as 40%. This implies that the long pump is efficiently compressed in time without frequency chirping and pulse stretching, making the superradiant amplification an interesting alternative to the conventional method of producing ultra-intense pulses by the chirped-pulse amplification.

Fisch, N.J.; Shvets, G.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Single Particle Laser Ablation | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Single Particle Laser Ablation Single Particle Laser Ablation Leads No leads are available at this time. Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular...

79

The AMS-01 Aerogel Threshold Cherenkov counter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer in a precursor version (AMS-01), was flown in June 1998 on a 51.6 degrees orbit and at altitudes ranging between 320 and 390 km, on board of the space shuttle Discovery (flight STS-91). AMS-01 included an Aerogel Threshold Cherenkov counter (ATC) to separate antiprotons from electrons and positrons from protons, for momenta below 3.5 GeV/c. This paper presents a description of the ATC counter and reports on its performances during the flight STS-91.

D. Barancourt; F. Barao; G. Barbier; G. Barreira; M. Buenerd; G. Castellini; E. Choumilov; J. Favier; N. Fouque; A. Gougas; V. Hermel; R. Kossakowski; G. Laborie; G. Laurenti; S. -C. Lee; F. Mayet; B. Meillon; Y. -T. Oyang; V. Plyaskin; V. Pojidaev; C. Rossin; D. Santos; F. Vezzu; J. P. Vialle

2000-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

80

///COUNTER : an artistic system for the transmission of cultural energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

My thesis introduces ///COUNTER as an artistic system for the transmission of cultural energy. The underlying concepts of ///COUNTER are derived directly from my work on energy access as developed through the eWheel and ...

Vincent de Paul, Jegan Joyston

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical particle counter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Further explorations of the alpha-particle optical model potential at low energies for the mass range A=45-209  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The recent high-precision measurements of alpha-particle induced reaction data below the Coulomb barrier (B) make possible the understanding of limits and possible improvement of a previous optical model potential (OMP) for alpha-particles on nuclei within the mass number range 45130. Moreover, underestimation of reaction cross sections for well-deformed nuclei is removed by using ~7% larger radius for the surface imaginary part of this spherical OMP. Improved input parameters based on recent independent data, particularly gamma-ray strength functions, but no empirical rescaling factor of the gamma and/or neutron widths have been involved within statistical model calculation of the corresponding (alpha,x) reaction cross sections.

V. Avrigeanu; M. Avrigeanu; C. M?n?ilescu

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

82

The distribution and optical response of particles on the continental shelf and their relationship to cross-isopycnal mixing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Particle size spectra for five casts illustrating changes in bottom waters during the resuspension starting around day 241 (1996). .. . . . . . . . . 101 Figure 50: Particle size spectra for four casts illustrating changes in bottom (spring 1997) during... the resuspension starting around day 129 . . . . . , . . . ?105 Figure 51: Beam attenuation as a function of PM and POC over two fluorescence maximums 24 hours apart (summer 1996) . . . . . . 107 Figure 52: Scatter plots of LSS versus c?POC and PM for spring...

Blakey, Joshua C.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Countering Improvised Explosive Devices: NPS and USMC Innovations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, as well as USMC and USN students, is dedicated to advancing counter-IED protection. The team's prior in protecting convoy operations, there is a need for devel- oping systems which can counter convoy-directed RC- IED attacks. The need for a long-term look at the counter-IED prob- lem is unfortunately self

84

Determination of the Relative Amount of Fluorine in Uranium Oxyfluoride Particles using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Optical Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Both nuclear forensics and environmental sampling depend upon laboratory analysis of nuclear material that has often been exposed to the environment after it has been produced. It is therefore important to understand how those environmental conditions might have changed the chemical composition of the material over time, particularly for chemically sensitive compounds. In the specific case of uranium enrichment facilities, uranium-bearing particles stem from small releases of uranium hexafluoride, a highly reactive gas that hydrolyzes upon contact with moisture from the air to form uranium oxyfluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) particles. The uranium isotopic composition of those particles is used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify whether a facility is compliant with its declarations. The present study, however, aims to demonstrate how knowledge of time-dependent changes in chemical composition, particle morphology and molecular structure can contribute to an even more reliable interpretation of the analytical results. We prepared a set of uranium oxyfluoride particles at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM, European Commission, Belgium) and followed changes in their composition, morphology and structure with time to see if we could use these properties to place boundaries on the particle exposure time in the environment. Because the rate of change is affected by exposure to UV-light, humidity levels and elevated temperatures, the samples were subjected to varying conditions of those three parameters. The NanoSIMS at LLNL was found to be the optimal tool to measure the relative amount of fluorine in individual uranium oxyfluoride particles. At PNNL, cryogenic laser-induced time-resolved U(VI) fluorescence microspectroscopy (CLIFS) was used to monitor changes in the molecular structure.

Kips, R; Kristo, M J; Hutcheon, I D; Amonette, J; Wang, Z; Johnson, T; Gerlach, D; Olsen, K B

2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

85

Boron-10 Lined Proportional Counter Model Validation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube-based alternative system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report discusses the validation studies performed to establish the degree of accuracy of the computer modeling methods current used to simulate the response of boron-lined tubes. This is the precursor to developing models for the uranium neutron coincidence collar under Task 2 of this project.

Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Kouzes, Richard T.

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

86

Hardware support for software controlled fast multiplexing of performance counters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Performance counters may be operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities, and registers may be operable to store a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine may be operable to automatically select a register from the registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters in response to receiving a first signal. The state machine may be further operable to reconfigure the one or more performance counters based on a configuration specified in the selected register. The state machine yet further may be operable to copy data in selected one or more of the performance counters to a memory location, or to copy data from the memory location to the counters, in response to receiving a second signal. The state machine may be operable to store or restore the counter values and state machine configuration in response to a context switch event.

Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Hardware support for software controlled fast multiplexing of performance counters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Performance counters may be operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities, and registers may be operable to store a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine may be operable to automatically select a register from the registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters in response to receiving a first signal. The state machine may be further operable to reconfigure the one or more performance counters based on a configuration specified in the selected register. The state machine yet further may be operable to copy data in selected one or more of the performance counters to a memory location, or to copy data from the memory location to the counters, in response to receiving a second signal. The state machine may be operable to store or restore the counter values and state machine configuration in response to a context switch event.

Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Advantages and Limitations of the RICH Technique for Particle Identification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) technique for hadronic particle identification (PID) is described. The advantages and limitations of RICH PID counters are compared with those of other classic PID techniques, such as threshold Cherenkov counters, ionization loss (dE/dx) in tracking devices, and time of flight (TOF) detectors.

Ratcliff, Blair N.; /SLAC

2011-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

89

Shared address collectives using counter mechanisms  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A shared address space on a compute node stores data received from a network and data to transmit to the network. The shared address space includes an application buffer that can be directly operated upon by a plurality of processes, for instance, running on different cores on the compute node. A shared counter is used for one or more of signaling arrival of the data across the plurality of processes running on the compute node, signaling completion of an operation performed by one or more of the plurality of processes, obtaining reservation slots by one or more of the plurality of processes, or combinations thereof.

Blocksome, Michael; Dozsa, Gabor; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R; Miller, Douglas

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

90

Self-regulating neutron coincidence counter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for accurately measuring the mass of /sup 240/Pu and /sup 239/Pu in a sample having arbitrary moderation and mixed with various contaminants. The device utilizes a thermal neutron well counter which has two concentric rings of neutron detectors separated by a moderating material surrounding the well. Neutron spectroscopic information derived by the two rings of detectors is used to measure the quantity of /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu in device which corrects for background radiation, deadtime losses of the detector and electronics and various other constants of the system.

Baron, N.

1980-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

91

Hardware support for software controlled fast reconfiguration of performance counters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hardware support for software controlled reconfiguration of performance counters may include a plurality of performance counters collecting one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A storage element stores data value representing a time interval, and a timer element reads the data value and detects expiration of the time interval based on the data value and generates a signal. A plurality of configuration registers stores a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine receives the signal and selects a configuration register from the plurality of configuration registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters.

Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

92

Hardware support for software controlled fast reconfiguration of performance counters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hardware support for software controlled reconfiguration of performance counters may include a plurality of performance counters collecting one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A storage element stores data value representing a time interval, and a timer element reads the data value and detects expiration of the time interval based on the data value and generates a signal. A plurality of configuration registers stores a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine receives the signal and selects a configuration register from the plurality of configuration registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters.

Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

93

Lineal energy calibration of mini tissue-equivalent gas-proportional counters (TEPC)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mini TEPCs are cylindrical gas proportional counters of 1 mm or less of sensitive volume diameter. The lineal energy calibration of these tiny counters can be performed with an external gamma-ray source. However, to do that, first a method to get a simple and precise spectral mark has to be found and then the keV/{mu}m value of this mark. A precise method (less than 1% of uncertainty) to identify this markis described here, and the lineal energy value of this mark has been measured for different simulated site sizes by using a {sup 137}Cs gamma source and a cylindrical TEPC equipped with a precision internal {sup 244}Cm alpha-particle source, and filled with propane-based tissue-equivalent gas mixture. Mini TEPCs can be calibrated in terms of lineal energy, by exposing them to {sup 137}Cesium sources, with an overall uncertainty of about 5%.

Conte, V.; Moro, D.; Colautti, P. [LNL-INFN, viale dell'Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro (Italy); Grosswendt, B. [guest at LNL-INFN (Italy)

2013-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

94

Optical Properties of Moderately-Absorbing Organic and Mixed Organic/Inorganic Particles at Very High Humidities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Relative humidity (RH) affects the water content of an aerosol, altering its ability to scatter and absorb light, which is important for aerosol effects on climate and visibility. This project involves in situ measurement and modeling of aerosol optical properties including absorption, scattering and extinction at three visible wavelengths (467, 530, 660 nm), for organic carbon (OC) generated by pyrolysis of biomass, ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride, and their mixtures at controlled RH conditions. Novel components of this project include investigation of: (1) Changes in all three of these optical properties at scanned RH conditions; (2) Optical properties at RH values up to 95%, which are usually extrapolated instead of measured; and (3) Examination of aerosols generated by the pyrolysis of wood, which is representative of primary atmospheric organic carbon, and its mixture with inorganic aerosol. Scattering and extinction values were used to determine light absorption by difference and single scattering albedo values. Extensive instrumentation development and benchmarking with independently measured and modeled values were used to obtain and evaluate these new results. The single scattering albedo value for a dry absorbing polystyrene microsphere benchmark agreed within 0.02 (absolute value) with independently published results at 530 nm. Light absorption by a nigrosin (sample light-absorbing) benchmark increased by a factor of 1.24 +/-0.06 at all wavelengths as RH increased from 38 to 95%. Closure modeling with Mie theory was able to reproduce this increase with the linear volume average (LVA) refractive index mixing rule for this water soluble compound. Absorption by biomass OC aerosol increased by a factor of 2.1 +/- 0.7 and 2.3 +/- 1.2 between 32 and 95% RH at 467 nm and 530 nm, but there was no detectable absorption at 660 nm. Additionally, the spectral dependence of absorption by OC that was observed with filter measurements was confirmed qualitatively in situ at 467 and 530 nm. Closure modeling with the dynamic effective medium approximation (DEMA) refractive index model was able to capture the increasing absorption trend with RH indicating that the droplets were heterogeneously mixed while containing dispersed insoluble absorbing material within those droplets. Seven other refractive index mixing models including LVA did not adequately describe the measurements for OC. Mixing the biomass OC aerosol with select mass fractions of ammonium sulfate ranging from 25 to 36% and sodium chloride ranging from 21 to 30% resulted in an increase in light scattering and extinction with RH and inorganic mass fraction. However, no detectable difference in light absorption behavior in comparison to pure biomass OC was observed. The main finding of this research is a measured increase in absorption with increasing RH, which is currently not represented in radiative transfer models even though biomass burning produces most of the primary OC aerosol in the atmosphere.

Bond, Tami C; Rood, Mark J; Brem, Benjamin T; Mena-Gonzalez, Francisco C; Chen, Yanju

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

95

Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because size is a major controlling factor for indoor airborne particle behavior, human particle exposure assessments will benefit from improved knowledge of size-specific particle emissions. We report a method of inferring size-specific mass emission factors for indoor sources that makes use of an indoor aerosol dynamics model, measured particle concentration time series data, and an optimization routine. This approach provides--in addition to estimates of the emissions size distribution and integrated emission factors--estimates of deposition rate, an enhanced understanding of particle dynamics, and information about model performance. We applied the method to size-specific environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particle concentrations measured every minute with an 8-channel optical particle counter (PMS-LASAIR; 0.1-2+ micrometer diameters) and every 10 or 30 min with a 34-channel differential mobility particle sizer (TSI-DMPS; 0.01-1+ micrometer diameters) after a single cigarette or cigar was machine-smoked inside a low air-exchange-rate 20 m{sup 3} chamber. The aerosol dynamics model provided good fits to observed concentrations when using optimized values of mass emission rate and deposition rate for each particle size range as input. Small discrepancies observed in the first 1-2 hours after smoking are likely due to the effect of particle evaporation, a process neglected by the model. Size-specific ETS particle emission factors were fit with log-normal distributions, yielding an average mass median diameter of 0.2 micrometers and an average geometric standard deviation of 2.3 with no systematic differences between cigars and cigarettes. The equivalent total particle emission rate, obtained integrating each size distribution, was 0.2-0.7 mg/min for cigars and 0.7-0.9 mg/min for cigarettes.

Klepeis, Neil E.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Sextro, Richard G.; Nazaroff, William W.

2002-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

96

The monitoring system for the aerogel Cherenkov counter of the BELLE detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on a design and performances of a monitoring system developed for the aerogel Cherenkov counters (ACC) of the BELLE detector. The system consists of blue LEDs, a diffuser box, and optical distributors which distribute the LED light to the ACC modules. The employed LED (NSPB series) has been observed to have high reliability on the long term stability and the temprature dependence. The diffuser box is employed to reduce the intrinsic non-uniformity of the LED light intensity. The overall performances of the present monitoring system on uniformity and intensity of the light output have been found to satisfy all the requirements for the monitoring.

M. H. R. Khan; A. Murakami; T. Sumiyoshi; T. Kuniya; I. Adachi; R. Enomoto; H. Hattori; T. Iijima; K. Kaneda; R. Kawabata; T. Ooba; R. Suda; K. Suzuki; M. Watanabe

1998-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

97

EMSL - Single Particle Laser Ablation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

single-particle-laser-ablation en Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular Composition of Laboratory Proxies of Atmospheric Brown Carbon http:...

98

Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas Technology Institute (GTI), in partnership with Dennis Tool Company (DTC), has worked to develop an advanced drill bit system to be used with microhole drilling assemblies. One of the main objectives of this project was to utilize new and existing coiled tubing and slimhole drilling technologies to develop Microhole Technology (MHT) so as to make significant reductions in the cost of E&P down to 5000 feet in wellbores as small as 3.5 inches in diameter. This new technology was developed to work toward the DOE's goal of enabling domestic shallow oil and gas wells to be drilled inexpensively compared to wells drilled utilizing conventional drilling practices. Overall drilling costs can be lowered by drilling a well as quickly as possible. For this reason, a high drilling rate of penetration is always desired. In general, high drilling rates of penetration (ROP) can be achieved by increasing the weight on bit and increasing the rotary speed of the bit. As the weight on bit is increased, the cutting inserts penetrate deeper into the rock, resulting in a deeper depth of cut. As the depth of cut increases, the amount of torque required to turn the bit also increases. The Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System (CRTMDS) was planned to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) resulting in the reduction of the drilling cost. The system includes two counter-rotating cutter systems to reduce or eliminate the reactive torque the drillpipe or coiled tubing must resist. This would allow the application of maximum weight-on-bit and rotational velocities that a coiled tubing drilling unit is capable of delivering. Several variations of the CRTDMS were designed, manufactured and tested. The original tests failed leading to design modifications. Two versions of the modified system were tested and showed that the concept is both positive and practical; however, the tests showed that for the system to be robust and durable, borehole diameter should be substantially larger than that of slim holes. As a result, the research team decided to complete the project, document the tested designs and seek further support for the concept outside of the DOE.

Kent Perry

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

99

Laser particle sorter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus are provided for sorting particles, such as biological particles. A first laser is used to define an optical path having an intensity gradient which is effective to propel the particles along the path but which is sufficiently weak that the particles are not trapped in an axial direction. A probe laser beam is provided for interrogating the particles to identify predetermined phenotypical characteristics of the particles. A second laser beam is provided to intersect the driving first laser beam, wherein the second laser beam is activated by an output signal indicative of a predetermined characteristic. The second laser beam is switchable between a first intensity and a second intensity, where the first intensity is effective to displace selected particles from the driving laser beam and the second intensity is effective to propel selected particles along the deflection laser beam. The selected particles may then be propelled by the deflection beam to a location effective for further analysis. 2 figs.

Martin, J.C.; Buican, T.N.

1987-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

100

Design, construction and implementation of spherical tissue equivalent proportional counter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) are used for medical and space activities whenever a combination of high and low LET (lineal energy transfer) radiations are present. With the frequency and duration of space activities increasing...

Perez Nunez, Delia Josefina

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical particle counter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Aerodynamic performance measurements in a counter-rotating aspirated compressor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis is an experimental investigation of the aerodynamic performances of a counter-rotating aspirated compressor. This compressor is implemented in a blow-down facility, which gives rigorous simulation of the ...

Onne, Jean-Franois

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Mechanical counter-pressure space suit design using active materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical counter-pressure (MCP) space suits have the potential to greatly improve the mobility of astronauts as they conduct planetary exploration activities; however, the underlying technologies required to provide ...

Holschuh, Bradley Thomas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

anticoincidence counter system: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

scattering of pumping light, which can be suppressed both by spatial and polarization filters. Motoaki Bamba; Cristiano Ciuti 2011-08-25 376 Jaynes-Cummings model:Counter...

104

Using DMA for copying performance counter data to memory  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for copying performance counter data includes hardware path that connects a direct memory access (DMA) unit to a plurality of hardware performance counters and a memory device. Software prepares an injection packet for the DMA unit to perform copying, while the software can perform other tasks. In one aspect, the software that prepares the injection packet runs on a processing core other than the core that gathers the hardware performance data.

Gara, Alan; Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

Introduction to Neutron Coincidence Counter Design Based on Boron-10  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation Policy (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is ultimately to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based alternative system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report, providing background information for this project, is the deliverable under Task 1 of the project.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

2012-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

106

Message passing with a limited number of DMA byte counters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for passing messages in a parallel computer system constructed as a plurality of compute nodes interconnected as a network where each compute node includes a DMA engine but includes only a limited number of byte counters for tracking a number of bytes that are sent or received by the DMA engine, where the byte counters may be used in shared counter or exclusive counter modes of operation. The method includes using rendezvous protocol, a source compute node deterministically sending a request to send (RTS) message with a single RTS descriptor using an exclusive injection counter to track both the RTS message and message data to be sent in association with the RTS message, to a destination compute node such that the RTS descriptor indicates to the destination compute node that the message data will be adaptively routed to the destination node. Using one DMA FIFO at the source compute node, the RTS descriptors are maintained for rendezvous messages destined for the destination compute node to ensure proper message data ordering thereat. Using a reception counter at a DMA engine, the destination compute node tracks reception of the RTS and associated message data and sends a clear to send (CTS) message to the source node in a rendezvous protocol form of a remote get to accept the RTS message and message data and processing the remote get (CTS) by the source compute node DMA engine to provide the message data to be sent.

Blocksome, Michael (Rochester, MN); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Kumar, Sameer (White Plains, NY); Parker, Jeffrey J. (Rochester, MN)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

107

THE VELA PULSAR AND ITS LIKELY COUNTER-JET IN THE K{sub s} BAND  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the first high spatial resolution near-infrared (near-IR) imaging of the Vela pulsar in the K{sub s} band obtained with the new adaptive optics system recently mounted on the Gemini-South telescope. For the first time, we have firmly detected the pulsar in this band with K{sub s} ? 21.8 mag, and have resolved in detail an extended feature barely detected previously in the immediate vicinity of the pulsar in the J{sub s}H bands. The pulsar K{sub s} flux is fully consistent with the extension of the flat optical spectrum of the pulsar toward the IR and does not confirm the strong IR flux excess in the pulsar emission suggested earlier by the low spatial resolution data. The extended feature is about two times brighter than the pulsar and is likely associated with its X-ray counter-jet. It extends ?2'' southward of the pulsar along the X-ray counter-jet and shows knot-like structures and a red spectrum.

Zyuzin, D.; Shibanov, Yu.; Danilenko, A. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Mennickent, R. E. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Zharikov, S. [Observatorio Astronmico Nacional SPM, Instituto de Astronoma, UNAM, Ensenada, BC (Mexico)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Solid colloidal optical wavelength filter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid colloidal optical wavelength filter includes a suspension of spheal particles dispersed in a coagulable medium such as a setting plastic. The filter is formed by suspending spherical particles in a coagulable medium; agitating the particles and coagulable medium to produce an emulsion of particles suspended in the coagulable medium; and allowing the coagulable medium and suspended emulsion of particles to cool.

Alvarez, Joseph L. (Boulder, CO)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

A Honeycomb Proportional Counter for Photon Multiplicity Measurement in the ALICE Experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A honeycomb detector consisting of a matrix of 96 closely packed hexagonal cells, each working as a proportional counter with a wire readout, was fabricated and tested at the CERN PS. The cell depth and the radial dimensions of the cell were small, in the range of 5-10 mm. The appropriate cell design was arrived at using GARFIELD simulations. Two geometries are described illustrating the effect of field shaping. The charged particle detection efficiency and the preshower characteristics have been studied using pion and electron beams. Average charged particle detection efficiency was found to be 98%, which is almost uniform within the cell volume and also within the array. The preshower data show that the transverse size of the shower is in close agreement with the results of simulations for a range of energies and converter thicknesses.

M. M. Aggarwal; S. K. Badyal; V. S. Bhatia; S. Chattopadhyay; A. K. Dubey; M. R. Dutta Majumdar; M. S. Ganti; P. Ghosh; A. Kumar; T. K. Nayak; S. Mahajan; D. P. Mahapatra; L. K. Mangotra; B. Mohanty; S. Pal; S. C. Phatak; B. V. K. S. Potukuchi; R. Raniwala; S. Raniwala; N. K. Rao; R. N. Singaraju; Bikash Sinha; M. D. Trivedi; R. J. Veenhof; Y. P. Viyogi

2001-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

110

Microcantilever Counter Electrode Electrochemical Sensor in a  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping theEnergyInnovationMichael M.Structural Fe(III)Three-Electrode

111

A scintillation counter for nuclear research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

particles were counted (the source 26, holder and electrostat1c shield on the tube would certainly stop the alphas; the electrostatic sh1eld, alum~mum of 4 mg. fcm. thick, is capable of stopp1ng alphas up to 4 mev. j, it is possible that some... CD alum1. num. ~ tered slth 2 22 gs/ 5) 4$ PHS &fas (Volts) 4) t 35 . 1'~ 12. , tuteiral 0urves for Etadium O (tufmtered Radium Filtered eith 2 Aluminum. ~ L HgdiUR . 22 mg/em2 5o 4[ PHS Bia/ i Differeutiel. ~ 40 (Volte) peg...

Trail, Carroll Clark

1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Adhesive particle shielding  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An efficient device for capturing fast moving particles has an adhesive particle shield that includes (i) a mounting panel and (ii) a film that is attached to the mounting panel wherein the outer surface of the film has an adhesive coating disposed thereon to capture particles contacting the outer surface. The shield can be employed to maintain a substantially particle free environment such as in photolithographic systems having critical surfaces, such as wafers, masks, and optics and in the tools used to make these components, that are sensitive to particle contamination. The shield can be portable to be positioned in hard-to-reach areas of a photolithography machine. The adhesive particle shield can incorporate cooling means to attract particles via the thermophoresis effect.

Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (Dublin, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Albuquerque, NM); Walton, Christopher (Berkeley, CA); Folta, James (Livermore, CA)

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

113

Development of large flow-type proportional counters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at Texas A&M University involve measurements of the momentum spectra of energetic muons of very low in- tensities. Coincidence telescopes composed of Geiger counters h ve been used as primary detectors to trigger the application of high-voltage pulses... to spark chambers for the purpose of determining the muon traJectories through solid-iron magnetic spectrometers. Geiger counters ha~a b cn chosen for this purpose be ause of the relative ease with which large active areas can bc assembled...

Torline, Norbert Kevin

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Optical forces and optical torques on various materials arising from optical lattices in the Lorentz-Mie regime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By combining the Maxwell stress tensor with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we calculate the optical force and optical torque on particles from optical lattices. We compare our method to the two-component ...

Jia, Lin

115

High spatial resolution particle detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed below are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for detecting particles, such as radiation or charged particles. One exemplary embodiment disclosed herein is particle detector comprising an optical fiber with a first end and second end opposite the first end. The optical fiber of this embodiment further comprises a doped region at the first end and a non-doped region adjacent to the doped region. The doped region of the optical fiber is configured to scintillate upon interaction with a target particle, thereby generating one or more photons that propagate through the optical fiber and to the second end. Embodiments of the disclosed technology can be used in a variety of applications, including associated particle imaging and cold neutron scattering.

Boatner, Lynn A.; Mihalczo, John T.

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

116

Online Particle Size And Concentration Measurement In A Pressurized Coal Combustion Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The energy industry has to face the demand for highly efficient coal combustion power plants in order to minimize the CO{sub 2} emissions. Efforts are made in new combustion processes, where coal powder is burned at a temperature of 1400 C and a pressure of 16 bars. The hot flue gas is used for a combined gas and steam turbine process. For that reason the flue gas has to be cleaned at the operating temperature and pressure. Limiting values for a secure operation of the turbine, with acceptable abrasion of the blades by impacting particles, are a mass concentration of c{sub M} {le}3 m g/m{sub N}{sup 3} at particle sizes smaller than 3 {micro}m . A granular bed filter is used to remove the gross of fine ash particles. But until now the separation of the submicron aerosol particles at high temperatures does not meet the mentioned specifications, and is still one of the most important open tasks. Regardless what kind of separation process will be implemented to remove fine ash particles, for investigations and control it is necessary to determine the particle concentration and size after the separation. The fact that the particle concentration after the purification is quite small and the size of the particles is less than 10 {micro}m means that gravimetric measurements are not suitable to record spontaneous changes due to the combustion process because of extended sampling times. Additionally a gravimetric measurement technique at operating conditions (T = 1400 C, p = 16 bars) is questionable, because particles can be lost by thermophoretic transport to the walls, also condensation of alkali species on the particle surfaces cannot be avoided (representativity). The single-particle-light-scattering size analysis is especially suited for measurements at low particle concentrations (< 10{sup 5} particles/m{sup 3}). With the counting technique used here, single particles are detected in situ while passing an optically defined measuring volume, which is placed in an iso-kinetically taken sample flow (free working distance of 80 mm and more). The total detectable size range of such a particle counter is between 0,1 and 10 {micro}m. Based on previous successful measurements on the clean gas side of rigid ceramic barrier filters and at a coal combustion pilot plant at temperatures up to 1000 C a constructive solution of this method at high temperatures and pressures is favorable.

Schiel, A.; Umhauer, H.; Kasper, G.; Christmann, W.

2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

117

Design and Performance of a Silicon Test Counter for HERMES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-detector array has been designed and constructed to investigate the prospects for large-angle trackingDesign and Performance of a Silicon Test Counter for HERMES J. Visser a , M.G. van Beuzekom a , J. For the read-out, a local front-end with 64-channel Analog Pipeline Chips (APC) has been employed. The large

118

Master Thesis Ring Imaging Cerenkov Counter with Aerogel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

[a4]report #12; i Master Thesis Ring Imaging Cerenkov Counter with Aerogel Radiator for HERMES;, k, p in all the HERMES engergy region: 2 GeV to 20 GeV. The new RICH system uses aerogel and C 4 F 10 gas as its Cerenkov radiator. The refractive index and other properties of all the aerogel tiles

119

Production-Run Software Failure Diagnosis via Hardware Performance Counters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Production-Run Software Failure Diagnosis via Hardware Performance Counters Joy Arulraj Po and huge financial loss during production runs. Tools that diagnose production-run failures with low is sometimes over 100%, for concurrency-bug failure diagnosis and hence are not suitable for production

Sheridan, Jennifer

120

Optimal Self-Assembly of Counters at Temperature Two  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal Self-Assembly of Counters at Temperature Two Qi Cheng University of Oklahoma Ashish Goel time of irreversible self-assemblies. 1 Introduction Self-assembly is the ubiquitous process by which been suggested that self-assembly will ultimately become an important technology, enabling

Goel, Ashish

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical particle counter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Rapid Scan Humidified Growth Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research focused on enhancements to the streamwise thermal gradient cloud condensation nuclei counter to support the rapid scan mode and to enhance the capability for aerosol humidified growth measurements. The research identified the needs for flow system modifications and range of capability for operating the conventional instrument in the rapid scan and humidified growth modes.

Gregory L. Kok; Athanasios Nenes

2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

122

Material Surface Design to Counter Electromagnetic Interrogation of Targets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Material Surface Design to Counter Electromagnetic Interrogation of Targets H.T. Banks, K. Ito, G and ferromagnetic layers coat- ing a conducting object to provide an attenuation capability against electro. Fresnel's law for the reflectance index is extended to the electromagnetic propagation in anisotropic

123

Confronting Nuclear Risks: Counter-Expertise as Politics Within  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Confronting Nuclear Risks: Counter-Expertise as Politics Within the French Nuclear Energy Debate of knowledge and expertise on the environ- mental and health risks of nuclear energy in France. From in relation to nuclear energy (Beck 1994: 63­ 76) or a general analysis of the link between nuclear

Gutkin, Boris

124

Counter-rotating Kerr manifolds separated by a fluid shell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe a spheroidal fluid shell between two Kerr vacuum regions which have opposite rotation parameters. The shell has a stiff equation of state and a heat flow vector related to the rotational Killing current. The shell description is useful in exploring the significance of counter-rotation in Kerr metric matches.

J. P. Krisch; E. N. Glass

2009-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

125

BABYSCAN - a whole body counter for small children in Fukushima  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BABYSCAN, a whole body counter for small children with a detection limit for $^{137}$Cs of better than 50 Bq/body, was developed, and the first unit has been installed at a hospital in Fukushima, to help families with small children who are very much concerned about internal exposures. The design principles, implementation details and the initial operating experience are described.

Hayano, Ryugo S; Bronson, Frazier L; Oginni, Babatunde; Muramatsu, Isamu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Sensitivity Study of the Effects of Mineral Dust Particle Nonsphericity and Thin Cirrus Clouds on MODIS Dust Optical Depth Retrievals and Direct Radiative Forcing Calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A special challenge posed by mineral dust aerosols is associated with their predominantly nonspherical particle shapes. In the present study, the scattering and radiative properties for nonspherical mineral dust aerosols at violet-to-blue (0.412, 0...

Feng, Qian

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

127

Multispectral optical tweezers for molecular diagnostics of single biological cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;Multispectral optical tweezers #12;Optical trapping ?particle >> laser : Mie regime approx. by ray opticsMedium : repulsion ?particle >> laser : Mie regime approx. by ray optics ?particle laser : Rayleigh regime, Shima Fardad, Alex Sincore, Marie Vangheluwe, Matthieu Baudelet, Martin Richardson Townes Laser

Wu, Shin-Tson

128

Received 11 Mar 2014 | Accepted 27 Oct 2014 | Published 28 Nov 2014 Optical transmission enhacement through  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park approach. In the following, we report counter-intuitive optical transparency of Bi2E3 nanoplates induced

Cui, Yi

129

Discovery of Optical Emission in the Hotspots of Three 3CR Quasars: High-Energy Particle Acceleration in Powerful Radio Hotspots  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Archival Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 images were used to search for optical emission associated with the radio jets of a number of luminous quasars. From this search, we report new optical hotspot detections in the well-known blazar 3C~454.3 and the lobe-dominated quasars 3C~275.1 and 3C~336. We also find optical emission in the vicinity of the hotspot in 3C~208, but believe this is a chance alignment. Optical emission from the arcsecond-scale jet in 3C~454.3 is also detected. Multi-frequency archival radio data from the VLA and MERLIN are analyzed, and the synchrotron spectra of these high-power hotspots are presented. We estimate that their break frequencies are in the range of $10^{10}-10^{11}$ Hz, with large uncertainties due to the wide gap in frequency coverage between the radio and optical bands. We also calculate their equipartition magnetic fields, and find that the anti-correlation between break frequency and magnetic field found by Brunetti et al. for lower power hotspots extends to these high power hotspots. This supports their model of hot-spots based on shock acceleration and synchrotron losses.

C. C. Cheung; J. F. C. Wardle; T. Chen

2005-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

130

Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location.

Garnett, Robert W. (Los Alamos, NM); Dobelbower, M. Christian (Toledo, OH)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location. 26 figs.

Garnett, R.W.; Dobelbower, M.C.

1995-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

132

Pair production in counter-propagating laser beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on an analysis of a specific electron trajectory in counter-propagating beams, Bell & Kirk (PRL 101, 200403 (2008)) recently suggested that laboratory lasers may shortly be able to produce significant numbers of electron-positron pairs. We confirm their results using an improved treatment of nonlinear Compton scattering in the laser beams. Implementing an algorithm that integrates classical electron trajectories, we then examine a wide range of laser pulse shapes and polarizations. We find that counter-propagating, linearly polarized beams, with either aligned or crossed orientation, are likely to initiate a pair avalanche at intensities of approximately 10^{24} Watts/sq cm per beam. The same result is found by modelling one of the beams as a wave reflected at the surface of an overdense solid.

J. G. Kirk; A. R. Bell; I. Arka

2009-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

133

Visible light photon counters optimization for quantum information applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we describe the studies of the main parameters needed for optimal operation of Visible Light Photon Counters (VLPCs) when used in quantum information systems. The isolation of the single photon signal is analyzed through the definition of a contamination parameter. A compromise in the minimization of this parameter for temperature, bias voltage and dark count variation must be achieved and this depends on the experimental conditions.

Molina, J.; /Rio de Janeiro State U.; Estrada, J.; Bross, A.; /Fermilab; Ginther, G.; /Rochester U.; Buscher, V.; /Freiburg U.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Particle Astrophysics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Particle Astrophysics Particle Astrophysics Understanding discoveries at the Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic Frontiers Get Expertise Rajan Gupta (505) 667-7664 Email Bruce Carlsten...

135

Strong non-linearity-induced correlations for counter-propagating photons scattering on a two-level emitter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analytically treat the scattering of two counter-propagating photons on a two-level emitter embedded in an optical waveguide. We find that the non-linearity of the emitter can give rise to significant pulse-dependent directional correlations in the scattered photonic state, which could be quantified via a reduction in coincident clicks in a Hong-Ou-Mandel measurement setup, analogous to a linear beam splitter. Changes to the spectra and phase of the scattered photons, however, would lead to reduced interference with other photons when implemented in a larger optical circuit. We introduce suitable fidelity measures which account for these changes, and find that high values can still be achieved even when accounting for all properties of the scattered photonic state.

Anders Nysteen; Dara P. S. McCutcheon; Jesper Mrk

2015-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

136

Development of large flow counters for detection of low intensity cosmic ray particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of positive ella=. . sc surround-ng the anode. Tire sheath. o char ge begins its c=. f. G. 'w=. zc. w +h 'az = cce c at on because o ti:e stzoz ? e ectric mGtlG G 1, . C lc. rc Co 11 u C S C rc "'"y f GI 1 t' e C1CC' 1C icic . :-. ;;. -. 'o . . --. ' . ilc...

Bull, Kenneth Winson

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Fabrication of solar cells with counter doping prevention  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solar cell fabrication process includes printing of dopant sources over a polysilicon layer over backside of a solar cell substrate. The dopant sources are cured to diffuse dopants from the dopant sources into the polysilicon layer to form diffusion regions, and to crosslink the dopant sources to make them resistant to a subsequently performed texturing process. To prevent counter doping, dopants from one of the dopant sources are prevented from outgassing and diffusing into the other dopant source. For example, phosphorus from an N-type dopant source is prevented from diffusing to a P-type dopant source comprising boron.

Dennis, Timothy D; Li, Bo; Cousins, Peter John

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

138

Particle separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Embodiments of a method for selecting particles, such as based on their morphology, is disclosed. In a particular example, the particles are charged and acquire different amounts of charge, or have different charge distributions, based on their morphology. The particles are then sorted based on their flow properties. In a specific example, the particles are sorted using a differential mobility analyzer, which sorts particles, at least in part, based on their electrical mobility. Given a population of particles with similar electrical mobilities, the disclosed process can be used to sort particles based on the net charge carried by the particle, and thus, given the relationship between charge and morphology, separate the particles based on their morphology.

Moosmuller, Hans (Reno, NV); Chakrabarty, Rajan K. (Reno, NV); Arnott, W. Patrick (Reno, NV)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

139

European Journal of Soil Science, December 2010, 61, 854864 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.2010.01298.x Revisiting the particle-size distribution of soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(PP) sedimenta- tion/settling velocity, Micromeritics SediGraph (MS) sedimentation/x-ray attenuation and Coulter Counter (CC) electroresistance particle counting. The Malvern Mastersizer (MM), an instrument

Ahmad, Sajjad

140

Coincidence counter design for the assay of vitrified nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the termination of nuclear safeguards and transfers to waste storage, the verification of the plutonium content in vitrified nuclear waste is required by international safeguards agreements. A novel design has been used to develop a coincidence counter for measuring vitrified nuclear waste. The authors have devised a method to measure the {sup 244}Cm content and to calculate the plutonium content from the curium-to-plutonium ratio. In order to provide unattended inspection, the counter is designed for continuous operation in the presence of highly radioactive samples: 3.0 {times} 10{sup 7} Rad/h gamma and 9.0 {times} 10{sup 7}/s neutron fluence. Operability under these conditions has been obtained by designing a heavily shielded detector with radiation hard components subtending a limited solid angle. A counting technique, Localized Source Term Coincidence Counting, has been developed to allow neutron assay of this type of sample. The system will be installed at the Power Nuclear Corporation Tokai Vitrification Facility in the later part of 1998.

Beddingfield, D.H.; Menlove, H.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Iwamoto, T.; Tomikawa, H. [Power Nuclear Corp. (Japan)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical particle counter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Monolithic Active Pixel Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) ASIC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monolithic Active Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) is a counting ASIC designed for detecting and measuring low energy X-rays from 6-12 keV. Each pixel contains analogue functionality implemented with a charge preamplifier, CR-RC{sup 2} shaper and a baseline restorer. It also contains a window comparator which can be trimmed by 4 bit DACs to remove systematic offsets. The hits are registered by a 12 bit ripple counter which is reconfigured as a shift register to serially output the data from the entire ASIC. Each pixel can be tested individually. Two diverse approaches have been used to prevent coupling between the detector and electronics in MAMBO III and MAMBO IV. MAMBO III is a 3D ASIC, the bottom ASIC consists of diodes which are connected to the top ASIC using {mu}-bump bonds. The detector is decoupled from the electronics by physically separating them on two tiers and using several metal layers as a shield. MAMBO IV is a monolithic structure which uses a nested well approach to isolate the detector from the electronics. The ASICs are being fabricated using the SOI 0.2 {micro}m OKI process, MAMBO III is 3D bonded at T-Micro and MAMBO IV nested well structure was developed in collaboration between OKI and Fermilab.

Khalid, Farah F.; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Shenai, Alpana; Yarema, Raymond J.; /Fermilab

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Calibration and assessment of a unique standup moving detector whole body counter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

whole body counters 57 Table 13: Physical characteristics of selected whole body counters Table 14: Comparison of MDA with il- source present for ANSI N343 list of radionuclides 62 73 Table 15: Comparison of MDA for a 5% reduction in count time...' ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS DEDICATION TABLE OF CONTENTS . LIST OF FIGURES . LIST OF TABLES INTRODUCTION HISTORY OF WHOLE BODY COUNTING UNIVERSAL BODY COUNTER DESIGN TESTING OB JECTIVES . ANSI N343 . ANSI N13. 30 . Selection of ANSI N13. 30 Calibration Method...

Mallett, Michael Wesley

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Photon-Veto Counters at the Outer Edge of the Endcap Calorimeter for the KOTO Experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Outer-Edge Veto (OEV) counter subsystem for extra-photon detection from the backgrounds to the? $K^0_L\\rightarrow\\pi^0\

T. Matsumura; T. Shinkawa; H. Yokota; E. Iwai; T. K. Komatsubara; J. W. Lee; G. Y. Lim; J. Ma; T. Masuda; H. Nanjo; T. Nomura; Y. Odani; Y. D. Ri; K. Shiomi; Y. Sugiyama; S. Suzuki; M. Togawa; Y. Wah; H. Watanabe; T. Yamanaka

2014-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

144

Reporting Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Medications, and Dietary Supplements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Overview of types of prescription drugs and over-the-counter medications that must be reported in DOE's Human Reliability Program.

Center for Human Reliability Studies

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Optical Force Measurements In Concentrated Colloidal Suspensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work concerns the construction and testing of an optical tweezers-based force transducer, and its application to a hard-sphere colloidal system. A particle in an optical trap forward-scatters a fraction of the ...

Wilson, Laurence

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

FB-line neutron multiplicity counter operation manual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manual describes the design features, performance, and operating characteristics for the FB-Line Neutron Multiplicity counter (FBLNMC). The FBLNMC counts neutron multiplicities to quantitatively assay plutonium in many forms, including impure scrap and waste. Monte Carlo neutronic calculations were used to design the high-efficiency (57%) detector that has 113 {sup 3}He tubes in a high-density polyethylene body. The new derandomizer circuit is included in the design to reduce deadtime. The FBLNMC can be applied to plutonium masses in the range from a few tens of grams to 5 kg; both conventional coincidence counting and multiplicity counting can be used as appropriate. This manual gives the performance data and preliminary calibration parameters for the FBLNMC.

Langner, D.G.; Sweet, M.R.; Salazar, S.D.; Kroncke, K.E.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

147

Underground Muon Counters as a Tool for Composition Analyses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The transition energy from galactic to extragalactic cosmic ray sources is still uncertain, but it should be associated either with the region of the spectrum known as the second knee or with the ankle. The baseline design of the Pierre Auger Observatory was optimized for the highest energies. The surface array is fully efficient above $3 \\times 10^{18}$ eV and, even if the hybrid mode can extend this range below $10^{18}$ eV, the second knee and a considerable portion of the wide ankle structure are left outside its operating range. Therefore, in order to encompass these spectral features and gain further insight into the cosmic ray composition variation along the transition region, enhancements to the surface and fluorescence components of the baseline design are being implemented that will lower the full efficiency regime of the Observatory down to $\\sim 10^{17}$ eV. The surface enhancements consist of a graded infilled area of standard Auger water Cherenkov detectors deployed in two triangular grids of 433 m and 750 m of spacing. Each surface station inside this area will have an associated muon counter detector. The fluorescence enhancement, on the other hand, consists of three additional fluorescence telescopes with higher elevation angle ($30^\\circ-58^\\circ$) than the ones in operation at present. The aim of this paper is threefold. We study the effect of the segmentation of the muon counters and find an analytical expression to correct for the under counting due to muon pile-up. We also present a detailed method to reconstruct the muon lateral distribution function for the 750 m spacing array. Finally, we study the mass discrimination potential of a new parameter, the number of muons at 600 m from the shower axis, obtained by fitting the muon data with the above mentioned reconstruction method.

A. D. Supanitsky; A. Etchegoyen; G. Medina-Tanco; I. Allekotte; M. Gmez Berisso; M. C. Medina

2008-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

148

Carbon-particle generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

Hunt, A.J.

1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

149

Single-ended counter-rotating radial turbine for space application  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A single-ended turbine with counter-rotating blades operating with sodium as the working fluid. The single-ended, counter-rotating feature of the turbine results in zero torque application to a space platform. Thus, maneuvering of the platform is not adversely affected by the turbine. 4 figs.

Coomes, E.P.; Wilson, D.G.; Webb, B.J.; McCabe, S.J.

1987-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

150

Three-dimensional MHD simulations of counter-helicity spheromak merging in the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three-dimensional MHD simulations of counter-helicity spheromak merging in the Swarthmore Spheromak September 2011) Recent counter-helicity spheromak merging experiments in the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment spheromak- and FRC-like characteristics. In this paper, the SSX merging process is studied in detail using

Brown, Michael R.

151

Functionalized Graphene as a Catalytic Counter Electrode in Dye-Sensitized  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Functionalized Graphene as a Catalytic Counter Electrode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Joseph D.1021/nn1016428 © 2010 American Chemical Society ABSTRACT When applied on the counter electrode of a dye-sensitized and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, United States D ye-sensitized

Aksay, Ilhan A.

152

Optical Quantum Computation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the field of Optical Quantum Computation, considering the various implementations that have been proposed and the experimental progress that has been made toward realizing them. We examine both linear and nonlinear approaches and both particle and field encodings. In particular we discuss the prospects for large scale optical quantum computing in terms of the most promising physical architectures and the technical requirements for realizing them.

T. C. Ralph; G. J. Pryde

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

153

Optical People Counting for Demand Controlled Ventilation: A Pilot Study of Counter Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transactions 105(2). Emmerich, S. J. and A. K. Persily (Brandemuehl and Braun 1999; Emmerich and Persily 2001). An

Fisk, William J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Optical People Counting for Demand Controlled Ventilation: A Pilot Study of Counter Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This pilot scale study evaluated the counting accuracy of two people counting systems that could be used in demand controlled ventilation systems to provide control signals for modulating outdoor air ventilation rates. The evaluations included controlled challenges of the people counting systems using pre-planned movements of occupants through doorways and evaluations of counting accuracies when naive occupants (i.e., occupants unaware of the counting systems) passed through the entrance doors of the building or room. The two people counting systems had high counting accuracy accuracies, with errors typically less than 10percent, for typical non-demanding counting events. However, counting errors were high in some highly challenging situations, such as multiple people passing simultaneously through a door. Counting errors, for at least one system, can be very high if people stand in the field of view of the sensor. Both counting system have limitations and would need to be used only at appropriate sites and where the demanding situations that led to counting errors were rare.

Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas

2009-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

155

Cell diameter measurements obtained with a handheld cell counter could be used as a surrogate marker of G2/M arrest and apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines exposed to SN-38  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Chemo-sensitivity to SN-38 was assayed by the automated cell counter. Colon cancer cell line, HCT116 cells were more sensitive to SN-38 than HT29 cells. Increase of cell size reflects G2/M arrest. Appearance of small particles indicates cell apoptosis. -- Abstract: In vitro assessment of chemosensitivity are important for experiments evaluating cancer therapies. The Scepter 2.0 cell counter, an automated handheld device based on the Coulter principle of impedance-based particle detection, enables the accurate discrimination of cell populations according to cell size and volume. In this study, the effects of SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan, on the colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29 were evaluated using this device. The cell count data obtained with the Scepter counter were compared with those obtained with the {sup 3}H-thymidine uptake assay, which has been used to measure cell proliferation in many previous studies. In addition, we examined whether the changes in the size distributions of these cells reflected alterations in the frequency of cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induced by SN-38 treatment. In our experiments using the Scepter 2.0 cell counter, the cell counts were demonstrated to be accurate and reproducible measure and alterations of cell diameter reflected G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our data show that easy-to-use cell counting tools can be utilized to evaluate the cell-killing effects of novel treatments on cancer cells in vitro.

Tahara, Makiko [Oncogene Research Unit/Cancer Prevention Unit, Tochigi Cancer Center Research Institute, Utsunomiya, Tochigi (Japan) [Oncogene Research Unit/Cancer Prevention Unit, Tochigi Cancer Center Research Institute, Utsunomiya, Tochigi (Japan); Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi (Japan); Inoue, Takeshi [Oncogene Research Unit/Cancer Prevention Unit, Tochigi Cancer Center Research Institute, Utsunomiya, Tochigi (Japan)] [Oncogene Research Unit/Cancer Prevention Unit, Tochigi Cancer Center Research Institute, Utsunomiya, Tochigi (Japan); Miyakura, Yasuyuki; Horie, Hisanaga; Yasuda, Yoshikazu [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi (Japan)] [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi (Japan); Fujii, Hirofumi [Division of Clinical Oncology, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi (Japan)] [Division of Clinical Oncology, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi (Japan); Kotake, Kenjiro [Department of Surgery, Tochigi Cancer Center, Utsunomiya, Tochigi (Japan)] [Department of Surgery, Tochigi Cancer Center, Utsunomiya, Tochigi (Japan); Sugano, Kokichi, E-mail: ksugano@tcc.pref.tochigi.lg.jp [Oncogene Research Unit/Cancer Prevention Unit, Tochigi Cancer Center Research Institute, Utsunomiya, Tochigi (Japan)] [Oncogene Research Unit/Cancer Prevention Unit, Tochigi Cancer Center Research Institute, Utsunomiya, Tochigi (Japan)

2013-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

156

Performance confirmation of the Belle II imaging Time Of Propogation (iTOP) prototype counter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bell Detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider performed extremely well, logging an integrated luminosity an order of magnitude higher than the design baseline. With this inverse attobarn of integrated luminosity, time-dependent CP-violation inn the 3rd generation beauty quarks was firmly established, and is now a precision measurement. Going beyond this to explore if the Kobayashi-Maskawa mechanism is the only contributor to quark-mixing, and to interrogate the flavor sector for non-standard model enhancements, requires a detector and accelerator capable of topping this world-record luminosity by more than an order of magnitude. The Belle II detector at the upgraded Super-KEKB accelerator has been designed to meet this highly ambitious goal of operating at a luminosity approaching 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Such higher event rates and backgrounds require upgrade of essentially all detector subsystems, as well as their readout. Comparing the Belle composite (threshold Aerogel + Time of Flight) particle identification (PID) system with the DIRC employed by BaBar, quartz radiator internal Cherenkov photon detection proved to have higher kaon efficiency and lower pion fake rates. However, because the detector structure and CsI calorimeter will be retained, an improved barrel PID must fit within a very narrow envelope, as indicated in Figure 1. To effectively utilize this space, a more compact detector concept based on the same quartz radiators, but primarily using photon arrival time was proposed. This Time Of Propagation (TOP) counter was studied in a number of earlier prototype tests. Key to the necessary 10's of picosecond single-photon timing has been the development of the so-called SL-10 Micro-Channel Plate Photo-Multiplier Tube (MCP-PMT), which has demonstrated sub-40 ps single photon Transit Time Spread TTS. Further simulation study of this detector concept indicated that a focusing mirror in the forward direction, as well as a modest image expansion volume and more highly pixelated image plane improve the theoretical detector performance, since timing alone is limited by chromatic dispersion of the Cherenkov photons. This imaging-TOP (or iTOP) counter is the basis of Belle II barrel PID upgrade. However, a number of critical performance parameters must be demonstrated prior to releasing this prototype design for production manufacture.

Schwartz, Alan; Liu, Yang; Belhorn, Matt; /Cincinnati U.; Browder, Thomas; Varner, Gary; Andrew, Matt; Rosen, Marc; Barrett, Matthew; Nishimura, Kurtis; Anderson, Eric /Hawaii U.; Iijima, Toru; /Nagoya U. /PNL, Richland

2011-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

157

Previous Dayside Aurora Conjugacy Investigations Optical-Non-optical comparisons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dayside Aurora Conjugacy Investigations Optical-Non-optical comparisons: Dickinson et al., 1986, compared low-altitude satellite particle data to ground-based images Northern hemisphere aurora poleward of southern aurora Technique only sensitive to shifts in latitude Mende et al., 1990, compared ground

Fillingim, Matthew

158

Particle Creation in Anisotropically Expanding Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using squeezed vacuum state formalism of quantum optics, an approximate solution to the semiclassical Einstein equation is obtained in Bianchi type-I universe. The phenomena of nonclassical particle creation is also examined in the anisotropic background cosmology.

P. K. Suresh

2003-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

159

Optical Fibers Optics and Photonics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical Fibers Optics and Photonics Dr. Palffy-Muhoray Ines Busuladzic Department of Theoretical and Applied Mathematics The University of Akron April 21, 2008 #12;Outline · History of optical fibers · What are optical fibers? · How are optical fibers made? · Light propagation through optical fibers · Application

Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

160

Nuclear Counter Effect of Silicon PIN Photodiode used in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigated the nuclear counter effect of the silicon PIN photodiode mounted on a CsI(T`) crystal array as a result of the leakage of electromagnetic shower through the rear end of the crystal. Using 1 GeV and 2 GeV electron beams at KEK, we estimated its effect on the energy measurement by the CsI(T`) calorimeter of BELLE experiment. The results are found to be in good agreement with that of GEANT simulation and the expected effect for the BELLE calorimeter is negligible. 1 Introduction A high resolution electromagnetic calorimeter made by inorganic crystal scintillators with silicon PIN photodiode read out has been popular in recent high energy physics experiments [1]. In the BELLE experiment [2] at KEK B factory, we plan to use 8736 pieces of CsI(T`) crystals [3] each with two silicon PIN photodiodes [4]. The photodiode has 2 cm 2 sensitive area and is glued on the rear face of 30 cm long crystal. It has been pointed out that some of the electrons and photons in an electrom...

Csi Calorimeter; Belle Preprint; A. Satpathy; K. Tamai; M. Fukushima; D. Y. Kim; M. H. Lee

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical particle counter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Real-time multi-mode neutron multiplicity counter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Embodiments are directed to a digital data acquisition method that collects data regarding nuclear fission at high rates and performs real-time preprocessing of large volumes of data into directly useable forms for use in a system that performs non-destructive assaying of nuclear material and assemblies for mass and multiplication of special nuclear material (SNM). Pulses from a multi-detector array are fed in parallel to individual inputs that are tied to individual bits in a digital word. Data is collected by loading a word at the individual bit level in parallel, to reduce the latency associated with current shift-register systems. The word is read at regular intervals, all bits simultaneously, with no manipulation. The word is passed to a number of storage locations for subsequent processing, thereby removing the front-end problem of pulse pileup. The word is used simultaneously in several internal processing schemes that assemble the data in a number of more directly useable forms. The detector includes a multi-mode counter that executes a number of different count algorithms in parallel to determine different attributes of the count data.

Rowland, Mark S; Alvarez, Raymond A

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

162

Counter flow cooling drier with integrated heat recovery  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A drier apparatus for removing water or other liquids from various materials includes a mixer, drying chamber, separator and regenerator and a method for use of the apparatus. The material to be dried is mixed with a heated media to form a mixture which then passes through the chamber. While passing through the chamber, a comparatively cool fluid is passed counter current through the mixture so that the mixture becomes cooler and drier and the fluid becomes hotter and more saturated with moisture. The mixture is then separated into drier material and media. The media is transferred to the regenerator and heated therein by the hot fluid from the chamber and supplemental heat is supplied to bring the media to a preselected temperature for mixing with the incoming material to be dried. In a closed loop embodiment of the apparatus, the fluid is also recycled from the regenerator to the chamber and a chiller is utilized to reduce the temperature of the fluid to a preselected temperature and dew point temperature.

Shivvers, Steve D. (Prole, IA)

2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

163

A Counter-IED Preparedness Methodology for Large Event Planning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since 2009, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in a project sponsored by the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate aimed at improving preparedness against Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) at large sporting events. Led by the University of Southern Mississippi (USM) as part of the Southeast Region Research Initiative, the project partners have been developing tools and methodologies for use by security personnel and first responders at sports stadiums. ORNL s contribution has been to develop an automated process to gather and organize disparate data that is usually part of an organization s security plan. The organized data informs a table-top exercise (TTX) conducted by USM using additional tools developed by them and their subcontractors. After participating in several pilot TTXs, patterns are beginning to emerge that would enable improvements to be formulated to increase the level of counter-IED preparedness. This paper focuses on the data collection and analysis process and shares insights gained to date.

Payne, Patricia W [ORNL; Koch, Daniel B [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Improved Technology To Prevent Nuclear Proliferation And Counter Nuclear Terrorism  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As the world moves into the 21st century, the possibility of greater reliance on nuclear energy will impose additional technical requirements to prevent proliferation. In addition to proliferation resistant reactors, a careful examination of the various possible fuel cycles from cradle to grave will provide additional technical and nonproliferation challenges in the areas of conversion, enrichment, transportation, recycling and waste disposal. Radiation detection technology and information management have a prominent role in any future global regime for nonproliferation. As nuclear energy and hence nuclear materials become an increasingly global phenomenon, using local technologies and capabilities facilitate incorporation of enhanced monitoring and detection on the regional level. Radiation detection technologies are an important tool in the prevention of proliferation and countering radiological/nuclear terrorism. A variety of new developments have enabled enhanced performance in terms of energy resolution, spatial resolution, passive detection, predictive modeling and simulation, active interrogation, and ease of operation and deployment in the field. For example, various gamma ray imaging approaches are being explored to combine spatial resolution with background suppression in order to enhance sensitivity many-fold at reasonable standoff distances and acquisition times. New materials and approaches are being developed in order to provide adequate energy resolution in field use without the necessity for liquid nitrogen. Different detection algorithms enable fissile materials to be distinguished from other radioisotopes.

Richardson, J; Yuldashev, B; Labov, S; Knapp, R

2006-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

165

REVIEW OF PARTICLE PHYSICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ONLINE PARTICLE PHYSICS INFORMATION 1.3. Particle Physics Information Platforms . . . . . . . . .14. Particle Physics Education and Outreach

Beringer, Juerg

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Review of Particle Physics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

11. Particle Physics Education Sites . . . . . . . . .ONLINE PARTICLE PHYSICS INFORMATION 1.11. Particle Physics Education Sites . . . . . . . . . . 12.

Nakamura, Kenzo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Riding Waves of Dissent: Counter-Imperial Impulses in the Age of Fuller and Melville  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation examines the interplay between antebellum frontier literature and the counter-imperial impulses that impelled the era's political, cultural, and literary developments. Focusing on selected works by James Fenimore Cooper, Margaret...

Lawrence, Nicholas M.

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

168

Calibration methodology for proportional counters applied to yield measurements of a neutron burst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper introduces a methodology for the yield measurement of a neutron burst using neutron proportional counters. This methodology is to be applied when single neutron events cannot be resolved in time by nuclear standard electronics, or when a continuous current cannot be measured at the output of the counter. The methodology is based on the calibration of the counter in pulse mode, and the use of a statistical model to estimate the number of detected events from the accumulated charge resulting from the detection of the burst of neutrons. The model is developed and presented in full detail. For the measurement of fast neutron yields generated from plasma focus experiments using a moderated proportional counter, the implementation of the methodology is herein discussed. An experimental verification of the accuracy of the methodology is presented. An improvement of more than one order of magnitude in the accuracy of the detection system is obtained by using this methodology with respect to previous calibration methods.

Tarifeo-Saldivia, Ariel, E-mail: atarifeno@cchen.cl, E-mail: atarisal@gmail.com; Pavez, Cristian; Soto, Leopoldo [Comisin Chilena de Energa Nuclear, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile) [Comisin Chilena de Energa Nuclear, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4, Santiago (Chile); Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello, Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Mayer, Roberto E. [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atmico Bariloche, Comisin Nacional de Energa Atmica and Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, San Carlos de Bariloche R8402AGP (Argentina)] [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atmico Bariloche, Comisin Nacional de Energa Atmica and Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, San Carlos de Bariloche R8402AGP (Argentina)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

169

Materials and Textile Architecture Analyses for Mechanical Counter-Pressure Space Suits using Active Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical counter-pressure (MCP) space suits have the potential to improve the mobility of astronauts as they conduct planetary exploration activities. MCP suits differ from traditional gas-pressurized space suits by ...

Buechley, Leah

170

Design and operation of a counter-rotating aspirated compressor blowdown test facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A unique counter-rotating aspirated compressor was tested in a blowdown facility at the Gas Turbine Laboratory at MIT. The facility expanded on experience from previous blowdown turbine and blowdown compressor experiments. ...

Parker, David V. (David Vickery)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Assessment and preliminary model development of shape memory polymers mechanical counter pressure space suits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis seeks to assess the viability of a space qualified shape memory polymer (SMP) mechanical counter pressure (MCP) suit. A key development objective identified by the International Space Exploration Coordination ...

Wee, Brian (Brian J.)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Plutonium Measurements with a Fast-Neutron Multiplicity Counter for Nuclear Safeguards Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements were performed at the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy to field test a fast-neutron multiplicity counter developed at the University of Michigan. The measurements allowed the illustration of the systems photon discrimination abilities, efficiency when measuring neutron multiplicity, ability to characterize 240Pueff mass, and performance relative to a currently deployed neutron coincidence counter. This work is motivated by the need to replace and improve upon 3He neutron detection systems for nuclear safeguards applications.

Jennifer L. Dolan; Marek Flaska; Alexis Poitrasson-Riviere; Andreas Enqvist; Paolo Peerani; David L. Chichester; Sara A. Pozzi

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Coulter counter determination of bacterial growth and cellular size change following ??Co gamma irradiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COULTER COUNTER DETERMINATION OF BACTERIAL GROWTH AND CELLULAR SIZE CHANGE FOLLOWING Co GAMMA IRRADIATION A Thesis by GARY W. GASTON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Ma)or Subject: Biophysics COULTER COUNTER DETERMINATION OF BACTERIAL GROWTH AND CELLULAR SIZE CHANGE FOLLOWING Co GAMMA IRRADIATION A Thesis by GARY W. GASTON APPROVED as to style and content by: ead...

Gaston, Gary W

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Proposal for the aerogel Cherenkov counters for the PEP-N detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The work is devoted to the development of the aerogel Cherenkov counters with the light collection on wavelength shifters and PMTs (ASHIPH). The ASHIPH system has been developed for the KEDR detector. Tests of the counters have been carried out on the Dubna accelerator, the pi/K separation obtained is about 4 sigma. The ASHIPH system is suggested for the PEP-N detector.

M. Yu. Barnyakov; V. S. Bobrovnikov; A. R. Buzykaev; G. M. Kolachev; S. A. Kononov; E. A. Kravchenko; G. D. Minakov; A. P. Onuchin; A. F. Danilyuk; F. F. Guber; A. B. Kurepin; V. A. Krasnov

2001-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

175

Electro-optical switching and memory display device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electro-optical display device having a housing with wall means including one transparent wall and at least one other wall. Counter electrodes are positioned on the transparent wall and display electrodes are positioned on the other wall with both electrodes in electrically conductive relationship with an electrolyte. Circuits means are connected to the display and counter electrodes to apply different predetermined control potentials between them. The display electrodes are covered with a thin electrically conductive polymer film that is characterized according to the invention by having embedded in it pigment molecules as counter ions. The display device is operable to be switched to a plurality of different visual color states at an exceptionally rapid switching rate while each of the color states is characterized by possessing good color intensity and definition.

Skotheim, T.A.; O'Grady, W.E.; Linkous, C.A.

1983-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

176

Optical Trapping by Radiometric Flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Micron sized, neutral, non-dielectric particles immersed in a viscous fluid can be trapped in the focal plane of a Gaussian beam. A particle can absorb energy from such a beam with a large radial intensity gradient, resulting in substantial temperature gradients and a radiometric torque which causes it to spin rapidly about an axis perpendicular to the flux of radiant energy. The particles are also observed to orbit around the optical axis. Here we investigate the fundamental physics of this system, the Radiometric Particle Trap, and discuss its force laws using gas-kinetic theory.

William L. Clarke

1998-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

177

BG/Q Performance Counters | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAboutScience Program CumulusA t iBudget BasicEnergy BETO-FundedBG/Q

178

Electro-optical and Magneto-optical Sensing Apparatus and Method for Characterizing Free-space Electromagnetic Radiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and methods for characterizing free-space electromagnetic energy, and in particular, apparatus/method suitable for real-time two-dimensional far-infrared imaging applications are presented. The sensing technique is based on a non-linear coupling between a low-frequency electric (or magnetic) field and a laser beam in an electro-optic (or magnetic-optic) crystal. In addition to a practical counter-propagating sensing technique, a co-linear approach is described which provides longer radiated field-optical beam interaction length, thereby making imaging applications practical.

Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Riordan, Jenifer Ann; Sun, Feng-Guo

2000-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

179

aerosol optical thickness: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key el- ement of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however,...

180

Development of High Precision Timing Counter Based on Plastic Scintillator with SiPM Readout  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-time-resolution counters based on plastic scintillator with silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) readout have been developed for applications to high energy physics experiments for which relatively large-sized counters are required. We have studied counter sizes up to $120\\times40\\times5$ mm^3 with series connection of multiple SiPMs to increase the sensitive area and thus achieve better time resolution. A readout scheme with analog shaping and digital waveform analysis is optimized to achieve the highest time resolution. The timing performance is measured using electrons from a Sr-90 radioactive source, comparing different scintillators, counter dimensions, and types of near-ultraviolet sensitive SiPMs. As a result, a resolution of $\\sigma =42 \\pm 2$ ps at 1 MeV energy deposition is obtained for counter size $60\\times 30 \\times 5$ mm^3 with three SiPMs ($3\\times3$ mm^2 each) at each end of the scintillator. The time resolution improves with the number of photons detected by the SiPMs. The SiPMs from Hamamatsu Photonics give the best time resolution because of their high photon detection efficiency in the near-ultraviolet region. Further improvement is possible by increasing the number of SiPMs attached to the scintillator.

Paolo W. Cattaneo; Matteo De Gerone; Flavio Gatti; Miki Nishimura; Wataru Ootani; Massimo Rossella; Yusuke Uchiyama

2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical particle counter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Design and development of a 3He replacement safeguards neutron counter based on 10B-lined proportional detector technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation represents an overview of the experimental evaluation of a boron-lined proportional technology performed within an NA-241 sponsored project on testing of boron-lined proportional counters for the purpose of replacement of {sup 3}He technologies. The presented boron-lined technology will be utilized in a design of a full scale safeguards neutron coincidence counter. The design considerations and the Monte Carlo performance predictions for the counter are also presented.

Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rael, Carlos D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Isaac P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marlow, Johnna B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

182

Study of a Threshold Cherenkov Counter Based on Silica Aerogels with Low Refractive Indices ?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To identify ? and K in the region of 1.0 ? 2.5 GeV/c, a threshold Cherenkov counter equipped with silica aerogels has been investigated. Silica aerogels with a low refractive index of 1.013 have been successfully produced using a new technique. By making use of these aerogels as radiators, we have constructed a Cherenkov counter and have checked its properties in a test beam. The obtained results have demonstrated that our aerogel was transparent enough to make up for loss of the Cherenkov photon yield due to a low refractive index. Various configurations for the photon collection system and some types of photomultipliers, such as the fine-mesh type, for a read out were also tested. From these studies, our design of a Cherenkov counter dedicated to ?/K separation up to a few GeV/c with an efficiency greater than 90 % was considered. 1

I. Adachi; T. Sumiyoshi; K. Hayashi; N. Iida; R. Enomoto; K. Tsukada; R. Suda; S. Matsumoto; K. Natori; M. Yokoyama; H. Yokogawa

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Optical ionization detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium. 3 figures.

Wuest, C.R.; Lowry, M.E.

1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

184

Optical ionization detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Lowry, Mark E. (Castro Valley, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Mechanism of supporting sub-communicator collectives with O(64) counters as opposed to one counter for each sub-communicator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for enhancing barrier collective synchronization on a computer system comprises a computer system including a data storage device. The computer system includes a program stored in the data storage device and steps of the program being executed by a processor. The system includes providing a plurality of communicators for storing state information for a bather algorithm. Each communicator designates a master core in a multi-processor environment of the computer system. The system allocates or designates one counter for each of a plurality of threads. The system configures a table with a number of entries equal to the maximum number of threads. The system sets a table entry with an ID associated with a communicator when a process thread initiates a collective. The system determines an allocated or designated counter by searching entries in the table.

Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Blocksome, Michael; Miller, Douglas

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

186

Particle Astrophysics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006 TheSteven Ashby Dr.presentationsParticipant ObligationsParticle

187

Statistics of particle time-temperature histories.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Particles in non - isothermal turbulent flow are subject to a stochastic environment tha t produces a distribution of particle time - temperature histories. This distribution is a function of the dispersion of the non - isothermal (continuous) gas phase and the distribution of particles relative to that gas phase. In this work we extend the one - dimensional turbulence (ODT) model to predict the joint dispersion of a dispersed particle phase and a continuous phase. The ODT model predicts the turbulent evolution of continuous scalar fields with a model for the cascade of fluctuations to smaller sc ales (the 'triplet map') at a rate that is a function of the fully resolved one - dimens ional velocity field . Stochastic triplet maps also drive Lagrangian particle dispersion with finite Stokes number s including inertial and eddy trajectory - crossing effect s included. Two distinct approaches to this coupling between triplet maps and particle dispersion are developed and implemented along with a hybrid approach. An 'instantaneous' particle displacement model matches the tracer particle limit and provide s an accurate description of particle dispersion. A 'continuous' particle displacement m odel translates triplet maps into a continuous velocity field to which particles respond. Particles can alter the turbulence, and modifications to the stochastic rate expr ession are developed for two - way coupling between particles and the continuous phase. Each aspect of model development is evaluated in canonical flows (homogeneous turbulence, free - shear flows and wall - bounded flows) for which quality measurements are ava ilable. ODT simulations of non - isothermal flows provide statistics for particle heating. These simulations show the significance of accurately predicting the joint statistics of particle and fluid dispersion . Inhomogeneous turbulence coupled with the in fluence of the mean flow fields on particles of varying properties alter s particle dispersion. The joint particle - temperature dispersion leads to a distribution of temperature histories predicted by the ODT . Predictions are shown for the lower moments an d the full distributions of the particle positions, particle - observed gas temperatures and particle temperatures. An analysis of the time scales affecting particle - temperature interactions covers Lagrangian integral time scales based on temperature autoco rrelations, rates of temperature change associated with particle motion relative to the temperature field and rates of diffusional change of temperatures. These latter two time scales have not been investigated previously; they are shown to be strongly in termittent having peaked distributions with long tails. The logarithm of the absolute value of these time scales exhibits a distribution closer to normal. A cknowledgements This work is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) under their Counter - Weapons of Mass Destruction Basic Research Program in the area of Chemical and Biological Agent Defeat under award number HDTRA1 - 11 - 4503I to Sandia National Laboratories. The authors would like to express their appreciation for the guidance provi ded by Dr. Suhithi Peiris to this project and to the Science to Defeat Weapons of Mass Destruction program.

Hewson, John C.; Lignell, David O.; Sun, Guangyuan

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Conducting polymers based counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conducting polymer films were synthesized and employed as an alternative to expensive platinum counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films were spin-coated and polypyrrole films were electrochemically deposited via cyclic voltammetry method on ITO substrates. The morphology of the films were imaged by SEM and AFM. These films show good catalytic activity towards triiodide reduction as compared to Pt/FTO electrodes. Finally the photovoltaic performance of DSSC fabricated using N3 dye were compared with PT/FTO, PEDOT/ITO, and e-PPy counter electrodes.

Veerender, P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Saxena, Vibha, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Jha, P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Koiry, S. P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Chauhan, A. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Aswal, D. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gupta, S. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai - 400085 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

189

Method for enhancing selectivity and recovery in the fractional flotation of particles in a flotation column  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The method relates to particle separation from a feed stream. The feed stream is injected directly into the froth zone of a vertical flotation column in the presence of a counter-current reflux stream. A froth breaker generates a reflux stream and a concentrate stream, and the reflux stream is injected into the froth zone to mix with the interstitial liquid between bubbles in the froth zone. Counter-current flow between the plurality of bubbles and the interstitial liquid facilitates the attachment of higher hydrophobicity particles to bubble surfaces as lower hydrophobicity particles detach. The height of the feed stream injection and the reflux ratio may be varied in order to optimize the concentrate or tailing stream recoveries desired based on existing operating conditions.

Klunder, Edgar B. (Bethel Park, PA)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

190

Selectively Erbium Doped Titanium Diffused Optical Waveguide Amplifiers in Lithium Niobate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Selectively erbium (Er) doped titanium (Ti) in-diffused optical waveguide amplifiers on lithium niobate (LiNbO3) substrate have been fabricated and characterized in the wavelength regime around ? = 1.53?m using counter-directional pumping at ?P = 1...

Suh, Jae Woo

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

191

Magnus force effect in optical manipulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of the Magnus force in optical micromanipulation has been observed. An ad hoc experiment has been designed based on a one-dimensional optical trap that carries angular momentum. The observed particle dynamics reveals the occurrence of this hydrodynamic force, which is neglected in the common approach. Its measured value is larger than the one predicted by the existing theoretical models for micrometric particles and low Reynolds number, showing that the Magnus force can contribute to unconventional optohydrodynamic trapping and manipulation.

Cipparrone, Gabriella; Pagliusi, Pasquale [Dipartimento di Fisica and Centro di Eccellenza CEMIF.CAL, University of Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 33B, I-87036 Rende (Italy); Istituto per i Processi Chimici e Fisici, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 33B, I-87036 Rende (Italy); Hernandez, Raul Josue; Provenzano, Clementina [Dipartimento di Fisica and Centro di Eccellenza CEMIF.CAL, University of Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 33B, I-87036 Rende (Italy)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

192

Search milli-charged particles at SLAC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Particles with electric charge q {triple_bond} Qe {le} 10{sup -3} e and masses in the range 1-1000 MeV/c{sup 2} are not excluded by present experiments or by astrophysical or cosmological arguments. A beam dump experiment uniquely suited to the detection of such {open_quotes}milli-charged{close_quotes} particles has been carried out at SLAC, utilizing the short-duration pulses of the SLC electron beam to establish a tight coincidence window for the signal. The detector, a large scintillation counter sensitive to very small energy depositions, provided much greater sensitivity than previous searches. Analysis of the data leads to the exclusion of a substantial portion of the charge-mass plane. In this report, a preliminary mass-dependent upper limit is presented for the charge of milli-charged particles, ranging from Q = 1.7 x 10{sup -5} at milli-charged particle mass 0.1 MeV/c{sup 2} to Q = 9.5 x 10{sup -4} at 100 MeV/c{sup 2}.

Langeveld, W.G.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

The mechanism of sound generation in the interaction between a shock wave and two counter-rotating vortices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mechanism of sound generation in the interaction between a shock wave and two counter the mechanism of sound generation in the interaction between a shock wave and two counter-rotating vortices to the shock interaction with two isolated vortices, in which the sound wave generated by the interaction

Zhang, Yong-Tao

194

DRAM Decay: Using Decay Counters to Reduce Energy Consumption in DRAMs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DRAM Decay: Using Decay Counters to Reduce Energy Consumption in DRAMs Mrinmoy Ghosh Hsien-Hsin S. Lee School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332 technology they use. For each refresh in a DRAM row, the stored information in each cell is read out

Lee, Hsien-Hsin "Sean"

195

Demonstration: in-plane scattering of beads on a target; sticky marbles; Geiger counter and sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Demonstration: in-plane scattering of beads on a target; sticky marbles; Geiger counter and sources, and the hole is about 5 cm in diameter. In the demo, 20 beads are rolled at random positions, and about 5 fall with no top or bottom. We drop 10,000 sticky marbles at random into the box, covering an area 1 m by 1 m

Boal, David

196

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS ON THE DESIGN OF A DUCTED COUNTER-ROTATING AXIAL FLOW FANS SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

[] Number of blades FR [] Front rotor R [mm] Blade radius RR [] Rear rotor CRS [] Counter-rotating system W to a conventional rotor or to a rotor-stator stage. The study of the variation of the rotation rates ratio show of the axial distance be- tween rotors does not seem to change the overall per- formances. This system has thus

Boyer, Edmond

197

Design of a wall-less proportional counter for microdosimetry in nanometer dimensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, at nanometer dimensions. The main contribution of this research is the design of a cylindrical wall-less proportional counter of 1mm height by 1mm diameter. A wall-less detector (also called grid-walled detector) overcomes the so-called ?wall effect...

Rayadurgam, Sripriya

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

198

Instrumenting Linear Algebra Energy Consumption via On-chip Energy Counters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Instrumenting Linear Algebra Energy Consumption via On-chip Energy Counters James Demmel Andrew to lists, requires prior specific permission. #12;Instrumenting linear algebra energy consumption via on consumption is still a prevalent and growing problem within the computing sector. To evaluate energy

California at Berkeley, University of

199

Tri-Met's Experience With Automatic Passenger Counter and Automatic Vehicle Location Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on an earlier draft. #12;Introduction The Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District of Oregon (TriTri-Met's Experience With Automatic Passenger Counter and Automatic Vehicle Location Systems James State University Portland, OR 97207 This report is benefited from interviews of Tri-Met staff involved

Bertini, Robert L.

200

A Performance Counter Based Workload Characterization on Blue Gene/P  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Performance Counter Based Workload Characterization on Blue Gene/P Karthik Ganesan Lizy John V--IBM's Blue Gene/P, the second generation of the Blue Gene supercomputer is designed with a Universal Perfor instrument applications and get a profound insight into its execution on the Blue Gene/P system which could

John, Lizy Kurian

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical particle counter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

On how to calculate methane lifetime from OH concentrations (FORTRAN): Integer I, J, L ! counters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On how to calculate methane lifetime from OH concentrations (FORTRAN): Integer I, J, L ! counters_ch4 ! methane lifetime (years) C Initialize: ch4_sum=0. yield=0. C Calculate sums: Do J = 1 , JM Do I in tropospheric ozone and methane; global 3D model studies, Atmospheric Environment, 33, 961-977, 1999

Haak, Hein

202

Safety Analysis of an Airbag System using Probabilistic FMEA and Probabilistic Counter Examples  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Safety Analysis of an Airbag System using Probabilistic FMEA and Probabilistic Counter Examples Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a technique to reason about possible system hazards that result from system or system component failures. Traditionally, FMEA does not take the probabilities

Leue, Stefan

203

Gauss Optics and Gauss Sum on an Optical Phenomena  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the previous article (Found Phys. Lett. {\\bf{16}} 325-341), we showed that a reciprocity of the Gauss sums is connected with the wave and particle complementary. In this article, we revise the previous investigation by considering a relation between the Gauss optics and the Gauss sum based upon the recent studies of the Weil representation for a finite group.

Shigeki Matsutani

2008-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

204

Direct measurements of ensemble particle and surface interactions on homogeneous and patterned substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in colloidal ensembles levitated above macroscopic surfaces. TIRM and VM are well established optical microscopy techniques for measuring normal and lateral colloidal excursions near macroscopic planar surfaces. The interactions between particle-particle...

Wu, Hung-Jen

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

205

Near Field Magneto-Optical Microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device and method for mapping magnetic fields of a sample at a resolution less than the wavelength of light without altering the magnetic field of the sample is disclosed. A device having a tapered end portion with a magneto-optically active particle positioned at the distal end thereof in communication with a fiber optic for transferring incoming linearly polarized light from a source thereof to the particle and for transferring reflected light from the particle is provided. The fiber optic has a reflective material trapping light within the fiber optic and in communication with a light detector for determining the polarization of light reflected from the particle as a function of the strength and direction of the magnetic field of the sample. Linearly polarized light from the source thereof transferred to the particle positioned proximate the sample is affected by the magnetic field of the sample sensed by the particle such that the difference in polarization of light entering and leaving the particle is due to the magnetic field of the sample. Relative movement between the particle and sample enables mapping.

Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii K. (Downers Grove, IL); Welp, Ulrich (Lisle, IL); Crabtree, George W. (Chicago, IL)

2005-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

206

Near-Field Magneto-Optical Microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device and method for mapping magnetic fields of a sample at a resolution less than the wavelength of light without altering the magnetic field of the sample is disclosed. A device having a tapered end portion with a magneto-optically active particle positioned at the distal end thereof in communication with a fiber optic for transferring incoming linearly polarized light from a source thereof to the particle and for transferring reflected light from the particle is provided. The fiber optic has a reflective material trapping light within the fiber optic and in communication with a light detector for determining the polarization of light reflected from the particle as a function of the strength and direction of the magnetic field of the sample. Linearly polarized light from the source thereof transferred to the particle positioned proximate the sample is affected by the magnetic field of the sample sensed by the particle such that the difference in polarization of light entering and leaving the particle is due to the magnetic field of the sample. Relative movement between the particle and sample enables mapping.

Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii; Welp, Ulrich; and Crabtree, George W.

2005-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

207

Two position optical element actuator device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a two position optical element actuator device utilizing a powered means to hold an actuation arm, to which an optical element is attached, in a first position. A non-powered means drives the actuation arm to a second position, when the powered means ceases to receive power. The optical element may be a electromagnetic (EM) radiation or particle source, an instrument, or EM radiation or particle transmissive, reflective or absorptive elements. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition the actuation arm from the first to second position.

Holdener, Fred R. (Tracy, CA); Boyd, Robert D. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Particle-swarm optimization of broadband nanoplasmonic arrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

], radiative rate enhancement [2], solar cells [3], and label-free optical biosensors [4]. Until now, flocks of birds, and shoals of fish. In a PSO sys- tem, a swarm of W trial solutions, called particles

209

The fluctuation energy balance in non-suspended fluid-mediated particle transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Here we compare two extreme regimes of non-suspended fluid-mediated particle transport, transport in light and heavy fluids ("saltation" and "bedload", respectively), regarding their particle fluctuation energy balance. From direct numerical simulations, we surprisingly find that the ratio between collisional and fluid drag dissipation of fluctuation energy is significantly larger in saltation than in bedload, even though the contribution of interparticle collisions to transport of momentum and energy is much smaller in saltation due to the low concentration of particles in the transport layer. We conclude that the much higher frequency of high-energy particle-bed impacts ("splash") in saltation is the cause for this counter-intuitive behavior. Moreover, from a comparison of these simulations to Particle Tracking Velocimetry measurements which we performed in a wind tunnel under steady transport of fine and coarse sand, we find that turbulent fluctuations of the flow produce particle fluctuation energy at an ...

Phtz, Thomas; Ho, Tuan-Duc; Valance, Alexandre; Kok, Jasper F

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

A study of particle generation during laser ablation withapplications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study has been made of the generation of particles during laser ablation and has included size distribution measurements and observation of the formation processes. The particle size distribution with respect to different laser parameters was obtained in-line using a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and a particle counter. The experimental results show that the particle size varies with laser energy, laser pulsewidth, ambient gas flow rate and sample properties. The results serve as a basis for controlling the size of nanoparticles generated by laser ablation. Laser shadowgraph imaging was used to study mass ejection processes and mechanisms. At higher laser irradiance, some particles were ejected in the liquid and even in the solid phase. Time-resolved images show the propagation of the shockwaves: external shockwaves propagate outward and decelerate, and internal shockwaves reflect back and forth between the gas contact surface and the sample surface. The internal shockwave is proposed to cause the ejection of liquid particles when the internal shockwave strikes the liquid molten layer. A simulation based on vapor plume expansion was carried out and provides satisfactory agreement with experimental results. Different material properties result in different particle ejection behavior:particle ejection for most materials including metals result in a conically shaped envelope for the ejected material while ejection for silicon resembles a liquid jet. The difference in density change when the materials melt was proposed to be an important factor in the different ejection behavior. The characteristics of particles generated by laser ablation have a strong influence on the chemical analysis of the irradiated sample. Large particles are more difficult to completely vaporize and ionize, and induced preferential vaporization causes fractionation (i.e. a detected chemical composition that differs from the sample material). Large particles also result in spikes in measurements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) which result in errors. Three different methods were employed to study the effects of particle size on chemical analysis: generating smaller particles utilizing a fs laser, filtering out larger particles with a cascade impactor and altering the size distribution by using a second pulse to fracture particles generated from the first pulse. It was found that the chemical composition of the particles varies with particle size. The variation of the composition with respect to particle size was analyzed and it was proposed that it was related to the vapor formed particles condensing on larger ejected liquid droplets.

Liu, Chunyi

2005-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

211

Optical Expanders with Applications in Optical Computing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical Expanders with Applications in Optical Computing John H. Reif Akitoshi Yoshida July 20, 1999 Abstract We describe and investigate an optical system which we call an optical expander. An optical expander elec- trooptically expands an optical boolean pattern encoded in d bits into an optical

Reif, John H.

212

Background Suppression in Near-Field Optical Imaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

irradiation of the optical antenna (e.g., tip or particle) also directly irradiates the sample and thereforeBackground Suppression in Near-Field Optical Imaging Christiane Ho¨ppener, Ryan Beams, and Lukas Novotny* Institute of Optics, UniVersity of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 Received December 25

Novotny, Lukas

213

Simulations of Lithium-Based Neutron Coincidence Counter for Gd-Loaded Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Lithium-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology Coincidence Counting for Gd-loaded Fuels at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the development of a lithium-based neutron coincidence counter for nondestructively assaying Gd loaded nuclear fuel. This report provides results from MCNP simulations of a lithium-based coincidence counter for the possible measurement of Gd-loaded nuclear fuel. A comparison of lithium-based simulations and UNCL-II simulations with and without Gd loaded fuel is provided. A lithium-based model, referred to as PLNS3A-R1, showed strong promise for assaying Gd loaded fuel.

Cowles, Christian C.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

214

Optical sedimentation recorder  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A robotic optical sedimentation recorder is described for the recordation of carbon flux in the oceans wherein both POC and PIC particles are captured at the open end of a submersible sampling platform, the captured particles allowed to drift down onto a collection plate where they can be imaged over time. The particles are imaged using three separate light sources, activated in sequence, one source being a back light, a second source being a side light to provide dark field illumination, and a third source comprising a cross polarized light source to illuminate birefringent particles. The recorder in one embodiment is attached to a buoyancy unit which is capable upon command for bringing the sedimentation recorder to a programmed depth below the ocean surface during recordation mode, and on command returning the unit to the ocean surface for transmission of recorded data and receipt of new instructions. The combined unit is provided with its own power source and is designed to operate autonomously in the ocean for extended periods of time.

Bishop, James K.B.

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

215

High-efficiency He-3 proportional counter for the detection of delayed neutrons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present work examines a high-neutron efficiency detector used to measure delayed neutron techniques. The measurement of delayed neutrons requires a detector system that has high neutron efficiency and a low dead- time. The detection system must also have low gamma-ray sensitivity, and in addition must be insensitive to small sample displacement. The operating characteristics of the high-efficiency He-3 proportional counter used for the measurement of {beta}{sub i}-delayed neutrons is reported here.

Loaiza, D.J.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Solution In-Line Alpha Counter (SILAC) Instruction Manual-Version 4.00  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Solution In-Line Alpha Counter (SILAC) provides near real-time alpha activity measurements of aqueous solutions in gloveboxes located in the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The SILAC detector and its interface software were first developed by Joel Farnham at LANL [1]. This instruction manual describes the features of the SILAC interface software and contains the schematic and fabrication instructions for the detector.

Steven M. Alferink; Joel E. Farnham; Malcolm M. Fowler; Amy S. Wong

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

An ergonomically designed lavatory counter and sink area for the independent elderly user  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

inches. For the wheelchair group, 22. 0 inches should be used as the maximum depth of the counter. Concerning lavatory faucets, the two handled faucet with surgical (wrist-action) paddies was rated better than the other types tested. The single lever... AND RECOMMENDATIQNS. . . 51 Design Recomendations. Limitations and Recommendations for Future Research. . 64 REFERENCES. . 67 APPENDIX A: QUESTIONNAIRE 8: INSTRUMENT TO OBTAIN INFORMATION CONSENT. . . . . . . 72 C: FAUCET EVALUATION SCALE. D: FAUCET...

Barron, Michael Kevin

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Scaling of Counter-Current Imbibition Process in Low-Permeability Porous Media, TR-121  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project presents the recent work on imaging imbibition in low permeability porous media (diatomite) with X-ray completed tomography. The viscosity ratio between nonwetting and wetting fluids is varied over several orders of magnitude yielding different levels of imbibition performance. Also performed is mathematical analysis of counter-current imbibition processes and development of a modified scaling group incorporating the mobility ratio. This modified group is physically based and appears to improve scaling accuracy of countercurrent imbibition significantly.

Kvoscek, A.R.; Zhou, D.; Jia, L.; Kamath, J.

2001-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

219

Dynamics of Carroll Particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate particles whose dynamics is invariant under the Carroll group. Although a single free such Carroll particle has no non-trivial dynamics (`the Carroll particle does not move') we show that there exists non-trivial dynamics for a set of interacting Carroll particles. Furthermore, we gauge the Carroll algebra and couple the Carroll particle to these gauge fields. It turns out that for such a coupled system even a single Carroll particle can have non-trivial dynamics.

Eric Bergshoeff; Joaquim Gomis; Giorgio Longhi

2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

220

Velocity and void distribution in a counter-current two-phase flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Different flow regimes were investigated in a horizontal channel. Simulating a hot leg injection in case of a loss of coolant accident or flow conditions in reflux condenser mode, the hydraulic jump and partially reversed flow were identified as major constraints for a high amount of entrained water. Trying to simulate the reflux condenser mode, the test section now includes an inclined section connected to a horizontal channel. The channel is 90 mm high and 110 mm wide. Tests were carried out for water and air at ambient pressure and temperature. High speed video-metry was applied to obtain velocities from flow pattern maps of the rising and falling fluid. In the horizontal part of the channel with partially reversed flow the fluid velocities were measured by planar particle image velocimetry. To obtain reliable results for the gaseous phase, this analysis was extended by endoscope measurements. Additionally, a new method based on the optical refraction at the interface between air and water in a back-light was used to obtain time-averaged void fraction. (authors)

Gabriel, S.; Schulenberg, T. [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technologies KIT, Inst. for Nuclear and Energy Technologies IKET, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Laurien, E. [Univ. of Stuttgart, Inst. for Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems IKE, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical particle counter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Study of a Threshold Cherenkov Counter Based on Silica Aerogels with Low Refractive Indices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To identify $\\pi^{\\pm}$ and $K^{\\pm}$ in the region of $1.0\\sim 2.5$ GeV/c, a threshold Cherenkov counter equipped with silica aerogels has been investigated. Silica aerogels with a low refractive index of 1.013 have been successfully produced using a new technique. By making use of these aerogels as radiators, we have constructed a Cherenkov counter and have checked its properties in a test beam. The obtained results have demonstrated that our aerogel was transparent enough to make up for loss of the Cherenkov photon yield due to a low refractive index. Various configurations for the photon collection system and some types of photomultipliers, such as the fine-mesh type, for a read out were also tested. From these studies, our design of a Cherenkov counter dedicated to $\\pi / K$ separation up to a few GeV/c %in the momentum range of $1.0 \\sim 2.5$ GeV/c with an efficiency greater than $90$ \\% was considered.

I. Adachi et al

1994-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

222

Fiber optic coupled optical sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A displacement sensor includes a first optical fiber for radiating light to a target, and a second optical fiber for receiving light from the target. The end of the first fiber is adjacent and not axially aligned with the second fiber end. A lens focuses light from the first fiber onto the target and light from the target onto the second fiber.

Fleming, Kevin J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Particle Physics Booklet 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

212 25. Accelerator physics of colliders ? 26. High-energythe full Review. PARTICLE PHYSICS BOOKLET TABLE OF CONTENTSrev. ) Summary Tables of Particle Physics Gauge and Higgs

et al., C. Amsler

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Boron doping a semiconductor particle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method (10,30) of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried (16), with the boron film then being driven (18) into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out (38) into piles and melted/fused (40) with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements.

Stevens, Gary Don (18912 Ravenglen Ct., Dallas, TX 75287); Reynolds, Jeffrey Scott (703 Horizon, Murphy, TX 75094); Brown, Louanne Kay (2530 Poplar Tr., Garland, TX 75042)

1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

225

Nonlinear optics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

Bloembergen, Nicolaas

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

The second skin approach : skin strain field analysis and mechanical counter pressure prototyping for advanced spacesuit design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The primary aim of this thesis is to advance the theory of advanced locomotion mechanical counter pressure (MCP) spacesuits by studying the changes in the human body shape during joint motion. Two experiments take advantage ...

Bethke, Kristen (Kristen Ann)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Quantitative analysis of caregiver comprehension of children's over-the-counter cough and cold medication dosing instructions.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The Food and Drug Administration maintains the authority to regulate the labeling of childrens over-the-counter cough and cold medications. FDAs primary interests in this area (more)

Gaynor, Melissa Robyn

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Improving single slope ADC and an example implemented in FPGA with 16.7 GHz equivalent counter clook frequency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single slope ADC is a common building block in many ASCI or FPGA based front-end systems due to its simplicity, small silicon footprint, low noise interference and low power consumption. In single slope ADC, using a Gray code counter is a popular scheme for time digitization, in which the comparator output drives the clock (CK) port of a register to latch the bits from the Gray code counter. Unfortunately, feeding the comparator output into the CK-port causes unnecessary complexities and artificial challenges. In this case, the propagation delays of all bits from the counter to the register inputs must be matched and the counter must be a Gray code one. A simple improvement on the circuit topology, i.e., feeding the comparator output into the D-port of a register, will avoid these unnecessary challenges, eliminating the requirement of the propagation delay match of the counter bits and allowing the use of regular binary counters. This scheme not only simplifies current designs for low speeds and resolutions, but also opens possibilities for applications requiring higher speeds and resolutions. A multi-channel single slope ADC based on a low-cost FPGA device has been implemented and tested. The timing measurement bin width in this work is 60 ps, which would need a 16.7 GHz counter clock had it implemented with the conventional Gray code counter scheme. A 12-bit performance is achieved using a fully differential circuit making comparison between the input and the ramping reference, both in differential format.

Wu, Jinyuan; /Fermilab; Odeghe, John; /South Carolina State U.; Stackley, Scott; /Boston U.; Zha, Charles; /Rice U.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Optical Expanders with Applications in Optical Computing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical Expanders with Applications in Optical Computing John H. Reif \\Lambda Akitoshi Yoshida \\Lambda July 20, 1999 Abstract We describe and investigate an optical system which we call an optical expander. An optical expander elec­ trooptically expands an optical boolean pattern encoded in d bits

Reif, John H.

230

Radiative Effects of Dust Aerosols, Natural Cirrus Clouds and Contrails: Broadband Optical Properties and Sensitivity Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation aims to study the broadband optical properties and radiative effects of dust aerosols and ice clouds. It covers three main topics: the uncertainty of dust optical properties and radiative effects from the dust particle shape...

Yi, Bingqi

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

231

Stereo multiplexed holographic particle image velocimeter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A holographic particle image velocimeter employs stereoscopic recording of particle images, taken from two different perspectives and at two distinct points in time for each perspective, on a single holographic film plate. The different perspectives are provided by two optical assemblies, each including a collecting lens, a prism and a focusing lens. Collimated laser energy is pulsed through a fluid stream, with elements carried in the stream scattering light, some of which is collected by each collecting lens. The respective focusing lenses are configured to form images of the scattered light near the holographic plate. The particle images stored on the plate are reconstructed using the same optical assemblies employed in recording, by transferring the film plate and optical assemblies as a single integral unit to a reconstruction site. At the reconstruction site, reconstruction beams, phase conjugates of the reference beams used in recording the image, are directed to the plate, then selectively through either one of the optical assemblies, to form an image reflecting the chosen perspective at the two points in time.

Adrian, Ronald J. (Champaign, IL); Barnhart, Donald H. (Urbana, IL); Papen, George A. (Urbana, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Stereo multiplexed holographic particle image velocimeter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A holographic particle image velocimeter employs stereoscopic recording of particle images, taken from two different perspectives and at two distinct points in time for each perspective, on a single holographic film plate. The different perspectives are provided by two optical assemblies, each including a collecting lens, a prism and a focusing lens. Collimated laser energy is pulsed through a fluid stream, with elements carried in the stream scattering light, some of which is collected by each collecting lens. The respective focusing lenses are configured to form images of the scattered light near the holographic plate. The particle images stored on the plate are reconstructed using the same optical assemblies employed in recording, by transferring the film plate and optical assemblies as a single integral unit to a reconstruction site. At the reconstruction site, reconstruction beams, phase conjugates of the reference beams used in recording the image, are directed to the plate, then selectively through either one of the optical assemblies, to form an image reflecting the chosen perspective at the two points in time. 13 figs.

Adrian, R.J.; Barnhart, D.H.; Papen, G.A.

1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

233

Optical memory  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

234

Optical coupler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a camera or similar radiation sensitive device comprising a pixilated scintillation layer, a light guide and an array of position sensitive photomultiplier tubes, wherein there exists so-called dead space between adjacent photomultiplier tubes the improvement comprising a two part light guide comprising a first planar light spreading layer or portion having a first surface that addresses the scintillation layer and optically coupled thereto at a second surface that addresses the photomultiplier tubes, a second layer or portion comprising an array of trapezoidal light collectors defining gaps that span said dead space and are individually optically coupled to individual position sensitive photomultiplier tubes. According to a preferred embodiment, coupling of the trapezoidal light collectors to the position sensitive photomultiplier tubes is accomplished using an optical grease having about the same refractive index as the material of construction of the two part light guide.

Majewski, Stanislaw; Weisenberger, Andrew G.

2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Simulation and Analysis of a Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter Using the Monte Carlo Transport Code FLUKA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Accurate codes are desirable because of the high cost of beam time at accelerators that can produce particles with charge and velocity that simulate cosmic rays. They are currently used for a variety of engineering and analysis applications, but full... of the incident ionizing particle (excluding rest energy), Eout is the sum of the energies of all ionizing particles leaving the interaction (excluding rest energy) and Q is the change in rest energies of the nucleus and of all particles involved...

Northum, Jeremy Dell

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

236

Dispersion equation for water waves with vorticity and Stokes waves on flows with counter-currents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The two-dimensional free-boundary problem of steady periodic waves with vorticity is considered for water of finite depth. We investigate how flows with small-amplitude Stokes waves on the free surface bifurcate from a horizontal parallel shear flow in which counter-currents may be present. Two bifurcation mechanisms are described: for waves with fixed Bernoulli's constant and fixed wavelength. In both cases the corresponding dispersion equations serve for defining wavelengths from which Stokes waves bifurcate. Sufficient conditions guaranteeing the existence of roots of these equations are obtained. Two particular vorticity distributions are considered in order to illustrate general results.

Vladimir Kozlov; Nikolay Kuznetsov

2014-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

237

Anisotropic Power-law Inflation: A counter example to the cosmic no-hair conjecture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is widely believed that anisotropy in the expansion of the universe will decay exponentially fast during inflation. This is often referred to as the cosmic no-hair conjecture. However, we find a counter example to the cosmic no-hair conjecture in the context of supergravity. As a demonstration, we present an exact anisotropic power-law inflationary solution which is an attractor in the phase space. We emphasize that anisotropic inflation is quite generic in the presence of anisotropic sources which couple with an inflaton.

Jiro Soda

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

238

INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF OPTICS B: QUANTUM AND SEMICLASSICAL OPTICS J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 6 (2004) S455S472 PII: S1464-4266(04)74113-0  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF OPTICS B: QUANTUM AND SEMICLASSICAL OPTICS J. Opt. B particles and massless particles. Einstein formulated this relation initially for particles without internal with spin and/or internal space­time extension. In 1939, Wigner published his most fundamental paper dealing

Baskal, Sibel

239

Size distribution of particle systems analyzed with organic photodetectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As part of a consortium between academic and industry, this PhD work investigates the interest and capabilities of organic photo-sensors (OPS) for the optical characterization of suspensions and two-phase flows. The principle of new optical particle sizing instruments is proposed to characterize particle systems confined in a cylinder glass (standard configuration for Process Analytical Technologies). To evaluate and optimize the performance of these systems, a Monte-Carlo model has been specifically developed. This model accounts for the numerous parameters of the system: laser beam profile, mirrors, lenses, sample cell, particle medium properties (concentration, mean & standard deviation, refractive indices), OPS shape and positions, etc. Light scattering by particles is treated either by using Lorenz-Mie theory, Debye, or a hybrid model (that takes into account the geometrical and physical contributions). For diluted media (single scattering), particle size analysis is based on the inversion of scatter...

Sentis, Matthias

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Toward automated beam optics control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have begun a program aiming toward automatic control of charged-particle beam optics using artificial intelligence programming techniques. In developing our prototype, we are working with LISP machines and the KEE expert system shell. Our first goal was to develop a ''mouseable'' representation of a typical beam line. This responds actively to changes entered from the mouse or keyboard, giving an updated display of the beam line itself, its optical properties, and the instrumentation and control devices as seen by the operater. We have incorporated TRANSPORT, written in Fortran but running as a callable procedure in the LISP environment, for simulation of the beam-line optics. This paper describes the experience gained in meeting our first goal and discusses plans to extend the work so that it is usable, in realtime, on an operating beam line. 11 refs.

Silbar, R.R.; Schultz, D.E.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical particle counter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Optical Calibration For Jefferson Lab HKS Spectrometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to accept very forward angle scattering particles, Jefferson Lab HKS experiment uses an on-target zero degree dipole magnet. The usual spectrometer optics calibration procedure has to be modified due to this on-target field. This paper describes a new method to calibrate HKS spectrometer system. The simulation of the calibration procedure shows the required resolution can be achieved from initially inaccurate optical description.

L. Yuan; L. Tang

2005-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

242

Optical Activities as Computing Resources for Space-time Symmetries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is known that optical activities can perform rotations. It is shown that the rotation, if modulated by attenuations, can perform symmetry operations of Wigner's little group which dictates the internal space-time symmetries of elementary particles.

Y. S. Kim

2009-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

243

Spin-2 particles in gravitational fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We give a solution of the wave equation for massless, or massive spin-2 particles propagating in a gravitational background. The solution is covariant, gauge-invariant and exact to first order in the background gravitational field. The background contribution is confined to a phase factor from which geometrical and physical optics can be derived. The phase also describes Mashhoon's spin-rotation coupling and, in general, the spin-gravity interaction.

G. Papini

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Multiple-channel, total-reflection optic with controllable divergence  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for providing focused x-ray, gamma-ray, charged particle and neutral particle, including neutron, radiation beams with a controllable amount of divergence are disclosed. The apparatus features a novel use of a radiation blocking structure, which, when combined with multiple-channel total reflection optics, increases the versatility of the optics by providing user-controlled output-beam divergence. 11 figs.

Gibson, D.M.; Downing, R.G.

1997-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

245

Multiple-channel, total-reflection optic with controllable divergence  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for providing focused x-ray, gamma-ray, charged particle and neutral particle, including neutron, radiation beams with a controllable amount of divergence are disclosed. The apparatus features a novel use of a radiation blocking structure, which, when combined with multiple-channel total reflection optics, increases the versatility of the optics by providing user-controlled output-beam divergence.

Gibson, David M. (Voorheesville, NY); Downing, Robert G. (Albany, NY)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Optics and Diagnostics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 14 | Next | Last Back to Index Optics Line up of optics after cleaning. Photo Number: 2013-048779...

247

Simulation of particle agglomeration using dissipative particle dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Attachment of particles to one another due to action of certain inter-particle forces is called as particle agglomeration. It has applications ranging from efficient capture of ultra-fine particles generated in coal-burning boilers to effective...

Mokkapati, Srinivas Praveen

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

248

Parallel optical sampler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical sampler includes a first and second 1.times.n optical beam splitters splitting an input optical sampling signal and an optical analog input signal into n parallel channels, respectively, a plurality of optical delay elements providing n parallel delayed input optical sampling signals, n photodiodes converting the n parallel optical analog input signals into n respective electrical output signals, and n optical modulators modulating the input optical sampling signal or the optical analog input signal by the respective electrical output signals, and providing n successive optical samples of the optical analog input signal. A plurality of output photodiodes and eADCs convert the n successive optical samples to n successive digital samples. The optical modulator may be a photodiode interconnected Mach-Zehnder Modulator. A method of sampling the optical analog input signal is disclosed.

Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Skogen, Erik J; Vawter, Gregory A

2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

249

Confined energy distribution for charged particle beams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A charged particle beam is formed to a relatively larger area beam which is well-contained and has a beam area which relatively uniformly deposits energy over a beam target. Linear optics receive an accelerator beam and output a first beam with a first waist defined by a relatively small size in a first dimension normal to a second dimension. Nonlinear optics, such as an octupole magnet, are located about the first waist and output a second beam having a phase-space distribution which folds the beam edges along the second dimension toward the beam core to develop a well-contained beam and a relatively uniform particle intensity across the beam core. The beam may then be expanded along the second dimension to form the uniform ribbon beam at a selected distance from the nonlinear optics. Alternately, the beam may be passed through a second set of nonlinear optics to fold the beam edges in the first dimension. The beam may then be uniformly expanded along the first and second dimensions to form a well-contained, two-dimensional beam for illuminating a two-dimensional target with a relatively uniform energy deposition.

Jason, Andrew J. (Los Alamos, NM); Blind, Barbara (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Integrating fiber optic radiation dosimeter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this research effort was to determine the feasibility of forming a radiation sensor coupled to an optical fiber capable of measuring gamma photon, x-ray, and beta particle dose rates and integrated dose, and to construct a prototype dosimeter read-out system utilizing the fiber optic sensor. The key component of the prototype dosimeter system is a newly developed radiation sensitive storage phosphor. When this phosphor is excited by energetic radiation, a proportionate population of electron-hole pairs are created which become trapped at specific impurities within the phosphor. Trapped electrons can subsequently be stimulated optically with near-infrared at approximately 1 micrometer wavelength; the electrons can recombine with holes at luminescent centers to produce a luminescence which is directly proportional to the trapped electron population, and thus to the radiation exposure. By attaching the phosphor to the end of an optical fiber, it is possible to transmit both the IR optical stimulation and the characteristic phosphor luminescence through the fiber to and from the read-out instrument, which can be located far (e.g., kilometers) from the radiation field. This document reports on the specific design of the prototype system and its operating characteristics, including its sensitivity to various radiation dose rates and energies, its dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratio at various radiation intensities, and other system characteristics. Additionally, the radiation hardness of the phosphor and fiber are evaluated. 17 refs., 29 figs., 5 tabs.

Soltani, P.K.; Wrigley, C.Y.; Storti, G.M.; Creager, R.E.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Opposite charged two-body system of identical counter-rotating black holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A 4-parametric exact solution describing a two-body system of identical Kerr-Newman counter-rotating black holes endowed with opposite electric/magnetic charges is presented. The axis conditions are solved in order to really describe two black holes separated by a massless strut. Moreover, the explicit form of the horizon half length parameter sigma in terms of physical Komar parameters, i.e., the Komar mass M, electric charge QE, angular momentum J, and a coordinate distance R is derived. Additionally, magnetic charges QB arise from the rotation of electrically charged black holes. As a consequence, in order to account for the contribution to the mass of the magnetic charge, the usual Smarr mass formula should be generalized, as it is proposed by A. Tomimatsu, Prog. Theor. Phys. 72, 73 (1984).

I. Cabrera-Munguia; Claus Lmmerzahl; L. A. Lpez; Alfredo Macas

2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

252

Coherent Control of Resonant Two-Photon Transitions by Counter-Propagating Ultrashort Pulse Pairs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe optimized coherent control methods for two-photon transitions in atoms of a ladder-type three-state energy configuration. Our approach is based on the spatial coherent control scheme which utilizes counter-propagating ultrashort laser pulses to produce complex excitation patterns in an extended space. Since coherent control requires constructive interference of constituent transition pathways, applying it to an atomic transition with a specific energy configuration requires specially designed laser pulses. Here, we show, in an experimental demonstration, that the two-photon transition with an intermediate resonant energy state can be coherently controlled and retrieved out from the resonance-induced background, when phase-flipping of the laser spectrum near the resonant intermediate transition is used. A simple reason for this behavior is the fact that the transition amplitude function (to be added to give an overall two-photon transition) changes its sign at the intermediate resonant frequency, t...

Lee, Woojun; Kim, Kyungtae; Ahn, Jaewook

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Development of a Large-Area Aerogel Cherenkov Counter Onboard BESS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes the development of a threshold type aerogel Cherenkov counter with a large sensitive area of 0.6 m$^2$ to be carried onboard the BESS rigidity spectrometer to detect cosmic-ray antiprotons. The design incorporates a large diffusion box containing 46 finemesh photomultipliers, with special attention being paid to achieving good performance under a magnetic field and providing sufficient endurance while minimizing material usage. The refractive index of the aerogel was chosen to be 1.03. By utilizing the muons and protons accumulated during the cosmic-ray measurements at sea level, a rejection factor of 10$^4$ was obtained against muons with $\\beta \\approx 1$, while keeping 97% efficiency for protons below the threshold.

Y. Asaoka; K. Abe; K. Yoshimura; M. Ishino; M. Fujikawa; S. Orito

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Methodology for the use of proportional counters in pulsed fast neutron yield measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper introduces in full detail a methodology for the measurement of neutron yield and the necessary efficiency calibration, to be applied to the intensity measurement of neutron bursts where individual neutrons are not resolved in time, for any given moderated neutron proportional counter array. The method allows efficiency calibration employing the detection neutrons arising from an isotopic neutron source. Full statistical study of the procedure is descripted, taking into account contributions arising from counting statistics, piling-up statistics of real detector pulse-height spectra and background fluctuations. The useful information is extracted from the net waveform area of the signal arising from the electric charge accumulated inside the detector tube. Improvement of detection limit is gained, therefore this detection system can be used in detection of low emission neutron pulsed sources with pulses of duration from nanoseconds to up. The application of the methodology to detection systems to be...

Tarifeo-Saldivia, Ariel; Pavez, Cristian; Soto, Leopoldo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Optical Packet Switching -1 Optical Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical Packet Switching - 1 Optical Networks: from fiber transmission to photonic switching Optical Packet Switching Fabio Neri and Marco Mellia TLC Networks Group ­ Electronics Department e.mellia@polito.it ­ tel. 011 564 4173 #12;Optical Packet Switching - 2 · This work is licensed under the Creative Commons

Mellia, Marco

256

Ultrafast optics For optics and photonics course,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ultrafast and ultrashort generally describe pulses of widths in the nanosecond to femtosecond, or shorterUltrafast optics For optics and photonics course, Spring 2012 By :Alireza Moheghi Ultrafast optics, regimes. · Interest in ultrashort optical pulses began with the invention of the laser, · Ultrashort

Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

257

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 84, 031108 (2011) Noise associated with nonconservative forces in optical traps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nonconservative fluctuations to direct thermal fluctuations scales inversely with the square root of trap power) It is known that for a particle held in an optical trap the interaction of thermal fluctuations by a force Fg proportional to the optical intensity gradient. The force exerted on the particle

La Porta, Arthur

258

The trigger, as given by the scintillator barrel counters, results from two counters (one in the upper and one in the lower part of the barrel) which have been hit by a particle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from the depleted uranium inside the hadron calorimeter, the production of delta-rays (knock and is the counts-to-time conversion constant (i.e. bin-size) of the TDC. The cosmic-ray muon trigger does

van Suijlekom, Walter

259

Measurement of the Optical Proper-ties of Volcanic Ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: ­ Scattering solar radiation. ­ Absorption in the infrared. For chemical reactions: ­ Particles become coatedMeasurement of the Optical Proper- ties of Volcanic Ash Daniel M. Peters and R. G. Grainger@atm.ox.ac.uk http://www.atm.ox.ac.uk 1 Abstract We have just commenced a laboratory project, the "Optical Properties

Oxford, University of

260

Scintillation counter and wire chamber front end modules for high energy physics experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes two front-end modules developed for the proposed MIPP upgrade (P-960) experiment at Fermilab. The scintillation counter module was developed for the Plastic Ball detector time and charge measurements. The module has eight LEMO 00 input connectors terminated with 50 ohms and accepts negative photomultiplier signals in the range 0.25...1000 pC with the maximum input voltage of 4.0 V. Each input has a passive splitter with integration and differentiation times of {approx}20 ns. The integrated portion of the signal is digitized at 26.55 MHz by Analog Devices AD9229 12-bit pipelined 4-channel ADC. The differentiated signal is discriminated for time measurement and sent to one of the four TMC304 inputs. The 4-channel TMC304 chip allows high precision time measurement of rising and falling edges with {approx}100 ps resolution and has internal digital pipeline. The ADC data is also pipelined which allows deadtime-less operation with trigger decision times of {approx}4 {micro}s. The wire chamber module was developed for MIPP EMCal detector charge measurements. The 32-channel digitizer accepts differential analog signals from four 8-channel integrating wire amplifiers. The connection between wire amplifier and digitizer is provided via 26-wire twist-n-flat cable. The wire amplifier integrates input wire current and has sensitivity of 275 mV/pC and the noise level of {approx}0.013 pC. The digitizer uses the same 12-bit AD9229 ADC chip as the scintillator counter module. The wire amplifier has a built-in test pulser with a mask register to provide testing of the individual channels. Both modules are implemented as a 6Ux220 mm VME size board with 48-pin power connector. A custom europack (VME) 21-slot crate is developed for housing these front-end modules.

Baldin, Boris; DalMonte, Lou; /Fermilab

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical particle counter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

A Single Tower Configuration of the Modular Gamma Box Counter System - 13392  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Canberra's Standard Gamma Box Counter System is designed to perform accurate quantitative assays of gamma emitting nuclides for a wide range of large containers including B-25 crates and ISO shipping containers. Using a modular building-block approach, the system offers tremendous flexibility for a variety of measurement situations with wide ranges of sample activities and throughput requirements, as well as the opportunity to modify the configuration for other applications at a later date. The typical configuration consists of two opposing towers each equipped with two high purity germanium detectors, and an automated container trolley. This paper presents a modified configuration, consisting of a single tower placed inside a measurement trailer with three detector assemblies, allowing for additional vertical segmentation as well as a viewing a container outside the trailer through the trailer wall. An automatic liquid nitrogen fill system is supplied for each of the detectors. The use of a forklift to move the container for horizontal segmentation is accommodated by creating an additional operational and calibration set-up in the NDA 2000 software to allow for the operator to rotate the container and assay the opposite side, achieving the same sensitivity as a comparable two-tower system. This Segmented Gamma Box Counter System retains the core technologies and design features of the standard configuration. The detector assemblies are shielded to minimize interference from environmental and plant background, and are collimated to provide segmentation of the container. The assembly positions can also be modified in height and distance from the container. The ISOCS calibration software provides for a flexible approach to providing the calibrations for a variety of measurement geometries. The NDA 2000 software provides seamless operation with the current configuration, handling the data acquisition and analysis. In this paper, an overview of this system is discussed, along with the measured performance results, calibration methodology and verification, and minimum detectable activity levels. (authors)

Morris, K.; Nakazawa, D.; Francalangia, J.; Gonzalez, H. [Canberra Industries Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, CT, 06450 (United States)] [Canberra Industries Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, CT, 06450 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Investigation of Thin Cirrus Cloud Optical and Microphysical Properties on the Basis of Satellite Observations and Fast Radiative Transfer Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation focuses on the global investigation of optically thin cirrus cloud optical thickness (tau) and microphysical properties, such as, effective particle size (D_(eff)) and ice crystal habits (shapes), based on the global satellite...

Wang, Chenxi

2013-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

263

Optical devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical manifold for efficiently combining a plurality of blue LED outputs to illuminate a phosphor for a single, substantially homogeneous output, in a small, cost-effective package. Embodiments are disclosed that use a single or multiple LEDs and a remote phosphor, and an intermediate wavelength-selective filter arranged so that backscattered photoluminescence is recycled to boost the luminance and flux of the output aperture. A further aperture mask is used to boost phosphor luminance with only modest loss of luminosity. Alternative non-recycling embodiments provide blue and yellow light in collimated beams, either separately or combined into white.

Chaves, Julio C.; Falicoff, Waqidi; Minano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Dross, Oliver; Parkyn Jr., William A.

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

264

Optical microphone  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical microphone includes a laser and beam splitter cooperating therewith for splitting a laser beam into a reference beam and a signal beam. A reflecting sensor receives the signal beam and reflects it in a plurality of reflections through sound pressure waves. A photodetector receives both the reference beam and reflected signal beam for heterodyning thereof to produce an acoustic signal for the sound waves. The sound waves vary the local refractive index in the path of the signal beam which experiences a Doppler frequency shift directly analogous with the sound waves.

Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

2000-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

265

Optical microfluidics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a method for the control of small droplets based on the thermal Marangoni effect using laser heating. With this approach, droplets covering five orders of magnitude in volume ({approx}1.7 {mu}L to 14 pL), immersed in decanol, were moved on an unmodified polystyrene surface, with speeds of up to 3 mm/s. When two droplets were brought into contact, they spontaneously fused and rapidly mixed in less than 33 ms. This optically addressed microfluidic approach has many advantages for microfluidic transport, including exceptional reconfigurability, low intersample contamination, large volume range, extremely simple substrates, no electrical connections, and ready scaling to large arrays.

Kotz, K.T.; Noble, K.A.; Faris, G.W. [Molecular Physics Laboratory, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

2004-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

266

Fiber Optics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicyFeasibility ofSmall15.000TechnologyTuneFewer Faults for

267

Optically Modulated Electrokinetic Manipulation and Concentration ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mar 16, 2010 ... pubs.acs.org/Langmuir. 2010 American Chemical Society ..... different aspects of the REP process are studied with techniques such as LIF thermometry ... using a MATLAB adaptation of the IDL particle tracking soft- ...... Simplified Trapping Probability Models from Simulation of Optical Tweezers. Systems.

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

268

Tunable Chern insulator with shaken optical lattices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Driven optical lattices permit the engineering of effective dynamics with well-controllable tunneling properties. We describe the realization of a tunable a Chern insulator by driving particles on a shaken hexagonal lattice with optimally designed polychromatic driving forces. Its implementation does not require shallow lattices, which favors the study of strongly-correlated phases with non-trivial topology.

Albert Verdeny; Florian Mintert

2015-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

269

Forces of a single-beam gradient laser trap on a dielectric sphere in the ray optics regime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-beam gradient radiation pressure laser traps, also called "optical tweezers," on micron-sized dielectric spheres. Optical trapping of small particles by the forces of laser radiation pressure has been used for about 20 is in the geometric optics regime and can thus use simple ray optics in the derivation of the radiation pressure force

Sniadecki, Nathan J.

270

Electro-Optical Sensing Apparatus and Method for Characterizing Free-Space Electromagnetic Radiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and methods for characterizing free-space electromagnetic energy, and in particular, apparatus/method suitable for real-time two-dimensional far-infrared imaging applications are presented. The sensing technique is based on a non-linear coupling between a low-frequency electric field and a laser beam in an electro-optic crystal. In addition to a practical counter-propagating sensing technique, a co-linear approach is described which provides longer radiated field--optical beam interaction length, thereby making imaging applications practical.

Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Libelo, Louis Francis; Wu, Qi

1999-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

271

Morphology control and characterization of single-walled carbon nanotube counter electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the sol Counter electrode ISC[mA/cm2 ] V [V] FF PCE[%] Table 1 I-VSWNT PtISC, mA/cm2 (FF : fill factor) (PCE : power conversion efficiency) ISCFF SWNTPt SWNTPt PtISC SWNT Pt SWNT PCE SWNTFTO VOC V 0.66 V

Maruyama, Shigeo

272

Modulational instability of two pairs of counter-propagating waves and energy exchange in two-component media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modulational instability of two pairs of counter-propagating waves and energy exchange in two-propagating waves in two-component media is considered within the framework of two generally nonintegrable coupled Sine-Gordon equations. We consider the dynamics of weakly nonlinear wave packets, and using

273

Application of Vertically-Aligned SWNT Films for the Counter Electrode of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Application of Vertically-Aligned SWNT Films for the Counter Electrode of Dye-Sensitized Solar a solar cell in which VA-SWNT films were used for a CE, in place of conventional sputtered Pt on fluorine to use vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotube (VA-SWNT) films [1] synthesized by ACCVD method

Maruyama, Shigeo

274

On Using Reputations in Ad hoc Networks to Counter Malicious Nodes Prashant Dewan, Partha Dasgupta and Amiya Bhattacharya  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On Using Reputations in Ad hoc Networks to Counter Malicious Nodes Prashant Dewan, Partha Dasgupta, partha, amiya}@asu.edu Abstract Nodes in mobile ad hoc networks have a limited trans- mission range for ad hoc networks. Instead of choosing the shortest path to the destination, the source node chooses

Dasgupta, Partha

275

Calibration of a long counter for fast neutrons with energies from 2 to 14 MeV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To determine if a Hansen and McKibben type shielded long counter has a flat response from 2 MeV to 14 Mev detector efficiency was experimentally measured using a PuBe source. Calculations using the Monte Carlo program, MCNP, were performed...

Orr, Michael Lee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

276

First result of the experimental search for the 2K-capture of Xe-124 with the copper proportional counter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

First result of experiment for searching of 2K-capture of Xe-124 with the large-volume copper proportional counter is given. The 12 litre sample with 63.3% (44 g) of Xe-124 was used in measurements. The limit on the half-life of Xe-124 with regard to 2K(2\

Yu. M. Gavrilyuk; A. M. Gangapshev; V. V. Kazalov; V. V. Kuzminov; S. I. Panasenko; S. S. Ratkevich; D. A. Tekueva; S. P. Yakimenko

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

277

Families of subcritical spirals in highly counter-rotating Taylor-Couette flow Alvaro Meseguer,1,* Fernando Mellibovsky,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Families of subcritical spirals in highly counter-rotating Taylor-Couette flow Alvaro Meseguer,1 identified: short axial wavelength subcritical spirals ascribed to centrifugal mechanisms and large axial.20.Ft, 47.35. i I. INTRODUCTION Subcritical transition to turbulence in shear flows has been studied

Meseguer, Alvaro

278

Potential order-of-magnitude enhancement of wind farm power density via counter-rotating vertical-axis wind  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Potential order-of-magnitude enhancement of wind farm power density via counter-rotating vertical an alternative approach to wind farming that has the potential to concurrently reduce the cost, size-axis wind turbine arrays John O. Dabiria) Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories and Bioengineering, California

Dabiri, John O.

279

NBB Enclosed Particle Receiver  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

rigorous NREL and recipient subcontracting processes. Goal: This project will develop a near-blackbody particle receiver and an integrated fluidized-bed heat exchanger to achieve...

280

Optics and Optical Engineering Program Assessment Plan Program Learning Objectives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optics and Optical Engineering Program Assessment Plan Program Learning, and processes that underlie optics and optical engineering. 2. Strong understanding of the fundamental science, mathematics, and processes that underlie optics and optical

Cantlon, Jessica F.

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281

A counter-charge layer in generalized solvents framework for electrical double layers in neat and hybrid ionic liquid electrolytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have received significant attention as electrolytes due to a number of attractive properties such as their wide electrochemical windows. Since electrical double layers (EDLs) are the cornerstone for the applications of RTILs in electrochemical systems such as supercapacitors, it is important to develop an understanding of the structure capacitance relationships for these systems. Here we present a theoretical framework termed counter-charge layer in generalized solvents (CGS) for describing the structure and capacitance of the EDLs in neat RTILs and in RTILs mixed with different mass fractions of organic solvents. Within this framework, an EDL is made up of a counter-charge layer exactly balancing the electrode charge, and of polarized generalized solvents (in the form of layers of ion pairs, each of which has a zero net charge but has a dipole moment the ion pairs thus can be considered as a generalized solvent) consisting of all RTILs inside the system except the counter-ions in the counter-charge layer, together with solvent molecules if present. Several key features of the EDLs that originate from the strong ion ion correlation in RTILs, e.g., overscreening of electrode charge and alternating layering of counter-ions and co-ions, are explicitly incorporated into this framework. We show that the dielectric screening in EDLs is governed predominately by the polarization of generalized solvents (or ion pairs) in the EDL, and the capacitance of an EDL can be related to its microstructure with few a priori assumptions or simplifications. We use this framework to understand two interesting phenomena observed in molecular dynamics simulations of EDLs in a neat IL of 1-butyl-3- methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]) and in a mixture of [BMIM][BF4] and acetonitrile (ACN): (1) the capacitance of the EDLs in the [BMIM][BF4]/ACN mixture increases only slightly when the mass fraction of ACN in the mixture increases from zero to 50% although the dielectric constant of bulk ACN is more than two times higher than that of neat [BMIM][BF4]; (2) the capacitance of EDLs near negative electrodes (with BMIM+ ion as the counter-ion) is smaller than that near positive electrodes (with BF4as counter-ion) although the closest approaches of both ions to the electrode surface are nearly identical.

Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Feng, Guang [Clemson University; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Qiao, Rui [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Multidimensional optical fractionation with holographic verification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The trajectories of colloidal particles driven through a periodic potential energy landscape can become kinetically locked in to directions dictated by the landscape's symmetries. When the landscape is realized with forces exerted by a structured light field, the path a given particle follows has been predicted to depend exquisitely sensitively on such properties as the particle's size and refractive index These predictions, however, have not been tested experimentally. Here, we describe measurements of colloidal silica spheres' transport through arrays of holographic optical traps that use holographic video microscopy to track individual spheres' motions in three dimensions and simultaneously to measure each sphere's radius and refractive index with part-per-thousand resolution. These measurements confirm previously untested predictions for the threshold of kinetically locked-in transport, and demonstrate the ability of optical fractionation to sort colloidal spheres with part-per-thousand resolution on multiple characteristics simultaneously.

Ke Xiao; David G. Grier

2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

283

Optics: general-purpose scintillator light response simulation code  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the program optics that simulates the light response of an arbitrarily shaped scintillation particle detector. Predicted light responses of pure CsI polygonal detectors, plastic scintillator staves, cylindrical plastic target scintillators and a Plexiglas light-distribution plate are illustrated. We demonstrate how different bulk and surface optical properties of a scintillator lead to specific volume and temporal light collection probability distributions. High-statistics optics simulations are calibrated against the detector responses measured in a custom-made cosmic muon tomography apparatus. The presented code can also be used to track particles intersecting complex geometrical objects.

E. Frlez; B. K. Wright; D. Pocanic

2000-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

284

RESEARCH IN PARTICLE PHYSICS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report for the Department of Energy Grant to Principal Investigators in Experimental and Theoretical Particle Physics at Boston University. The research performed was in the Energy Frontier at the LHC, the Intensity Frontier at Super-Kamiokande and T2K, the Cosmic Frontier and detector R&D in dark matter detector development, and in particle theory.

Kearns, Edward [Boston Universiy] [Boston Universiy

2013-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

285

Pileup Per Particle Identification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a new method for pileup mitigation by implementing "pileup per particle identification" (PUPPI). For each particle we first define a local shape $\\alpha$ which probes the collinear versus soft diffuse structure in the neighborhood of the particle. The former is indicative of particles originating from the hard scatter and the latter of particles originating from pileup interactions. The distribution of $\\alpha$ for charged pileup, assumed as a proxy for all pileup, is used on an event-by-event basis to calculate a weight for each particle. The weights describe the degree to which particles are pileup-like and are used to rescale their four-momenta, superseding the need for jet-based corrections. Furthermore, the algorithm flexibly allows combination with other, possibly experimental, probabilistic information associated with particles such as vertexing and timing performance. We demonstrate the algorithm improves over existing methods by looking at jet $p_T$ and jet mass. We also find an improvement on non-jet quantities like missing transverse energy.

Daniele Bertolini; Philip Harris; Matthew Low; Nhan Tran

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

286

First proton--proton collisions at the LHC as observed with the ALICE detector: measurement of the charged particle pseudorapidity density at sqrt(s) = 900 GeV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On 23rd November 2009, during the early commissioning of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), two counter-rotating proton bunches were circulated for the first time concurrently in the machine, at the LHC injection energy of 450 GeV per beam. Although the proton intensity was very low, with only one pilot bunch per beam, and no systematic attempt was made to optimize the collision optics, all LHC experiments reported a number of collision candidates. In the ALICE experiment, the collision region was centred very well in both the longitudinal and transverse directions and 284 events were recorded in coincidence with the two passing proton bunches. The events were immediately reconstructed and analyzed both online and offline. We have used these events to measure the pseudorapidity density of charged primary particles in the central region. In the range |eta| < 0.5, we obtain dNch/deta = 3.10 +- 0.13 (stat.) +- 0.22 (syst.) for all inelastic interactions, and dNch/deta = 3.51 +- 0.15 (stat.) +- 0.25 (syst.) for non-single diffractive interactions. These results are consistent with previous measurements in proton--antiproton interactions at the same centre-of-mass energy at the CERN SppS collider. They also illustrate the excellent functioning and rapid progress of the LHC accelerator, and of both the hardware and software of the ALICE experiment, in this early start-up phase.

The ALICE Collaboration; K. Aamodt; N. Abel; U. Abeysekara; A. Abrahantes Quintana; A. Acero; D. Adamova; M. M. Aggarwal; G. Aglieri Rinella; A. G. Agocs; S. Aguilar Salazar; Z. Ahammed; A. Ahmad; N. Ahmad; S. U. Ahn; R. Akimoto; A. Akindinov; D. Aleksandrov; B. Alessandro; R. Alfaro Molina; A. Alici; E. Almaraz Avina; J. Alme; T. Alt; V. Altini; S. Altinpinar; C. Andrei; A. Andronic; G. Anelli; V. Angelov; C. Anson; T. Anticic; F. Antinori; S. Antinori; K. Antipin; D. Antonczyk; P. Antonioli; A. Anzo; L. Aphecetche; H. Appelshauser; S. Arcelli; R. Arceo; A. Arend; N. Armesto; R. Arnaldi; T. Aronsson; I. C. Arsene; A. Asryan; A. Augustinus; R. Averbeck; T. C. Awes; J. Aysto; M. D. Azmi; S. Bablok; M. Bach; A. Badala; Y. W. Baek; S. Bagnasco; R. Bailhache; R. Bala; A. Baldisseri; A. Baldit; J. Ban; R. Barbera; G. G. Barnafoldi; L. Barnby; V. Barret; J. Bartke; F. Barile; M. Basile; V. Basmanov; N. Bastid; B. Bathen; G. Batigne; B. Batyunya; C. Baumann; I. G. Bearden; B. Becker; I. Belikov; R. Bellwied; E. Belmont-Moreno; A. Belogianni; L. Benhabib; S. Beole; I. Berceanu; A. Bercuci; E. Berdermann; Y. Berdnikov; L. Betev; A. Bhasin; A. K. Bhati; L. Bianchi; N. Bianchi; C. Bianchin; J. Bielcik; J. Bielcikova; A. Bilandzic; L. Bimbot; E. Biolcati; A. Blanc; F. Blanco; F. Blanco; D. Blau; C. Blume; M. Boccioli; N. Bock; A. Bogdanov; H. Boggild; M. Bogolyubsky; J. Bohm; L. Boldizsar; M. Bombara; C. Bombonati; M. Bondila; H. Borel; V. Borshchov; C. Bortolin; S. Bose; L. Bosisio; F. Bossu; M. Botje; S. Bottger; G. Bourdaud; B. Boyer; M. Braun; P. Braun-Munzinger; L. Bravina; M. Bregant; T. Breitner; G. Bruckner; R. Brun; E. Bruna; G. E. Bruno; D. Budnikov; H. Buesching; K. Bugaev; P. Buncic; O. Busch; Z. Buthelezi; D. Caffarri; X. Cai; H. Caines; E. Camacho; P. Camerini; M. Campbell; V. Canoa Roman; G. P. Capitani; G. Cara Romeo; F. Carena; W. Carena; F. Carminati; A. Casanova Diaz; M. Caselle; J. Castillo Castellanos; J. F. Castillo Hernandez; V. Catanescu; E. Cattaruzza; C. Cavicchioli; P. Cerello; V. Chambert; B. Chang; S. Chapeland; A. Charpy; J. L. Charvet; S. Chattopadhyay; S. Chattopadhyay; M. Cherney; C. Cheshkov; B. Cheynis; E. Chiavassa; V. Chibante Barroso; D. D. Chinellato; P. Chochula; K. Choi; M. Chojnacki; P. Christakoglou; C. H. Christensen; P. Christiansen; T. Chujo; F. Chuman; C. Cicalo; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; J. Cleymans; O. Cobanoglu; J. -P. Coffin; S. Coli; A. Colla; G. Conesa Balbastre; Z. Conesa del Valle; E. S. Conner; P. Constantin; G. Contin; J. G. Contreras; Y. Corrales Morales; T. M. Cormier; P. Cortese; I. Cortes Maldonado; M. R. Cosentino; F. Costa; M. E. Cotallo; E. Crescio; P. Crochet; E. Cuautle; L. Cunqueiro; J. Cussonneau; A. Dainese; H. H. Dalsgaard; A. Danu; I. Das; S. Das; A. Dash; S. Dash; G. O. V. de Barros; A. De Caro; G. de Cataldo; J. de Cuveland; A. De Falco; M. de Gaspari; J. de Groot; D. De Gruttola; A. P. de Haas; N. De Marco; R. de Rooij; S. De Pasquale; G. de Vaux; H. Delagrange; G. Dellacasa; A. Deloff; V. Demanov; E. Denes; A. Deppman; G. D~RErasmo; D. Derkach; A. Devaux; D. Di Bari; C. Di Giglio; S. Di Liberto; A. Di Mauro; P. Di Nezza; M. Dialinas; L. Diaz; R. Diaz; T. Dietel; H. Ding; R. Divia; O. Djuvsland; G. do Amaral Valdiviesso; V. Dobretsov; A. Dobrin; T. Dobrowolski; B. Donigus; I. Dominguez; D. M. M. Don; O. Dordic; A. K. Dubey; J. Dubuisson; L. Ducroux; P. Dupieux; A. K. Dutta Majumdar; M. R. Dutta Majumdar; D. Elia; D. Emschermann; A. Enokizono; B. Espagnon; M. Estienne; D. Evans; S. Evrard; G. Eyyubova; C. W. Fabjan; D. Fabris; J. Faivre; D. Falchieri; A. Fantoni; M. Fasel; R. Fearick; A. Fedunov; D. Fehlker; V. Fekete; D. Felea; B. Fenton-Olsen; G. Feofilov; A. Fernandez Tellez; E. G. Ferreiro; A. Ferretti; R. Ferretti; M. A. S. Figueredo; S. Filchagin; R. Fini; F. M. Fionda; E. M. Fiore; M. Floris; Z. Fodor; S. Foertsch; P. Foka; S. Fokin; F. Formenti; E. Fragiacomo; M. Fragkiadakis; U. Frankenfeld; A. Frolov; U. Fuchs; F. Furano; C. Furget; M. Fusco Girard; J. J. Gaardhoje; S. Gadrat; M. Gagliardi; A. Gago; M. Gallio; P. Ganoti; M. S. Ganti; C. Garabatos; C. Garc; J. Gebelein; R. Gemme; M. Germain; A. Gheata; M. Gheata; B. Ghidini; P. Ghosh; G. Giraudo; P. Giubellino; E. Gladysz-Dziadus; R. Glasow; P. Glassel; A. Glenn; R. Gomez; H. Gonzalez Santos; L. H. Gonzalez-Trueba; P. Gonzalez-Zamora; S. Gorbunov; Y. Gorbunov; S. Gotovac; H. Gottschlag; V. Grabski; R. Grajcarek; A. Grelli; A. Grigoras; C. Grigoras; V. Grigoriev; A. Grigoryan; B. Grinyov; N. Grion; P. Gros; J. F. Grosse-Oetringhaus; J. -Y. Grossiord; R. Grosso; C. Guarnaccia; F. Guber; R. Guernane; B. Guerzoni; K. Gulbrandsen; H. Gulkanyan; T. Gunji; A. Gupta; R. Gupta; H. -A. Gustafsson; H. Gutbrod; O. Haaland; C. Hadjidakis; M. Haiduc; H. Hamagaki; G. Hamar; J. Hamblen; B. H. Han; J. W. Harris; M. Hartig; A. Harutyunyan

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Optical manifold  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Optical systems are described that have at least one source of a beam of blue light with divergence under 15.degree.. A phosphor emits yellow light when excited by the blue light. A collimator is disposed with the phosphor and forms a yellow beam with divergence under 15.degree.. A dichroic filter is positioned to transmit the beam of blue light to the phosphor and to reflect the beam of yellow light to an exit aperture. In different embodiments, the beams of blue and yellow light are incident upon said filter with central angles of 15.degree., 22.degree., and 45.degree.. The filter may reflect all of one polarization and part of the other polarization, and a polarization rotating retroreflector may then be provided to return the unreflected light to the filter.

Falicoff, Waqidi; Chaves, Julio C.; Minano, Juan Carlos; Benitez, Pablo; Dross, Oliver; Parkyn, Jr., William A.

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

288

Modeling light scattering from diesel soot particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Mie model is widely used to analyze light scattering from particulate aerosols. The Diesel Particle Scatterometer (DPS), for example, determines the size and optical properties of diesel exhaust particles that are characterized by measuring three angle-dependent elements of the Mueller scattering matrix. These elements are then fitted using Mie calculations with a Levenburg-Marquardt optimization program. This approach has achieved good fits for most experimental data. However, in many cases, the predicted real and imaginary parts of the index of refraction were less than that for solid carbon. To understand this result and explain the experimental data, we present an assessment of the Mie model by use of a light scattering model based on the coupled dipole approximation. The results indicate that the Mie calculation can be used to determine the largest dimension of irregularly shaped particles at sizes characteristic of Diesel soot and, for particles of known refractive index, tables can be constructed to determine the average porosity of the particles from the predicted index of refraction.

Hull, Patricia; Shepherd, Ian; Hunt, Arlon

2002-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

289

Imaging alpha particle detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

Anderson, D.F.

1980-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

290

Imaging alpha particle detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A conducting coated high voltage electrode (1) and a tungsten wire grid (2) constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source (3) to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window (4) allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

Anderson, David F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Inertial particle trapping in an open vortical flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent numerical results on advection dynamics have shown that particles denser than the fluid can remain trapped indefinitely in a bounded region of an open fluid flow. Here, we investigate this counterintuitive phenomenon both numerically and analytically to establish the conditions under which the underlying particle-trapping attractors can form. We focus on a two-dimensional open flow composed of a pair of vortices and its specular image, which is a system we represent as a vortex pair plus a wall along the symmetry line. Considering particles that are much denser than the fluid, we show that two point attractors form in the neighborhood of the vortex pair provided that the particle Stokes number is smaller than a critical value of order unity. In the absence of the wall, the boundaries of the basins of the attracting points are smooth. When the wall is present, the point attractors describe counter-rotating ellipses in this frame, with a period equal to half the period of one isolated vortex pair. However, their boundaries are shown to become fractal if the distance to the wall is smaller than a critical distance that scales with the inverse square root of the Stokes number. This transformation is related to the breakdown of a separatrix that gives rise to a heteroclinic tangle close to the vortices, which we describe using a Melnikov function. For an even smaller distance to the wall, we demonstrate that a second separatrix breaks down and a new heteroclinic tangle forms farther away from the vortices. Particles released in the open part of the flow can approach the attractors and be trapped permanently provided that they cross the two separatrices. Furthermore, the trapping of heavy particles from the open flow is shown to be robust to the presence of gravity, viscosity, and noise.

Jean-Regis Angilella; Rafael D. Vilela; Adilson E. Motter

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

292

Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of single, few, and many molecules: Nonequilibrium Green's function QED approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of single, few, and many molecules: Nonequilibrium Green's function optical signals from an assembly of N noninteracting particles consist of an incoherent and a coherent types of signals is developed using a quantum electrodynamical QED treatment of the optical fields

Mukamel, Shaul

293

Optical theorem for acoustic non-diffracting beams and application to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical theorem for acoustic non-diffracting beams and application to radiation force and torque University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 USA lzhang@chaos.utexas.edu Abstract: Acoustical and optical non-diffracting beams are potentially useful for manipulating particles and larger objects. An extended optical theorem

Texas at Austin. University of

294

The ANTARES Optical Beacon System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ANTARES is a neutrino telescope being deployed in the Mediterranean Sea. It consists of a three dimensional array of photomultiplier tubes that can detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles produced in the interactions of neutrinos with the surrounding medium. High angular resolution can be achieved, in particular when a muon is produced, provided that the Cherenkov photons are detected with sufficient timing precision. Considerations of the intrinsic time uncertainties stemming from the transit time spread in the photomultiplier tubes and the mechanism of transmission of light in sea water lead to the conclusion that a relative time accuracy of the order of 0.5 ns is desirable. Accordingly, different time calibration systems have been developed for the ANTARES telescope. In this article, a system based on Optical Beacons, a set of external and well-controlled pulsed light sources located throughout the detector, is described. This calibration system takes into account the optical properties of ...

Ageron, M; Albert, A; Ameli, F; Anghinolfi, M; Anton, G; Anvar, S; Ardellier-Desages, F; Aslanides, E; Aubert, J J; Auer, R; Barbarito, E; Basa, S; Battaglieri, M; Becherini, Y; Beltramelli, J; Bertin, V; Bigi, A; Billault, M; Blaes, R; De Botton, N R; Bouwhuis, M C; Bradbury, S M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Burgio, G F; Busto, J; Cafagna, F; Caillat, L; Calzas, A; Capone, A; Caponetto, L; Carmona, E; Carr, J; Cartwright, S L; Castel, D; Castorina, E; Cavasinni, V; Cecchini, S; Ceres, A; Charvis, P; Chauchot, P; Chiarusi, T; Circella, M; Colnard, C; Compere, C; Coniglione, R; Cottini, N; Coyle, P; Cuneo, S; Cussatlegras, A S; Damy, G; Van Dantzig, R; De Bonis, G; De Marzo, C; De Vita, R; Dekeyser, I; Delagnes, E; Denans, D; Deschamps, A; Destelle, J J; Dinkespieler, B; Distefano, C; Donzaud, C; Drogou, J F; Druillole, F; Durand, D; Ernenwein, J P; Escoffier, S; Falchini, E; Favard, S; Fehr, F; Feinstein, F; Ferry, S; Fiorello, C; Flaminio, V; Fratini, K; Fuda, J L; Galeotti, S; Gallone, J M; Giacomelli, G; Girard, N; Gojak, C; Goret, P; Graf, K; Hallewell, G; Harakeh, M N; Hartmann, B; Heijboer, A; Heine, E; Hello, Y; Hernndez-Rey, J J; Hossl, J; Hoffman, C; Hogenbirk, J; Hubbard, John R; Jaquet, M; Jaspers, M; De Jong, M; Jouvenot, F; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Katz, U; Keller, P; Kok, E; Kok, H; Kooijman, P; Kopper, C; Korolkova, E V; Kouchner, A; Kretschmer, W; Kruijer, A; Kuch, S; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lagier, P; Lahmann, R; Lamanna, G; Lamare, P; Lambard, G; Languillat, J C; Laschinsky, H; Lavalle, J; Le Guen, Y; Le Provost, H; Le Van-Suu, A; Lefvre, D; Legou, T; Lelaizant, G; Lim, G; Lo Presti, D; Lhner, H; Loucatos, Sotirios S; Louis, F; Lucarelli, F; Lyashuk, V; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Masullo, R; Mazas, F; Mazure, A; McMillan, J E; Megna, R; Melissas, M; Migneco, E; Milovanovic, A; Mongelli, M; Montaruli, T; Morganti, M; Moscoso, L; Musumeci, M; Naumann-Godo, M; Naumann, C; Niess, V; Noble, T; Olivetto, C; Ostasch, R; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Payre, P; Peek, H; Prez, A; Petta, C; Piattelli, P; Pillet, R; Pineau, J P; Poinsignon, J; Popa, V; Pradier, T; Racca, C; Randazzo, N; Van Randwijk, J; Real, D; Van Rens, B; Rethore, F; Rewiersma, P A M; Riccobene, G; Rigaud, V; Ripani, M; Roca, V; Roda, C; Rolin, J F; Rose, H J; Rostovtsev, A; Roux, J; Ruppi, M; Russo, G V; Rusydi, G; Salesa, F; Salomon, K; Sapienza, P; Schmitt, F; Schuller, J P; Shanidze, R; Sokalski, I A; Spona, T; Spurio, M; van der Steenhoven, G; Stolarczyk, T; Streeb, K; Sulak, L; Taiuti, M; Tamburini, C; Tao, C; Terreni, G; Thompson, L F; Urbano, F; Valdy, P; Valente, V; Vallage, B; Vaudaine, G; Venekamp, G; Verlaat, B; Vernin, P; De Vries-Uiterweerd, G; Van Wijk, R; Wijnker, G; De Witt-Huberts, P K A; Wobbe, G; De Wolf, E; Yao, A F; Zaborov, D; Zaccone, Henri; De Dios-Zornoza-Gomez, Juan; Ziga, J; al, et

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Optical Hybrid Quantum Information Processing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Historically, two complementary approaches to optical quantum information processing have been pursued: qubits and continuous-variables, each exploiting either particle or wave nature of light. However, both approaches have pros and cons. In recent years, there has been a significant progress in combining both approaches with a view to realizing hybrid protocols that overcome the current limitations. In this chapter, we first review the development of the two approaches with a special focus on quantum teleportation and its applications. We then introduce our recent research progress in realizing quantum teleportation by a hybrid scheme, and mention its future applications to universal and fault-tolerant quantum information processing.

Shuntaro Takeda; Akira Furusawa

2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

296

Tunable subwavelength strong absorption by graphene wrapped dielectric particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The optical absorption properties of graphene wrapped dielectric particles have been investigated by using Mie scattering theory and exact multi-scattering method. It is shown that subwavelength strong absorption in infrared spectra can take place in such systems due to the excitation of plasmon resonance in graphene. The absorption characteristics and efficiency are tunable by varying Fermi level and damping constant of graphene, or by changing size and dielectric constant of small particles. For a cluster of these particles, the absorption characteristics are also affected by the separation distance between them. These extreme light resonances and absorptions in graphene wrapped nanostructures have great potential for opto-electronic devices.

Yang, Bing; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Xiangdong

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Integrated ultrasonic particle positioning and low excitation light fluorescence imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A compact hybrid system has been developed to position and detect fluorescent micro-particles by combining a Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) imager with an acoustic manipulator. The detector comprises a SPAD array, light-emitting diode (LED), lenses, and optical filters. The acoustic device is formed of multiple transducers surrounding an octagonal cavity. By stimulating pairs of transducers simultaneously, an acoustic landscape is created causing fluorescent micro-particles to agglomerate into lines. The fluorescent pattern is excited by a low power LED and detected by the SPAD imager. Our technique combines particle manipulation and visualization in a compact, low power, portable setup.

Bernassau, A. L.; Al-Rawhani, M.; Beeley, J.; Cumming, D. R. S. [School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8LT (United Kingdom)] [School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8LT (United Kingdom)

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

298

NONLINEAR OPTICS AT INTERFACES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics (W. A. Benjamin, 1977) p.Research Division NONLINEAR OPTICS AT INTERFACES Chenson K.ED LBL-12084 NONLINEAR OPTICS AT INTERFACES Chenson K. Chen

Chen, Chenson K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

SURFACE NONLINEAR OPTICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, Optics Lett. i, 393 See, for3, 1980 SURFACE NONLINEAR OPTICS Y.R. Shen, C.K. Chen, andde Janiero SURFRACE NONLINEAR OPTICS Y. R. Shen, C. K. Chen,

Shen, Y.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

The SLS optics beamline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The SLS Optics Beamline U. Flechsig ? , R. Abela ? , R.in the ?eld of x-ray optics and synchrotron radiation in-radiation, beamline optics, channel cut monochromator,

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical particle counter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Optical data latch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical data latch is formed on a substrate from a pair of optical logic gates in a cross-coupled arrangement in which optical waveguides are used to couple an output of each gate to an photodetector input of the other gate. This provides an optical bi-stability which can be used to store a bit of optical information in the latch. Each optical logic gate, which can be an optical NOT gate (i.e. an optical inverter) or an optical NOR gate, includes a waveguide photodetector electrically connected in series with a waveguide electroabsorption modulator. The optical data latch can be formed on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate (e.g. an InP or GaAs substrate) from III-V compound semiconductor layers. A number of optical data latches can be cascaded to form a clocked optical data shift register.

Vawter, G. Allen (Corrales, NM)

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

302

MEASUREMENTS OF BLACK CARBON PARTICLES' CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

., Billerica, MA; 2 Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA; 3 NOAA CIRES, Boulder, CO; 4 UC Davis, Davis, CA; 5 of Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02- 98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy

303

Optics and Diagnostics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1 14 | Next | Last Back to Index Optics Optics processing of Target Wedged Focus Lens into cleaningcoating frame. Photo Number: 2013-048765...

304

Optics and Diagnostics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 14 | Next | Last Back to Index Optics Alignment Conducting an optics alignment after replacement of a Pockels Cell in the clean room. Photo Number: 2013-050691...

305

Optics and Diagnostics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

9 14 | Next | Last Back to Index Optics Processing Optics for the National Ignition Facility must be manufactured to exacting standards. To ensure quality, precise measurements...

306

Coil spring conveyor for positioning an external radioactive standard in a liquid scintillation counter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a liquid scintillation counter having a counting chamber for receiving a liquid sample containing a liquid scintillator and a sample of a radioactive substance to be counted. An improved apparatus is described for positioning a radioactive source in an operating location to irradiate the liquid sample in the counting chamber comprising the combination of: (1) a flexible conveyor including an elongate, generally tubular coil spring section having an interior tubular bore configured to receive the radioactive source; (2) means for retaining the radioactive source in a predetermined axial position within the coil spring; (3) means supporting the coil spring for movement along a conveyor path between a storage location for the radioactive source remote from the counting chamber and an operating location for the radioactive source proximate the counting chamber; and (4) drive means coupled to the coil spring and operative to drive the coil spring along the conveyor path for conveying the radioactive source between the storage and operating locations.

Kampf, R.S.

1986-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

307

Controlling Low-Rate Signal Path Microdischarge for an Ultra-Low-Background Proportional Counter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed an ultra-low-background proportional counter (ULBPC) made of high purity copper. These detectors are part of an ultra-low-background counting system (ULBCS) in the newly constructed shallow underground laboratory at PNNL (at a depth of ~30 meters water-equivalent). To control backgrounds, the current preamplifier electronics are located outside the ULBCS shielding. Thus the signal from the detector travels through ~1 meter of cable and is potentially susceptible to high voltage microdischarge and other sources of electronic noise. Based on initial successful tests, commercial cables and connectors were used for this critical signal path. Subsequent testing across different batches of commercial cables and connectors, however, showed unwanted (but still low) rates of microdischarge noise. To control this noise source, two approaches were pursued: first, to carefully validate cables, connectors, and other commercial components in this critical signal path, making modifications where necessary; second, to develop a custom low-noise, low-background preamplifier that can be integrated with the ULBPC and thus remove most commercial components from the critical signal path. This integrated preamplifier approach is based on the Amptek A250 low-noise charge-integrating preamplifier module. The initial microdischarge signals observed are presented and characterized according to the suspected source. Each of the approaches for mitigation is described, and the results from both are compared with each other and with the original performance seen with commercial cables and connectors.

Mace, Emily K.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bonicalzi, Ricco; Day, Anthony R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Myers, Allan W.; Overman, Cory T.; Seifert, Allen

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

High and low frequency instabilities driven by counter-streaming electron beams in space plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A four-component plasma composed of a drifting (parallel to ambient magnetic field) population of warm electrons, drifting (anti-parallel to ambient magnetic field) cool electrons, stationary hot electrons, and thermal ions is studied in an attempt to further our understanding of the excitation mechanisms of broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) in the Earth's magnetospheric regions such as the magnetosheath, plasmasphere, and plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL). Using kinetic theory, beam-driven electrostatic instabilities such as the ion-acoustic, electron-acoustic instabilities are found to be supported in our multi-component model. The dependence of the instability growth rates and real frequencies on various plasma parameters such as beam speed, number density, temperature, and temperature anisotropy of the counter-streaming (relative to ambient magnetic field) cool electron beam are investigated. It is found that the number density of the anti-field aligned cool electron beam and drift speed play a central role in determining which instability is excited. Using plasma parameters which are closely correlated with the measurements made by the Cluster satellites in the PSBL region, we find that the electron-acoustic and ion-acoustic instabilities could account for the generation of BEN in this region.

Mbuli, L. N. [South African National Space Agency (SANSA) Space Science, P.O. Box 32, Hermanus 7200, Republic of South Africa (South Africa); University of the Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Road, Bellville 7535, Republic of South Africa (South Africa); Maharaj, S. K. [South African National Space Agency (SANSA) Space Science, P.O. Box 32, Hermanus 7200, Republic of South Africa (South Africa); Bharuthram, R. [University of the Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Road, Bellville 7535, Republic of South Africa (South Africa)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

309

Characterization of a Spherical Proportional Counter in argon-based mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Spherical Proportional Counter is a novel type of radiation detector, with a low energy threshold (typically below 100 eV) and good energy resolution. This detector is being developed by the network NEWS, which includes several applications. We can name between many others Dark Matter searches, low level radon and neutron counting or low energy neutrino detection from supernovas or nuclear reactors via neutrino-nucleus elastic scattering. In this context, this works will present the characterization of a spherical detector of 1 meter diameter using two argon-based mixtures (with methane and isobutane) and for gas pressures between 50 and 1250 mbar. In each case, the energy resolution shows its best value in a wide range of gains, limited by the ballistic effect at low gains and by ion-backflow at high gains. Moreover, the best energy resolution shows a degradation with pressure. These effects will be discussed in terms of gas avalanche properties. Finally, the effect of an electrical field corrector in the homogenity of the gain and the energy threshold measured in our setup will be also discussed.

F. J. Iguaz; A. Rodriguez; J. F. Castel; I. G. Irastorza

2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

310

An array of low-background 3He proportional counters for theSudbury Neutrino Observatory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An array of Neutral-Current Detectors (NCDs) has been builtin order to make a unique measurement of the total active ux of solarneutrinos in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). Data in the thirdphase of the SNO experiment were collected between November 2004 andNovember 2006, after the NCD array was added to improve theneutral-current sensitivity of the SNO detector. This array consisted of36 strings of proportional counters lled with a mixture of 3He and CF4gas capable of detecting the neutrons liberated by the neutrino-deuteronneutral current reaction in the D2O, and four strings lled with a mixtureof 4He and CF4 gas for background measurements. The proportional counterdiameter is 5 cm. The total deployed array length was 398 m. The SNO NCDarray is the lowest-radioactivity large array of proportional countersever produced. This article describes the design, construction,deployment, and characterization of the NCD array, discusses theelectronics and data acquisition system, and considers event signaturesand backgrounds.

Amsbaugh, J.F.; Anaya, J.M.; Banar, J.; Bowles, T.J.; Browne,M.C.; Bullard, T.V.; Burritt, T.H.; Cox-Mobrand, G.A.; Dai, X.; H.Deng,X.; Di Marco, M.; Doe, P.J.; Dragowsky, M.R.; Duba, C.A.; Duncan, F.A.; Earle, E.D.; Elliott, S.R.; Esch, E.-I.; Fergani, H.; Formaggio, J.A.; Fowler, M.M.; Franklin, J.E.; Geissbuehler, P.; Germani, J.V.; Goldschmidt, A.; Guillian, E.; Hallin, A.L.; Harper, G.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heise, J.; Hime, A.; Howe, M.A.; Huang, M.; Kormos, L.L.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C.B.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lesko,K.T.; Loach, J.C.; Majerus, S.; Manor, J.; McGee, S.; Miknaitis, K.K.S.; Miller, G.G.; Morissette, B.; Myers, A.; Oblath, N.S.; O'Kee, H.M.; Ollerhead, R.W.; Peeters, S.J.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Reitzner,S.D.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Skensved, P.; Smith, A.R.; Smith,M.W.E.; Steiger, T.D.; Stonehill,L.C.; Thornewell, P.M.; Tolich, N.; VanDevender, B.A.; VanWechel, T.D.; Wall, B.L.; Tseung, H.W.C.; Wendland,J.; West, N.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Wouters, J.M.

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Environmental Assessment for the new Whole Body Counter facility at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy proposes to construct and operate a new in-vivo counting facility at the Savannah River Site for the monitoring of employees for internal radionuclides. The proposed facility, titled the new Whole Body Counter (WBC) facility, would house both the existing and additional new invivo counting equipment and facility support operations. The proposed facility would be sited and located in an area of the SRS in which background radiation levels are sufficiently low to assure accurate in-vivo counts and a location that would assure ease of access for occupational workers. This Environmental Assessment has been prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, and the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CPR Parts 1500-1508). NEPA requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. The proposed action has independent utility to the Savannah River operations and will be necessary to support plant activities regardless of the makeup of the future mission at the site. As such, the proposed new WBC facility is treated as part of the preliminary Reconfiguration Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement ``No Action`` alternative.

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Characterization of a Spherical Proportional Counter in argon-based mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Spherical Proportional Counter is a novel type of radiation detector, with a low energy threshold (typically below 100 eV) and good energy resolution. This detector is being developed by the network NEWS, which includes several applications. We can name between many others Dark Matter searches, low level radon and neutron counting or low energy neutrino detection from supernovas or nuclear reactors via neutrino-nucleus elastic scattering. In this context, this works will present the characterization of a spherical detector of 1 meter diameter using two argon-based mixtures (with methane and isobutane) and for gas pressures between 50 and 1250 mbar. In each case, the energy resolution shows its best value in a wide range of gains, limited by the ballistic effect at low gains and by ion-backflow at high gains. Moreover, the best energy resolution shows a degradation with pressure. These effects will be discussed in terms of gas avalanche properties. Finally, the effect of an electrical field corrector in th...

Iguaz, F J; Castel, J F; Irastorza, I G

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 5. The Next Particle  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 5. The Next Particle The "sparticle" - a super symmetric partner to all the known particles could be the answer to uniting all the known particles and their interactions under one grand theoretical pattern of activity. But how do researchers know where to look for such phenomena and how do they know if they find them? Simon Singh reviews the next particle that physicists would like to find if the current particle theories are to ring true.

None

2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

314

Research in particle theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the test particle approximation, the scattering amplitude for two-particle scattering in (2+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons-Witten gravity and supergravity was computed and compared to the corresponding metric solutions. The formalism was then extended to the exact gauge theoretic treatment of the two-particle scattering problem and compared to 't Hooft's results from the metric approach. We have studied dynamical symmetry breaking in 2+1 dimensional field theories. We have analyzed strong Extended Technicolor (ETC) models where the ETC coupling is close to a critical value. There are effective scalar fields in each of the theories. We have worked our how such scalar particles can be produced and how they decay. The {phi}{sup 4} field theory was investigated in the Schrodinger representation. The critical behavior was extracted in an arbitrary number of dimensions in second order of a systematic truncation approximation. The correlation exponent agrees with known values within a few percent.

Mansouri, F.; Suranyi, P; Wijewardhana, L.C.R.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Particle Physics Masterclass  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Students from six local high schools -- Farmingdale, Sachem East, Shoreham, Smithtown East, Ward Melville, and William Floyd -- came to Brookhaven National Laboratory to experience research with particle physicist Helio Takai. They were among more than 6,

Helio Takai

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

316

Elementary particle theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present state of the art in elementary particle theory is reviewed. Topics include quantum electrodynamics, weak interactions, electroweak unification, quantum chromodynamics, and grand unified theories. 113 references. (WHK)

Marciano, W.J.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Particles in complex fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis describes experimental studies of colloidal particles dispersed in solvents which themselves have phase transitions. One common definition of soft matter is: a material characterized by a mesoscopic length ...

Zand, Danille D. van t

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Particle phenomenology and Maldacena  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A brief review is offered of employing Maldacena's AdS/CFT correspondence in attempting to identify a model which extends to higher energy the standard model of particle phenomenology.

Paul H. Frampton

2008-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

319

Optical NAND gate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An optical NAND gate is formed from two pair of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each pair of the optical waveguide devices consisting of an electroabsorption modulator and a photodetector. One pair of the optical waveguide devices is electrically connected in parallel to operate as an optical AND gate; and the other pair of the optical waveguide devices is connected in series to operate as an optical NOT gate (i.e. an optical inverter). The optical NAND gate utilizes two digital optical inputs and a continuous light input to provide a NAND function output. The optical NAND gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.

Skogen, Erik J. (Albuquerque, NM); Raring, James (Goleta, CA); Tauke-Pedretti, Anna (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

320

ELEMENTARY PARTICLE INTERACTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The High-Energy Elementary Particle Interactions group at UT during the last three years worked on the following directions and projects: Collider-based Particle Physics; Neutrino Physics, particularly participation in NO?A, Double Chooz, and KamLAND neutrino experiments; and Theory, including Scattering amplitudes, Quark-gluon plasma; Holographic cosmology; Holographic superconductors; Charge density waves; Striped superconductors; and Holographic FFLO states.

EFREMENKO, YURI; HANDLER, THOMAS; KAMYSHKOV, YURI; SIOPSIS, GEORGE; SPANIER, STEFAN

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical particle counter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

PARTICLES OF DIFFERENCE.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is no longer appropriate, if it ever was, to think of atmospheric aerosols as homogeneous spheres of uniform composition and size. Within the United States, and even more globally, not only the mass loading but also the composition, morphology, and size distribution of atmospheric aerosols are highly variable, as a function of location, and at a given location as a function of time. Particles of a given aerodynamic size may differ from one another, and even within individual particles material may be inhomogeneously distributed, as for example, carbon spherules imbedded in much larger sulfate particles. Some of the particulate matter is primary, that is, introduced into the atmosphere directly as particles, such as carbon particles in diesel exhaust. Some is secondary, that is, formed in the atmosphere by gas-to-particle conversion. Much of the material is inorganic, mainly sulfates and nitrates resulting mainly from energy-related emissions. Some of the material is carbonaceous, in part primary, in part secondary, and of this material some is anthropogenic and some biogenic. While the heterogeneity of atmospheric aerosols complicates the problem of understanding their loading and distribution, it may well be the key to its solution. By detailed examination of the materials comprising aerosols it is possible to infer the sources of these materials. It may be possible as well to identify specific health impairing agents. The heterogeneity of aerosol particles is thus the key to identifying their sources, to understanding the processes that govern their loading and properties, and to devising control strategies that are both effective and efficient. Future research must therefore take cognizance of differences among aerosol particles and use these differences to advantage.

SCHWARTZ,S.E.

2000-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

322

Removal of pollutant compounds from water supplies using ozone, ultraviolet light, and a counter, current packed column. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many water pollutants are determined to be carcinogenic and often appear in very low concentrations and still pose a health risk. Conventional water treatment processes cannot remove these contaminants and there is a great demand for the development of alternative removal technologies. The use of ozone and ultraviolet light in a counter current packed column could prove to be an effective treatment process to remove these contaminants.

Kelly, E.L.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Soot particle aerosol dynamics at high pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have used detailed calculations to analyze the coagulation dynamics of a soot aerosol at high pressures (20 and 50 atm). They find that the soot size distribution is altered compared to lower-pressure conditions because the mean free path at high pressures is reduced to the point that the particles are similar in size to the mean free path. At lower pressures the form of the size distribution becomes constant (self-preserving) in time, allowing optical measurements to be easily interpreted. However, the authors find that at pressures above about 5 atm the shape of the size distribution continually changes. As a result, proper and accurate interpretation of optical data at high pressures is more difficult than at lower pressures.

Harris, S.J. (General Motors Research Labs., Warren, MI (USA). Physics Dept.); Kennedy, I.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Stimulated Raman scattering of beat wave of two counter-propagating X-mode lasers in a magnetized plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Effects of transverse static magnetic field on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of the beat wave excited by two counter-propagating lasers are studied. Two counter-propagating lasers with frequency difference, ?{sub 1}??{sub 2}?2?{sub p}, drive a non resonant space charge beat mode at wave number k{sup ?}{sub 0}?k{sup ?}{sub 1}+k{sup ?}{sub 2} in a plasma, where k{sup ?}{sub 1} and k{sup ?}{sub 2} are wave vectors of lasers having frequencies ?{sub 1} and ?{sub 2}, respectively. The driven beat wave acts as a pump for SRS and excites parametrically a pair of plasma wave (?,k{sup ?}) and side band electromagnetic wave (?{sub 3},k{sup ?}{sub 3}) propagating in the sideward direction in such a way that momentum remains conserved. The growth rate of Raman process is maximum for side scattering at ?{sub s}=?/2 for lower values of applied magnetic field (?1?kG), which can be three fold by applying magnetic field ?5.0?kG. Thus, optimum value of magnetic field can be utilized to achieve maximum electron acceleration in counter propagating geometry of beat wave acceleration by reducing the growth rate of Raman process.

Verma, Kanika; Sajal, Vivek, E-mail: vsajal@rediffmail.com; Varshney, Prateek; Kumar, Ravindra; Sharma, Navneet K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida 201307, UP (India)] [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida 201307, UP (India)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

325

Evaluation of Counter-Based Dynamic Load Balancing Schemes for Massive Contingency Analysis on Over 10,000 Cores  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contingency analysis studies are necessary to assess the impact of possible power system component failures. The results of the contingency analysis are used to ensure the grid reliability, and in power market operation for the feasibility test of market solutions. Currently, these studies are performed in real time based on the current operating conditions of the grid with a set of pre-selected contingency list, which might result in overlooking some critical contingencies caused by variable system status. To have a complete picture of a power grid, more contingencies need to be studied to improve grid reliability. High-performance computing techniques hold the promise of being able to perform the analysis for more contingency cases within a much shorter time frame. This paper evaluates the performance of counter-based dynamic load balancing schemes for a massive contingency analysis program on 10,000+ cores. One million N-2 contingency analysis cases with a Western Electricity Coordinating Council power grid model have been used to demonstrate the performance. The speedup of 3964 with 4096 cores and 7877 with 10240 cores are obtained. This paper reports the performance of the load balancing scheme with a single counter and two counters, describes disk I/O issues, and discusses other potential techniques for further improving the performance.

Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Rice, Mark J.

2012-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

326

LABORATORY I: GEOMETRIC OPTICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lab I - 1 LABORATORY I: GEOMETRIC OPTICS In this lab, you will solve several problems related to the formation of optical images. Most of us have a great deal of experience with the formation of optical images this laboratory, you should be able to: · Describe features of real optical systems in terms of ray diagrams

Minnesota, University of

327

Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and InterfacesAdministrationManufacturingvitalityusingMapping Particle

328

Energy exchange between a laser beam and charged particles using inverse transition radiation and method for its use  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for exchanging energy between relativistic charged particles and laser radiation using inverse diffraction radiation or inverse transition radiation. The beam of laser light is directed onto a particle beam by means of two optical elements which have apertures or foils through which the particle beam passes. The two apertures or foils are spaced by a predetermined distance of separation and the angle of interaction between the laser beam and the particle beam is set at a specific angle. The separation and angle are a function of the wavelength of the laser light and the relativistic energy of the particle beam. In a diffraction embodiment, the interaction between the laser and particle beams is determined by the diffraction effect due to the apertures in the optical elements. In a transition embodiment, the interaction between the laser and particle beams is determined by the transition effect due to pieces of foil placed in the particle beam path.

Kimura, Wayne D. (Bellevue, WA); Romea, Richard D. (Seattle, WA); Steinhauer, Loren C. (Bothell, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Bose condensation of interacting gases in traps with and without optical lattice S. Chatterjee, A. E. Meyerovich  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bose condensation of interacting gases in traps with and without optical lattice S. Chatterjee, A compare effects of particle interaction on Bose condensation in inhomogeneous traps with and without optical lattice inside. Interaction pushes normal particles away from the condensate droplet, which

Meyerovich, Alex

330

Quantum gravitational optics: the induced phase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The geometrical approximation of the extended Maxwell equation in curved spacetime incorporating interactions induced by the vacuum polarization effects is considered. Taking into account these QED interactions and employing the analogy between eikonal equation in geometrical optics and Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the particle motion, we study the phase structure of the modified theory. There is a complicated, local induced phase which is believed to be responsible for the modification of the classical picture of light ray. The main features of QGO could be obtained through the study of this induced phase. We discuss initial principles in conventional and modified geometrical optics and compare the results.

N. Ahmadi; M. Nouri-Zonoz

2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

331

Fiber optic connector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic connector and method for connecting composite materials within which optical fibers are imbedded. The fiber optic connector includes a capillary tube for receiving optical fibers at opposing ends. The method involves inserting a first optical fiber into the capillary tube and imbedding the unit in the end of a softened composite material. The capillary tube is injected with a coupling medium which subsequently solidifies. The composite material is machined to a desired configuration. An external optical fiber is then inserted into the capillary tube after fluidizing the coupling medium, whereby the optical fibers are coupled.

Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenior City, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Optical XOR gate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical XOR gate is formed as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) from two sets of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each set of the optical waveguide devices including an electroabsorption modulator electrically connected in series with a waveguide photodetector. The optical XOR gate utilizes two digital optical inputs to generate an XOR function digital optical output. The optical XOR gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.

Vawter, G. Allen

2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

333

Optical NOR gate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical NOR gate is formed from two pair of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each pair of the optical waveguide devices consisting of an electroabsorption modulator electrically connected in series with a waveguide photodetector. The optical NOR gate utilizes two digital optical inputs and a continuous light input to provide a NOR function digital optical output. The optical NOR gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.

Skogen, Erik J. (Albuquerque, NM); Tauke-Pedretti, Anna (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

334

Caregivers perceptions and comprehension of dosage administration directions for over-the-counter cough and cold medications in children 2 to 12 years of age.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Recently, over-the-counter cough and cold medication usage in children has received increased attention by the medical community, parents/caregivers and the Food and Drug Administration. Concerns (more)

Senter, Ellene Caitlin Bagby

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Diesel particles -a health hazard 1 Diesel particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diesel particles - a health hazard 1 Diesel particles - a health hazard #12;The Danish Ecological Council - August 20042 Diesel particles - a health hazard ISBN: 87-89843-61-4 Text by: Christian Ege 33150777 Fax no.: +45 33150971 E-mail: info@ecocouncil.dk www.ecocouncil.dk #12;Diesel particles - a health

336

Supertwistors and massive particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the (super)twistor formulation of massless (super)particle mechanics, the mass-shell constraint is replaced by a spin-shell constraint from which the spin content can be read off. We extend this formalism to massive (super)particles (with N-extended spacetime supersymmetry) in three and four spacetime dimensions, explaining how the spin-shell constraints are related to spin, and we use it to prove equivalence of the massive N=1 and BPS-saturated N=2 superparticle actions. We also find the supertwistor form of the action for spinning particles with N-extended worldline supersymmetry, massless in four dimensions and massive in three dimensions, and we show how this simplifies special features of the N=2 case. -- Highlights: Spin-shell constraints are related to Poincar Casimirs. Twistor form of 4D spinning particle for spin N/2. Twistor proof of scalar/antisymmetric tensor equivalence for 4D spin 0. Twistor form of 3D particle with arbitrary spin. Proof of equivalence of N=1 and N=2 BPS massive 4D superparticles.

Mezincescu, Luca, E-mail: mezincescu@server.physics.miami.edu [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124 (United States); Routh, Alasdair J., E-mail: a.j.routh@damtp.cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, CMS, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Townsend, Paul K., E-mail: p.k.townsend@damtp.cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, CMS, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 3. The Anti-particle  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 3. The Anti-particle. It appears to be the stuff of science fiction. Associated with every elementary particle is an antiparticle which has the same mass and opposite charge. Should the two meet and combine, the result is annihilation - and a flash of light. Thanks to mysterious processes that occurred after the Big Bang there are a vastly greater number of particles than anti-particles. So how could their elusive existence be proved? At CERN particle physicists are crashing together subatomic particles at incredibly high speeds to create antimatter, which they hope will finally reveal what happened at the precise moment of the Big Bang to create the repertoire of elementary particles and antiparticles in existence today.

None

2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

338

Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 3. The Anti-particle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 3. The Anti-particle. It appears to be the stuff of science fiction. Associated with every elementary particle is an antiparticle which has the same mass and opposite charge. Should the two meet and combine, the result is annihilation - and a flash of light. Thanks to mysterious processes that occurred after the Big Bang there are a vastly greater number of particles than anti-particles. So how could their elusive existence be proved? At CERN particle physicists are crashing together subatomic particles at incredibly high speeds to create antimatter, which they hope will finally reveal what happened at the precise moment of the Big Bang to create the repertoire of elementary particles and antiparticles in existence today.

None

2009-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

339

COS DCE BOOT FSW v1.13 Component Test Results Requirement 5.2.3.3a Counters for All Commands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COS DCE BOOT FSW v1.13 Component Test Results Requirement 5.2.3.3a Counters for All Commands Date. Brownsberger 2-13-01 The Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy Reviewed: Approved: COS DCE BOOT FSW v1 Initial Release COS DCE BOOT FSW v1.13 Component Test Results Requirement 5.2.3.3a Counters for All

Colorado at Boulder, University of

340

COS DCE BOOT FSW v1.09 Component Test Results Requirement 5.2.3.3a Counter for All Commands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COS DCE BOOT FSW v1.09 Component Test Results Requirement 5.2.3.3a Counter for All Commands Date. Brownsberger 2-13-01 The Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy Reviewed: Approved: COS DCE BOOT FSW v1 Initial Release COS DCE BOOT FSW v1.09 Component Test Results Requirement 5.2.3.3a Counter for All

Colorado at Boulder, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical particle counter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Navigating the tension between the master narrative of the academy and the counter-narrative of reform: personal case studies from within an engineering education coalition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NAVIGATING THE TENSION BETWEEN THE MASTER NARRATIVE OF THE ACADEMY AND THE COUNTER- NARRATIVE OF REFORM: PERSONAL CASE STUDIES FROM WITHIN AN ENGINEERING EDUCATION COALITION A Dissertation by PRUDENCE MERTON Submitted... BETWEEN THE MASTER NARRATIVE OF THE ACADEMY AND THE COUNTER- NARRATIVE OF REFORM: PERSONAL CASE STUDIES FROM WITHIN AN ENGINEERING EDUCATION COALITION A Dissertation by PRUDENCE MERTON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

Merton, Prudence

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

342

Charged particle accelerator grating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator is described. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams onto the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

Palmer, R.B.

1985-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

343

Precision wood particle feedstocks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

344

Biological particle identification apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for making multiparameter light scattering measurements from suspensions of biological particles is described. Fourteen of the sixteen Mueller matrix elements describing the particles under investigation can be substantially individually determined as a function of scattering angle and probing radiations wavelength, eight elements simultaneously for each of two apparatus configurations using an apparatus which incluees, in its simplest form, two polarization modulators each operating at a chosen frequency, one polarizer, a source of monochromatic electromagnetic radiation, a detector sensitive to the wavelength of radiation employed, eight phase-sensitive detectors, and appropriate electronics. A database of known biological particle suspensions can be assembled, and unknown samples can be quickly identified once measurements are performed on it according to the teachings of the subject invention, and a comparison is made with the database.

Salzman, Gary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Gregg, Charles T. (Los Alamos, NM); Grace, W. Kevin (Los Alamos, NM); Hiebert, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

A Stable Massive Charged Particle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the possibility of the existence of a stable massive charged particle by a minimal extension of the standard model particle content. Absolute stability in the case of singly charged particle is not possible if the usual doublet Higgs exists, unless a discrete symmetry is imposed.But a doubly charged particle is absolutely stable.

G. Rajasekaran

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

346

The fluctuation energy balance in non-suspended fluid-mediated particle transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Here we compare two extreme regimes of non-suspended fluid-mediated particle transport, transport in light and heavy fluids ("saltation" and "bedload", respectively), regarding their particle fluctuation energy balance. From direct numerical simulations, we surprisingly find that the ratio between collisional and fluid drag dissipation of fluctuation energy is significantly larger in saltation than in bedload, even though the contribution of interparticle collisions to transport of momentum and energy is much smaller in saltation due to the low concentration of particles in the transport layer. We conclude that the much higher frequency of high-energy particle-bed impacts ("splash") in saltation is the cause for this counter-intuitive behavior. Moreover, from a comparison of these simulations to Particle Tracking Velocimetry measurements which we performed in a wind tunnel under steady transport of fine and coarse sand, we find that turbulent fluctuations of the flow produce particle fluctuation energy at an unexpectedly high rate in saltation even under conditions for which the effects of turbulence are usually believed to be small.

Thomas Phtz; Orencio Durn; Tuan-Duc Ho; Alexandre Valance; Jasper F. Kok

2015-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

347

Perturbative Study of Energetic Particle Redistribution by Alfven Eigenmodes in ITER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The modification of particle distributions by magnetohydrodynamic modes is an important topic for magnetically confined plasmas. Low amplitude modes are known to be capable of producing significant modification of injected neutral beam profiles. Flattening of a distribution due to phase mixing in an island or due to portions of phase space becoming stochastic is a process extremely rapid on the time scale of an experiment. In this paper we examine the effect of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) and reversed shear Alfven eigenmodes (RSAE) in ITER on alpha particle and injected beam distributions using theoretically predicted mode amplitudes. It is found that for the equilibrium of a hybrid scenario even at ten times the predicted saturation level the modes have negligible effect on these distributions. A strongly reversed shear (or advanced) scenario, having a spectrum of modes that are much more global, is somewhat more susceptible to induced loss due to mode resonance, with alpha particle losses of over one percent with predicted amplitudes and somewhat larger with the assistance of toroidal field ripple. The elevated q profile contributes to stronger TAE (RSAE) drive and more unstable modes. An analysis of the existing mode-particle resonances is carried out to determine which modes are responsible for the profile modification and induced loss. We find that losses are entirely due to resonance with the counter-moving and trapped particle populations, with co-moving passing particles participating in resonances only deep within the plasma and not leading to loss.

N.N. Gorelenkov and R.B. White

2012-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

348

Loose abrasive slurries for optical glass lapping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Loose abrasive lapping is widely used to prepare optical glass before its final polishing. We carried out a comparison of 20 different slurries from four different vendors. Slurry particle sizes and morphologies were measured. Fused silica samples were lapped with these different slurries on a single side polishing machine and characterized in terms of surface roughness and depth of subsurface damage (SSD). Effects of load, rotation speed, and slurry concentration during lapping on roughness, material removal rate, and SSD were investigated.

Neauport, Jerome; Destribats, Julie; Maunier, Cedric; Ambard, Chrystel; Cormont, Philippe; Pintault, B.; Rondeau, Olivier

2010-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

349

Heating dynamics of CO{sub 2}-laser irradiated silica particles with evaporative shrinking: Measurements and modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The heating dynamics of CO{sub 2}-laser heated micron-sized particles were determined for temperatures <3500 K measured using infrared imaging. A coupled mass and energy conservation model is derived to predict single particle temperatures and sizes, which were compared with data from particles deposited on non-absorbing substrates to assess the relevant heat transfer processes. Analysis reveals substrate conduction dominates all other heat losses, while laser absorption determined from Mie theory is strongly modulated by particle evaporative shrinking. This study provides insights into the light coupling and heating of particle arrays where the material optical properties are temperature-dependent and particle size changes are significant.

Elhadj, S.; Qiu, S. R.; Stolz, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Monterrosa, A. M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94704 (United States)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Latching micro optical switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.

Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

351

Particle Physics and Cosmology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Today, both particle physics and cosmology are described by few parameter Standard Models, i.e. it is possible to deduce consequence of particle physics in cosmology and vice verse. The former is examined in this lecture, in light of the recent systematic exploration of the electroweak scale by the LHC experiments. The two main results of the first phase of the LHC, the discovery of a Higgs-like particle and the absence so far of new particles predicted by "natural" theories beyond the Standard Model (supersymmetry, extra-dimension and composite Higgs) are put in a historical context to enlighten their importance and then presented extensively. To be complete, a short review from the neutrino physics, which can not be probed at LHC, is also given. The ability of all these results to resolve the 3 fundamental questions of cosmology about the nature of dark energy and dark matter as well as the origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is discussed in each case.

P. Pralavorio

2014-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

352

A Step-by-step Guide to the Realisation of Advanced Optical Tweezers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Since the pioneering work of Arthur Ashkin, optical tweezers have become an indispensable tool for contactless manipulation of micro- and nanoparticles. Nowadays optical tweezers are employed in a myriad of applications demonstrating the importance of these tools. While the basic principle of optical tweezers is the use of a strongly focused laser beam to trap and manipulate particles, ever more complex experimental set-ups are required in order to perform novel and challenging experiments. With this article, we provide a detailed step- by-step guide for the construction of advanced optical manipulation systems. First, we explain how to build a single-beam optical tweezers on a home-made microscope and how to calibrate it. Improving on this design, we realize a holographic optical tweezers, which can manipulate independently multiple particles and generate more sophisticated wavefronts such as Laguerre-Gaussian beams. Finally, we explain how to implement a speckle optical tweezers, which permit one to employ ...

Pesce, Giuseppe; Marago, Onofrio M; Jones, Philip H; Gigain, Sylvain; Sasso, Antonio; Volpe, Giovanni

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Active optical zoom system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

Wick, David V.

2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

354

Sign reversal in optical nonlinearity: Impact of dielectric fied enhancement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sign reversal in optical nonlinearity: Impact of dielectric fied enhancement Summary and Outlook Z(mm) T -10 -5 0 5 10 0.8 0.9 1.0 Irradiation from particle layer Irradiation from glass side T/T0 I0= 150 GWcm-2 Z(mm) -10 0 10 0,9 1,0 1,1 T/T0 =0 >0 Z(mm) optical

Mosegaard, Klaus

355

''Atomic Optics'': Nonimaging Optics on the Nanoscale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report for a one year close out extension of our basic research program that was established at the University of Chicago more than sixteen years ago to explore and develop the optical sub-discipline that has come to be known as ''nonimaging optics''. This program has been extremely fruitful, having both broadened the range of formalism available for workers in this field and led to the discovery of many new families of optical devices. These devices and techniques have applications wherever the efficient transport and transformation of light distributions are important, in particular in illumination, fiber optics, collection and concentration of sunlight, and the detection of faint light signals in physics and astrophysics. Over the past thirty years, Nonimaging Optics (Welford and Winston, 1989) has brought a fresh approach to the analysis of many problems in classical macro-scale optics. Through the application of phase-space concepts, statistical methods, thermodynamic arguments, etc., many previously established performance limits were able to be broken and many technical surprises with exciting practical applications were discovered. The most recent three-year phase of our long-term continuing program ended in late 2002 and emphasized extending our work in geometrical optics and expanding it to include some interesting questions in physical optics as well as in the new field of statistical optics. This report presents a survey of the basic history and concepts of nonimaging optics and reviews highlights and significant accomplishments over the past fifteen years. This is followed by a more detailed summary of recent research directions and accomplishments during the last three years. This most recent phase was marked by the broadening in scope to include a separate project involving a collaboration with an industrial partner, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). This effort was proposed and approved in 1998 and was incorporated into this project (September, 1998) with the required additional funding provided through this already existing grant.

Roland Winston Joseph O'Gallagher

2005-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

High bandwidth optical mount  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage.

Bender, Donald A. (Dublin, CA); Kuklo, Thomas (Oakdale, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Optics and Diagnostics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

test optic after receiving chemical process called AMP2.5, which is under development for increasing the damage threshold of 3 fused silica optics. Photo Number: 2013-05031...

358

High bandwidth optical mount  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage. 5 figs.

Bender, D.A.; Kuklo, T.

1994-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

359

The neutron long counter NERO for studies of beta-delayed neutron emission in the r-process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The neutron long counter NERO was built at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), Michigan State University, for measuring beta-delayed neutron-emission probabilities. The detector was designed to work in conjunction with a beta-decay implantation station, so that beta decays and beta-delayed neutrons emitted from implanted nuclei can be measured simultaneously. The high efficiency of about 40%, for the range of energies of interest, along with the small background, are crucial for measuring beta-delayed neutron emission branchings for neutron-rich r-process nuclei produced as low intensity fragmentation beams in in-flight separator facilities.

Pereira, J; Lorusso, G; Santi, P; Couture, A; Daly, J; Del Santo, M; Elliot, T; Goerres, J; Herlitzius, C; Kratz, K -L; Lamm, L O; Lee, H Y; Montes, F; Ouellette, M; Pellegrini, E; Reeder, P; Schatz, H; Schertz, F; Schnorrenberger, L; Smith, K; Stech, E; Strandberg, E; Ugalde, C; Wiescher, M; Woehr, A; 10.1016/j.nima.2010.02.262

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

The neutron long counter NERO for studies of beta-delayed neutron emission in the r-process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The neutron long counter NERO was built at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), Michigan State University, for measuring beta-delayed neutron-emission probabilities. The detector was designed to work in conjunction with a beta-decay implantation station, so that beta decays and beta-delayed neutrons emitted from implanted nuclei can be measured simultaneously. The high efficiency of about 40%, for the range of energies of interest, along with the small background, are crucial for measuring beta-delayed neutron emission branchings for neutron-rich r-process nuclei produced as low intensity fragmentation beams in in-flight separator facilities.

J. Pereira; P. Hosmer; G. Lorusso; P. Santi; A. Couture; J. Daly; M. Del Santo; T. Elliot; J. Goerres; C. Herlitzius; K. -L. Kratz; L. O. Lamm; H. Y. Lee; F. Montes; M. Ouellette; E. Pellegrini; P. Reeder; H. Schatz; F. Schertz; L. Schnorrenberger; K. Smith; E. Stech; E. Strandberg; C. Ugalde; M. Wiescher; A. Woehr

2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical particle counter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Counter-facing plasma focus system as a repetitive and/or long-pulse high energy density plasma source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A plasma focus system composed of a pair of counter-facing coaxial plasma guns is proposed as a long-pulse and/or repetitive high energy density plasma source. A proof-of-concept experiment demonstrated that with an assist of breakdown and outer electrode connections, current sheets evolved into a configuration for stable plasma confinement at the center of the electrodes. The current sheets could successively compress and confine the high energy density plasma every half period of the discharge current, enabling highly repetitive light emissions in extreme ultraviolet region with time durations in at least ten microseconds.

Aoyama, Yutaka; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko [Department of Energy Sciences, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

362

Optics and Diagnostics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

10 14 | Next | Last Back to Index Optics Diffraction Gratings for APPOLON laser. Photo Number: 2011-020040...

363

Reflective optical imaging system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Optical voltage reference  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

365

Experimental Particle Physics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the BaBar experiment, which collected data at SLAC until 2008. They continued to analyze the voluminous BaBar data with an emphasis on precision tests of Quantum Chromodynamics and on properties of the "eta_B," a bottom quark paired in a meson with a strange quark. The ATLAS experiment became the principal research focus for Purohit. One of the world's largest pieces of scientific equipment, ATLAS observes particle collisions at the highest-energy particle accelerator ever built, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Our efforts on ATLAS included participation in the commissioning, calibration, and installation of components called "CSCs". The unprecedented energy of 14 TeV enabled the ATLAS and CMS collaborations to declare discovery of the famous Higgs particle in 2012.

Rosenfeld, Carl [Univ of South Carolina] (ORCID:0000000338571223); Mishra, Sanjib R. [Univ of South Carolina; Petti, Roberto [Univ of South Carolina; Purohit, Milind V. [Univ of South Carolina

2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

366

Optical Diagnostics Thomas Tsang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical Diagnostics Thomas Tsang · tight environment · high radiation area · non-serviceable area · passive components · optics only, no active electronics · transmit image through flexible fiber bundle #12;New imaging fiber bundle Core size: 12 µm, diameter: 1/8" Optical Diagnostics Total fiber counts ~50

McDonald, Kirk

367

REVIEW ARTICLE Optical trapping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REVIEW ARTICLE Optical trapping Keir C. Neuman and Steven M. Blocka) Department of Biological ago, optical traps have emerged as a powerful tool with broad-reaching applications in biology--and the measurement of nanometer-level displacements of--optically trapped objects. We review progress

Block, Steven

368

COO-3072-119 RESULTS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A BROAD BAND FOCUSSING CHERENKOV COUNTER*  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route BTRICGEGR-N Goods PO 1 ofEmployee2220-110

369

Higher Order Assembly of Microtubules by Counter-ions: From Hexagonal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinement plasmas in theinPlastics -␤, improved confinementBundles to

370

Masses of Fundamental Particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the original paper entitled, "Masses of Fundamental Particles"(arXiv:1109.3705v5, 10 Feb 2012), not only the masses of fundamental particles including the weak bosons, Higgs boson, quarks, and leptons, but also the mixing angles of quarks and those of neutrinos are all explained and/or predicted in the unified composite models of quarks and leptons successfully. In this addendum entitled, "Higgs Boson Mass in the Minimal Unified Subquark Model", it is emphasized that the Higgs boson mass is predicted to be about 130Gev in the minimal unified subquark model, which agrees well with the experimental values of 125-126GeV recently found by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the LHC.

Hidezumi Terazawa

2014-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

371

Particle detector spatial resolution  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs.

Perez-Mendez, V.

1992-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

372

Particle detector spatial resolution  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector.

Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Three-dimensional light trap for reflective particles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for containing either a reflective particle or a particle having an index of refraction lower than that of the surrounding media in a three-dimensional light cage. A light beam from a single source illuminates an optics system and generates a set of at least three discrete focussed beams that emanate from a single exit aperture and focus on to a focal plane located close to the particle. The set of focal spots defines a ring that surrounds the particle. The set of focussed beams creates a "light cage" and circumscribes a zone of no light within which the particle lies. The surrounding beams apply constraining forces (created by radiation pressure) to the particle, thereby containing it in a three-dimensional force field trap. A diffractive element, such as an aperture multiplexed lens, or either a Dammann grating or phase element in combination with a focusing lens, may be used to generate the beams. A zoom lens may be used to adjust the size of the light cage, permitting particles of various sizes to be captured and contained.

Neal, Daniel R. (Tijeras, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Dynamic radioactive particle source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

375

University of Central Florida College of Optics & Photonics Optics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University of Central Florida College of Optics & Photonics Optics Spring 2010 OSE-6432: Principles of guided wave optics; electro -optics, acousto-optics and optoelectronics. Location: CREOL-A-214 or by Appointment Reference Materials: 1. Class Notes. 2. "Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides", K. Okamoto, Academic

Van Stryland, Eric

376

Cosmology with decaying particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We consider a cosmological model in which an unstable massive relic particle species (denoted by X) has an initial mass density relative to baryons ..beta../sup -1/ identically equal rho/sub X//rho/sub B/ >> 1, and then decays recently (redshift z less than or equal to 1000) into particles which are still relativistic today (denoted by R). We write down and solve the coupled equations for the cosmic scale factor a(t), the energy density in the various components (rho/sub X/, rho/sub R/, rho/sub B/), and the growth of linear density perturbations (delta rho/rho). The solutions form a one parameter (..beta..) family of solutions; physically ..beta../sup -1/ approx. = (..cap omega../sub R//..cap omega../sub NR/) x (1 + z/sub D/) = (ratio today of energy density of relativistic to nonrelativistic particles) x (1 + redshift of (decay)). We discuss the observational implications of such a cosmological model and compare our results to earlier results computed in the simultaneous decay approximation. In an appendix we briefly consider the case where one of the decay products of the X is massive and becomes nonrelativistic by the present epoch. 21 references.

Turner, M.S.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Alpha Particle Diagnostic  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study of burning plasmas is the next frontier in fusion energy research, and will be a major objective of the U.S. fusion program through U.S. collaboration with our international partners on the ITER Project. For DT magnetic fusion to be useful for energy production, it is essential that the energetic alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions be confined long enough to deposit a significant fraction of their initial ~3.5 MeV energy in the plasma before they are lost. Development of diagnostics to study the behavior of energetic confined alpha particles is a very important if not essential part of burning plasma research. Despite the clear need for these measurements, development of diagnostics to study confined the fast confined alphas to date has proven extremely difficult, and the available techniques remain for the most part unproven and with significant uncertainties. Research under this grant had the goal of developing diagnostics of fast confined alphas, primarily based on measurements of the neutron and ion tails resulting from alpha particle knock-on collisions with the plasma deuterium and tritium fuel ions. One of the strengths of this approach is the ability to measure the alphas in the hot plasma core where the interesting ignition physics will occur.

Fisher, Ray, K.

2009-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

378

Non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device including a photorefractive crystal and a laser is disclosed. The laser produces a coherent light beam which is split by a beam splitter into a first laser beam and a second laser beam. After passing through the crystal the first laser beam is counter-propagated back upon itself by a retro-mirror, creating a third laser beam. The laser beams are modulated, due to the mixing effect within the crystal by vibration of the crystal. In the third laser beam, modulation is stable and such modulation is converted by a photodetector into a usable electrical output, intensity modulated in accordance with vibration applied to the crystal. 3 figs.

Kalibjian, R.

1994-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

379

Non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device (10) including a photorefractive crystal (26) and a laser (12). The laser (12 ) produces a coherent light beam (14) which is split by a beam splitter (18) into a first laser beam (20) and a second laser beam (22). After passing through the crystal (26) the first laser beam (20) is counter-propagated back upon itself by a retro-mirror (32), creating a third laser beam (30). The laser beams (20, 22, 30) are modulated, due to the mixing effect within the crystal (26) by vibration of the crystal (30). In the third laser beam (30), modulation is stable and such modulation is converted by a photodetector (34) into a usable electrical output, intensity modulated in accordance with vibration applied to the crystal (26).

Kalibjian, Ralph (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

380

Optical Resonators in Current and Future Experiments of the ALPS Collaboration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ALPS collaboration runs a "light shining through a wall" (LSW) experiment to search for weakly interacting sub-eV particles (WISPs). Its sensitivity is significantly enhanced by the incorporation of a large-scale production resonator and a small-scale high-power resonant second harmonic generator. Here we report on important experimental details and limitations of these resonators and derive recommendations for further experiments. A very promising improvement for a future ALPS experiment is the incorporation of an additional large-scale regeneration resonator. We present a rough sketch of how to combine a regeneration resonator with a single-photon counter (SPC) as detector for regenerated photons.

T. Meier; for the ALPS collaboration

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical particle counter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Ghost imaging for three-dimensional optical security  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ghost imaging has become increasingly popular in quantum and optical application fields. Here, we report three-dimensional (3D) optical security using ghost imaging. The series of random phase-only masks are sparsified, which are further converted into particle-like distributions placed in 3D space. We show that either an optical or digital approach can be employed for the encoding. The results illustrate that a larger key space can be generated due to the application of 3D space compared with previous works.

Chen, Wen, E-mail: elechenw@nus.edu.sg; Chen, Xudong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)

2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

382

Nano-engineering by optically directed self-assembly.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lack of robust manufacturing capabilities have limited our ability to make tailored materials with useful optical and thermal properties. For example, traditional methods such as spontaneous self-assembly of spheres cannot generate the complex structures required to produce a full bandgap photonic crystals. The goal of this work was to develop and demonstrate novel methods of directed self-assembly of nanomaterials using optical and electric fields. To achieve this aim, our work employed laser tweezers, a technology that enables non-invasive optical manipulation of particles, from glass microspheres to gold nanoparticles. Laser tweezers were used to create ordered materials with either complex crystal structures or using aspherical building blocks.

Furst, Eric (University of Delaware, Newark, DE); Dunn, Elissa (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Park, Jin-Gyu (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Sainis, Sunil (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Merrill, Jason (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Dufresne, Eric (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Reichert, Matthew D.; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Molecke, Ryan A.; Koehler, Timothy P.; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Grillet, Anne Mary; Gorby, Allen D.; Singh, John (University of Delaware, Newark, DE); Lele, Pushkar (University of Delaware, Newark, DE); Mittal, Manish (University of Delaware, Newark, DE)

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Particle-free microchip processing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus for reducing particulate contamination in microchip processing are disclosed. The method and apparatus comprise means to reduce particle velocity toward the wafer before the particles can be deposited on the wafer surface. A reactor using electric fields to reduce particle velocity and prevent particulate contamination is disclosed. A reactor using a porous showerhead to reduce particle velocities and prevent particulate contamination is disclosed. 5 figs.

Geller, A.S.; Rader, D.J.

1996-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

384

Fiber optic vibration sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity.

Dooley, Joseph B. (Harriman, TN); Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Tobin, Kenneth W. (Harriman, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Fiber optic vibration sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity. 2 figures.

Dooley, J.B.; Muhs, J.D.; Tobin, K.W.

1995-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

386

Omnidirectional fiber optic tiltmeter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A tiltmeter is provided which is useful in detecting very small movements such as earth tides. The device comprises a single optical fiber, and an associated weight affixed thereto, suspended from a support to form a pendulum. A light source, e.g., a light emitting diode, mounted on the support transmits light through the optical fiber to a group of further optical fibers located adjacent to but spaced from the free end of the single optical fiber so that displacement of the single optical fiber with respect to the group will result in a change in the amount of light received by the individual optical fibers of the group. Photodetectors individually connectd to the fibers produce corresponding electrical outputs which are differentially compared and processed to produce a resultant continuous analog output representative of the amount and direction of displacement of the single optical fiber.

Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.

1983-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

387

Non-accelerator Particle Physics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Surface science: Prof Gratta #12;Sept 16, 09 Grad Sudent Orientation: Non Accel Particle Physics 4;Sept 16, 09 Grad Sudent Orientation: Non Accel Particle Physics 5 Composition of the Cosmos WIMPs WMAP best fit #12;Sept 16, 09 Grad Sudent Orientation: Non Accel Particle Physics 6 What is the dark matter

Wechsler, Risa H.

388

Apparatus for separating particles utilizing engineered acoustic contrast capture particles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for separating particles from a medium includes a capillary defining a flow path therein that is in fluid communication with a medium source. The medium source includes engineered acoustic contrast capture particle having a predetermined acoustic contrast. The apparatus includes a vibration generator that is operable to produce at least one acoustic field within the flow path. The acoustic field produces a force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles and a force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles in the flow path and drives the engineered acoustic contrast capture particles to either the force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles or the force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles.

Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

389

Apparatus for separating particles utilizing engineered acoustic contrast capture particles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for separating particles from a medium includes a capillary defining a flow path therein that is in fluid communication with a medium source. The medium source includes engineered acoustic contrast capture particle having a predetermined acoustic contrast. The apparatus includes a vibration generator that is operable to produce at least one acoustic field within the flow path. The acoustic field produces a force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles and a force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles in the flow path and drives the engineered acoustic contrast capture particles to either the force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles or the force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles.

Kaduchak, Gregory (Los Alamos, NM); Ward, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

390

A brief examination of optical tagging technologies.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presented within this report are the results of a brief examination of optical tagging technologies funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Sandia National Laboratories. The work was performed during the summer months of 2002 with total funding of $65k. The intent of the project was to briefly examine a broad range of approaches to optical tagging concentrating on the wavelength range between ultraviolet (UV) and the short wavelength infrared (SWIR, {lambda} < 2{micro}m). Tagging approaches considered include such things as simple combinations of reflective and absorptive materials closely spaced in wavelength to give a high contrast over a short range of wavelengths, rare-earth oxides in transparent binders to produce a narrow absorption line hyperspectral tag, and fluorescing materials such as phosphors, dies and chemically precipitated particles. One technical approach examined in slightly greater detail was the use of fluorescing nano particles of metals and semiconductor materials. The idea was to embed such nano particles in an oily film or transparent paint binder. When pumped with a SWIR laser such as that produced by laser diodes at {lambda}=1.54{micro}m, the particles would fluoresce at slightly longer wavelengths, thereby giving a unique signal. While it is believed that optical tags are important for military, intelligence and even law enforcement applications, as a business area, tags do not appear to represent a high on return investment. Other government agencies frequently shop for existing or mature tag technologies but rarely are interested enough to pay for development of an untried technical approach. It was hoped that through a relatively small investment of laboratory R&D funds, enough technologies could be identified that a potential customers requirements could be met with a minimum of additional development work. Only time will tell if this proves to be correct.

Ackermann, Mark R.; Cahill, Paul A. (Aspecular Optics, Dayton, OH); Drummond, Timothy J.; Wilcoxon, Jess Patrick

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

A Physical Protection Systems Test Bed for International Counter-Trafficking System Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Physical protection systems have a widespread impact on the nuclear industry in areas such as nuclear safeguards, arms control, and trafficking of illicit goods (e.g., nuclear materials) across international borders around the world. Many challenges must be overcome in design and deployment of foreign border security systems such as lack of infrastructure, extreme environmental conditions, limited knowledge of terrain, insider threats, and occasional cultural resistance. Successful security systems, whether it be a system designed to secure a single facility or a whole border security system, rely on the entire integrated system composed of multiple subsystems. This test bed is composed of many unique sensors and subsystems, including wireless unattended ground sensors, a buried fiber-optic acoustic sensor, a lossy coaxial distributed sensor, wireless links, pan-tilt-zoom cameras, mobile power generation systems, unmanned aerial vehicles, and fiber-optic-fence intrusion detection systems. A Common Operating Picture software architecture is utilized to integrate a number of these subsystems. We are currently performance testing each system for border security and perimeter security applications by examining metrics such as probability of sense and a qualitative understanding of the sensor s vulnerability of defeat. The testing process includes different soil conditions for buried sensors (e.g., dry, wet, and frozen) and an array of different tests including walking, running, stealth detection, and vehicle detection. Also, long term sustainability of systems is tested including performance differences due to seasonal variations (e.g. summer versus winter, while raining, in foggy conditions). The capabilities of the test bed are discussed. Performance testing results, both at the individual component level and integrated into a larger system for a specific deployment (in situ), help illustrate the usefulness and need for integrated testing facilities to carry out this mission. The test bed provides access to grassy fields, wooded areas, and a large waterway three distinct testing environments. The infrastructure supporting deployment of systems at the test bed includes grid power, renewable power systems, climate controlled enclosures, high bandwidth wireless links, and a fiber optic communications backbone. With over 10 acres of dedicated area and direct waterway access, the test bed is well suited for long term test and evaluation of physical protection and security systems targeting a wide range of applications.

Stinson, Brad J [ORNL] [ORNL; Kuhn, Michael J [ORNL] [ORNL; Donaldson, Terrence L [ORNL] [ORNL; Richardson, Dave [ORNL] [ORNL; Rowe, Nathan C [ORNL] [ORNL; Younkin, James R [ORNL] [ORNL; Pickett, Chris A [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

The assembly and calibration of a small animal whole-body counter utilizing ?b166?sholmium, ?b131?siodine, ?b186?srhenium, ?b153?ssamarium, and ?b99?s[superscript m]technetium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

these radionuclides. For this reason a small animal whole-body counting system has been assembled and calibrated using the radionuclides '"Ho, "'I, '"Re, "'Sm, and " Tc for further research of the palliative treatment of small animals. The whole-body counting... for the Whole-body Counter 28 10 Re-186 Calibration Curve for the Whole-body Counter 28 11 Sm-153 Calibration Curve for the Whole-body Counter 29 12 Tc-99m Calibration Curve for the Whole-body Counter 29 13 Ho-166 Photopeak and FWHM 14 I-131 Photopeak...

Hulkovich, Paul Randolph

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Evaluation of emerging parallel optical link technology for high energy physics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modern particle detectors utilize optical fiber links to deliver event data to upstream trigger and data processing systems. Future detector systems can benefit from the development of dense arrangements of high speed optical links emerging from industry advancements in transceiver technology. Supporting data transfers of up to 120 Gbps in each direction, optical engines permit assembly of the optical transceivers in close proximity to ASICs and FPGAs. Test results of some of these parallel components will be presented including the development of pluggable FPGA Mezzanine Cards equipped with optical engines to provide to collaborators on the Versatile Link Common Project for the HI-LHC at CERN.

Chramowicz, J.; Kwan, S.; Prosser, A.; Winchell, M.; /Fermilab

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Digital ultrasonically encoded (DUE) optical focusing into random media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Focusing light into opaque random or scattering media such as biological tissue is a much sought-after goal for biomedical applications such as photodynamic therapy, optical manipulation, and photostimulation. However, focusing with conventional lenses is restricted to one transport mean free path in scattering media, limiting both optical penetration depth and resolution. Focusing deeper is possible by using optical phase conjugation or wavefront shaping to compensate for the scattering. For practical applications, wavefront shaping offers the advantage of a robust optical system that is less sensitive to optical misalignment. Here, the phase of the incident light is spatially tailored using a phase-shifting array to pre-compensate for scattering. The challenge, then, is to determine the phase pattern which allows light to be optimally delivered to the target region. Optimization algorithms are typically employed for this purpose, with visible particles used as targets to generate feedback. However, using th...

Tay, Jian Wei; Suzuki, Yuta; Wang, Lihong V

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Carl Gagliardi Modern Particle  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed RouteNanotube TemplatedStorage MediumCareer3A.CarlCarl

396

Small Particles, Big Impact  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus Tom Fletcher, Assistant7/2013technicalSmall Particles, Big

397

Feshbach resonance management of Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices Mason A. Porter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Feshbach resonance management of Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices Mason A. Porter; published 15 September 2006 We analyze gap solitons in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates BECs in optical.75.Lm, 03.75.Nt I. INTRODUCTION At sufficiently low temperatures, particles in a dilute bo- son gas can

Porter, Mason A.

398

Diagnostic probes for particle and molecule distributions in laser-generated plumes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser microprobe analysis (LMA) offers good spatial and depth resolution for solid sampling of virtually any material. Coupled with numerous optical spectroscopic and mass spectrometric detection methods, LMA is a powerful analytical tool. Yet, fundamental understanding of the interaction between the laser and the sample surface leading to the formation of the high temperature plasma (plume) is far from complete. To better understand the process of plume formation, an imaging method based on acousto-optic laser beam deflection has been coupled with light scattering methods and absorption methods to record temporal and spatial maps of the particle and molecule distributions in the plume with good resolution. Because particles can make up a major fraction of the vaporized material under certain operating conditions, they can reflect a large loss of atomic signal for elemental analysis, even when using auxiliary excitation to further vaporized the particles. Characterization of the particle size distributions in plumes should provide insight into the vaporization process and information necessary for studies of efficient particle transfer. Light scattering methods for particle size analysis based on the Mie Theory are used to determine the size of particles in single laser-generated plumes. The methods used, polarization ratio method and dissymmetry ratio method, provide good estimates of particle size with good spatial and temporal resolution for this highly transient system. Large particles, on the order of 0.02-0.2{mu}m in radius, were observed arising directly from the sample surface and from condensation.

Kimbrell, S.M.

1990-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

399

A cerium glass fiber-optic active target for high energy physics experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fiber-optic plate imaging system has been developed for active target and tracking applications, in which the active element is Ce(3+) in a silicate glass. Particle tracks and interactions have been recorded with a hit density of /approx gt/4/mm for minimum ionizing particles and with a spatial resolution sigma /similar to/ 28..mu..m.

Ruchti, R.; Baumbaugh, B.; Bishop, J.; Biswas, N.; Busenitz, J.; Cason, N.; Cunningham, J.; Gardner, R.; Grenquist, S.; Kenney, V.; Mannel, E.; Mountain, R.; Shephard, W.; Baumbaugh, A.; Knickerbocker, K.; Wegner, C.; Yarema, R.; Rogers, A.; Kinchen, B.; Ellis, J.; Mead, R.; Swanson, D.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Propionic-Acid-Terminated Silicon Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Optical Characterization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

producing water-dispersible, propionic-acid-terminated particles. From transmission electron microscope (TEM oxidation of the nanocrystals. The silicon nanocrystals could be transferred into water or methanol in acrylic acid, water, and methanol and showed essentially the same optical properties in all three solvents

Swihart, Mark T.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical particle counter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Optical geometry analysis of the electromagnetic self-force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an analysis of the behaviour of the electromagnetic self-force for charged particles in a conformally static spacetime, interpreting the results with the help of optical geometry. Some conditions for the vanishing of the local terms in the self-force are derived and discussed.

Sebastiano Sonego; Marek A. Abramowicz

2006-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

402

airborne fine particles: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

system consisting of an array of high precision scintillator Time of Flight and silica Aerogel Counters, is discussed. The performances achieved in the beam tests are...

403

antisigma particles: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

system consisting of an array of high precision scintillator Time of Flight and silica Aerogel Counters, is discussed. The performances achieved in the beam tests are...

404

ambient ultrafine particles: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

system consisting of an array of high precision scintillator Time of Flight and silica Aerogel Counters, is discussed. The performances achieved in the beam tests are...

405

alphavirus replicon particles: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

system consisting of an array of high precision scintillator Time of Flight and silica Aerogel Counters, is discussed. The performances achieved in the beam tests are...

406

airborne particles pm10: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

system consisting of an array of high precision scintillator Time of Flight and silica Aerogel Counters, is discussed. The performances achieved in the beam tests are...

407

ambient fine particle: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

system consisting of an array of high precision scintillator Time of Flight and silica Aerogel Counters, is discussed. The performances achieved in the beam tests are...

408

aerodynamic particle sizer: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

system consisting of an array of high precision scintillator Time of Flight and silica Aerogel Counters, is discussed. The performances achieved in the beam tests are...

409

antixi particles: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

system consisting of an array of high precision scintillator Time of Flight and silica Aerogel Counters, is discussed. The performances achieved in the beam tests are...

410

autofluorescent retroviral particles: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

system consisting of an array of high precision scintillator Time of Flight and silica Aerogel Counters, is discussed. The performances achieved in the beam tests are...

411

adverbial particles prefixes: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

system consisting of an array of high precision scintillator Time of Flight and silica Aerogel Counters, is discussed. The performances achieved in the beam tests are...

412

ambient fine particles: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

system consisting of an array of high precision scintillator Time of Flight and silica Aerogel Counters, is discussed. The performances achieved in the beam tests are...

413

antiomega particles: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

system consisting of an array of high precision scintillator Time of Flight and silica Aerogel Counters, is discussed. The performances achieved in the beam tests are...

414

Comparative analysis of spectra of the background of the proportional counter filled with Kr, enriched in Kr-78, and with Kr of natural content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The results of the experiment searching for 2K-capture with large low-background proportional counter are presented. The comparison of spectra of the background of the proportional counter filled with Kr enriched in $^{78}$Kr (8400 hr) and with natural Kr (3039 hr) is given. A new limit on the half-life of $^{78}$Kr with regard to 2K-capture, T$_{1/2}\\geq2.0\\cdot10^{21}$ yrs (95% C.L.) has been obtained.

Yu. M. Gavriljuk; V. N. Gavrin; A. M. Gangapshev; V. V. Kazalov; V. V. Kuzminov; S. I. Panasenko; S. S. Ratkevich

2007-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

415

Transpiration purged optical probe  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical apparatus for clearly viewing the interior of a containment vessel by applying a transpiration fluid to a volume directly in front of the external surface of the optical element of the optical apparatus. The fluid is provided by an external source and transported by means of an annular tube to a capped end region where the inner tube is perforated. The perforation allows the fluid to stream axially towards the center of the inner tube and then axially away from an optical element which is positioned in the inner tube just prior to the porous sleeve. This arrangement draws any contaminants away from the optical element keeping it free of contaminants. In one of several embodiments, the optical element can be a lens, a viewing port or a laser, and the external source can provide a transpiration fluid having either steady properties or time varying properties.

2004-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

416

Entanglement in Classical Optics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The emerging field of entanglement or nonseparability in classical optics is reviewed, and its similarities with and differences from quantum entanglement clearly pointed out through a recapitulation of Hilbert spaces in general, the special restrictions on Hilbert spaces imposed in quantum mechanics and the role of Hilbert spaces in classical polarization optics. The production of Bell-like states in classical polarization optics is discussed, and new theorems are proved to discriminate between separable and nonseparable states in classical wave optics where no discreteness is involved. The influence of the Pancharatnam phase on a classical Bell-like state is deived. Finally, to what extent classical polarization optics can be used to simulate quantum information processing tasks is also discussed. This should be of great practical importance because coherence and entanglement are robust in classical optics but not in quantum systems.

Partha Ghose; Anirban Mukherjee

2013-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

417

Atmospheric optical calibration system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

418

Quantum optical waveform conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Currently proposed architectures for long-distance quantum communication rely on networks of quantum processors connected by optical communications channels [1,2]. The key resource for such networks is the entanglement of matter-based quantum systems with quantum optical fields for information transmission. The optical interaction bandwidth of these material systems is a tiny fraction of that available for optical communication, and the temporal shape of the quantum optical output pulse is often poorly suited for long-distance transmission. Here we demonstrate that nonlinear mixing of a quantum light pulse with a spectrally tailored classical field can compress the quantum pulse by more than a factor of 100 and flexibly reshape its temporal waveform, while preserving all quantum properties, including entanglement. Waveform conversion can be used with heralded arrays of quantum light emitters to enable quantum communication at the full data rate of optical telecommunications.

D Kielpinski; JF Corney; HM Wiseman

2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

419

A simple way to measure particle size in fluegases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The size range of particles found in fluegases from stationary emission sources, such as combustion stacks, is an important process parameter. Particle-size range not only affects plume opacity and dispersion modeling, but it is a key factor in the selection and design of air-pollution-control equipment, such as cyclones, bag filters and electrostatic precipitators. The particle-size distribution of a fluegas stream is also a useful parameter for analyzing the performance efficiency of combustion equipment and particulate-removal systems. While several laboratories use costly, laser-beam techniques to carry out this task, no standard method to date has been developed to determine the size range of particles in stationary sources. This article discusses a method (described in US EPA Method 5) in which particles in gases circulating in a stack are collected isokinetically in a filter. Once collected, the particles are measured using an optical microscope. Despite some limitations, this relatively inexpensive method gives reproducible results in many applications. Several are described.

Gomes, J.F.P. [Inst. de Soldadura e Qualidade, Oerias (Portugal)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Reaction synthesis of Ni-Al based particle composite coatings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrodeposited metal matrix/metal particle composite (EMMC) coatings were produced with a nickel matrix and aluminum particles. By optimizing the process parameters, coatings were deposited with 20 volume percent aluminum particles. Coating morphology and composition were characterized using light optical microscopy (LOM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Differential thermal analysis (DTA) was employed to study reactive phase formation. The effect of heat treatment on coating phase formation was studied in the temperature range 415 to 1,000 C. Long-time exposure at low temperature results in the formation of several intermetallic phases at the Ni matrix/Al particle interfaces and concentrically around the original Al particles. Upon heating to the 500--600 C range, the aluminum particles react with the nickel matrix to form NiAl islands within the Ni matrix. When exposed to higher temperatures (600--1,000 C), diffusional reaction between NiAl and nickel produces ({gamma})Ni{sub 3}Al. The final equilibrium microstructure consists of blocks of ({gamma}{prime})Ni{sub 3}Al in a {gamma}(Ni) solid solution matrix, with small pores also present. Pore formation is explained based on local density changes during intermetallic phase formation and microstructural development is discussed with reference to reaction synthesis of bulk nickel aluminides.

SUSAN,DONALD F.; MISIOLEK,WOICECK Z.; MARDER,ARNOLD R.

2000-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical particle counter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Optical atomic magnetometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical atomic magnetometers is provided operating on the principles of nonlinear magneto-optical rotation. An atomic vapor is optically pumped using linearly polarized modulated light. The vapor is then probed using a non-modulated linearly polarized light beam. The resulting modulation in polarization angle of the probe light is detected and used in a feedback loop to induce self-oscillation at the resonant frequency.

Budker, Dmitry; Higbie, James; Corsini, Eric P

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

422

Optically measuring interior cavities  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.

Stone, Gary Franklin (Livermore, CA)

2008-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

423

Optical theorem and unitarity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is shown that an application of optical theorem for the non-unitary S-matrix can lead to the qualitative error in the result.

Valeriy Nazaruk

2014-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

424

LSST Camera Optics Design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) uses a novel, three-mirror, telescope design feeding a camera system that includes a set of broad-band filters and three refractive corrector lenses to produce a flat field at the focal plane with a wide field of view. Optical design of the camera lenses and filters is integrated in with the optical design of telescope mirrors to optimize performance. We discuss the rationale for the LSST camera optics design, describe the methodology for fabricating, coating, mounting and testing the lenses and filters, and present the results of detailed analyses demonstrating that the camera optics will meet their performance goals.

Riot, V J; Olivier, S; Bauman, B; Pratuch, S; Seppala, L; Gilmore, D; Ku, J; Nordby, M; Foss, M; Antilogus, P; Morgado, N

2012-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

425

Optical limiting materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Optical limiting materials. Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO.sub.2) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400-1100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes.

McBranch, Duncan W. (Santa Fe, NM); Mattes, Benjamin R. (Santa Fe, NM); Koskelo, Aaron C. (Los Alamos, NM); Heeger, Alan J. (Santa Barbara, CA); Robinson, Jeanne M. (Los Alamos, NM); Smilowitz, Laura B. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM); Cha, Myoungsik (Goleta, CA); Sariciftci, N. Serdar (Santa Barbara, CA); Hummelen, Jan C. (Groningen, NL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Prismatic optical display  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A spatially modulated light beam is projected, reflected, and redirected through a prismatic optical panel to form a video image for direct viewing thereon.

Veligdan, James T.; DeSanto, Leonard; Brewster, Calvin

2004-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

427

Optical contact micrometer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Certain examples provide optical contact micrometers and methods of use. An example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable lenses to receive an object and immobilize the object in a position. The example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable mirrors positioned with respect to the pair of lenses to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses. The example optical contact micrometer includes a microscope to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses via the mirrors; and an interferometer to obtain one or more measurements of the object.

Jacobson, Steven D.

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

428

Content Protection for Optical Media Content Protection for Optical Media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Content Protection for Optical Media Content Protection for Optical Media A Comparison of Self-Protecting Digital Content and AACS Independent Security Evaluators www.securityevaluators.com May 3, 2005 Copyright for Optical Media 2 #12;Content Protection for Optical Media Content Protection for Optical Media 3 Executive

Amir, Yair

429

Particle Impact Damping in the Horizontal Plane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Particle impact damping is measured for a cantilevered beam vibrating freely in the horizontal plane. Several particle configurations are investigated beginning with a single particle and progressing to multiple layers of particles. The effects...

Witt, Bryan

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

430

Chromatic and Dispersive Effects in Nonlinear Integrable Optics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proton accumulator rings and other circular hadron accelerators are susceptible to intensity-driven parametric instabilities because the zero-current charged particle dynamics are characterized by a single tune. Landau damping can suppress these instabilities, which requires energy spread in the beam or introducing nonlinear magnets such as octupoles. However, this approach reduces dynamic aperture. Nonlinear integrable optics can suppress parametric instabilities independent of energy spread in the distribution, while preserving the dynamic aperture. This novel approach promises to reduce particle losses and enable order-of-magnitude increases in beam intensity. In this paper we present results, obtained using the Lie operator formalism, on how chromaticity and dispersion affect particle orbits in integrable optics. We conclude that chromaticity in general breaks the integrability, unless the vertical and horizontal chromaticities are equal. Because of this, the chromaticity correcting magnets can be weaker ...

Webb, Stephen D; Valishev, Alexander; Nagaitsev, Sergei N; Danilov, Viatcheslav V

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Visualizing Particle-in-Cell Simulation of Laser Wakefield Particle...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of times greater than those obtained in conventional particle accelerators. LWFAs use the electric field of a plasma wave - the wakefield - driven by the radiation pressure of an...

432

Apparatus And Method For Reducing Drag Of A Bluff Body In Ground Effect Using Counter-Rotating Vortex Pairs  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An aerodynamic base drag reduction apparatus and method for bluff bodies, such as tractor-trailer trucks, utilizing a pair of lift surfaces extending to lift surface tips and located alongside the bluff body such as on opposing left and right side surfaces. In a flowstream substantially parallel to the longitudinal centerline of the bluff body, the pair of lift surfaces generate a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices which confluence together in the wake of the bluff body in a direction orthogonal to the flowstream. The confluence draws or otherwise turns the flowstream, such as the flowstream passing over a top surface of the bluff body, in and around behind a trailing end of the bluff body to raise the pressure on a base surface at the trailing end and thereby reduce the aerodynamic base drag.

Ortega, Jason M. (Pacifica, CA); Salari, Kambiz (Livermore, CA)

2005-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

433

Apparatus And Method For Reducing Drag Of A Bluff Body In Ground Effect Using Counter-Rotating Vortex Pairs  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An aerodynamic base drag reduction apparatus and method for bluff bodies, such as tractor-trailer trucks, utilizing a pair of lift surfaces extending to lift surface tips and located alongside the bluff body such as on opposing left and right side surfaces. In a flowstream substantially parallel to the longitudinal centerline of the bluff body, the pair of lift surfaces generate a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices which confluence together in the wake of the bluff body in a direction orthogonal to the flowstream. The confluence draws or otherwise turns the flowstream, such as the flowstream passing over a top surface of the bluff body, in and around behind a trailing end of the bluff body to raise the pressure on a base surface at the trailing end and thereby reduce the aerodynamic base drag.

Ortega, Jason M. (Pacifica, CA); Sabari, Kambiz (Livermore, CA)

2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

434

Theoretical Particle Astrophysics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract: Theoretical Particle Astrophysics The research carried out under this grant encompassed work on the early Universe, dark matter, and dark energy. We developed CMB probes for primordial baryon inhomogeneities, primordial non-Gaussianity, cosmic birefringence, gravitational lensing by density perturbations and gravitational waves, and departures from statistical isotropy. We studied the detectability of wiggles in the inflation potential in string-inspired inflation models. We studied novel dark-matter candidates and their phenomenology. This work helped advance the DoE's Cosmic Frontier (and also Energy and Intensity Frontiers) by finding synergies between a variety of different experimental efforts, by developing new searches, science targets, and analyses for existing/forthcoming experiments, and by generating ideas for new next-generation experiments.

Kamionkowski, Marc

2013-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

435

Associated particle imaging (API)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Associated Particle Imaging (API) is an active neutron probe technique that provides a 3-D image with elemental composition of the material under interrogation, and so occupies a unique niche in the interrogation of unknown objects. The highly penetrating nature of neutrons enables API to provide detailed information about targets of interest that are hidden from view. Due to the isotropic nature of the induced reactions, radiation detectors can be set on the same side of the object as the neutron source, so that the object can be interrogated from a single side. At the heat of the system is a small generator that produces a continuous, monoenergetic flux of neutrons. By measuring the trajectory of coincident alpha particles that are produced as part of the process, the trajectory of the neutron can be inferred. Interactions between a neutron and the material in its path often produce a gamma ray whose energy is characteristic of that material. When the gamma ray is detected, its energy is measured and combined with the trajectory information to produce a 3-D image of the composition of the object being interrogated. During the course of API development, a number of improvements have been made. A new, more rugged sealed Tube Neutron Generator (STNG) has been designed and fabricated that is less susceptible to radiation damage and better able to withstand the rigors of fielding than earlier designs. A specialized high-voltage power supply for the STNG has also been designed and built. A complete package of software has been written for the tasks of system calibration, diagnostics and data acquisition and analysis. A portable system has been built and field tested, proving that API can be taken out of the lab and into real-world situations, and that its performance in the field is equal to that in the lab.

NONE

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Particle entanglement in rotating gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we investigate the particle entanglement in two-dimensional (2D) weakly interacting rotating Bose and Fermi gases. We find that both particle localization and vortex localization can be indicated by particle entanglement. We also use particle entanglement to show the occurrence of edge reconstruction of rotating fermions. The different properties of condensate phase and vortex liquid phase of bosons can be reflected by particle entanglement and in vortex liquid phase we construct the same trial wave function with that in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 120405 (2001)] from the viewpoint of entanglement to relate the ground state with quantum Hall state. Finally, the relation between particle entanglement and interaction strength is studied.

Liu Zhao; Fan Heng [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

Particle Acceleration in Astrophysical Sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Astrophysical sources are extremely efficient accelerators. Some sources emit photons up to multi-TeV energies, a signature of the presence, within them, of particles with energies much higher than those achievable with the largest accelerators on Earth. Even more compelling evidence comes from the study of Cosmic Rays, charged relativistic particles that reach the Earth with incredibly high energies: at the highest energy end of their spectrum, these subatomic particles are carrying a macroscopic energy, up to a few Joules. Here I will address the best candidate sources and mechanisms as cosmic particle accelerators. I will mainly focus on Galactic sources such as Supernova Remnants and Pulsar Wind Nebulae, which being close and bright, are the best studied among astrophysical accelerators. These sources are held responsible for most of the energy that is put in relativistic particles in the Universe, but they are not thought to accelerate particles up to the highest individual energies, $\\approx 10^{20}$ eV...

Amato, Elena

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A real-time laser light-reflectivity technique is being used to study simultaneous thermophoretic and inertial influences on the deposition behavior of MgO particles produced via ultrasonic nebulization (submicrometer range). The deposition surface (a concave platinum ribbon) is exposed to a high velocity/temperature jet of alkali sulfate-free combustion products exiting from a seeded (C3[sub 3]H[sub 8]/air) microcombustor (110 cm[sup 3]). The reflectivity data were calibrated against deposition rates obtained from SEM pictures of the target, and were normalized with the nominal particle feed rate, in order to obtain the mass transfer Stanton number, St[sub m], trends depicted in Figure 1. For the submicron (ca. 0.7[mu]m) particles inertial effects appear to set in at Stokes (Stk) numbers of O(10[sup [minus]2]) (an order of magnitude lower than the ones needed for pure'' inertial impaction), affecting significantly the dominant thermophoretic deposition mechanism. A first order (in Stk) theoretical analysis of the problem in which particle inertia is treated as equivalent to pressure diffusion,'' cannot explain the observed dependence of the deposition rate on Stk. We are presently formulating a Lagrangian approach, valid for all values of Stk, in order to interpret these data. In addition, a Single Particle Counter (SPC) and Transit Time Velocimeter (TTV), are being developed, to allow more precise measurements of particle feed rates and velocities.

Rosner, D.E.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Nuclear & Particle Physics, Astrophysics, Cosmology  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

production, nuclear weapons, and nuclear threat reduction Proton radiography, muon tomography, proton active interrogation, wide-angle, fast-response optical telescopes, and...

440

Review of Particle Physics, 1998-1999  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A comprehensive review of the field of Particle Physics produced by the Particle Data Group (PDG). Includes a compilation/evaluation of data on particle properties, summary tables with best values and limits for particle properties, extensive summari particles, and a long section of reviews, tables, and plots on a wide variety of theoretical and experimental topics of interest to particle and astrophysicists.

Particle Data Group. Berkeley; Aguilar-Bentez, M; Amsler, Claude; Armstrong, Betty; Babu, K S; Barnett, Richard Michael; Besson, Dave; Biebel, Otmar; Burchat, Patricia R; Cahn, Robert N; Carone, Christopher D; Casas-Serradilla, Jos Lus; Caso, Carlo; Conforto, Gianni; Crawford, Ronald L; Dahl, Orin; Dalitz, Richard Henry; Damour, Thibault Marie Alban Guillaume; Desler, Kai; Donahue, Richard J; Doser, Michael; Edwards, Donald A; Eidelman, Simon; Erler, Jens; Ezhela, Vladimir V; Fass, A; Feng, Jonathan L; Fetscher, Wulf; Filimonov, Boris B; Froidevaux, Daniel; Gaisser, Thomas K; Garren, Lynn; Gee, Paul S; Geer, Steve; Gerber, Hans Jrg; Gilman, Frederick J; Goodman, Maury; Grab, C; Groom, Donald E; Gurtu, Atul; Haber, Howard E; Hagiwara, Kaoru; Hagmann, Christian; Hayes, Kenneth G; Hernndez, Juan Jos; Hikasa, Ken Ichi; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hogan, Craig J; Honscheid, Klaus; Hhler, Gerhard; Jackson, John David; James, Frederick E; Johnson, Kurtis F; Karlen, Dean A; Kayser, Boris; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Knowles, Ian G; Kolda, Christopher; Kreitz, Pat; Landua, Rolf; Langacker, Paul; Littenberg, Laurence S; Lugovsky, S B; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Mankov, Serguei; Manley, D Mark; Manohar, Aneesh Vasant; March-Russell, John David; Murayama, Hitoshi; Mnig, Klaus; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Kenzo; Nicholson, Flic; Olive, Keith A; Piepke, Andreas; Quinn, Helen R; Raffelt, Georg G; Renk, Burkhard; Ronan, Michael T; Roos, Matts; Rosenberg, Leslie J; Schindler, Rafe H; Schmitt, Michael; Schramm, David N; Scott, Douglas; Shrock, Robert E; Sjstrand, Torbjrn; Smoot, George F; Spanier, Stefan; Srednicki, Mark A; Stanev, Todor; Suzuki, Mahiko; Tanabashi, Masaharu; Tkachenko, N P; Trippe, Thomas G; Trnqvist, N A; Valencia, German; Van Bibber, Karl; Vogel, Petr; Voss, Rdiger; Wohl, Charles G; Wolfenstein, Lincoln; Workman, Ronald L; Yao Wei Ming; Youssef, Saul

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical particle counter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

AN INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM OPTICS...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM OPTICS... ...the light as you've never seen before... Optics:http://science.howstuffworks.com/laser5.htm #12;5 DEFINITION Quantum Optics: "Quantum optics is a field in quantum physics, dealing OPTICS OPERATORS Light is described in terms of field operators for creation and annihilation of photons

Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

442

Electrochromic optical switching device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochromic cell is disclosed which comprises an electrochromic layer, a polymerizable organo-sulfur layer which comprises the counter electrode of the structure, and an ionically conductive electronically insulating material which comprises the separator between the electrodes. In a preferred embodiment, both the separator and the organo-sulfur electrode (in both its charged and uncharged states) are transparent either to visible light or to the entire solar spectrum. An electrochromic device is disclosed which comprises such electrodes and separator encased in glass plates on the inner surface of each of which is formed a transparent electrically conductive film in respective electrical contact with the electrodes which facilitates formation of an external electrical connection or contact to the electrodes of the device to permit electrical connection of the device to an external potential source.

Lampert, Carl M. (El Sobrante, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Electrochromic optical switching device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochromic cell is disclosed which comprises an electrochromic layer, a polymerizable organo-sulfur layer which comprises the counter electrode of the structure, and an ionically conductive electronically insulating material which comprises the separator between the electrodes. In a preferred embodiment, both the separator and the organo-sulfur electrode (in both its charged and uncharged states) are transparent either to visible light or to the entire solar spectrum. An electrochromic device is disclosed which comprises such electrodes and separator encased in glass plates on the inner surface of each of which is formed a transparent electrically conductive film in respective electrical contact with the electrodes which facilitates formation of an external electrical connection or contact to the electrodes of the device to permit electrical connection of the device to an external potential source. 3 figs.

Lampert, C.M.; Visco, S.J.

1992-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

444

Thermophoresis of charged colloidal particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermally induced particle flow in a charged colloidal suspension is studied in a fluid-mechanical approach. The force density acting on the charged boundary layer is derived in detail. From Stokes' equation with no-slip boundary conditions at the particle surface, we obtain the particle drift velocity and the thermophoretic transport coefficients. The results are discussed in view of previous work and available experimental data.

S. Fayolle; T. Bickel; A. Wrger

2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

445

Optical fuel pin scanner  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical scanner for indicia arranged in a focal plane at a cylindrical outside surface by use of an optical system including a rotatable dove prism. The dove prism transmits a rotating image of an encircled cylindrical surface area to a stationary photodiode array.

Kirchner, Tommy L. (Richland, WA); Powers, Hurshal G. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Flexible optical panel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A flexible optical panel includes laminated optical waveguides, each including a ribbon core laminated between cladding, with the core being resilient in the plane of the core for elastically accommodating differential movement thereof to permit winding of the panel in a coil.

Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Multimode optical fiber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).

Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

448

Optical scanning apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical scanner employed in a radioactive environment for reading indicia imprinted about a cylindrical surface of an article by means of an optical system including metallic reflective and mirror surfaces resistant to degradation and discoloration otherwise imparted to glass surfaces exposed to radiation is described.

Villarreal, R.A.

1985-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

449

Particle Physics at Discovery's Horizon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ideas and technologies of particle physics have entered the mainstream of society to transform the way we live. The production of superconducting magnets at the heart of MRI...

450

High field gradient particle accelerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications is disclosed. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle. 10 figs.

Nation, J.A.; Greenwald, S.

1989-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

451

High field gradient particle accelerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle.

Nation, John A. (Ithaca, NY); Greenwald, Shlomo (Haifa, IL)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Vacuum friction in rotating particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the frictional torque acting on particles rotating in empty space. At zero temperature, vacuum friction transforms mechanical energy into light emission and produces particle heating. However, particle cooling relative to the environment occurs at finite temperatures and low rotation velocities. Radiation emission is boosted and its spectrum significantly departed from a hot-body emission profile as the velocity increases. Stopping times ranging from hours to billions of years are predicted for materials, particle sizes, and temperatures accessible to experiment. Implications for the behavior of cosmic dust are discussed.

A. Manjavacas; F. J. Garca de Abajo

2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

453

Stochastic pump of interacting particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the overdamped motion of Brownian particles, interacting via particle exclusion, in an external potential that varies with time and space. We show that periodic potentials that maintain specific position-dependent phase relations generate time-averaged directed current of particles. We obtain analytic results for a lattice version of the model using a recently developed perturbative approach. Many interesting features like particle-hole symmetry, current reversal with changing density, and system-size dependence of current are obtained. We propose possible experiments to test our predictions.

Chaudhuri, Debasish

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Stochastic pump of interacting particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the overdamped motion of Brownian particles, interacting via particle exclusion, in an external potential that varies with time and space. We show that periodic potentials that maintain specific position-dependent phase relations generate time-averaged directed current of particles. We obtain analytic results for a lattice version of the model using a recently developed perturbative approach. Many interesting features like particle-hole symmetry, current reversal with changing density, and system-size dependence of current are obtained. We propose possible experiments to test our predictions.

Debasish Chaudhuri; Abhishek Dhar

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

455

Particle Dynamics And Emergent Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The emergent gravity proposal is examined within the framework of noncommutative QED/gravity correspondence from particle dynamics point of view.

Amir H. Fatollahi

2008-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

456

Bio-Optical Variability in Mayaguez Bay during the Rainy Season Joel A. Quiones Rivera, ja23_degrees@hotmail.com  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bio-Optical Variability in Mayaguez Bay during the Rainy Season Joel A. Quiñones Rivera, ja23 by suspending particles in the water that affects light penetration. This is critical for the bio-optical from different stations collected with an bio-optical rosette along the Mayagüez Bay and considering

Gilbes, Fernando

457

All-optical cavity-based simulator of noise-assisted transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent theoretical and experimental efforts have shown the remarkable and counter-intuitive role of noise in enhancing the transport efficiency of complex systems. Here, we realize simple, scalable, and controllable optical fiber cavity networks that allow us to simulate the performance of transport networks for different conditions of interference, dephasing and disorder. In particular, we experimentally demonstrate that the transport efficiency reaches a maximum when varying the external dephasing noise, i.e. a bell-like shape behavior that had been predicted only theoretically. These optical platforms are very promising simulators of transport phenomena, and could be used, in particular, to design and test optimal topologies of artificial light-harvesting structures for future solar energy technologies.

Viciani, Silvia; Bellini, Marco; Caruso, Filippo

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

vEC: Virtual Energy Counters I. Kadayif, T. Chinoda, M. Kandemir, N. Vijaykrishnan, M.J. Irwin, and A. Sivasubramaniam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

designers with the energy estimates. Software-based techniques (e.g., [8]), on the other handvEC: Virtual Energy Counters I. Kadayif, T. Chinoda, M. Kandemir, N. Vijaykrishnan, M.J. Irwin 814 865 9505 mdl@cse.psu.edu ABSTRACT Energy has become a critical issue in processor design

Sivasubramaniam, Anand

459

Diameter Dependence of Vertically-Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Use as Counter Electrodes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Use as Counter Electrodes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Ronald Hobson,1,2,3 Kehang Cui,1 Chiba TakaakiJapan Program, Rice University, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are electrochemical. In comparison to conventional Si-based solar cells, the manufacturing cost of DSSCs are substantially low

460

Fiber optic hydrophone  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optic fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends.

Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Davis, Donald T. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optical particle counter" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Digital optical conversion module  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

Kotter, Dale K. (North Shelley, ID); Rankin, Richard A. (Ammon, ID)

1991-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

462

Digital optical conversion module  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

463

Fiber optic hydrophone  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer is disclosed. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optical fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends. 2 figures.

Kuzmenko, P.J.; Davis, D.T.

1994-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

464

Monolithic Nickel (II) Oxide Aerogels Using an Organic Epoxide: The Importance of the Counter Ion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The synthesis and characterization of nickel (II) oxide aerogel materials prepared using the epoxide addition method is described. The addition of the organic epoxide propylene oxide to an ethanolic solution of NiCl{sub 2} 6H{sub 2}O resulted in the formation of an opaque light green monolithic gel and subsequent drying with supercritical CO{sub 2} gave a monolithic aerogel material of the same color. This material has been characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis. The results indicate that the nickel (II) oxide aerogel has very low bulk density (98 kg/m{sup 3} ({approx}98 %porous)), high surface area (413 m{sup 2}/g), and has a particulate-type aerogel microstructure made up of very fine spherical particles with an open porous network. By comparison, a precipitate of Ni{sub 3}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 4} is obtained when the same preparation is attempted with the common Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} 6H{sub 2}O salt as the precursor. The implications of the difference of reactivity of the two different precursors are discussed in the context of the mechanism of gel formation via the epoxide addition method. The synthesis of nickel (II) oxide aerogel, using the epoxide addition method, is especially unique in our experience. It is our first example of the successful preparation of a metal oxide aerogel using a metal divalent metal ion and may have implications for the application of this method to the preparation of aerogels or nanoparticles of other divalent metal oxides. To our knowledge this is the first report of a monolithic pure nickel (II) oxide aerogel materials.

Gash, A E; Satcher, J H; Simpson, R L

2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

465

Optical amplifier-powered quantum optical amplification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I show that an optical amplifier, when combined with photon subtraction, can be used for quantum state amplification, adding noise at a level below the standard minimum. The device could be used to significantly decrease the probability of incorrectly identifying coherent states chosen from a finite set.

John Jeffers

2011-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

466

Production, Characterization, and Acceleration of Optical Microbunches  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optical microbunches with a spacing of 800 nm have been produced for laser acceleration research. The microbunches are produced using a inverse Free-Electron-Laser (IFEL) followed by a dispersive chicane. The microbunched electron beam is characterized by coherent optical transition radiation (COTR) with good agreement to the analytic theory for bunch formation. In a second experiment the bunches are accelerated in a second stage to achieve for the first time direct net acceleration of electrons traveling in a vacuum with visible light. This dissertation presents the theory of microbunch formation and characterization of the microbunches. It also presents the design of the experimental hardware from magnetostatic and particle tracking simulations, to fabrication and measurement of the undulator and chicane magnets. Finally, the dissertation discusses three experiments aimed at demonstrating the IFEL interaction, microbunch production, and the net acceleration of the microbunched beam. At the close of the dissertation, a separate but related research effort on the tight focusing of electrons for coupling into optical scale, Photonic Bandgap, structures is presented. This includes the design and fabrication of a strong focusing permanent magnet quadrupole triplet and an outline of an initial experiment using the triplet to observe wakefields generated by an electron beam passing through an optical scale accelerator.

Sears, Christopher M.S.; /Stanford U. /SLAC

2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

467

K-calculus in 4-dimensional optics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

4-dimensional optics is based on the use 4-dimensional movement space, resulting from the consideration of the usual 3-dimensional coordinates complemented by proper time. The paper uses the established K-calculus to make a parallel derivation of special relativity and 4-dimensional optics, allowing a real possibility of comparison between the two theories. The significance of proper time coordinate is given special attention and its definition is made very clear in terms of just send and receive instants of radar pulses. The 4-dimensional optics equivalent to relativistic Lorentz transformations is reviewed. Special relativity and 4-dimensional optics are also compared in terms of Lagrangian definition of worldlines and movement Hamiltonian. The final section of the paper discusses simultaneity through the solution of a two particle head-on collision problem. It is shown that a very simple graphical construction automatically solves energy and momentum conservation when the observer is located at the collision position. A further discussion of the representation for a distant observer further clarifies how simultaneity is accommodated by 4DO.

Jose B. Almeida

2002-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

468

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

Sippola, Mark R.

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Optically Interconnected MulticomputersUsing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optically Interconnected MulticomputersUsing Inverted-GraphTopologies Tosuccessfullyexploitthebenefitsofopticaltechnologyinatightlycoupledmulticomputer, the architecturaldesignmust reflectboth the advantages and limitationsof optics. This article systems. Although optics have con- tributed dramatically to long-distance communi- cation and more

Krchnavek, Robert R.

470

Comminution process to produce engineered wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from veneer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Comminution process of wood veneer to produce wood particles, by feeding wood veneer in a direction of travel substantially normal to grain through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of veneer travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (Td), to produce wood particles characterized by a length dimension (L) substantially equal to the Td and aligned substantially parallel to grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) substantially equal to the veneer thickness (Tv) and aligned normal to W and L, wherein the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces with end checking between crosscut fibers.

Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

471

Particle production at RHIC energies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents recent results from the BRAHMS experiment at RHIC; including results on particle production in rapidity space extending from y=0 to y ~ 3 and on the transverse momentum distribution of fully identified charged particles. These results were obtained from the 5% most central Au-Au collisions recorded during RHIC Run-2 at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV.

R. Debbe; for the BRAHMS collaboration

2003-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

472

PARTICLE BEAM RADIOTHERAPY: CLINICAL PERSPECTIVE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and low LET radiation no longer used in clinical practice. The initial clinical studies on particle radiation to the dose of particle radiation producing the same biologic endpoint. The RBE versus LET curve clinical situations. Low LET radiation primarily kills cells via an indirect, free radical mediated

Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha

473

Projection optics box  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A projection optics box or assembly for use in an optical assembly, such as in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system using 10-14 nm soft x-ray photons. The projection optics box utilizes a plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors, each mounted on a precision actuator, and which reflects an optical image, such as from a mask, in the EUVL system onto a point of use, such as a target or silicon wafer, the mask, for example, receiving an optical signal from a source assembly, such as a developed from laser system, via a series of highly reflective mirrors of the EUVL system. The plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors are mounted in a housing assembly comprised of a series of bulkheads having wall members secured together to form a unit construction of maximum rigidity. Due to the precision actuators, the mirrors must be positioned precisely and remotely in tip, tilt, and piston (three degrees of freedom), while also providing exact constraint.

Hale, Layton C. (Livermore, CA); Malsbury, Terry (Tracy, CA); Hudyma, Russell M. (San Ramon, CA); Parker, John M. (Tracy, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Science, Optics and You: Shadows  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

http:micro.magnet.fsu.eduopticstutorialsindex.html INTRODUCTION SHADOWS MODULE m5 SCIENCE, OPTICS & YOU GUIDEBOOK - 96 - SCIENCE, OPTICS & YOU GUIDEBOOK - 97 - m5: Shadows...

475

OPTICAL AND DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF UNDOPED AND DOPED SEMICONDUCTOR NANOSTRUCTURES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter provides an overview of some recent research activities on the study of optical and dynamic properties of semiconductor nanomaterials. The emphasis is on unique aspects of these properties in nanostructures as compared to bulk materials. Linear, including absorption and luminescence, and nonlinear optical as well as dynamic properties of semiconductor nanoparticles are discussed with focus on their dependence on particle size, shape, and surface characteristics. Both doped and undoped semiconductor nanomaterials are highlighted and contrasted to illustrate the use of doping to effectively alter and probe nanomaterial properties. Some emerging applications of optical nanomaterials are discussed towards the end of the chapter, including solar energy conversion, optical sensing of chemicals and biochemicals, solid state lighting, photocatalysis, and photoelectrochemistry.

Grant, C D; Zhang, J Z

2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

476

316 A particle image velocimetry system for microfluidics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract A micron-resolution particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) system has been developed to measure instantaneous and ensemble-averaged flow fields in micron-scale fluidic devices. The system utilizes an epifluorescent microscope, 100300 nm diameter seed particles, and an intensified CCD camera to record high-resolution particle-image fields. Velocity vector fields can be measured with spatial resolutions down to 6.9?6.9?1.5 ?m. The vector fields are analyzed using a double-frame cross-correlation algorithm. In this technique, the spatial resolution and the accuracy of the velocity measurements is limited by the diffraction limit of the recording optics, noise in the particle image field, and the interaction of the fluid with the finite-sized seed particles. The stochastic influence of Brownian motion plays a significant role in the accuracy of instantaneous velocity measurements. The micro-PIV technique is applied to measure velocities in a HeleShaw flow around a 30 ?m (major diameter) elliptical cylinder, with a bulk velocity of approximately 50 ?ms?1. 1

J. G. Santiago; S. T. Wereley; C. D. Meinhart; D. J. Beebe; R. J. Adrian

477

Incorporation of particle collisions in the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) approximation, particles interact only through the mean field, and the collisions between particles are not included. Previously, we formulated the extended time-dependent Hartree-Fock (ETDHF) approximation to include particle collisions in terms of a temporal variation of the occupation probability n/sub lambda/ for the single-particle states. In the simplest approximation, the single-particle potential is modified only through the particle density which depends on n/sub lambda/. We wish to refine the extended TDHF approximation by studying how particle collisions affect the single-particle potential. We find that it acquires two second-order contributions which are state-dependent and are the generalization of the core polarization and correlation contributions one encounters in the study of the nucleon-nucleus optical potentials. In consequence, concepts such as energy-dependent single-particle potentials and effective masses may be properly introduced in the extended TDHF approximation. We also wish to review the conservation of energy in the ETDHF approximation. We find that the total energy should include a second-order contribution due to correlations arising from particle collisions.

Wong, C.Y.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Superconducting transmission line particle detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

Gray, K.E.

1988-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

479

Superconducting transmission line particle detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Particle creation and particle number in an expanding universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I describe the logical basis of the method that I developed in 1962 and 1963 to define a quantum operator corresponding to the observable particle number of a quantized free scalar field in a spatially-flat isotropically expanding (and/or contracting) universe. This work also showed for the first time that particles were created from the vacuum by the curved space-time of an expanding spatially-flat FLRW universe. The same process is responsible for creating the nearly scale-invariant spectrum of quantized perturbations of the inflaton scalar field during the inflationary stage of the expansion of the universe. I explain how the method that I used to obtain the observable particle number operator involved adiabatic invariance of the particle number (hence, the name adiabatic regularization) and the quantum theory of measurement of particle number in an expanding universe. I also show how I was led in a surprising way, to the discovery in 1964 that there would be no particle creation by these spatially-flat FLRW universes for free fields of any integer or half-integer spin satisfying field equations that are invariant under conformal transformations of the metric. The methods I used to define adiabatic regularization for particle number, were based on generally-covariant concepts like adiabatic invariance and measurement that were fundamental and determined results that were unique to each given adiabatic order.

Leonard Parker

2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

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481

Electrostatic wire stabilizing a charged particle beam  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In combination with a charged particle beam generator and accelerator, apparatus and method are provided for stabilizing a beam of electrically charged particles. A guiding means, disposed within the particle beam, has an electric charge induced upon it by the charged particle beam. Because the sign of the electric charge on the guiding means and the sign of the particle beam are opposite, the particles are attracted toward and cluster around the guiding means to thereby stabilize the particle beam as it travels.

Prono, D.S.; Caporaso, G.J.; Briggs, R.J.

1983-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

482

Silicon fiber optic sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by a partially or wholly reflective surface on the free end of an integrated elongate channel or an integrated bounding wall of a chip of a wafer and a partially reflective surface on the end of the optical fiber. Such a constructed device can be utilized to detect one or more physical parameters, such as, for example, strain, through the optical fiber using an optical detection system to provide measuring accuracies of less than aboutb0.1%.

Pocha, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Wood, Billy E. (Livermore, CA)

2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

483

Optical Quadratic Measure Eigenmodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report a mathematically rigorous technique which facilitates the optimization of various optical properties of electromagnetic fields. The technique exploits the linearity of electromagnetic fields along with the quadratic nature of their interaction with matter. In this manner we may decompose the respective fields into optical quadratic measure eigenmodes (QME). Key applications include the optimization of the size of a focused spot, the transmission through photonic devices, and the structured illumination of photonic and plasmonic structures. We verify the validity of the QME approach through a particular experimental realization where the size of a focused optical field is minimized using a superposition of Bessel beams.

Michael Mazilu; Joerg Baumgartl; Sebastian Kosmeier; Kishan Dholakia

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

484

Optical limiting materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO{sub 2}) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400--1,100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes. 5 figs.

McBranch, D.W.; Mattes, B.R.; Koskelo, A.C.; Heeger, A.J.; Robinson, J.M.; Smilowitz, L.B.; Klimov, V.I.; Cha, M.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Hummelen, J.C.

1998-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

485

Fiber optic laser rod  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.

Erickson, G.F.

1988-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

486

Tuned optical cavity magnetometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which utilizes an optical cavity formed from a grating and a mirror, with a vapor cell containing an alkali metal vapor located inside the optical cavity. Lasers are used to magnetically polarize the alkali metal vapor and to probe the vapor and generate a diffracted laser beam which can be used to sense a magnetic field. Electrostatic actuators can be used in the magnetometer for positioning of the mirror, or for modulation thereof. Another optical cavity can also be formed from the mirror and a second grating for sensing, adjusting, or stabilizing the position of the mirror.

Okandan, Murat (Edgewood, NM); Schwindt, Peter (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

487

Solids Fraction Measurement with a Reflective Fiber Optic Probe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method has been developed to extract solids fraction information from a reflective fiber optic probe. The commercially available reflective fiber optic probe was designed to measure axial particle velocity (both up and down directions). However, the reflected light intensity measured is related to particle size and particle concentration. A light reflection model is used to relate the reflected light intensity to solids fraction. In this model we assume that the reflected light intensity is a fixed fraction, K1, of the total light intensity lost in penetration of a solid layer. Also, the solids fraction is related to particle concentration, N, in the light path, by N = K2 (1- ?), where (1-?) is the solids fraction. The parameters K1 and K2 are determined through a calibration and curve fitting procedure. This paper describes this procedure and the steps taken to derive the values of K1 and K2. It is proposed that the reflective fiber optic can be used for real time measurement of solids fraction in a circulating fluid bed.

Seachman, S.M.; Yue, P.C.; Ludlow, J.C.; Shadle, L.J.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Gregorian optical system with non-linear optical technology for protection against intense optical transients  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical system comprising a concave primary mirror reflects light through an intermediate focus to a secondary mirror. The secondary mirror re-focuses the image to a final image plane. Optical limiter material is placed near the intermediate focus to optically limit the intensity of light so that downstream components of the optical system are protected from intense optical transients. Additional lenses before and/or after the intermediate focus correct optical aberrations.

Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Diels, Jean-Claude M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

489

Optical wet steam monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

490

Optical wet steam monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

E-Print Network 3.0 - angle particle-particle correlation Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Jagiellonski Collection: Physics 7 Molecular dynamics simulation of the density and surface tension of water by particle-particle particle-mesh method Summary: Molecular...

492

Microscopic analysis of irradiated AGR-1 coated particle fuel compacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The AGR-1 experiment involved irradiation of 72 TRISO-coated particle fuel compacts to a peak compact-average burnup of 19.5% FIMA with no in-pile failures observed out of 3 x 105 total particles. Irradiated AGR-1 fuel compacts have been cross-sectioned and analyzed with optical microscopy to characterize kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. Six compacts have been examined, spanning a range of irradiation conditions (burnup, fast fluence, and irradiation temperature) and including all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR-1 experiment. The cylindrical specimens were sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, then polished to expose from 36 to 79 individual particles near midplane on each mount. The analysis focused primarily on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracturing, bufferIPyC debonding, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Characteristic morphologies have been identified, 981 particles have been classified, and spatial distributions of particle types have been mapped. No significant spatial patterns were discovered in these cross sections. However, some trends were found between morphological types and certain behavioral aspects. Buffer fractures were found in 23% of the particles, and these fractures often resulted in unconstrained kernel protrusion into the open cavities. Fractured buffers and buffers that stayed bonded to IPyC layers appear related to larger pore size in kernels. BufferIPyC interface integrity evidently factored into initiation of rare IPyC fractures. Fractures through part of the SiC layer were found in only four classified particles, all in conjunction with IPyCSiC debonding. Compiled results suggest that the deliberate coating fabrication variations influenced the frequencies of IPyC fractures and IPyCSiC debonds.

Scott A. Ploger; Paul A. Demkowicz; John D. Hunn; Jay S. Kehn

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z