National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for optical ground wire

  1. Development and application of composite overhead ground wire with optical fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Kato, T.; Okazato, A.; Sakurada, H.

    1983-05-01

    A overhead ground wire composed with optical fibers has been developed, as well as the accessories and the joints. The overhead ground wire is provided with an aluminum pipe at the core thereof in which the optical fibers are inserted. The composite overhead ground wire with optical fibers was installed for the Kaga-Reinan 500 kV overhead transmission line in autumn, 1981 for the purposes of observing lightning and using as telecommunication line, as well. After the successful performance of the optical fiber, especially in view of transmission loss after installation, has been proved, the composite overhead ground wire is now being checked for the purposes as stated above. The ground wire was also installed for the Tsuruga Test Line at about the same time and investigations were started to confirm the reliability of the optical fiber to be over a long period of time under severe meteorological conditions such as strong winds and icing. The construction of the composite ground wire with optical fibers is such that the optical fibers contained therein are not restrained by the ground wire itself. This enables insertion and pulling out of optical fiber cables. Tests were conducted at certain sections of the Kaga-Reinan Line to confirm that there was no change in the performance of the optical fibers due to such operations of insertion and pulling out. This report briefly discusses the development of the composite ground wire with optical fibers, its installation and the test results.

  2. Switching between ground and excited states by optical feedback in a quantum dot laser diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virte, Martin; Breuer, Stefan; Sciamanna, Marc; Panajotov, Krassimir

    2014-09-22

    We demonstrate switching between ground state and excited state emission in a quantum-dot laser subject to optical feedback. Even though the solitary laser emits only from the excited state, we can trigger the emission of the ground state by optical feedback. We observe recurrent but incomplete switching between the two emission states by variation of the external cavity length in the sub-micrometer scale. We obtain a good qualitative agreement of experimental results with simulation results obtained by a rate equation that accounts for the variations of the feedback phase.

  3. Wire chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, Muzaffer

    1989-01-01

    A wire chamber or proportional counter device, such as Geiger-Mueller tube or drift chamber, improved with a gas mixture providing a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor.

  4. Donor impurity states and related terahertz range nonlinear optical response in GaN cylindrical quantum wires: Effects of external electric and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Correa, J. D.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.

    2014-06-07

    We report a study on the optical absorption coefficient associated to hydrogenic impurity interstate transitions in zinc-blende GaN quantum wires of cylindrical shape taking into account the effects of externally applied static electric and magnetic fields. The electron states emerge within the effective mass approximation, via the exact diagonalization of the donor-impurity Hamiltonian with parabolic confinement and external field effects. The nonlinear optical absorption is calculated using a recently derived expression for the dielectric susceptibility, obtained via a nonperturbative solution of the density-matrix Bloch equation. Our results show that this treatment eliminates not only the intensity-dependent bleaching effect but also the change in sign of the nonlinear contribution due to the combined effect of asymmetric impurity location and the applied electric field.

  5. Investigations of the Absorption Properties of Near-Ground Aerosol by the Methods of Optical-Acoustic Spectrometry and Diff...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigations of the Absorption Properties of Near-Ground Aerosol by the Methods of Optical-Acoustic Spectrometry and Diffuse Extinction V. S. Kozlov, M. V. Panchenko, A. B. Tikhomirov, and B. A. Tikhomirov Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction Aerosol absorption is an important factor in the formation of non-selective radiation extinction in the visible wavelength range, and plays a great role in solving many radiative and climatic problems. The principal absorbing

  6. Macrophysical and optical properties of midlatitude cirrus clouds from four ground-based lidars and collocated CALIOP observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, M.; Morille, Y.; Noel, V.; Keckhut, P.; Winker, D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Chervet, P.; Roblin, A.

    2010-05-27

    Ground-based lidar and CALIOP datasets gathered over four mid-latitude sites, two US and two French sites, are used to evaluate the consistency of cloud macrophysical and optical property climatologies that can be derived by such datasets. The consistency in average cloud height (both base and top height) between the CALIOP and ground datasets ranges from -0.4km to +0.5km. The cloud geometrical thickness distributions vary significantly between the different datasets, due in part to the original vertical resolutions of the lidar profiles. Average cloud geometrical thicknesses vary from 1.2 to 1.9km, i.e. by more than 50%. Cloud optical thickness distributions in subvisible, semi-transparent and moderate intervals differ by more than 50% between ground and space-based datasets. The cirrus clouds with 2 optical thickness below 0.1 (not included in historical cloud climatologies) represent 30-50% of the non-opaque cirrus class. The differences in average cloud base altitude between ground and CALIOP datasets of 0.0-0.1 km, 0.0-0.2 km and 0.0-0.2 km can be attributed to irregular sampling of seasonal variations in the ground-based data, to day-night differences in detection capabilities by CALIOP, and to the restriction to situations without low-level clouds in ground-based data, respectively. The cloud geometrical thicknesses are not affected by irregular sampling of seasonal variations in the ground-based data, while up to 0.0-0.2 km and 0.1-0.3 km differences can be attributed to day-night differences in detection capabilities by CALIOP, and to the restriction to situations without lowlevel clouds in ground-based data, respectively.

  7. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.

    1992-08-11

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 figure.

  8. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandon, Eldon D.; Hooper, Frederick M.; Reichenbach, Marvin L.

    1992-01-01

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut.

  9. Superconducting wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lanagan, M.T.; Poeppel, R.B.; Singh, J.P.; Dos Santos, D.I.; Lumpp, J.K.; Dusek, J.T.; Goretta, K.C.

    1988-06-01

    The requirement of high critical current density has prompted extensive research on ceramic processing of high-T/sub c/ superconductors. An overview of wire fabrication techniques and the limitations they impose on component design will be presented. The effects of processing on microstructure and critical current density will also be discussed. Particle alignment has been observed in extruded samples which is attributed to high shear stresses during plastic forming. Composites of superconductor and silver in several configurations have been made with little deleterious effect on the superconducting properties. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

    2005-09-06

    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  11. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  12. QER- Comment of WIRES

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Attached please find the components of WIRES Comment to the QER. Please direct any questions to Jim Hoecker, below.

  13. Sintered wire annode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falce, Louis R.; Ives, R. Lawrence

    2007-12-25

    A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

  14. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

  15. Wire-inhomogeneity detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, G.H.; Smits, R.G.; Eberhard, P.H.

    1982-08-31

    A device for uncovering imperfections in electrical conducting wire, particularly superconducting wire, by detecting variations in eddy currents. Eddy currents effect the magnetic field in a gap of an inductor, contained in a modified commercial ferrite core, through which the wire being tested is passed. A small increase or decrease in the amount of conductive material, such as copper, in a fixed cross section of wire will unbalance a bridge used to measure the impedance of the inductor, tripping a detector and sounding an alarm.

  16. Weld Wire Investigation Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, M.A.

    1999-03-22

    After GTA welding reservoir A production/process prove-in assemblies, X-ray examination detected a lack of sidewall fusion. After examining several possible causes, it was determined that the weld wire filler metal was responsible, particularly the wire cleaning process. The final conclusion was that the filler wire must be abrasively cleaned in a particular manner to perform as required. The abrasive process was incorporated into the wire material specification, ensuring consistency for all reservoir GTA welding at AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T).

  17. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  18. Optical memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  19. Tapered capillary optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirsch, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    A metal or glass wire is etched with great precision into a very narrowly tapering cone which has the shape of the desired final capillary-optics bore. By controlling the rate of removal of the wire from an etchant bath, a carefully controlled taper is produced. A sensor measures the diameter of the wire as it leaves the surface of the etchant. This signal is used for feedback control of the withdrawal speed. The etched wire undergoes a treatment to produce an extremely low surface-roughness. The etched and smoothed wire is coated with the material of choice for optimizing the reflectivity of the radiation being focused. This could be a vacuum evaporation, sputtering, CVD or aqueous chemical process. The coated wire is either electroplated, built up with electroless plating, or encapsulated in a polymer cylinder such as epoxy to increase the diameter of the wire for easier handling and greater robustness. During this process, the wire is vertically oriented and tensioned to assure that the wire is absolutely straight. The coated and electroformed wire is bonded to a flat, rigid substrate and is then periodically segmented by cutting or etching a series of narrow slits or grooves into the wire. The wire is vertically oriented and tensioned during the bonding process to assure that it is straight. The original wire material is then chemically etched away through the slits or otherwise withdrawn to leave the hollow internal bore of the final tapered-capillary optical element.

  20. Wire brush fastening device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meigs, R.A.

    1993-08-31

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

  1. Wire brush fastening device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meigs, R.A.

    1995-09-19

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus. 13 figs.

  2. Wire brush fastening device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meigs, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

  3. Improved wire chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, M.

    1987-05-12

    An improved gas mixture for use with proportional counter devices, such as Geiger-Mueller tubes and drift chambers. The improved gas mixture provides a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor. 2 figs.

  4. 1997 wire development workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    This conference is divided into the following sections: (1) First Generation Wires I; (2) First Generation Wires II; (3) Coated conductors I; and (4) Coated conductors II. Applications of the superconducting wires include fault current limiters, superconducting motors, transformers, and power transmission lines.

  5. Hot wire thermal conductivity measurements in high temperature refractories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dils, R.R.; Allen, J.D.; Richmond, J.C.; McNeil, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the hot wire thermal conductivity test, a wire embedded in the material to be tested is heated with constant power input, and the temperature is measured at short time intervals. The thermal conductivity is computed from the known power input to the wire and the measured rate of increase in the wire temperature after about 700 s of heating. A finite-difference computer simulation of the hot wire test was developed to evaluate the effects of several variables in the properties of the materials tested and in the test procedures on the measured thermal conductivity. Equations relating the radiant heat transfer in a material to its optical properties were developed and a radiant heat transfer component was developed for the finite-difference simulation. Equations were derived to compute the spectral optical properties of a test material from the measured spectral normal-hemispherical transmittance of a sample of the material of known thickness that is thin enough to have a measurable transmittance over the wavelength range of about 500 to 20,000 nm, and the spectral near-normal hemispherical reflectance of a sample of the material thick enough to be completely opaque, over the same wavelength range. The optical extinction coefficient, and the ratio of the scattering coefficient, to the absorption coefficient, of MinK 2000 and K3000 brick were evaluated from their measured spectral transmittances and reflectances, and used to compute the radiant heat transfer component in these materials. The hot wire test measures an average thermal conductivity for all directions away from the wire in a plane normal to the wire. Extensive tests were made of MinK 2000 and K3000, and the measured values are compared to the guarded hot plate thermal conductivity, which is unidirectional normal to the face of a brick. 67 references, 31 figures, 23 tables.

  6. Superconducting magnet wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schuller, Ivan K.; Ketterson, John B.; Banerjee, Indrajit

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting tape or wire with an improved critical field is formed of alternating layers of a niobium-containing superconductor such as Nb, NbTi, Nb.sub.3 Sn or Nb.sub.3 Ge with a thickness in the range of about 0.5-1.5 times its coherence length, supported and separated by layers of copper with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170-600 .ANG..

  7. Dual wire welding torch and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  8. Ground-based retrievals of optical depth, effective radius, and composition of airborne mineral dust above the Sahel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    retrievals of optical depth, effective radius, and composition of airborne mineral dust above the Sahel Dave Turner Space Science and Engineering Center University of Wisconsin - Madison Aerosol Working Group Breakout Session 10 March 2008 ARM STM, Norfolk, VA Background and Objectives * Many airborne minerals have absorption features in the thermal infrared (8-13 µm) * These absorption features can be used to determine the "radiatively relevant" mineral composition of atmospheric

  9. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  10. A Laser-Wire System at the ATF Extraction Line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boogert, S.T.; Blair, G.; Boorman, G.; Bosco, A.; Deacon, L.; Driouichi, C.; Karataev, P.; /Royal Holloway, U. of London; Kamps, T.; /BESSY, Berlin; Delerue, N.; Dixit, S.; Foster, B.; Gannaway, F.; Howell, D.F.; Qureshi, M.; Reichold, A.; Senanayake, R.; /Oxford U.; Aryshev, A.; Hayano, H.; Kubo, K.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba /Liverpool

    2007-02-12

    A new laser-wire (LW) system has been installed at the ATF extraction line at KEK, Tsukuba. The system aims at a micron-scale laser spot size and employs a mode-locked laser system. The purpose-built interaction chamber, light delivery optics, and lens systems are described, and the first results are presented.

  11. Bundled monocapillary optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirsch, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    A plurality of glass or metal wires are precisely etched to form the desired shape of the individual channels of the final polycapillary optic. This shape is created by carefully controlling the withdrawal speed of a group of wires from an etchant bath. The etched wires undergo a subsequent operation to create an extremely smooth surface. This surface is coated with a layer of material which is selected to maximize the reflectivity of the radiation being used. This reflective surface may be a single layer of material, or a multilayer coating for optimizing the reflectivity in a narrower wavelength interval. The collection of individual wires is assembled into a close-packed multi-wire bundle, and the wires are bonded together in a manner which preserves the close-pack configuration, irrespective of the local wire diameter. The initial wires are then removed by either a chemical etching procedure or mechanical force. In the case of chemical etching, the bundle is generally segmented by cutting a series of etching slots. Prior to removing the wire, the capillary array is typically bonded to a support substrate. The result of the process is a bundle of precisely oriented radiation-reflecting hollow channels. The capillary optic is used for efficiently collecting and redirecting the radiation from a source of radiation which could be the anode of an x-ray tube, a plasma source, the fluorescent radiation from an electron microprobe, a synchrotron radiation source, a reactor or spallation source of neutrons, or some other source.

  12. Sintered wire cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falce, Louis R.; Ives, R. Lawrence

    2009-06-09

    A porous cathode structure is fabricated from a plurality of wires which are placed in proximity to each other in elevated temperature and pressure for a sintering time. The sintering process produces the porous cathode structure which may be divided into a plurality of individual porous cathodes, one of which may be placed into a dispenser cathode support which includes a cavity for containing a work function reduction material such as BaO, CaO, and Al.sub.2O.sub.3. The work function reduction material migrates through the pores of the porous cathode from a work replenishment surface adjacent to the cavity of the dispenser cathode support to an emitting cathode surface, thereby providing a dispenser cathode which has a uniform work function and therefore a uniform electron emission.

  13. Diamond Wire Technology LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wire Technology LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Diamond Wire Technology LLC Place: Colorado Springs, Colorado Zip: 80916 Sector: Solar Product: US-based manufacturer of...

  14. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an {sup 55}Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed.

  15. Jeff Grounds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jeff Grounds Jeff Grounds jeffgrounds-sm.jpg Jeff Grounds Facilities Manager JTGrounds@lbl.gov Phone: (510) 486-7197 Mobile: (510) 207-2273 Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:34:57

  16. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2014-04-09

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  17. Method of manufacturing superconductor wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Motowidlo, Leszek

    2014-09-16

    A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.

  18. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2014-03-03

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  19. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  20. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  1. Plasma arc torch with coaxial wire feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hooper, Frederick M

    2002-01-01

    A plasma arc welding apparatus having a coaxial wire feed. The apparatus includes a plasma arc welding torch, a wire guide disposed coaxially inside of the plasma arc welding torch, and a hollow non-consumable electrode. The coaxial wire guide feeds non-electrified filler wire through the tip of the hollow non-consumable electrode during plasma arc welding. Non-electrified filler wires as small as 0.010 inches can be used. This invention allows precision control of the positioning and feeding of the filler wire during plasma arc welding. Since the non-electrified filler wire is fed coaxially through the center of the plasma arc torch's electrode and nozzle, the wire is automatically aimed at the optimum point in the weld zone. Therefore, there is no need for additional equipment to position and feed the filler wire from the side before or during welding.

  2. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, Jon D.

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratorys Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  3. Generation of large-scale, barrier-free diffuse plasmas in air at atmospheric pressure using array wire electrodes and nanosecond high-voltage pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teng, Yun; Li, Lee Liu, Yun-Long; Liu, Lun; Liu, Minghai

    2014-10-15

    This paper introduces a method to generate large-scale diffuse plasmas by using a repetition nanosecond pulse generator and a parallel array wire-electrode configuration. We investigated barrier-free diffuse plasmas produced in the open air in parallel and cross-parallel array line-line electrode configurations. We found that, when the distance between the wire-electrode pair is small, the discharges were almost extinguished. Also, glow-like diffuse plasmas with little discharge weakening were obtained in an appropriate range of line-line distances and with a cathode-grounding cross-electrode configuration. As an example, we produced a large-scale, stable diffuse plasma with volumes as large as 18??15??15?cm{sup 3}, and this discharge region can be further expanded. Additionally, using optical and electrical measurements, we showed that the electron temperature was higher than the gas temperature, which was almost the same as room temperature. Also, an array of electrode configuration with more wire electrodes had helped to prevent the transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge. Comparing the current waveforms of configurations with 1 cell and 9 cells, we found that adding cells significantly increased the conduction current and the electrical energy delivered in the electrode gaps.

  4. Antenna coupled photonic wire lasers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reno, John L.; Kao, Tsung-Kao; Cai, Xiaowei; Lee, Alan W. M.; Hu, Qing

    2015-06-22

    Slope efficiency (SE) is an important performance metric for lasers. In conventional semiconductor lasers, SE can be optimized by careful designs of the facet (or the modulation for DFB lasers) dimension and surface. However, photonic wire lasers intrinsically suffer low SE due to their deep sub-wavelength emitting facets. Inspired by microwave engineering techniques, we show a novel method to extract power from wire lasers using monolithically integrated antennas. These integrated antennas significantly increase the effective radiation area, and consequently enhance the power extraction efficiency. When applied to wire lasers at THz frequency, we achieved the highest single-side slope efficiency (~450moremW/A) in pulsed mode for DFB lasers at 4 THz and a ~4x increase in output power at 3 THz compared with a similar structure without antennas. This work demonstrates the versatility of incorporating microwave engineering techniques into laser designs, enabling significant performance enhancements.less

  5. Wire-Net | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wire-Net Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wire-Net Address: 4855 W. 130th Street, Suite 1 Place: Cleveland, OHio Zip: 44135 Sector: Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Services Phone...

  6. Electrical wire insulation and electromagnetic coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bich, George J.; Gupta, Tapan K.

    1984-01-01

    An electromagnetic coil for high temperature and high radiation application in which glass is used to insulate the electrical wire. A process for applying the insulation to the wire is disclosed which results in improved insulation properties.

  7. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  8. Method and apparatus for laying wire arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horowitz, Seymour M.; Nesbitt, Dale D.

    1986-01-01

    Wire arrays (11) having a continuous wire (12) which is formed into a predetermined pattern and adhered to a backing material or substrate (13) are fabricated by applying adhesive material (16a, 16b) along opposite edge portions (17, 18) of the substrate, positioning a row of winding spools (21) along each of the edge portions and repeatedly extending the wire between and around successive spools at the opposite edge portions. The wound wire is then traveled along each spool toward the substrate and into contact with the adhesive. The spools are then removed and a coating of hardenable material (54) is applied to secure the wound wire to the substrate. Tension in the wire is relieved prior to contact of the wire with the adhesive and a small amount of slack is introduced into the wire before the final coating step. Mechanism (32) is provided for lifting the spools away from the substrate without disturbing the wound wire. The method and apparatus enable manufacture of precisely configured wire arrays without complex or costly equipment and do not require structural alterations in the substrate for the purpose of accommodating to fabrication equipment.

  9. Wiring reconfiguration saves millions for Trinity supercomputer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wiring reconfiguration saves millions for Trinity supercomputer Wiring reconfiguration saves millions for Trinity supercomputer A moment of inspiration during a wiring diagram review has saved more than $2 million in material and labor costs for the Trinity supercomputer. August 15, 2016 The first row of cabinets for the Trinity supercomputer at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The first row of cabinets for the Trinity supercomputer at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Contact Nancy Ambrosiano

  10. Torpedo Speciality Wire Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    North Carolina-based maker of speciality wires, including ones for interconnecting solar cells and connecting modules. The firm also produces PV junction boxes. References:...

  11. Thin californium-containing radioactive source wires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Ian G; Pierce, Larry A

    2012-01-03

    A cermet wire includes at least 1% californium-252 and is characterized by a diameter of no more than 0.0225 inch.

  12. Processing A Printed Wiring Board By Single Bath Electrodeposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltzer, Michael P. (Oakland, CA); Steffani, Christopher P. (Livermore, CA); Gonfiotti, Ray A. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-04-15

    A method of processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from the bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  13. Processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltzer, Michael P.; Steffani, Christopher P.; Gonfiotti, Ray A.

    2010-12-07

    A method of processing a printed wiring board. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  14. Polarization-dependent thin-film wire-grid reflectarray for terahertz waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu, Tiaoming; Upadhyay, Aditi; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Sriram, Sharath; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Headland, Daniel; Abbott, Derek; Fumeaux, Christophe

    2015-07-20

    A thin-film polarization-dependent reflectarray based on patterned metallic wire grids is realized at 1 THz. Unlike conventional reflectarrays with resonant elements and a solid metal ground, parallel narrow metal strips with uniform spacing are employed in this design to construct both the radiation elements and the ground plane. For each radiation element, a certain number of thin strips with an identical length are grouped to effectively form a patch resonator with equivalent performance. The ground plane is made of continuous metallic strips, similar to conventional wire-grid polarizers. The structure can deflect incident waves with the polarization parallel to the strips into a designed direction and transmit the orthogonal polarization component. Measured radiation patterns show reasonable deflection efficiency and high polarization discrimination. Utilizing this flexible device approach, similar reflectarray designs can be realized for conformal mounting onto surfaces of cylindrical or spherical devices for terahertz imaging and communications.

  15. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhman, Thomas; Klamut, Carl J.; Suenaga, Masaki; Welch, David

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improves the strain characteristics of the wire.

  16. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhman, Thomas; Klamut, Carl J.; Suenaga, Masaki; Welch, David

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the strain characteristics of the wire.

  17. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhman, T.; Klamut, C.J.; Suenaga, M.; Welch, D.

    1979-12-19

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the strain characteristics of the wire.

  18. Flywheel system using wire-wound rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiao, Edward Young; Bender, Donald Arthur; Means, Andrew E.; Snyder, Philip K.

    2016-06-07

    A flywheel is described having a rotor constructed of wire wound onto a central form. The wire is prestressed, thus mitigating stresses that occur during operation. In another aspect, the flywheel incorporates a low-loss motor using electrically non-conducting permanent magnets.

  19. EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Non-Wires Solutions...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Non-Wires Solutions - October 17, 2012 EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Non-Wires Solutions - October 17, 2012 EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Non-Wires...

  20. Improved method of preparing composite superconducting wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Gibson, E.D.; Finnemore, D.K.; Ostenson, J.E.; Schmidt, F.A.; Owen, C.V.

    1979-10-17

    An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb/sub 3/Sn in a copper matrix eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb/sub 3/Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting.

  1. Method of preparing composite superconducting wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.; Finnemore, Douglas K.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Schmidt, Frederick A.; Owen, Charles V.

    1985-08-06

    An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb.sub.3 Sn in a copper matrix which eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb.sub.3 Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting.

  2. Wide-angle imaging LIDAR (WAIL): a ground-based instrument for monitoring the thickness and density of optically thick clouds.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B.; Rohde, C. A.; Ho, Cheng,

    2001-01-01

    Traditional lidar provides little information on dense clouds beyond the range to their base (ceilometry), due to their extreme opacity. At most optical wavelengths, however, laser photons are not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, and thus eventually escape the cloud via multiple scattering, producing distinctive extended space- and time-dependent patterns which are, in essence, the cloud's radiative Green functions. These Green functions, essentially 'movies' of the time evolution of the spatial distribution of escaping light, are the primary data products of a new type of lidar: Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). WAIL data can be used to infer both optical depth and physical thickness of clouds, and hence the cloud liquid water content. The instrumental challenge is to accommodate a radiance field varying over many orders of magnitude and changing over widely varying time-scales. Our implementation uses a high-speed microchannel plate/crossed delay line imaging detector system with a 60-degree full-angle field of view, and a 532 nm doubled Nd:YAG laser. Nighttime field experiments testing various solutions to this problem show excellent agreement with diffusion theory, and retrievals yield plausible values for the optical and geometrical parameters of the observed cloud decks.

  3. Strain tolerant microfilamentary superconducting wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Finnemore, D.K.; Miller, T.A.; Ostenson, J.E.; Schwartzkopf, L.A.; Sanders, S.C.

    1993-02-23

    A strain tolerant microfilamentary wire capable of carrying superconducting currents is provided comprising a plurality of discontinuous filaments formed from a high temperature superconducting material. The discontinuous filaments have a length at least several orders of magnitude greater than the filament diameter and are sufficiently strong while in an amorphous state to withstand compaction. A normal metal is interposed between and binds the discontinuous filaments to form a normal metal matrix capable of withstanding heat treatment for converting the filaments to a superconducting state. The geometry of the filaments within the normal metal matrix provides substantial filament-to-filament overlap, and the normal metal is sufficiently thin to allow supercurrent transfer between the overlapped discontinuous filaments but is also sufficiently thick to provide strain relief to the filaments.

  4. Single wire drift chamber design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krider, J.

    1987-03-30

    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 ..mu..m rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles.

  5. Guide wire extension for shape memory polymer occlusion removal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Guide wire extension for shape memory polymer occlusion removal devices Title: Guide wire extension for shape memory polymer occlusion removal devices A flexible extension for a ...

  6. An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities - October 2010 An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities - October 2010 The U.S. ...

  7. LANSCE wire scanning diagnostics device mechanical design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is one of the major experimental science facilities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The core of LANSCE's work lies in the operation of a powerful linear accelerator, which accelerates protons up to 84% the speed oflight. These protons are used for a variety of purposes, including materials testing, weapons research and isotopes production. To assist in guiding the proton beam, a series of over one hundred wire scanners are used to measure the beam profile at various locations along the half-mile length of the particle accelerator. A wire scanner is an electro-mechanical device that moves a set of wires through a particle beam and measures the secondary emissions from the resulting beam-wire interaction to obtain beam intensity information. When supplemented with data from a position sensor, this information is used to determine the cross-sectional profile of the beam. This measurement allows beam operators to adjust parameters such as acceleration, beam steering, and focus to ensure that the beam reaches its destination as effectively as possible. Some of the current wire scanners are nearly forty years old and are becoming obsolete. The problem with current wire scanners comes in the difficulty of maintenance and reliability. The designs of these wire scanners vary making it difficult to keep spare parts that would work on all designs. Also many of the components are custom built or out-dated technology and are no longer in production.

  8. Circuits of Atoms on Wires of Light

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Circuits of Atoms on Wires of Light 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:July 2016 past issues All Issues » submit Circuits of Atoms on Wires of Light A new kind of circuitry-with electrons on conducting wires replaced by atoms on paths of laser light-is ushering in an era of "atomtronic" technology. March 8, 2016 Artist visualization of atomic circuits Los Alamos scientists have developed a reliable new way to create atomtronic circuits with waves of

  9. Improvements to Existing Jefferson Lab Wire Scanners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCaughan, Michael D.; Tiefenback, Michael G.; Turner, Dennis L.

    2013-06-01

    This poster will detail the augmentation of selected existing CEBAF wire scanners with commercially available hardware, PMTs, and self created software in order to improve the scanners both in function and utility.

  10. t matrix of metallic wire structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhan, T. R. Chui, S. T.

    2014-04-14

    To study the electromagnetic resonance and scattering properties of complex structures of which metallic wire structures are constituents within multiple scattering theory, the t matrix of individual structures is needed. We have recently developed a rigorous and numerically efficient equivalent circuit theory in which retardation effects are taken into account for metallic wire structures. Here, we show how the t matrix can be calculated analytically within this theory. We illustrate our method with the example of split ring resonators. The density of states and cross sections for scattering and absorption are calculated, which are shown to be remarkably enhanced at resonant frequencies. The t matrix serves as the basic building block to evaluate the interaction of wire structures within the framework of multiple scattering theory. This will open the door to efficient design and optimization of assembly of wire structures.

  11. Energetic additive manufacturing process with feed wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harwell, Lane D.; Griffith, Michelle L.; Greene, Donald L.; Pressly, Gary A.

    2000-11-07

    A process for additive manufacture by energetic wire deposition is described. A source wire is fed into a energy beam generated melt-pool on a growth surface as the melt-pool moves over the growth surface. This process enables the rapid prototyping and manufacture of fully dense, near-net shape components, as well as cladding and welding processes. Alloys, graded materials, and other inhomogeneous materials can be grown using this process.

  12. A wire calorimeter for the SPIDER beam: Experimental tests and feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasqualotto, R. Serianni, G.; Veltri, P.; Cervaro, V.; Fasolo, D.; Mario, I.; Zanini, M.

    2015-04-08

    To study and optimize negative ion production and acceleration, in view of the use of neutral beam injectors in the ITER project, the SPIDER test facility (particle energy 100keV; beam current 50A, distributed over 1280 beamlets) is under construction in Padova, with the aim of testing beam characteristics and to verify the source proper operation, by means of several diagnostic systems. An array of tungsten wires, directly exposed to the beam and consequently heated to high temperature, is used in similar experiments at IPP-Garching to study the beam optics, which is one of the most important issues, in a qualitative way. The present contribution gives a description of an experimental investigation of the behavior of tungsten wires under high heat loads in vacuum. Samples of tungsten wires are heated by electrical currents and the emitted light is measured by a camera in the 400-1100nm wavelength range, which is proposed as a calibration tool. Simultaneously, the voltage applied to the wire is measured to study the dependency of emissivity on temperature. The feasibility study of a wire calorimeter for SPIDER is finally proposed; to this purpose, the expected behaviour of tungsten with the two-dimensional beam profile in SPIDER is numerically addressed.

  13. Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water Volumes I & II (October 1996) Optical character recognition has been applied to these files, but full search capabilities are not guaranteed. Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water-Volume I (10.79 MB) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Ground Water-Volume II

  14. Method of fabricating composite superconducting wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strauss, Bruce P.; Reardon, Paul J.; Remsbottom, Robert H.

    1977-01-01

    An improvement in the method for preparing composite rods of superconducting alloy and normal metal from which multifilament composite superconducting wire is fabricated by bending longitudinally a strip of normal metal around a rod of superconductor alloy and welding the edges to form the composite rod. After the rods have preferably been provided with a hexagonal cross-sectional shape, a plurality of the rods are stacked into a normal metal extrusion can, sealed and worked to reduce the cross-sectional size and form multifilament wire. Diffusion barriers and high-electrical resistance barriers can easily be introduced into the wire by plating or otherwise coating the faces of the normal metal strip with appropriate materials.

  15. LONGITUDINAL LASER WIRE AT SNS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aleksandrov, Alexander V; Liu, Yun; Zhukov, Alexander P

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a longitudinal H- beam profile scanner that utilizes laser light to detach convoy electrons and an MCP to collect and measure these electrons. The scanner is located in MEBT with H- energy of 2.5MeV and an RF frequency 402.5MHz. The picosecond pulsed laser runs at 80.5MHz in sync with the accelerator RF. The laser beam is delivered to the beam line through a 30m optical fiber. The pulse width after the fiber transmission measures about 10ps. Scanning the laser phase effectively allows measurements to move along ion bunch longitudinal position. We are able to reliably measure production beam bunch length with this method. The biggest problem we have encountered is background signal from electrons being stripped by vacuum. Several techniques of signal detection are discussed.

  16. Mechanical characterization of Cu-Zn wire electrode base used in EDM and study of influence of the process of machining on its properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedjal, H. Amirat, B.; Aichour, M.; Marouf, T.; Chitroub, M.

    2015-03-30

    This work is part of a Research National project (PNR) carried out by the group of research of the engineering and material sciences laboratory of the polytechnic national school at Algiers in collaboration with company BCR, which relates to “the characterization of the wire intended for the EDM of matrices metal. The goal of this work is to bring metallographic explanations on the wire electrode used by the machine ROBOFIL 290P, mechanically characterized this wire as of knowing of advantage about the process of its manufacturing (wiredrawing, .) The methods of studies used are it micro Vickers pyramid hardness, the tensile test, optical microscopy and scan electronic microscopy SEM.

  17. Tapered monocapillary-optics for point source applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirsch, Gregory

    2000-01-01

    A glass or metal wire is precisely etched to form the paraboloidal or ellipsoidal shape of the final desired capillary optic. This shape is created by carefully controlling the withdrawal speed of the wire from an etchant bath. In the case of a complete ellipsoidal capillary, the etching operation is performed twice in opposite directions on adjacent wire segments. The etched wire undergoes a subsequent operation to create an extremely smooth surface. This surface is coated with a layer of material which is selected to maximize the reflectivity of the radiation. This reflective surface may be a single layer for wideband reflectivity, or a multilayer coating for optimizing the reflectivity in a narrower wavelength interval. The coated wire is built up with a reinforcing layer, typically by a plating operation. The initial wire is removed by either an etching procedure or mechanical force. Prior to removing the wire, the capillary is typically bonded to a support substrate. One option for attaching the wire to the substrate produces a monolithic structure by essentially burying it under a layer of plating which covers both the wire and the substrate. The capillary optic is used for efficiently collecting and redirecting the divergent radiation from a source which could be the anode of an x-ray tube, a plasma source, the fluorescent radiation from an electron microprobe, or some other source of radiation.

  18. Microfabricated wire arrays for Z-pinch. (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microfabricated wire arrays for Z-pinch. Microfabrication methods have been applied to the fabrication of wire arrays suitable for use in ...

  19. Spectroscopic properties of colloidal indium phosphide quantum wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Wang, Fudong; Yu, Heng; Li, Jingbo; Hang, Qingling; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Janes, David B.; Buhro, William E.

    2008-07-11

    Colloidal InP quantum wires are grown by the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method, and passivated with the traditional quantum dots surfactants 1-hexadecylamine and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide. The size dependence of the band gaps in the wires are determined from the absorption spectra, and compared to other experimental results for InP quantum dots and wires, and to the predictions of theory. The photoluminescence behavior of the wires is also investigated. Efforts to enhance photoluminescence efficiencies through photochemical etching in the presence of HF result only in photochemical thinning or photo-oxidation, without a significant influence on quantum-wire photoluminescence. However, photo-oxidation produces residual dot and rod domains within the wires, which are luminescent. The results establish that the quantum-wire band gaps are weakly influenced by the nature of the surface passivation, and that colloidal quantum wires have intrinsically low photoluminescence efficiencies.

  20. ORNL Publishes Study on Superconducting Wire Performance | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy ORNL Publishes Study on Superconducting Wire Performance ORNL Publishes Study on Superconducting Wire Performance August 23, 2013 - 4:06pm Addthis The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) recently released a new study on advances in superconducting wire technology. A team led by ORNL's Amit Goyal demonstrated that the ability to control nanoscale imperfections in superconducting wires results in materials with excellent and customized performance. The team's

  1. Method for fabricating thin californium-containing radioactive source wires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Ian G; Pierce, Larry A

    2006-08-22

    A method for reducing the cross-sectional diameter of a radioactive californium-containing cermet wire while simultaneously improving the wire diameter to a more nearly circular cross section. A collet fixture is used to reduce the wire diameter by controlled pressurization pulses while simultaneously improving the wire cross-sectional diameter. The method is especially suitable for use in hot cells for the production of optimized cermet brachytherapy sources that contain large amounts of radioactive californium-252.

  2. Porous coatings from wire mesh for bone implants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sump, Kenneth R.

    1986-01-01

    A method of coating areas of bone implant elements and the resulting implant having a porous coating are described. Preselected surface areas are covered by a preform made from continuous woven lengths of wire. The preform is compressed and heated to assure that diffusion bonding occurs between the wire surfaces and between the surface boundaries of the implant element and the wire surfaces in contact with it. Porosity is achieved by control of the resulting voids between the bonded wire portions.

  3. Composite wire microelectrode and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaacs, H.S.; Aldykiewicz, A.J. Jr.

    1996-12-03

    A composite wire microelectrode for making electro-chemical measurements, and method of making same, are disclosed. The microelectrode includes an inner conductive sensing wire and an outer tube that is oxidized to form a dielectric, self-healing oxide layer around the sensing wire. 4 figs.

  4. High Strength Gold Wire for Microelectronics Miniaturization - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal High Strength Gold Wire for Microelectronics Miniaturization Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary ISU and Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a high strength gold wire for use in microelectronics that can maintain its electrical and mechanical properties while permitting miniaturization of microelectronics design. Description Gold alloy wires currently used in microelectronics have limited electrical and mechanical

  5. Composite wire microelectrode and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaacs, Hugh S.; Aldykiewicz, Jr., Antonio J.

    1996-12-03

    A composite wire microelectrode for making electro-chemical measurements, and method of making same. The microelectrode includes an inner conductive sensing wire and an outer tube that is oxidized to form a dielectric, self-healing oxide layer around the sensing wire.

  6. Realization of an all optical exciton-polariton router

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsault, Félix; Nguyen, Hai Son; Tanese, Dimitrii; Lemaître, Aristide; Galopin, Elisabeth; Sagnes, Isabelle; Amo, Alberto

    2015-11-16

    We report on the experimental realization of an all optical router for exciton-polaritons. This device is based on the design proposed by Flayac and Savenko [Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 201105 (2013)], in which a zero-dimensional island is connected through tunnel barriers to two periodically modulated wires of different periods. Selective transmission of polaritons injected in the island, into either of the two wires, is achieved by tuning the energy of the island state across the band structure of the modulated wires. We demonstrate routing of ps polariton pulses using an optical control beam which controls the energy of the island quantum states, thanks to polariton-exciton interactions.

  7. High density harp or wire scanner for particle beam diagnostics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritsche, C.T.; Krogh, M.L.

    1996-05-21

    Disclosed is a diagnostic detector head harp used to detect and characterize high energy particle beams using an array of closely spaced detector wires, typically carbon wires, spaced less than 0.1 cm (0.040 inch) connected to a hybrid microcircuit formed on a ceramic substrate. A method to fabricate harps to obtain carbon wire spacing and density not previously available utilizing hybrid microcircuit technology. The hybrid microcircuit disposed on the ceramic substrate connects electrically between the detector wires and diagnostic equipment which analyzes pulses generated in the detector wires by the high energy particle beams. 6 figs.

  8. High density harp or wire scanner for particle beam diagnostics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritsche, Craig T.; Krogh, Michael L.

    1996-05-21

    A diagnostic detector head harp (23) used to detect and characterize high energy particle beams using an array of closely spaced detector wires (21), typically carbon wires, spaced less than 0.1 cm (0.040 inch) connected to a hybrid microcircuit (25) formed on a ceramic substrate (26). A method to fabricate harps (23) to obtain carbon wire spacing and density not previously available utilizing hybrid microcircuit technology. The hybrid microcircuit (25) disposed on the ceramic substrate (26) connects electrically between the detector wires (21) and diagnostic equipment (37) which analyzes pulses generated in the detector wires (21) by the high energy particle beams.

  9. LANL breaks ground on key sediment control project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sediment control project LANL breaks ground on key sediment control project Called "grade-control" structures, the approximately $2 million features are up to eight feet high and made of rocks packed tightly into wire enclosures. November 5, 2009 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics

  10. METHOD OF MAKING WIRE FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zambrow, J.L.

    1960-08-01

    A method is given for making a nuclear reactor fuel element in the form of a uranium-bearing wire clad with zirconium. A uranium bar is enclosed in a zirconium sheath which is coated with an oxide of magnesium, beryllium, or zirconium. The sheathed bar is then placed in a steel tube and reduced to the desired diameter by swaging at 800 to 900 deg C, after which the steel and oxide are removed.

  11. Rework of parylene coated printed wiring assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, J.O.

    1991-04-01

    This document describes the recommended method for reworking parylene coated Printed Wiring Assemblies (PWAs). Special training is required to successfully rework PWAs that are parylene coated. Parylene coating rework should not be attempted on production units unless successful parylene coating removal has been completed on non-production assemblies. The rework procedures described in this document are recommended for normal parylene rework. Special situations may dictate slight deviation from the methods described herein. 4 figs.

  12. Ferrite insertion at Recycler Flying Wire System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.Y. Ng

    2004-02-27

    Ferrite rods are installed inside the flying-wire cavity of the Recycler Ring and at entrance and exit beam pipes in order to absorb high-frequency electromagnetic waves excited by the beam. However, these rods may also deteriorate the vacuum pressure of the ring. An investigation is made to analyze the necessity of the ferrite rods at the entrance and exit beam pipes.

  13. Ground difference compensating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2005-10-25

    A method of ground level compensation includes measuring a voltage of at least one signal with respect to a primary ground potential and measuring, with respect to the primary ground potential, a voltage level associated with a secondary ground potential. A difference between the voltage level associated with the secondary ground potential and an expected value is calculated. The measured voltage of the at least one signal is adjusted by an amount corresponding to the calculated difference.

  14. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  15. Calibration of optical particle-size analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pechin, William H.; Thacker, Louis H.; Turner, Lloyd J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a system for the calibration of an optical particle-size analyzer of the light-intercepting type for spherical particles, wherein a rotary wheel or disc is provided with radially-extending wires of differing diameters, each wire corresponding to a particular equivalent spherical particle diameter. These wires are passed at an appropriate frequency between the light source and the light detector of the analyzer. The reduction of light as received at the detector is a measure of the size of the wire, and the electronic signal may then be adjusted to provide the desired signal for corresponding spherical particles. This calibrator may be operated at any time without interrupting other processing.

  16. Optical Spectroscopy Experiments on the 500 kA XP Pulsed-Power Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, K. S.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; McBride, R. D.; Blesener, I. C.; Knapp, P. F.; Hammer, D. A.; Greenly, J. B.; Maron, Y.

    2009-01-21

    Recent experiments on the 500 kA XP pulsed-power generator at Cornell University have explored the properties of optical spectra in single wires and wire arrays. In the single wire experiments, {approx}1% of the current from XP has been directed through the single wire. Spectra have been recorded using a half-meter spectrometer and a CCD camera located adjacent to the XP pulser. We are studying the visible spectra emitted by the wires and the background light from the machine hardware in order to identify the levels of current per wire for which visible spectroscopy might provide a means to measure magnetic field strength. We have also investigated the dependence of single wire visible spectra on the current, which was measured using a calibrated non-integrating Rogowski coil. UV and XUV diodes were employed to gather information about the temporal structure of the background and wire radiation. The line radiation in the spectra was recorded with wire currents at the few kA level. This is comparable to the first 10 ns of a 32-wire array experiment on 1 Ma generator and a 600-wire array at 20 MA.

  17. System and method for evaluating a wire conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panozzo, Edward; Parish, Harold

    2013-10-22

    A method of evaluating an electrically conductive wire segment having an insulated intermediate portion and non-insulated ends includes passing the insulated portion of the wire segment through an electrically conductive brush. According to the method, an electrical potential is established on the brush by a power source. The method also includes determining a value of electrical current that is conducted through the wire segment by the brush when the potential is established on the brush. The method additionally includes comparing the value of electrical current conducted through the wire segment with a predetermined current value to thereby evaluate the wire segment. A system for evaluating an electrically conductive wire segment is also disclosed.

  18. Influence of insulating coating on aluminum wire explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yang; Wu, Jian; Sheng, Liang; Zhao, Jizhen; Zhang, Mei; Yuan, Yuan; Peng, Bodong; Li, Xingwen

    2014-10-15

    Single wire explosions are widely used in understanding the early stages of z-pinch experiments. This paper presents a serial of experiments conducted on the pulse power generator with ?1?kA peak current and ?10?ns rising time in Xi'an Jiao Tong University. Polyimide coated aluminum wires and uncoated ones were tested under three different voltages to analyze the effect of insulating coating. Experimental results showed that insulating coating can increase the energy deposition 10%?30% in aluminum wires by delaying the voltage collapse and raising the maximum load resistance. The substantial energy deposition resulted in about 20% faster expansion rates for coated wires. Experimental evidence that plasma channel shunts the current from the wire core was observed by streak camera and schlieren graphs. This paper also briefly discussed the influence of nonuniform coating on the morphology of wire expansion.

  19. Converter Topologies for Wired and Wireless Battery Chargers | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Converter Topologies for Wired and Wireless Battery Chargers Converter Topologies for Wired and Wireless Battery Chargers 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ape033_su_2011_o.pdf (384.8 KB) More Documents & Publications Converter Topologies for Wired and Wireless Battery Chargers Inverter Using Current Source Topology Wireless Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Charging

  20. An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    October 2010 | Department of Energy An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities - October 2010 An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities - October 2010 The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability monitors changes, threats, and risks to the energy infrastructure in the United States. This report updates a previously published report on copper wire theft. The combined efforts of electric

  1. Tungsten quasispherical wire loads with a profiled mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grabovskii, E. V.; Dzhangobegov, V. V. Oleinik, G. M.; Rodionov, R. N.

    2015-12-15

    Wire arrays made from micrometer tungsten wires with linear mass profiled along their height are developed for experiments on the generation of X-ray radiation upon pinch compression with a current of ∼3 MA at a pulse duration of ∼100 ns. Wires are imaged with a scanning electron microscope, and their diameter is determined. It is shown that the arrays have such a profile of height distribution of linear mass that allows for compact spherical compression upon current implosion.

  2. An aging study of wire chambers with dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jibaly, M.; Chrusch, P. Jr.; Hilgenberg, G.; Majewski, S.; Wojcik, R.; Sauli, F.; Gaudaen, J.

    1989-02-01

    The authors report results on the aging of different types of resistive and non-resistive wires in wire chambers filled with dimethyl ether (DME) of varying degrees of purity. Among the Freon impurities detected in our DME batches, only Freon-11 was found to contribute to the aging process. Of the resistive wires, Nicotin and Stablohm produced fast aging, whereas stainless steel withstood extended irradiation in purified DME (up to 1 C/cm) without any apparent damage. Gold-plated tungsten and molybdenum wires produced results comparable to those of the stainless steel.

  3. Evaluation of the intermittent GTA cold wire feed weld system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dereskiewicz, J.P.

    1991-08-01

    An intermittent gas tungsten arc cold wire feed process was statistically evaluated to determine the feasibility of applying this process to meet the 0.030-inch weld penetration and peak temperature requirements when unfavorable joint tolerances exist on a subassembly weld. The wire feed system was determined to only slightly benefit the welding process over normal pulsed gas tungsten arc welding using traditional wire feeding capabilities. However, the complexity of this process and extensive welding operator training and qualification does not outweigh the benefits of incorporating this synchronized pulse wire feed system in production. 2 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. High resolution absorption spectroscopy of exploding wire plasmas...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Published Article: High resolution absorption spectroscopy of exploding wire plasmas using an x-pinch x-ray source and spherically bent crystal Title: High resolution absorption ...

  5. Transport in interacting 1D double quantum wires

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transport in interacting 1D double-- quantum wires Michael Lilly Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies Sandia National Laboratories Collaborators Dominique Laroche, Guillaume ...

  6. Wire chamber radiation detector with discharge control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, Victor; Mulera, Terrence A.

    1984-01-01

    A wire chamber radiation detector (11) has spaced apart parallel electrodes (16) and grids (17, 18, 19) defining an ignition region (21) in which charged particles (12) or other ionizing radiations initiate brief localized avalanche discharges (93) and defining an adjacent memory region (22) in which sustained glow discharges (94) are initiated by the primary discharges (93). Conductors (29, 32) of the grids (18, 19) at each side of the memory section (22) extend in orthogonal directions enabling readout of the X-Y coordinates of locations at which charged particles (12) were detected by sequentially transmitting pulses to the conductors (29) of one grid (18) while detecting transmissions of the pulses to the orthogonal conductors (36) of the other grid (19) through glow discharges (94). One of the grids (19) bounding the memory region (22) is defined by an array of conductive elements (32) each of which is connected to the associated readout conductor (36) through a separate resistance (37). The wire chamber (11) avoids ambiguities and imprecisions in the readout of coordinates when large numbers of simultaneous or near simultaneous charged particles (12) have been detected. Down time between detection periods and the generation of radio frequency noise are also reduced.

  7. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  8. Peculiarity of convergence of shock wave generated by underwater electrical explosion of ring-shaped wire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, D.; Toker, G. R.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Gleizer, S.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2013-05-15

    Nanosecond timescale underwater electrical wire explosions of ring-shaped Cu wires were investigated using a pulsed generator with a current amplitude up to 50 kA. It was shown that this type of wire explosion results in the generation of a toroidal shock wave (SW). Time- and space-resolved optical diagnostics were used to determine azimuthal uniformity of the shock wave front and its velocity. It was found that the shock wave preserves its circular front shape in the range of radii 50?m

  9. Nanowires and nanoribbons as subwavelength optical waveguides and their use as components in photonic circuits and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong; Law, Matt; Sirbuly, Donald J.; Johnson, Justin C.; Saykally, Richard; Fan, Rong; Tao, Andrea

    2012-10-02

    Nanoribbons and nanowires having diameters less than the wavelength of light are used in the formation and operation of optical circuits and devices. Such nanostructures function as subwavelength optical waveguides which form a fundamental building block for optical integration. The extraordinary length, flexibility and strength of these structures enable their manipulation on surfaces, including the precise positioning and optical linking of nanoribbon/wire waveguides and other nanoribbon/wire elements to form optical networks and devices. In addition, such structures provide for waveguiding in liquids, enabling them to further be used in other applications such as optical probes and sensors.

  10. Comparison of quantum confinement effects between quantum wires and dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jingbo; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2004-03-30

    Dimensionality is an important factor to govern the electronic structures of semiconductor nanocrystals. The quantum confinement energies in one-dimensional quantum wires and zero-dimensional quantum dots are quite different. Using large-scale first-principles calculations, we systematically study the electronic structures of semiconductor (including group IV, III-V, and II-VI) surface-passivated quantum wires and dots. The band-gap energies of quantum wires and dots have the same scaling with diameter for a given material. The ratio of band-gap-increases between quantum wires and dots is material-dependent, and slightly deviates from 0.586 predicted by effective-mass approximation. Highly linear polarization of photoluminescence in quantum wires is found. The degree of polarization decreases with the increasing temperature and size.

  11. Method and apparatus for diamond wire cutting of metal structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsells, Robert; Gettelfinger, Geoff; Perry, Erik; Rule, Keith

    2005-04-19

    A method and apparatus for diamond wire cutting of metal structures, such as nuclear reactor vessels, is provided. A diamond wire saw having a plurality of diamond beads with beveled or chamfered edges is provided for sawing into the walls of the metal structure. The diamond wire is guided by a plurality of support structures allowing for a multitude of different cuts. The diamond wire is cleaned and cooled by CO.sub.2 during the cutting process to prevent breakage of the wire and provide efficient cutting. Concrete can be provided within the metal structure to enhance cutting efficiency and reduce airborne contaminants. The invention can be remotely controlled to reduce exposure of workers to radioactivity and other hazards.

  12. Intermetallic alloy welding wires and method for fabricating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santella, Michael L.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1996-01-01

    Welding wires for welding together intermetallic alloys of nickel aluminides, nickel-iron aluminides, iron aluminides, or titanium aluminides, and preferably including additional alloying constituents are fabricated as two-component, clad structures in which one component contains the primary alloying constituent(s) except for aluminum and the other component contains the aluminum constituent. This two-component approach for fabricating the welding wire overcomes the difficulties associated with mechanically forming welding wires from intermetallic alloys which possess high strength and limited ductilities at elevated temperatures normally employed in conventional metal working processes. The composition of the clad welding wires is readily tailored so that the welding wire composition when melted will form an alloy defined by the weld deposit which substantially corresponds to the composition of the intermetallic alloy being joined.

  13. Intermetallic alloy welding wires and method for fabricating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1996-06-11

    Welding wires for welding together intermetallic alloys of nickel aluminides, nickel-iron aluminides, iron aluminides, or titanium aluminides, and preferably including additional alloying constituents are fabricated as two-component, clad structures in which one component contains the primary alloying constituent(s) except for aluminum and the other component contains the aluminum constituent. This two-component approach for fabricating the welding wire overcomes the difficulties associated with mechanically forming welding wires from intermetallic alloys which possess high strength and limited ductilities at elevated temperatures normally employed in conventional metal working processes. The composition of the clad welding wires is readily tailored so that the welding wire composition when melted will form an alloy defined by the weld deposit which substantially corresponds to the composition of the intermetallic alloy being joined. 4 figs.

  14. Electrical grounding prong socket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leong, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a socket for a grounding prong used in a three prong electrical plug and a receptacle for the three prong plug. The socket being sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having a ridge to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket.

  15. Study on electrical characteristics of barrier-free atmospheric air diffuse discharge generated by nanosecond pulses and long wire electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Lee Liu, Yun-Long; Teng, Yun; Liu, Lun; Pan, Yuan

    2014-07-15

    In room-temperature atmospheric air, the large-scale diffuse plasmas can be generated via high-voltage nanosecond pulses with short rise-time and wire electrodes. Diffuse discharge with the wire electrode length up to 110.0?cm and the discharge spacing of several centimeters has been investigated in this paper. Electrical characteristics of diffuse discharge have been analyzed by their optical photographs and measuring of the voltage and current waveforms. Experimental results show the electrode spacing, and the length of wire electrodes can influence the intensity and mode transition of diffuse discharge. The characteristic of current waveforms is that there are several current oscillation peaks at the time of applied pulsed voltage peak, and at the tail of applied pulse, the conduction current component will compensate the displacement one so that the measured current is unidirectional in diffuse discharge mode. The transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge is always with the increasing of conduction current density. As for nanosecond pulses with long tail, the long wire electrodes are help for generating non-equilibrium diffuse plasmas.

  16. Ablation dynamics in coiled wire-array Z-pinches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G. N.; Lebedev, S. V.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Swadling, G.; Chittenden, J. P.; Bland, S. N.; Harvey-Thompson, A.; Knapp, P. F.; Blesener, I. C.; McBride, R. D.; Chalenski, D. A.; Blesener, K. S.; Greenly, J. B.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.

    2013-02-15

    Experiments to study the ablation dynamics of coiled wire arrays were performed on the MAGPIE generator (1 MA, 240 ns) at Imperial College, and on the COBRA generator at Cornell University's Laboratory of Plasma Studies (1 MA, 100 ns). The MAGPIE generator was used to drive coiled wires in an inverse array configuration to study the distribution of ablated plasma. Using interferometry to study the plasma distribution during the ablation phase, absolute quantitative measurements of electron line density demonstrated very high density contrasts between coiled ablation streams and inter-stream regions many millimetres from the wire. The measured density contrasts for a coiled array were many times greater than that observed for a conventional array with straight wires, indicating that a much greater axial modulation of the ablated plasma may be responsible for the unique implosion dynamics of coiled arrays. Experiments on the COBRA generator were used to study the complex redirection of plasma around a coiled wire that gives rise to the ablation structure exhibited by coiled arrays. Observations of this complex 3D plasma structure were used to validate the current model of coiled array ablation dynamics [Hall et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 065003 (2008)], demonstrating irrefutably that plasma flow from the wires behaves as predicted. Coiled wires were observed to ablate and implode in the same manner on both machines, indicating that current rise time should not be an issue for the scaling of coiled arrays to larger machines with fast current rise times.

  17. Electrically isolated, high melting point, metal wire arrays and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, John T.; Cunningham, Joseph P.; D'Urso, Brian R.; Hendricks, Troy R.; Schaeffer, Daniel A.

    2016-01-26

    A method of making a wire array includes the step of providing a tube of a sealing material and having an interior surface, and positioning a wire in the tube, the wire having an exterior surface. The tube is heated to soften the tube, and the softened tube is drawn and collapsed by a mild vacuum to bring the interior surface of the tube into contact with the wire to create a coated wire. The coated wires are bundled. The bundled coated wires are heated under vacuum to fuse the tube material coating the wires and create a fused rod with a wire array embedded therein. The fused rod is cut to form a wire array. A wire array is also disclosed.

  18. Fabrication Routes for High Strength High Conductivity Wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, K.; Embury, J.D.; Sims, J.R.; Pantsyrnyi, V.I.; Shikov, A.; Bochvar, A.A.

    1998-10-01

    The development of suitable wires for magnet windings requires both the attainment of suitable combinations of properties (electrical conductivity and strength), the development of a production route capable of fabricating suitable quantity of wire of required dimension (5.2x7.6mm{sup 2} cross-section and 120 m in length) and a product with acceptable fabricability, joinability and service life. In this survey, the authors consider methods of producing suitable wire products by the codeformation of in-situ composites. This will include details of the quality control of the processing of Cu-Ag and Cu-Nb and the assessment of their detailed mechanical properties.

  19. Aircraft wire system laboratory development : phase I progress report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinallo, Michael Anthony; Lopez, Christopher D.

    2003-08-01

    An aircraft wire systems laboratory has been developed to support technical maturation of diagnostic technologies being used in the aviation community for detection of faulty attributes of wiring systems. The design and development rationale of the laboratory is based in part on documented findings published by the aviation community. The main resource at the laboratory is a test bed enclosure that is populated with aged and newly assembled wire harnesses that have known defects. This report provides the test bed design and harness selection rationale, harness assembly and defect fabrication procedures, and descriptions of the laboratory for usage by the aviation community.

  20. Wire bond vibration of forward pixel tracking detector of CMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atac, M.; Gobbi, B.; Kwan, S.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Spencer, E.; Sellberg, G.; Pavlicek, V.; /Fermilab

    2006-10-01

    Wire bonds of the Forward Pixel (FPix) tracking detectors are oriented in the direction that maximizes Lorentz Forces relative to the 4 Tesla field of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Detector's magnet. The CMS Experiment is under construction at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. We were concerned about Lorentz Force oscillating the wires at their fundamental frequencies and possibly fracturing or breaking them at their heels, as happened with the CDF wire bonds. This paper reports a study to understand what conditions break such bonds.

  1. Plasma channel optical pumping device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judd, O.P.

    1983-06-28

    A device and method are disclosed for optically pumping a gaseous laser using blackbody radiation produced by a plasma channel which is formed from an electrical discharge between two electrodes spaced at opposite longitudinal ends of the laser. A preionization device which can comprise a laser or electron beam accelerator produces a preionization beam which is sufficient to cause an electrical discharge between the electrodes to initiate the plasma channel along the preionization path. The optical pumping energy is supplied by a high voltage power supply rather than by the preionization beam. High output optical intensities are produced by the laser due to the high temperature blackbody radiation produced by the plasma channel, in the same manner as an exploding wire type laser. However, unlike the exploding wire type laser, the disclosed invention can be operated in a repetitive manner by utilizing a repetitive pulsed preionization device. 5 figs.

  2. Plasma channel optical pumping device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judd, O'Dean P.

    1983-06-28

    A device and method for optically pumping a gaseous laser using blackbody radiation produced by a plasma channel which is formed from an electrical discharge between two electrodes spaced at opposite longitudinal ends of the laser. A preionization device which can comprise a laser or electron beam accelerator produces a preionization beam which is sufficient to cause an electrical discharge between the electrodes to initiate the plasma channel along the preionization path. The optical pumping energy is supplied by a high voltage power supply rather than by the preionization beam. High output optical intensities are produced by the laser due to the high temperature blackbody radiation produced by the plasma channel, in the same manner as an exploding wire type laser. However, unlike the exploding wire type laser, the disclosed invention can be operated in a repetitive manner by utilizing a repetitive pulsed preionization device.

  3. Wire number dependence of the implosion dynamics, stagnation, and radiation output of tungsten wire arrays at Z driver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazarakis, Michael G.; Stygar, William A.; Sinars, Daniel B.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Nash, Thomas J.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Keith Matzen, M.; Porter, John L.; Struve, Kenneth W.; McDaniel, Dillon H.; Deeney, Christopher E.; Douglas, Melissa R.; Chittenden, Jerry

    2011-11-15

    We report results of the experimental campaign, which studied the initiation, implosion dynamics, and radiation yield of tungsten wire arrays as a function of the wire number. The wire array dimensions and mass were those of interest for the Z-pinch driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. An optimization study of the x-ray emitted peak power, rise time, and full width at half maximum was effectuated by varying the wire number while keeping the total array mass constant and equal to {approx}5.8 mg. The driver utilized was the {approx}20-MA Z accelerator before refurbishment in its usual short pulse mode of 100 ns. We studied single arrays of 20-mm diameter and 1-cm height. The smaller wire number studied was 30 and the largest 600. It appears that 600 is the highest achievable wire number with present day's technology. Radial and axial diagnostics were utilized including crystal monochromatic x-ray backlighter. An optimum wire number of {approx}375 was observed which was very close to the routinely utilized 300 for the ICF program in Sandia.

  4. METHOD OF LOCATING GROUNDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Macleish, K.G.

    1958-02-11

    ABS>This patent presents a method for locating a ground in a d-c circult having a number of parallel branches connected across a d-c source or generator. The complete method comprises the steps of locating the ground with reference to the mildpoint of the parallel branches by connecting a potentiometer across the terminals of the circuit and connecting the slider of the potentiometer to ground through a current indicating instrument, adjusting the slider to right or left of the mildpoint so as to cause the instrument to indicate zero, connecting the terminal of the network which is farthest from the ground as thus indicated by the potentiometer to ground through a condenser, impressing a ripple voltage on the circuit, and then measuring the ripple voltage at the midpoint of each parallel branch to find the branch in which is the lowest value of ripple voltage, and then measuring the distribution of the ripple voltage along this branch to determine the point at which the ripple voltage drops off to zero or substantially zero due to the existence of a ground. The invention has particular application where a circuit ground is present which will disappear if the normal circuit voltage is removed.

  5. X-ray backlighting density measurements of tungsten and aluminum wire and wire array z-pinches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammer, D.A.; Pikuz, S.A.; Shelkovenko, T.A.; Greenly, J.B.; Sinars, D.B.; Mingaleev, A.R.

    1999-07-01

    Calibrated density measurements in both the coronal plasmas and dense cores of exploding W wire and wire array Z-pinches, powered by the {approximately}450 kA, 100 ns XP-pulser at Cornell University, have been made using two-frame x-ray backlighting in conjunction with known thickness W step wedges. The backlighting images are made by Mo wire X-pinch radiation filtered by 12.5 {micro}m Ti impinging upon a sandwich of films (Micrat VR, Kodak GWL, Kodak DEF) which have different sensitivities to increase the dynamic range of the method. A W step wedge filter is placed in front of the films, giving absolute line density calibration of each exposure with estimated errors ranging from 20 to 50%. Assuming x-ray absorption by the W plasma is the same as for the solid material, the authors are able to measure W areal densities from 3.2 x 10{sup 19} to 2 x 10{sup 17}/cm{sup 2}. These can be converted to number density assuming azimuthal symmetry. For example, for an exploded 7.5 {micro}m wire with a 15--20 {micro}m diameter dense core and a 1 mm corona diameter, the implied W volume density ranges from 2x10{sup 18} to over 10{sup 22}/cm{sup 3}. Integration of the line density gives an estimate of the fraction of the wire mass in the corona and core. For example, with 100 kA peak current in a single 7.5 {micro}m W wire, {approximately}70% (>90%) of the W mass is in the corona after 53 ns (61 ns). The authors also observe that the corona has large, roughly axisymmetric axial nonuniformity both in radius and in mass density. In addition, the coronal plasma contains more of the W mass, expands faster and is more uniform when the wire is surface-cleaned by preheating. In arrays of 2--8 wires with the same 100 kA total current, detectable coronal plasma appears after 25--35 ns, and much of it is swept toward the center of the array, forming a dense channel. The portion of the initial wire mass in the coronal plasma increases with smaller wire diameter and decreases with greater

  6. Wide-Bandwidth Capture of Wire-Scanner Signals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruchalla, Michael E.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Sedillo, James Daniel; Martinez, Derwin

    2012-05-16

    Integrated charge collected on the sense wires of wire-scanner systems utilized to determine beam profile is generally the parameter of interest. The LANSCE application requires capturing the charge information macropulse-by-macropulse with macropulse lengths as long as 700 {micro}s at a maximum macropulse rate of 120 Hz. Also, for the LANSCE application, it is required that the integration be performed in a manner that does not require integrator reset between macropulses. Due to the long macropulse which must be accommodated and the 8.33 ms minimum pulse period, a simple R-C integrator cannot be utilized since there is insufficient time between macropulses to allow the integrator to adequately recover. The application of wide analog bandwidth to provide accurate pulse-by-pulse capture of the wire signals with digital integration of the wire signals to determine captured charge at each macropulse in applications with comparatively long macropulses and high pulse repetition rates is presented.

  7. Ductile alloy and process for preparing composite superconducting wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Finnemore, D.K.; Gibson, E.D.; Ostenson, J.E.

    An alloy for the commercial production of ductile superconducting wire is prepared by melting together copper and at least 15 weight percent niobium under non-oxygen-contaminating conditions, and rapidly cooling the melt to form a ductile composite consisting of discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles of niobium in a copper matrix. As the wire is worked, the dendritic particles are realigned parallel to the longitudinal axis and when drawn form a plurality of very fine ductile superconductors in a ductile copper matrix. The drawn wire may be tin coated and wound into magnets or the like before diffusing the tin into the wire to react with the niobium. Impurities such as aluminum or gallium may be added to improve upper critical field characteristics.

  8. Ductile alloy and process for preparing composite superconducting wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, John D.; Finnemore, Douglas K.; Gibson, Edwin D.; Ostenson, Jerome E.

    1983-03-29

    An alloy for the commercial production of ductile superconducting wire is prepared by melting together copper and at least 15 weight percent niobium under non-oxygen-contaminating conditions, and rapidly cooling the melt to form a ductile composite consisting of discrete, randomly distributed and orientated dendritic-shaped particles of niobium in a copper matrix. As the wire is worked, the dendritric particles are realigned parallel to the longitudinal axis and when drawn form a plurality of very fine ductile superconductors in a ductile copper matrix. The drawn wire may be tin coated and wound into magnets or the like before diffusing the tin into the wire to react with the niobium. Impurities such as aluminum or gallium may be added to improve upper critical field characteristics.

  9. Two Men Charged With Wire Fraud | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Men Charged With Wire Fraud More Documents & Publications Savannah River Site Contractor Agrees to Pay 3.8 Million to Settle False Claims Act Allegations Indictment for Theft of ...

  10. Yukita Electric Wire Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Yukita Electric Wire Co Ltd Place: Joto-Ku, Osaka, Japan Zip: 536-0001 Product: Osaka-based electric cable and power supply cords manufacturer....

  11. An Updated Assessment of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... LexisNexis search of U.S. newspapers and U.S. newswires. ... copper theft, if not in terms of absolute numbers, at ... how quickly thieves can enter and remove copper wire from ...

  12. Title 30 Chapter 71 Telegraph, Telephone, and Electric Wires...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Electric WiresLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 1969 Legal Citation 30 V.S.A. 2501 et seq. DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org...

  13. Process for producing fine and ultrafine filament superconductor wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kanithi, H.C.

    1992-02-18

    A process for producing a superconductor wire made up of a large number of round monofilament rods is provided for, comprising assembling a multiplicity of round monofilaments inside each of a multiplicity of thin wall hexagonal tubes and then assembling a number of said thin wall hexagonal tubes within an extrusion can and subsequently consolidating, extruding and drawing the entire assembly down to the desired wire size. 8 figs.

  14. Wire rope superconducting cable for diurnal load leveling SMES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costello, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a wire rope cable for a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit is discussed. The superconducting wires in the rope permit the passage of large currents in the relatively small conductors of the windings and hence cause large electromagnetic forces to act on the rope. The diameter of the rope, from a strength point of view, can be considerably reduced by supporting the rope at various points along its length.

  15. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Wednesday, 21 December 2005 00:00 Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features

  16. Process for producing fine and ultrafine filament superconductor wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kanithi, Hem C.

    1992-01-01

    A process for producing a superconductor wire made up of a large number of round monofilament rods is provided for, comprising assembling a multiplicity of round monofilaments inside each of a multiplicity of thin wall hexagonal tubes and then assembling a number of said thin wall hexagonal tubes within an extrusion can and subsequently consolidating, extruding and drawing the entire assembly down to the desired wire size.

  17. Method of fabricating a homogeneous wire of inter-metallic alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN); Blue, Craig Alan (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A method for fabricating a homogeneous wire of inter-metallic alloy comprising the steps of providing a base-metal wire bundle comprising a metal, an alloy or a combination thereof; working the wire bundle through at least one die to obtain a desired dimension and to form a precursor wire; and, controllably heating the precursor wire such that a portion of the wire will become liquid while simultaneously maintaining its desired shape, whereby substantial homogenization of the wire occurs in the liquid state and additional homogenization occurs in the solid state resulting in a homogenous alloy product.

  18. Ground potential rise monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Zachery Warren; Zevenbergen, Gary Allen

    2012-07-17

    A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising a first electrode, a second electrode, and a voltage attenuator. The first electrode and the second electrode are both electrically connected to the voltage attenuator. A means for determining the presence of a dangerous ground potential is connected to the voltage attenuator. The device and method further comprises a means for enabling one or more alarms upon the detection of the dangerous ground potential. Preferably, a first transmitter/receiver is connected to the means for enabling one or more alarms. Preferably, a second transmitter/receiver, comprising a button, is electromagnetically connected to the first transmitter/receiver. Preferably, the means for determining the presence of a dangerous ground potential comprises a means for determining the true RMS voltage at the output of the voltage attenuator, a transient detector connected to the output of the voltage attenuator, or a combination thereof.

  19. Processing and mechanical behavior of hypereutectoid steel wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D.; Kim, D.K.

    1996-06-25

    Hypereutectoid steels have the potential for dramatically increasing the strength of wire used in tire cord and in other high strength wire applications. The basis for this possible breakthrough is the elimination of a brittle proeutectoid network that can form along grain boundaries if appropriate processing procedures and alloy additions are used. A review is made of work done by Japanese and other researchers on eutectoid and mildly hypereutectoid wires. A linear extrapolation of the tensile strength of fine wires predicts higher strengths at higher carbon contents. The influence of processing, alloy additions and carbon content in optimizing the strength, ductility and fracture behavior of hypereutectoid steels is presented. It is proposed that the tensile strength of pearlitic wires is dictated by the fracture strength of the carbide lamella at grain boundary locations in the carbide. Methods to improve the strength of carbide grain boundaries and to decrease the carbide plate thickness will contribute to enhancing the ultrahigh strength obtainable in hypereutectoid steel wires. 23 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Introducing SAM (Sun and Aureole Measurement), a New, Ground-based

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capability for Measuring Cloud Optical Properties Introducing SAM (Sun and Aureole Measurement), a New, Ground-based Capability for Measuring Cloud Optical Properties DeVore, John Visidyne, Inc. Stair, A Visidyne McClatchey, Robert McClatchey Associates Category: Instruments Visidyne has developed a new, ground-based capability for the remote measurement of cloud and aerosol optical properties. Named SAM, for Sun and Aureole Measurement, this system makes precise measurements of the radiance

  1. Diamond Wire Saw for Precision Machining of Laser Target Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bono, M J; Bennett, D W

    2005-08-08

    The fabrication of precision laser targets requires a wide variety of specialized mesoscale manufacturing techniques. The diamond wire saw developed in this study provides the capability to precisely section meso-scale workpieces mounted on the assembly stations used by the Target Fabrication Group. This new capability greatly simplifies the fabrication of many types of targets and reduces the time and cost required to build the targets. A variety of materials are used to fabricate targets, including metals, plastics with custom designed chemical formulas, and aerogels of various densities. The materials are usually provided in the form of small pieces or cast rods that must be machined to the required shape. Many of these materials, such as metals and some plastics, can be trimmed using a parting tool on a diamond turning machine. However, other materials, such as aerogels and brittle materials, cannot be adequately cut with a parting tool. In addition, the geometry of the parts often requires that the workpieces be held in a special assembly station, which excludes the use of a parting tool. In the past, these materials were sectioned using a small, handheld coping saw that used a diamond-impregnated wire as a blade. This miniature coping saw was effective, but it required several hours to cut through certain materials. Furthermore, the saw was guided by hand and often caused significant damage to fragile aerogels. To solve these problems, the diamond wire saw shown in Figure 1 was developed. The diamond wire saw is designed to machine through materials that are mounted in the Target Fabrication Group's benchtop assembly stations. These assembly stations are the primary means of aligning and assembling target components, and there is often a need to machine materials while they are mounted in the assembly stations. Unfortunately, commercially available saws are designed for very different applications and are far too large to be used with the assembly stations

  2. Substation grounding programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meliopoulos, A.P.S. . Electric Power Lab.)

    1992-05-01

    This document is a users manual and applications guide for the software package SGA. This package comprises four computer programs, namely SOMIP, SMECC, SGSYS, and TGRND. The first three programs are analysis models which are to be used in the design process of substation grounding systems. The fourth program, TGRND, is an analysis program for determining the transient response of a grounding system. This report, Volume 5, is an applications guide of the three computer programs. SOMIP, SMECC, and SGSYS, for the purpose of designing a safe substation grounding system. The applications guide utilizes four example substation grounding systems for the purpose of illustrating the application of the programs, SOMIP, SMECC, and SGSYS. The examples are based on data provided by four contributing utilities, namely, Houston Lighting and Power Company, Southern Company Services, Puget Sound Power and Light Company, and Arizona Public Service Company. For the purpose of illustrating specific capabilities of the computer programs, the data have been modified. As a result, the final designs of the four systems do not necessarily represent actual grounding system designs by these utilities. The example system 1 is a 138 kV/35 kV distribution substation. The example system 2 is a medium size 230 kV/115 kV transmission substation. The third example system is a generation substation while the last is a large 525 kV/345 kV/230 kV transmission substation. The four examples cover most of the practical problems that a user may encounter in the design of substation grounding systems.

  3. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  4. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  5. Extrusion of metal oxide superconducting wire, tube or ribbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dusek, Joseph T. (Lombard, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A process for extruding a superconducting metal oxide composition YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x provides a wire (tube or ribbon) having a cohesive mass and a degree of flexibility together with enhanced electrical properties. Wire diameters in the range of 6-85 mils have been produced with smaller wires on the order of 10 mils in diameter exhibiting enhanced flexibility for forming braided, or multistrand, configurations for greater current carrying capacity. The composition for extrusion contains a polymeric binder to provide a cohesive mass to bind the particles together during the extrusion process with the binder subsequently removed at lower temperatures during sintering. The composition for extrusion further includes a deflocculent, an organic plasticizer and a solvent which also are subsequently removed during sintering. Electrically conductive tubing with an inner diameter of 52 mil and an outer diameter of 87-355 mil has also been produced. Flat ribbons have been produced in the range of 10-125 mil thick by 100-500 mil wide. The superconducting wire, tube or ribbon may include an outer ceramic insulating sheath co-extruded with the wire, tubing or ribbon.

  6. Extrusion of metal oxide superconducting wire, tube or ribbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dusek, Joseph T.

    1993-10-05

    A process for extruding a superconducting metal oxide composition YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x provides a wire (tube or ribbon) having a cohesive mass and a degree of flexibility together with enhanced electrical properties. Wire diameters in the range of 6-85 mils have been produced with smaller wires on the order of 10 mils in diameter exhibiting enhanced flexibility for forming braided, or multistrand, configurations for greater current carrying capacity. The composition for extrusion contains a polymeric binder to provide a cohesive mass to bind the particles together during the extrusion process with the binder subsequently removed at lower temperatures during sintering. The composition for extrusion further includes a deflocculent, an organic plasticizer and a solvent which also are subsequently removed during sintering. Electrically conductive tubing with an inner diameter of 52 mil and an outer diameter of 87-355 mil has also been produced. Flat ribbons have been produced in the range of 10-125 mil thick by 100-500 mil wide. The superconducting wire, tube or ribbon may include an outer ceramic insulating sheath co-extruded with the wire, tubing or ribbon.

  7. Final Optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    final optics Final Optics Schematic layout of NIF's final optics assembly (FOA). The suite of optics for one beamline is on the right. The final optics assemblies (FOAs) are the last element of the main laser system and the first of the target area systems. Each FOA contains four integrated optics modules (IOMs) that incorporate beam conditioning, frequency conversion, focusing, diagnostic sampling, and debris shielding capabilities into a single compact assembly. These optics are shown in the

  8. Bevalac external beamline optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested.

  9. Double hull grounding experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodd, J.L.; Sikora, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    In the last few years the public and governments of many nations have become increasingly aware of the need for improving oil tanker safety. The requirements for double hull tankers are an attempt to address this need through legislation. Even though a number of investigations on the mechanics of collisions have been done in the past, until recently very little research supported the development of structural improvements to reduce oil tanker damage during grounding and stranding accidents. An aggressive evaluation of double hull tanker crashworthiness in stranding and grounding accidents is underway at CD/NSWC (formerly the David Taylor Research Center). The ability to predict damage from grounding accidents accurately is not currently available. The objective of this paper is to present qualitatively the structural failure mechanisms associated with stranding and grounding events for candidate double hull tanker structures and to present some simple methods for comparing damage scenarios. A comparison of the structural performance of key features in several very different designs will provide useful information toward this understanding.

  10. Thermodynamic and kinetic control of the lateral Si wire growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dedyulin, Sergey N. Goncharova, Lyudmila V.

    2014-03-24

    Reproducible lateral Si wire growth has been realized on the Si (100) surface. In this paper, we present experimental evidence showing the unique role that carbon plays in initiating lateral growth of Si wires on a Si (100) substrate. Once initiated in the presence of ?5 ML of C, lateral growth can be achieved in the range of temperatures, T?=?450650?C, and further controlled by the interplay of the flux of incoming Si atoms with the size and areal density of Au droplets. Critical thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the growth are discussed in detail.

  11. Semiautomatic cold wire feeder systems increase GTA productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, M. )

    1995-01-01

    Often, the focus of attempts to increase GTA welding productivity is on studies to determine if justification exists for additional workstations, or for the investment in new fully automated dedicated welding fixtures. Often less costly and simpler solutions can bring about the necessary means to increase production rates and reduce operating costs. For short-run production applications, it is almost impossible to justify the substantial investment in a dedicated automatic fixture. Now, low cost GTA cold wire feeder systems are within the reach of even small shops. The paper views how cold wire equipment has been applied in several GTAW applications to improve results.

  12. Design of a wire imaging synchrotron radiation detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kent, J.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Hogan, A.; King, M.; Rowe, W.; Watson, S.; Von Zanthier, C. ); Briggs, D.D. ); Levi, M. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper documents the design of a detector invented to measure the positions of synchrotron radiation beams for the precision energy spectrometers of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The energy measurements involve the determination, on a pulse-by-pulse basis, of the separation of pairs of intense beams of synchrotron photons in the MeV energy range. The detector intercepts the beams with arrays of fine wires. The ejection of Compton recoil electrons results in charges being developed in the wires, thus enabling a determination of beam positions. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  13. MicroBooNE TPC Wires Image Map

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Image Map - from Friday April 10 2015 Shaded areas show where photos were taken Friday April 10, a single photo was taken at each location. Roll over a number - highlighted area shows the approximate photo coverage; click to bring up the photo. The blue star shows the approximate location of the mirror and camera. The light green line represents a V-plane wire angle, and the tan line represents a U-plane wire angle. The photos are high res - about half a Mb each - and may take a few seconds to

  14. On characterisation of wire-arc-plasma-sprayed Ni on alumina substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laik, A.; Chakravarthy, D.P.; Kale, G.B. . E-mail: gbkale@apsara.barc.ernet.in

    2005-08-15

    A study was carried out on metal-ceramic bonding produced by the technique of wire-arc-plasma spraying of Ni on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate. The Ni layer and the Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface were characterised using optical and electro-optic techniques. The plasma-deposited Ni layer shows a uniform lamellar microstructure throughout the cross-section. The metal-ceramic interface was found to be well bonded with no pores, flaws or cracks in the as-sprayed condition. The optical metallography and concentration profiles established with the help of an electron probe microanalyser confirmed the absence of any intermediate phase at the interface. An annealing treatment at 1273 K for 24 h on the plasma-coated samples did not result in formation of any intermetallic compound or spinel at the Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface. This indicates that the oxygen picked up by Ni during the spraying operation is less than the threshold value required to form the spinel NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  15. THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIES THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIES Section ...

  16. Microsoft Word - Final Private Wires Report 10-19-09.doc

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Study of the Effect of Private Wire Laws on Development of Combined Heat and Power Facilities THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIES ...

  17. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER ...

  18. Unexpectedly, Navy?s Superlaser Blasts Away a Record (Wired) | Jefferson

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab Unexpectedly, Navy?s Superlaser Blasts Away a Record (Wired) External Link: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2011/02/unexpectedly-navys-superlaser-blasts-awa... By jlab_admin on Fri, 2011-02-18

  19. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER...

  20. Quantum Optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Frontier Research Centers: Solid-State Lighting Science Center for Frontiers of ... Quantum Optics HomeEnergy ResearchEFRCsSolid-State Lighting Science EFRCQuantum Optics ...

  1. First Test Results of the New LANSCE Wire Scanner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedillo, James Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The Beam Diagnostics and Instrumentation Team (BDIT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory's LANSCE facility is presently developing a new and improved wire scanner diagnostics system controlled by National Instrument's cRIO platform. This paper describes the current state of development of the control system along with the results gathered from the latest actuator motion performance and accelerator-beam data acquisition tests.

  2. Superradiance in a two-channel quantum wire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tayebi, A.; Zelevinsky, V.

    2014-10-15

    A one-dimensional, two-channel quantum wire is studied in the effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian framework. Analytical expressions are derived for the band structure of the isolated wire. Quantum states and transport properties of the wire coupled to two ideal leads at the edges are studied in detail. The width distribution of the quasistationary states varies as a function of the coupling strength to the environment. At weak coupling, all the eigenenergies uniformly acquire small widths. The picture changes entirely at strong coupling, a certain number of states (“super-radiant”) are greatly broadened, while the rest remain long-lived states, a pure quantum mechanical effect as a consequence of quantum interference. The transition between the two regimes greatly influences the transport properties of the system. The maximum transmission through the wire occurs at the super-radiance transition. We consider also a realistic situation with energy-dependent coupling to the continuum due to the existence of decay threshold where super-radiance still plays a significant role in transport properties of the system.

  3. EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Non-Wires Solutions - October

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    17, 2012 | Department of Energy Non-Wires Solutions - October 17, 2012 EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Non-Wires Solutions - October 17, 2012 EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Non-Wires Solutions, approved at the October 15-16, 2012 EAC Meeting. EAC Recommendations for DOE Action on Non-Wires Solutions - October 17, 2012 (388.91 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Response to 2012 EAC Recommendations - February 2013 National Electric Transmission Congestion

  4. Heat treatment effect on the mechanical properties of industrial drawn copper wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beribeche, Abdellatif Boumerzoug, Zakaria; Ji, Vincent

    2013-12-16

    In this present investigation, the mechanical properties of industrial drawn copper wires have been studied by tensile tests. The effect of prior heat treatments at 500°C on the drawn wires behavior was the main goal of this investigation. We have found that the mechanical behavior of drawn wires depends strongly on those treatments. SEM observations of the wire cross section after tensile tests have shown that the mechanism of rupture was mainly controlled by the void formation.

  5. Numerical simulation of the flow in wire-wrapped pin bundles: Effect of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pin-wire contact modeling | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility simulation of the flow in wire-wrapped pin bundles: Effect of pin-wire contact modeling Authors: Merzari, E., Smith, J.G., Tentner, A., Pointer, W.D., Fischer, P. The rapid advancement of numerical techniques and the availability of increasingly powerful supercomputers recently enabled scientists to use large eddy simulation (LES) to simulate numerically the flow in a full subassembly composed of wire-wrapped pins. Because of

  6. Investigation of Ground-Fault Protection Devices for Photovoltaic Power Systems Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOWER,WARD I.; WILES,JOHN

    2000-10-03

    Photovoltaic (PV) power systems, like other electrical systems, may be subject to unexpected ground faults. Installed PV systems always have invisible elements other than those indicated by their electrical schematics. Stray inductance, capacitance and resistance are distributed throughout the system. Leakage currents associated with the PV modules, the interconnected array, wires, surge protection devices and conduit add up and can become large enough to look like a ground-fault. PV systems are frequently connected to other sources of power or energy storage such as batteries, standby generators, and the utility grid. This complex arrangement of distributed power and energy sources, distributed impedance and proximity to other sources of power requires sensing of ground faults and proper reaction by the ground-fault protection devices. The different dc grounding requirements (country to country) often add more confusion to the situation. This paper discusses the ground-fault issues associated with both the dc and ac side of PV systems and presents test results and operational impacts of backfeeding commercially available ac ground-fault protection devices under various modes of operation. Further, the measured effects of backfeeding the tripped ground-fault devices for periods of time comparable to anti-islanding allowances for utility interconnection of PV inverters in the United States are reported.

  7. Optical microspectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2004-05-25

    An optical microspectrometer comprises a grism to disperse the spectra in a line object. A single optical microspectrometer can be used to sequentially scan a planar object, such as a dye-tagged microchip. Because the optical microspectrometer is very compact, multiple optical microspectrometers can be arrayed to provide simultaneous readout across the width of the planar object The optical microspectrometer can be fabricated with lithographic process, such as deep X-ray lithography (DXRL), with as few as two perpendicular exposures.

  8. Grounded Renewable Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Grounded Renewable Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Grounded Renewable Energy Place: Carbondale, Colorado Zip: 81623 Sector: Renewable Energy, Solar Product: Grounded...

  9. Category:Ground Magnetics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Magnetics Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Ground Magnetics page? For detailed information on Ground...

  10. THE WIRED SURVEY. II. INFRARED EXCESSES IN THE SDSS DR7 WHITE DWARF CATALOG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debes, John H.; Leisawitz, David T.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, Stefanie; Cohen, Martin

    2011-12-01

    With the launch of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a new era of detecting planetary debris and brown dwarfs (BDs) around white dwarfs (WDs) has begun with the WISE InfraRed Excesses around Degenerates (WIRED) Survey. The WIRED Survey is sensitive to substellar objects and dusty debris around WDs out to distances exceeding 100 pc, well beyond the completeness level of local WDs. In this paper, we present a cross-correlation of the preliminary Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) WD catalog between the WISE, Two-Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS), and SDSS DR7 photometric catalogs. From {approx}18,000 input targets, there are WISE detections comprising 344 'naked' WDs (detection of the WD photosphere only), 1020 candidate WD+M dwarf binaries, 42 candidate WD+BD systems, 52 candidate WD+dust disk systems, and 69 targets with indeterminate infrared excess. We classified all of the detected targets through spectral energy distribution model fitting of the merged optical, near-IR, and WISE photometry. Some of these detections could be the result of contaminating sources within the large ( Almost-Equal-To 6'') WISE point-spread function; we make a preliminary estimate for the rates of contamination for our WD+BD and WD+disk candidates and provide notes for each target of interest. Each candidate presented here should be confirmed with higher angular resolution infrared imaging or infrared spectroscopy. We also present an overview of the observational characteristics of the detected WDs in the WISE photometric bands, including the relative frequencies of candidate WD+M, WD+BD, and WD+disk systems.

  11. Ground potential rise monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Zachery W.; Zevenbergen, Gary A.

    2012-04-03

    A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising positioning a first electrode and a second electrode at a distance from each other into the earth. The voltage of the first electrode and second electrode is attenuated by an attenuation factor creating an attenuated voltage. The true RMS voltage of the attenuated voltage is determined creating an attenuated true RMS voltage. The attenuated true RMS voltage is then multiplied by the attenuation factor creating a calculated true RMS voltage. If the calculated true RMS voltage is greater than a first predetermined voltage threshold, a first alarm is enabled at a local location. If user input is received at a remote location acknowledging the first alarm, a first alarm acknowledgment signal is transmitted. The first alarm acknowledgment signal is then received at which time the first alarm is disabled.

  12. A-15 Superconducting composite wires and a method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suenaga, Masaki; Klamut, Carl J.; Luhman, Thomas S.

    1984-01-01

    A method for fabricating superconducting wires wherein a billet of copper containing filaments of niobium or vanadium is rolled to form a strip which is wrapped about a tin-alloy core to form a composite. The alloy is a tin-copper alloy for niobium filaments and a gallium-copper alloy for vanadium filaments. The composite is then drawn down to a desired wire size and heat treated. During the heat treatment process, the tin in the bronze reacts with the niobium to form the superconductor niobium tin. In the case where vanadium is used, the gallium in the gallium bronze reacts with the vanadium to form the superconductor vanadium gallium. This new process eliminates the costly annealing steps, external tin plating and drilling of bronze ingots required in a number of prior art processes.

  13. Wrapping process for fabrication of A-15 superconducting composite wires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suenaga, M.; Klamut, C.J.; Luhman, T.S.

    1980-08-15

    A method for fabricating superconducting wires wherein a billet of copper containing filaments of niobium or vanadium is rolled to form a strip which is wrapped about a tin-alloy core to form a composite. The alloy is a tin-copper alloy for niobium filaments and a gallium-copper alloy for vanadium filaments. The composite is then drawn down to a desired wire size and heat treated. During the heat treatment process, the tin in the bronze reacts with the niobium to form the superconductor niobium tin. In the case where vanadium is used, the gallium in the gallium bronze reacts with the vanadium to form the superconductor vanadium gallium. This new process eliminates the costly annealing steps, external tin plating and drilling of bronze ingots required in a number of prior art processes.

  14. Wire rope improvement program. Final report. [For draglines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alzheimer, J.M.; Anderson, W.E.; Beeman, G.H.; Dudder, G.B.; Erickson, R.; Glaeser, W.A.; Jentgen, R.L.; Rice, R.R.; Strope, L.A.

    1981-09-01

    Activities in five major areas were undertaken during the WRIP: experiments using PNL-developed bend-over-sheave fatigue test machines to generate data on which to base a model for predicting large-diameter rope performance from that of small-diameter ropes; bend-over-sheave fatigue testing to determine differences in rope failure rates at varying rope loads; analyses to determine how wire ropes actually fail; development of a load sensor to record and quantity operational loads on drag and hoist ropes; and technology transfer activities to disseminate useful program findings to coal mine operators. Data obtained during the 6-year program support are included. High loads on wire ropes are damaging. As an adjunct, however, potentially useful countermeasures to high loads were identified. Large-diameter rope bend-over-sheave performance can be predicted from small-diameter rope test behavior, over some ranges.

  15. Converter Topologies for Wired and Wireless Battery Chargers | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ape033_su_2012_o.pdf (655.46 KB) More Documents & Publications Converter Topologies for Wired and Wireless Battery Chargers Utilizing the Traction Drive Power Electronics System to Provide Plug-in Capability for PHEVs Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: WBG Converters and Chargers

  16. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the

  17. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the

  18. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the

  19. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the

  20. Near net shape processing of continuous lengths of superconducting wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Danyluk, S.; McNallan, M.; Troendly, R.; Poeppel, R.; Goretta, K.; Lanagan, M.

    1997-08-26

    A system and method for mechanically forming a ceramic superconductor product are disclosed. A system for making the ceramic superconductor includes a metallic channel portion having a cross section for receiving a ceramic superconductor powder, a roll to mechanically reduce the channel cross section and included superconductor powder and a cap portion welded to the channel portion using a localized high energy source. The assembled bar is then mechanically reduced to form a tape or wire end product. 9 figs.

  1. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the

  2. Near net shape processing of continuous lengths of superconducting wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Danyluk, Steven; McNallan, Michael; Troendly, Robert; Poeppel, Roger; Goretta, Kenneth; Lanagan, Michael

    1997-01-01

    A system and method for mechanically forming a ceramic superconductor product. A system for making the ceramic superconductor includes a metallic channel portion having a cross section for receiving a ceramic superconductor powder, a roll to mechanically reduce the channel cross section and included superconductor powder and a cap portion welded to the channel portion using a localized high energy source. The assembled bar is then mechanically reduced to form a tape or wire end product.

  3. Optical probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hencken, Kenneth; Flower, William L.

    1999-01-01

    A compact optical probe is disclosed particularly useful for analysis of emissions in industrial environments. The instant invention provides a geometry for optically-based measurements that allows all optical components (source, detector, rely optics, etc.) to be located in proximity to one another. The geometry of the probe disclosed herein provides a means for making optical measurements in environments where it is difficult and/or expensive to gain access to the vicinity of a flow stream to be measured. Significantly, the lens geometry of the optical probe allows the analysis location within a flow stream being monitored to be moved while maintaining optical alignment of all components even when the optical probe is focused on a plurality of different analysis points within the flow stream.

  4. Optical keyboard

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.; Feichtner, John D.; Phillips, Thomas E.

    2001-01-01

    An optical keyboard includes an optical panel having optical waveguides stacked together. First ends of the waveguides define an inlet face, and opposite ends thereof define a screen. A projector transmits a light beam outbound through the waveguides for display on the screen as a keyboard image. A light sensor is optically aligned with the inlet face for sensing an inbound light beam channeled through the waveguides from the screen upon covering one key of the keyboard image.

  5. Study of the precursor and non-precursor implosion regimes in wire array Z-pinches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papp, D.; Ivanov, V. V.; Anderson, A. A.; Altemara, S. D.; Talbot, B. R.; Jones, B.; Haboub, A.

    2012-09-15

    Star-like and closely spaced nested wire array configurations were investigated in precursor and non-precursor implosions. Closely spaced nested cylindrical arrays have inner and outer arrays with equal wire numbers, and inner and outer wires aligned to each other. The gap between the outer and inner wires is not more than 1 mm. Calculation of magnetic fields shows that the small gap results in a reversed, outward j Multiplication-Sign B force on the inner wires. Closely spaced arrays of 6-16 wires with outer diameter of 16 mm and with gaps of {Delta}R = 0.25-1 mm were tested. 6-8-wire arrays with a gap of {Delta}R = 0.4-1 mm imploded without precursor, but precursor was present in loads with 12-16 wires and {Delta}R = 0.25-1 mm. Implosion dynamics of closely spaced arrays was similar to that of star-like arrays. Implosion time was found to decrease with decreased wire numbers. Star array configurations were designed with a numerical scheme to implode with or without precursor. The lack of precursor resulted in a marginal improvement in total x-ray yield and power, and up to 20% increase in Al K-shell yield. The Al K-shell radiated energy was found to increase with decreasing the number of arrays in closely spaced and star-like wire arrays.

  6. Ground Magnetics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Ground Magnetics Details Activities (25) Areas (19) Regions (0) NEPA(1) Exploration...

  7. Optical Switch

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    seven wonders / optical switch Optical Switch A key component in the laser chain, an optical switch called a plasma electrode Pockels cell (PEPC), was invented and developed at LLNL. A Pockels cell rotates the polarization of a laser beam when a voltage is applied across an electro-optic crystal. Depending on the voltage applied, the Pockels cell either allows light to pass through or to reflect off a polarizer, creating an optical switch. For each of NIF's 192 beamlines, a PEPC allows the laser

  8. Parallel-wire grid assembly with method and apparatus for construction thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewandowski, Edward F.; Vrabec, John

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a parallel wire grid and an apparatus and method for making the same. The grid consists of a generally coplanar array of parallel spaced-apart wires secured between metallic frame members by an electrically conductive epoxy. The method consists of continuously winding a wire about a novel winding apparatus comprising a plurality of spaced-apart generally parallel spindles. Each spindle is threaded with a number of predeterminedly spaced-apart grooves which receive and accurately position the wire at predetermined positions along the spindle. Overlying frame members coated with electrically conductive epoxy are then placed on either side of the wire array and are drawn together. After the epoxy hardens, portions of the wire array lying outside the frame members are trimmed away.

  9. Parallel-wire grid assembly with method and apparatus for construction thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewandowski, E.F.; Vrabec, J.

    1981-10-26

    Disclosed is a parallel wire grid and an apparatus and method for making the same. The grid consists of a generally coplanar array of parallel spaced-apart wires secured between metallic frame members by an electrically conductive epoxy. The method consists of continuously winding a wire about a novel winding apparatus comprising a plurality of spaced-apart generally parallel spindles. Each spindle is threaded with a number of predeterminedly spaced-apart grooves which receive and accurately position the wire at predetermined positions along the spindle. Overlying frame members coated with electrically conductive epoxy are then placed on either side of the wire array and are drawn together. After the epoxy hardens, portions of the wire array lying outside the frame members are trimmed away.

  10. Radial electric field 3D modeling for wire arrays driving dynamic hohlraums on Z.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mock, Raymond Cecil

    2007-06-01

    The anode-cathode structure of the Z-machine wire array results in a higher negative radial electric field (Er) on the wires near the cathode relative to the anode. The magnitude of this field has been shown to anti-correlate with the axial radiation top/bottom symmetry in the DH (Dynamic Hohlraum). Using 3D modeling, the structure of this field is revealed for different wire-array configurations and for progressive mechanical alterations, providing insight for minimizing the negative Er on the wire array in the anode-to-cathode region of the DH. Also, the 3D model is compared to Sasorov's approximation, which describes Er at the surface of the wire in terms of wire-array parameters.

  11. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States.

  12. EAC Recommendations for DOE Action on Non-Wires Solutions - October 17, 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    October 17, 2012 RE: Recommendations on Non-Wires Solutions _________________________________________________________________________ Introduction & Overview "Non-Wires Solutions" (NWS), sometimes referred to as Non-Wires Alternatives (NWA), is the umbrella term for ensuring that a portfolio of alternatives to transmission lines is analyzed and considered in the planning and possible permitting of such facilities. This NWS approach would apply to the proposed upgrade or

  13. Nano-/micro metallic wire synthesis on Si substrate and their characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaur, Jaskiran Kaur, Harmanmeet Singh, Surinder; Kanjilal, Dinakar; Chakarvarti, Shiv Kumar

    2014-04-24

    Nano-/micro wires of copper are grown on semiconducting Si substrate using the template method. It involves the irradiation of 8 um thick polymeric layer coated on Si with150 MeV Ni ion beam at a fluence of 2E8. Later, by using the simple technique of electrodeposition, copper nano-/micro wires were grown via template synthesis. Synthesized wires were morphologically characterized using SEM and electrical characterization was carried out by finding I-V plot.

  14. Compact wire array sources: power scaling and implosion physics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serrano, Jason Dimitri; Chuvatin, Alexander S.; Jones, M. C.; Vesey, Roger Alan; Waisman, Eduardo M.; Ivanov, V. V.; Esaulov, Andrey A.; Ampleford, David J.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Rudakov, L. I.; Jones, Brent Manley; Safronova, Alla S.; Vigil, Marcelino Patricio

    2008-09-01

    A series of ten shots were performed on the Saturn generator in short pulse mode in order to study planar and small-diameter cylindrical tungsten wire arrays at {approx}5 MA current levels and 50-60 ns implosion times as candidates for compact z-pinch radiation sources. A new vacuum hohlraum configuration has been proposed in which multiple z pinches are driven in parallel by a pulsed power generator. Each pinch resides in a separate return current cage, serving also as a primary hohlraum. A collection of such radiation sources surround a compact secondary hohlraum, which may potentially provide an attractive Planckian radiation source or house an inertial confinement fusion fuel capsule. Prior to studying this concept experimentally or numerically, advanced compact wire array loads must be developed and their scaling behavior understood. The 2008 Saturn planar array experiments extend the data set presented in Ref. [1], which studied planar arrays at {approx}3 MA, 100 ns in Saturn long pulse mode. Planar wire array power and yield scaling studies now include current levels directly applicable to multi-pinch experiments that could be performed on the 25 MA Z machine. A maximum total x-ray power of 15 TW (250 kJ in the main pulse, 330 kJ total yield) was observed with a 12-mm-wide planar array at 5.3 MA, 52 ns. The full data set indicates power scaling that is sub-quadratic with load current, while total and main pulse yields are closer to quadratic; these trends are similar to observations of compact cylindrical tungsten arrays on Z. We continue the investigation of energy coupling in these short pulse Saturn experiments using zero-dimensional-type implosion modeling and pinhole imaging, indicating 16 cm/?s implosion velocity in a 12-mm-wide array. The same phenomena of significant trailing mass and evidence for resistive heating are observed at 5 MA as at 3 MA. 17 kJ of Al K-shell radiation was obtained in one Al planar array fielded at 5.5 MA, 57 ns and we

  15. Engineering task plan and status of 241-S-106 Enraf level gauge wire break

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, T.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report discusses the findings of a task team which was formed which identified the need for short-term actions to re-establish tank waste level monitoring and to permanently address wire failure. The failed wire was removed and sent to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis. It was determined that the cause of the wire failure was due to chloride ion stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the 316 stainless steel (SS) wire. Radiation induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liners is suspected to be the source of the chloride ions.

  16. The re-evaluation of the AVR melt-wire experiment with specific...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    strategies and simplifications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The re-evaluation of the AVR melt-wire experiment with specific focus on different modeling strategies ...

  17. Direct Simulation of Turbulent Swept Flow Over a Wire in a Channel |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Turbulent Swept Flow Over a Wire in a Channel Authors: RANJAN, R., PANTANO, C., FISCHER, P. Turbulent swept flow over a cylindrical wire placed on a wall of a channel is investigated using direct numerical simulations. This geometry is a model of the flow through the wire-wrapped fuel pins, the heat exchanger, typical of many nuclear reactor designs. Mean flow along and across the wire axis is imposed, leading to the formation of separated flow regions.

  18. Wire-chamber radiation detector with discharge control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Mulera, T.A.

    1982-03-29

    A wire chamber; radiation detector has spaced apart parallel electrodes and grids defining an ignition region in which charged particles or other ionizing radiations initiate brief localized avalanche discharges and defining an adjacent memory region in which sustained glow discharges are initiated by the primary discharges. Conductors of the grids at each side of the memory section extend in orthogonal directions enabling readout of the X-Y coordinates of locations at which charged particles were detected by sequentially transmitting pulses to the conductors of one grid while detecting transmissions of the pulses to the orthogonal conductors of the other grid through glow discharges. One of the grids bounding the memory region is defined by an array of conductive elements each of which is connected to the associated readout conductor through a separate resistance. The wire chamber avoids ambiguities and imprecisions in the readout of coordinates when large numbers of simultaneous or; near simultaneous charged particles have been detected. Down time between detection periods and the generation of radio frequency noise are also reduced.

  19. Universal quantum computation in a semiconductor quantum wire network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sau, Jay D.; Das Sarma, S.; Tewari, Sumanta

    2010-11-15

    Universal quantum computation (UQC) using Majorana fermions on a two-dimensional topological superconducting (TS) medium remains an outstanding open problem. This is because the quantum gate set that can be generated by braiding of the Majorana fermions does not include any two-qubit gate and also no single-qubit {pi}/8 phase gate. In principle, it is possible to create these crucial extra gates using quantum interference of Majorana fermion currents. However, it is not clear if the motion of the various order parameter defects (vortices, domain walls, etc.), to which the Majorana fermions are bound in a TS medium, can be quantum coherent. We show that these obstacles can be overcome using a semiconductor quantum wire network in the vicinity of an s-wave superconductor, by constructing topologically protected two-qubit gates and any arbitrary single-qubit phase gate in a topologically unprotected manner, which can be error corrected using magic-state distillation. Thus our strategy, using a judicious combination of topologically protected and unprotected gate operations, realizes UQC on a quantum wire network with a remarkably high error threshold of 0.14 as compared to 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -4} in ordinary unprotected quantum computation.

  20. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of aluminum z-pinch plasma with tungsten backlighter planar wire array source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborne, G. C.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Safronova, A. S.; Esaulov, A. A.; Weller, M. E.; Shrestha, I.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Ouart, N. D.

    2012-10-15

    Absorption features from K-shell aluminum z-pinch plasmas have recently been studied on Zebra, the 1.7 MA pulse power generator at the Nevada Terawatt Facility. In particular, tungsten plasma has been used as a semi-backlighter source in the generation of aluminum K-shell absorption spectra by placing a single Al wire at or near the end of a single planar W array. All spectroscopic experimental results were recorded using a time-integrated, spatially resolved convex potassium hydrogen phthalate (KAP) crystal spectrometer. Other diagnostics used to study these plasmas included x-ray detectors, optical imaging, laser shadowgraphy, and time-gated and time-integrated x-ray pinhole imagers. Through comparisons with previous publications, Al K-shell absorption lines are shown to be from much lower electron temperature ({approx}10-40 eV) plasmas than emission spectra ({approx}350-500 eV).

  1. Electro-optic component mounting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruchalla, M.E.

    1994-09-13

    A technique is provided for integrally mounting a device such as an electro-optic device in a transmission line to avoid series resonant effects. A center conductor of the transmission line has an aperture formed therein for receiving the device. The aperture splits the center conductor into two parallel sections on opposite sides of the device. For a waveguide application, the center conductor is surrounded by a conductive ground surface which is spaced apart from the center conductor with a dielectric material. One set of electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device is directly connected to the center conductor and an electrode formed on the surface of the electro-optic device is directly connected to the conductive ground surface. The electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device are formed on curved sections of the surface of the device to mate with correspondingly shaped electrodes on the conductor and ground surface to provide a uniform electric field across the electro-optic device. The center conductor includes a passage formed therein for passage of optical signals to an electro-optic device. 10 figs.

  2. Electro-optic component mounting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruchalla, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    A technique is provided for integrally mounting a device such as an electro-optic device (50) in a transmission line to avoid series resonant effects. A center conductor (52) of the transmission line has an aperture (58) formed therein for receiving the device (50). The aperture (58) splits the center conductor into two parallel sections on opposite sides of the device. For a waveguide application, the center conductor is surrounded by a conductive ground surface (54), which is spaced apart from the center conductor with a dielectric material (56). One set of electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device (50) is directly connected to the center conductor 52 and an electrode formed on the surface of the electro-optic device is directly connected to the conductive ground surface (54). The electrodes formed on the surface of the electro-optic device are formed on curved sections of the surface of the device to mate with correspondingly shaped electrodes on the conductor and ground surface to provide a uniform electric field across the electro-optic device. The center conductor includes a passage ( 60) formed therein for passage of optical signals to an electro-optic device.

  3. Inverter Ground Fault Overvoltage Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Task Force on Effective Grounding, ITFEG), led by Brian Lydic of Fronius USA, for providing the test plan that served as the basis for the test procedure used in this study. ...

  4. Ground Penetrating Radar, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    John Peterson

    2015-03-06

    This is 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar collected along the AB Line in Intensive Site 1 beginning in October 2012 and collected along L2 in Intensive Site 0 beginning in September 2011. Both continue to the present.

  5. Ground-water in Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward-McLemore, E.

    1985-01-01

    Amount 61% of the water used by Texans is ground-water. Some areas, both municipal and rural, depend entirely on ground-water. In many areas long term withdrawal is lowering the water levels, causing surface land subsidence, salt-water encroachment, and reducing future reservoir availability. The increasing probability of seepage from radioactive and toxic wastes, herbicide residues, septic systems, and oilfield brines is threatening dangerous contamination of fresh ground-water reservoirs. The Texas Department of Water Resources, the Texas Department of Health, State and private colleges and universities, the US Geological Survey, the Environmental Protection Agency, various underground water districts, among others, are cooperating with concerned hydrologists in a concentrated program to increase the efficiency of ground-water use and development, preserve the aquifer reservoirs, and decrease the pollution potential. 88 references.

  6. Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koontz, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, J; Flynn, C; Michalsky, J

    2013-03-17

    This document describes the process applied to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSR) and normal incidence multifilter radiometers (NIMFR) operated at the ARM Climate Research Facility’s ground-based facilities.

  7. A time-resolved spectroscopic diagnostic based on fast scintillator and optical fiber array for z-pinch plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Fan; Qin Yi; Jiang Shuqing; Xue Feibiao; Li Zhenghong; Yang Jianlun; Xu Rongkun; Anan'ev, S. S.; Dan'ko, S. A.; Kalinin, Yu. G.

    2009-10-15

    We report a specially designed type of temporal resolved x-ray spectroscopic diagnostic using a spherically bent quartz crystal for z-pinch plasmas. Registration of time-resolved spectra was accomplished by coupling fast plastic scintillator, an optical fiber array, an optical streak camera, and a charge coupled device as the recording medium of this diagnostic. The diagnostic has been tested in imploding wire array experiments on S-300 pulsed power facility. Time-resolved K-shell lines were successfully obtained for aluminum wire array implosion plasmas.

  8. Critical-Current Reduction in Thin Superconducting Wires Due to Current Crowding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hortensius, H.L.; Driessen, E.F.C.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Berggren, K.K.; Clem, John

    2012-05-03

    We demonstrate experimentally that the critical current in superconducting NbTiN wires is dependent on their geometrical shape, due to current-crowding effects. Geometric patterns such as 90{degrees} corners and sudden expansions of wire width are shown to result in the reduction of critical currents. The results are relevant for single-photon detectors as well as parametric amplifiers.

  9. Study of transparent and nontransparent regimes of implosion in star wire arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Astanovitskiy, A. L.; Papp, D.; Altemara, S. D.; Chittenden, J. P.; Bland, S. N.; Jones, B.

    2010-10-15

    Star wire arrays were used to control the imploding plasma flows and study plasma interpenetration. These arrays consisted of linear 'rays' aligned azimuthally and extending from the vertical axis. Star arrays with two close located wires ('gates') instead of a single wire on the inner cylinder were studied for transparent and nontransparent regimes of propagation of imploding plasma through the gates. Nontransparent mode of collision is typical for regular star wire arrays and it was also observed in Al stars with gate wires of regular length and with the gate width of 0.3-2 mm. The cascade process of implosion in stars and trapping of imploding plasma in 1-2 mm gates were modeled with the three-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamics code. The intermediate semitransparent mode of collision was observed in Al stars with long Al 'gate' wires. A transparent mode was observed in Al stars with long stainless steel or W gate wires. Applications of wire arrays with controlled plasma flows are discussed.

  10. Understanding Irreversible Degradation of Nb3Sn Wires with Fundamental Fracture Mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhai, Yuhu; Calzolaio, Ciro; Senatore, Carmine

    2014-08-01

    Irreversible performance degradation of advanced Nb3Sn superconducting wires subjected to transverse or axial mechanical loading is a critical issue for the design of large-scale fusion and accelerator magnets such as ITER and LHC. Recent SULTAN tests indicate that most cable-in-conduit conductors for ITER coils made of Nb3Sn wires processed by various fabrication techniques show similar performance degradation under cyclic loading. The irreversible degradation due to filament fracture and local strain accumulation in Nb3Sn wires cannot be described by the existing strand scaling law. Fracture mechanic modeling combined with X-ray diffraction imaging of filament micro-crack formation inside the wires under mechanical loading may reveal exciting insights to the wire degradation mechanisms. We apply fundamental fracture mechanics with a singularity approach to study influence of wire filament microstructure of initial void size and distribution to local stress concentration and potential crack propagation. We report impact of the scale and density of the void structure on stress concentration in the composite wire materials for crack initiation. These initial defects result in an irreversible degradation of the critical current beyond certain applied stress. We also discuss options to minimize stress concentration in the design of the material microstructure for enhanced wire performance for future applications.

  11. DESIGN OF WIRE-WRAPPED ROD BUNDLE MATCHED INDEX-OF-REFRACTION EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hugh McIlroy; Hongbin Zhang; Kurt Hamman

    2008-05-01

    Experiments will be conducted in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Matched Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Flow Facility [1] to characterize the three-dimensional velocity and turbulence fields in a wire-wrapped rod bundle typically employed in liquid-metal cooled fast reactors and to provide benchmark data for computer code validation. Sodium cooled fast reactors are under consideration for use in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program. The experiment model will be constructed of quartz components and the working fluid will be mineral oil. Accurate temperature control (to within 0.05 oC) matches the index-of-refraction of mineral oil with that of quartz and renders the model transparent to the wavelength of laser light employed for optical measurements. The model will be a scaled 7-pin rod bundle enclosed in a hexagonal canister. Flow field measurements will be obtained with a LaVision 3-D particle image velocimeter (PIV) and complimented by near-wall velocity measurements obtained from a 2-D laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). These measurements will be used as benchmark data for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation. The rod bundle model dimensions will be scaled up from the typical dimensions of a fast reactor fuel assembly to provide the maximum Reynolds number achievable in the MIR flow loop. A range of flows from laminar to fully-turbulent will be available with a maximum Reynolds number, based on bundle hydraulic diameter, of approximately 22,000. The fuel pins will be simulated by 85 mm diameter quartz tubes (closed on the inlet ends) and the wire-wrap will be simulated by 25 mm diameter quartz rods. The canister walls will be constructed from quartz plates. The model will be approximately 2.13 m in length. Bundle pressure losses will also be measured and the data recorded for code comparisons. The experiment design and preliminary CFD calculations, which will be used to provide qualitative hydrodynamic

  12. Document Number Q0029500 Ground Water Model 3.0 Ground Water...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Ground Water Model 3.0 Ground Water Model This section presents a steady-state ground water flow model and a coupled solute transport model (ground water model) for the alluvial ...

  13. Tritium Ground Water Issues | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ground Water Issues Tritium Ground Water Issues Presentation from the 35th Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Princeton, New Jersey on May 05-07, 2015. Tritium Ground Water Issues ...

  14. Fiber optic coupled optical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, Kevin J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A displacement sensor includes a first optical fiber for radiating light to a target, and a second optical fiber for receiving light from the target. The end of the first fiber is adjacent and not axially aligned with the second fiber end. A lens focuses light from the first fiber onto the target and light from the target onto the second fiber.

  15. Colorado Ground Water Commission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Ground Water Commission Jump to: navigation, search Name: Colorado Ground Water Commission Place: Colorado Website: water.state.co.usgroundwater References: Colorado...

  16. Appendix B Ground Water Management Policy

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Ground Water Management Policy for the Monticello Mill Tailings Site and Adjacent Areas ... OF NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION OF WATER RIGHTS Ground-Water Management Policy for ...

  17. Ground Source Solutions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kingdom Zip: NG22 9GW Sector: Buildings Product: UK-based installer of ground source energy systems to domestic and commercial buildings. References: Ground Source...

  18. Effect of heat treatment temperature on nitinol wire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, S.; Schaffer, J. E.; Daymond, M. R.; Yu, C.; Ren, Y.

    2014-08-18

    In-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been used to study the influence of the heat treatment temperature on the subsequent micromechanical behavior of nitinol wire. It was found that increase in the heat treatment temperature rotated the austenite texture from the (332){sub B2} fiber towards the (111){sub B2} fiber, and the texture of the Stress-Induced Martensite phase changed from the (1{sup ¯}40){sub B19'} to the (1{sup ¯}20){sub B19'} fiber accordingly. Heat treatment at a low temperature reduces the internal residual strains in the austenite during super-elastic deformation and therefore improves the materials fatigue performance. The development of internal residual strains in austenite is controlled by transformation induced plasticity and the reversal martensite to austenite transformation.

  19. Hot wire needle probe for thermal conductivity detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Condie, Keith Glenn; Rempe, Joy Lynn; Knudson, Darrell lee; Daw, Joshua Earl; Wilkins, Steven Curtis; Fox, Brandon S.; Heng, Ban

    2015-11-10

    An apparatus comprising a needle probe comprising a sheath, a heating element, a temperature sensor, and electrical insulation that allows thermal conductivity to be measured in extreme environments, such as in high-temperature irradiation testing. The heating element is contained within the sheath and is electrically conductive. In an embodiment, the heating element is a wire capable of being joule heated when an electrical current is applied. The temperature sensor is contained within the sheath, electrically insulated from the heating element and the sheath. The electrical insulation electrically insulates the sheath, heating element and temperature sensor. The electrical insulation fills the sheath having electrical resistance capable of preventing electrical conduction between the sheath, heating element, and temperature sensor. The control system is connected to the heating element and the temperature sensor.

  20. Anisotropy of radiation emitted from planar wire arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Safronova, A. S.; Williamson, K. M.; Osborne, G. C.; Shrestha, I. K.; Weller, M. E.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Rudakov, L. I.; Velikovich, A.

    2013-07-15

    The planar wire array (PWA) is a promising load for new multi-source inertial confinement fusion (ICF) hohlraums [B. Jones et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 125001 (2010)]. The hohlraum radiation symmetry is an important issue for ICF. It was found that extreme ultraviolet and sub-keV photon emission from PWAs may have considerable anisotropy in the load azimuthal plane. This experimental result is obtained on the UNR 1–1.7 MA Zebra generator. The time-dependent anisotropy effect is detected. This feature is studied in 2D numerical simulations and can be explained by initial anisotropy of implosion of those non-cylindrical loads radiating essentially as surface sources in sub-keV quanta and also by radiation absorption in cold magnetized plasma tails forming in the direction of magnetic compression.

  1. Magnetic Alignment of Pulsed Solenoids Using the Pulsed Wire Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arbelaez, D.; Madur, A.; Lipton, T.M.; Waldron, W.L.; Kwan, J.W.

    2011-04-01

    A unique application of the pulsed-wire measurement method has been implemented for alignment of 2.5 T pulsed solenoid magnets. The magnetic axis measurement has been shown to have a resolution of better than 25 {micro}m. The accuracy of the technique allows for the identification of inherent field errors due to, for example, the winding layer transitions and the current leads. The alignment system is developed for the induction accelerator NDCX-II under construction at LBNL, an upgraded Neutralized Drift Compression experiment for research on warm dense matter and heavy ion fusion. Precise alignment is essential for NDCX-II, since the ion beam has a large energy spread associated with the rapid pulse compression such that misalignments lead to corkscrew deformation of the beam and reduced intensity at focus. The ability to align the magnetic axis of the pulsed solenoids to within 100 pm of the induction cell axis has been demonstrated.

  2. Method for producing strain tolerant multifilamentary oxide superconducting wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Finnemore, Douglas K.; Miller, Theodore A.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Schwartzkopf, Louis A.; Sanders, Steven C.

    1994-07-19

    A strain tolerant multifilamentary wire capable of carrying superconducting currents is provided comprising a plurality of discontinuous filaments formed from a high temperature superconducting material. The discontinuous filaments have a length at least several orders of magnitude greater than the filament diameter and are sufficiently strong while in an amorphous state to withstand compaction. A normal metal is interposed between and binds the discontinuous filaments to form a normal metal matrix capable of withstanding heat treatment for converting the filaments to a superconducting state. The geometry of the filaments within the normal metal matrix provides substantial filament-to-filament overlap, and the normal metal is sufficiently thin to allow supercurrent transfer between the overlapped discontinuous filaments but is also sufficiently thick to provide strain relief to the filaments.

  3. Method for producing strain tolerant multifilamentary oxide superconducting wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Finnemore, D.K.; Miller, T.A.; Ostenson, J.E.; Schwartzkopf, L.A.; Sanders, S.C.

    1994-07-19

    A strain tolerant multifilamentary wire capable of carrying superconducting currents is provided comprising a plurality of discontinuous filaments formed from a high temperature superconducting material. The discontinuous filaments have a length at least several orders of magnitude greater than the filament diameter and are sufficiently strong while in an amorphous state to withstand compaction. A normal metal is interposed between and binds the discontinuous filaments to form a normal metal matrix capable of withstanding heat treatment for converting the filaments to a superconducting state. The geometry of the filaments within the normal metal matrix provides substantial filament-to-filament overlap, and the normal metal is sufficiently thin to allow supercurrent transfer between the overlapped discontinuous filaments but is also sufficiently thick to provide strain relief to the filaments. 6 figs.

  4. Structure of stagnated plasma in aluminum wire array Z pinches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G. N.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Bland, S. N.; Lebedev, S. V.; Ampleford, D. J.; Palmer, J. B. A.; Bott, S. C.; Rapley, J.; Chittenden, J. P.; Apruzese, J. P.

    2006-08-15

    Experiments with aluminum wire array Z pinches have been carried out on the mega-ampere generator for plasma implosion experiments (MAGPIE) at Imperial College London [I. H. Mitchell et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1533 (1996)]. It has been shown that in these arrays, there are two intense sources of radiation during stagnation; Al XII line emission from a precursor-sized object, and both continuum and Al XIII radiation from bright spots of either significantly higher temperature or density randomly distributed around this object so as to produce a hollow emission profile. Spatially resolved spectra produced by spherically bent crystals were recorded, both time-integrated and time-resolved, and were used to show that these two sources of radiation peak at the same time.

  5. LINE-ABOVE-GROUND ATTENUATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilds, R.B.; Ames, J.R.

    1957-09-24

    The line-above-ground attenuator provides a continuously variable microwave attenuator for a coaxial line that is capable of high attenuation and low insertion loss. The device consists of a short section of the line-above- ground plane type transmission lime, a pair of identical rectangular slabs of lossy material like polytron, whose longitudinal axes are parallel to and indentically spaced away from either side of the line, and a geared mechanism to adjust amd maintain this spaced relationship. This device permits optimum fineness and accuracy of attenuator control which heretofore has been difficult to achieve.

  6. Nano-optical observation of cascade switching in a parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, Robert M. Tanner, Michael G.; Casaburi, Alessandro; Hadfield, Robert H.; Webster, Mark G.; San Emeterio Alvarez, Lara; Jiang, Weitao; Barber, Zoe H.; Warburton, Richard J.

    2014-02-10

    The device physics of parallel-wire superconducting nanowire single photon detectors is based on a cascade process. Using nano-optical techniques and a parallel wire device with spatially separate pixels, we explicitly demonstrate the single- and multi-photon triggering regimes. We develop a model for describing efficiency of a detector operating in the arm-trigger regime. We investigate the timing response of the detector when illuminating a single pixel and two pixels. We see a change in the active area of the detector between the two regimes and find the two-pixel trigger regime to have a faster timing response than the one-pixel regime.

  7. Preradiation studies for non-thermal Z-pinch wire load experiments on Saturn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Humphreys, D.R.; Poukey, J.W.; Marder, B.M.; Halbleib, J.A.; Crow, J.T.; Spielman, R.B.; Mock, R.C.

    1994-06-01

    The implosion dynamics of compact wire arrays on Saturn are explored as a function of wire mass m, wire length {ell}, wire radii R, and radial power-flow feed geometry using the ZORK code. Electron losses and the likelihood of arcing in the radial feed adjacent the wire load are analyzed using the TWOQUICK and CYLTRAN codes. The physical characteristics of the implosion and subsequent thermal radiation production are estimated using the LASNEX code in one dimension. These analyses show that compact tungsten wire arrays with parameters suggested by D. Mosher and with a 21-nH vacuum feed geometry satisfy the empirical scaling criterion I/(M/{ell}) {approximately} 2 MA/(mg/cm) of Mosher for optimizing non-thermal radiation from z pinches, generate low electron losses in the radial feeds, and generate electric fields at the insulator stack below the Charlie Martin flashover limit thereby permitting full power to be delivered to the load. Under such conditions, peak currents of {approximately}5 MA can be delivered to wire loads {approximately}20 ns before the driving voltage reverses at the insulator stack, potentially allowing the m = 0 instability to develop with the subsequent emission of non-thermal radiation as predicted by the Mosher model.

  8. Larger sized wire arrays on 1.5 MA Z-pinch generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safronova, A. S. Kantsyrev, V. L. Weller, M. E. Shlyaptseva, V. V. Shrestha, I. K. Esaulov, A. A. Stafford, A.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.

    2014-12-15

    Experiments on the UNR Zebra generator with Load Current Multiplier (LCM) allow for implosions of larger sized wire array loads than at standard current of 1 MA. Advantages of larger sized planar wire array implosions include enhanced energy coupling to plasmas, better diagnostic access to observable plasma regions, and more complex geometries of the wire loads. The experiments with larger sized wire arrays were performed on 1.5 MA Zebra with LCM (the anode-cathode gap was 1 cm, which is half the gap used in the standard mode). In particular, larger sized multi-planar wire arrays had two outer wire planes from mid-atomic-number wires to create a global magnetic field (gmf) and plasma flow between them. A modified central plane with a few Al wires at the edges was put in the middle between outer planes to influence gmf and to create Al plasma flow in the perpendicular direction (to the outer arrays plasma flow). Such modified plane has different number of empty slots: it was increased from 6 up to 10, hence increasing the gap inside the middle plane from 4.9 to 7.7 mm, respectively. Such load configuration allows for more independent study of the flows of L-shell mid-atomic-number plasma (between the outer planes) and K-shell Al plasma (which first fills the gap between the edge wires along the middle plane) and their radiation in space and time. We demonstrate that such configuration produces higher linear radiation yield and electron temperatures as well as advantages of better diagnostics access to observable plasma regions and how the load geometry (size of the gap in the middle plane) influences K-shell Al radiation. In particular, K-shell Al radiation was delayed compared to L-shell mid-atomic-number radiation when the gap in the middle plane was large enough (when the number of empty slots was increased up to ten)

  9. Investigating radial wire array Z pinches as a compact x-ray source on the Saturn generator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ampleford, David J.; Bland, S. N.; Jennings, Christopher A.; Lebedev, S. V.; Chittenden, J. P.; Cuneo, Michael E.; McBride, Ryan D.; Jones, Brent Manley; Hall, G. N.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; et al

    2015-08-27

    Radial wire array z pinches, where wires are positioned radially outward from a central cathode to a concentric anode, can act as a compact bright x-ray source that could potentially be used to drive a hohlraum. Experiments were performed on the 7-MA Saturn generator using radial wire arrays. These experiments studied a number of potential risks in scaling radial wire arrays up from the 1-MA level, where they have been shown to be a promising compact X-ray source. Data indicates that at 7 MA, radial wire arrays can radiate ~9 TW with 10-ns full-width at half-maximum from a compact pinch.

  10. THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FACILITIES | Department of Energy THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIES THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIES Section 1308 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 ("EISA 2007") directed the Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the States, to undertake a study of the laws affecting the siting of privately-owned distribution wires on or across public rights of way and to

  11. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AND POWER FACILITIE | Department of Energy STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIE Section 1308 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 ("EISA 2007") directed the Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the States, to undertake a study of the laws affecting the siting of privately-owned distribution wires on or across public

  12. Optical Abelian lattice gauge theories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tagliacozzo, L.; Celi, A.; Zamora, A.; Lewenstein, M.; ICREA-Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, 08010 Barcelona

    2013-03-15

    We discuss a general framework for the realization of a family of Abelian lattice gauge theories, i.e., link models or gauge magnets, in optical lattices. We analyze the properties of these models that make them suitable for quantum simulations. Within this class, we study in detail the phases of a U(1)-invariant lattice gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions, originally proposed by P. Orland. By using exact diagonalization, we extract the low-energy states for small lattices, up to 4 Multiplication-Sign 4. We confirm that the model has two phases, with the confined entangled one characterized by strings wrapping around the whole lattice. We explain how to study larger lattices by using either tensor network techniques or digital quantum simulations with Rydberg atoms loaded in optical lattices, where we discuss in detail a protocol for the preparation of the ground-state. We propose two key experimental tests that can be used as smoking gun of the proper implementation of a gauge theory in optical lattices. These tests consist in verifying the absence of spontaneous (gauge) symmetry breaking of the ground-state and the presence of charge confinement. We also comment on the relation between standard compact U(1) lattice gauge theory and the model considered in this paper. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the quantum simulation of dynamical gauge theories in optical lattices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We focus on digital simulation of abelian lattice gauge theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We rediscover and discuss the puzzling phase diagram of gauge magnets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We detail the protocol for time evolution and ground-state preparation in any phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We provide two experimental tests to validate gauge theory quantum simulators.

  13. Optical coupler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2004-06-15

    In a camera or similar radiation sensitive device comprising a pixilated scintillation layer, a light guide and an array of position sensitive photomultiplier tubes, wherein there exists so-called dead space between adjacent photomultiplier tubes the improvement comprising a two part light guide comprising a first planar light spreading layer or portion having a first surface that addresses the scintillation layer and optically coupled thereto at a second surface that addresses the photomultiplier tubes, a second layer or portion comprising an array of trapezoidal light collectors defining gaps that span said dead space and are individually optically coupled to individual position sensitive photomultiplier tubes. According to a preferred embodiment, coupling of the trapezoidal light collectors to the position sensitive photomultiplier tubes is accomplished using an optical grease having about the same refractive index as the material of construction of the two part light guide.

  14. Optical analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, A.D.

    1987-09-28

    An optical analyzer wherein a sample of particulate matter, and particularly of organic matter, which has been collected on a quartz fiber filter is placed in a combustion tube, and light from a light source is passed through the sample. The temperature of the sample is raised at a controlled rate and in a controlled atmosphere. The magnitude of the transmission of light through the sample is detected as the temperature is raised. A data processor, differentiator and a two pen recorder provide a chart of the optical transmission versus temperature and the rate of change of optical transmission versus temperature signatures (T and D) of the sample. These signatures provide information as to physical and chemical processes and a variety of quantitative and qualitative information about the sample. Additional information is obtained by repeating the run in different atmospheres and/or different rates or heating with other samples of the same particulate material collected on other filters. 7 figs.

  15. Adaptive optics and laser guide stars at Lick observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brase, J.M.

    1994-11-15

    For the past several years LLNL has been developing adaptive optics systems for correction of both atmospheric turbulence effects and thermal distortions in optics for high-power lasers. Our early work focused on adaptive optics for beam control in laser isotope separation and ground-based free electron lasers. We are currently developing innovative adaptive optics and laser systems for sodium laser guide star applications at the University of California`s Lick and Keck Observeratories. This talk will describe our adaptive optics technology and some of its applications in high-resolution imaging and beam control.

  16. Optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reedy, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    An optical switching device (10) is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber (16) or a second glass fiber (14) may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber (18). Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system (26, 28, 30). In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber (16) is reflected by a planar mirror (36) into the third glass fiber (18). In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber (14) passes directly into the third glass fiber (18). The planar mirror (36) is attached to a rotatable table (32) which is rotated to provide the optical switching.

  17. Optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reedy, R.P.

    1987-11-10

    An optical switching device is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber or a second glass fiber may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber. Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system. In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber is reflected by a planar mirror into the third glass fiber. In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber passes directly into the third glass fiber. The planar mirror is attached to a rotatable table which is rotated to provide the optical switching. 3 figs.

  18. Hot wire deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahan, A.H.; Nelson, B.P.; Iwaniczko, E.; Wang, Q.; Molenbroek, E.C.; Asher, S.E.; Reedy, R.C. Jr.; Crandall, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper details preliminary results obtained in incorporating low H content, high substrate temperature hot wire (HW) deposited amorphous silicon material into a substrate solar cell structure. By necessity, since the learning curve for this complete structure involves metal/{ital n}-{ital i}/Schottky barrier structure optimization, a large part of the results are focused on this (partial) structure. We have found that the treatment of the top surface of the HW {ital i} layer during cooling is crucial to device performance. Without any particular attention paid to the treatment of this surface while the sample is cooling from its high deposition temperature, a significant amount of H diffuses out of the sample during the cooling process, particularly near the surface, resulting in devices with very poor photovoltaic properties. By designing a surface treatment to address this problem, we have been able to deposit HW Schottky structures with device characteristics as good as the best glow discharge devices produced in our laboratory. We present data concerning these surface treatments, and how they influence the H content at the {ital i}/Pd interface. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Hot wire deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahan, A.H.; Iwaniczko, E.; Nelson, B.P.; Reedy, R.C., Jr.; Unold, T.; Crandall, R.S.; Guha, S.; Yang, J. |

    1997-02-01

    This paper details the results of a study in which low H content, high deposition rate hot wire (HW) deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has been incorporated into a substrate solar cell. We find that the treatment of the top surface of the HW i-layer while it is cooled from its high deposition temperature is crucial to device performance. We present data concerning these surface treatments, and correlate these treatments with Schottky device performance. We also present first generation HW n-i-p solar cell data, where a glow discharge (GD) {mu}c-Si(p) layer completes the partial devices. No light trapping layer is used to increase the device Jsc. Our preliminary results yield efficiencies of up to 6.8{percent} for a cell with a 4000 {Angstrom} thick HW i-layer, which degrade less than 10{percent} after a 900h AM1 light soak. We suggest areas for further improvement of our devices. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Hot wire deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahan, A.H.; Iwaniczko, E.; Nelson, B.P.; Reedy, R.C. Jr.; Crandall, R.S.; Guha, S.; Yang, J.

    1996-09-01

    This paper details the results of a study in which low H content, high deposition rate hot wire (HW) deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has been incorporated into a substrate solar cell. The authors find that the treatment of the top surface of the HW i layer while it is being cooled from its high deposition temperature is crucial to device performance. They present data concerning these surface treatments, and they correlate these treatments with Schottky device performance. They also present first generation HW n-i-p solar cell efficiency data, where a glow discharge (GD) {mu}c-Si(p) layer was added to complete the partial devices. No light trapping layer was used to increase the device Jsc. The preliminary investigations have yielded efficiencies of up to 6.8% for a cell with a 4,000 {angstrom} thick HW i-layer, which degrade less than 10% after a 900 hour light soak. They suggest avenues for further improvement of the devices.

  1. Electrical wiring box with structure for fast device mounting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnston, Earl S.

    1991-01-08

    An electrical wiring box of molded insulating material is provided with bosses having screw holes for receiving a mounting screw that include two colinear portions of which a first portion proximate the front surface has an internal configuration, such as molded threads, that engage the mounting screw while permitting the mounting screw to be manually inserted therethrough without turning because of flexibility built into the boss structure. A second portion of the screw hole is of greater restriction for securely engaging the screw such as by self tapping. The flexibility of the boss is provided by a first center slot that extends from the screw hole to the boss exterior over a length substantially equal to the first portion of the screw hole. Second and third slots are located respectively on each side of the screw hole and provide projections respectively between the first and second slots and the first and third slots that flex to allow easy screw insertion through the first portion of the screw hole.

  2. Hot wire deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahan, A.H.; Iwaniczko, E.; Nelson, B.P.; Reedy, R.C. Jr.; Crandall, R.S.

    1996-05-01

    This paper details the results of a study in which low H content, high deposition rate hot wire (HW) deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has been incorporated into a substrate solar cell. The authors find that the treatment of the top surface of the HW i layer while it is being cooled from its high deposition temperature is crucial to device performance. They present data concerning these surface treatments, and correlate these treatments with Schottky device performance. The authors also present first generation HW n-i-p solar cell efficiency data, where a glow discharge (GD) {mu}c-Si(p) layer was added to complete the partial devices. No light trapping layer was used to increase the device Jsc. Their preliminary investigations have yielded efficiencies of up to 6.8% for a cell with a 4000 {Angstrom} thick HW i-layer, which degrade less than 10% after a 900 hour light soak. The authors suggest avenues for further improvement of their devices.

  3. Screening tests of conformally-coated printed wiring boards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skibo, M.D.; Even, W.R.

    1982-03-01

    Identical printed wiring boards (PWB) were fabricated using glass-triazene as substrates and were conformally coated with either conothane or parylene. The boards were then placed in sealed canisters along with TATB and other organic materials found in recent weapon systems. While subjected to electrical potentials of 120V and 250V, these PWBs were either aged at 60/sup 0/, 70/sup 0/, or 80/sup 0/ or temperature cycled for as long as 16 months. The resistivities of the boards were precisely measured before and after aging to determine the effect of time, temperature, and environment on the electrical characteristics of board materials. In all cases board resistivity increased with temperature and duration of test. This increase was believed to be related to either a reduction in water content in the board substrate or a completion of cure of the conformal coating with time elevated temperature. Both mechanisms would result in a reduction in conductive species. In spite of high humidity levels, no evidence of current - activated filament formation between adjacent active circuit paths on aged PWBs was seen. Similarly, soldered contacts were free of thermally-induced fatigue damage after as many as 500 cycles between -54 and 70/sup 0/C at 1 cycle/day.

  4. Diamond Wire Cutting of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith Rule; Erik Perry; Robert Parsells

    2003-01-31

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is a one-of-a-kind, tritium-fueled fusion research reactor that ceased operation in April 1997. As a result, decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The 100 cubic meter volume of the donut-shaped reactor makes it the second largest fusion reactor in the world. The deuterium-tritium experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 MeV neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies, while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the tokamak present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Engineers at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) decided to investigate an alternate, innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR vacuum vessel: diamond wire cutting technology. In August 1999, this technology was successfully demonstrated and evaluated on vacuum vessel surrogates. Subsequently, the technology was improved and redesigned for the actual cutting of the vacuum vessel. Ten complete cuts were performed in a 6-month period to complete the removal of this unprecedented type of D&D (Decontamination and Decommissioning) activity.

  5. DIAMOND WIRE CUTTING OF THE TOKAMAK FUSION TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rule, Keith; Perry, Erik; Parsells, Robert

    2003-02-27

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is a one-of-a-kind, tritium-fueled fusion research reactor that ceased operation in April 1997. As a result, decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The 100 cubic meter volume of the donut-shaped reactor makes it the second largest fusion reactor in the world. The deuterium-tritium experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Engineers at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) decided to investigate an alternate, innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR vacuum vessel: diamond wire cutting technology. In August 1999, this technology was successfully demonstrated and evaluated on vacuum vessel surrogates. Subsequently, the techno logy was improved and redesigned for the actual cutting of the vacuum vessel. 10 complete cuts were performed in a 6-month period to complete the removal of this unprecedented type of D&D activity.

  6. Method and apparatus for improved wire saw slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Costantini, Michael A.; Talbott, Jonathan A.; Chandra, Mohan; Prasad, Vishwanath; Caster, Allison; Gupta, Kedar P.; Leyvraz, Philippe

    2000-09-05

    A slurry recycle process for use in free-abrasive machining operations such as for wire saws used in wafer slicing of ingots, where the used slurry is separated into kerf-rich and abrasive-rich components, and the abrasive-rich component is reconstituted into a makeup slurry. During the process, the average particle size of the makeup slurry is controlled by monitoring the condition of the kerf and abrasive components and making necessary adjustments to the separating force and dwell time of the separator apparatus. Related pre-separator and post separator treatments, and feedback of one or the other separator slurry output components for mixing with incoming used slurry and recirculation through the separator, provide further effectiveness and additional control points in the process. The kerf-rich component is eventually or continually removed; the abrasive-rich component is reconstituted into a makeup slurry with a controlled, average particle size such that the products of the free-abrasive machining method using the recycled slurry process of the invention are of consistent high quality with less TTV deviation from cycle to cycle for a prolonged period or series of machining operations.

  7. a-Si:H Grown by Hot-Wire CVD at Ultra-High Deposition Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Y.; Nelson, B. P.; Mahan, A. H.; Williamson, D. L.; Crandall, R. S.; Iwaniczko, E.; Wang, Q.

    2000-01-01

    We increase the deposition rate of growing hydrogenated amorphous-silicon (a-Si:H) by the hot-wire chemical vapor depositon (HWCVD) technique by adding filaments (two) and decreasing the filament(s) to substrate distance.

  8. Entrapment of Guide Wire in an Inferior Vena Cava Filter: A Technique for Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdel-Aal, Ahmed Kamel Saddekni, Souheil; Hamed, Maysoon Farouk; Fitzpatrick, Farley

    2013-04-15

    Entrapment of a central venous catheter (CVC) guide wire in an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter is a rare, but reported complication during CVC placement. With the increasing use of vena cava filters (VCFs), this number will most likely continue to grow. The consequences of this complication can be serious, as continued traction upon the guide wire may result in filter dislodgement and migration, filter fracture, or injury to the IVC. We describe a case in which a J-tipped guide wire introduced through a left subclavian access without fluoroscopic guidance during CVC placement was entrapped at the apex of an IVC filter. We describe a technique that we used successfully in removing the entrapped wire through the left subclavian access site. We also present simple useful recommendations to prevent this complication.

  9. We Energies- Livestock and Dairy Farm Electrical Re-wiring Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any We Energies dairy farm customer can apply for assistance with a re-wiring project. We Energies would pay the first $1,000 of the project and 50 percent of remaining costs up for a total grant...

  10. Estimation of changes in insulation resistance with various design parameters of interdigitated wire loops.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Jones, Reese E.; Neel, Wiley Christopher

    2015-09-01

    In this report we explore the sensitivities of the insulation resistance between two loops of wire embedded in insulating materials with a simple, approximate model. We discuss limita- tions of the model and ideas for improvements.

  11. Annual Coded Wire Tag Program; Washington Missing Production Groups, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuss, Howard J.; Hammer, Stanley A.; Kimbel, Mark A. (Washington Department of Fisheries, Olympia, WA)

    1994-03-01

    The intent of this project is to coded-wire tag at least one production group of each species at each Columbia Basin hatchery to provide a holistic assessment of survival and catch distribution over time.

  12. A wire scanner system for characterizing the BNL energy recovery LINAC beam position monitor system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michnoff R.; Biscardi, C.; Cerniglia, P.; Degen, C.; Gassner, D.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.

    2012-04-15

    A stepper motor controlled wire scanner system has recently been modified to support testing of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Collider-Accelerator department's Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) beam position monitor (BPM) system. The ERL BPM consists of four 9.33 mm diameter buttons mounted at 90 degree spacing in a cube with 1.875 inch inside diameter. The buttons were designed by BNL and fabricated by Times Microwave Systems. Libera brilliance single pass BPM electronic modules with 700 MHz bandpass filter, manufactured by Instrumentation Technologies, will be used to measure the transverse beam positions at 14 locations around the ERL. The wire scanner assembly provides the ability to measure the BPM button response to a pulsed wire, and evaluate and calibrate the Libera position measurement electronics. A description of the wire scanner system and test result data will be presented.

  13. A Catalyst Wire-feed Arc Discharge for Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Catalyst Wire-feed Arc Discharge for Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Particles This invention pertains to a highly effective arc-based synthesis of single wall carbon...

  14. Recent advances in theoretical and numerical studies of wire array Z-pinch in the IAPCM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Ning Zhang, Yang Xiao, Delong Wu, Jiming Huang, Jun Yin, Li Sun, Shunkai Xue, Chuang Dai, Zihuan Ning, Cheng Shu, Xiaojian Wang, Jianguo Li, Hua

    2014-12-15

    Fast Z-pinch has produced the most powerful X-ray radiation source in laboratory and also shows the possibility to drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Recent advances in wire-array Z-pinch researches at the Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics are presented in this paper. A typical wire array Z-pinch process has three phases: wire plasma formation and ablation, implosion and the MRT instability development, stagnation and radiation. A mass injection model with azimuthal modulation coefficient is used to describe the wire initiation, and the dynamics of ablated plasmas of wire-array Z-pinches in (r, θ) geometry is numerically studied. In the implosion phase, a two-dimensional(r, z) three temperature radiation MHD code MARED has been developed to investigate the development of the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor(MRT) instability. We also analyze the implosion modes of nested wire-array and find that the inner wire-array is hardly affected before the impaction of the outer wire-array. While the plasma accelerated to high speed in the implosion stage stagnates on the axis, abundant x-ray radiation is produced. The energy spectrum of the radiation and the production mechanism are investigated. The computational x-ray pulse shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental result. We also suggest that using alloyed wire-arrays can increase multi-keV K-shell yield by decreasing the opacity of K-shell lines. In addition, we use a detailed circuit model to study the energy coupling between the generator and the Z-pinch implosion. Recently, we are concentrating on the problems of Z-pinch driven ICF, such as dynamic hohlraum and capsule implosions. Our numerical investigations on the interaction of wire-array Z-pinches on foam convertors show qualitative agreements with experimental results on the “Qiangguang I” facility. An integrated two-dimensional simulation of dynamic hohlraum driven capsule implosion provides us the physical insights of wire

  15. Ground control for highwall mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zipf, R.K.; Mark, C.

    2007-09-15

    Perhaps the greatest risk to both equipment and personnel associated with highwall mining is from ground control. The two most significant ground control hazards are rock falls from highwall and equipment entrapment underground. In the central Appalachians, where the majority of highwall mining occurs in the USA, hillseams (or mountain cracks) are the most prominent structure that affects highwall stability. The article discusses measures to minimise the risk of failure associated with hillstreams. A 'stuck' or trapped highwall miner, and the ensuring retrieval or recovery operation, can be extremely disruptive to the highwall mining process. Most entrapment, are due to roof falls in the hole. The options for recovery are surface retrieval, surface excavation or underground recovery. Proper pillar design is essential to maintain highwall stability and prevent entrapments. NIOSH has developed the Analysis of Retreat Mining Pillar stability-Highwall Mining (ARMPS-HWM) computer program to help mine planners with this process. 10 figs.

  16. How to Wire Photosynthetic Proteins to Electrodes | U.S. DOE Office of

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Science (SC) How to Wire Photosynthetic Proteins to Electrodes Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More Information » 12.14.15 How to Wire

  17. Method for wiring allocation and switch configuration in a multiprocessor environment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aridor, Yariv; Domany, Tamar; Frachtenberg, Eitan; Gal, Yoav; Shmueli, Edi; Stockmeyer, legal representative, Robert E.; Stockmeyer, Larry Joseph

    2008-07-15

    A method for wiring allocation and switch configuration in a multiprocessor computer, the method including employing depth-first tree traversal to determine a plurality of paths among a plurality of processing elements allocated to a job along a plurality of switches and wires in a plurality of D-lines, and selecting one of the paths in accordance with at least one selection criterion.

  18. Fokker-Planck equations and density of states in disordered quantum wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Titov, M.; Brouwer, P. W.; Furusaki, A.; Mudry, C.

    2001-06-15

    We propose a general scheme to construct scaling equations for the density of states in disordered quantum wires for all ten pure Cartan symmetry classes. The anomalous behavior of the density of states near the Fermi level {var_epsilon}=0 for the three chiral and four Bogoliubov{endash}de Gennes universality classes is analyzed in detail by means of a mapping to a scaling equation for the reflection from a quantum wire in the presence of an imaginary potential.

  19. Inverter Ground Fault Overvoltage Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoke, Andy; Nelson, Austin; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Chebahtah, Justin; Wang, Trudie; McCarty, Michael

    2015-08-12

    This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient overvoltages created by several commercial PV inverters during ground fault conditions. For this work, a test plan developed by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Load rejection overvoltage test results were reported previously in a separate technical report.

  20. In-Ground Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Caggiano, Joseph A.; Hensley, Walter K.

    2006-10-29

    Vertically oriented radiation detectors may not provide sufficient screening in rail or aviation applications. Railcars can be heavily shielded on the sides, reducing the sensitivity of vertically mounted monitors. For aviation, the distance required for wingspan clearance reduces a vertical detector’s coverage of the fuselage. To surmount these, and other, challenging operational and sensitivity issues, we have investigated the use of in-ground radiation detectors. (PIET-43741-TM-605).

  1. Ground-water data for 1990--91 and ground-water withdrawals for 1951--91, Nevada Test Site and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, D.B.; Reiner, S.R.

    1996-12-31

    This report presents selected ground-water data collected from wells and test holes at and in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site. Depth-to-water measurements were made at 74 sites at and in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site during water years 1990--91. Measured depths to water ranged from 301 to 2,215 feet below land surface and measured altitudes of the ground-water surface at the Nevada Test Site ranged from 2,091 to 6,083 feet above sea level. Depth-to-water measurements were obtained by a combination of wire-line, electric-tape, iron-horse, and steel-tape methods. Available historic withdrawal and depth-to-water data for ground-water supply wells have been included to show changes through time. Water samples were collected and analyzed for tritium concentrations at 15 sites during water years 1990--91. Tritium concentrations in bailed water samples ranged from below detection limits to 5,550,000 picocuries per liter. Tritium concentrations in samples from three wells exceeded drinking water standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. All three wells are separate piezometers contained within a single test hole near an area of extensive underground nuclear testing.

  2. Polymer Growth Rate in a Wire Chamber with Oxygen,Water, or Alcohol Gas Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyarski, Adam; /SLAC

    2008-07-02

    The rate of polymer growth on wires was measured in a wire chamber while the chamber was aged initially with helium-isobutane (80:20) gas, and then with either oxygen, water, or alcohol added to the gas. At the completion of the aging process for each gas mixture, the carbon content on the wires was measured in a SEM/EDX instrument. The same physical wires were used in all the gas mixtures, allowing measurement of polymer build up or polymer depletion by each gas additive. It is found that the rate of polymer growth is not changed by the presence of oxygen, water or alcohol. Conjecture that oxygen reduces breakdown by removing polymer deposits on field wires is negated by these measurements. Instead, it appears that the reduced breakdown is due to lower resistance in the polymer from oxygen ions being transported into the polymer. It is also observed that field wires bombarded by the electrons in the SEM and then placed back into the chamber show an abundance of single electrons being emitted, indicating that electron charge is stored in the polymer layer and that a high electric field is necessary to remove the charge.

  3. Effects of load voltage on voltage breakdown modes of electrical exploding aluminum wires in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Jian; Li, Xingwen Yang, Zefeng; Wang, Kun; Chao, Youchuang; Shi, Zongqian; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici

    2015-06-15

    The effects of the load voltage on the breakdown modes are investigated in exploding aluminum wires driven by a 1 kA, 0.1 kA/ns pulsed current in air. From laser probing images taken by laser shadowgraphy, schlieren imaging, and interferometry, the position of the shockwave front, the plasma channel, and the wire core edge of the exploding product can be determined. The breakdown mode makes a transition from the internal mode, which involves breakdown inside the wire core, to the shunting mode, which involves breakdown in the compressed air, with decreasing charging voltage. The breakdown electrical field for a gaseous aluminum wire core of nearly solid density is estimated to be more than 20 kV/cm, while the value for gaseous aluminum of approximately 0.2% solid density decreases to 15–20 kV/cm. The breakdown field in shunting mode is less than 20 kV/cm and is strongly affected by the vaporized aluminum, the desorbed gas, and the electrons emitted from the wire core during the current pause. Ohmic heating during voltage collapses will induce further energy deposition in the current channel and thus will result in different expansion speeds for both the wire core and the shockwave front in the different modes.

  4. Experimental investigation on the energy deposition and expansion rate under the electrical explosion of aluminum wire in vacuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Zongqian; Wang, Kun; Shi, Yuanjie; Wu, Jian; Han, Ruoyu

    2015-12-28

    Experimental investigations on the electrical explosion of aluminum wire using negative polarity current in vacuum are presented. Current pulses with rise rates of 40 A/ns, 80 A/ns, and 120 A/ns are generated for investigating the influence of current rise rate on energy deposition. Experimental results show a significant increase of energy deposition into the wire before the voltage breakdown with the increase of current rise rate. The influence of wire dimension on energy deposition is investigated as well. Decreasing the wire length allows more energy to be deposited into the wire. The energy deposition of a 0.5 cm-long wire explosion is ∼2.5 times higher than the energy deposition of a 2 cm-long wire explosion. The dependence of the energy deposition on wire diameter demonstrates a maximum energy deposition of 2.7 eV/atom with a diameter of ∼18 μm. Substantial increase in energy deposition is observed in the electrical explosion of aluminum wire with polyimide coating. A laser probe is applied to construct the shadowgraphy, schlieren, and interferometry diagnostics. The morphology and expansion trajectory of exploding products are analyzed based on the shadowgram. The interference phase shift is reconstructed from the interferogram. Parallel dual wires are exploded to estimate the expansion velocity of the plasma shell.

  5. Ground Source Heat Pumps | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    heating andor cooling system that takes advantage of the relatively constant year-round ground temperature to pump heat to or from the ground. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle...

  6. Microstructure and texture evolution of Cu–Nb composite wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Liping; Yang, Xiaofang; Han, Ke; Lu, Yafeng; Liang, Ming; Liu, Qing

    2013-07-15

    The evolution of microstructure and texture in Cu–Nb composite wires fabricated by an accumulative drawing and bundling process was investigated by backscattered electron (BSE), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results indicate the onset of severe curling and shape changing occurred at the size of Nb ∼ 400 nm with a surface increase of about 6.91 μm{sup 2}/μm{sup 3} (the area per unit volume). Two kinds of grain boundaries in Nb are suggested: one is 20°–50° boundary with a rotate/tilt axis around <110> parallel to drawing direction (DD), and another is > 50° boundary with the axis perpendicular to DD. The curling phenomenon occurred at the Cu–Nb interface and is related not only to the deformation mechanism of Nb but also to the presence of interface. This result is distinct from reported works showing that curling takes place when BCC metals are heavily drawn (Area reduction > 73%). The variation in microstructure and texture evolution between Cu and Nb filaments was discussed based on the differences in deformation mechanisms of these two metals. - Highlights: • Microstructure and texture evolution were studied systematically by EBSD. • In Nb, grain boundaries of 20°–50° have a rotate/tile axis around <110>//DD. • The rotation axes of above 50° boundaries are concentrated around <111> ⊥ DD in Nb. • Curling is related to not only deformation mode of BCC but also Cu–Nb interface.

  7. Electrical Core Transformer for Grid Improvement Incorporating Wire Magnetic Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrie R. Buswell, PhD; Dennis Jacobs, PhD; Steve Meng

    2012-03-26

    The research reported herein adds to the understanding of oil-immersed distribution transformers by exploring and demonstrating potential improvements in efficiency and cost utilizing the unique Buswell approach wherein the unit is redesigned, replacing magnetic sheet with wire allowing for improvements in configuration and increased simplicity in the build process. Exploration of new designs is a critical component in our drive to assure reduction of energy waste, adequate delivery to the citizenry, and the robustness of U.S. manufacturing. By moving that conversation forward, this exploration adds greatly to our base of knowledge and clearly outlines an important avenue for further exploration. This final report shows several advantages of this new transformer type (outlined in a report signed by all of our collaborating partners and included in this document). Although materials development is required to achieve commercial potential, the clear benefits of the technology if that development were a given is established. Exploration of new transformer types and further work on the Buswell design approach is in the best interest of the public, industry, and the United States. Public benefits accrue from design alternatives that reduce the overall use of energy, but it must be acknowledged that new DOE energy efficiency standards have provided some assurance in that regard. Nonetheless the burden of achieving these new standards has been largely shifted to the manufacturers of oil-immersed distribution transformers with cost increasing up to 20% of some units versus 2006 when this investigation was started. Further, rising costs have forced the industry to look closely are far more expensive technologies which may threaten U.S. competitiveness in the distribution transformer market. This concern is coupled with the realization that many units in the nation's grid are beyond their optimal life which suggests that the nation may be headed for an infrastructure crisis

  8. Quantum Optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum Optics - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  9. Ground Source Heat Pump Subprogram Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This overview of GTP's Ground Source Heat Pump subprogram was given at GTP's Program Peer Review on May 18, 2010.

  10. Ground Magnetics (Nannini, 1986) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Magnetics (Nannini, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Unspecified Exploration...

  11. Optical analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, Anthony D.

    1989-01-01

    An optical analyzer (10) wherein a sample (19) of particulate matter, and particularly of organic matter, which has been collected on a quartz fiber filter (20) is placed in a combustion tube (11), and light from a light source (14) is passed through the sample (19). The temperature of the sample (19) is raised at a controlled rate and in a controlled atmosphere. The magnitude of the transmission of light through the sample (19) is detected (18) as the temperature is raised. A data processor (23), differentiator (28) and a two pen recorder (24) provide a chart of the optical transmission versus temperature and the rate of change of optical transmission versus temperature signatures (T and D) of the sample (19). These signatures provide information as to physical and chemical processes and a variety of quantitative and qualitative information about the sample (19). Additional information is obtained by repeating the run in different atmospheres and/or different rates of heating with other samples of the same particulate material collected on other filters.

  12. Fiber optic monitoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Samborsky, James K.

    1993-01-01

    A device for the purpose of monitoring light transmissions in optical fibers comprises a fiber optic tap that optically diverts a fraction of a transmitted optical signal without disrupting the integrity of the signal. The diverted signal is carried, preferably by the fiber optic tap, to a lens or lens system that disperses the light over a solid angle that facilitates viewing. The dispersed light indicates whether or not the monitored optical fiber or system of optical fibers is currently transmitting optical information.

  13. Power optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apollonov, V V

    2014-02-28

    By using the theory we developed in the early 1970s, a broad range of phenomena is considered for an optical surface of a solid body that is exposed to radiation arbitrarily varying in time and producing temperature fields, thermoelastic stresses and thermal deformations on the surface layer. The examination is based on the relations (which are similar to Duhamel's integral formula from the theory of heat conduction) between the quantities characterising the thermal stress state in any nonstationary regimes of energy input into a solid. A peculiar feature of the analysis of the thermal stress state in this case consists in the fact that this relation comprises time as a parameter, which in turn is a consequence of incoherence of the quasi-stationary problem of thermoelasticity. This phenomenon is particularly important for the optics of high-power, high-pulse repetition rate lasers, which are being actively developed. In the review, we have recently published in Laser Physics, the thermal stress state of a solid is analysed. In this state, time is treated as an independent variable used in differentiation. Such an approach greatly reduces the applicability of the method. The review published contains data on the use of capillary porous structures made of various materials with different degrees of the surface development. Moreover, such structures can be efficiently employed to increase the heat exchange at a temperature below the boiling point of the coolant. In the present review we discuss the dependences of the limiting laser intensities on the duration of a pulse or a pulse train, corresponding to the three stages of the state of the reflecting surface and leading to unacceptable elastic deformations of the surface, to the plastic yield of the material accompanied by the formation of residual stresses and to the melting of the surface layer. We also analyse the problem of heat exchange in the surface layer with a liquid metal coolant pumped through it. The

  14. Nano-Structured Mesoporous Silica Wires with Intra-Wire Lamellae via Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly in Space-Confined Channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Michael Z.; Shi, Donglu; Blom, Douglas Allen

    2014-04-06

    Evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) of silica sol-gel ethanol-water solution mixtures with block-copolymer were studied inside uniform micro/nano channels. Nano-structured mesoporous silica wires, with various intra-wire self-assembly structures including lamellae, were prepared via EISA process but in space-confined channels with the diameter ranging from 50 nm to 200 nm. Membranes made of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) and track-etched polycarbonate (EPC) were utilized as the arrays of space-confined channels (i.e., 50, 100, and 200-nm EPC and 200-nm AAO) for infiltration and drying of mixture solutions; these substrate membranes were submerged in mixture solutions consisting of a silica precursor, a structure-directing agent, ethanol, and water. After the substrate channels were filled with the solution under vacuum impregnation, the membrane was removed from the solution and dried in air. The silica precursor used was tetra-ethyl othosilicate (TEOS), and the structure-directing agent employed was triblock copolymer Pluronic-123 (P123). It was found that the formation of the mesoporous nanostructures in silica wires within uniform channels were significantly affected by the synthesis conditions including (1) pre-assemble TEOS aging time, (2) the evaporation rate during the vacuum impregnation, and (3) the air-dry temperature. The obtained intra-wire structures, including 2D-hexagonal rods and lamellae, were studied by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). A steric hindrance effect seems to explain well the observed polymer-silica mesophase formation tailored by TEOS aging time. The evaporation effect, air-drying effect, and AAO-vs-EPC substrate effect on the mesoporous structure of the formed silica wires were also presented and discussed.

  15. Insulation and Heat Treatment of Bi-2212 Wire for Wind-and-React Coils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter K. F. Hwang

    2007-10-22

    Higher Field Magnets demand higher field materials such as Bi-2212 round superconducting wire. The Bi-2212 wire manufacture process depends on the coil fabrication method and wire insulation material. Considering the wind-and-react method, the coil must unifirmly heated to the melt temperature and uniformly cooled to the solidification temperature. During heat treat cycle for tightly wound coils, the leakage melt from conductor can chemically react with insulation on the conductor and creat short turns in the coils. In this research project, conductor, insulation, and coils are made to systemically study the suitable insulation materials, coil fabrication method, and heat treatment cycles. In this phase I study, 800 meters Bi-2212 wire with 3 different insulation materials have been produced. Best insulation material has been identified after testing six small coils for insulation integrity and critical current at 4.2 K. Four larger coils (2" dia) have been also made with Bi-2212 wrapped with best insulation and with different heattreatment cycle. These coils were tested for Ic in a 6T background field and at 4.2 K. The test result shows that Ic from 4 coils are very close to short samples (1 meter) result. It demonstrates that HTS coils can be made with Bi-2212 wire with best insulation consistently. Better wire insulation, improving coil winding technique, and wire manufacture process can be used for a wide range of high field magnet application including acclerators such as Muon Collider, fusion energy research, NMR spectroscopy, MRI, and other industrial magnets.

  16. Numerical simulation of fiber and wire array Z-pinches with Trac-II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reisman, D

    1998-09-01

    Trac-II is a two dimensional axisymmetric resistive MHD code. It simulates all three spatial components (r, z, φ) of the magnetic field and fluid velocity vectors, and the plasma is treated as a single fluid with two temperatures (Te,Ti). In addition, it can optionally include a self-consistent external circuit. Recent modifications to the code include the addition of the 3-T radiation model, a 4-phase (solid-liquid-vapor-plasma) equation of state model (QEOS), a 4-phase electrical/thermal conductivity model, and an implicit solution of poloidal Bz,Br) magnetic field diffusion. These changes permit a detailed study of fiber and wire array Z-pinches. Specifically, Trac-II is used to study the wire array Z-pinch at the PBFA-Z pulse power generator at Sandia National Laboratory. First, in 1-D we examine the behavior of a single wire in the Z-pinch. Then, using these results as initial radial conditions in 2-D, we investigate the dynamics of wire array configurations in the r-z and r-θ plane. In the r-z plane we examine the growth of the m=0 or "sausage" instability in single wires within the array. In the r-θ plane we examine the merging behavior between neighboring wires. Special emphasis is placed on trying to explain how instability growth affects the performance of the Z-pinch. Lastly, we introduce Trac-III, a 3-D MHD code, and illustrate the m=1 or "kink" instability. We also discuss how Trac-III can be modified to simulate the wire array Z-pinch.

  17. Parallel optical sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Skogen, Erik J; Vawter, Gregory A

    2014-05-20

    An optical sampler includes a first and second 1.times.n optical beam splitters splitting an input optical sampling signal and an optical analog input signal into n parallel channels, respectively, a plurality of optical delay elements providing n parallel delayed input optical sampling signals, n photodiodes converting the n parallel optical analog input signals into n respective electrical output signals, and n optical modulators modulating the input optical sampling signal or the optical analog input signal by the respective electrical output signals, and providing n successive optical samples of the optical analog input signal. A plurality of output photodiodes and eADCs convert the n successive optical samples to n successive digital samples. The optical modulator may be a photodiode interconnected Mach-Zehnder Modulator. A method of sampling the optical analog input signal is disclosed.

  18. Assessment of Proton Deflectometry for Exploding Wire Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beg, Farhat Nadeem

    2013-09-25

    This project provides the first demonstration of the application of proton deflectometry for the diagnosis of electromagnetic field topology and current-carrying regions in Z-pinch plasma experiments. Over the course of this project several milestones were achieved. High-energy proton beam generation was demonstrated on the short-pulse high-intensity Leopard laser, (10 Joules in ~350 femtoseconds, and the proton beam generation was shown to be reproducible. Next, protons were used to probe the electromagnetic field structure of short circuit loads in order to benchmark the two numerical codes, the resistive-magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code, Gorgon, and the hybrid particle-in-cell code, LSP for the interpretation of results. Lastly, the proton deflectometry technique was used to map the magnetic field structure of pulsed-power-driven plasma loads including wires and supersonic jets formed with metallic foils. Good agreement between the modeling and experiments has been obtained. The demonstrated technique holds great promise to significantly improve the understanding of current flow and electromagnetic field topology in pulsed power driven high energy density plasmas. Proton probing with a high intensity laser was for the first time implemented in the presence of the harsh debris and x-ray producing z-pinch environment driven by a mega-ampere-scale pulsed-power machine. The intellectual merit of the program was that it investigated strongly driven MHD systems and the influence of magnetic field topology on plasma evolution in pulsed power driven plasmas. The experimental program involved intense field-matter interaction in the generation of the proton probe, as well as the generation of plasma subjected to 1 MegaGauss scale magnetic fields. The computational aspect included two well-documented codes, in combination for the first time to provide accurate interpretation of the experimental results. The broader impact included the support of 2 graduate students, one at

  19. Fabrication of an optical component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nichols, Michael A.; Aikens, David M.; Camp, David W.; Thomas, Ian M.; Kiikka, Craig; Sheehan, Lynn M.; Kozlowski, Mark R.

    2000-01-01

    A method for forming optical parts used in laser optical systems such as high energy lasers, high average power lasers, semiconductor capital equipment and medical devices. The optical parts will not damage during the operation of high power lasers in the ultra-violet light range. A blank is first ground using a fixed abrasive grinding method to remove the subsurface damage formed during the fabrication of the blank. The next step grinds and polishes the edges and forms bevels to reduce the amount of fused-glass contaminants in the subsequent steps. A loose abrasive grind removes the subsurface damage formed during the fixed abrasive or "blanchard" removal process. After repolishing the bevels and performing an optional fluoride etch, the surface of the blank is polished using a zirconia slurry. Any subsurface damage formed during the loose abrasive grind will be removed during this zirconia polish. A post polish etch may be performed to remove any redeposited contaminants. Another method uses a ceria polishing step to remove the subsurface damage formed during the loose abrasive grind. However, any residual ceria may interfere with the optical properties of the finished part. Therefore, the ceria and other contaminants are removed by performing either a zirconia polish after the ceria polish or a post ceria polish etch.

  20. Design of a Probe for Strain Sensitivity Studies of Critical Current Densities in SC Wires and Tapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhanaraj, N.; Barzi, E.; Turrioni, D.; Rusy, A.; Lombardo, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-07-01

    The design of a variable-temperature probe used to perform strain sensitivity measurements on LTS wires and HTS wires and tapes is described. The measurements are intended to be performed at liquid helium temperatures (4.2 K). The wire or tape to be measured is wound and soldered on to a helical spring device, which is fixed at one end and subjected to a torque at the free end. The design goal is to be able to achieve {+-} 0.8 % strain in the wire and tape. The probe is designed to carry a current of 2000A.

  1. Wire inhomogeneity detector having a core with opposing pole pieces and guide pieces adjacent the opposing pole pieces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, George H.; Smits, Robert G.; Eberhard, Philippe H.

    1989-01-01

    A device for uncovering imperfections in electrical conducting wire, particularly superconducting wire, by detecting variations in eddy currents. Eddy currents effect the magnetic field in a gap of an inductor, contained in a modified commercial ferrite core, through which the wire being tested is passed. A small increase or decrease in the amount of conductive material, such as copper, in a fixed cross section of wire will unbalance a bridge used to measure the impedance of the inductor, tripping a detector and sounding an alarm.

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Wiring Up Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Stanford University at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about wiring up silicon...

  3. Transforming dielectric coated tungsten and platinum wires to gaseous state using negative nanosecond-pulsed-current in vacuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Jian; Li, Xingwen Wang, Kun; Yang, Zefeng; Shi, Zongqian; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici; Li, Zhenghong

    2014-11-15

    With the help of thin dielectric coatings, corona free explosions were achieved in the region of about half a wire length (2?cm) for tungsten wires and nearly the whole wire length for platinum wires under a fast rising (46170?A/ns) negative polarity current in vacuum. Expansion velocity of the tungsten gas was over 10?km/s. Current waveforms from exploding coated wires were similar to those from bare wires in the air including a current pause stage. Coated wires with different coating parameters had a similar joule energy deposition before voltage collapsed, but a quite different scenario in the region near the electrodes. The axial field under negative current was the main reason for the axial inhomogeneity of coated tungsten wires. Tungsten or platinum gases in the vaporized region were tightly encompassed by the dielectric coating, while gaps or probably low density gases, were observed between the coating and the edge of the dense wire core in the core-corona structure region.

  4. Optical microphone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    2000-01-11

    An optical microphone includes a laser and beam splitter cooperating therewith for splitting a laser beam into a reference beam and a signal beam. A reflecting sensor receives the signal beam and reflects it in a plurality of reflections through sound pressure waves. A photodetector receives both the reference beam and reflected signal beam for heterodyning thereof to produce an acoustic signal for the sound waves. The sound waves vary the local refractive index in the path of the signal beam which experiences a Doppler frequency shift directly analogous with the sound waves.

  5. Optical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaves, Julio C.; Falicoff, Waqidi; Minano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Dross, Oliver; Parkyn, Jr., William A.

    2010-07-13

    An optical manifold for efficiently combining a plurality of blue LED outputs to illuminate a phosphor for a single, substantially homogeneous output, in a small, cost-effective package. Embodiments are disclosed that use a single or multiple LEDs and a remote phosphor, and an intermediate wavelength-selective filter arranged so that backscattered photoluminescence is recycled to boost the luminance and flux of the output aperture. A further aperture mask is used to boost phosphor luminance with only modest loss of luminosity. Alternative non-recycling embodiments provide blue and yellow light in collimated beams, either separately or combined into white.

  6. Optical microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotz, K.T.; Noble, K.A.; Faris, G.W. [Molecular Physics Laboratory, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2004-09-27

    We present a method for the control of small droplets based on the thermal Marangoni effect using laser heating. With this approach, droplets covering five orders of magnitude in volume ({approx}1.7 {mu}L to 14 pL), immersed in decanol, were moved on an unmodified polystyrene surface, with speeds of up to 3 mm/s. When two droplets were brought into contact, they spontaneously fused and rapidly mixed in less than 33 ms. This optically addressed microfluidic approach has many advantages for microfluidic transport, including exceptional reconfigurability, low intersample contamination, large volume range, extremely simple substrates, no electrical connections, and ready scaling to large arrays.

  7. Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects Below are the project presentations and respective peer review results for Ground ...

  8. Appendix D Surface Water and Ground Water Time-Concentration...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Surface Water and Ground Water Time-Concentration Plots, Stream Discharge Measurements, Ground Water Level Data, and Ground Water Well Hydrographs This page intentionally left ...

  9. North Village Ground Source Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    North Village Ground Source Heat Pumps North Village Ground Source Heat Pumps Overview: Installation of Ground Source Heat Pumps. Replacement of Aging Heat Pumps. Alignment with ...

  10. Optical interconnect assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Daric; Abel, Philip

    2015-06-09

    An optical assembly includes a substrate with a first row of apertures and a second row of apertures. A first optical die includes a first plurality of optical transducer elements and is mounted on the substrate such that an optical signal interface of each transducer element is aligned with an aperture of the first row of optical apertures. A second optical die includes a second plurality of optical transducer elements and is mounted on the substrate such that an optical signal interface of each of the second plurality of optical transducer elements is aligned with an aperture of the second row of optical apertures. A connector configured to mate with the optical assembly supports a plurality of optical fibers. A terminal end of each optical fiber protrudes from the connector and extends into one of the apertures when the connector is coupled with the optical assembly.

  11. Optical emission from erbium-doped silica nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliman, R. G.; Wilkinson, A. R.; Kim, T.-H.; Sekhar, P. K.; Bhansali, S.

    2008-05-15

    Infrared optical emission from erbium-doped silica nanowires is shown to have property characteristic of the material nanostructure and to provide the basis for the fabrication of integrated photonic devices and biosensors. Silica nanowires of approximately 150 nm diameter were grown on a silicon wafer by metal-induced growth using a thin (20 nm) sputter-deposited palladium layer as a catalyst. The resulting wires were then ion implanted with 110 keV ErO{sup -} ions and annealed at 900 deg. C to optically activate the erbium. These wires exhibited photoluminescence emission at 1.54 {mu}m, characteristic of the {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}-{sup 4}I{sub 13/2} transition in erbium; however, comparison to similarly implanted fused silica layers revealed stronger thermal quenching and longer luminescence lifetimes in the nanowire samples. The former is attributed to an increase in defect-induced quenching partly due to the large surface-volume ratio of the nanowires, while the latter is attributed to a reduction in the optical density of states associated with the nanostructure morphology. Details of this behavior are discussed together with the implications for potential device applications.

  12. Direct and indirect capture of carriers into the lasing ground state and the light-current characteristic of quantum dot lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yuchang Asryan, Levon V.

    2014-03-14

    We calculate the light-current characteristic (LCC) of a quantum dot (QD) laser under the conditions of both direct and indirect capture of carriers from the optical confinement layer into the lasing ground state in QDs. We show that direct capture is a dominant process determining the ground-state LCC. Only when direct capture is slow, the role of indirect capture (capture into the QD excited state and subsequent intradot relaxation to the ground state) becomes important.

  13. Note: Recombination of H{sup +} and OH{sup -} ions along water wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Song Hi; Rasaiah, Jayendran C.

    2013-07-21

    Transport and recombination of hydrogen and hydroxide ions along a hydrogen-bonded water wire are studied by molecular dynamics simulation using a dissociating model for water. The results are compared with a recent CP-MD study of neutralization in bulk water [A. Hassanali, M. K. Prakrash, H. Eshet, and M. Parrinello, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 20410 (2011)]. The translocation of H{sup +} and OH{sup -} along the wire is faster than in the bulk water, followed by compression of the water wire when two water molecules separate the transported ions. Neutralization occurs with the concerted transfer of three protons as in the bulk water, followed by energy dissipation along the water chain.

  14. Manufacturing Process Development to Produce Depleted Uranium Wire for EBAM Feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander, David John; Clarke, Kester Diederik; Coughlin, Daniel Robert; Scott, Jeffrey E.

    2015-06-30

    Wire produced from depleted uranium (DU) is needed as feedstock for the Electron-Beam Additive Manufacturing (EBAM) process. The goal is to produce long lengths of DU wire with round or rectangular cross section, nominally 1.5 mm (0.060 inches). It was found that rolling methods, rather than swaging or drawing, are preferable for production of intermediate quantities of DU wire. Trials with grooveless rolling have shown that it is suitable for initial reductions of large stock. Initial trials with grooved rolling have been successful, for certain materials. Modified square grooves (square round-bottom vee grooves) with 12.5 % reduction of area per pass have been selected for the reduction process.

  15. Development of welding wire for high-purity austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, H.Y.; Sun, Z.

    1999-02-01

    High-purity austenitic stainless steels have been developed for nuclear fuel reprocessing applications. To produce nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, i.e., process vessels and pipeworks, welded joints are necessary, thus stimulating a need for filler metals. This paper discusses the development of a high-purity welding wire. As filler metal, such welding wire should provide not only good weldability, but should also be able to produce weldments having mechanical and corrosion properties equivalent to those of the base metal. According to these criteria, potential filler metals were evaluated. Based on this investigation, a high-purity austenitic stainless steel welding wire was developed that can be used to produce satisfactory weldments in terms of weldability, mechanical properties and, most importantly, corrosion properties.

  16. Mid-Atomic-Number Cylindrical Wire Array Precursor Plasma Studies on Zebra

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stafford, A; Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Weller, M. E.; Shrestha, I.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Chuvatin, A. S.

    2014-12-30

    The precursor plasmas from low wire number cylindrical wire arrays (CWAs) were previously shown to radiate at temperatures >300 eV for Ni-60 (94% Cu and 6% Ni) wires in experiments on the 1-MA Zebra generator. Continued research into precursor plasmas has studied additional midatomic-number materials including Cu and Alumel (95% Ni, 2% Al, 2% Mn, and 1% Si) to determine if the >300 eV temperatures are common for midatomic-number materials. Additionally, current scaling effects were observed by performing CWA precursor experiments at an increased current of 1.5 MA using a load current multiplier. Our results show an increase in amore » linear radiation yield of ~50% (16 versus 10 kJ/cm) for the experiments at increased current. However, plasma conditions inferred through the modeling of X-ray time-gated spectra are very similar for the precursor plasma in both current conditions.« less

  17. Non-Kondo zero-bias anomaly in disordered quantum wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Chong-Shian; Hsiao, J. H.; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-02-14

    We investigated the behavior of the zero-bias anomaly in quantum wires that were embedded with impurities. The linear conductance G can exhibit cusp features that evolve with the positions of the impurities, and these features can be continuously changed using a combination of spit-gate and top-gate voltages. ZBA is observed regardless of the presence of impurity. Kondo model is inadequate for describing the behaviors of both G and ZBA. Despite the presence of impurity scattering, various ZBA behaviors that resemble those reported in clean quantum wires can be observed. Our results suggest that ZBA is an intrinsic phenomenon in a quantum wire, and its temperature and magnetic field dependence does not pertain to the Kondo correlations in quantum dot.

  18. Experimental and Computational Studies of High Energy Density Plasma Streams Ablated from Fine Wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenly, John B.; Seyler, Charles

    2014-03-30

    Experimental and computational studies of high energy density plasma streams ablated from fine wires. Laboratory of Plasma Studies, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University. Principal Investigators: Dr. John B. Greenly and Dr. Charles E. Seyler. This report summarizes progress during the final year of this project to study the physics of high energy density (HED) plasma streams of 10^17-10^20/cm3 density and high velocity (~100-500 km/s). Such streams are produced from 5-250 micrometer diameter wires heated and ionized by a 1 MA, 250 ns current pulse on the COBRA pulsed power facility at Cornell University. Plasma is ablated from the wires and is driven away to high velocity by unbalanced JxB force. A wire, or an array of wires, can persist as an essentially stationary, continuous source of this streaming plasma for >200 ns, even with driving magnetic fields of many Tesla and peak current densities in the plasma of many MA/cm2. At the heart of the ablation stream generation is the continuous transport of mass from the relatively cold, near-solid-density wire "core" into current-carrying plasma within 1 mm of the wire, followed by the magnetic acceleration of that plasma and its trapped flux to form a directed stream. In the first two years of this program, an advancing understanding of ablation physics led to the discovery of several novel wire ablation experimental regimes. In the final year, one of these new HED plasma regimes has been studied in quantitative detail. This regime studies highly reproducible magnetic reconnection in strongly radiating plasma with supersonic and superalfvenic flow, and shock structures in the outflow. The key discovery is that very heavy wires, e.g. 250 micrometer diameter Al or 150 micrometer Cu, behave in a qualitatively different way than the lighter wires typically used in wire-array Z-pinches. Such wires can be configured to produce a static magnetic X-point null geometry that stores magnetic and

  19. Distributed Power Flow Control: Distributed Power Flow Control using Smart Wires for Energy Routing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-24

    GENI Project: Smart Wire Grid is developing a solution for controlling power flow within the electric grid to better manage unused and overall transmission capacity. The 300,000 miles of high-voltage transmission line in the U.S. today are congested and inefficient, with only around 50% of all transmission capacity utilized at any given time. Increased consumer demand should be met in part with more efficient and an economical power flow. Smart Wire Grid’s devices clamp onto existing transmission lines and control the flow of power within—much like how internet routers help allocate bandwidth throughout the web. Smart wires could support greater use of renewable energy by providing more consistent control over how that energy is routed within the grid on a real-time basis. This would lessen the concerns surrounding the grid’s inability to effectively store intermittent energy from renewables for later use.

  20. Mid-Atomic-Number Cylindrical Wire Array Precursor Plasma Studies on Zebra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stafford, A; Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Weller, M. E.; Shrestha, I.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Chuvatin, A. S.

    2014-12-30

    The precursor plasmas from low wire number cylindrical wire arrays (CWAs) were previously shown to radiate at temperatures >300 eV for Ni-60 (94% Cu and 6% Ni) wires in experiments on the 1-MA Zebra generator. Continued research into precursor plasmas has studied additional midatomic-number materials including Cu and Alumel (95% Ni, 2% Al, 2% Mn, and 1% Si) to determine if the >300 eV temperatures are common for midatomic-number materials. Additionally, current scaling effects were observed by performing CWA precursor experiments at an increased current of 1.5 MA using a load current multiplier. Our results show an increase in a linear radiation yield of ~50% (16 versus 10 kJ/cm) for the experiments at increased current. However, plasma conditions inferred through the modeling of X-ray time-gated spectra are very similar for the precursor plasma in both current conditions.

  1. Optical manifold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falicoff, Waqidi; Chaves, Julio C.; Minano, Juan Carlos; Benitez, Pablo; Dross, Oliver; Parkyn, Jr., William A.

    2010-02-23

    Optical systems are described that have at least one source of a beam of blue light with divergence under 15.degree.. A phosphor emits yellow light when excited by the blue light. A collimator is disposed with the phosphor and forms a yellow beam with divergence under 15.degree.. A dichroic filter is positioned to transmit the beam of blue light to the phosphor and to reflect the beam of yellow light to an exit aperture. In different embodiments, the beams of blue and yellow light are incident upon said filter with central angles of 15.degree., 22.degree., and 45.degree.. The filter may reflect all of one polarization and part of the other polarization, and a polarization rotating retroreflector may then be provided to return the unreflected light to the filter.

  2. Formation of nanometer-size wires using infiltration into latent nuclear tracks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musket, Ronald G. (Danville, CA); Felter, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Nanometer-size wires having a cross-sectional dimension of less than 8 nm with controllable lengths and diameters are produced by infiltrating latent nuclear or ion tracks formed in trackable materials with atomic species. The trackable materials and atomic species are essentially insoluble in each other, thus the wires are formed by thermally driven, self-assembly of the atomic species during annealing, or re-crystallization, of the damage in the latent tracks. Unlike conventional ion track lithography, the inventive method does not require etching of the latent tracks.

  3. Numerical Analysis of Parasitic Crossing Compensation with Wires in DA$\\Phi$NE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valishev, A.; Shatilov, D.; Milardi, C.; Zobov, M.

    2015-06-24

    Current-bearing wire compensators were successfully used in the 2005-2006 run of the DAΦNE collider to mitigate the detrimental effects of parasitic beam-beam interactions. A marked improvement of the positron beam lifetime was observed in machine operation with the KLOE detector. In view of the possible application of wire beam-beam compensators for the High Luminosity LHC upgrade, we revisit the DAΦNE experiments. We use an improved model of the accelerator with the goal to validate the modern simulation tools and provide valuable input for the LHC upgrade project.

  4. High strength, low carbon, dual phase steel rods and wires and process for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, Gareth; Nakagawa, Alvin H.

    1986-01-01

    A high strength, high ductility, low carbon, dual phase steel wire, bar or rod and process for making the same is provided. The steel wire, bar or rod is produced by cold drawing to the desired diameter in a single multipass operation a low carbon steel composition characterized by a duplex microstructure consisting essentially of a strong second phase dispersed in a soft ferrite matrix with a microstructure and morphology having sufficient cold formability to allow reductions in cross-sectional area of up to about 99.9%. Tensile strengths of at least 120 ksi to over 400 ksi may be obtained.

  5. Platinum atomic wire encapsulated in gold nanotubes: A first principle study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigam, Sandeep Majumder, Chiranjib; Sahoo, Suman K.; Sarkar, Pranab

    2014-04-24

    The nanotubes of gold incorporated with platinum atomic wire have been investigated by means of firstprinciples density functional theory with plane wave pseudopotential approximation. The structure with zig-zag chain of Pt atoms in side gold is found to be 0.73 eV lower in energy in comparison to straight chain of platinum atoms. The Fermi level of the composite tube was consisting of d-orbitals of Pt atoms. Further interaction of oxygen with these tubes reveals that while tube with zig-zag Pt prefers dissociative adsorption of oxygen molecule, the gold tube with linear Pt wire favors molecular adsorption.

  6. Promising Technology: Ground Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ground source heat pumps (GSHP) use the constant temperature of the Earth as the heat exchange medium instead of the outside air temperature. During the winter, a GSHP uses the ground as a heat source to provide heating, and during the summer, a GSHP uses the ground as a heat sink to provide cooling. Although more expensive than air-source heat pumps, GSHP’s are much more efficient, especially in cold temperatures.

  7. Ground Gravity Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Et Al., 2000) Dixie Valley Geothermal Area 1999 2000 Precise Gravimetry and Geothermal Reservoir Management Ground Gravity Survey At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Blackwell, Et...

  8. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Grounds Maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-08-05

    FEMP Water Efficiency Best Management Practice #4 and #5: Case study overview of the grounds maintenance program for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  9. Earth resistivity measurement near substation ground grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lodwig, S.G.; Mateja, S.A.

    1996-11-01

    Proper substation grounding grid design requires good, accurate soil resistivity measurements. This data is essential to model the substation ground grid to design a safe ground grid with a satisfactory ground grid resistance at minimum cost. For substations with several decades of service, there is some concern that a grid may have deteriorated, been damaged during equipment installation or excavation, or that initial soil resistivity measurements were lost or may not have been correctly performed. Ground grid conductors change the substation surface voltage distribution. Any voltage measurements taken at the complete substation will also vary from the tests made without conductors present. During testing, current was injected in the soil by probes placed near the ground grid. The current tends to follow the ground grid conductors since copper is a far better conductor than the soil it is placed in. Resistance readings near grids will be lower than readings in undisturbed soil. Since computer models were unavailable for many years, analyzing the effect of the grid conductors on soil resistivity measurements was very difficult. As a result, soil resistivity measurements made close to substations were of little use to the engineer unless some means of correcting the measured values could be developed. This paper will present results of soil resistivity measurements near a substation ground grid before and after a ground grid has been installed and describes a means of calculating the undisturbed soil model.

  10. Hydraulic pump with in-ground filtration and monitoring capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hopkins, Charles D.; Livingston, Ronald R.; Toole, Jr., William R.

    1996-01-01

    A hydraulically operated pump for in-ground filtering and monitoring of ws or other fluid sources, including a hollow cylindrical pump housing with an inlet and an outlet, filtering devices positioned in the inlet and the outlet, a piston that fits slidably within the pump housing, and an optical cell in fluid communication with the pump housing. A conduit within the piston allows fluid communication between the exterior and one end of the piston. A pair of o-rings form a seal between the inside of the pump housing and the exterior of the piston. A flow valve positioned within the piston inside the conduit allows fluid to flow in a single direction. In operation, fluid enters the pump housing through the inlet, flows through the conduit and towards an end of the pump housing. The piston then makes a downward stroke closing the valve, thus forcing the fluid out from the pump housing into the optical cell, which then takes spectrophotometric measurements of the fluid. A spring helps return the piston back to its starting position, so that a new supply of fluid may enter the pump housing and the downward stroke can begin again. The pump may be used independently of the optical cell, as a sample pump to transport a sample fluid from a source to a container for later analysis.

  11. Hydraulic pump with in-ground filtration and monitoring capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hopkins, C.D.; Livingston, R.R.; Toole, W.R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    A hydraulically operated pump is described for in-ground filtering and monitoring of wells or other fluid sources, including a hollow cylindrical pump housing with an inlet and an outlet, filtering devices positioned in the inlet and the outlet, a piston that fits slidably within the pump housing, and an optical cell in fluid communication with the pump housing. A conduit within the piston allows fluid communication between the exterior and one end of the piston. A pair of O-rings form a seal between the inside of the pump housing and the exterior of the piston. A flow valve positioned within the piston inside the conduit allows fluid to flow in a single direction. In operation, fluid enters the pump housing through the inlet, flows through the conduit and towards an end of the pump housing. The piston then makes a downward stroke closing the valve, thus forcing the fluid out from the pump housing into the optical cell, which then takes spectrophotometric measurements of the fluid. A spring helps return the piston back to its starting position, so that a new supply of fluid may enter the pump housing and the downward stroke can begin again. The pump may be used independently of the optical cell, as a sample pump to transport a sample fluid from a source to a container for later analysis.

  12. Hydraulic pump with in-ground filtration and monitoring capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hopkins, C.D.; Livingston, R.R.; Toole, W.R. Jr.

    1996-10-29

    A hydraulically operated pump is described for in-ground filtering and monitoring of waters or other fluid sources, includes a hollow cylindrical pump housing with an inlet and an outlet, filtering devices positioned in the inlet and the outlet, a piston that fits slidably within the pump housing, and an optical cell in fluid communication with the pump housing. A conduit within the piston allows fluid communication between the exterior and one end of the piston. A pair of o-rings form a seal between the inside of the pump housing and the exterior of the piston. A flow valve positioned within the piston inside the conduit allows fluid to flow in a single direction. In operation, fluid enters the pump housing through the inlet, flows through the conduit and towards an end of the pump housing. The piston then makes a downward stroke closing the valve, thus forcing the fluid out from the pump housing into the optical cell, which then takes spectrophotometric measurements of the fluid. A spring helps return the piston back to its starting position, so that a new supply of fluid may enter the pump housing and the downward stroke can begin again. The pump may be used independently of the optical cell, as a sample pump to transport a sample fluid from a source to a container for later analysis. 5 figs.

  13. Stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vadnais, Kenneth G.; Bashforth, Michael B.; Lewallen, Tricia S.; Nammath, Sharyn R.

    1994-01-01

    A stepped frequency ground penetrating radar system is described comprising an RF signal generating section capable of producing stepped frequency signals in spaced and equal increments of time and frequency over a preselected bandwidth which serves as a common RF signal source for both a transmit portion and a receive portion of the system. In the transmit portion of the system the signal is processed into in-phase and quadrature signals which are then amplified and then transmitted toward a target. The reflected signals from the target are then received by a receive antenna and mixed with a reference signal from the common RF signal source in a mixer whose output is then fed through a low pass filter. The DC output, after amplification and demodulation, is digitized and converted into a frequency domain signal by a Fast Fourier Transform. A plot of the frequency domain signals from all of the stepped frequencies broadcast toward and received from the target yields information concerning the range (distance) and cross section (size) of the target.

  14. Enclosed ground-flare incinerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiseman, Thomas R.

    2000-01-01

    An improved ground flare is provided comprising a stack, two or more burner assemblies, and a servicing port so that some of the burner assemblies can be serviced while others remain in operation. The burner assemblies comprise a burner conduit and nozzles which are individually fitted to the stack's burner chamber and are each removably supported in the chamber. Each burner conduit is sealed to and sandwiched between a waste gas inlet port and a matching a closure port on the other side of the stack. The closure port can be opened for physically releasing the burner conduit and supplying sufficient axial movement room for extracting the conduit from the socket, thereby releasing the conduit for hand removal through a servicing port. Preferably, the lower end of the stack is formed of one or more axially displaced lower tubular shells which are concentrically spaced for forming annular inlets for admitting combustion air. An upper tubular exhaust stack, similarly formed, admits additional combustion air for increasing the efficiency of combustion, increasing the flow of exhausted for improved atmospheric dispersion and for cooling the upper stack.

  15. Optical data latch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G. Allen

    2010-08-31

    An optical data latch is formed on a substrate from a pair of optical logic gates in a cross-coupled arrangement in which optical waveguides are used to couple an output of each gate to an photodetector input of the other gate. This provides an optical bi-stability which can be used to store a bit of optical information in the latch. Each optical logic gate, which can be an optical NOT gate (i.e. an optical inverter) or an optical NOR gate, includes a waveguide photodetector electrically connected in series with a waveguide electroabsorption modulator. The optical data latch can be formed on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate (e.g. an InP or GaAs substrate) from III-V compound semiconductor layers. A number of optical data latches can be cascaded to form a clocked optical data shift register.

  16. Optical absorption measurement system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Morton, Richard G.; Sawicki, Richard H.; Bissinger, Horst D.

    1989-01-01

    The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground based AOD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    measurements govCampaignsTwo-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground based AOD measurements ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) 2012.07.01, Berg, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground based AOD measurements 2012.05.20 - 2012.07.30 Lead Scientist : Phil Russell For data sets, see below. Abstract To anchor aerosol optical depth (AOD)

  18. Advanced Optical Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Advanced Optical Components and Technologies program develops, creates and provides critical optical components for laser-based missions at LLNL. Past projects focused on ...

  19. Optical extensometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Ray A.; Reich, Fred R.; Russell, James T.

    1978-01-01

    An optical extensometer is described using sequentially pulsed light beams for measuring the dimensions of objects by detecting two opposite edges of the object without contacting the object. The light beams may be of different distinguishable light characteristics, such as polarization or wave length, and are time modulated in an alternating manner at a reference frequency. The light characteristics are of substantially the same total light energy and are distributed symmetrically. In the preferred embodiment two light beam segments of one characteristic are on opposite sides of a middle segment of another characteristic. As a result, when the beam segments are scanned sequentially across two opposite edges of the object, they produce a readout signal at the output of a photoelectric detector that is compared with the reference signal by a phase comparator to produce a measurement signal with a binary level transition when the light beams cross an edge. The light beams may be of different cross sectional geometries, including two superimposed and concentric circular beam cross sections of different diameter, or two rectangular cross sections which intersect with each other substantially perpendicular so only their central portions are superimposed. Alternately, a row of three light beams can be used including two outer beams on opposite sides and separate from a middle beam. The three beams may all be of the same light characteristic. However it is preferable that the middle beam be of a different characteristic but of the same total energy as the two outer beams.

  20. Survey of Processing Methods for High Strength High Conductivity Wires for High Field Magnet Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, K.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-10-01

    This paper will deal with the basic concepts of attaining combination of high strength and high conductivity in pure materials, in-situ composites and macrocomposites. It will survey current attainments, and outline where some future developments may lie in developing wire products that are close to the theoretical strength of future magnet applications.

  1. All-Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition a-Si:H Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwaniczko, E.; Wang, Q.; Xu, Y.; Nelson, B. P.; Mahan, A. H.; Crandall, R. S.; Branz, H. M.

    2000-01-01

    Efficient hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) nip solar cells have been fabricated with all doped and undoped a-Si:H layers deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD). The total deposition time of all layers, except the top ITO-contact, is less than 4 minutes.

  2. A-Si:H solar cells deposited by the hot wire method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwaniczko, E.; Nelson, B.P.; Molenbroek, E.C.; Schropp, R.; Crandall, R.S.; Mahan, A.H. )

    1994-06-30

    We demonstrate the deposition of a hybrid a-Si:H solar cell in a new research reactor, where we deposit the doped layers by glow discharge and the intrinsic layer by hot wire. After only 10 depositions, we obtained solar cell conversion efficiencies of 7%. We are currently pursuing research avenues which we expect will lead to higher efficiencies.

  3. Plasma formation and dynamics in conical wire arrays in the Llampudken pulsed power generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muoz, C. Gonzalo E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl; Valenzuela, Vicente E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl; Veloso, Felipe E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl; Favre, Mario E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl; Wyndham, Edmund E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl

    2014-12-15

    Plasma formation and dynamics from conical wire array is experimentally studied. Ablation from the wires is observed, forming plasma accumulation at the array axis and subsequently a jet outflow been expelled toward the top of the array. The arrays are composed by 16 equally spaced 25? diameter tungsten wires. Their dimensions are 20mm height, with base diameters of 8mm and 16mm top diameter. The array loads are design to be overmassed, hence no complete ablation of the wires is observed during the current rise. The experiments have been carried out in the Llampudken. pulsed power generator (?350kA in ?350ns). Plasma dynamics is studied in both side-on and end-on directions. Laser probing (shadowgraphy) is achieved using a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (532nm, 12ps FWHM) captured by CCD cameras. Pinhole XUV imaging is captured using gated microchannel plate cameras with time resolution ?5ns. Results on the jet velocity and the degree of collimation indicating the plausibility on the use of these jets as comparable to the study astrophysically produced jets are presented and discussed.

  4. Discovery of a 210 -fiber texture in medical-grade metastable beta titanium wire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Song; Schaffer, Jeremy E.; Ren, Yang; Daymond, Mark R.

    2015-04-01

    The texture and phase evolution of metastable beta-III Ti alloy wires, produced in a medical-grade wire-processing facility, are examined via synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The texture development in the beta-phase was interpreted by a simple viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) modeling approach. Both the stress-induced martensite and stress-induced omega phase transformations are observed during the early stage of cold deformation. The < 1 1 0 >(beta) texture is gradually replaced by the < 2 1 0 >(beta) texture at cold work levels above 50% total area reduction or equivalently 0.70 axial true strain. Formation of the < 2 1 0 >(beta)-fiber from the combined activity of {1 1 2} and {3 3 2} twinning plus conventional slip is observed and may not directly depend upon the stress-induced phase per se. According to the VPSC model, similar texture should occur in other metastable beta-Ti alloys subjected to similar wire processing. These data should help inform process-structure-function towards better wire design in titanium-based medical devices. (C) 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  5. Investigation of radial wire arrays for inertial confinement fusion and radiation effects science.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serrano, Jason Dimitri; Bland, Simon Nicholas; McBride, Ryan D.; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul; Suzuki-Vidal, Francisco Andres; Jennings, Christopher A.; Hall, Gareth Neville; Ampleford, David J.; Peyton, Bradley Philip; Lebedev, Sergey V.; Cleveland, Monica; Rogers, Thomas John; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Jones, Brent Manley; Jones, Michael C.

    2010-02-01

    Radial wire arrays provide an alternative x-ray source for Z-pinch driven Inertial Confinement Fusion. These arrays, where wires are positioned radially outwards from a central cathode to a concentric anode, have the potential to drive a more compact ICF hohlraum. A number of experiments were performed on the 7MA Saturn Generator. These experiments studied a number of potential risks in scaling radial wire arrays up from the 1MA level, where they have been shown to provide similar x-ray outputs to larger diameter cylindrical arrays, to the higher current levels required for ICF. Data indicates that at 7MA radial arrays can obtain higher power densities than cylindrical wire arrays, so may be of use for x-ray driven ICF on future facilities. Even at the 7MA level, data using Saturn's short pulse mode indicates that a radial array should be able to drive a compact hohlraum to temperatures {approx}92eV, which may be of interest for opacity experiments. These arrays are also shown to have applications to jet production for laboratory astrophysics. MHD simulations require additional physics to match the observed behavior.

  6. Department of Energy`s Wire Development Workshop - Superconductivity program for electric systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    The 1996 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on January 31--February 1 at the Crown Plaza Tampa Westshore in Tampa, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Tampa Electric Company and sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. Tampa Electric`s Greg Ramon began the meeting by giving a perspective on the changes now occurring in the utility sector. Major program wire development accomplishments during the past year were then highlighted, particularly the world record achievements at Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories. The meeting then focussed on three priority technical issues: thallium conductors; AC losses in HTS conductors; and coated conductors on textured substrates. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss and critique the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  7. Optimization of a Non-arsenic Iron-based Superconductor for Wire Fabrication

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mitchell, Jonathan E; Hillesheim, D A; Bridges, Craig A; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Gofryk, Krzysztof; Rindfleisch, M; Tomsic, M; Safa-Sefat, Athena

    2015-03-13

    Here we report on the optimization of synthesis of iron selenide-based superconducting powders and the fabrication of selenide-based wire. The powders were synthesized by an ammonothermal method, whereby Ba is intercalated between FeSe layers to produce Bax(NH3)yFe2Se2, with tetragonal structure similar to AFe2X2 (X: As, Se), '122', superconductors. The optimal Tc (up to 38 K) and Meissner and shielding superconducting fractions are obtained from the shortest reaction time (t) of reactants in liquid ammonia (30 min). With the increase of t, a second crystalline 122 phase, with a smaller unit cell, emerges. A small amount of NH3 is released frommore » the structure above ~200 °C, which results in loss of superconductivity. However, in the confined space of niobium/Monel tubing, results indicate there is enough pressure for some of NH3 to remain in the crystal lattice, and thermal annealing can be performed at temperatures of up to 780 °C, increasing wire density and yielded a reasonable Tc ≈ 16 K. Here, we report of the first successful wire fabrication of non-arsenic high-Tc iron-based superconductor. We find that although bulk materials are estimated to carry critical current densities >100 kA cm₋2 (4 K, self-field), the current transport within wires need to be optimized (Jc ~ 1 kA cm₋2).« less

  8. Nuclear reactor fuel structure containing uranium alloy wires embedded in a metallic matrix plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Travelli, Armando

    1988-01-01

    A flat or curved plate structure, to be used as fuel in a nuclear reactor, comprises elongated fissionable wires or strips embedded in a metallic continuous non-fissionable matrix plate. The wires or strips are made predominantly of a malleable uranium alloy, such as uranium silicide, uranium gallide or uranium germanide. The matrix plate is made predominantly of aluminum or an aluminum alloy. The wires or strips are located in a single row at the midsurface of the plate, parallel with one another and with the length dimension of the plate. The wires or strips are separated from each other, and from the surface of the plate, by sufficient thicknesses of matrix material, to provide structural integrity and effective fission product retention, under neutron irradiation. This construction makes it safely feasible to provide a high uranium density, so that the uranium enrichment with uranium 235 may be reduced below about 20%, to deter the reprocessing of the uranium for use in nuclear weapons.

  9. Nuclear reactor fuel structure containing uranium alloy wires embedded in a metallic matrix plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Travelli, A.

    1985-10-25

    A flat or curved plate structure, to be used as fuel in a nuclear reactor, comprises elongated fissionable wires or strips embedded in a metallic continuous non-fissionable matrix plate. The wires or strips are made predominantly of a malleable uranium alloy, such as uranium silicide, uranium gallide or uranium germanide. The matrix plate is made predominantly of aluminum or an aluminum alloy. The wires or strips are located in a single row at the midsurface of the plate, parallel with one another and with the length dimension of the plate. The wires or strips are separated from each other, and from the surface of the plate, by sufficient thicknesses of matrix material, to provide structural integrity and effective fission product retention, under neutron irradiation. This construction makes it safely feasible to provide a high uranium density, so that the uranium enrichment with uranium 235 may be reduced below about 20%, to deter the reprocessing of the uranium for use in nuclear weapons.

  10. Low temperature junction growth using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qi; Page, Matthew; Iwaniczko, Eugene; Wang, Tihu; Yan, Yanfa

    2014-02-04

    A system and a process for forming a semi-conductor device, and solar cells (10) formed thereby. The process includes preparing a substrate (12) for deposition of a junction layer (14); forming the junction layer (14) on the substrate (12) using hot wire chemical vapor deposition; and, finishing the semi-conductor device.

  11. Final Technical Report: The Water-to-Wire (W2W) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lissner, Daniel N.; Edward, Lovelace C.

    2013-12-24

    The purpose of the Free Flow Power (FFP) Water-to-Wire Project (Project) was to evaluate and optimize the performance, environmental compatibility, and cost factors of FFP hydrokinetic turbines through design analyses and deployments in test flumes and riverine locations.

  12. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  13. Strategic Ground Delivery Services | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategic Ground Delivery Services Strategic Ground Delivery Services Use of New Strategically Source Agreement UPS.pdf.pdf (96.79 KB) More Documents & Publications POLICY FLASH 2010-42 Use of New Strategically Sourced Blanket Purchase Agreement for Domestic Delivery Services with United Parcel Service Minutes from the Print and Mail Managers Exchange Forum Teleconferences

  14. Improved Design of Optical MEMS Using the SUMMiT Fabrication Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michalicek, M.A.; Comtois, J.H.; Barron, C.C.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of optical Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) devices using the Sandia Ultra planar Multilevel MEMS Technology (SUMMiT) fabrication process. This state of the art process, offered by Sandia National Laboratories, provides unique and very advantageous features which make it ideal for optical devices. This enabling process permits the development of micromirror devices with near ideal characteristics which have previously been unrealizable in standard polysilicon processes. This paper describes such characteristics as elevated address electrodes, individual address wiring beneath the device, planarized mirror surfaces, unique post-process metallization, and the best active surface area to date.

  15. Optical NAND gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogen, Erik J.; Raring, James; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna

    2011-08-09

    An optical NAND gate is formed from two pair of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each pair of the optical waveguide devices consisting of an electroabsorption modulator and a photodetector. One pair of the optical waveguide devices is electrically connected in parallel to operate as an optical AND gate; and the other pair of the optical waveguide devices is connected in series to operate as an optical NOT gate (i.e. an optical inverter). The optical NAND gate utilizes two digital optical inputs and a continuous light input to provide a NAND function output. The optical NAND gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.

  16. Annual Coded Wire Tag Program; Missing Production Groups, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pastor, Stephen M.

    1997-01-01

    In 1989 the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began funding the evaluation of production groups of juvenile anadromous fish not being coded-wire tagged for other programs. These groups were the ''Missing Production Groups''. Production fish released by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) without representative coded-wire tags during the 1980's are indicated as blank spaces on the survival graphs in this report. The objectives of the ''Missing Production Groups'' program are: (1) to estimate the total survival of each production group, (2) to estimate the contribution of each production group to various fisheries, and (3) to prepare an annual report for all USFWS hatcheries in the Columbia River basin. Coded-wire tag recovery information will be used to evaluate the relative success of individual brood stocks. This information can also be used by salmon harvest managers to develop plans to allow the harvest of excess hatchery fish while protecting threatened, endangered, or other stocks of concern. In order to meet these objectives, a minimum of one marked group of fish is necessary for each production release. The level of marking varies according to location, species, and age at release. In general, 50,000 fish are marked with a coded-wire tag (CWT) to represent each production release group at hatcheries below John Day Dam. More than 100,000 fish per group are usually marked at hatcheries above John Day Dam. All fish release information, including marked/unmarked ratios, is reported to the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC). Fish recovered in the various fisheries or at the hatcheries are sampled to recover coded-wire tags. This recovery information is also reported to PSMFC.

  17. Annual Coded Wire Tag Program : Missing Production Groups, 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pastor, Stephen M.

    1995-12-01

    In 1989 the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began funding the evaluation of production groups of juvenile anadromous fish not being coded-wire tagged for other programs. These groups were the ''Missing Production Groups''. Production fish released by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) without representative coded-wire tags during the 1980's are indicated as blank spaces on the survival graphs in this report. The objectives of the ''Missing Production Groups'' program are: (1) to estimate the total survival of each production group, (2) to estimate the contribution of each production group to various fisheries, and (3) to prepare an annual report for all USFWS hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin. Coded-wire tag recovery information will be used to evaluate the relative success of individual brood stocks. It can also be used by salmon harvest managers to develop plans to allow the harvest of excess hatchery fish while protecting threatened or endangered stocks. In order to meet these objectives, a minimum of one marked group of fish is necessary for each production release. The level of marking varies according to location, species, and age at release. In general, 50,000 fish are marked with a coded-wire tag (CWT) to represent each production release group at hatcheries below John Day Dam. Between 120,000 and 200,000 fish are marked for groups at hatcheries above John Day Dam. All fish release information, including marked/unmarked ratios, is reported to the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC). Fish recovered in the various fisheries or at the hatcheries are sampled to recover coded-wire tags. This recovery information is also reported to PSMFC.

  18. Multi Optical Transition Radiation System for ATF2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alabau-Gonzalvo, Javier; /Valencia U., IFIC; Blanch Gutierrez, Cesar; /Valencia U., IFIC; Civera, Jose Vicente; /Valencia U., IFIC; Faus-Golfe, Angeles; /Valencia U., IFIC; Garcia-Garrigos, Juan; /Valencia U., IFIC; Cruz, Juan; /SLAC; McCormick, Douglas; /SLAC; White, Glen; /SLAC

    2012-07-13

    In this paper we describe the design, installation and first calibration tests of a Multi Optical Transition Radiation System in the beam diagnostic section of the Extraction (EXT) line of ATF2, close to the multi wire scanner system. This system will be a valuable tool for measuring beam sizes and emittances coming from the ATF Damping Ring. With an optical resolution of about 2 {micro}m an original OTR design (OTR1X) located after the septum at the entrance of the EXT line demonstrated the ability to measure a 5.5 {micro}m beam size in one beam pulse and to take many fast measurements. This gives the OTR the ability to measure the beam emittance with high statistics, giving a low error and a good understanding of emittance jitter. Furthermore the nearby wire scanners will be a definitive test of the OTR as a beam emittance diagnostic device. The multi-OTR system design proposed here is based on the existing OTR1X.

  19. McCullough to Liberty fiber optics project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The US Department of Energy, Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to replace an existing overhead static wire with a shield wire that contains optical fibers (OPGW) on transmission lines from McCullough Substation, south of Las Vegas, Nevada, to Liberty Substation near Phoenix, Arizona. The replacement will occur on the McCullough-Davis, Davis-Parker No. 2, and Parker-Liberty No. 1 230-kV transmission lines. Western is responsible for the operation and maintenance of the lines. Western prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) entitled ``McCullough to Liberty Fiber Optics Project`` (DOE/EA-1202). The EA contains the analysis of the proposed construction, operation, and maintenance of the OPGW. Based on the analysis in the EA, Western finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. The preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and therefore, Western is issuing this Findings of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  20. SPIE Optics + Photonics 2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SPIE Optics + Photonics 2011 August 21-25, 2011 San Diego Convention Center San Diego

  1. Finite-element analysis of transverse compressive and thermal loads on Nb3Sn wires with voids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhai, Y.; D'Hauthuille, L.; Barth, C.; Senatore, C.

    2016-02-29

    High-field superconducting magnets play a very important role in many large-scale physics experiments, particularly particle colliders and fusion confinement devices such as Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The two most common superconductors used in these applications are NbTi and Nb3Sn. Nb3Sn wires are favored because of their significantly higher Jc (critical current density) for higher field applications. The main disadvantage of Nb3Sn is that the superconducting performance of the wire is highly strain sensitive and it is very brittle. This strain sensitivity is strongly influenced by two factors: plasticity and cracked filaments. Cracks are inducedmore » by large stress concentrators that can be traced to the presence of voids in the wire. We develop detailed 2-D and 3-D finite-element models containing wire filaments and different possible distributions of voids in a bronze-route Nb3Sn wire. We apply compressive transverse loads for various cases of void distributions to simulate the stress and strain response of a Nb3Sn wire under the Lorentz force. Furthermore, this paper improves our understanding of the effect voids have on the Nb3Sn wire's mechanical properties, and in so, the connection between the distribution of voids and performance degradation such as the correlation between irreversible strain limit and the void-induced local stress concentrations.« less

  2. Optical XOR gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G. Allen

    2013-11-12

    An optical XOR gate is formed as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) from two sets of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each set of the optical waveguide devices including an electroabsorption modulator electrically connected in series with a waveguide photodetector. The optical XOR gate utilizes two digital optical inputs to generate an XOR function digital optical output. The optical XOR gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.

  3. Fiber optic connector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rajic, S.; Muhs, J.D.

    1996-10-22

    A fiber optic connector and method for connecting composite materials within which optical fibers are imbedded are disclosed. The fiber optic connector includes a capillary tube for receiving optical fibers at opposing ends. The method involves inserting a first optical fiber into the capillary tube and imbedding the unit in the end of a softened composite material. The capillary tube is injected with a coupling medium which subsequently solidifies. The composite material is machined to a desired configuration. An external optical fiber is then inserted into the capillary tube after fluidizing the coupling medium, whereby the optical fibers are coupled. 3 figs.

  4. Optical NOR gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogen, Erik J.; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna

    2011-09-06

    An optical NOR gate is formed from two pair of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each pair of the optical waveguide devices consisting of an electroabsorption modulator electrically connected in series with a waveguide photodetector. The optical NOR gate utilizes two digital optical inputs and a continuous light input to provide a NOR function digital optical output. The optical NOR gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.

  5. Quench degradation limit of multifilamentary AgBi2Sr2CaCu2Ox round wires

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ye, Liyang; Li, Pei; Shen, Tengming; Schwartz, Justin

    2016-02-02

    Understanding safe operating limits of composite superconducting wires is important for the design of superconducting magnets. Here we report measurements of quench-induced critical current density Jc degradation in commercial Ag/Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi-2212) round wires using heater-induced quenches at 4.2 K in self magnetic field that reveal a general degradation behavior. Jc degradation strongly depends on the local hot spot temperature Tmax, and is nearly independent of operating current, the temperature gradient along the conductor dTmax/dx, and the temperature rising rate dTmax/dt. Both Jc and n value (where n is an index of the sharpness of the superconductor-to-normal transition) exhibit small butmore » irreversible degradation when Tmax exceeds 400-450 K, and large degradation occurs when Tmax exceeds 550 K. This behavior was consistently found for a series of Bi-2212 wires with widely variable wire architectures and porosity levels in the Bi-2212 filaments, including a wire processed using a standard partial melt processing and in which Bi-2212 filaments are porous, an overpressure processed wire in which Bi-2212 filaments are nearly porosity-free and that has a Jc(4.2 K, self field) exceeding 8000 A/mm2, and a wire that has nearly no filament to filament bridges after reaction. Microstructural observations of degraded wires reveal cracks in the Bi-2212 filaments perpendicular to the wire axis, indicating that the quench-induced Ic degradation is primarily driven by strain. These results further suggest that the quench degradation temperature limit depends on the strain state of Bi-2212 filaments and this dependence shall be carefully considered when engineering a high-field Bi-2212 magnet.« less

  6. Ground Source Heat Pump Subprogram Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EGS Demonstration s, 51.4 Innovative Exploration Technologies, 98.1 Ground Source Heat Pumps, ... chiller, VAV air handling system, and gas-fired hot water boiler *54 GHP units, 200 ...

  7. Ground Source Heat Pumps | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    efficient when cooling your home. Not only does this save energy and money, it reduces air pollution. GSHP System Ground source heat pump systems consist of three parts: the...

  8. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  9. 118-K-1 Burial Ground - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    300 Area 324 Building 325 Building 400 AreaFast Flux Test Facility 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Grounds 700 Area B Plant B Reactor C Reactor Canister Storage Building and Interim ...

  10. Isotropically sensitive optical filter employing atomic resonance transitions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marling, John B.

    1981-01-01

    An ultra-high Q isotropically sensitive optical filter or optical detector employing atomic resonance transitions. More specifically, atomic resonance transitions utilized in conjunction with two optical bandpass filters provide an optical detector having a wide field of view (.about.2.pi. steradians) and very narrow acceptance bandwidth approaching 0.01 A. A light signal to be detected is transmitted through an outer bandpass filter into a resonantly absorbing atomic vapor, the excited atomic vapor then providing a fluorescence signal at a different wavelength which is transmitted through an inner bandpass filter. The outer and inner bandpass filters have no common transmission band, thereby resulting in complete blockage of all optical signals that are not resonantly shifted in wavelength by the intervening atomic vapor. Two embodiments are disclosed, one in which the light signal raises atoms contained in the atomic vapor from the ground state to an excited state from which fluorescence occurs, and the other in which a pump laser is used to raise the atoms in the ground state to a first excited state from which the light signal then is resonantly absorbed, thereby raising the atoms to a second excited state from which fluorescence occurs. A specific application is described in which an optical detector according to the present invention can be used as an underwater detector for light from an optical transmitter which could be located in an orbiting satellite.

  11. Natural radionuclides in ground waters and cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.; Maiti, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Investigations of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series in site-specific ground waters and cores (water/rock interaction) can provide information on the expected migration behavior of their radioactive waste and analog radionuclides in the unlikely event of radioactive releases from a repository. These data in ground waters can provide in situ retardation and sorption/desorption parameters for transport models and their associated kinetics (residence time). These data in cores can also provide information on migration or leaching up to a period of about one million years. Finally, the natural radionuclide data can provide baseline information for future monitoring of possible radioactive waste releases. The natural radionuclides of interest are {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi, {sup 210}Po, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, and {sup 224}Ra. The half-lives of the daughter radionuclides range from 3 days to 2.5 x 10{sup 5} yr. The data discussed are for low ionic strength ground waters from the Hanford (basalt) site and briny ground waters (high ionic strength) and cores from the Deaf Smith salt site. Similar applications of the natural radionuclide data can be extended to the Nevada Tuff repository site and subseabed disposal site. The concentrations of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium radionuclides are generally very low in ground waters. However, significant differences in disequilibrium exist between basalt and briny ground waters.

  12. Band filling effects on temperature performance of intermediate band quantum wire solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunets, Vas. P. Furrow, C. S.; Ware, M. E.; Souza, L. D. de; Benamara, M.; Salamo, G. J.; Mortazavi, M.

    2014-08-28

    Detailed studies of solar cell efficiency as a function of temperature were performed for quantum wire intermediate band solar cells grown on the (311)A plane. A remotely doped one-dimensional intermediate band made of self-assembled In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}As quantum wires was compared to an undoped intermediate band and a reference p-i-n GaAs sample. These studies indicate that the efficiencies of these solar cells depend on the population of the one-dimensional band by equilibrium free carriers. A change in this population by free electrons under various temperatures affects absorption and carrier transport of non-equilibrium carriers generated by incident light. This results in different efficiencies for both the doped and undoped intermediate band solar cells in comparison with the reference GaAs p-i-n solar cell device.

  13. Wire like link for cycle reproducible and cycle accurate hardware accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Asaad, Sameh; Kapur, Mohit; Parker, Benjamin D

    2015-04-07

    First and second field programmable gate arrays are provided which implement first and second blocks of a circuit design to be simulated. The field programmable gate arrays are operated at a first clock frequency and a wire like link is provided to send a plurality of signals between them. The wire like link includes a serializer, on the first field programmable gate array, to serialize the plurality of signals; a deserializer on the second field programmable gate array, to deserialize the plurality of signals; and a connection between the serializer and the deserializer. The serializer and the deserializer are operated at a second clock frequency, greater than the first clock frequency, and the second clock frequency is selected such that latency of transmission and reception of the plurality of signals is less than the period corresponding to the first clock frequency.

  14. Simulations of beam-beam and beam-wire interactions in RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyung J.; Sen, Tanaji; Abreu, Natalia P.; Fischer, Wolfram; /Brookhaven

    2009-02-01

    The beam-beam interaction is one of the dominant sources of emittance growth and luminosity lifetime deterioration. A current carrying wire has been proposed to compensate long-range beam-beam effects in the LHC and strong localized long-range beam-beam effects are experimentally investigated in the RHIC collider. Tune shift, beam transfer function, and beam loss rate are measured in dedicated experiments. In this paper, they report on simulations to study the effect of beam-wire interactions based on diffusive apertures, beam loss rates, and beam transfer function using a parallelized weak-strong beam simulation code (BBSIMC). The simulation results are compared with measurements performed in RHIC during 2007 and 2008.

  15. Apparatus and method for pulsed laser deposition of materials on wires and pipes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Felix E.

    2003-01-01

    Methods and apparatuses are disclosed which allow uniform coatings to be applied by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on inner and outer surfaces of cylindrical objects, such as rods, pipes, tubes, and wires. The use of PLD makes this technique particularly suitable for complex multicomponent materials, such as superconducting ceramics. Rigid objects of any length, i.e., pipes up to a few meters, and with diameters from less than 1 centimeter to over 10 centimeters can be coated using this technique. Further, deposition is effected simultaneously onto an annular region of the pipe wall. This particular arrangement simplifies the apparatus, reduces film uniformity control difficulties, and can result in faster operation cycles. In addition, flexible wires of any length can be continuously coated using the disclosed invention.

  16. Application of active quenching of second generation wire for current limiting

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Li, Qiang

    2015-10-19

    Superconducting fault current limiters (SFCL's) are increasingly implemented in the power grid as a protection of substation equipment from fault currents. Resistive SFCL's are compact and light, however they are passively triggered and thus may not be sufficiently sensitive to respond to faults in the distribution grid. Here, we explore the prospect of adding an active management feature to a traditional resistive SFCL. A flexible radio-frequency coil, which is an integral part of the switching structure, acts as a triggering device. We show that the application of a short, 10 ms, burst of ac magnetic field during the fault triggersmore » a uniform quench of the wire and significantly reduces the reaction time of the wire at low currents. The ac field burst generates a high density of normal zones, which merge into a continuous resistive region at a rate much faster than that of sparse normal zones created by the transport current alone.« less

  17. Application of active quenching of second generation wire for current limiting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Li, Qiang

    2015-10-19

    Superconducting fault current limiters (SFCL's) are increasingly implemented in the power grid as a protection of substation equipment from fault currents. Resistive SFCL's are compact and light, however they are passively triggered and thus may not be sufficiently sensitive to respond to faults in the distribution grid. Here, we explore the prospect of adding an active management feature to a traditional resistive SFCL. A flexible radio-frequency coil, which is an integral part of the switching structure, acts as a triggering device. We show that the application of a short, 10 ms, burst of ac magnetic field during the fault triggers a uniform quench of the wire and significantly reduces the reaction time of the wire at low currents. The ac field burst generates a high density of normal zones, which merge into a continuous resistive region at a rate much faster than that of sparse normal zones created by the transport current alone.

  18. Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope Adaptive Optics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Systems You are accessing a ...

  19. Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope Adaptive Optics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ThesisDissertation: Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope ...

  20. Transportation and storage infrastructure-the networks of pipelines, wires, st

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and storage infrastructure-the networks of pipelines, wires, storage, waterways, railroads, and other facilities-form the backbone of our energy system. Ensuring the resilience, reliability, safety, and security of transmission, storage, and distribution (TS&D) infrastructure is a national priority and vital to American competiveness, jobs, energy security, and a clean energy future. To address the challenge of an expanding and aging transportation and storage infrastructure, investments by

  1. Growth of epitaxial silicon at low temperatures using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thiesen, J.; Iwaniczko, E.; Jones, K.M.; Mahan, A.; Crandall, R.

    1999-08-01

    We demonstrate epitaxial silicon growth of 8 {Angstrom}/s at temperatures as low as 195&hthinsp;{degree}C, using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition. Characterization by transmission electron microscopy shows epitaxial layers of Si. We briefly discuss various aspects of the process parameter space. Finally, we consider differences in the chemical kinetics of this process when compared to other epitaxial deposition techniques. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Annual Stock Assessment - CWT [Coded Wire Tag program] (USFWS), Annual Report 2007.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pastor, Stephen M.

    2009-07-21

    In 1989 the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began funding the evaluation of production groups of juvenile anadromous fish not being coded-wire tagged for other programs. These groups were the 'Missing Production Groups'. Production fish released by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) without representative coded-wire tags during the 1980s are indicated as blank spaces on the survival graphs in this report. This program is now referred to as 'Annual Stock Assessment - CWT'. The objectives of the 'Annual Stock Assessment' program are to: (1) estimate the total survival of each production group, (2) estimate the contribution of each production group to fisheries, and (3) prepare an annual report for USFWS hatcheries in the Columbia River basin. Coded-wire tag recovery information will be used to evaluate the relative success of individual brood stocks. This information can also be used by salmon harvest managers to develop plans to allow the harvest of excess hatchery fish while protecting threatened, endangered, or other stocks of concern. All fish release information, including marked/unmarked ratios, is reported to the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC). Fish recovered in the various fisheries or at the hatcheries are sampled to recover coded-wire tags. This recovery information is also reported to PSMFC. This report has been prepared annually starting with the report labeled 'Annual Report 1994'. Although the current report has the title 'Annual Report 2007', it was written in fall of 2008 using data available from RMIS that same year, and submitted as final in January 2009. The main objective of the report is to evaluate survival of groups which have been tagged under this ongoing project.

  3. Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) technologies: Rapid, controllable growth of epitaxial silicon films

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2013-12-27

    NREL scientists have discovered a unique way to quickly grow epitaxial Si using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD), which holds the potential to greatly decrease costs within the manufacturing of Si substrates.  With NREL’s HWCVD technology, Si material use and costs are dramatically reduced with scalable manufacturing and lower deposition temperatures.  NREL’s unique HWCVD technique can easily be integrated into existing manufacturing processes, allowing...

  4. Latching micro optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A

    2013-05-21

    An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.

  5. Femtosecond optical clock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagaev, Sergei N; Denisov, Vladimir I; Zakharyash, Valerii F; Kashirsky, Aleksandr V; Klementyev, Vasilii M; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Korel', I I; Pivtsov, V S

    2004-12-31

    New advances in the field of synthesis of optical frequencies and the development of a new generation of optical clocks are considered. The use of mode-locked femtosecond lasers and fibre emission-spectrum stretchers allows the synthesis of any frequencies (from radio-frequencies to the UV region) and drastically simplifies the structure of an optical clock. The schemes of femtosecond optical clock are presented and the application of tapered optical fibres in them is described. (optical metrology and quantum frequency standards)

  6. Tests of a single-wire drift chamber for possible use in low intensity beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haggerty, H.

    1986-02-01

    A single cell drift chamber with two dimensional readout has been evaluated as a candidate for reliable and inexpensive momentum tagging of low intensity calibration beams. Charges induced on shaped cathode pads allow a measurement of the coordinate parallel to the wire, while the drift time allows a measurement of the coordinate perpendicular to the wire. Two chamber orientations were used during the tests. In one the chambers were arranged with their wires parallel. In this case the intrinsic resolution of the chambers was measured; the top and bottom cells were used to define a track coordinate and this was compared to the coordinate in the middle chamber. To see if either of the two coordinate measurements is linear in real space, the chambers were rearranged to the second orientation, with the middle chamber rotated 90/sup 0/. The drift time was plotted against the charge ratio. The conclusion drawn from this study is that while the drift time measurement has adequate resolution, the charge ratio measurement is not a viable option for beam line use. (LEW)

  7. Directed nanoscale self-assembly of molecular wires interconnecting nodal points using Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boscoboinik, A. M.; Manzi, S. J.; Tysoe, W. T.; Pereyra, V. D.; Boscoboinik, J. A.

    2015-09-10

    The influence of directing agents in the self-assembly of molecular wires to produce two-dimensional electronic nanoarchitectures is studied here using a Monte Carlo approach to simulate the effect of arbitrarily locating nodal points on a surface, from which the growth of self-assembled molecular wires can be nucleated. This is compared to experimental results reported for the self-assembly of molecular wires when 1,4-phenylenediisocyanide (PDI) is adsorbed on Au(111). The latter results in the formation of (Au-PDI)n organometallic chains, which were shown to be conductive when linked between gold nanoparticles on an insulating substrate. The present study analyzes, by means of stochastic methods, the influence of variables that affect the growth and design of self-assembled conductive nanoarchitectures, such as the distance between nodes, coverage of the monomeric units that leads to the formation of the desired architectures, and the interaction between the monomeric units. As a result, this study proposes an approach and sets the stage for the production of complex 2D nanoarchitectures using a bottom-up strategy but including the use of current state-of-the-art top-down technology as an integral part of the self-assembly strategy.

  8. Directed nanoscale self-assembly of molecular wires interconnecting nodal points using Monte Carlo simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Boscoboinik, A. M.; Manzi, S. J.; Tysoe, W. T.; Pereyra, V. D.; Boscoboinik, J. A.

    2015-09-10

    The influence of directing agents in the self-assembly of molecular wires to produce two-dimensional electronic nanoarchitectures is studied here using a Monte Carlo approach to simulate the effect of arbitrarily locating nodal points on a surface, from which the growth of self-assembled molecular wires can be nucleated. This is compared to experimental results reported for the self-assembly of molecular wires when 1,4-phenylenediisocyanide (PDI) is adsorbed on Au(111). The latter results in the formation of (Au-PDI)n organometallic chains, which were shown to be conductive when linked between gold nanoparticles on an insulating substrate. The present study analyzes, by means of stochasticmore » methods, the influence of variables that affect the growth and design of self-assembled conductive nanoarchitectures, such as the distance between nodes, coverage of the monomeric units that leads to the formation of the desired architectures, and the interaction between the monomeric units. As a result, this study proposes an approach and sets the stage for the production of complex 2D nanoarchitectures using a bottom-up strategy but including the use of current state-of-the-art top-down technology as an integral part of the self-assembly strategy.« less

  9. Primary experimental results of wire-array Z-pinches on PTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, X. B. Zhou, S. T. Ren, X. D. Dan, J. K. Wang, K. L. Zhang, S. Q. Li, J. Xu, Q. Cai, H. C. Duan, S. C. Ouyang, K. Chen, G. H. Ji, C. Wang, M. Feng, S. P. Yang, L. B. Xie, W. P. Deng, J. J.

    2014-12-15

    The Primary Test Stand (PTS) developed at the China Academy of Engineering Physics is a multiterawatt pulsed power driver, which can deliver a ∼10 MA, 70 ns rise-time (10%-90%) current to a short circuit load and has important applications in Z-pinch driven inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics. In this paper, primary results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch experiments on PTS are presented. The load geometries investigated include 15-mm-tall cylindrical single and nested arrays with diameter ranging from 14.4-26.4 mm, and consisting of 132∼276 tungsten wires with 5∼10 μm in diameter. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to determine the characteristics of x-ray radiations and to obtain self-emitting images of imploding plasmas. X-ray power up to 80 TW with ∼3 ns FWMH is achieved by using nested wire arrays. The total x-ray energy exceeds 500 kJ and the peak radiation temperature is about 150 eV. Typical velocity of imploding plasmas goes around 3∼5×10{sup 7} cm/s and the radial convergence ratio is between 10 and 20.

  10. Active optical zoom system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  11. Microarcsecond relative astrometry from the ground with a diffractive...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ground with a diffractive pupil Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microarcsecond relative astrometry from the ground with a diffractive pupil Authors: Ammons, S M ; ...

  12. Ground Gravity Survey At Clear Lake Area (Skokan, 1993) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Clear Lake Area (Skokan, 1993) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At Clear Lake Area...

  13. Ground Gravity Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1980) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1980) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At Coso Geothermal...

  14. Ground Gravity Survey At Crump's Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Crump's Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At Crump's Hot...

  15. Ground Gravity Survey At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Biehler...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Biehler, 1964) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At...

  16. Ground Gravity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey...

  17. Ground Gravity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (FURUMOTO...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (FURUMOTO, 1976) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey...

  18. Ground Gravity Survey At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At Snake River...

  19. Ground Gravity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey...

  20. Ground Gravity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Broyles...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Broyles, Et Al., 1979) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity...

  1. An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model for Yucca Mountain. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water ...

  2. Department of Veterans Affairs, FONSI - Ground mounted solar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ground mounted solar photovoltaic power at San Joaquin National Cemetery Department of Veterans Affairs, FONSI - Ground mounted solar photovoltaic power at San Joaquin National ...

  3. Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems Project objective: Create a new ...

  4. Montana Ground Water Pollution Control System Permit Application...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Water Pollution Control System Permit Application Forms Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Ground Water Pollution...

  5. Montana Ground Water Pollution Control System Information Webpage...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Water Pollution Control System Information Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Ground Water Pollution Control System...

  6. EPA - Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection Control...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection Control Program) webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: EPA - Ground Water...

  7. Data Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects Data Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects Comparison of building energy use before and after ...

  8. Category:Ground Electromagnetic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Electromagnetic Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Ground Electromagnetic Techniques page? For...

  9. FIELD TEST AND EVALUATION OF RESIDENTIAL GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    TEST AND EVALUATION OF RESIDENTIAL GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS USING ALTERNATIVE VERTICAL-BORE GROUND HEAT EXCHANGERS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: FIELD TEST AND ...

  10. 2012 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 2012 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring ...

  11. Water Quality Surface and Ground | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Quality Surface and Ground Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWaterQualitySurfaceandGround&oldid612197" Feedback...

  12. ''Atomic Optics'': Nonimaging Optics on the Nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roland Winston Joseph O'Gallagher

    2005-01-15

    This is the final report for a one year close out extension of our basic research program that was established at the University of Chicago more than sixteen years ago to explore and develop the optical sub-discipline that has come to be known as ''nonimaging optics''. This program has been extremely fruitful, having both broadened the range of formalism available for workers in this field and led to the discovery of many new families of optical devices. These devices and techniques have applications wherever the efficient transport and transformation of light distributions are important, in particular in illumination, fiber optics, collection and concentration of sunlight, and the detection of faint light signals in physics and astrophysics. Over the past thirty years, Nonimaging Optics (Welford and Winston, 1989) has brought a fresh approach to the analysis of many problems in classical macro-scale optics. Through the application of phase-space concepts, statistical methods, thermodynamic arguments, etc., many previously established performance limits were able to be broken and many technical surprises with exciting practical applications were discovered. The most recent three-year phase of our long-term continuing program ended in late 2002 and emphasized extending our work in geometrical optics and expanding it to include some interesting questions in physical optics as well as in the new field of statistical optics. This report presents a survey of the basic history and concepts of nonimaging optics and reviews highlights and significant accomplishments over the past fifteen years. This is followed by a more detailed summary of recent research directions and accomplishments during the last three years. This most recent phase was marked by the broadening in scope to include a separate project involving a collaboration with an industrial partner, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). This effort was proposed and approved in 1998 and was

  13. High bandwidth optical mount

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, D.A.; Kuklo, T.

    1994-11-08

    An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage. 5 figs.

  14. High bandwidth optical mount

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, Donald A.; Kuklo, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage.

  15. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  16. Reflective optical imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R.

    2000-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  17. Fiber optic micro accelerometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P.

    2005-07-26

    An accelerometer includes a wafer, a proof mass integrated into the wafer, at least one spring member connected to the proof mass, and an optical fiber. A Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by a partially reflective surface on the proof mass and a partially reflective surface on the end of the optical fiber. The two partially reflective surfaces are used to detect movement of the proof mass through the optical fiber, using an optical detection system.

  18. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, Richard; Kotter, Dale

    1994-01-01

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

  19. Optical analog data link with simple self-test feature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Witkover, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    A communications circuit for optically transmitting analog data signals free of excessive ripple, while having rapid response time. The invention is further characterized by being adapted to provide an immediate indication of the failure of the optical transmission link of the circuit. Commerically available voltage to frequency converter chips are used in conjunction with suitable wiring arrays and in combination with readily available indicator means for constructing the communication circuit of the invention. A V/F converter in the communications circuit is coupled to an offset adjustment means to cause the converter to continuously produce a string of output voltage pulses having a frequency of about 1Khz responsive to the input analog signal to the converter being zero. The continuous presence of the 1Khz frequency on the optical transmission link is monitored at the receiving end of the communication circuit and the indicator means is connected to immediately provide an easily detected indication of a failure of the optical transmission link to transmit the 1Khz frequency pulses.

  20. Subsea fiber optic communications for production control and data acquisition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    High, G.; Wright, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    The trend to reduce topside facilities and the frequent use of subsea completions over extended step-out distances has increased the volume and complexity of subsea data communications beyond the capacity of conventional systems. Improved reservoir management using intelligent sensors, metering and process equipment, requiring real-time monitoring and control, dictates the use of wideband communication. Fiber optics offers the necessary volume of data transmission, with the high noise immunity needed for data integrity and safety, for the severe EMI environments created where motors and power cables are used. The system uses conventional optical fiber conductors with 1,550 nm laser generated optical pulses as the information carrier. Data rates of 2.0 Mb/s are achievable, unrepeated, over distances in excess of 100 Km, with extremely low error rates,. Equipment and installation costs will be comparable with current hard-wired technology, demonstrating that single mode optical communication is a technically and commercially feasible, and reliable, alternative to existing electrical systems.

  1. Optical analog data link with simple self-test feature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Witkover, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    A communications circuit for optically transmitting analog data signals free of excessive ripple, while having rapid response time. The invention is further characterized by being adapted to provide an immediate indication of the failure of the optical transmission link of the circuit. Commercially available voltage to frequency converter chips are used in conjunction with suitable wiring arrays and in combination with readily available indicator means for constructing the communication circuit of the invention. A V/F converter in the communications circuit is coupled to an offset adjustment means to cause the converter to continuously produce a string of output voltage pulses having a frequency of about 1 Khz responsive to the input analog signal to the converter being zero. The continuous presence of the 1 Khz frequency on the optical transmission link is monitored at the receiving end of the communication circuit and the indicator means is connected to immediately provide an easily detected indication of a failure of the optical transmission link to transmit the 1 Khz frequency pulses.

  2. Substation grounding programs. Volume 5, Applications manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meliopoulos, A.P.S.

    1992-05-01

    This document is a users manual and applications guide for the software package SGA. This package comprises four computer programs, namely SOMIP, SMECC, SGSYS, and TGRND. The first three programs are analysis models which are to be used in the design process of substation grounding systems. The fourth program, TGRND, is an analysis program for determining the transient response of a grounding system. This report, Volume 5, is an applications guide of the three computer programs. SOMIP, SMECC, and SGSYS, for the purpose of designing a safe substation grounding system. The applications guide utilizes four example substation grounding systems for the purpose of illustrating the application of the programs, SOMIP, SMECC, and SGSYS. The examples are based on data provided by four contributing utilities, namely, Houston Lighting and Power Company, Southern Company Services, Puget Sound Power and Light Company, and Arizona Public Service Company. For the purpose of illustrating specific capabilities of the computer programs, the data have been modified. As a result, the final designs of the four systems do not necessarily represent actual grounding system designs by these utilities. The example system 1 is a 138 kV/35 kV distribution substation. The example system 2 is a medium size 230 kV/115 kV transmission substation. The third example system is a generation substation while the last is a large 525 kV/345 kV/230 kV transmission substation. The four examples cover most of the practical problems that a user may encounter in the design of substation grounding systems.

  3. Nikon PTIPHOT-88 Optical Microscope

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OPTIPHOT-88 Optical Microscope micro1.jpg (69171 bytes)

  4. Isotropically sensitive optical filter employing atomic resonance transitions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marling, J.B.

    An ultra-high Q isotropically sensitive optical filter or optical detector is disclosed employing atomic resonance transitions. More specifically, atomic resonance transitions utilized in conjunction with two optical bandpass filters provide an optical detector having a wide field of view (approx. 2 ..pi.. steradians) and very narrow acceptance bandwidth approaching 0.01A. A light signal to be detected is transmitted through an outer bandpass filter into a resonantly absorbing atomic vapor, the excited atomic vapor than providing a fluorescence signal at a different wavelength which is transmitted through an inner bandpass filters have no common transmission band, therby resulting in complete blockage of all optical signals that are not resonantly shifted in wavelength by the intervening atomic vapor. Two embodiments are disclosed, one in which the light signal raises atoms contained in the atomic vapor from the ground state to an excited state from which fluorescence occurs, and the other in which a pump laser is used to raise the atoms in the ground state to a first excited state from which the light signal then is resonantly absorbed, thereby raising the atoms to a second excited state from which fluorescence occurs. A specific application is described in which an optical detector according to the present invention can be located in an orbiting satellite.

  5. Ground Control for Emplacement Drifts for SR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Sun

    2000-04-07

    This analysis demonstrates that a satisfactory ground control system can be designed for the Yucca Mountain site, and provides the technical basis for the design of ground support systems to be used in repository emplacement and non-emplacement drifts. The repository ground support design was based on analytical methods using acquired computer codes, and focused on the final support systems. A literature review of case histories, including the lessons learned from the design and construction of the ESF, the studies on the seismic damages of underground openings, and the use of rock mass classification systems in the ground support design, was conducted (Sections 6.3.4 and 6.4). This review provided some basis for determining the inputs and methodologies used in this analysis. Stability of the supported and unsupported emplacement and non-emplacement drifts was evaluated in this analysis. The excavation effects (i.e., state of the stress change due to excavation), thermal effects (i.e., due to heat output from waste packages), and seismic effects (i.e., from potential earthquake events) were evaluated, and stress controlled modes of failure were examined for two in situ stress conditions (k_0=0.3 and 1.0) using rock properties representing rock mass categories of 1 and 5. Variation of rock mass units such as the non-lithophysal (Tptpmn) and lithophysal (Tptpll) was considered in the analysis. The focus was on the non-lithophysal unit because this unit appears to be relatively weaker and has much smaller joint spacing. Therefore, the drift stability and ground support needs were considered to be controlled by the design for this rock unit. The ground support systems for both emplacement and non-emplacement drifts were incorporated into the models to assess their performance under in situ, thermal, and seismic loading conditions. Both continuum and discontinuum modeling approaches were employed in the analyses of the rock mass behavior and in the evaluation of the

  6. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  7. Fiber optic vibration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, J.B.; Muhs, J.D.; Tobin, K.W.

    1995-01-10

    A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity. 2 figures.

  8. Fiber optic vibration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, Joseph B.; Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Tobin, Kenneth W.

    1995-01-01

    A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity.

  9. Omnidirectional fiber optic tiltmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.

    1983-06-30

    A tiltmeter is provided which is useful in detecting very small movements such as earth tides. The device comprises a single optical fiber, and an associated weight affixed thereto, suspended from a support to form a pendulum. A light source, e.g., a light emitting diode, mounted on the support transmits light through the optical fiber to a group of further optical fibers located adjacent to but spaced from the free end of the single optical fiber so that displacement of the single optical fiber with respect to the group will result in a change in the amount of light received by the individual optical fibers of the group. Photodetectors individually connectd to the fibers produce corresponding electrical outputs which are differentially compared and processed to produce a resultant continuous analog output representative of the amount and direction of displacement of the single optical fiber.

  10. Record of Decision for Ground Water | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Record of Decision for Ground Water Record of Decision for Ground Water Record of Decision for Ground Water (April 1997) Record of Decision for Ground Water (625.12 KB) More Documents & Publications EIS-0198: Record of Decision EIS-0170: Record of Decision (April 1997) EIS-0251: Second Record of Decision (May 1997)

  11. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavrova, Olga; Flicker, Jack David; Johnson, Jay

    2016-01-01

    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  12. CX-010891: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Archer-Stegall 230-Kilovolt Fiber Optic Ground Wire Addition CX(s) Applied: B4.7 Date: 08/20/2013 Location(s): Nebraska, Nebraska Offices(s): Western Area Power Administration-Rocky Mountain Region

  13. Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

    1991-03-30

    Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

  14. Photovoltaic module mounting clip with integral grounding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2010-08-24

    An electrically conductive mounting/grounding clip, usable with a photovoltaic (PV) assembly of the type having an electrically conductive frame, comprises an electrically conductive body. The body has a central portion and first and second spaced-apart arms extending from the central portion. Each arm has first and second outer portions with frame surface-disrupting element at the outer portions.

  15. Superconductive wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korzekwa, D.A.; Bingert, J.F.; Peterson, D.E.; Sheinberg, H.

    1995-07-18

    A superconductive article is made by inserting a rigid mandrel into an internal cavity of a first metallic tube, said tube having an interior surface and an exterior surface, said interior surface defining the interior cavity, forming a layer of a superconductive material or superconductive precursor upon the exterior surface of said first metallic tube, machining the layer of superconductive material or superconductive precursor to a predetermined diameter to form an intermediate article configured for insertion into a second metallic tube having an interior diameter corresponding to the predetermined diameter, inserting the machined intermediate article into a second metallic tube having an internal diameter corresponding to the predetermined diameter of the intermediate article to form a composite intermediate article, reducing or ironing the composite intermediate article to a predetermined cross-sectional diameter, and sintering the reduced or ironed composite intermediate article at temperatures and for time sufficient for the superconductive material or superconductive precursor to exhibit superconductivity. 2 figs.

  16. Superconductive wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korzekwa, David A.; Bingert, John F.; Peterson, Dean E.; Sheinberg, Haskell

    1995-01-01

    A superconductive article is made by inserting a rigid mandrel into an internal cavity of a first metallic tube, said tube having an interior surface and an exterior surface, said interior surface defining the interior cavity, forming a layer of a superconductive material or superconductive precursor upon the exterior surface of said first metallic tube, machining the layer of superconductive material or superconductive precursor to a predetermined diameter to form an intermediate article configured for insertion into a second metallic tube having an interior diameter corresponding to the predetermined diameter, inserting the machined intermediate article into a second metallic tube having an internal diameter corresponding to the predetermined diameter of the intermediate article to form a composite intermediate article, reducing or ironing the composite intermediate article to a predetermined cross-sectional diameter, and sintering the reduced or ironed composite intermediate article at temperatures and for time sufficient for the superconductive material or superconductive precursor to exhibit superconductivity.

  17. Analysis of formulas used in coupling impedance coaxial-wire measurements for distributed impedances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Santis, Stefano

    2002-05-30

    In this paper we study the validity of coupling impedance bench measurements for distributed impedances, comparing the commonly used log formula to the result obtained applying a modified version of Bethe's theory of diffraction to a long slot in a coaxial beam pipe. The equations found provide a quantitative expression for the influence of the wire thickness used in the measurement of the real and imaginary part of the longitudinal impedance. The precision achievable in an actual measurement is therefore discussed. The method presented has also been applied in the presence of lumped impedances [1].

  18. JAG Tearing Technique with Radiofrequency Guide Wire for Aortic Fenestration in Thoracic Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricci, Carmelo; Ceccherini, Claudio Leonini, Sara; Cini, Marco; Vigni, Francesco; Neri, Eugenio; Tucci, Enrico; Benvenuti, Antonio; Tommasino, Giulio; Sassi, Carlo

    2012-02-15

    An innovative approach, the JAG tearing technique, was performed during thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair in a patient with previous surgical replacement of the ascending aorta with a residual uncomplicated type B aortic dissection who developed an aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta with its lumen divided in two parts by an intimal flap. The proximal landing zone was suitable to place a thoracic stent graft. The distal landing zone was created by cutting the intimal flap in the distal third of the descending thoracic aorta with a radiofrequency guide wire and intravascular ultrasound catheter.

  19. Hyperelliptic curves for multichannel quantum wires and the multichannel Kondo problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fendley, P.; Saleur, H.

    1999-10-01

    We study the current in a multichannel quantum wire and the magnetization in the multichannel Kondo problem. We show that at zero temperature they can be written simply in terms of contour integrals over a (two-dimensional) hyperelliptic curve. This allows one to easily demonstrate the existence of weak-coupling to strong-coupling dualities. In the Kondo problem, the curve is the same for under- and over-screened cases; the only change is in the contour. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Use of spherically bent crystals to diagnose wire array z pinches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelkovenko, T.A.; Pikuz, S.A.; Hammer, D.A.; Ampleford, D.J.; Bland, S.N.; Bott, S.C.; Chittenden, J.P.; Lebedev, S.V.

    2004-10-01

    Spherically bent mica and quartz crystals have provided time-integrated spectra and monochromatic images in self-radiation of wire array z-pinch implosions on the MAGPIE generator (1 MA, 240 ns) at Imperial College. Diagnostics based on spherically bent crystals offer higher efficiencies than those based on flat or convex dispersion elements, allowing positioning far from the pinch with good debris shielding. A mica crystal spectrometer produced an image of the pinch in each emission line with about 100 {mu}m axial resolution. Combining the results of monochromatic imaging and spectra confirmed the presence of bright spots, probably generated by energetic electrons inside the pinch.

  1. Structure of Stagnated Plasma in Aluminium Wire Array Z-pinches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G.N.; Bland, S.N.; Lebedev, S.V.; Ampleford, D.J.; Palmer, J.B.A.; Bott, S.C.; Rapley, J.; Chittenden, J.P.; Pikuz, S.A.; Shelkovenko, T.A.

    2006-01-05

    Experiments with aluminium wire array Z-pinches have been carried out on the MAGPIE generator (1MA, 240ns) at Imperial College London. It has been shown that in these arrays there are two intense sources of radiation during stagnation: line emission from a precursor-sized object and continuum radiation from bright-spots of significantly higher temperature randomly distributed around this object such as to produce a hollow emission profile. Spatially resolved spectra produced by spherically-bent crystals were recorded, both time-integrated and time-resolved, and were used to show that these two sources of radiation peak at the same time.

  2. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of a wire-feed, high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray torch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, A.R.; Hassan, B.; Oberkampf, W.L.; Neiser, R.A.; Roemer, T.J.

    1996-09-01

    The fluid and particle dynamics of a High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel Thermal Spray torch are analyzed using computational and experimental techniques. Three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results are presented for a curved aircap used for coating interior surfaces such as engine cylinder bores. The device analyzed is similar to the Metco Diamond Jet Rotating Wire (DJRW) torch. The feed gases are injected through an axisymmetric nozzle into the curved aircap. Premixed propylene and oxygen are introduced from an annulus in the nozzle, while cooling air is injected between the nozzle and the interior wall of the aircap. The combustion process is modeled using a single-step finite-rate chemistry model with a total of 9 gas species which includes dissociation of combustion products. A continually-fed steel wire passes through the center of the nozzle and melting occurs at a conical tip near the exit of the aircap. Wire melting is simulated computationally by injecting liquid steel particles into the flow field near the tip of the wire. Experimental particle velocity measurements during wire feed were also taken using a Laser Two-Focus (L2F) velocimeter system. Flow fields inside and outside the aircap are presented and particle velocity predictions are compared with experimental measurements outside of the aircap.

  3. Microarcsecond relative astrometry from the ground with a diffractive pupil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammons, S M; Bendek, E; Guyon, O

    2011-09-08

    The practical use of astrometry to detect exoplanets via the reflex motion of the parent star depends critically on the elimination of systematic floors in imaging systems. In the diffractive pupil technique proposed for space-based detection of exo-earths, extended diffraction spikes generated by a dotted primary mirror are referenced against a wide-field grid of background stars to calibrate changing optical distortion and achieve microarcsecond astrometric precision on bright targets (Guyon et al. 2010). We describe applications of this concept to ground-based uncrowded astrometry using a diffractive, monopupil telescope and a wide-field camera to image as many as {approx}4000 background reference stars. Final relative astrometric precision is limited by differential tip/tilt jitter caused by high altitude layers of turbulence. A diffractive 3-meter telescope is capable of reaching {approx}35 {micro}as relative astrometric error per coordinate perpendicular to the zenith vector in three hours on a bright target star (I < 10) in fields of moderate stellar density ({approx}40 stars arcmin{sup -2} with I < 23). Smaller diffractive apertures (D < 1 m) can achieve 100-200 {micro}as performance with the same stellar density and exposure time and a large telescope (6.5-10 m) could achieve as low as 10 {micro}as, nearly an order of magnitude better than current space-based facilities. The diffractive pupil enables the use of larger fields of view through calibration of changing optical distortion as well as brighter target stars (V < 6) by preventing star saturation. Permitting the sky to naturally roll to average signals over many thousands of pixels can mitigate the effects of detector imperfections.

  4. Optical voltage and current sensors used in a revenue metering system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cease, T.W.; Driggans, J.G. ); Weikel, S.J. )

    1991-10-01

    This paper discusses the development of an optical voltage sensor as part of an all optic or Faraday effect was used to implement a Magneto-Optic Voltage Transducer (MOVT) to measure voltage by sensing the current flow through a capacitor connected from a 161 kV transmission line to ground. The current sensor was a Magneto-Optic Current Transducer (MOCT), developed previously. The unique design of the voltage sensors using the magneto-optic effects allows the implementation of that revenue metering system using all optical sensors. This method of measuring voltage was previously unproven. The components of the all optical sensor revenue metering system, the site installation, and the data acquisition system used to monitor the system are described. Decisions leading to the design of the MOVT are discussed.

  5. Transpiration purged optical probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2004-01-06

    An optical apparatus for clearly viewing the interior of a containment vessel by applying a transpiration fluid to a volume directly in front of the external surface of the optical element of the optical apparatus. The fluid is provided by an external source and transported by means of an annular tube to a capped end region where the inner tube is perforated. The perforation allows the fluid to stream axially towards the center of the inner tube and then axially away from an optical element which is positioned in the inner tube just prior to the porous sleeve. This arrangement draws any contaminants away from the optical element keeping it free of contaminants. In one of several embodiments, the optical element can be a lens, a viewing port or a laser, and the external source can provide a transpiration fluid having either steady properties or time varying properties.

  6. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  7. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, Roland L.; Cannon, Theodore W.

    1988-01-01

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  8. Multichannel optical sensing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.E.

    1985-08-16

    A multichannel optical sensing device is disclosed, for measuring the outdoor sky luminance or illuminance or the luminance or illuminance distribution in a room, comprising a plurality of light receptors, an optical shutter matrix including a plurality of liquid crystal optical shutter elements operable by electrical control signals between light transmitting and light stopping conditions, fiber optical elements connected between the receptors and the shutter elements, a microprocessor based programmable control unit for selectively supplying control signals to the optical shutter elements in a programmable sequence, a photodetector including an optical integrating spherical chamber having an input port for receiving the light from the shutter matrix and at least one detector element in the spherical chamber for producing output signals corresponding to the light, and output units for utilizing the output signals including a storage unit having a control connection to the microprocessor based programmable control unit for storing the output signals under the sequence control of the programmable control unit.

  9. Multichannel optical sensing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1990-01-01

    A multichannel optical sensing device is disclosed, for measuring the outr sky luminance or illuminance or the luminance or illuminance distribution in a room, comprising a plurality of light receptors, an optical shutter matrix including a plurality of liquid crystal optical shutter elements operable by electrical control signals between light transmitting and light stopping conditions, fiber optic elements connected between the receptors and the shutter elements, a microprocessor based programmable control unit for selectively supplying control signals to the optical shutter elements in a programmable sequence, a photodetector including an optical integrating spherical chamber having an input port for receiving the light from the shutter matrix and at least one detector element in the spherical chamber for producing output signals corresponding to the light, and output units for utilizing the output signals including a storage unit having a control connection to the microprocessor based programmable control unit for storing the output signals under the sequence control of the programmable control unit.

  10. Optical atomic magnetometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Budker, Dmitry; Higbie, James; Corsini, Eric P

    2013-11-19

    An optical atomic magnetometers is provided operating on the principles of nonlinear magneto-optical rotation. An atomic vapor is optically pumped using linearly polarized modulated light. The vapor is then probed using a non-modulated linearly polarized light beam. The resulting modulation in polarization angle of the probe light is detected and used in a feedback loop to induce self-oscillation at the resonant frequency.

  11. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  12. Prismatic optical display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.; DeSanto, Leonard; Brewster, Calvin

    2004-06-29

    A spatially modulated light beam is projected, reflected, and redirected through a prismatic optical panel to form a video image for direct viewing thereon.

  13. Optical amplifiers and lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klimov, Victor I.; Mikhailovski, Alexandre; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Leatherdale, Catherine A.; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2004-11-16

    An optical amplifier and laser having both broad band and wide range specific band capability can be based on semiconductor nanocrystal solids.

  14. Optical limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBranch, Duncan W.; Mattes, Benjamin R.; Koskelo, Aaron C.; Heeger, Alan J.; Robinson, Jeanne M.; Smilowitz, Laura B.; Klimov, Victor I.; Cha, Myoungsik; Sariciftci, N. Serdar; Hummelen, Jan C.

    1998-01-01

    Optical limiting materials. Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO.sub.2) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400-1100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes.

  15. Optical contact micrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Steven D.

    2014-08-19

    Certain examples provide optical contact micrometers and methods of use. An example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable lenses to receive an object and immobilize the object in a position. The example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable mirrors positioned with respect to the pair of lenses to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses. The example optical contact micrometer includes a microscope to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses via the mirrors; and an interferometer to obtain one or more measurements of the object.

  16. U.S. Department of Energy UMTRA Ground Water Project Ground Water Pumping and Monitoring Plan

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    GWMON 1.12-1 U.S. Department of Energy UMTRA Ground Water Project Ground Water Pumping and Monitoring Plan for the Land Farm Pilot Test Monument Valley, Arizona August 2000 Prepared by U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Ofice Grand Junction, Colorado Project Number UGW-5 1 1-001 5-21-000 Document Number U0106701 This page intentionally left blank Document Number U0106701 Contents Contents 1.0 Introduction

  17. Radiative cooling of two-component wire-array Z-pinch plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Mancini, R. C.; Papp, D.; Hakel, P.; Durmaz, T.; Florido, R.

    2014-08-15

    Wire-array two-component Z-pinch plasmas containing Al and other elements were studied experimentally and the observations interpreted with the help of theoretical modeling. Special attention was given to achieving reproducible implosions. Cascading implosions in star wire arrays mix components during the implosion phase and implosion dynamics were not affected by changes in concentration. A reduction in Al K-shell radiation and an increase in soft x-ray radiation emission were observed in Al-W plasma with 84% concentration of Al ions compared to only-Al plasma. Plasma with 84% of Al ions has radiative properties like those of W Z-pinches. The analysis of Al K-shell x-ray spectra with a collisional-radiative atomic kinetics model shows a drop of the electron temperature from 400 eV in pure Al plasma to below 300 eV in the Al-W mix. Al-Au Z-pinches present radiation features similar to Al-W plasma. This is indicative of a similar plasma cooling effect due to the presence of a high-Z element.

  18. Current-driven vortex domain wall motion in wire-tube nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espejo, A. P.; Vidal-Silva, N.; López-López, J. A.; Goerlitz, D.; Nielsch, K.; Escrig, J.

    2015-03-30

    We have investigated the current-driven domain wall motion in nanostructures comprised of a pair of nanotube and nanowire segments. Under certain values of external magnetic fields, it is possible to pin a vortex domain wall in the transition zone between the wire and tube segments. We explored the behavior of this domain wall under the action of an electron flow applied in the opposite direction to the magnetic field. Thus, for a fixed magnetic field, it is possible to release a domain wall pinned simply by increasing the intensity of the current density, or conversely, for a fixed current density, it is possible to release the domain wall simply decreasing the magnetic external field. When the domain wall remains pinned due to the competition between the current density and the magnetic external field, it exhibits a oscillation frequency close to 8 GHz. The amplitude of the oscillations increases with the current density and decreases over time. On the other hand, when the domain wall is released and propagated through the tube segment, this shows the standard separation between a steady and a precessional regime. The ability to pin and release a domain wall by varying the geometric parameters, the current density, or the magnetic field transforms these wire-tube nanostructures in an interesting alternative as an on/off switch nano-transistor.

  19. Annual Coded Wire Tag Program; Washington Missing Production Groups, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuss, Howard J.; Ashbrook, Charmane; Doty, Daniel (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    1994-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds the ``Annual Coded Wire Tag Program -- Missing Production Groups for Columbia River Hatcheries`` project. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) [formerly the Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF) and the Washington Department of Wildlife (WDW)], Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) all operate salmon and steelhead rearing programs in the Columbia River basin. The intent of the funding is to coded-wire tag at least one production group of each species at each Columbia Basin hatchery to provide a holistic assessment of survival and catch distribution over time. Data generated by this project contributes to WDFW`s obligations for representative tagging under the Endangered. Species Act (ESA) permit for operating Columbia Basin facilities. WDFW facilities operating outside the Snake River basin are required to have a Section 10, ``Incidental Take`` permit. Consistent with special conditions within this permit, WDFW has now reached it`s objective to tag representative groups from all WDFW Columbia Basin releases.

  20. Influence of fatigue on the nanohardness of NiTiCr-wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frotscher, M.; Young, M. L.; Bei, Hongbin; George, Easo P; Neuking, K.; Eggeler, G.

    2009-01-01

    Testing parameters, such as rotational speed and bending radius, have a strong influence on the fatigue life of pseudoelastic NiTi shape-memory alloys during bending rotation fatigue (BRF) experiments [M. F. X. Wagner, Int. J. Mat. Res. 97 (2006), p. 1687-1696. and M. Frotscher, et al., Thermomechanical processing, microstructure and bending rotation fatigue of ultra-fine grained NiTiCr-wires, Proceedings of the International Conference for Shape Memory and Superelastic Technologies (SMST 2007), Tsukuba, Japan, ASM International, (2008), p. 149-158.]. Previous studies showed a decrease in the fatigue life for smaller bending radius (i.e. higher equivalent strain) and larger rotational speed. This observation is associated with an increase of dislocation density, the stabilization of stressinduced martensite during cycling, and an increase of the plateau stresses due to self-heating. In the present study, we examine the influence of these fatigue parameters on the nanohardness and shape recovery of pseudoelastic NiTiCr shape-memory alloy wires by nanoindentation. We show that nanoindentation is a suitable method for the characterization of fatigue-related microstructural changes, which affect the mechanical properties.

  1. Probing Martensitic Transition in Nitinol Wire: A Comparison of X-ray Diffraction and Other Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, J.; Tiernan, P.; Tofail, S. A. M.; Ghandi, A. A.

    2011-01-17

    Martensitic to austenite transformation in Nitinol wire can be measured by a number of techniques such as XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), BFR (Bend and Free Recovery) and Vickers indentation recovery. A comparison of results from these varied characterisation techniques is reported here to obtain a greater understanding of the thermal-elastic-structural changes associated with martensitic transformation. The transformation temperatures measured by DSC were found to correspond well with the structural and mechanical information obtained from XRD, BFR and Vickers indent recovery methods. Indent recovery is a relatively new and accurate method of monitoring stress induced martensitic transformations in NiTi and is one of only a few methods of stress inducing martensitic transformation in large scale samples. It is especially useful for NiTi in the as-cast billet form, where tensile testing is impossible. BFR is uniquely popular in the NiTi wire manufacturing sector and is recognised as the most accurate method of measuring the transformation temperature. Here the material is stressed to a representative in-service stress level during the test. No other test uses the shape memory effect for measuring the transformation temperature of NiTi. The results show that the DSC thermogram and XRD diffractogram have a peak overlap which is a common occurrence in NiTi that has been extensively processed. The XRD method further explains the observations in the DSC thermogram and in combination they confirm the transformation temperature.

  2. Position-sensitive proportional counter with low-resistance metal-wire anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopp, Manfred K.

    1980-01-01

    A position-sensitive proportional counter circuit is provided which allows the use of a conventional (low-resistance, metal-wire anode) proportional counter for spatial resolution of an ionizing event along the anode of the counter. A pair of specially designed active-capacitance preamplifiers are used to terminate the anode ends wherein the anode is treated as an RC line. The preamplifiers act as stabilized active capacitance loads and each is composed of a series-feedback, low-noise amplifier, a unity-gain, shunt-feedback amplifier whose output is connected through a feedback capacitor to the series-feedback amplifier input. The stabilized capacitance loading of the anode allows distributed RC-line position encoding and subsequent time difference decoding by sensing the difference in rise times of pulses at the anode ends where the difference is primarily in response to the distributed capacitance along the anode. This allows the use of lower resistance wire anodes for spatial radiation detection which simplifies the counter construction and handling of the anodes, and stabilizes the anode resistivity at high count rates (>10.sup.6 counts/sec).

  3. Attempt to measure magnetic hyperfine fields in metallic thin wires under spin Hall conditions using synchrotron-radiation Mssbauer spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mibu, K. Tanaka, M. A.; Mitsui, T.; Masuda, R.; Kitao, S.; Kobayashi, Y.; Seto, M.; Yoda, Y.

    2015-05-07

    Measurement of the magnetic hyperfine fields in metallic thin wires under spin Hall conditions was attempted using the emerging technique, synchrotron-radiation Mssbauer spectroscopy. A Mssbauer probe layer of {sup 57}Fe (0.2?nm), {sup 57}Fe (0.6?nm), or {sup 119}Sn (0.6?nm) was embedded as an electron spin detector near the surfaces of V, Au, Pt, and {sup 56}Fe wires. The magnitudes of the magnetic hyperfine fields at the {sup 57}Fe and {sup 119}Sn nuclear sites that could be enhanced by non-equilibrium conduction-electron spin polarization were measured both without and with the application of an electric current along the wire. Changes in the Mssbauer spectra were not clearly observed, indicating that the magnetic hyperfine field induced by non-equilibrium spin polarization is smaller than the detection limit at least for the measured systems and conditions.

  4. Study of soft X-ray emission during wire array implosion under plasma focus conditions at the PF-3 facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan’ko, S. A.; Mitrofanov, K. N.; Krauz, V. I.; Myalton, V. V.; Zhuzhunashvili, A. I.; Vinogradov, V. P.; Kharrasov, A. M.; Anan’ev, S. S.; Vinogradova, Yu. V.; Kalinin, Yu. G.

    2015-11-15

    Results of measurements of soft X-ray emission with photon energies of <1 keV under conditions of a plasma focus (PF) experiment are presented. The experiments were carried out at the world’s largest PF device—the PF-3 Filippov-type facility (I ⩽ 3 MA, T/4 ≈ 15–20 µs, W{sub 0} ⩽ 3 MJ). X-ray emission from both a discharge in pure neon and with a tungsten wire array placed on the axis of the discharge chamber was detected. The wire array imploded under the action of the electric current intercepted from the plasma current sheath of the PF discharge in neon. The measured soft X-ray powers from a conventional PF discharge in gas and a PF discharge in the presence of a wire array were compared for the first time.

  5. SRS Burial Ground Complex: Remediation in Progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, M.; Crapse, B.; Cowan, S.

    1998-01-21

    Closure of the various areas in the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) represents a major step in the reduction of risk at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a significant investment of resources. The Burial Ground Complex occupies approximately 195 acres in the central section of the SRS. Approximately 160 acres of the BGC consists of hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites that require remediation. Of these source acres, one-third have been remediated while two-thirds are undergoing interim or final action. These restoration activities have been carried out in a safe and cost effective manner while minimizing impact to operating facilities. Successful completion of these activities is in large part due to the teamwork demonstrated by the Department of Energy, contractor/subcontractor personnel, and the regulatory agencies. The experience and knowledge gained from the closure of these large disposal facilities can be used to expedite closure of similar facilities.

  6. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water investigations are carried out to fulfill the requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet the requirements of DOE Orders. Investigations are also performed for various clients to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). National standards including procedures published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the US Geological Survey were utilized in developing the procedures contained in this manual.

  7. Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

    2013-11-13

    4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research), the worlds first hyperspectral airborne tracking sunphotometer, acquired aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 1 Hz during all July 2012 flights of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Root-mean square differences from AERONET ground-based observations were 0.01 at wavelengths between 500-1020 nm, 0.02 at 380 and 1640 nm and 0.03 at 440 nm in four clear-sky fly-over events, and similar in ground side-by-side comparisons. Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3-km-deep spirals were typically consistent with integrals of coincident in situ (on DOE Gulfstream 1 with 4STAR) and lidar (on NASA B200) extinction measurements within 0.01, 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02 at 355, 450, 532, 550, 700, 1064 nm, respectively, despite atmospheric variations and combined measurement uncertainties. Finer vertical differentials of the 4STAR measurements matched the in situ ambient extinction profile within 14% for one homogeneous column. For the AOD observed between 350-1660 nm, excluding strong water vapor and oxygen absorption bands, estimated uncertainties were ~0.01 and dominated by (then) unpredictable throughput changes, up to +/-0.8%, of the fiber optic rotary joint. The favorable intercomparisons herald 4STARs spatially-resolved high-frequency hyperspectral products as a reliable tool for climate studies and satellite validation.

  8. Si?-implanted Si-wire waveguide photodetectors for the mid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    KC0403020 GrantContract Number: SC00112704 Type: Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Optics Express Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 22; Journal Issue: 22; Journal...

  9. Diatomic molecules in optical and microwave dipole traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lysebo, Marius; Veseth, Leif

    2011-03-15

    The dipole forces on rotating diatomic molecules are worked out in detail for optical as well as microwave radiation fields. The objective is in particular to investigate how the dipole forces and potentials depend on the subtle internal structure of the molecule, with special emphasis on hyperfine and Zeeman states. Dipole potentials are obtained from computations of the real part of the complex molecular polarizability, whereas the imaginary part yields the scattering force. Numerical examples are presented for {sup 23}Na{sub 2} and OH for optical (laser) fields related to strong electronic transitions and for microwave fields for the {Lambda} doubling in the OH ground state.

  10. Ship Effect Measurements With Fiber Optic Neutron Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Kenneth L.; Dean, Rashe A.; Akbar, Shahzad; Kouzes, Richard T.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-08-10

    The main objectives of this research project was to assemble, operate, test and characterize an innovatively designed scintillating fiber optic neutron radiation detector manufactured by Innovative American Technology with possible application to the Department of Homeland Security screening for potential radiological and nuclear threats at US borders (Kouzes 2004). One goal of this project was to make measurements of the neutron ship effect for several materials. The Virginia State University DOE FaST/NSF summer student-faculty team made measurements with the fiber optic radiation detector at PNNL above ground to characterize the ship effect from cosmic neutrons, and underground to characterize the muon contribution.

  11. Space debris removal using a high-power ground-based laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monroe, D.K.

    1993-12-31

    The feasibility and practicality of using a ground-based laser (GBL) to remove artificial space debris is examined. Physical constraints indicate that a reactor-pumped laser (RPL) may be best suited for this mission, because of its capabilities for multimegawatt output long run-times, and near-diffraction-limited initial beams. Simulations of a laser-powered debris removal system indicate that a 5-MW RPL with a 10-meter-diameter beam director and adaptive optics capabilities can deorbit 1-kg debris from space station altitudes. Larger debris can be deorbited or transferred to safer orbits after multiple laser engagements. A ground-based laser system may be the only realistic way to access and remove some 10,000 separate objects, having velocities in the neighborhood of 7 km/sec, and being spatially distributed over some 10{sup 10} km{sup 3} of space.

  12. Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements and Radiosonde Comparisons During the WVIOP2000 Field Experiment D. Cimini University of L'Aquila L'Aquil, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Y. Han Science System Applications National Aeronautics Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland S. Keihm

  13. Compression of ground-motion data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, J.W.

    1981-04-01

    Ground motion data has been recorded for many years at Nevada Test Site and is now stored on thousands of digital tapes. The recording format is very inefficient in terms of space on tape. This report outlines a method to compress the data onto a few hundred tapes while maintaining the accuracy of the recording and allowing restoration of any file to the original format for future use. For future digitizing a more efficient format is described and suggested.

  14. Grounding and shielding in the accelerator environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerns, Q.

    1991-12-31

    Everyday features of the accelerator environment include long cable runs, high power and low level equipment sharing building space, stray electromagnetic fields and ground voltage differences between the sending and receiving ends of an installation. This paper pictures some Fermilab installations chosen to highlight significant features and presents practices, test methods and equipment that have been helpful in achieving successful shielding. Throughout the report are numbered statements aimed at summarizing good practices and avoiding pitfalls.

  15. Breaking New Ground The Answer Is....

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Ground The Answer Is.... NSTec enters groundbreaking science partnership. CTOS leads the way at FEMA training symposium. Middle School Science Bowl hailed a success. See page 6. See page 8. Use Restriction - What does it Mean? Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management (EM) Program has been identifying and addressing areas on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) that have been impacted by historical nuclear testing. To date, EM has successfully closed more than

  16. Posters Ground-Based Radiometric Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Posters Ground-Based Radiometric Observations of Atmospheric Water for Climate Research J. B. Snider, D. A. Hazen, A. J. Francavilla, W. B. Madsen, and M. D. Jacobson National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction Surface-based microwave and infrared radiometers have been employed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Environmental Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) in climate research since 1987. The ability

  17. Self-assembly of tin wires via phase transformation of heteroepitaxial germanium-tin on germanium substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Lingzi; Yeo, Yee-Chia; Tok, Eng Soon

    2015-06-14

    This work demonstrates and describes for the first time an unusual strain-relaxation mechanism by the formation and self-assembly of well-ordered tin wires during the thermal annealing of epitaxial Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17}-on-Ge(001) substrate. Fully strained germanium-tin alloys (Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17}) were epitaxially grown on Ge(001) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The morphological and compositional evolution of Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} during thermal annealing is studied by atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy. Under certain annealing conditions, the Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} layer decomposes into two stable phases, and well-defined Sn wires that are preferentially oriented along two orthogonal ?100? azimuths are formed. The formation of the Sn wires is related to the annealing temperature and the Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} thickness, and can be explained by the nucleation of a grain with Sn islands on the outer front, followed by grain boundary migration. The Sn wire formation process is found to be thermally activated, and an activation enthalpy (E{sub c}) of 0.41?eV is extracted. This thermally activated phase transformation, i.e., 2D epitaxial layer to 3D wires, occurs via a mechanism akin to cellular precipitation. This synthesis route of Sn wires opens new possibilities for creation of nanoscale patterns at high-throughput without the need for lithography.

  18. Mechanical interface having multiple grounded actuators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Kenneth M.; Levin, Mike D.; Rosenberg, Louis B.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for interfacing the motion of a user-manipulable object with a computer system includes a user object physically contacted or grasped by a user. A 3-D spatial mechanism is coupled to the user object, such as a stylus or a medical instrument, and provides three degrees of freedom to the user object. Three grounded actuators provide forces in the three degrees of freedom. Two of the degrees of freedom are a planar workspace provided by a closed-loop linkage of members, and the third degree of freedom is rotation of the planar workspace provided by a rotatable carriage. Capstan drive mechanisms transmit forces between actuators and the user object and include drums coupled to the carriage, pulleys coupled to grounded actuators, and flexible cables transmitting force between the pulleys and the drums. The flexibility of the cable allows the drums to rotate with the carriage while the pulleys and actuators remain fixed to ground. The interface also may include a floating gimbal mechanism coupling the linkage to the user object. The floating gimbal mechanism includes rotatably coupled gimbal members that provide three degrees of freedom to the user object and capstan mechanisms coupled between sensors and the gimbal members for providing enhanced sensor resolution.

  19. Thin-film fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nave, S.E.

    1998-07-21

    The invention discloses a sensor probe device for monitoring of hydrogen gas concentrations and temperatures by the same sensor probe. The sensor probe is constructed using thin-film deposition methods for the placement of a multitude of layers of materials sensitive to hydrogen concentrations and temperature on the end of a light transparent lens located within the sensor probe. The end of the lens within the sensor probe contains a lens containing a layer of hydrogen permeable material which excludes other reactive gases, a layer of reflective metal material that forms a metal hydride upon absorbing hydrogen, and a layer of semi-conducting solid that is transparent above a temperature dependent minimum wavelength for temperature detection. The three layers of materials are located at the distal end of the lens located within the sensor probe. The lens focuses light generated by broad-band light generator and connected by fiber-optics to the sensor probe, onto a reflective metal material layer, which passes through the semi-conducting solid layer, onto two optical fibers located at the base of the sensor probe. The reflected light is transmitted over fiber optic cables to a spectrometer and system controller. The absence of electrical signals and electrical wires in the sensor probe provides for an elimination of the potential for spark sources when monitoring in hydrogen rich environments, and provides a sensor free from electrical interferences. 3 figs.

  20. High-impedance wire grid method to study spatiotemporal behavior of hot electron clump generated in a plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terasaka, K. Kato, Y.; Tanaka, M. Y.; Yoshimura, S.; Morisaki, T.; Furuta, K.; Aramaki, M.

    2014-11-15

    High-impedance Wire Grid (HIWG) detector has been developed to study spatiotemporal behavior of a hot electron clump generated in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma. By measuring the floating potentials of the wire electrodes, and generating structure matrix made of geometrical means of the floating potentials, the HIWG detector reconstructs the spatial distribution of high-temperature electron clump at an arbitrary instant of time. Time slices of the spike event in floating potential revealed the growth and decay process of a hot spot occurs in an ECR plasma.

  1. Multimode optical fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre

    2014-11-04

    A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).

  2. Flexible optical panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    2001-01-01

    A flexible optical panel includes laminated optical waveguides, each including a ribbon core laminated between cladding, with the core being resilient in the plane of the core for elastically accommodating differential movement thereof to permit winding of the panel in a coil.

  3. Stepped inlet optical panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    2001-01-01

    An optical panel includes stacked optical waveguides having stepped inlet facets collectively defining an inlet face for receiving image light, and having beveled outlet faces collectively defining a display screen for displaying the image light channeled through the waveguides by internal reflection.

  4. XrayOpticsConstants

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-06-20

    This application (XrayOpticsConstants) is a tool for displaying X-ray and Optical properties for a given material, x-ray photon energy, and in the case of a gas, pressure. The display includes fields such as the photo-electric absorption attenuation length, density, material composition, index of refraction, and emission properties (for scintillator materials).

  5. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The defaultmore » parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST« less

  6. Dual frequency optical cavity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, E. Victor; Schipper, John F.

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a "T" configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

  7. Dual frequency optical cavity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, E.V.; Schipper, J.F.

    Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a T configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

  8. Optical scanning apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villarreal, R.A.

    1985-11-06

    An optical scanner employed in a radioactive environment for reading indicia imprinted about a cylindrical surface of an article by means of an optical system including metallic reflective and mirror surfaces resistant to degradation and discoloration otherwise imparted to glass surfaces exposed to radiation is described.

  9. Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    JAUNDICE; DIAGNOSIS; NEONATES; SKIN; INVENTIONS; EPIDERMIS; QUANTITATIVE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS; OPTICAL SYSTEMS; FIBER OPTICS 440600; 550600; OPTICAL INSTRUMENTATION; MEDICINE

  10. Fiber optic hydrophone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuzmenko, P.J.; Davis, D.T.

    1994-05-10

    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer is disclosed. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optical fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends. 2 figures.

  11. Fiber optic hydrophone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Davis, Donald T.

    1994-01-01

    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optic fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends.

  12. Digital optical conversion module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-02-26

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

  13. Digital optical conversion module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  14. Dielectric Resonator Metamasurfaces: Optical Magnetism Emission...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optical Magnetism Emission and Optical Devices. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dielectric Resonator Metamasurfaces: Optical Magnetism Emission and Optical Devices. ...

  15. CONSTRUCTION OF KEY CLEANUP PROJECT GAINS GOOD GROUND AT SRS...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CONSTRUCTION OF KEY CLEANUP PROJECT GAINS GOOD GROUND AT SRS CONSTRUCTION OF KEY CLEANUP PROJECT GAINS GOOD GROUND AT SRS June 1, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis CONSTRUCTION OF KEY CLEANUP ...

  16. Appendix E Supporting Information for Ground Water Modeling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Supporting Information for Ground Water Modeling This page intentionally left blank Contents Section Geologic Map of Site Area ........................................................................................................ E1.O Stream Flow Measurements ...................................................................................................... E2.0 Estimates of Ground Water Flow .............................................................................................. E3.0

  17. 5-MW Dynamometer Ground Breaking | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5-MW Dynamometer Ground Breaking 5-MW Dynamometer Ground Breaking December 19, 2011 - 3:04pm Addthis This is an excerpt from the Fourth Quarter 2011 edition of the Wind Program R&D ...

  18. Designated Ground Water Basin Map | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Designated Ground Water Basin Map Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Designated Ground Water Basin Map Abstract This webpage provides...

  19. Final Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Compliance at...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    458 Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Compliance at the Slick Rock, Colorado, UMTRA ... DE-AC13-02GJ79491 DOE Grand Junction Office EA of Ground Water Compliance at the Slick ...

  20. Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Old Rifle, Colorado...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    GJO-2000-177-TAR MAC-GWRFL 1.9 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Old Rifle, ... GJO-2000-177-TAR MAC-GWRFL 1.9 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Old Rifle, ...

  1. Nanocrystal quantum dots: building blocks for tunable optical amplifiers and lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikhailovsky, A. A.; Malko, A. V.; Klimov, V. I.; Leatherdale, C. A.; Eisler, H-J.; Bawendi, M.; Hollingsworth, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    We study optical processes relevant to optical amplification and lasing in CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots (NQD). NQDs are freestanding nanoparticles prepared using solution-based organometallic reactions originally developed for the Cd chalcogenides, CdS, CdSe and CdTe [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706 (1993)]. We investigate NQDs with diameters ranging from 2 to 8 nm. Due to strong quantum confinement, they exhibit size-dependent spectral tunability over an energy range as wide as several hundred meV. We observe a strong effect of the matrix/solvent on optical gain properties of CdSe NQDs. In most of the commonly used solvents (such as hexane and toluene), gain is suppressed due to strong photoinduced absorption associated with carriers trapped at solvent-related interface states. In contrast, matrix-free close packed NQD films (NQD solids) exhibit large optical gain with a magnitude that is sufficiently high for the optical gain to successfully compete with multiparticle Auger recombination [Science 287, 10117 (2000)]. These films exhibit narrowband stimulated emission at both cryogenic and room temperature, and the emission color is tunable with dot size [Science 290, 314 (2000)]. Moreover, the NQD films can be incorporated into microcavities of different geometries (micro-spheres, wires, tubes) that produce lasing in whispering gallery modes. The facile preparation, chemical flexibility and wide-range spectral tunability due to strong quantum confinement are the key advantages that should motivate research into NQD applications in optical amplifiers and lasers.

  2. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metz, P.D.

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  3. Recommendation 195: Mitigation of Contamination in Bear Creek Burial Grounds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ORSSAB requests DOE provide possible remedial actions to mitigate releases of contamination from Bear Creek Burial Grounds.

  4. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metz, Philip D.

    1982-01-01

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  5. Projection optics box

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hale, Layton C.; Malsbury, Terry; Hudyma, Russell M.; Parker, John M.

    2000-01-01

    A projection optics box or assembly for use in an optical assembly, such as in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system using 10-14 nm soft x-ray photons. The projection optics box utilizes a plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors, each mounted on a precision actuator, and which reflects an optical image, such as from a mask, in the EUVL system onto a point of use, such as a target or silicon wafer, the mask, for example, receiving an optical signal from a source assembly, such as a developed from laser system, via a series of highly reflective mirrors of the EUVL system. The plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors are mounted in a housing assembly comprised of a series of bulkheads having wall members secured together to form a unit construction of maximum rigidity. Due to the precision actuators, the mirrors must be positioned precisely and remotely in tip, tilt, and piston (three degrees of freedom), while also providing exact constraint.

  6. Coal mine ground control. 3rd ed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, S.S.

    2008-09-15

    The third edition not only completely revises and updates the original subject areas, but also is broadened to include a number of new topics such as high horizontal stresses, computer modeling, and highwall stability. The subject areas covered in this book define the current field of coal mine ground control, except for the recently emerging topic of mine seals and some conventional subjects such as coal/rock cutting and impoundment dams. It contains 1,134 references from all published sources, and archived since 1876.

  7. Photovoltaic module mounting clip with integral grounding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2008-10-14

    An electrically conductive mounting/grounding clip, for use with a photovoltaic assembly of the type having an electrically conductive frame, comprises an electrically conductive body. The body has a central portion and first and second spaced-apart arms extending generally perpendicular to the central portion. Each arm has an outer portion with each outer portion having an outer end. At least one frame surface-disrupting element is at each outer end. The central portion defines a plane with the frame surface-disrupting elements pointing towards the plane. In some examples each arm extends from the central portion at an acute angle to the plane.

  8. Best Possible Strategy for Finding Ground States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franz, Astrid; Hoffmann, Karl Heinz; Salamon, Peter

    2001-06-04

    Finding the ground state of a system with a complex energy landscape is important for many physical problems including protein folding, spin glasses, chemical clusters, and neural networks. Such problems are usually solved by heuristic search methods whose efficacy is judged by empirical performance on selected examples. We present a proof that, within the large class of algorithms that simulate a random walk on the landscape, threshold accepting is the best possible strategy. In particular, it can perform better than simulated annealing and Tsallis statistics. Our proof is the first example of a provably optimal strategy in this area.

  9. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol optical properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    : Aerosol optical properties The optical properties of aerosols, including asymmetry factor, phase-function, single-scattering albedo, refractive index, and backscatter...

  10. Concentrator Optics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Concentrator Optics Jump to: navigation, search Name: Concentrator Optics Place: Marburg, Germany Zip: 35037 Product: A Germany-based company engaged in the design and production...

  11. The effect of process parameters on Twin Wire Arc spray pattern shape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Aaron Christopher; McCloskey, James Francis; Horner, Allison Lynne

    2015-04-20

    A design of experiments approach was used to describe process parameter—spray pattern relationships in the Twin Wire Arc process using zinc feed stock in a TAFA 8835 (Praxair, Concord, NH, USA) spray torch. Specifically, the effects of arc current, primary atomizing gas pressure, and secondary atomizing gas pressure on spray pattern size, spray pattern flatness, spray pattern eccentricity, and coating deposition rate were investigated. Process relationships were investigated with the intent of maximizing or minimizing each coating property. It was determined that spray pattern area was most affected by primary gas pressure and secondary gas pressure. Pattern eccentricity was most affected by secondary gas pressure. Pattern flatness was most affected by primary gas pressure. Lastly, coating deposition rate was most affected by arc current.

  12. Measurement of positive direct current corona pulse in coaxial wire-cylinder gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Han Zhang, Bo He, Jinliang Wang, Wenzhuo

    2014-03-15

    In this paper, a system is designed and developed to measure the positive corona current in coaxial wire-cylinder gaps. The characteristic parameters of corona current pulses, such as the amplitude, rise time, half-wave time, and repetition frequency, are statistically analyzed and a new set of empirical formulas are derived by numerical fitting. The influence of space charges on corona currents is tested by using three corona cages with different radii. A numerical method is used to solve a simplified ion-flow model to explain the influence of space charges. Based on the statistical results, a stochastic model is developed to simulate the corona pulse trains. And this model is verified by comparing the simulated frequency-domain responses with the measured ones.

  13. Non-thermal x-ray emission from wire array z-pinches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ampleford, David; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Jennings, Christopher Ashley; Webb, Timothy Jay; Harper-Slaboszewicz, V.; Loisel, Guillaume Pascal; Flanagan, Timothy McGuire; Bell, Kate Suzanne; Jones, Brent M.; McPherson, Leroy A.; Rochau, Gregory A.; Chittenden, Jeremy P.; Sherlock, Mark; Appelbe, Brian; Giuliani, John; Ouart, Nicholas; Seely, John

    2015-12-01

    We report on experiments demonstrating the transition from thermally-dominated K-shell line emission to non-thermal, hot-electron-driven inner-shell emission for z pinch plasmas on the Z machine. While x-ray yields from thermal K-shell emission decrease rapidly with increasing atomic number Z, we find that non-thermal emission persists with favorable Z scaling, dominating over thermal emission for Z=42 and higher (hn ≥ 17keV). Initial experiments with Mo (Z=42) and Ag (Z=47) have produced kJ-level emission in the 17-keV and 22-keV Kα lines respectively. We will discuss the electron beam properties that could excite these non - thermal lines. We also report on experiments that have attempted to control non - thermal K - shell line emission by modifying the wire array or load hardware setup.

  14. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, G.; Ahn, J.H.; Kim, N.J.

    1986-10-28

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar[sub 3] temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics. 3 figs.

  15. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, Gareth; Ahn, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Nack-Joon

    1986-01-01

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar.sub.3 temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics.

  16. Moisture absorption and bakeout characteristics of rigid-flexible multilayer printed wiring boards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lula, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Moisture absorption and bakeout characteristics of Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD) rigid-flexible printed wiring boards were determined. It was found that test specimens had absorbed 0.95 weight percent moisture when equilibrated to a 50 percent RH, 25{degree}C environment. Heating those equilibrated specimens in a 120{degree}C static air oven removed 92 percent of this absorbed moisture in 24 h. Heating the samples in a 80{degree}C static air oven removed only 64 percent of the absorbed moisture at the end of 24 h. A 120{degree}C vacuum bake removed moisture at essentially the same rate with parylene slowed the absorption rate by approximately 50 percent but did not appreciably affect the equilibrium moisture content or the drying rate.

  17. Emergence of reconfigurable wires and spinners via dynamic self-assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kokot, Gasper; Piet, David; Whitesides, George M.; Aranson, Igor S.; Snezhko, Alexey

    2015-03-26

    Dissipative colloidal materials use energy to generate and maintain structural complexity. The energy injection rate, and properties of the environment are important control parameters that influence the outcome of dynamic self-assembly. Here we demonstrate that dispersions of magnetic microparticles confined at the air-liquid interface, and energized by a uniaxial in-plane alternating magnetic field, self-assemble into a variety of structures that range from pulsating clusters and single-particle-thick wires to dynamic arrays of spinners (self-assembled short chains) rotating in either direction. The spinners emerge via spontaneous breaking of the uniaxial symmetry of the energizing magnetic field. Demonstration of the formation and disaggregation of particle assemblies suggests strategies to form new meso-scale structures with the potential to perform functions such as mixing and sensing.

  18. Emergence of reconfigurable wires and spinners via dynamic self-assembly

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kokot, Gasper; Piet, David; Whitesides, George M.; Aranson, Igor S.; Snezhko, Alexey

    2015-03-26

    Dissipative colloidal materials use energy to generate and maintain structural complexity. The energy injection rate, and properties of the environment are important control parameters that influence the outcome of dynamic self-assembly. Here we demonstrate that dispersions of magnetic microparticles confined at the air-liquid interface, and energized by a uniaxial in-plane alternating magnetic field, self-assemble into a variety of structures that range from pulsating clusters and single-particle-thick wires to dynamic arrays of spinners (self-assembled short chains) rotating in either direction. The spinners emerge via spontaneous breaking of the uniaxial symmetry of the energizing magnetic field. Demonstration of the formation and disaggregationmore » of particle assemblies suggests strategies to form new meso-scale structures with the potential to perform functions such as mixing and sensing.« less

  19. The effect of process parameters on Twin Wire Arc spray pattern shape

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hall, Aaron Christopher; McCloskey, James Francis; Horner, Allison Lynne

    2015-04-20

    A design of experiments approach was used to describe process parameter—spray pattern relationships in the Twin Wire Arc process using zinc feed stock in a TAFA 8835 (Praxair, Concord, NH, USA) spray torch. Specifically, the effects of arc current, primary atomizing gas pressure, and secondary atomizing gas pressure on spray pattern size, spray pattern flatness, spray pattern eccentricity, and coating deposition rate were investigated. Process relationships were investigated with the intent of maximizing or minimizing each coating property. It was determined that spray pattern area was most affected by primary gas pressure and secondary gas pressure. Pattern eccentricity was mostmore » affected by secondary gas pressure. Pattern flatness was most affected by primary gas pressure. Lastly, coating deposition rate was most affected by arc current.« less

  20. Effective-medium model of wire metamaterials in the problems of radiative heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirmoosa, M. S. Nefedov, I. S. Simovski, C. R.; Rüting, F.

    2014-06-21

    In the present work, we check the applicability of the effective medium model (EMM) to the problems of radiative heat transfer (RHT) through so-called wire metamaterials (WMMs)—composites comprising parallel arrays of metal nanowires. It is explained why this problem is so important for the development of prospective thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems. Previous studies of the applicability of EMM for WMMs were targeted by the imaging applications of WMMs. The analogous study referring to the transfer of radiative heat is a separate problem that deserves extended investigations. We show that WMMs with practically realizable design parameters transmit the radiative heat as effectively homogeneous media. Existing EMM is an adequate tool for qualitative prediction of the magnitude of transferred radiative heat and of its effective frequency band.