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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optic chemical sensors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Microbend fiber-optic chemical sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microbend fiber-optic chemical sensor for detecting chemicals in a sample, and a method for its use, is disclosed. The sensor comprises at least one optical fiber having a microbend section (a section of small undulations in its axis), for transmitting and receiving light. In transmission, light guided through the microbend section scatters out of the fiber core and interacts, either directly or indirectly, with the chemical in the sample, inducing fluorescence radiation. Fluorescence radiation is scattered back into the microbend section and returned to an optical detector for determining characteristics of the fluorescence radiation quantifying the presence of a specific chemical.

Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

FEASIBILITY OF A STACK INTEGRATED SOFC OPTICAL CHEMICAL SENSOR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work performed during the UCR Innovative Concepts phase I program was designed to demonstrate the chemical sensing capabilities of nano-cermet SPR bands at solid oxide fuel cell operating conditions. Key to this proposal is that the materials choice used a YSZ ceramic matrix which upon successful demonstration of this concept, will allow integration directly onto the SOFC stack. Under the Innovative Concepts Program the University at Albany Institute for Materials (UAIM)/UAlbany School of NanoSciences and NanoEngineering synthesized, analyzed and tested Pa, and Au doped YSZ nano-cermets as a function of operating temperature and target gas exposure (hydrogen, carbon monoxide and 1-dodecanethiol). During the aforementioned testing procedure the optical characteristics of the nano-cermets were monitored to determine the sensor selectivity and sensitivity.

Michael A. Carpenter

2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

3

CHEMICAL SENSORS School of Chemistry and Biochemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHEMICAL SENSORS CHEM 6282 School of Chemistry and Biochemistry Chemical sensors physics and electronics or a chemical instrumentation course. The topics covered will include general theory of chemical recognition, electrochemical, optical, mass sensors and data reduction. Text: J

Sherrill, David

4

Detection of biological molecules using chemical amplification and optical sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are provided for the determination of the concentration of biological levels of polyhydroxylated compounds, particularly glucose. The methods utilize an amplification system that is an analyte transducer immobilized in a polymeric matrix, where the system is implantable and biocompatible. Upon interrogation by an optical system, the amplification system produces a signal capable of detection external to the skin of the patient. Quantitation of the analyte of interest is achieved by measurement of the emitted signal.

Van Antwerp, William Peter (Valencia, CA); Mastrototaro, John Joseph (Los Angeles, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Detection of biological molecules using chemical amplification and optical sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are provided for the determination of the concentration of biological levels of polyhydroxylated compounds, particularly glucose. The methods utilize an amplification system that is an analyte transducer immobilized in a polymeric matrix, where the system is implantable and biocompatible. Upon interrogation by an optical system, the amplification system produces a signal capable of detection external to the skin of the patient. Quantitation of the analyte of interest is achieved by measurement of the emitted signal. Specifically, the analyte transducer immobilized in a polymeric matrix can be a boronic acid moiety.

Van Antwerp, William Peter (Valencia, CA); Mastrototaro, John Joseph (Los Angeles, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Capacitive chemical sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

7

Fiber optic hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading by a single spectrophotometer.

Buchanan, Bruce R. (1985 Willis, Batesburg, SC 29006); Prather, William S. (2419 Dickey Rd., Augusta, GA 30906)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Fiber optic hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading, by a single spectrophotometer.

Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Fiber optic hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method are described for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading by a single spectrophotometer. 4 figs.

Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

1992-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

10

Fiber optic geophysical sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

Homuth, Emil F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Fiber optic coupled optical sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A displacement sensor includes a first optical fiber for radiating light to a target, and a second optical fiber for receiving light from the target. The end of the first fiber is adjacent and not axially aligned with the second fiber end. A lens focuses light from the first fiber onto the target and light from the target onto the second fiber.

Fleming, Kevin J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Fiber optic vibration sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity.

Dooley, Joseph B. (Harriman, TN); Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Tobin, Kenneth W. (Harriman, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Fiber optic vibration sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity. 2 figures.

Dooley, J.B.; Muhs, J.D.; Tobin, K.W.

1995-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

14

Fiber optic geophysical sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic geophysical sensor is described in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figures.

Homuth, E.F.

1991-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

15

Optical displacement sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical displacement sensor is disclosed which uses a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coupled to an optical cavity formed by a moveable membrane and an output mirror of the VCSEL. This arrangement renders the lasing characteristics of the VCSEL sensitive to any movement of the membrane produced by sound, vibrations, pressure changes, acceleration, etc. Some embodiments of the optical displacement sensor can further include a light-reflective diffractive lens located on the membrane or adjacent to the VCSEL to control the amount of lasing light coupled back into the VCSEL. A photodetector detects a portion of the lasing light from the VCSEL to provide an electrical output signal for the optical displacement sensor which varies with the movement of the membrane.

Carr, Dustin W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

16

Integrated optical sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An integrated optical sensor for arc welding having multifunction feedback control is described. The sensor, comprising generally a CCD camera and diode laser, is positioned behind the arc torch for measuring weld pool position and width, standoff distance, and post-weld centerline cooling rate. Computer process information from this sensor is passed to a controlling computer for use in feedback control loops to aid in the control of the welding process. Weld pool position and width are used in a feedback loop, by the weld controller, to track the weld pool relative to the weld joint. Sensor standoff distance is used in a feedback loop to control the contact tip to base metal distance during the welding process. Cooling rate information is used to determine the final metallurgical state of the weld bead and heat affected zone, thereby controlling post-weld mechanical properties. 6 figures.

Watkins, A.D.; Smartt, H.B.; Taylor, P.L.

1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

17

Integrated optical sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An integrated optical sensor for arc welding having multifunction feedback control. The sensor, comprising generally a CCD camera and diode laser, is positioned behind the arc torch for measuring weld pool position and width, standoff distance, and post-weld centerline cooling rate. Computer process information from this sensor is passed to a controlling computer for use in feedback control loops to aid in the control of the welding process. Weld pool position and width are used in a feedback loop, by the weld controller, to track the weld pool relative to the weld joint. Sensor standoff distance is used in a feedback loop to control the contact tip to base metal distance during the welding process. Cooling rate information is used to determine the final metallurgical state of the weld bead and heat affected zone, thereby controlling post-weld mechanical properties.

Watkins, Arthur D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smartt, Herschel B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Taylor, Paul L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Optical Fiber Chemical Sensor with Sol-Gel Derived Refractive Material as Transducer for High Temperature Gas Sensing in Clean Coal Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemistry of sol-gel derived silica and refractive metal oxide has been systematically studied. Sol-gel processes have been developed for preparing porous silica and semiconductor metal oxide materials. Micelle/reversed micelle techniques have been developed for preparing nanometer sized semiconductor metal oxides and noble metal particles. Techniques for doping metal ions, metal oxides and nanosized metal particles into porous sol-gel material have also been developed. Optical properties of sol-gel derived materials in ambient and high temperature gases have been studied by using fiber optic spectroscopic techniques, such as fiber optic ultraviolet/visible absorption spectrometry, fiber optic near infrared absorption spectrometry and fiber optic fluorescence spectrometry. Fiber optic spectrometric techniques have been developed for investigating the optical properties of these sol-gel derived materials prepared as porous optical fibers or as coatings on the surface of silica optical fibers. Optical and electron microscopic techniques have been used to observe the microstructure, such as pore size, pore shape, sensing agent distribution, of sol-gel derived material, as well as the size and morphology of nanometer metal particle doped in sol-gel derived porous silica, the nature of coating of sol-gel derived materials on silica optical fiber surface. In addition, the chemical reactions of metal ion, nanostructured semiconductor metal oxides and nanometer sized metal particles with gas components at room temperature and high temperatures have also been investigated with fiber optic spectrometric methods. Three classes of fiber optic sensors have been developed based on the thorough investigation of sol-gel chemistry and sol-gel derived materials. The first group of fiber optic sensors uses porous silica optical fibers doped with metal ions or metal oxide as transducers for sensing trace NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S in high temperature gas samples. The second group of fiber optic sensors uses sol-gel derived porous silica materials doped with nanometer particles of noble metals in the form of fiber or coating for sensing trace H{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} and HCl in gas samples at for applications ambient temperature. The third classes of fiber optic sensors use sol-gel derived semiconductor metal oxide coating on the surface of silica optical fiber as transducers for selectively sensing H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and CO at high temperature. In addition, optical fiber temperature sensors use the fluorescence signal of rare-earth metal ions doped porous silica optical fiber or the optical absorption signal of thermochromic metal oxide materials coated on the surface of silica optical fibers have also been developed for monitoring gas temperature of corrosive gas. Based on the results obtained from this project, the principle of fiber optic sensor techniques for monitoring matrix gas components as well as trace components of coal gasification derived syngas has been established. Prototype sensors for sensing trace ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in gasification derived syngas have been built up in our laboratory and have been tested using gas samples with matrix gas composition similar to that of gasification derived fuel gas. Test results illustrated the feasibility of these sensors for applications in IGCC processes.

Shiquan Tao

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

19

Detection of biological molecules using boronate-based chemical amplification and optical sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are provided for the determination of the concentration of biological levels of polyhydroxylated compounds, particularly glucose. The methods utilize an amplification system that is an analyte transducer immobilized in a polymeric matrix, where the system is implantable and biocompatible. Upon interrogation by an optical system, the amplification system produces a signal capable of detection external to the skin of the patient. Quantitation of the analyte of interest is achieved by measurement of the emitted signal.

Van Antwerp, William Peter (Valencia, CA); Mastrototaro, John Joseph (Los Angeles, CA); Lane, Stephen M. (Oakland, CA); Satcher, Jr., Joe H. (Modesto, CA); Darrow, Christopher B. (Pleasanton, CA); Peyser, Thomas A. (Menlo Park, CA); Harder, Jennifer (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Fiber optic temperature sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our fiber optic temperature measurement sensor and system is a major improvement over methods currently in use in most industrial processes, and it delivers all of the attributes required simplicity, accuracy, and cost efficiency-to help improve all of these processes. Because temperature is a basic physical attribute of nearly every industrial and commercial process, our system can eventually result in significant improvements in nearly every industrial and commercial process. Many finished goods, and the materials that go into them, are critically dependent on the temperature. The better the temperature measurement, the better quality the goods will be and the more economically they can be produced. The production and transmission of energy requires the monitoring of temperature in motors, circuit breakers, power generating plants, and transmission line equipment. The more reliable and robust the methods for measuring these temperature, the more available, stable, and affordable the supply of energy will become. The world is increasingly realizing the threats to health and safety of toxic or otherwise undesirable by products of the industrial economy in the environment. Cleanup of such contamination often depends on techniques that require the constant monitoring of temperature in extremely hazardous environments, which can damage most conventional temperature sensors and which are dangerous for operating personnel. Our system makes such monitoring safer and more economical.

Rabold, D.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optic chemical sensors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Sensitive And Selective Chemical Sensor With Nanostructured Surfaces.  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chemical sensor is provided which includes an optical resonator including a nanostructured surface comprising a plurality of nanoparticles bound to one or more surfaces of the resonator. The nanoparticles provide optical absorption and the sensor further comprises a detector for detecting the optical absorption of the nanoparticles or their environment. In particular, a selective chemical interaction is provided which modifies the optical absorption of the nanoparticles or their environment, and an analyte is detected based on the modified optical absorption. A light pulse is generated which enters the resonator to interrogate the modified optical absorption and the exiting light pulse is detected by the detector.

Pipino, Andrew C. R. (Gaithersburg, MD)

2003-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

22

Low noise optical position sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel optical position sensor is described that uses two component photodiodes electrically connected in parallel, with opposing polarities. A lens provides optical gain and restricts the acceptance angle of the detector. The response of the device to displacements of an optical spot is similar to that of a conventional bi-cell type position sensitive detector. However, the component photodiode design enables simpler electronic amplification with inherently less electrical noise than the bi-cell. Measurements by the sensor of the pointing noise of a focused helium-neon laser as a function of frequency demonstrate high sensitivity and suitability for optical probe beam deflection experiments.

Spear, Jonathan David (Berkeley, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Low noise optical position sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel optical position sensor is described that uses two component photodiodes electrically connected in parallel, with opposing polarities. A lens provides optical gain and restricts the acceptance angle of the detector. The response of the device to displacements of an optical spot is similar to that of a conventional bi-cell type position sensitive detector. However, the component photodiode design enables simpler electronic amplification with inherently less electrical noise than the bi-cell. Measurements by the sensor of the pointing noise of a focused helium-neon laser as a function of frequency demonstrate high sensitivity and suitability for optical probe beam deflection experiments. 14 figs.

Spear, J.D.

1999-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

24

Fiber optic sensor and method for making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic sensor including a fiber having a modified surface integral with the fiber wherein the modified surface includes an open pore network with optical agents dispersed within the open pores of the open pore network. Methods for preparing the fiber optic sensor are also provided. The fiber optic sensors can withstand high temperatures and harsh environments.

Vartuli, James Scott; Bousman, Kenneth Sherwood; Deng, Kung-Li; McEvoy, Kevin Paul; Xia, Hua

2010-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

25

In-situ, Real-Time Monitoring of Mechanical and Chemical Structure Changes in a V2O5 Battery Electrode Using a MEMS Optical Sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work presents the first demonstration of a MEMS optical sensor for in-situ, real-time monitoring of both mechanical and chemical structure evolutions in a V2O5 lithium-ion battery (LIB) cathode during battery operation. A reflective membrane forms one side of a Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometer, while the other side is coated with V2O5 and exposed to electrolyte in a half-cell LIB. Using one microscope and two laser sources, both the induced membrane deflection and the corresponding Raman intensity changes are observed during lithium cycling. Results are in good agreement with the expected mechanical behavior and disorder change of the V2O5 layers, highlighting the significant potential of MEMS as enabling tools for advanced scientific investigations.

Jung, H. [University of Maryland; Gerasopoulos, K. [University of Maryland; Gnerlich, Markus [University of Maryland; Talin, A. Alec [Sandia National Laboratories; Ghodssi, Reza [University of Maryland

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Silicon fiber optic sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by a partially or wholly reflective surface on the free end of an integrated elongate channel or an integrated bounding wall of a chip of a wafer and a partially reflective surface on the end of the optical fiber. Such a constructed device can be utilized to detect one or more physical parameters, such as, for example, strain, through the optical fiber using an optical detection system to provide measuring accuracies of less than aboutb0.1%.

Pocha, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Wood, Billy E. (Livermore, CA)

2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

27

Buried fiber optic intrusion sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the buried sensor induces a phase shift in light propagating along the fiber which allows for the detection and localization of intrusions. Through the use of an ultra-stable erbium-doped fiber laser and phase sensitive optical time domain reflectometry...

Maier, Eric William

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

28

High pressure fiber optic sensor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

29

Optical high acidity sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Nekimken, Howard L. (Los Alamos, NM); Carey, W. Patrick (Lynnwood, WA); O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Fiber optics spectrochemical emission sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described of in situ monitoring of a body of a fluid stored in a tank or groundwater or vadose zone gases in a well for the presence of selected chemical species. The method uses a probe insertable into the well or tank via a cable and having an electrical apparatus for exciting selected chemical species in the body of fluid. The probe can have a pair of electrodes for initiating a spark or a plasma cell for maintaining a plasma to excite the selected chemical species. The probe also has an optical apparatus for receiving optical emissions emitted by the excited species and optically transmitting the emissions via the cable to an analysis location outside the well. The analysis includes detecting a selected wavelength in the emissions indicative of the presence of the selected chemical species. A plurality of probes can be suspended at an end of a respective cable, with the transmitting and analyzing steps for each probe being synchronized sequentially for one set of support equipment and instrumentation to monitor at multiple test points. The optical apparatus is arranged about the light guide axis so that the selected chemical species are excited in the fluid in alignment with the light guide axis. Optical emissions are received from the excited chemical species along such axis. 18 figs.

Griffin, J.W.; Olsen, K.B.

1992-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

31

Optical sensors and multisensor arrays containing thin film electroluminescent devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Optical sensor, probe and array devices for detecting chemical biological, and physical analytes. The devices include an analyte-sensitive layer optically coupled to a thin film electroluminescent layer which activates the analyte-sensitive layer to provide an optical response. The optical response varies depending upon the presence of an analyte and is detected by a photodetector and analyzed to determine the properties of the analyte.

Aylott, Jonathan W. (Ann Arbor, MI); Chen-Esterlit, Zoe (Ann Arbor, MI); Friedl, Jon H. (Ames, IA); Kopelman, Raoul (Ann Arbor, MI); Savvateev, Vadim N. (Ames, IA); Shinar, Joseph (Ames, IA)

2001-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

32

Fiber-optic liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber-optic liquid level sensor measures the height of a column of liquid through the hydrostatic pressure it produces. The sensor employs a fiber-optic displacement sensor to detect the pressure-induced displacement of the center of a corrugated diaphragm.

Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be used to accurately measure fluid flow rate in a microanalytical system. The thermal flow sensor can be operated in either constant temperature or constant power mode and variants thereof. The chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be fabricated with the same MEMS technology as the rest of the microanlaytical system. Because of its low heat capacity, low-loss, and small size, the chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor is fast and efficient enough to be used in battery-powered, portable microanalytical systems.

Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Design guidelines for optical resonator biochemical sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we propose a design tool for dielectric optical resonator-based biochemical refractometry sensors. Analogous to the widely accepted photodetector figure of merit, the detectivity D*, we introduce a new sensor ...

Kimerling, Lionel C.

35

Passive in-situ chemical sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chemical sensor for assessing a chemical of interest. In typical embodiments the chemical sensor includes a first thermocouple and second thermocouple. A reactive component is typically disposed proximal to the second thermal couple, and is selected to react with the chemical of interest and generate a temperature variation that may be detected by a comparison of a temperature sensed by the second thermocouple compared with a concurrent temperature detected by the first thermocouple. Further disclosed is a method for assessing a chemical of interest and a method for identifying a reaction temperature for a chemical of interest in a system.

Morrell, Jonathan S. (Farragut, TN); Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

36

Optical sensor of magnetic fields  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical magnetic field strength sensor for measuring the field strength of a magnetic field comprising a dilute magnetic semi-conductor probe having first and second ends, longitudinally positioned in the magnetic field for providing Faraday polarization rotation of light passing therethrough relative to the strength of the magnetic field. Light provided by a remote light source is propagated through an optical fiber coupler and a single optical fiber strand between the probe and the light source for providing a light path therebetween. A polarizer and an apparatus for rotating the polarization of the light is provided in the light path and a reflector is carried by the second end of the probe for reflecting the light back through the probe and thence through the polarizer to the optical coupler. A photo detector apparatus is operably connected to the optical coupler for detecting and measuring the intensity of the reflected light and comparing same to the light source intensity whereby the magnetic field strength may be calculated.

Butler, M.A.; Martin, S.J.

1986-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

37

Abstract--A low noise optical sensor and biocompatible microscale optical filters for integrated fluorescence sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract--A low noise optical sensor and biocompatible microscale optical filters for integrated fluorescence sensors were developed and tested. The sensor was fabricated in a 0.5 µm CMOS process. The measured reset noise of the sensor is reduced by a factor of 10 compared to conventional active pixel

Maryland at College Park, University of

38

Polymers for Chemical Sensors Using Hydrosilylation Chemistry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sorbent and functionalized polymers play a key role in a diverse set of fields, including chemical sensors, separation membranes, solid phase extraction techniques, and chromatography. Sorbent polymers are critical to a number of sensor array or "electronic nose" systems. The responses of the sensors in the array give rise to patterns that can be used to distinguish one compound from another, provided that a sufficiently diverse set of sensing materials is present in the array. Figure 1 illustrates the concept of several sensors, each with a different sensor coating, giving rise to variable responses to an analyte that appear as a pattern in bar graph format. Using hydrosilylation as the bond-forming reaction, we have developed a versatile and efficient approach to developing sorbent polymers with diverse interactive properties for sensor applications. Both the chemical and physical properties of these polymers are predictable and tunable by design.

Grate, Jay W.; Kaganove, Steven N.; Nelson, David A.

2001-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

39

Correlations Between Optical, Chemical and Physical Properties...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Correlations Between Optical, Chemical and Physical Properties of Biomass Burn Aerosols. Correlations Between Optical, Chemical and Physical Properties of Biomass Burn Aerosols....

40

Correlation Between Optical Properties And Chemical Composition...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Between Optical Properties And Chemical Composition Of Sputter-deposited Germanium Cxide (GeOx) Films . Correlation Between Optical Properties And Chemical Composition Of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optic chemical sensors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

Sheem, Sang K. (Pleasanton, CA)

2003-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

42

Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

Sheem, Sang K. (Pleasanton, CA)

2004-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

43

Reactive Grasping Using Optical Proximity Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a system for improving grasping using fingertip optical proximity sensors that allows us to perform online grasp adjustments to an initial grasp point without requiring premature object contact or regrasping ...

Nangeroni, Paul

44

Mechanical and optical behavior of a novel optical fiber crack sensor and an interferometric strain sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The proper interpretation of measurements from an optical fiber sensor requires a full understanding of its mechanical response to external action and the corresponding change in optical output. To quantify the mechanical ...

Olson, Noah Gale, 1969-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficient recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has been proven to be difficult due to the lack of robust instrumentation that can accurately and reliably monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multilateral wells. This is the final report for the four-year program ''Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery'', funded by the National Petroleum Technology Office of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech from October 1, 1999 to March 31, 2003. The main objective of this research program was to develop cost-effective, reliable optical fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. During the program, optical fiber sensors were demonstrated for the measurement of temperature, pressure, flow, and acoustic waves, including three successful field tests in the Chevron/Texaco oil fields in Coalinga, California, and at the world-class oil flow simulation facilities in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Research efforts included the design and fabrication of sensor probes, development of signal processing algorithms, construction of test systems, development and testing of strategies for the protection of optical fibers and sensors in the downhole environment, development of remote monitoring capabilities allowing real-time monitoring of the field test data from virtually anywhere in the world, and development of novel data processing techniques. Comprehensive testing was performed to systematically evaluate the performance of the fiber optic sensor systems in both lab and field environments.

Anbo Wang; Kristie L. Cooper; Gary R. Pickrell

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes LDRD project number 151365, %5CDynamic Temperature Measurements with Embedded Optical Sensors%22. The purpose of this project was to develop an optical sensor capable of detecting modest temperature states (<1000 K) with nanosecond time resolution, a recurring diagnostic need in dynamic compression experiments at the Sandia Z machine. Gold sensors were selected because the visible re ectance spectrum of gold varies strongly with temperature. A variety of static and dynamic measurements were performed to assess re ectance changes at di erent temperatures and pressures. Using a minimal optical model for gold, a plausible connection between static calibrations and dynamic measurements was found. With re nements to the model and diagnostic upgrades, embedded gold sensors seem capable of detecting minor (<50 K) temperature changes under dynamic compression.

Dolan, Daniel H.,; Seagle, Christopher T; Ao, Tommy

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Electro-optic voltage sensor head  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers.

Crawford, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davidson, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Woods, Gregory K. (Cornelius, OR)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Electro-optic voltage sensor head  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers. 6 figs.

Crawford, T.M.; Davidson, J.R.; Woods, G.K.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

49

Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

Prelas, Mark A. (Columbia, MO); Ghosh, Tushar K. (Columbia, MO); Tompson, Jr., Robert V. (Columbia, MO); Viswanath, Dabir (Columbia, MO); Loyalka, Sudarshan K. (Columbia, MO)

2010-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

50

A microelectronic design for low-cost disposable chemical sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis demonstrates the novel concept and design of integrated microelectronics for a low-cost disposable chemical sensor. The critical aspects of this chemical sensor are the performance of the microelectronic chip ...

Laval, Stuart S. (Stuart Sean), 1980-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Lensless magneto-optic speed sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lensless magneto-optic speed sensor is disclosed. The construction of a viable Faraday sensor has been achieved. Multimode fiber bundles are used to collect the light. If coupled directly into a 100 or 200 {micro}m core fiber, light from a light emitting diode (LED) is sufficient to operate the sensor. In addition, LEDs ensure that no birefringence effects in the input fiber are possible, as the output from such light sources have random polarization. No lens is required since the large diameter optical fibers and thin crystals of materials having high Verdet constants (such as iron garnets) employed permit the collection of a substantial quantity of light. No coupler is required. The maximum amount of light which could reach a detector using a coupler is 25%, while the measured throughput of the fiber-optic bundle without a coupler is about 42%. All of the elements employed in the present sensor are planar, and no particular orientation of these elements is required. The present sensor operates over a wide range of distances from magnetic field sources, and observed signals are large. When a tone wheel is utilized, the signals are independent of wheel speed, and the modulation is observed to be about 75%. No sensitivity to bends in the input or output optical fiber leads was observed. Reliable operation was achieved down to zero frequency, or no wheel rotation. 5 figs.

Veeser, L.R.; Forman, P.R.; Rodriguez, P.J.

1998-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

52

Lensless Magneto-optic speed sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lensless magneto-optic speed sensor. The construction of a viable Faraday sensor has been achieved. Multimode fiber bundles are used to collect the light. If coupled directly into a 100 or 200 .mu.m core fiber, light from a light emitting diode (LED) is sufficient to operate the sensor. In addition, LEDs ensure that no birefringence effects in the input fiber are possible, as the output from such light sources have random polarization. No lens is required since the large diameter optical fibers and thin crystals of materials having high Verdet constants (such as iron garnets) employed permit the collection of a substantial quantity of light. No coupler is required. The maximum amount of light which could reach a detector using a coupler is 25%, while the measured throughput of the fiber-optic bundle without a coupler is about 42%. All of the elements employed in the present sensor are planar, and no particular orientation of these elements is required. The present sensor operates over a wide range of distances from magnetic field sources, and observed signals are large. When a tone wheel is utilized, the signals are independent of wheel speed, and the modulation is observed to be about 75%. No sensitivity to bends in the input or output optical fiber leads was observed. Reliable operation was achieved down to zero frequency, or no wheel rotation.

Veeser, Lynn R. (Los Alamos, NM); Forman, Peter R. (Los Alamos, NM); Rodriguez, Patrick J. (Santa Fe, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Sensor for detecting and differentiating chemical analytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sensor for detecting and differentiating chemical analytes includes a microscale body having a first end and a second end and a surface between the ends for adsorbing a chemical analyte. The surface includes at least one conductive heating track for heating the chemical analyte and also a conductive response track, which is electrically isolated from the heating track, for producing a thermal response signal from the chemical analyte. The heating track is electrically connected with a voltage source and the response track is electrically connected with a signal recorder. The microscale body is restrained at the first end and the second end and is substantially isolated from its surroundings therebetween, thus having a bridge configuration.

Yi, Dechang (Metuchen, NJ); Senesac, Lawrence R. (Knoxville, TN); Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN)

2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

54

Optical fiber sensors for harsh environments  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A diaphragm optic sensor comprises a ferrule including a bore having an optical fiber disposed therein and a diaphragm attached to the ferrule, the diaphragm being spaced apart from the ferrule to form a Fabry-Perot cavity. The cavity is formed by creating a pit in the ferrule or in the diaphragm. The components of the sensor are preferably welded together, preferably by laser welding. In some embodiments, the entire ferrule is bonded to the fiber along the entire length of the fiber within the ferrule; in other embodiments, only a portion of the ferrule is welded to the fiber. A partial vacuum is preferably formed in the pit. A small piece of optical fiber with a coefficient of thermal expansion chosen to compensate for mismatches between the main fiber and ferrule may be spliced to the end of the fiber.

Xu, Juncheng; Wang, Anbo

2007-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

55

Electro-optical voltage sensor head  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

Woods, Gregory K. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Chemical and biological sensors based on organic semiconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis I designed, fabricated and characterized two types of sensors: chemical sensors based on organic thin film transistors, and a miniaturized surface plasmon resonance biosensors for biotechnology and medical ...

Bora, Mihail

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Electro-chemical sensors, sensor arrays and circuits  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electro-chemical sensor includes a first electrode, a second electrode spaced apart from the first electrode, and a semiconductor channel in electrical contact with the first and second electrodes. The semiconductor channel includes a trapping material. The trapping material reduces an ability of the semiconductor channel to conduct a current of charge carriers by trapping at least some of the charge carriers to localized regions within the semiconductor channel. The semiconductor channel includes at least a portion configured to be exposed to an analyte to be detected, and the trapping material, when exposed to the analyte, interacts with the analyte so as to at least partially restore the ability of the semiconductor channel to conduct the current of charge carriers.

Katz, Howard E.; Kong, Hoyoul

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

58

Phase sensor for solar adaptive-optics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wavefront sensing in solar adaptive-optics is currently done with correlating Shack-Hartmann sensors, although the spatial- and temporal-resolutions of the phase measurements are then limited by the extremely fast computing required to correlate the sensor signals at the frequencies of daytime atmospheric-fluctuations. To avoid this limitation, a new wavefront-sensing technique is presented, that makes use of the solar brightness and is applicable to extended sources. The wavefront is sent through a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A small, central part of the wavefront is used as reference and is made to interfere with the rest of the wavefront. The contrast of two simultaneously measured interference-patterns provides a direct estimate of the wavefront phase, no additional computation being required. The proposed optical layout shows precise initial alignment to be the critical point in implementing the new wavefront-sensing scheme.

Kellerer, Aglae

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Nanometric Optical Imaging Frontiers in Chemical Imaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanometric Optical Imaging Frontiers in Chemical Imaging Seminar Series Presented by... Professor growing field which has provided for nanometric optical imaging in the near-field. Even though a variety of techniques are being developed with nanometric optical imaging potential, near-field optics remains the most

60

INTRODUCTION Optical sensors have long been used in the Great  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INTRODUCTION Optical sensors have long been used in the Great Lakes to track changes and Haw- ley 1998, Hawley and Lee 1999, for example), but the use of acoustic sensors for this purpose Concentrations Measured by Acoustic and Optical Sensors Nathan Hawley* Great Lakes Environmental Research

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optic chemical sensors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Active Control Strategies for Chemical Sensors and Sensor Arrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

validated on metal-oxide (MOX) sensors. Our results show that the active sensing method obtains better classification performance than passive sensing methods, and also is more robust to additive Gaussian noise in sensor measurements. Second, we consider...

Gosangi, Rakesh

2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

62

Fiber Optic Sensors for PEM Fuel Cells Nigel David  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fiber Optic Sensors for PEM Fuel Cells by Nigel David B.Sc., Simon Fraser University, 2004 M or other means, without the permission of the author. #12;ii Fiber Optic Sensors for PEM Fuel Cells Fyles, Outside Member (Department of Chemistry) ABSTRACT Fibre-optic sensing techniques for application

Victoria, University of

63

Sensors and Actuators A xxx (2004) xxxxxx Micromachined silicon force sensor based on diffractive optical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensors and Actuators A xxx (2004) xxx­xxx Micromachined silicon force sensor based on diffractive-based force sensor integrated with a surface micromachined silicon-nitride probe for penetration and injection that is designed to only be sensitive to axial deflections of the probe. The optical-encoder force sensor exhibits

Quake, Stephen R.

64

Electro-optic high voltage sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A small sized electro-optic voltage sensor capable of accurate measurement of high voltages without contact with a conductor or voltage source is provided. When placed in the presence of an electric field, the sensor receives an input beam of electromagnetic radiation. A polarization beam displacer separates the input beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations and causes one linearly polarized beam to impinge a crystal at a desired angle independent of temperature. The Pockels effect elliptically polarizes the beam as it travels through the crystal. A reflector redirects the beam back through the crystal and the beam displacer. On the return path, the polarization beam displacer separates the elliptically polarized beam into two output beams of orthogonal linear polarization. The system may include a detector for converting the output beams into electrical signals and a signal processor for determining the voltage based on an analysis of the output beams.

Davidson, James R.; Seifert, Gary D.

2003-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

65

Signal processing for fiber optic acoustic sensor system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pulses from a single mode laser. Signals from multiple sensors in the array are separated and demultiplexed. The acoustic pressure information is determined by processing the returned optical pulses using a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer as an optical...

Zhu, Juhong

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Side-emitting fiber optic position sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A side-emitting fiber optic position sensor and method of determining an unknown position of an object by using the sensor. In one embodiment, a concentrated beam of light source illuminates the side of a side-emitting fiber optic at an unknown axial position along the fiber's length. Some of this side-illuminated light is in-scattered into the fiber and captured. As the captured light is guided down the fiber, its intensity decreases due to loss from side-emission away from the fiber and from bulk absorption within the fiber. By measuring the intensity of light emitted from one (or both) ends of the fiber with a photodetector(s), the axial position of the light source is determined by comparing the photodetector's signal to a calibrated response curve, look-up table, or by using a mathematical model. Alternatively, the side-emitting fiber is illuminated at one end, while a photodetector measures the intensity of light emitted from the side of the fiber, at an unknown position. As the photodetector moves further away from the illuminated end, the detector's signal strength decreases due to loss from side-emission and/or bulk absorption. As before, the detector's signal is correlated to a unique position along the fiber.

Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

67

Excess optical quantum noise in atomic sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enhanced nonlinear optical response of a coherent atomic medium is the basis for many atomic sensors, and their performance is ultimately limited by the quantum fluctuations of the optical read-out. Here we demonstrate that off-resonant interactions can significantly modify the quantum noise of the optical field, even when their effect on the mean signal is negligible. We illustrate this concept by using an atomic magnetometer based on the nonlinear Faraday effect: the rotation of the light polarization is mainly determined by the resonant light-induced spin alignment, which alone does not change the photon statistics of the optical probe. Yet, we found that the minimum noise of output polarization rotation measurements is above the expected shot noise limit. This excess quantum noise is due to off-resonant coupling and grows with atomic density. We also show that the detection scheme can be modified to reduce the measured quantum noise (even below the shot-noise limit) but only at the expense of the reduced rotational sensitivity. These results show the existence of previously unnoticed factors in fundamental limitations in atomic magnetometry and could have impacts in many other atom-light based precision measurements.

Irina Novikova; Eugeniy E. Mikhailov; Yanhong Xiao

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

68

Micro optical fiber light source and sensor and method of fabrication thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates generally to the development of and a method of fabricating a fiber optic micro-light source and sensor (50). An optical fiber micro-light source (50) is presented whose aperture is extremely small yet able to act as an intense light source. Light sources of this type have wide ranging applications, including use as micro-sensors (22) in NSOM. Micro-sensor light sources have excellent detection limits as well as photo stability, reversibility, and millisecond response times. Furthermore, a method for manufacturing a micro optical fiber light source is provided. It involves the photo-chemical attachment of an optically active material onto the end surface of an optical fiber cable which has been pulled to form an end with an extremely narrow aperture. More specifically, photopolymerization has been applied as a means to photo-chemically attach an optically active material (60). This process allows significant control of the size of the micro light source (50). Furthermore, photo-chemically attaching an optically active material (60) enables the implementation of the micro-light source in a variety of sensor applications.

Kopelman, Raoul (Ann Arbor, MI); Tan, Weihong (Ames, IA); Shi, Zhong-You (Ann Arbor, MI)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Micro optical fiber light source and sensor and method of fabrication thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates generally to the development of and a method of fabricating a fiber optic micro-light source and sensor. An optical fiber micro-light source is presented whose aperture is extremely small yet able to act as an intense light source. Light sources of this type have wide ranging applications, including use as micro-sensors in NSOM. Micro-sensor light sources have excellent detection limits as well as photo stability, reversibility, and millisecond response times. Furthermore, a method for manufacturing a micro optical fiber light source is provided. It involves the photo-chemical attachment of an optically active material onto the end surface of an optical fiber cable which has been pulled to form an end with an extremely narrow aperture. More specifically, photopolymerization has been applied as a means to photo-chemically attach an optically active material. This process allows significant control of the size of the micro light source. Furthermore, photo-chemically attaching an optically active material enables the implementation of the micro-light source in a variety of sensor applications. 10 figs.

Kopelman, R.; Tan, W.; Shi, Z.Y.

1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

70

Electro-optic high voltage sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A small sized electro-optic voltage sensor capable of accurate measurement of high levels of voltages without contact with a conductor or voltage source is provided. When placed in the presence of an electric field, the sensor receives an input beam of electromagnetic radiation into the sensor. A polarization beam displacer serves as a filter to separate the input beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations. The beam displacer is oriented in such a way as to rotate the linearly polarized beams such that they enter a Pockels crystal having at a preferred angle of 45 degrees. The beam displacer is therefore capable of causing a linearly polarized beam to impinge a crystal at a desired angle independent of temperature. The Pockels electro-optic effect induces a differential phase shift on the major and minor axes of the input beam as it travels through the Pockels crystal, which causes the input beam to be elliptically polarized. A reflecting prism redirects the beam back through the crystal and the beam displacer. On the return path, the polarization beam displacer separates the elliptically polarized beam into two output beams of orthogonal linear polarization representing the major and minor axes. The system may include a detector for converting the output beams into electrical signals, and a signal processor for determining the voltage based on an analysis of the output beams. The output beams are amplitude modulated by the frequency of the electric field and the amplitude of the output beams is proportional to the magnitude of the electric field, which is related to the voltage being measured.

Davidson, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Seifert, Gary D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

SINGLE-CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accurate measurement of temperature is essential for the safe and efficient operation and control of a wide range of industrial processes. Appropriate techniques and instrumentation are needed depending on the temperature measurement requirements in different industrial processes and working environments. Harsh environments are common in many industrial applications. These harsh environments may involve extreme physical conditions, such as high-temperature, high-pressure, corrosive agents, toxicity, strong electromagnetic interference, and high-energy radiation exposure. Due to these severe environmental conditions, conventional temperature sensors are often difficult to apply. This situation has opened a new but challenging opportunity for the sensor society to provide robust, high-performance, and cost-effective temperature sensors capable of operating in those harsh environments. The focus of this research program has been to develop a temperature measurement system for temperature measurements in the primary and secondary stages of slagging gasifiers. For this application the temperature measurement system must be able to withstand the extremely harsh environment posed by the high temperatures and corrosive agents present in these systems. Real-time, accurate and reliable monitoring of temperature for the coal gasification process is important to realize the full economic potential of these gasification systems. Long life and stability of operation in the high temperature environment is essential for the temperature measurement system to ensure the continuous running of the coal gasification system over the long term. In this high temperature and chemically corrosive environment, rather limited high temperature measurement techniques such as high temperature thermocouples and optical/acoustic pyrometers are available, each with their own limitations. In this research program, five different temperature sensing schemes based on the single crystal sapphire material were thoroughly investigated to determine an optimal approach for on-line, real-time, reliable, long-term monitoring of temperatures inside the coal gasification environment. Among these were a sapphire fiber extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) sensor; an intensity-measurement based polarimetric sapphire sensor and a broadband polarimetric differential interferometric (BPDI) sapphire sensor. Based on the current evaluation and analysis of the experimental results, the broadband polarimetric differential interferometric (BPDI) sensor system was chosen for further prototype instrumentation development because of it's superior performance compared to the other systems. This approach is based on the self-calibrating measurement of the optical path length differences in a single-crystal sapphire disk, which is a function of both the temperature dependent birefringence and the temperature dependent dimensional changes.

A. Wang; G. Pickrell; R. May

2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

72

SINGLE-CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accurate measurement of temperature is essential for the safe and efficient operation and control of a wide range of industrial processes. Appropriate techniques and instrumentation are needed depending on the temperature measurement requirements in different industrial processes and working environments. Harsh environments are common in many industrial applications. These harsh environments may involve extreme physical conditions, such as high-temperature, high-pressure, corrosive agents, toxicity, strong electromagnetic interference, and high-energy radiation exposure. Due to these severe environmental conditions, conventional temperature sensors are often difficult to apply. This situation has opened a new but challenging opportunity for the sensor society to provide robust, high-performance, and cost-effective temperature sensors capable of operating in those harsh environments. The focus of this research program has been to develop a temperature measurement system for temperature measurements in the primary and secondary stages of slagging gasifiers. For this application the temperature measurement system must be able to withstand the extremely harsh environment posed by the high temperatures and corrosive agents present in these systems. Real-time, accurate and reliable monitoring of temperature for the coal gasification process is important to realize the full economic potential of these gasification systems. Long life and stability of operation in the high temperature environment is essential for the temperature measurement system to ensure the continuous running of the coal gasification system over the long term. In this high temperature and chemically corrosive environment, rather limited high temperature measurement techniques such as high temperature thermocouples and optical/acoustic pyrometers are available, each with their own limitations. In this research program, five different temperature sensing schemes based on the single crystal sapphire material were thoroughly investigated to determine an optimal approach for on-line, real-time, reliable, long-term monitoring of temperatures inside the coal gasification environment. Among these were a sapphire fiber extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) sensor; an intensity-measurement based polarimetric sapphire sensor and a broadband polarimetric differential interferometric (BPDI) sapphire sensor. Based on the current evaluation and analysis of the experimental results, the BPDI sensor system was chosen for further prototype instrumentation development because of it's superior performance compared to the other systems. This approach is based on the self-calibrating measurement of the optical path length differences in a single-crystal sapphire disk, which is a function of both the temperature dependent birefringence and the temperature dependent dimensional changes.

A. Wang; G. Pickrell; R. May

2002-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

73

Proceedings: 3rd EPRI Optical Sensor Systems Workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These are the proceedings of the third Optical Sensor System Workshop, part of an ongoing effort by EPRI to support development of optical sensor technology, to identify benefits for utility users, and to position EPRI members as more ''informed buyers'' and users.

None

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Fiber-optic oxygen sensor using molybdenum chloride cluster luminescence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fiber-optic oxygen sensor using molybdenum chloride cluster luminescence Ruby N. Ghosh,a) Gregory L on a reflection-mode fiber-optic oxygen sensor based on the 3 O2 quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Measurements of the probe operating in a 0%­21% gaseous oxygen environment have

Ghosh, Ruby N.

75

Optical, physical, and chemical properties of springtime aerosol...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Optical, physical, and chemical properties of springtime aerosol over Barrow Alaska in 2008. Optical, physical, and chemical properties of springtime aerosol over Barrow Alaska in...

76

High-temperature fiber optic cubic-zirconia pressure sensor - article no. 124402  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a critical need for pressure sensors that can operate reliably at high temperatures in many industrial segments such as in the combustion section of gas turbine engines for both transportation and power generation, coal gasifiers, coal fired boilers, etc. Optical-based sensors are particularly attractive for the measurement of a wide variety of physical and chemical parameters in high-temperature and high-pressure industrial environments due to their small size and immunity to electromagnetic interference. A fiber optic pressure sensor utilizing single-crystal cubic zirconia as the sensing element is reported. The pressure response of this sensor has been measured at temperatures up to 1000{sup o}C. Additional experimental results show that cubic zirconia could be used for pressure sensing at temperatures over 1000{sup o}C. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a novel cubic-zirconia sensor for pressure measurement at high temperatures.

Peng, W.; Pickrell, G.R.; Wang, A.B. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

Fiber-Optic Long-Line Position Sensor  

Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

Sandia National Laboratories has developed a side-emitting fiber optic position sensor and method of determining an unknown position of an object by using the sensor. Non-electrical position sensors like the one developed by Sandia are desirable for use in hazardous environment, e.g., for measuring the liquid level in gasoline or jet fuel tanks. This sensor is an attractive option because it does notintroduce electrical energy, is insensitive to electromagnetic interference,...

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

78

Nano-scale Sensor Networks for Chemical Eisa Zarepour1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nano-scale Sensor Networks for Chemical Catalysis Eisa Zarepour1 Mahbub Hassan1 Chun Tung Chou1- searchers are now investigating the viability of nano-scale sensor networks (NSNs), which are formed natural gas to liquid fuel. Given that reliable wireless communi- cation at nano-scale is at very early

New South Wales, University of

79

Evaluations of fiber optic sensors for interior applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report addresses the testing and evaluation of commercial fiber optic intrusion detection systems in interior applications. The applications include laying optical fiber cable above suspended ceilings to detect removal of ceiling tiles, embedding optical fibers inside a tamper or item monitoring blanket that could be placed over an asset, and installing optical fibers on a door to detect movement or penetration. Detection capability of the fiber optic sensors as well as nuisance and false alarm information were focused on during the evaluation. Fiber optic sensor processing, system components, and system setup are described.

Sandoval, M.W.; Malone, T.P.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Ultra-High Temperature Sensors Based on Optical Property  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this program, Nuonics, Inc. has studied the fundamentals of a new Silicon Carbide (SiC) materials-based optical sensor technology suited for extreme environments of coal-fired engines in power production. The program explored how SiC could be used for sensing temperature, pressure, and potential gas species in a gas turbine environment. The program successfully demonstrated the optical designs, signal processing and experimental data for enabling both temperature and pressure sensing using SiC materials. The program via its sub-contractors also explored gas species sensing using SiC, in this case, no clear commercially deployable method was proven. Extensive temperature and pressure measurement data using the proposed SiC sensors was acquired to 1000 deg-C and 40 atms, respectively. Importantly, a first time packaged all-SiC probe design was successfully operated in a Siemens industrial turbine rig facility with the probe surviving the harsh chemical, pressure, and temperature environment during 28 days of test operations. The probe also survived a 1600 deg-C thermal shock test using an industrial flame.

Nabeel Riza

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optic chemical sensors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Micro optical fiber light source and sensor and method of fabrication thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates generally to the development of and a method of fabricating a micro optical fiber light source. An optical fiber micro-light source is presented whose aperture is extremely small yet able to act as an intense light source. Light sources of this type have wide ranging applications, including use as micro-sensors in NSOM. Micro-sensor light sources have excellent detection limits as well as photo stability, reversibility, and millisecond response times. Furthermore, a method for manufacturing a micro optical fiber light source is provided. It involves the photo-chemical attachment of an optically active material onto the end surface of an optical fiber cable which has been pulled to form an end with an extremely narrow aperture. More specifically, photopolymerization has been applied as a means to photo-chemically attach an optically active material. This process allows significant control of the size of the micro light source. Furthermore, photo-chemically attaching an optically active material enables the implementation of the micro-light source in a variety of sensor applications.

Kopelman, Raoul (Ann Arbor, MI); Tan, Weihong (Ann Arbor, MI); Shi, Zhong-You (Ann Arbor, MI)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Micro optical fiber light source and sensor and method of fabrication thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates generally to the development of and a method of fabricating a micro optical fiber light source. An optical fiber micro-light source is presented whose aperture is extremely small yet able to act as an intense light source. Light sources of this type have wide ranging applications, including use as micro-sensors in NSOM. Micro-sensor light sources have excellent detection limits as well as photo stability, reversibility, and millisecond response times. Furthermore, a method for manufacturing a micro optical fiber light source is provided. It involves the photo-chemical attachment of an optically active material onto the end surface of an optical fiber cable which has been pulled to form an end with an extremely narrow aperture. More specifically, photopolymerization has been applied as a means to photo-chemically attach an optically active material. This process allows significant control of the size of the micro light source. Furthermore, photo-chemically attaching an optically active material enables the implementation of the micro-light source in a variety of sensor applications. 4 figs.

Kopelman, R.; Tan, W.; Shi, Z.Y.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Plasmonics Based Harsh Environment Compatible Chemical Sensors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Au-YSZ, Au-TiO{sub 2} and Au-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite films have been investigated as a potential sensing element for high-temperature plasmonic sensing of H{sub 2}, CO, and NO{sub 2} in an oxygen containing environment. The Au-YSZ and Au-TiO{sub 2} films were deposited using PVD methods, while the CeO{sub 2} thin film was deposited by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and Au was implanted into the as-grown film at an elevated temperature followed by high temperature annealing to form well-defined Au nanoclusters. Each of the films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). For the gas sensing experiments, separate exposures to varying concentrations of H{sub 2}, CO, and NO{sub 2} were performed at a temperature of 500°C in oxygen backgrounds of 5.0, 10, and ~21% O{sub 2}. Changes in the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption peak were monitored during gas exposures and are believed to be the result of oxidation-reduction processes that fill or create oxygen vacancies in the respective metal oxides. This process affects the LSPR peak position either by charge exchange with the Au nanoparticles or by changes in the dielectric constant surrounding the particles. Hyperspectral multivariate analysis was used to gauge the inherent selectivity of the film between the separate analytes. From principal component analysis (PCA), unique and identifiable responses were seen for each of the analytes. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was also used on the Au-CeO{sub 2} results and showed separation between analytes as well as trends in gas concentration. Results indicate that each of the films are is selective towards O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CO, and NO{sub 2} in separate exposures. However, when the films were analyzed in a sensor array based experiment, ie simultaneous exposures to the target gases, PCA analysis of the combined response showed an even greater selective character towards the target gases. Combined with the observed stability over long exposure periods, each of these Au-metal oxide films shows good potential as an optical sensing element for harsh environmental conditions.

Michael Carpenter

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

84

Semiconductor sensor for optically measuring polarization rotation of optical wavefronts using rare earth iron garnets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described are the design of a rare earth iron garnet sensor element, optical methods of interrogating the sensor element, methods of coupling the optical sensor element to a waveguide, and an optical and electrical processing system for monitoring the polarization rotation of a linearly polarized wavefront undergoing external modulation due to magnetic field or electrical current fluctuation. The sensor element uses the Faraday effect, an intrinsic property of certain rare-earth iron garnet materials, to rotate the polarization state of light in the presence of a magnetic field. The sensor element may be coated with a thin-film mirror to effectively double the optical path length, providing twice the sensitivity for a given field strength or temperature change. A semiconductor sensor system using a rare earth iron garnet sensor element is described.

Duncan, Paul G. (8544 Electric Ave., Vienna, VA 22182)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Forty-Four Pass Fibre Optic Loop for Improving the Sensitivity of Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A forty-four pass fibre optic surface plasmon resonance sensor that enhances detection sensitivity according to the number of passes is demonstrated for the first time. The technique employs a fibre optic recirculation loop that passes the detection spot forty- four times, thus enhancing sensitivity by a factor of forty-four. Presently, the total number of passes is limited by the onset of lasing action of the recirculation loop. This technique offers a significant sensitivity improvement for various types of plasmon resonance sensors that may be used in chemical and biomolecule detections.

Chin B Su; Jun Kameoka

2007-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

86

Evaluation of chemical sensors for in situ ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a preliminary review and evaluation of instrument systems and sensors that may be used to detect ground-water contaminants in situ at the Hanford Site. Three topics are covered in this report: (1) identification of a group of priority contaminants at Hanford that could be monitored in situ, (2) a review of current instrument systems and sensors for environmental monitoring, and (3) an evaluation of instrument systems that could be used to monitor Hanford contaminants. Thirteen priority contaminants were identified in Hanford ground water, including carbon tetrachloride and six related chlorinated hydrocarbons, cyanide, methyl ethyl ketone, chromium (VI), fluoride, nitrate, and uranium. Based on transduction principles, chemical sensors were divided into four classes, ten specific types of instrument systems were considered: fluorescence spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), spark excitation-fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor (FOSES), chemical optrodes, stripping voltammetry, catalytic surface-modified ion electrode immunoassay sensors, resistance/capacitance, quartz piezobalance and surface acoustic wave devices. Because the flow of heat is difficult to control, there are currently no environmental chemical sensors based on thermal transduction. The ability of these ten instrument systems to detect the thirteen priority contaminants at the Hanford Site at the required sensitivity was evaluated. In addition, all ten instrument systems were qualitatively evaluated for general selectivity, response time, reliability, and field operability. 45 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

Murphy, E.M.; Hostetler, D.D.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

New Optical Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accomplishments of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants and solid oxide fuel cells are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring.

John Coggin; Tom Flynn; Jonas Ivasauskas; Daniel Kominsky; Carrie Kozikowski; Russell May; Michael Miller; Tony Peng; Gary Pickrell; Raymond Rumpf; Kelly Stinson-Bagby; Dan Thorsen; Rena Wilson

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

88

Distributed fiber optic intrusion sensor system for monitoring long perimeters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A distributed sensor using an optical fiber for detecting and locating intruders over long perimeters (>10 km) is described. Phase changes resulting from either the pressure of the intruder on the ground immediately above the buried fiber or from...

Juarez, Juan C.

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

89

Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor for PEM Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor for PEM Fuel Cells S.W. Allison, T.J. McIntyre, L.C. Maxey, M Objectives · Develop a low cost, robust temperature sensor for monitoring fuel cell condition and performance Hydrogren and Fuel Cells Merit Review Meeting May 19-22, 2003, Berkeley, California #12;Program Goals

90

Cloaking a sensor for three-dimensional Maxwell's equations: transformation optics approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

P. Sheng, Transformation optics and metamaterials, Nat.sensor via transformation optics, Phys. Rev. E 83, 016603 (October 2011 / Vol. 19, No. 21 / OPTICS EXPRESS 20518 13. G.

Chen, Xudong; Uhlmann, Gunther

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Extrinsic fiber optic displacement sensors and displacement sensing systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An extrinsic Fizeau fiber optic sensor comprises a single-mode fiber, used as an input/output fiber, and a multimode fiber, used purely as a reflector, to form an air gap within a silica tube that acts as a Fizeau cavity. The Fresnel reflection from the glass/air interface at the front of the air gap (reference reflection) and the reflection from the air/glass interface at the far end of the air gap (sensing reflection) interfere in the input/output fiber. The two fibers are allowed to move in the silica tube, and changes in the air gap length cause changes in the phase difference between the reference reflection and the sensing reflection. This phase difference is observed as changes in intensity of the light monitored at the output arm of a fused biconical tapered coupler. The extrinsic Fizeau fiber optic sensor behaves identically whether it is surface mounted or embedded, which is unique to the extrinsic sensor in contrast to intrinsic Fabry-Perot sensors. The sensor may be modified to provide a quadrature phase shift extrinsic Fizeau fiber optic sensor for the detection of both the amplitude and the relative polarity of dynamically varying strain. The quadrature light signals may be generated by either mechanical or optical means. A plurality of the extrinsic sensors may connected in cascade and multiplexed to allow monitoring by a single analyzer.

Murphy, Kent A. (Roanoke, VA); Gunther, Michael F. (Blacksburg, VA); Vengsarkar, Ashish M. (Scotch Plains, NJ); Claus, Richard O. (Christiansburg, VA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Intrinsic Fabry-Perot optical fiber sensors and their multiplexing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An intrinsic Fabry-Perot optical sensor includes a thin film sandwiched between two fiber ends. When light is launched into the fiber, two reflections are generated at the two fiber/thin film interfaces due to a difference in refractive indices between the fibers and the film, giving rise to the sensor output. In another embodiment, a portion of the cladding of a fiber is removed, creating two parallel surfaces. Part of the evanescent fields of light propagating in the fiber is reflected at each of the surfaces, giving rise to the sensor output. In a third embodiment, the refractive index of a small portion of a fiber is changed through exposure to a laser beam or other radiation. Interference between reflections at the ends of the small portion give rise to the sensor output. Multiple sensors along a single fiber are multiplexed using an optical time domain reflectometry method.

Wang, Anbo (Blacksburg, VA)

2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

93

Chemical sensor with oscillating cantilevered probe  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides a method of detecting a chemical species with an oscillating cantilevered probe. A cantilevered beam is driven into oscillation with a drive mechanism coupled to the cantilevered beam. A free end of the oscillating cantilevered beam is tapped against a mechanical stop coupled to a base end of the cantilevered beam. An amplitude of the oscillating cantilevered beam is measured with a sense mechanism coupled to the cantilevered beam. A treated portion of the cantilevered beam is exposed to the chemical species, wherein the cantilevered beam bends when exposed to the chemical species. A second amplitude of the oscillating cantilevered beam is measured, and the chemical species is determined based on the measured amplitudes.

Adams, Jesse D

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

94

Optics-less Sensors for Localization of Radiation Sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new family of radiation sensors is introduced which do not require any optics. The sensors consist of arrays of elementary sub-sensors with natural cosine-law or similar angular sensitivity supplemented with a signal processing unit that computes optimal statistical estimations of source parameters. We show, both theoretically and by computer simulation, that such sensors are capable of accurate localization and intensity estimation of a given number of radiation sources and of imaging of a given number of sources in known positions. The accuracy is found to be dependent only on the sub-sensors noise level, on the number of sub-sensors and on the spacing between radiation sources.

H. J. Caulfield; L. P. Yaroslavsky; Ch. Goerzen; S. Umansky

2008-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

95

Analytical Chemistry CHM1102H Biosensors & Chemical Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hyphenated techniques that bridge to information detectors such as mass spectrometers. New opportunitiesAnalytical Chemistry CHM1102H Biosensors & Chemical Sensors (Cross-listed Undergraduate CHM414H-called "electronic nose". CHM1103H Advanced Topics in Analytical Chemistry (Cross-listed Undergraduate CHM414H - UTM

Chan, Hue Sun

96

NEW OPTICAL SENSOR SUITE FOR ULTRAHIGH TEMPERATURE FOSSIL FUEL APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accomplishments during the Phase I of a program to develop and demonstrate technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants are described. Engineers from Prime Research, LC and Babcock and Wilcox Research Center collaborated to generate a list of potential applications for robust photonic sensors in existing and future boiler plants. From that list, three applications were identified as primary candidates for initial development and demonstration of high-temperature sensors in an ultrasupercritical power plant. A matrix of potential fiber optic sensor approaches was derived, and a data set of specifications for high-temperature optical fiber was produced. Several fiber optic sensor configurations, including interferometric (extrinsic and intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer), gratings (fiber Bragg gratings and long period gratings), and microbend sensors, were evaluated in the laboratory. In addition, progress was made in the development of materials and methods to apply high-temperature optical claddings to sapphire fibers, in order to improve their optical waveguiding properties so that they can be used in the design and fabrication of high-temperature sensors. Through refinements in the processing steps, the quality of the interface between core and cladding of the fibers was improved, which is expected to reduce scattering and attenuation in the fibers. Numerical aperture measurements of both clad and unclad sapphire fibers were obtained and used to estimate the reduction in mode volume afforded by the cladding. High-temperature sensors based on sapphire fibers were also investigated. The fabrication of an intrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity within sapphire fibers was attempted by the bulk diffusion of magnesium oxide into short localized segments of longer sapphire fibers. Fourier analysis of the fringes that resulted when the treated fiber was interrogated by a swept laser spectrometer suggested that an intrinsic cavity had been formed in the fiber. Also, an unclad sapphire fiber was tested as a temperature sensor at moderate temperatures (up to 775 C).

Russell G. May; Tony Peng; Tom Flynn

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of this project was to develop reliable cost effective sensors for application in the down-hole environment. The physical parameters measured by these sensors were temperature, pressure, flow and acoustic signals. Sensor head configurations for each of the physical measurands were optimized to increase the sensitivity to the particular measurand of interest while decreasing the cross-sensitivity to the other physical measurands and to environmental influences. In addition, the optical signal demodulation electronics was designed to be insensitive to environmental influences while maintaining the required resolution, precision and accuracy of the parameter being sensed. The influence of potentially detrimental agents such as water in the down-hole environment was investigated as well as methods to protect both the optical fiber and the sensor from these detrimental effects.

Wang, a.; Pickrell, G.; Xiao, H.; May, r.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

98

Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes technical progress during the program Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, the worlds smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 ?m) with 700C capability, UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

99

Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Optical thermometry is a growing technological field which exploits the ability of certain materials to change their optical properties with temperature. A subclass of such materials are those which change their color as a reversible and reproducible function of temperature. These materials are thermochromic. This invention is a composition to measure temperature utilizing thermochromic semiconductors.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Development of Metal Oxide Nanostructure-based Optical Sensors for Fossil Fuel Derived Gases Measurement at High Temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final technical report details research works performed supported by a Department of Energy grant (DE-FE0003859), which was awarded under the University Coal Research Program administrated by National Energy Technology Laboratory. This research program studied high temperature fiber sensor for harsh environment applications. It developed two fiber optical sensor platform technology including regenerative fiber Bragg grating sensors and distributed fiber optical sensing based on Rayleigh backscattering optical frequency domain reflectometry. Through the studies of chemical and thermal regenerative techniques for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) fabrication, high-temperature stable FBG sensors were successfully developed and fabricated in air-hole microstructured fibers, high-attenuation fibers, rare-earth doped fibers, and standard telecommunication fibers. By optimizing the laser processing and thermal annealing procedures, fiber grating sensors with stable performance up to 1100oC have been developed. Using these temperature-stable FBG gratings as sensor platform, fiber optical flow, temperature, pressure, and chemical sensors have been developed to operate at high temperatures up to 800oC. Through the integration of on-fiber functional coating, the use of application-specific air-hole microstructural fiber, and application of active fiber sensing scheme, distributed fiber sensor for temperature, pressure, flow, liquid level, and chemical sensing have been demonstrated with high spatial resolution (1-cm or better) with wide temperature ranges. These include the demonstration of 1) liquid level sensing from 77K to the room temperature, pressure/temperature sensing from the room temperature to 800C and from the 15psi to 2000 psi, and hydrogen concentration measurement from 0.2% to 10% with temperature ranges from the room temperature to 700C. Optical sensors developed by this program has broken several technical records including flow sensors with the highest operation temperature up to 750oC, first distributed chemical measurements at the record high temperature up to 700oC, first distributed pressure measurement at the record high temperature up to 800oC, and the fiber laser sensors with the record high operation temperature up to 700oC. The research performed by this program dramatically expand the functionality, adaptability, and applicability of distributed fiber optical sensors with potential applications in a number of high-temperature energy systems such as fossil-fuel power generation, high-temperature fuel cell applications, and potential for nuclear energy systems.

Chen, Kevin

2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optic chemical sensors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Ammonia Sensors Based on Doped-Sol-Gel-Tipped Optical Fibers...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Sensors Based on Doped-Sol-Gel-Tipped Optical Fibers for Catalyst System Diagnostics Ammonia Sensors Based on Doped-Sol-Gel-Tipped Optical Fibers for Catalyst System Diagnostics...

102

Electro-optic voltage sensor with Multiple Beam Splitting  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages without use of the dedicated voltage dividing hardware. The invention achieves voltage measurement without significant error contributions from neighboring conductors or environmental perturbations. The invention employs a transmitter, a sensor, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor. Within the sensor the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect produces a modulation of the beam's polarization, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent conversely-amplitude-modulated signals, from which the voltage of the E-field is determined by the signal processor. The use of converse AM signals enables the signal processor to better distinguish signal from noise. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

Woods, Gregory K. (Cornelius, OR); Renak, Todd W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Crawford, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davidson, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Electro-optic voltage sensor with beam splitting  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages without use of the dedicated voltage dividing hardware typically found in the prior art. The invention achieves voltage measurement without significant error contributions from neighboring conductors or environmental perturbations. The invention employs a transmitter, a sensor, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor. Within the sensor the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect produces a modulation of the beam's polarization, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent conversely-amplitude-modulated signals, from which the voltage of the E-field is determined by the signal processor. The use of converse AM signals enables the signal processor to better distinguish signal from noise. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

Woods, Gregory K. (Cornelius, OR); Renak, Todd W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davidson, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Crawford, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Optical fiber sensors for smart materials characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optical and optical fiber methods may be used to characterize materials and structures. Their advantages for such applications include their immunity to electromagnetic interference, high sensitivity, resolution and dynamic range, and ability to operate in harsh environmental conditions. This paper describes the application of such methods to the characterization of smart materials and structures during their fabrication, in-service lifetime, and damage and degradation.

Claus, R.O. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

NEW OPTICAL SENSOR SUITE FOR ULTRAHIGH TEMPERATURE FOSSIL FUEL APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accomplishments during the first six months of a program to develop and demonstrate technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants are described. Engineers from Prime Research, LC and Babcock and Wilcox Research Center collaborated to generate a list of potential applications for robust photonic sensors in existing and future boiler plants. From that list, three applications were identified as primary candidates for initial development and demonstration of high-temperature sensors in an ultrasupercritical power plant. In addition, progress was made in the development of materials and methods to apply high-temperature optical claddings to sapphire fibers, in order to improve their optical waveguiding properties so that they can be used in the design and fabrication of high-temperature sensors. Through refinements in the processing steps, the quality of the interface between core and cladding of the fibers was improved, which is expected to reduce scattering and attenuation in the fibers.

Russell G. May; Tony Peng; Tom Flynn

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

On-Road Vehicle Detection Using Optical Sensors: A Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 On-Road Vehicle Detection Using Optical Sensors: A Review Zehang Sun1 , George Bebis2 and Ronald are expected to add up to 1%-3% of the world's gross domestic product [1]. With the aim of reducing injury

Bebis, George

107

Chemometrics review for chemical sensor development, task 7 report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, the seventh in a series on the evaluation of several chemical sensors for use in the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) site characterization and monitoring programs, concentrates on the potential use of chemometrics techniques in analysis of sensor data. Chemometrics is the chemical discipline that uses mathematical, statistical, and other methods that employ formal logic to: design or select optimal measurement procedures and experiments and provide maximum relevant chemical information by analyzing chemical data. The report emphasizes the latter aspect. In a formal sense, two distinct phases are in chemometrics applications to analytical chemistry problems: (1) the exploratory data analysis phase and (2) the calibration and prediction phase. For use in real-world problems, it is wise to add a third aspect - the independent validation and verification phase. In practical applications, such as the ERWM work, and in order of decreasing difficulties, the most difficult tasks in chemometrics are: establishing the necessary infrastructure (to manage sampling records, data handling, and data storage and related aspects), exploring data analysis, and solving calibration problems, especially for nonlinear models. Chemometrics techniques are different for what are called zeroth-, first-, and second-order systems, and the details depend on the form of the assumed functional relationship between the measured response and the concentrations of components in mixtures. In general, linear relationships can be handled relatively easily, but nonlinear relationships can be difficult.

NONE

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A real time soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system includes a plurality of ground-engaging tools in association with individual soil sensors which measure soil chemical levels. The system includes the addition of a solvent which rapidly saturates the soil/tool interface to form a conductive solution of chemicals leached from the soil. A multivalent electrode, positioned within a multivalent frame of the ground-engaging tool, applies a voltage or impresses a current between the electrode and the tool frame. A real-time soil chemical sensor and controller senses the electrochemical reaction resulting from the application of the voltage or current to the leachate, measures it by resistivity methods, and compares it against pre-set resistivity levels for substances leached by the solvent. Still greater precision is obtained by calibrating for the secondary current impressed through solvent-less soil. The appropriate concentration is then found and the servo-controlled delivery system applies the appropriate amount of fertilizer or agricultural chemicals substantially in the location from which the soil measurement was taken.

Colburn, Jr., John W. (Houston, TX)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A real time soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system includes a plurality of ground-engaging tools in association with individual soil sensors which measure soil chemical levels. The system includes the addition of a solvent which rapidly saturates the soil/tool interface to form a conductive solution of chemicals leached from the soil. A multivalent electrode, positioned within a multivalent frame of the ground-engaging tool, applies a voltage or impresses a current between the electrode and the tool frame. A real-time soil chemical sensor and controller senses the electrochemical reaction resulting from the application of the voltage or current to the leachate, measures it by resistivity methods, and compares it against pre-set resistivity levels for substances leached by the solvent. Still greater precision is obtained by calibrating for the secondary current impressed through solvent-less soil. The appropriate concentration is then found and the servo-controlled delivery system applies the appropriate amount of fertilizer or agricultural chemicals substantially in the location from which the soil measurement was taken. 5 figures.

Colburn, J.W. Jr.

1991-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

110

Dynamic Fiber Optic Sensors Under Intense Radioactive Environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A liquid mercury target will be used as the neutron source for the proposed Spallation Neutron Source facility. This target is subjected to bombardment by short-pulse, high-energy proton beams. The intense thermal loads caused by interaction of the pulsed proton beam with the mercury create an enormous rate of temperature rise ({approximately}10{sup 7} K/s) during a very brief beam pulse ({approximately } 0.5 {micro}s). The resulting pressure waves in the mercury will interact with the walls of the mercury target and may lead to large stresses. To gain confidence in the mercury target design concept and to benchmark the computer design codes, we tested various electrical and optical sensors for measuring the transient strains on the walls of a mercury container and the pressures in the mercury. The sensors were attached on several sample mercury targets that were tested at various beam facilities: Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator, Los Alamos Neutron Science Center-Weapons Neutron Research, and Brookhaven National Laboratory's Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. The effects of intense background radiation on measured signals for each sensor are described and discussed. Preliminary results of limited tests at these facilities indicate that the fiber optic sensors function well in this intense radiation environment, whereas conventional electrical sensors are dysfunctional.

Allison, S.W.; Earl, D.D.; Haines, J.R.; Tsai, C.C.

1998-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

111

Sandia National Laboratories: sensors and optical diagnostics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbineredox-active perovskiteremovingsensors and optical diagnostics

112

A 16 mm3 autonomous solar-powered sensor node with bi-directional optical communication for distributed sensor net-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract A 16 mm3 autonomous solar-powered sensor node with bi- directional optical communication for distributed sensor net- works has been demonstrated. The device digitizes inte- grated sensor signals, a 2.6 mm2 SOI solar cell array, and a micromachined four-quadrant corner-cube retroreflector (CCR

Kahn, Joseph M.

113

Single walled carbon nanotubes functionally adsorbed to biopolymers for use as chemical sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Chemical field effect sensors comprising nanotube field effect devices having biopolymers such as single stranded DNA functionally adsorbed to the nanotubes are provided. Also included are arrays comprising the sensors and methods of using the devices to detect volatile compounds.

Johnson, Jr., Alan T. (Philadelphia, PA); Gelperin, Alan (Princeton, NJ); Staii, Cristian (Madison, WI)

2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

114

Optical penetration sensor for pulsed laser welding  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for determining the penetration of the weld pool created from pulsed laser welding and more particularly to an apparatus and method of utilizing an optical technique to monitor the weld vaporization plume velocity to determine the depth of penetration. A light source directs a beam through a vaporization plume above a weld pool, wherein the plume changes the intensity of the beam, allowing determination of the velocity of the plume. From the velocity of the plume, the depth of the weld is determined.

Essien, Marcelino (Albuquerque, NM); Keicher, David M. (Albuquerque, NM); Schlienger, M. Eric (Albuquerque, NM); Jellison, James L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Fluorescent Optical Position Sensor - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicyFeasibilityFieldMinds" |

116

Optical fiber-based fluorescent viscosity sensor Mark A. Haidekker and Walter J. Akers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical fiber-based fluorescent viscosity sensor Mark A. Haidekker and Walter J. Akers Department bound to a fiber-optic tip without loss of viscosity sensi- tivity. The optical fiber itself may be used to molecular rotors in solution. An optical fiber-based fluorescent vis- cosity sensor may be used in real

Theodorakis, Emmanuel

117

Fiber-optic Fabry-Perot ultrasound sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

modulates the power of the light reflected from it. An avalanche photodiode finally converts this optical signal into a voltage V(t) proportional to the acoustic pressure P(t). CHAPTER II BACKGROUND Over a decade ago external effects over optical... splitting ratio of 50/50 was used to direct the reflected light from the sensor to the detector. The unused forth fiber was terminated in matching liquid. The detection was performed by an avalanche photodiode, taking advantage of its high gain. The DG...

Alcoz, Jorge Jose

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

118

IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 4, NO. 4, AUGUST 2004 395 Sensor Technologies for Monitoring Metabolic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 4, NO. 4, AUGUST 2004 395 Sensor Technologies for Monitoring Metabolic Michelle Wilson, Member, IEEE Abstract--A review of optical, chemical, and biological sensors to detect-on-a-chip research instrumentation. The sensors reviewed include optical sensors, at both research and commercial

Wilson, Denise

119

Performance characterization of an internsity-modulated fiber optic displacement sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A testbed simulating an intensity-modulated fiber optic displacement sensor is experimentally characterized, and the implications regarding sensor design are discussed. Of interest are the intensity distribution of the transmitted optical signal and the relationships between sensor architecture and performance. Particularly, an intensity-modulated sensor's sensitivity, linearity, displacement range, and resolution are functions of the relative positioning of its transmitting and receiving fibers. In this paper, sensor architectures with various combinations of these performance metrics are discussed. A sensor capable of micrometer resolution is reported, and it is concluded that this work could lead to an improved methodology for sensor design.

Moro, Erik Allan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Todd, Michael D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Puckett, Santhony D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

120

An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The water vapor sensor developed by Aerodyne Research, based on the optical absorption of light at {approximately}935 nm, has been successfully demonstrated on board the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Gulfstream-1 research aircraft during the Department of Energy's ARM Intensive Operations Period in August 1998. Data taken during this field campaign show excellent agreement with a chilled mirror and Lyman-alpha hygrometers and measurements confirm the ability to measure rapid, absolute water vapor fluctuations with a high degree of instrument stability and accuracy, with a noise level as low 10 ppmv (1 Hz measurement bandwidth). The construction of this small, lightweight sensor contains several unique elements which result in several significant advantages when compared to other techniques. First, the low power consumption Argon discharge lamp provides an optical beam at a fixed wavelength without a need for temperature or precision current control. The multi-pass absorption cell developed for this instrument provides a compact, low cost method that can survive deployment in the field. Fiber-optic cables, which are used to convey to light between the absorption cell, light source, and detection modules enable remote placement of the absorption cell from the opto-electronics module. Finally, the sensor does not use any moving parts which removes a significant source of potential malfunction. The result is an instrument which maintained its calibration throughout the field measurement campaign, and was not affected by high vibration and large uncontrolled temperature excursions. We believe that the development of an accurate, fast response water vapor monitor described in this report will open up new avenues of aerial-vehicle-based atmospheric research which have been relatively unexplored due to the lack of suitable low-cost, light-weight instrumentation.

Timothy A. Berkoff; Paul L. Kebabian; Robert A. McClatchy; Charles E. Kolb; Andrew Freedman

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optic chemical sensors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Self-Powered Wireless Nano-scale Sensor Networks within Chemical Reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a reactor for a bottom-up control of the chemical synthesis with the ultimate goal of improvingSelf-Powered Wireless Nano-scale Sensor Networks within Chemical Reactors Eisa Zarepour1 Mahbub networks (NSNs) can be applied in many chemical applications to monitor and control the chemical process

New South Wales, University of

122

Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation for Slagging Coal Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal gasifier is one of the most promising solutions for clean fossil energy. Refractory thickness monitoring and online real-time temperature measurement is needed for improved reliability and advanced process control for current and future generation power plants. The objective of this program is to design and implement an optical fiber based sensing system that could potentially be used to monitor refractory wall thickness and temperature inside a coal gasifier. For the thickness monitoring, the system should be able to operate at temperatures up to 1000 C. For this temperature range, silica fiber can still work so it is chosen for the sensor design. The measurement is based on a photon counting optical time domain reflectometer. A narrow light pulse is launched into a silica fiber which could be embedded into the gasifier refractory wall, and is partially reflected by the far end of the fiber. The time of flight of the light pulse in the fiber then gives an indication of the position of the fiber end, which is a function of the wall thickness when the fiber is embedded. Results obtained show a measurement accuracy of {+-}2cm in environment of 1000 C with a saw cut fiber end. When the fiber end is corroded by sodium carbide at 900 C, the accuracy is {+-}3cm. For the temperature measurement, a single crystal sapphire fiber sensor is designed. The sapphire fiber guides the broadband light from a light emitting diode to a sapphire wafer functioning as a Fabry-Perot interferometer and the wafer optical thickness is a function of temperature. The returned optical signal is then demodulated by multimode fiber based whitelight interferometry. The system was tested up to 1500 C with a measurement accuracy of {+-}10 C for the entire measurement range.

Anbo Wang; Kristie Cooper

2008-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

123

Lightweight Integrated Optical Sensor for Atmospheric Measurements on Mobile Platforms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the Phase I program was to develop a novel open path sensor platform technology based on integration of semiconductor waveguides with efficient optoelectronic components on a monolithic platform. The successful Phase I effort resulted in demonstration of a novel optical resonator structure based on semiconductor high contrast gratings (HCGs) that will enable implementation of an ultra-compact, low-power gas sensor suitable for use on mobile platforms. Extensive numerical modeling was performed to design a device optimized for measuring CO2 at a wavelength for which a laser was available for proof of concept. Devices were fabricated and tested to match the target wavelength, angle, and operating temperature. This demonstration is the first implementation of HCGs at the wavelengths of interest and shows the flexibility of the proposed architecture for gas sensing applications. The measured cavity Q was lower than anticipated due to fabrication process challenges. The PSI and UC Berkeley team has identified solutions to these challenges and will produce optimized devices in a Phase II program where a prototype sensor will be fabricated and tested.

Parameswaran, Krishnan R. [Physical Sciences Inc.

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

124

An optical fiber Faraday effect current sensor for power system applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical fiber sensors have many inherent properties which make them ideal for applications within electric power systems. The dielectric isolation achieved in using optical fiber has fostered research in the areas of communication and sensing...

Short, Shayne Xavier

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

SYNTACTIC AND COMPOSITE FOAMS Whispering gallery mode-based micro-optical sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SYNTACTIC AND COMPOSITE FOAMS Whispering gallery mode-based micro-optical sensors for structural and filament wound pipes has been studied, where one of the glass fibers is replaced by an optical fiber

?tügen, Volkan

126

Sensors and Actuators B 123 (2007) 594605 Fiber optic sensing of liquid refractive index  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensors and Actuators B 123 (2007) 594­605 Fiber optic sensing of liquid refractive index Argha is immersed, to a high degree of precision and over a wide range of refractive index. The slope of sensor of the fiber. The sensitivity of the sensor to refractive index change is dependent on cladding thickness

127

Surface wave chemical detector using optical radiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A surface wave chemical detector comprising at least one surface wave substrate, each of said substrates having a surface wave and at least one measurable surface wave parameter; means for exposing said surface wave substrate to an unknown sample of at least one chemical to be analyzed, said substrate adsorbing said at least one chemical to be sensed if present in said sample; a source of radiation for radiating said surface wave substrate with different wavelengths of said radiation, said surface wave parameter being changed by said adsorbing; and means for recording signals representative of said surface wave parameter of each of said surface wave substrates responsive to said radiation of said different wavelengths, measurable changes of said parameter due to adsorbing said chemical defining a unique signature of a detected chemical.

Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.

2007-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

128

IDENTIFICATION OF DAMAGE TYPES IN CARBON FIBER REINFORCED PLASTIC LAMINATES BY A NOVEL OPTICAL FIBER ACOUSTIC EMISSION SENSOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IDENTIFICATION OF DAMAGE TYPES IN CARBON FIBER REINFORCED PLASTIC LAMINATES BY A NOVEL OPTICAL technology. PZT sensors have been being used as AE sensors. However, because this kind of sensor has bulk

Boyer, Edmond

129

Downhole geothermal well sensors comprising a hydrogen-resistant optical fiber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new class of optical fiber based thermal sensors has been invented. The new sensors comprise hydrogen-resistant optical fibers which are able to withstand a hot, hydrogen-containing environment as is often found in the downhole well environment.

Weiss, Jonathan D.

2005-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

130

Development of a Three-Dimensional Ball Rotation Sensing System using Optical Mouse Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the case of a ball wheel. The system measures surface speed by using two or more optical mouse sensorsDevelopment of a Three-Dimensional Ball Rotation Sensing System using Optical Mouse Sensors Masaaki Kumagai and Ralph L. Hollis Abstract-- Robots using ball(s) as spherical wheels have the advantage

131

Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensors by Molecular Beam Epitaxy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the industrial revolution, detection and monitoring of toxic matter, chemical wastes, and air pollutants has become an important environmental issue. Thus, it leads to the development of chemical sensors for various environmental applications. The recent disastrous oil spills over the near-surface of ocean due to the offshore drilling emphasize the use of chemical sensors for prevention and monitoring of the processes that might lead to these mishaps.1, 2 Chemical sensors operated on a simple principle that the sensing platform undergoes a detectable change when exposed to the target substance to be sensed. Among all the types of chemical sensors, solid state gas sensors have attracted a great deal of attention due to their advantages such as high sensitivity, greater selectivity, portability, high stability and low cost.3, 4 Especially, semiconducting metal oxides such as SnO2, TiO2, and WO3 have been widely used as the active sensing platforms in solid state gas sensors.5 For the enhanced properties of solid state gas sensors, finding new sensing materials or development of existing materials will be needed. Thus, nanostructured materials such as nanotubes,6-8 nanowires,9-11 nanorods,12-15 nanobelts,16, 17 and nano-scale thin films18-23 have been synthesized and studied for chemical sensing applications.

Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Application and state of development for remote chemical sensors in environmental monitoring: A literature review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was performed on chemical sensor technology currently available and under development. The information was compiled into a format wherein information on the sensors is listed in a comparable manner. An introductory section is provided to illustrate the regulatory environment in which such sensor technology will be used. This information should allow corporations or federal agencies ready access to useful information for the potential licensing of sensor technology for commercial development or specific environmental monitoring operations. Although every attempt was made to identify as many chemical sensors as possible, we recognize that some may be missed inadvertently. The accuracy of the information provided by the various sources regarding the state of development for the various sensors was not verified. Judgments or opinions regarding the actual state of development or utility of these devices are not included in this report. However, we feel that this report accurately reflects the state of the art at the present time.

Schabron, J.F.; Niss, N.D.; Hart, B.K.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Application and state of development for remote chemical sensors in environmental monitoring: A literature review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was performed on chemical sensor technology currently available and under development. The information was compiled into a format wherein information on the sensors is listed in a comparable manner. As introductory section is provided to illustrate the regulatory environment in which such sensor technology will be used. This information should allow corporations or federal agencies ready access to useful information for the potential licensing of sensor technology for commercial development or specific environmental monitoring operations. Although every attempt was made to identify as many chemical sensors as possible, we recognize that some may be missed inadvertently. The accuracy of the information provided by the various sources regarding the state of development for the various sensors was not verified. Judgments or opinions regarding the actual state of development or utility of these devices are not included in this report. However, we feel that this report accurately reflects the state of the art at the present time.

Schabron, J.F.; Niss, N.D.; Hart, B.K.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Single walled carbon nanotubes with functionally adsorbed biopolymers for use as chemical sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Chemical field effect sensors comprising nanotube field effect devices having biopolymers such as single stranded DNA or RNA functionally adsorbed to the nanotubes are provided. Also included are arrays comprising the sensors and methods of using the devices to detect volatile compounds.

Johnson, Jr., Alan T

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

135

New Acoustic Sensor for Chemical and Biological Detection | Argonne...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

back into an electrical signal. The wave's frequency is determined by the velocity of sound through the material. The usefulness of these devices as sensors comes from their...

136

IN-LINE CHEMICAL SENSOR DEPLOYMENT IN A TRITIUM PLANT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Tritium Plant (TP) relies on well understood but aging sensor technology for process gas analysis. Though new sensor technologies have been brought to various readiness levels, the TP has been reluctant to install technologies that have not been tested in tritium service. This gap between sensor technology development and incorporating new technologies into practical applications demonstrates fundamental challenges that exist when transitioning from status quo to state-of-the-art in an extreme environment such as a tritium plant. These challenges stem from three root obstacles: 1) The need for a comprehensive assessment of process sensing needs and requirements; 2) The lack of a pick-list of process-compatible sensor technologies; and 3) The need to test technologies in a tritium-contaminated process environment without risking production. At Savannah River, these issues are being addressed in a two phase project. In the first phase, TP sensing requirements were determined by a team of process experts. Meanwhile, Savannah River National Laboratory sensor experts identified candidate technologies and related them to the TP processing requirements. The resulting roadmap links the candidate technologies to actual plant needs. To provide accurate assessments of how a candidate sensor technology would perform in a contaminated process environment, an instrument demonstration station was established within a TP glove box. This station was fabricated to TP process requirements and designed to handle high activity samples. The combination of roadmap and demonstration station provides the following assets: ? Creates a partnership between the process engineers and researchers for sensor selection, maturation, and insertion, ? Selects the right sensors for process conditions ? Provides a means for safely inserting new sensor technology into the process without risking production, and ? Provides a means to evaluate off normal occurrences where and when they occur. This paper discusses the process to identify and demonstrate new sensor technologies for the Savannah River TP.

Tovo, L.; Wright, J.; Torres, R.; Peters, B.

2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

137

Spring, 2009 ACS Process Spectroscopy/Society for Applied Spectroscopy Meeting Topic: Discussion of current research into insitu chemical sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Discussion of current research into insitu chemical sensors Speaker: Dr. Karl Booksh, University in chemometrics and sensor research. He was previously the codirector of Arizona Applied Nanosensors. Abstract: The theme of the Booksh research group is the development of insitu chemical sensors

Taber, Douglass

138

On the sensitivity, selectivity, sensory information and optimal size of resistive chemical sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Information theoretical tools are applied for the study of the sensitivity and selectivity enhancements of resistive fluctuation-enhanced sensors. General considerations are given for the upper limit of selectivity enhancement. The signal-to-noise ratio and information channel capacity of fluctuation-enhanced chemical sensors is compared to that of classical sensors providing a single output. The considerations are done at the generic level with a few concrete examples and include the estimation of scaling relations between the sensor size, speed of measurements, sampling rate, measurement time, signal power and noise power.

Laszlo B. Kish; Janusz Smulko; Peter Heszler; Claes-Goran Granqvist

2007-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

139

Optics-less smart sensors and a possible mechanism of cutaneous vision in nature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optics-less cutaneous (skin) vision is not rare among living organisms, though its mechanisms and capabilities have not been thoroughly investigated. This paper demonstrates, using methods from statistical parameter estimation theory and numerical simulations, that an array of bare sensors with a natural cosine-law angular sensitivity arranged on a flat or curved surface has the ability to perform imaging tasks without any optics at all. The working principle of this type of optics-less sensor and the model developed here for determining sensor performance may be used to shed light upon possible mechanisms and capabilities of cutaneous vision in nature.

Leonid Yaroslavsky; Chad Goerzen; Stanislav Umansky; H. John Caulfield

2008-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

140

Sensors and Actuators B 121 (2007) 282294 The potential for and challenges of detecting chemical hazards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

technologies are currently deployed for hazards detection [1,2]. Established technologies such as ion mobilitySensors and Actuators B 121 (2007) 282­294 The potential for and challenges of detecting chemical, C.J. Martinez, C.B. Montgomery, S. Semancik Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory, National

Raman, Barani

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optic chemical sensors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Spatially distributed temperatures at the base of two mountain snowpacks measured with fiber-optic sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-optic sensors Scott W. TYLER,1 Susan A. BURAK,2 James P. MCNAMARA,3 Aurele LAMONTAGNE,3 John S. SELKER,4 Jeff melting patterns and the effects of solar heating on southwest-facing slopes. These proof

Selker, John

142

An experimental investigation of the sensitivity of a buried fiber optic intrusion sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A distributed fiber optic sensor with the ability of detecting and locating intruders on foot and vehicles over long perimeters (>10 km) was studied. The response of the sensor to people walking over or near it and to vehicles driving nearby...

Kuppuswamy, Harini

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

143

506 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 7, NO. 4, APRIL 2007 Neuromorphic Processing for Optical Microbead  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the olfactory bulb. The sensor array contains hundreds of microbeads coated with solvatochromic dyes adsorbed in with corresponding intensity changes, spectral shifts, and time-dependent variations associated with the fluorescent--Lateral inhibition, machine olfaction, neuromor- phic computation, olfactory bulb, optical microbead sensors, sen

Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

144

Lakes as sensors in the landscape: Optical metrics as scalable sentinel responses to climate change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lakes as sensors in the landscape: Optical metrics as scalable sentinel responses to climate change, Edgewater, Maryland Abstract As the lowest point in the surrounding landscape, lakes act as sensors to respond to changes in air temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation at timescales ranging from

Williamson, Craig E.

145

NRA-00-OES-08 A one-year pilot study for the inclusion of active optical sensors into PALACE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NRA-00-OES-08 1 A one-year pilot study for the inclusion of active optical sensors into PALACE, newly-developed solid-state, active optical sensors that measure chlorophyll a fluorescence of ancillary sensors as part of the ARGO program. The ARGO program, if funded at the level of effort proposed

Boss, Emmanuel S.

146

DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL CERAMIC NANOFILM-FIBER INTEGRATED OPTICAL SENSORS FOR RAPID DETECTION OF COAL DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of this project is to conduct fundamental studies on advanced ceramic materials and fiber optic devices for developing new types of high temperature (>500{degree}C) fiber optic chemical sensors (FOCS) for monitoring fossil (mainly coal) and biomass derived gases in power plants. The primary technical objective is to investigate and demonstrate the nanocrystalline doped-ceramic thin film enabled FOCS that possess desired stability, sensitivity and selectivity for in-situ, rapid gas detection in the syngas streams from gasification and combustion flue gases. This report summarizes research works of two integrated parts: (1) development of metal oxide solid thin films as sensing materials for detection and measurement of important gas components relevant to the coal- and biomass-derived syngas and combustion gas streams at high temperatures; and (2) development of fiber optic devices that are potentially useful for constructing FOCS in combination with the solid oxide thin films identified in this program.

Junhang Dong; Hai Xiao; Xiling Tang; Hongmin Jiang; Kurtis Remmel; Amardeep Kaur

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

147

Compact, low-cost, and high-resolution interrogation unit for optical sensors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Compact wavelength detectors that resolve wavelength changes in the subpicometer range over a broad spectral range are presented. A photodiode array or position sensor device is coated with a linear variable filter that converts the wavelength of the incident light into a spatial intensity distribution. The centroid of the spatial distribution is determined by a differential readout of the two elements of the photodiode array or the position sensor device. The device can interrogate any optical sensor that produces a wavelength shift in response to a stimulus. The potential of this device was tested by interrogating fiber-Bragg-grating sensors.

Kiesel, Peter; Schmidt, Oliver; Mohta, Setu; Johnson, Noble; Malzer, Stefan [Palo Alto Research Center Inc., 3333 Coyote Hill Road, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Max Planck Research Group, Institute of Optics, Information and Photonics, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2006-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

148

Structural and environmental monitoring of tracker and vertex systems using Fiber Optic Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fibre optic sensors (FOS) are an established technique for environmental and deformation monitoring in several areas like civil engineering, aerospace, and energy. Their immunity to electromagnetic and magnetic fields and nuclear environments, its small size, multiplexing capability and the possibility to be embedded make them an attractive technology for the structural and environmental monitoring of collider particle physics experiments. Between all the possible Fibre Optic sensors FBGs (Fiber Bragg Grating) seems to be the best solution for HEP applications. The first step was to characterize FBG sensors for it use in High Energy Physics environment. During last two years we have checked the resistance of the Fibre Bragg Grating sensors to radiation. Two irradiation campaigns with protons have been done at CNA (Centro Nacional de Aceleradores). In the near future these sensors are being planned to be used in detectors (the closest one Belle II.). Several work on integration issues in Belle II PXD-SVD, and ...

Moya, David

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Separation of CO2 Using Ultra-Thin Multi-Layer Polymeric Membranes for Compartmentalized Fiber Optic Sensor Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optic Sensor Applications by Benjamin Davies B.Eng., University of Guelph, 2011 A Thesis Submitted for Compartmentalized Fiber Optic Sensor Applications by Benjamin Davies B. Eng., University of Guelph, 2011 Supervisory trapping occurring through mineralization within the first 20-50 years. A fiber optic based monitoring

Victoria, University of

150

Monolithic piezoelectric sensor (MPS) for sensing chemical, biochemical and physical measurands  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A piezoelectric sensor and assembly for measuring chemical, biochemical and physical measurands is disclosed. The piezoelectric sensor comprises a piezoelectric material, preferably a crystal, a common metal layer attached to the top surface of the piezoelectric crystal, and a pair of independent resonators placed in close proximity on the piezoelectric crystal such that an efficacious portion of acoustic energy couples between the resonators. The first independent resonator serves as an input port through which an input signal is converted into mechanical energy within the sensor and the second independent resonator serves an output port through which a filtered replica of the input signal is detected as an electrical signal. Both a time delay and an attenuation at a given frequency between the input signal and the filtered replica may be measured as a sensor output. The sensor may be integrated into an assembly with a series feedback oscillator and a radio frequency amplifier to process the desired sensor output. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, a selective film is disposed upon the grounded metal layer of the sensor and the resonators are encapsulated to isolate them from the measuring environment. In an alternative embodiment of the invention, more than two resonators are used in order to increase the resolution of the sensor.

Andle, Jeffrey C. (Bangor, ME); Lec, Ryszard M. (Orono, ME)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Researchers develop new acoustic sensor for chemical and biological...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Jared Sagoff * November 17, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint ARGONNE, Ill. - Testing for ovarian cancer or the presence of a particular chemical could be almost as simple as distinguishing...

152

High throughput optical sensor arrays for drug screening  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the world of drug discovery, high throughput whole cell assays are a critical step in discovering therapeutically relevant drug compounds [1]. This report details the development of several novel sensor systems capable ...

Harjes, Daniel I

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Sensors and Actuators B 123 (2007) 651660 Inkjet printed chemical sensor array based on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

compounds 1. Introduction The development of a low cost, low power and portable device for detection to be detected. While there has been some success in sensor development for greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA d National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory

Weiss, Lee E.

154

Fabry-Perot fiber optic sensor using multimode laser diode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heating and cooling cycles. Also, a sporadic waveform on top of the periodic waveform is observed. This is due to mechanical drift in the feedback loop between the thermoelectric cooler and the temperature controller as previously mentioned. Fig. 11... fiber and later reaches a transducer, which takes the form of an integrated optics device, bulk optical components or a fiber optic device, placed within the sensing environment. The optical signal is modulated within the sensing region...

Chu, Siu Yi Andrew

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

SOLID STATE CHEMICAL SENSORS FOR CO Abdul-Majeed Azad and Eric D. Wachsman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The application of these sensors range from air-to-fuel ratio control in combustion processes are also presented. INTRODUCTION Harmful pollutants are generated by a host of industries such as chemical, pharmaceutical, ceramic, electronic and automobile. Among the gaseous pollutants, carbon monoxide is one

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

156

Optical position sensor for determining the interface between a clear and an opaque fluid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An inexpensive, optical position sensor for measuring a position or length, x, along a one-dimensional curvilinear, coordinate system. The sensor can be used, for example, to determine the position of an interface between a clear and an opaque fluid (such as crude oil and water). In one embodiment, the sensor utilizes the principle of dual-fluorescence, where a primary fiber emits primary fluorescent light and a parallel secondary fiber collects a portion of the primary fluorescent light that is not blocked by the opaque fluid. This, in turn, excites secondary fluorescence in the secondary fiber at a longer wavelength. A light detector measures the intensity of secondary fluorescence emitted from an end of the secondary fiber, which is used to calculate the unknown position or length, x. Side-emitting fibers can be used in place of, or in addition to, fluorescent fibers. The all-optical sensor is attractive for applications involving flammable liquids.

Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

157

A study of semiconductor laser noise and its effect on fiber optic sensor performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and its Effect on Fiber Optic Sensor Performance. (August 1994) Wanku Lee, B. S. , Hanyang University, S. Korea; Chair of Advisory Committee Dr. Henry F, Taylor A general description of laser diode noise is presented. Intensity and frequency noise in a... 1. 3 pm multimode laser diode are measured using a Michelson interferometer. The methodology in choosing the length of Fiber Fabry-Perot Interferometric (FFPQ sensors which reduces the effect of laser noise is presented. The reduction in relative...

Lee, Wanku

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

158

Method and apparatus for packaging optical fiber sensors for harsh environments  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A package for an optical fiber sensor having a metal jacket surrounding the sensor, and heat-shrink tubing surrounding the metal jacket. The metal jacket is made of a low melting point metal (e.g. lead, tin). The sensor can be disposed in a rigid tube (e.g. stainless steel or glass) that is surrounded by the metal jacket. The metal jacket provides a hermetic, or nearly hermetic seal for the sensor. The package is made by melting the metal jacket and heating the heat shrink tubing at the same time. As the heat-shrink tubing shrinks, it presses the low melting point metal against the sensor, and squeezes out the excess metal.

Pickrell, Gary; Duan, Yuhong; Wang, Anbo

2005-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

159

Extreme Environment Silicon Carbide Hybrid Temperature & Pressure Optical Sensors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report contains the main results from a 3-year program to further investigate the merits of SiC-based hybrid sensor designs for extreme environment measurements in gas turbines. The study is divided in three parts. Part 1 studies the material properties of SiC such as temporal response, refractive index change with temperature, and material thermal response reversibility. Sensor data from a combustion rig-test using this SiC sensor technology is analyzed and a robust distributed sensor network design is proposed. Part 2 of the study focuses on introducing redundancy in the sensor signal processing to provide improved temperature measurement robustness. In this regard, two distinct measurement methods emerge. A first method uses laser wavelength sensitivity of the SiC refractive index behavior and a second method that engages the Black-Body (BB) radiation of the SiC package. Part 3 of the program investigates a new way to measure pressure via a distance measurement technique that applies to hot objects including corrosive fluids.

Nabeel Riza

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Development of High Temperature/High Sensitivity Novel Chemical Resistive Sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research has been focused to design, fabricate, and develop high temperature/high sensitivity novel multifunctional chemical sensors for the selective detection of fossil energy gases used in power and fuel systems. By systematically studying the physical properties of the LnBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5+d} (LBCO) [Ln=Pr or La] thin?films, a new concept chemical sensor based high temperature chemical resistant change has been developed for the application for the next generation highly efficient and near zero emission power generation technologies. We also discovered that the superfast chemical dynamic behavior and an ultrafast surface exchange kinetics in the highly epitaxial LBCO thin films. Furthermore, our research indicates that hydrogen can superfast diffuse in the ordered oxygen vacancy structures in the highly epitaxial LBCO thin films, which suggest that the LBCO thin film not only can be an excellent candidate for the fabrication of high temperature ultra sensitive chemical sensors and control systems for power and fuel monitoring systems, but also can be an excellent candidate for the low temperature solid oxide fuel cell anode and cathode materials.

Chen, Chonglin; Nash, Patrick; Ma, Chunrui; Enriquez, Erik; Wang, Haibing; Xu, Xing; Bao, Shangyong; Collins, Gregory

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optic chemical sensors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Development of a Prototype Optical Hydrogen Gas Sensor Using a Getter-Doped Polymer Transducer for Monitoring Cumulative Exposure: Preliminary Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel prototype optical sensor for monitoring cumulative hydrogen gas exposure was fabricated and evaluated. Chemical-to-optical transduction was accomplished by detecting the intensity of 670 nm laser light transmitted through a hydrogen getter-doped polymer film mounted at the end of an optical fiber; the transmittance of the composite film increased with uptake of hydrogen by the embedded getter. The composite film consisted of the hydrogen getter 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene, also known as DEB, with carbon-supported palladium catalyst embedded in silicone elastomer. Because the change in transmittance was irreversible and occurred continuously as the getter captured hydrogen, the sensor behaved like a dosimeter, providing a unique indication of the cumulative gas exposure.

Small IV, W; Maitland, D J; Wilson, T S; Bearinger, J P; Letts, S A; Trebes, J E

2008-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

162

Novel, fiber optic, hybrid pressure and temperature sensor designed for high-temperature gen-IV reactor applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel, fiber optic, hybrid pressure-temperature sensor is presented. The sensor is designed for reliable operation up to 1050 C, and is based on the high-temperature fiber optic sensors already demonstrated during previous work. The novelty of the sensors presented here lies in the fact that pressure and temperature are measured simultaneously with a single fiber and a single transducer. This hybrid approach will enable highly accurate active temperature compensation and sensor self-diagnostics not possible with other platforms. Hybrid pressure and temperature sensors were calibrated by varying both pressure and temperature. Implementing active temperature compensation resulted in a ten-fold reduction in the temperature-dependence of the pressure measurement. Sensors were also tested for operability in a relatively high neutron radiation environment up to 6.9x10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2}. In addition to harsh environment survivability, fiber optic sensors offer a number of intrinsic advantages for nuclear power applications including small size, immunity to electromagnetic interference, self diagnostics / prognostics, and smart sensor capability. Deploying fiber optic sensors on future nuclear power plant designs would provide a substantial improvement in system health monitoring and safety instrumentation. Additional development is needed, however, before these advantages can be realized. This paper will highlight recent demonstrations of fiber optic sensors in environments relevant to emerging nuclear power plants. Successes and lessons learned will be highlighted. (authors)

Palmer, M. E.; Fielder, R. S.; Davis, M. A. [Luna Innovations, Incorporated, 2851 Commerce St., Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Evaluation of White Light Sources For an Absolute Fiber Optic Sensor Readout System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes work done in pursuit of an absolute readout system for Fabry-Perot optics sensors such as those built both by FISO and LLNL. The use of white light results in a short coherence length reducing the ambiguity of the Fabry-Perot gap measurement which is required to readout the sensor. The light source coherence length is the critical parameter in determining the ability to build a relative or an absolute system. Optical sources such as lasers and LEDs are rather narrow in optical spectral bandwidth and have long coherence length. Thus, when used in interferometric sensor measurements, one fringe looks much like another and it is difficult to make an absolute measurement. In contrast, white light sources are much broader in spectral bandwidth and have very short coherence lengths making interferometry possible only over the coherence length, which can be 1 or 2 microns. The small number of fringes in the interferogram make it easier to calculate the centroid and to unambiguously determine the sensor gap. However, unlike LEDs and Lasers, white light sources have very low optical power when coupled into optical fibers. Although, the overall light output of a white light source can be hundreds of milliwatts to watts, it is difficult to couple more than microwatts into a 50-micron core optical fiber. In addition, white light sources have a large amount of optical power in spectrum that is not necessarily useful in terms of sensor measurements. The reflectivity of a quarter wave of Titanium Oxide is depicted in Figure 2. This coating of Titanium Oxide is used in the fabrication of the sensor. This figure shows that any light emitted at wavelengths shorter than 600 nm is not too useful for the readout system. A white light LED spectrum is depicted in Figure 3 and shows much of the spectrum below 600 nm. In addition Silicon photodiodes are usually used in the readout system limiting the longest wavelength to about 1100 nm. Tungsten filament sources may have much of their optical power at wavelengths longer than 1100 nm, which is outside the wavelength range of interest. An incandescent spectrum from a tungsten filament is depicted in Figure 4. None of this is to say that other types of readout systems couldn't be built with IR detectors and broadband coatings for the sensors. However, without reengineering the sensors, the wavelength restrictions must be tolerated.

McConaghy, C F

2003-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

164

A loss-based, magnetic field sensor implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report an in-fiber magnetic field sensor based on magneto-driven optical loss effects, while being implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber. We demonstrate that magnetic field flux changes up to 2000 gauss can be detected when the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the fiber axis. In addition, the sensor exhibits high polarization sensitivity for the interrogated wavelengths, providing the possibility of both field flux and direction measurements. The underlying physical and guidance mechanisms of this sensing transduction are further investigated using spectrophotometric, light scattering measurements, and numerical simulations, suggesting photonic Hall effect as the dominant physical, transducing mechanism.

Candiani, A. [Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH), Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Heraklion 70013 Greece (Greece); Department of Information Engineering (DII), University of Parma, Parma 43124 (Italy); Argyros, A.; Leon-Saval, S. G.; Lwin, R. [Institute of Photonics and Optical Science (IPOS), School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Selleri, S. [Department of Information Engineering (DII), University of Parma, Parma 43124 (Italy); Pissadakis, S., E-mail: pissas@iesl.forth.gr [Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH), Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Heraklion 70013 Greece (Greece)

2014-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

165

Millimeter Wave Sensor Technologies Track Biometrics; Detect Chemicals,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment SurfacesResource Program PreliminaryA3, 1999ofMikeAdministrationMiller winsGases,

166

ULTRA-HIGH TEMPERATURE SENSORS BASED ON OPTICAL PROPERTY MODULATION AND VIBRATION-TOLERANT INTERFEROMETRY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goals of the first six months of this project were to begin laying the foundations for both the SiC front-end optical chip fabrication techniques for high pressure gas species sensing as well as the design, assembly, and test of a portable high pressure high temperature calibration test cell chamber for introducing gas species. This calibration cell will be used in the remaining months for proposed first stage high pressure high temperature gas species sensor experimentation and data processing. All these goals have been achieved and are described in detail in the report. Both design process and diagrams for the mechanical elements as well as the optical systems are provided. Photographs of the fabricated calibration test chamber cell, the optical sensor setup with the calibration cell, the SiC sample chip holder, and relevant signal processing mathematics are provided. Initial experimental data from both the optical sensor and fabricated test gas species SiC chips is provided. The design and experimentation results are summarized to give positive conclusions on the proposed novel high temperature high pressure gas species detection optical sensor technology.

Nabeel A. Riza

2005-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

167

Riboswitch-based sensor in low optical background Svetlana V. Harbaugh, Molly E. Davidson, Yaroslav G. Chushak*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Riboswitch-based sensor in low optical background Svetlana V. Harbaugh, Molly E. Davidson, Yaroslav in the presence of theophylline. However, the BFP-eGFP FRET pair posses significant optical background-4 These RNA-based sensors bind to a ligand and alter the gene expression of downstream genes. Riboswitches

168

Fiber-optic sensor for detection of hydrogen peroxide in PEM fuel cells Juan F. Botero-Cadavid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fiber-optic sensor for detection of hydrogen peroxide in PEM fuel cells by Juan F. Botero-optic sensor for detection of hydrogen peroxide in PEM fuel cells by Juan F. Botero-Cadavid Mech electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), and the presence and formation of this peroxide has been associated

Victoria, University of

169

Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes technical progress on the program ??Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems? funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed jointly by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Virginia Tech. This three-year project started on October 1, 2008. In the project, a fiber optical sensing system based on intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) was developed for strain and temperature measurements for Ultra Supercritical boiler condition assessment. Investigations were focused on sensor design, fabrication, attachment techniques and novel materials for high temperature and strain measurements. At the start of the project, the technical requirements for the sensing technology were determined together with our industrial partner Alstom Power. As is demonstrated in Chapter 4, all the technical requirements are successfully met. The success of the technology extended beyond laboratory test; its capability was further validated through the field test at DOE NETL, in which the sensors yielded distributed temperature mapping of a testing coupon installed in the turbine test rig. The measurement results agreed well with prior results generated with thermocouples. In this project, significant improvements were made to the IFPI sensor technology by splicing condition optimization, transmission loss reduction, sensor signal demodulation and sensor system design.

Anbo Wang; Gary Pickrell

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

170

FLUORESCENCE AND FIBER-OPTICS BASED REAL-TIME THICKNESS SENSOR FOR DYNAMIC LIQUID FILMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/analyzed the incident reflected waves to identify and measure the total transit time of the sound wave (of known wave-speed1 FLUORESCENCE AND FIBER-OPTICS BASED REAL-TIME THICKNESS SENSOR FOR DYNAMIC LIQUID FILMS T. W. Ng/disadvantages of many known liquid film thickness sensing devices (viz. conductivity probes, reflectance based fiber

Narain, Amitabh

171

Manufacturing challenges of optical current and voltage sensors for utility applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurement of voltages and currents in power transmission and distribution systems are critical to the electric utility industry for both revenue metering and reliability. Nonconventional instrument transformers based on intensity modulation of optical signals have been reported in the literature for more than 20 years. Recently described devices using passive bulk optical sensor elements include the Electro-Optic Voltage Transducer (EOVT) and Magneto-Optic Current Transducer (MOCT). These technologies offer substantial advantages over conventional instrument transformers in accuracy, optical isolation bandwidth, environmental compatibility, weight and size. This paper describes design and manufacturing issues associated with the EOVT and the Optical Metering Unit (OMU) recently introduced by ABB with field installation results presented for prototype units in the 345 kV and 420 kV voltage classes. The OMU incorporates an EOVT and MOCT to monitor the voltage and current on power transmission lines using a single free-standing device.

Yakymyshyn, C.P. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Brubaker, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Johnston, P.M. [Johnston (Paul M.), Raleigh, NC (United States); Reinbold, C. [ABB High Voltage Switchgear, Greensburg, PA (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Fiber optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for molten material analysis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) sensor, including a laser light source, a harmonic separator for directing the laser light, a dichroic mirror for reflecting the laser light, a coupling lens for coupling the laser light at an input of a multimode optical fiber, a connector for coupling the laser light from an output of the multimode optical fiber to an input of a high temperature holder, such as a holder made of stainless steel, and a detector portion for receiving emission signal and analyzing LIBS intensities. In one variation, the multimode optical fiber has silica core and silica cladding. The holder includes optical lenses for collimating and focusing the laser light in a molten alloy to produce a plasma, and for collecting and transmitting an emission signal to the multimode optical fiber.

Zhang, Hansheng; Rai, Awadesh K.; Singh, Jagdish P.; Yueh, Fang-Yu

2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

173

Fiber optic sensors for nuclear power plant applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies have been carried out for application of Raman Distributed Temperature Sensor (RDTS) in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The high temperature monitoring in sodium circuits of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) is important. It is demonstrated that RDTS can be usefully employed in monitoring sodium circuits and in tracking the percolating sodium in the surrounding insulation in case of any leak. Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) cable is commonly used as overhead power transmission cable in power grid. The suitability of RDTS for detecting defects in ACSR overhead power cable, is also demonstrated.

Kasinathan, Murugesan; Sosamma, Samuel; BabuRao, Chelamchala; Murali, Nagarajan; Jayakumar, Tammana [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu-603102 (India)

2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

174

Molecules and materials for the optical detection of explosives and toxic chemicals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical chemosensing, especially using amplifying fluorescent polymers, can allow for the highly sensitive and selective vapor-phase detection of both explosives and highly toxic chemicals, including chemical warfare agents. ...

Thomas, Samuel William, III

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Optical instrumentation for on-line analysis of chemical processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optical diagnostics provide the capability for nonintrusive, on-line, real time analysis of chemical process streams. Several laser-based methods for monitoring fossil energy processes have been evaluated. Among the instrumentation techniques which appear quite promising are coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence (SDLIF). A CARS diagnostic was implemented on a coal gasifier and was successfully employed to measure species concentrations and temperatures within the process stream. The LIBS approach has been used to identify total trace impurities (e.g., Na, K, and S) within a gasifier. Recently, individual components in mixtures of aromatics hydrocarbons have been resolved via the synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence. 9 figures.

Hartford, A. Jr.; Cremers, D.A.; Loree, T.R.; Quigley, G.P.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Structural and environmental monitoring of tracker and vertex systems using Fiber Optic Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fibre optic sensors (FOS) are an established technique for environmental and deformation monitoring in several areas like civil engineering, aerospace, and energy. Their immunity to electromagnetic and magnetic fields and nuclear environments, its small size, multiplexing capability and the possibility to be embedded make them an attractive technology for the structural and environmental monitoring of collider particle physics experiments. Between all the possible Fibre Optic sensors FBGs (Fiber Bragg Grating) seems to be the best solution for HEP applications. The first step was to characterize FBG sensors for it use in High Energy Physics environment. During last two years we have checked the resistance of the Fibre Bragg Grating sensors to radiation. Two irradiation campaigns with protons have been done at CNA (Centro Nacional de Aceleradores). In the near future these sensors are being planned to be used in detectors (the closest one Belle II.). Several work on integration issues in Belle II PXD-SVD, and checking for environmental and deformation monitoring in the detectors inner part has been done.

David Moya; Ivn Vila

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

Woods, Gregory K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Renak, Todd W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages is disclosed. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam`s polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured. 18 figs.

Woods, G.K.; Renak, T.W.

1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

179

Modeling and Validation of Performance Limitations for the Optimal Design of Interferometric and Intensity-Modulated Fiber Optic Displacement Sensors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optical fiber sensors offer advantages over traditional electromechanical sensors, making them particularly well-suited for certain measurement applications. Generally speaking, optical fiber sensors respond to a desired measurand through modulation of an optical signal's intensity, phase, or wavelength. Practically, non-contacting fiber optic displacement sensors are limited to intensity-modulated and interferometric (or phase-modulated) methodologies. Intensity-modulated fiber optic displacement sensors relate target displacement to a power measurement. The simplest intensity-modulated sensor architectures are not robust to environmental and hardware fluctuations, since such variability may cause changes in the measured power level that falsely indicate target displacement. Differential intensity-modulated sensors have been implemented, offering robustness to such intensity fluctuations, and the speed of these sensors is limited only by the combined speed of the photodetection hardware and the data acquisition system (kHz-MHz). The primary disadvantages of intensity-modulated sensing are the relatively low accuracy (?m-mm for low-power sensors) and the lack of robustness, which consequently must be designed, often with great difficulty, into the sensor's architecture. White light interferometric displacement sensors, on the other hand, offer increased accuracy and robustness. Unlike their monochromatic-interferometer counterparts, white light interferometric sensors offer absolute, unambiguous displacement measurements over large displacement ranges (cm for low-power, 5 mW, sources), necessitating no initial calibration, and requiring no environmental or feedback control. The primary disadvantage of white light interferometric displacement sensors is that their utility in dynamic testing scenarios is limited, both by hardware bandwidth and by their inherent high-sensitivity to Doppler-effects. The decision of whether to use either an intensity-modulated interferometric sensor depends on an appropriate performance function (e.g., desired displacement range, accuracy, robustness, etc.). In this dissertation, the performance limitations of a bundled differential intensity-modulated displacement sensor are analyzed, where the bundling configuration has been designed to optimize performance. The performance limitations of a white light Fabry-Perot displacement sensor are also analyzed. Both these sensors are non-contacting, but they have access to different regions of the performance-space. Further, both these sensors have different degrees of sensitivity to experimental uncertainty. Made in conjunction with careful analysis, the decision of which sensor to deploy need not be an uninformed one.

Moro, Erik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

180

Elastomeric optical fiber sensors and method for detecting and measuring events occurring in elastic materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Fiber optic sensing means for the detection and measurement of events such as dynamic loadings imposed upon elastic materials including cementitious materials, elastomers, and animal body components and/or the attrition of such elastic materials are provided. One or more optical fibers each having a deformable core and cladding formed of an elastomeric material such as silicone rubber are embedded in the elastic material. Changes in light transmission through any of the optical fibers due the deformation of the optical fiber by the application of dynamic loads such as compression, tension, or bending loadings imposed on the elastic material or by the attrition of the elastic material such as by cracking, deterioration, aggregate break-up, and muscle, tendon, or organ atrophy provide a measurement of the dynamic loadings and attrition. The fiber optic sensors can be embedded in elastomers subject to dynamic loadings and attrition such as commonly used automobiles and in shoes for determining the amount and frequency of the dynamic loadings and the extent of attrition. The fiber optic sensors are also useable in cementitious material for determining the maturation thereof.

Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Capps, Gary J. (Knoxville, TN); Smith, David B. (Oak Ridge, TN); White, Clifford P. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optic chemical sensors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Sandia National Laboratories: Fiber-optic Bragg grating sensor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik Spoerke SSLS Exhibit at Explora Museum OnFactFiber-optic Bragg grating

182

Review of sensors for the in situ chemical characterization of the Hanford underground storage tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in the Technical Task Plan (TTP) SF-2112-03 subtask 2, is responsible for the conceptual design of a Raman probe for inclusion in the in-tank cone penetrometer. As part of this task, LLNL is assigned the further responsibility of generating a report describing a review of sensor technologies other than Raman that can be incorporated in the in-tank cone penetrometer for the chemical analysis of the tank environment. These sensors would complement the capabilities of the Raman probe, and would give information on gaseous, liquid, and solid state species that are insensitive to Raman interrogation. This work is part of a joint effort involving several DOE laboratories for the design and development of in-tank cone penetrometer deployable systems for direct UST waste characterization at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID).

Kyle, K.R.; Mayes, E.L.

1994-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

183

Fiber optic sensor system for detecting movement or position of a rotating wheel bearing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved fiber optic sensor system and integrated sensor bearing assembly for detecting movement or position of a rotating wheel bearing having a multi-pole tone ring which produces an alternating magnetic field indicative of movement and position of the rotating member. A magneto-optical material, such as a bismuth garnet iron (B.I.G.) crystal, having discrete magnetic domains is positioned in the vicinity of the tone ring so that the domains align themselves to the magnetic field generated by the tone ring. A single fiber optic cable, preferably single mode fiber, carries light generated by a source of light to the B.I.G. crystal. The light passes through the B.I.G. crystal and is refracted at domain boundaries in the crystal. The intensity of the refracted light is indicative of the amount of alignment of the domains and therefore the strength of the magnetic field. The refracted light is carried by the fiber optic cable to an optic receiver where the intensity is measured and an electrical signal is generated and sent to a controller indicating the frequency of the changes in light intensity and therefore the rotational speed of the rotating wheel bearing.

Veeser, Lynn R. (Los Alamos, NM); Rodriguez, Patrick J. (Santa Fe, NM); Forman, Peter R. (Los Alamos, NM); Monahan, Russell E. (Ann Arbor, MI); Adler, Jonathan M. (Ypsilanti, MI)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

668 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY, VOL. 7, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2008 Chemical Sensors and Electronic Noses Based  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Electronic Noses Based on 1-D Metal Oxide Nanostructures Po-Chiang Chen, Guozhen Shen, and Chongwu Zhou warfare agents is important to human health and safety. Thus, the development of chemical sensors- trial gases, chemical warfare agents, and human breath. In this review, we provide an overview

Zhou, Chongwu

185

Fiber Optic Cryogenic Sensors for Superconducting Magnets and Superconducting Power Transmission lines at CERN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The design, fabrication and tests of a new generation of superconducting magnets for the upgrade of the LHC require the support of an adequate, robust and reliable sensing technology. The use of Fiber Optic Sensors is becoming particularly challenging for applications in extreme harsh environments such as ultra-low temperatures, high electromagnetic fields and strong mechanical stresses offering perspectives for the development of technological innovations in several applied disciplines.

Chiuchiolo, A; Cusano, A; Bajko, M; Perez, J C; Bajas, H; Giordano, M; Breglio, G; Palmieri, L

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Fiber optic sensor employing successively destroyed coupled points or reflectors for detecting shock wave speed and damage location  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A shock velocity and damage location sensor providing a means of measuring shock speed and damage location is disclosed. The sensor consists of a long series of time-of-arrival ``points`` constructed with fiber optics. The fiber optic sensor apparatus measures shock velocity as the fiber sensor is progressively crushed as a shock wave proceeds in a direction along the fiber. The light received by a receiving means changes as time-of-arrival points are destroyed as the sensor is disturbed by the shock. The sensor may comprise a transmitting fiber bent into a series of loops and fused to a receiving fiber at various places, time-of-arrival points, along the receiving fibers length. At the ``points`` of contact, where a portion of the light leaves the transmitting fiber and enters the receiving fiber, the loops would be required to allow the light to travel backwards through the receiving fiber toward a receiving means. The sensor may also comprise a single optical fiber wherein the time-of-arrival points are comprised of reflection planes distributed along the fibers length. In this configuration, as the shock front proceeds along the fiber it destroys one reflector after another. The output received by a receiving means from this sensor may be a series of downward steps produced as the shock wave destroys one time-of-arrival point after another, or a nonsequential pattern of steps in the event time-of-arrival points are destroyed at any point along the sensor. 6 figs.

Weiss, J.D.

1995-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

187

Literature search, review, and compilation of data for chemical and radiochemical sensors: Task 1 report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the next several decades, the US Department of Energy is expected to spend tens of billions of dollars in the characterization, cleanup, and monitoring of DOE`s current and former installations that have various degrees of soil and groundwater contamination made up of both hazardous and mixed wastes. Each of these phases will require site surveys to determine type and quantity of hazardous and mixed wastes. It is generally recognized that these required survey and monitoring efforts cannot be performed using traditional chemistry methods based on laboratory evaluation of samples from the field. For that reason, a tremendous push during the past decade or so has been made on research and development of sensors. This report contains the results of an extensive literature search on sensors that are used or have applicability in environmental and waste management. While restricting the search to a relatively small part of the total chemistry spectrum, a sizable body of reference material is included. Results are presented in tabular form for general references obtained from data base searches, as narrative reviews of relevant chapters from proceedings, as book reviews, and as reviews of journal articles with particular relevance to the review. Four broad sensor types are covered: electrochemical processes, piezoelectric devices, fiber optics, and radiochemical processes. The topics of surface chemistry processes and biosensors are not treated separately because they often are an adjunct to one of the four sensors listed. About 1,000 tabular entries are listed, including selected journal articles, reviews of conference/meeting proceedings, and books. Literature to about mid-1992 is covered.

NONE

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Fiber-optic voltage sensor with cladded fiber and evanescent wave variation detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fiber optic voltage sensor is described which includes a source of light, a reference fiber for receiving a known percentage of the light and an electrostrictive element having terminals across which is applied, a voltage to be measured. The electrostrictive element is responsive to the applied voltage to assume an altered physical state. A measuring fiber also receives a known percentage of light from the light source and is secured about the electrostrictive element. The measuring fiber is provided with a cladding and exhibits an evanescent wave in the cladding. The measuring fiber has a known length which is altered when the electrostrictive element assumes its altered physical state. A differential sensor is provided which senses the intensity of light in both the reference fiber and the measuring fiber and provides an output indicative of the difference between the intensities. 3 figs.

Wood, C.B.

1992-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Verifying Sensor Response to Difficult Chemicals with a New Test Chamber Concept  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this article we discuss the application of technology innovations to optimize detection of hard-to-measure (less- or semi-volatile) compounds. These chemicals are found all around us: in pesticides and herbicides, the higher boiling polyaromatic hydrocarbons in diesel exhaust, and linked polyurethane foams in products ranging from hiking boots to acoustic ceilings. They appear in low concentrations and evaporate very slowly. These heavier chemicals are rarely measured accurately because they stick to surfaces and sampling equipment and, consequently, are not reliably sampled or delivered to analytical detectors. Its like trying to identify cold, sticky honey by getting it to flow in through a sampling tube to a detector it will hardly move. Honey generally coats out on surfaces and sample lines to the extent that even if it is detected, the amount present is vastly underestimated. Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) addressed the problem by developing a chamber facility with instrumentation that can overcome the under-reporting of these ubiquitous chemical compounds. The atmospheric chemistry chamber provides a controlled environment in which to certify the accuracy of and conditions under which sensors can best respond to volatile and semi-volatile chemicals. The facility is designed to handle and measure chemicals at the levels at which they are found in nature. Test environments can be created in which atmospheric concentrations are at low part-per-trillion concentrations. These concentrations are equivalent to an herbicide off-gassing from a commercially grown apple. The chamber can be set up to simulate releases ranging from industrial vents with high concentrations to releases from surfaces, soils, and/or vegetation where the concentrations are low.

Maughan, A. D.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Probasco, Kathleen M.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Development of a 1 x N Fiber Optic Sensor Array for Carbon Sequestration Site Monitoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fiber sensor array for sub-surface CO{sub 2} concentrations measurements was developed for monitoring geologic carbon sequestration sites. The fiber sensor array uses a single temperature tunable distributed feedback (DFB) laser operating with a nominal wavelength of 2.004 􀁐m. Light from this DFB laser is direct to one of the 4 probes via an in-line 1 x 4 fiber optic switch. Each of the 4 probes are buried and allow the sub-surface CO{sub 2} to enter the probe through Millipore filters that allow the soil gas to enter the probe but keeps out the soil and water. Light from the DFB laser interacts with the CO{sub 2} before it is directed back through the in-line fiber optic switch. The DFB laser is tuned across two CO{sub 2} absorption features where a transmission measurement is made allowing the CO{sub 2} concentration to be retrieved. The fiber optic switch then directs the light to the next probe where this process is repeated allowing sub-surface CO{sub 2} concentration measurements at each of the probes to be made as a function of time. The fiber sensor array was deployed for fifty-eight days beginning June 19, 2012 at the Zero Emission Research Technology (ZERT) field site where sub-surface CO{sub 2} concentrations were monitored. Background measurements indicate the fiber sensor array can monitor background levels as low as 1,000 parts per million (ppm). A thirty four day sub-surface release of 0.15 tones CO{sub 2}/day began on July 10, 2012. The elevated subsurface CO{sub 2} concentration was easily detected by each of the four probes with values ranging to over 60,000 ppm, a factor of greater than 6 higher than background measurements. The fiber sensor array was also deploy at the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) site in north-central Montana between July 9th and August 7th, 2013 where background measurements were made in a remote sequestration site with minimal infrastructure. The project provided opportunities for two graduate students to participate in research directly related to geologic carbon sequestration. Furthermore, commercialization of the technology developed is being pursued with five different companies via the Department of energy SBIR/STTR program

Repasky, Kevin

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

191

Self-compensating fiber optic flow sensor having an end of a fiber optics element and a reflective surface within a tube  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A flow rate fiber optic transducer is made self-compensating for both temperature and pressure by using preferably well-matched integral Fabry-Perot sensors symmetrically located around a cantilever-like structure. Common mode rejection signal processing of the outputs allows substantially all effects of both temperature and pressure to be compensated. Additionally, the integral sensors can individually be made insensitive to temperature.

Peng, Wei; Qi, Bing; Wang, Anbo

2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

192

Nanotechnology-Based Electrochemical Sensors for Biomonitoring...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nanotechnology-Based Electrochemical Sensors for Biomonitoring Chemical Exposures . Nanotechnology-Based Electrochemical Sensors for Biomonitoring Chemical Exposures . Abstract:...

193

A Ubiquitous Optical Microsystem Platform with Application to Optical Metrology and Chemical Sensing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

linearity of the image sensor photo response and extract thephoto diode array was replaced with an RGB image sensorsensor cell and do not have the same geometrical factors. In this work, a reference photo

Gerling, John

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

A Ubiquitous Optical Microsystem Platform with Application to Optical Metrology and Chemical Sensing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the optical window and film sample with refractive indexof the optical window and film sample with refractive indexto be independent of the window film refractive index n 2 .

Gerling, John

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Local Optical Spectroscopies for Subnanometer Spatial Resolution Chemical Imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The evanescently coupled photon scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs) have special requirements in terms of stability and optical access. We have made substantial improvements to the stability, resolution, and noise floor of our custom-built visible-photon STM, and will translate these advances to our infrared instrument. Double vibration isolation of the STM base with a damping system achieved increased rigidity, giving high tunneling junction stability for long-duration and high-power illumination. Light frequency modulation with an optical chopper and phase-sensitive detection now enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the tunneling junction during irradiation.

Weiss, Paul

2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

196

Spark-plug-mounted fiber optic sensor for measuring in-cylinder pressure in engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-coated fiber sensor is electroplated with copper. Finally, the metal-protected fiber sensor is embedded in a groove cut in the spark plug casing. Spark-plug-embedded FFPI sensors were used to monitor pressure in internal combustion engines...

Bae, Taehan

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Nondestructive optical characterization of chemical conversion coatings on aluminum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chromium phosphate conversion coatings on aluminum have been characterized with nondestructive optical techniques. Complementary vibrational spectroscopy techniques, i.e., Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy, prove the presence of chromium phosphate as principal component in the coating. Additionally, aluminum oxide and indications for the presence of chromium oxide and aluminum fluoride are found. Reflection/absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) allows analysis of coatings as thin as 40 nm, while confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy is limited to thicknesses above about 150 nm. Compared to RAIRS spectra, the interpretation of Raman spectra is easier due to the morphological characteristics of the conversion coatings, e.g., the coating thickness, using a simulation and regression procedure based on a two-layer optical model. The optical constants of the upper layer, which in a first approximation can be attributed to the chromium phosphate part of the conversion coating, can explain the greenish appearance of the thickest conversion coatings. A linear relationship exists between the coating thickness and the conversion time. An analogous linear relation exists between the conversion time and the peak areas of most of the absorption peaks in the RAIRS spectra.

Schram, T.; De Laet, J.; Terryn, H. [Vrije Univ. Brussel, Brussels (Belgium). Dept. of Metallurgy, Electrochemistry, and Materials Science

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Detecting high-frequency gravitational waves with optically-levitated sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a tunable resonant sensor to detect gravitational waves in the frequency range of 50-300 kHz using optically trapped and cooled dielectric microspheres or micro-discs. The technique we describe can exceed the sensitivity of laser-based gravitational wave observatories in this frequency range, using an instrument of only a few percent of their size. Such a device extends the search volume for gravitational wave sources above 100 kHz by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude, and could detect monochromatic gravitational radiation from the annihilation of QCD axions in the cloud they form around stellar mass black holes within our galaxy due to the superradiance effect.

Asimina Arvanitaki; Andrew A. Geraci

2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

199

Correlation Between Optical Properties And Chemical Composition Of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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200

Correlations Between Optical, Chemical and Physical Properties of Biomass  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optic chemical sensors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Design of angle-tolerant multivariate optical elements for chemical imaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design of angle-tolerant multivariate optical elements for chemical imaging Olusola O. Soyemi in imaging applications. We report a method for the design of angle-insensitive MOEs based on modification of Bismarck Brown and Crystal Violet, was designed and its performance simulated. For angles of incidence

Myrick, Michael Lenn

202

Development of an Integrated Raman and Turbidity Fiber Optic Sensor for the In-Situ Analysis of High Level Nuclear Waste - 13532  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stored nuclear waste must be retrieved from storage, treated, separated into low- and high-level waste streams, and finally put into a disposal form that effectively encapsulates the waste and isolates it from the environment for a long period of time. Before waste retrieval can be done, waste composition needs to be characterized so that proper safety precautions can be implemented during the retrieval process. In addition, there is a need for active monitoring of the dynamic chemistry of the waste during storage since the waste composition can become highly corrosive. This work describes the development of a novel, integrated fiber optic Raman and light scattering probe for in situ use in nuclear waste solutions. The dual Raman and turbidity sensor provides simultaneous chemical identification of nuclear waste as well as information concerning the suspended particles in the waste using a common laser excitation source. (authors)

Gasbarro, Christina; Bello, Job [EIC Laboratories, Inc., 111 Downey St., Norwood, MA, 02062 (United States)] [EIC Laboratories, Inc., 111 Downey St., Norwood, MA, 02062 (United States); Bryan, Samuel; Lines, Amanda; Levitskaia, Tatiana [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Fiber optic cone penetrometer raman probe for in situ chemical characterization of the Hanford underground waste tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A field hardened fiber optic Raman probe has been developed for cone penetrometer deployment in the Hanford underground chemical waste storage tanks. The corrosive chemical environment of the tanks, as well as Hanford specific deployment parameters, provide unique challenges for the design of an optical probe.

Kyle, K.R.; Brown, S.B.

1997-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

204

Fiber optic detector and method for using same for detecting chemical species  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical sensing device for uranyl and other substances, a method for making an optical sensing device and a method for chemically binding uranyl and other indicators to glass, quartz, cellulose and similar substrates. The indicator, such as arsenazo III, is immobilized on the substrate using a chemical binding process. The immobilized arsenazo III causes uranyl from a fluid sample to bind irreversibly to the substrate at its active sites, thus causing absorption of a portion of light transmitted through the substrate. Determination of the amount of light absorbed, using conventional means, yields the concentration of uranyl present in the sample fluid. The binding of uranyl on the substrate can be reversed by subsequent exposure of the substrate to a solution of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid. The chemical binding process is suitable for similarly binding other indicators, such as bromocresol green.

Baylor, Lewis C. (North Augusta, SC); Buchanan, Bruce R. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

An air flow sensor for neonatal mechanical ventilation applications based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, a simple and low-cost air flow sensor, based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique has been developed for monitoring air flows rates supplied by a neonatal ventilator to support infants in intensive care units. The device is based on a fiber optic sensing technique allowing (a) the immunity to light intensity variations independent by measurand and (b) the reduction of typical shortcomings affecting all biomedical fields (electromagnetic interference and patient electrical safety). The sensing principle is based on the measurement of transversal displacement of an emitting fiber-optic cantilever due to action of air flow acting on it; the fiber tip displacement is measured by means of a photodiode linear array, placed in front of the entrance face of the emitting optical fiber in order to detect its light intensity profile. As the measurement system is based on a detection of the illumination pattern, and not on an intensity modulation technique, it results less sensitive to light intensity fluctuation independent by measurand than intensity-based sensors. The considered technique is here adopted in order to develop two different configurations for an air flow sensor suitable for the measurement of air flow rates typically occurring during mechanical ventilation of newborns: a mono-directional and a bi-directional transducer have been proposed. A mathematical model for the air flow sensor is here proposed and a static calibration of two different arrangements has been performed: a measurement range up to 3.00 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} m{sup 3}/s (18.0 l/min) for the mono-directional sensor and a measurement range of {+-}3.00 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} m{sup 3}/s ({+-}18.0 l/min) for the bi-directional sensor are experimentally evaluated, according to the air flow rates normally encountered during tidal breathing of infants with a mass lower than 10 kg. Experimental data of static calibration result in accordance with the proposed theoretical model: for the mono-directional configuration, the coefficient of determination r{sup 2} is equal to 0.997; for the bi-directional configuration, the coefficient of determination r{sup 2} is equal to 0.990 for positive flows (inspiration) and 0.988 for negative flows (expiration). Measurement uncertainty {delta}Q of air flow rate has been evaluated by means of the propagation of distributions and the percentage error in the arrangement of bi-directional sensor ranges from a minimum of about 0.5% at -18.0 l/min to a maximum of about 9% at -12.0 l/min.

Battista, L.; Sciuto, S. A.; Scorza, A. [Department of Engineering, ROMA TRE University, via della Vasca Navale 79/81, Rome (Italy)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

206

Extreme temperature robust optical sensor designs and fault-tolerant signal processing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Silicon Carbide (SiC) probe designs for extreme temperature and pressure sensing uses a single crystal SiC optical chip encased in a sintered SiC material probe. The SiC chip may be protected for high temperature only use or exposed for both temperature and pressure sensing. Hybrid signal processing techniques allow fault-tolerant extreme temperature sensing. Wavelength peak-to-peak (or null-to-null) collective spectrum spread measurement to detect wavelength peak/null shift measurement forms a coarse-fine temperature measurement using broadband spectrum monitoring. The SiC probe frontend acts as a stable emissivity Black-body radiator and monitoring the shift in radiation spectrum enables a pyrometer. This application combines all-SiC pyrometry with thick SiC etalon laser interferometry within a free-spectral range to form a coarse-fine temperature measurement sensor. RF notch filtering techniques improve the sensitivity of the temperature measurement where fine spectral shift or spectrum measurements are needed to deduce temperature.

Riza, Nabeel Agha (Oviedo, FL); Perez, Frank (Tujunga, CA)

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

207

Sensor Data Processing for Tracking Underwater Threats Using Terascale Optical Core Devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A critical aspect of littoral surveillance (including port protection) involves the localization and tracking of underwater threats such as manned or unmanned autonomous underwater vehicles. In this article, we present a methodology for locating underwater threat sources from uncertain sensor network data, and illustrate the threat tracking aspects using active sonars in a matched filter framework. The novelty of the latter paradigm lies in its implementation on a tera-scale optical core processor, EnLight , recently introduced by Lenslet Laboratories. This processor is optimized for array operations, which it performs in a fixed point arithmetic architecture at tera-scale throughput. Using the EnLight 64 prototype processor, our results (i) illustrate the ability to reach a robust tracking accuracy, and (ii) demonstrate that a considerable speed-up (a factor of over 13,000) can be achieved when compared to an Intel XeonTM processor in the computation of sets of 80K-sample complex Fourier transforms that are associated with our matched filter techniques.

Barhen, Jacob [ORNL; Imam, Neena [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Journal of Materials Science, 2009. 44(6): p. 1560-1571 Whispering Gallery Mode-Based Micro-Optical Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

experimental results. Keywords: Whispering gallery mode, micro sensors, syntactic foams, smart composites of the glass fibers is replaced by an optical fiber for sensing [9]. These sensing schemes are successful

Gupta, Nikhil

209

Long-Term, Autonomous Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Using an Ormosil Nanocomposite-Based Optical Sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to construct a prototype carbon dioxide sensor that can be commercialized to offer a low-cost, autonomous instrument for long-term, unattended measurements. Currently, a cost-effective CO2 sensor system is not available that can perform cross-platform measurements (ground-based or airborne platforms such as balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)) for understanding the carbon sequestration phenomenon. The CO2 sensor would support the research objectives of DOE-sponsored programs such as AmeriFlux and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). Global energy consumption is projected to rise 60% over the next 20 years and use of oil is projected to increase by approximately 40%. The combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas has increased carbon emissions globally from 1.6 billion tons in 1950 to 6.3 billion tons in 2000. This figure is expected to reach 10 billon tons by 2020. It is important to understand the fate of this excess CO2 in the global carbon cycle. The overall goal of the project is to develop an accurate and reliable optical sensor for monitoring carbon dioxide autonomously at least for one year at a point remote from the actual CO2 release site. In Phase I of this project, InnoSense LLC (ISL) demonstrated the feasibility of an ormosil-monolith based Autonomous Sensor for Atmospheric CO2 (ASAC) device. All of the Phase I objectives were successfully met.

Kisholoy Goswami

2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

210

Chemically grafted polymeric filters for chemical sensors: Hyperbranched poly(acrylic acid) films incorporating {Beta}-cyclodextrin receptors and amine-functionalized filter layers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors report a new molecular-filter approach for enhancing the selectivity of chemical sensors. Specifically, they describe electrochemical sensors prepared from Au electrodes coated with {beta}-cyclodextrin-functionalized, hyperbranched poly(acrylic acid)(PAA) films capped with a chemically grafted, ultrathin polyamine layer. The hyperbranched PAA film is a highly functionalized framework for covalently binding the {beta}-cyclodextrin molecular receptors. The thin, grafted polyamine overlayer acts as a pH-sensitive molecular filter that selectively passes suitably charged analytes. Poly(amidoamine) dendrimers or poly-D-lysine is used as 10--15-nm-thick filter layers. The results show that at low pH, when the polyamines are fully protonated, positively charged redox probe molecules, such as benzyl viologen (BV), do not permeate the filter layer. However, at high pH, when the filter layer is uncharged, BV penetrates the filter layer and is reduced at the electrode. The opposite pH dependence is observed for negatively charged redox molecules such as anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQS). Both BV and AQS specifically interact with the {beta}-cyclodextrin receptors underlying the polyamine filter layers.

Dermody, D.L.; Peez, R.F.; Bergbreiter, D.E.; Crooks, R.M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

211

Optical sensing elements for nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2) gas detection, a sol-gel method for making the sensing elements and fiber optic sensors incorporating nitrogen dioxide gas optical sensing elements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sensing element, a method of making a sensing element, and a fiber optic sensor incorporating the sensing element are described. The sensor can be used for the quantitative detection of NO.sub.2 in a mixture of gases. The sensing element can be made by incorporating a diazotizing reagent which reacts with nitrous ions to produce a diazo compound and a coupling reagent which couples with the diazo compound to produce an azo dye into a sol and allowing the sol to form an optically transparent gel. The sensing element changes color in the presence of NO.sub.2 gas. The temporal response of the absorption spectrum at various NO.sub.2 concentrations has also been recorded and analyzed. Sensors having different design configurations are described. The sensing element can detect NO.sub.2 gas at levels of parts per billion.

Mechery, Shelly John (Mississippi State, MS); Singh, Jagdish P. (Starkville, MS)

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

212

Design and implementation of a real-time, chemical sensor network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Current methods of environmental chemical data collection are limited in both time and space. This limited set of data inhibits researchers from fully understanding the chemical processes occurring in water bodies. In order ...

Wong, Joseph Y. (Joseph Yee), 1981-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors for Measuring Transient Detonation/Shock Behavior;Time-of-Arrival Detection and Waveform Determination.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The miniaturization of explosive components has driven the need for a corresponding miniaturization of the current diagnostic techniques available to measure the explosive phenomena. Laser interferometry and the use of spectrally coated optical windows have proven to be an essential interrogation technique to acquire particle velocity time history data in one- dimensional gas gun and relatively large-scale explosive experiments. A new diagnostic technique described herein allows for experimental measurement of apparent particle velocity time histories in microscale explosive configurations and can be applied to shocks/non-shocks in inert materials. The diagnostic, Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors (EFOS), has been tested in challenging microscopic experimental configurations that give confidence in the technique's ability to measure the apparent particle velocity time histories of an explosive with pressure outputs in the tenths of kilobars to several kilobars. Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors also allow for several measurements to be acquired in a single experiment because they are microscopic, thus reducing the number of experiments necessary. The future of EFOS technology will focus on further miniaturization, material selection appropriate for the operating pressure regime, and extensive hydrocode and optical analysis to transform apparent particle velocity time histories into true particle velocity time histories as well as the more meaningful pressure time histories.

Chavez, Marcus Alexander; Willis, Michael David; Covert, Timothy T.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Planar optical waveguide based sandwich assay sensors and processes for the detection of biological targets including early detection of cancers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An assay element is described including recognition ligands adapted for binding to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) bound to a film on a single mode planar optical waveguide, the film from the group of a membrane, a polymerized bilayer membrane, and a self-assembled monolayer containing polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol groups therein and an assay process for detecting the presence of CEA is described including injecting a possible CEA-containing sample into a sensor cell including the assay element, maintaining the sample within the sensor cell for time sufficient for binding to occur between CEA present within the sample and the recognition ligands, injecting a solution including a reporter ligand into the sensor cell; and, interrogating the sample within the sensor cell with excitation light from the waveguide, the excitation light provided by an evanescent field of the single mode penetrating into the biological target-containing sample to a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide thereby exciting any bound reporter ligand within a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide and resulting in a detectable signal.

Martinez, Jennifer S. (Santa Fe, NM); Swanson, Basil I. (Los Alamos, NM); Shively, John E. (Arcadia, CA); Li, Lin (Monrovia, CA)

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

215

THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS VOLUME 59, NUMBER 8 15 OCTOBER 1973 Optical pumping of molecules II. Relaxation studies *  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS VOLUME 59, NUMBER 8 15 OCTOBER 1973 Optical pumping of molecules II exceeds the diameter of the light beam which both pumps and samples the alignment, the relaxation. INTRODUCTION Optical pumping consists of the transfer of order from a light beam to a material sample. The op

Zare, Richard N.

216

Polymer and carbon nanotube materials for chemical sensors and organic electronics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis details the development of new materials for high-performance chemical sensing as well as organic electronic applications. In Chapter 2, we develop a chemiresistive material based on single-walled carbon nanotubes ...

Wang, Fei, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

MEMS-based resonant sensor arrays : selective detection of volatile and toxic chemicals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With growing concerns about homeland security, public health, and environmental cleanliness, there is a strong need today for robust chemical sensing systems that are portable in addition to being highly sensitive. While ...

Whitfield, George C., 1981-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Silicate electrochemical measurements in seawater: Chemical and analytical aspects towards a reagentless sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Silicate electrochemical measurements in seawater: Chemical and analytical aspects towards Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex, France Keywords: Molybdenum Silicate Reagentless developed a semi-autonomous method to detect silicate in aqueous samples. Molybdenum oxidation was used

Mailhes, Corinne

219

Design and fabrication of an optical pressure micro sensor for skin mechanics studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mechanics of skin is as central to touch as optics is to vision and acoustics is to hearing. With the advent of novel imaging technologies such as the Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), we are now able to view structures ...

Kumar, Siddarth

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Optical Sensors for Post Combustion Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking (TRP 9851)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Working in collaboration with Stantec Global Technologies, Process Metrix Corporation, and The Timken Company, Sandia National Laboratories constructed and evaluated a novel, laser-based off-gas sensor at the electric arc furnace facility of Timken's Faircrest Steel Plant (Canton, Ohio). The sensor is based on a mid-infrared tunable diode laser (TDL), and measures the concentration and temperature of specific gas species present in the off-gas emanating from the EAF. The laser beam is transmitted through the gas stream at the fourth hole of the EAF, and provides a real-time, in situ measurement that can be used for process optimization. Two sets of field tests were performed in parallel with Stantec's extractive probe off-gas system, and the tests confirm the TDL sensor's operation and applicability for electric steel making. The sensor measures real-time, in situ line-of-sight carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations between 5% and 35% CO, and measures off-gas temperature in the range of 1400 to 1900 K. In order to achieve commercial-ready status, future work is required to extend the sensor for simultaneous CO and CO{sub 2} concentration measurements. In addition, long-term endurance tests including process optimization must be completed.

Sarah W. Allendorf; David K. Ottesen; Robert W. Green; Donald R. Hardesty; Robert Kolarik; Howard Goodfellow; Euan Evenson; Marshall Khan; Ovidiu Negru; Michel Bonin; Soren Jensen

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optic chemical sensors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The phenomenon of ion migration in solids forms the basis for a wide variety of electrochemical applications, ranging from power generators and chemical sensors to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of electrochemical applications, ranging from power generators and chemical sensors to ionic switches. SolidAbstract The phenomenon of ion migration in solids forms the basis for a wide variety-state ionics (SSI) is the field of research concerning ionic motions in solids and the materials properties

Elliott, James

222

Growth of Nanotubes and Chemical Sensor Applications J. Hone, P. Kim, X.M.H. Huang, B Chandra, R. Caldwell, J. Small, B. H. Hong, T. Someya, L.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Growth of Nanotubes and Chemical Sensor Applications J. Hone, P. Kim, X.M.H. Huang, B Chandra, R of methods to grow long aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes. Geometries include individual long tubes, dense parallel arrays, and long freely suspended nanotubes. We have fabricated a variety of devices

Kim, Philip

223

Fiber optic spectroscopic digital imaging sensor and method for flame properties monitoring  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for real-time monitoring of flame properties in combustors and gasifiers which includes an imaging fiber optic bundle having a light receiving end and a light output end and a spectroscopic imaging system operably connected with the light output end of the imaging fiber optic bundle. Focusing of the light received by the light receiving end of the imaging fiber optic bundle by a wall disposed between the light receiving end of the fiber optic bundle and a light source, which wall forms a pinhole opening aligned with the light receiving end.

Zelepouga, Serguei A. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Rue, David M. (Chicago, IL); Saveliev, Alexei V. (Chicago, IL)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

224

Real time perfusion and oxygenation monitoring in an implantable optical sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in operating rooms. In the late 1970s Scott Wilbur of the Biox corporation designed an ear sensor that used light emitting diode and solid state photodetectors to develop a clinically accepted pulse oximeter. The fiberoptic cables of previous ear oximeters.... Traditional oximeters use two light emitting diodes that emit light at 660nm (red) and 940nm (infrared) wavelengths. At these wavelengths both oxyhemoglobin and reduced hemoglobin have different absorption spectra (Fig. 1). The ratio of absorbances...

Subramanian, Hariharan

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

225

Emissive sensors and devices incorporating these sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention generally relates to luminescent and/or optically absorbing compositions and/or precursors to those compositions, including solid films incorporating these compositions/precursors, exhibiting increased luminescent lifetimes, quantum yields, enhanced stabilities and/or amplified emissions. The present invention also relates to sensors and methods for sensing analytes through luminescent and/or optically absorbing properties of these compositions and/or precursors. Examples of analytes detectable by the invention include electrophiles, alkylating agents, thionyl halides, and phosphate ester groups including phosphoryl halides, cyanides and thioates such as those found in certain chemical warfare agents. The present invention additionally relates to devices and methods for amplifying emissions, such as those produced using the above-described compositions and/or precursors, by incorporating the composition and/or precursor within a polymer having an energy migration pathway. In some cases, the compositions and/or precursors thereof include a compound capable of undergoing a cyclization reaction.

Swager, Timothy M; Zhang, Shi-Wei

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

226

Fiber optic temperature sensor using a grating on an angled fiber tip  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by a DC current source. The sensor was spliced with some more single mode fiber and coupled to the photo detector. The photo detector circuit consisted of an InGaAs 1550nm photodiode along with a trans-impedance circuit to reduce the noise... and amplify the output signal. The output signal was received in a data file using an NI-DAQ interface and a C program (Appendix E). The receiver circuit used with the photodiode is shown in figure 21. 30 2K 2K DC Power Supply 9V Ph oto Dtode 10K OP27...

Varadarajan, Harini

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

227

The monitoring and multiplexing of fiber optic sensors using chirped laser sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

photodiode through a fiber coupler. An optical isolator is connected in serial with the laser to block the destabilizing optical feedback. The reflected light from the FFPI is converted by another photodiode to an electrical current signal I r... , such that the reflectance is obtained as R FP = CI r /I i , with C a constant and I i the photocurrent measured by the laser power monitoring photodiode. The absolute value of R FP can be obtained through calibration, although it is often not necessary. Fig. 4...

Wan, Xiaoke

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

228

CHEMICAL SENSOR AND FIELD SCREENING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT: FUELS IN SOILS FIELD SCREENING METHOD VALIDATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new screening method for fuel contamination in soils was recently developed as American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Method D-583 1-95, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This method uses low-toxicity chemicals and can be used to screen organic-rich soils. In addition, it is fast, easy, and inexpensive to perform. The screening method calls for extracting a sample of soil with isopropyl alcohol following treatment with calcium oxide. The resulting extract is filtered, and the ultraviolet absorbance of the extract is measured at 254 nm. Depending on the available information concerning the contaminant fuel type and availability of the contaminant fuel for calibration, the method can be used to determine the approximate concentration of fuel contamination, an estimated value of fuel contamination, or an indication of the presence or absence of fuel contamination. Fuels containing aromatic compounds, such as diesel fuel and gasoline, as well as other aromatic-containing hydrocarbon materials, such as motor oil, crude oil, and coal oil, can be determined. The screening method for fuels in soils was evaluated by conducting a collaborative study on the method and by using the method to screen soil samples at an actual field site. In the collaborative study, a sand and an organic soil spiked with various concentrations of diesel fuel were tested. Data from the collaborative study were used to determine the reproducibility (between participants) and repeatability (within participant) precision of the method for screening the test materials. The collaborative study data also provide information on the performance of portable field equipment versus laboratory equipment for performing the screening method and a comparison of diesel concentration values determined using the screening method versus a laboratory method. Data generated using the method to screen soil samples in the field provide information on the performance of the method in atypical real-world application.

Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Modeling a Prototype Optical Collision Avoidance Sensor For Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of direct solar illumination. We demonstrate a prototype system based on a network of independent camera emulator allows for realistic field tests with consumer components. Aspects of the design, implementation. Numerous versions of the SAA instrument based on radar, LIDAR and passive- optical, among other

Hornsey, Richard

230

In Vitro and In Vivo Comparison of Optics and Performance of a Distal Sensor Ureteroscope Versus a Standard Fiberoptic Ureteroscope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

characteristics and optics of the X C with a stan- dardand In Vivo Comparison of Optics and Performance of a Distalperformance characteristics and optics of a new generation

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Fiber-Optic Long-Line Position Sensor - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicyFeasibility ofSmall15.000TechnologyTuneFewer FaultsIndustrial

232

AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 1 of 6: Optical Sensors and Controls for Improved Basic Oxygen Furnace Operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of an optical sensor for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) off-gas composition and temperature in this Advanced Process Control project has been a laboratory spectroscopic method evolve into a pre-commercialization prototype sensor system. The sensor simultaneously detects an infrared tunable diode laser ITDL beam transmitted through the process off-gas directly above the furnace mouth, and the infrared greybody emission from the particulate-laden off-gas stream. Following developmental laboratory and field-testing, the sensor prototype was successfully tested in four long-term field trials at Bethlehem Steel's Sparrows Point plant in Baltimore, MD> The resulting optical data were analyzed and reveal correlations with four important process variables: (1) bath turndown temperature; (2) carbon monoxide post-combustion control; (2) bath carbon concentration; and (4) furnace slopping behavior. The optical sensor measurement of the off-gas temperature is modestly correlated with bath turndown temperature. A detailed regression analysis of over 200 heats suggests that a dynamic control level of +25 Degree F can be attained with a stand-alone laser-based optical sensor. The ability to track off-gas temperatures to control post-combustion lance practice is also demonstrated, and may be of great use in optimizing post-combustion efficiency in electric furnace steelmaking operations. In addition to the laser-based absorption spectroscopy data collected by this sensor, a concurrent signal generated by greybody emission from the particle-laden off-gas was collected and analyzed. A detailed regression analysis shows an excellent correlation of a single variable with final bath turndown carbon concentration. Extended field trials in 1998 and early 1999 show a response range from below 0.03% to a least 0.15% carbon concentration with a precision of +0.0007%. Finally, a strong correlation between prolonged drops in the off-gas emission signal and furnace slopping events was observed. A simple computer algorithm was written that successfully predicts furnace slopping for 90% of the heats observed; over 80% are predicted with at least a 30-second warning prior to the initial slopping events,

Sarah Allendorf; David Ottesen; Donald Hardesty

2002-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

233

Buffer for a gamma-insensitive optical sensor with gas and a buffer assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A buffer assembly is disclosed for a gamma-insensitive gas avalanche focal plane array operating in the ultra-violet/visible/infrared energy wavelengths and using a photocathode and an avalanche gas located in a gap between an anode and the photocathode. The buffer assembly functions to eliminate chemical compatibility between the gas composition and the materials of the photocathode. The buffer assembly in the described embodiment is composed of two sections, a first section constructed of glass honeycomb under vacuum and a second section defining a thin barrier film or membrane constructed, for example, of Al and Be, which is attached to and supported by the honeycomb. The honeycomb section, in turn, is supported by and adjacent to the photocathode. 7 figures.

Kruger, H.W.

1994-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

234

How do A-train Sensors Intercompare in the Retrieval of Above-Cloud Aerosol Optical Depth? A Case Study-based Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We inter-compare the above-cloud aerosol optical depth (ACAOD) of biomass burning plumes retrieved from different A-train sensors, i.e., MODIS, CALIOP, POLDER, and OMI. These sensors have shown independent capabilities to detect and retrieve aerosol loading above marine boundary layer clouds--a kind of situation often found over the Southeast Atlantic Ocean during dry burning season. A systematic one-to-one comparison reveals that, in general, all passive sensors and CALIOP-based research methods derive comparable ACAOD with differences mostly within 0.2 over homogeneous cloud fields. The 532-nm ACAOD retrieved by CALIOP operational algorithm is largely underestimated; however, its 1064-nm AOD when converted to 500 nm shows closer agreement to the passive sensors. Given the different types of sensor measurements processed with different algorithms, the close agreement between them is encouraging. Due to lack of adequate direct measurements above cloud, the validation of satellite-based ACAOD retrievals remains an open challenge. The inter-satellite comparison, however, can be useful for the relative evaluation and consistency check.

Jethva, H. T.; Torres, O.; Waquet, F.; Chand, Duli; Hu, Yong X.

2014-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

235

Optical, physical, and chemical properties of springtime aerosol over Barrow Alaska in 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Airborne observations from four flights during the 2008 Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) are used to examine some cloud-free optical, physical, and chemical properties of aerosol particles in the springtime Arctic troposphere. The number concentrations of particles larger than 0.12 ?m (Na>120), important for light extinction and cloud droplet formation, ranged from 15 to 2260 cm?3, with the higher Na>120 cases dominated by measurements from two flights of long-range transported biomass burning (BB) aerosols. The two other flights examined here document a relatively clean aerosol and an Arctic Haze aerosol impacted by larger particles largely composed of dust. For observations from the cleaner case and the BB cases, the particle light scattering coefficients at low relative humidity (RH<20%) increased nonlinearly with increasing Na>120, driven mostly by an increase in mean sizes of particles with increasing Na>120 (BB cases). For those three cases, particle light absorption coefficients also increased nonlinearly with increasing Na>120 and linearly with increasing submicron particle volume concentration. In addition to black carbon, brown carbon was estimated to have increased light absorption coefficients by 27% (450 nm wavelength) and 14% (550 nm) in the BB cases. For the case with strong dust influence, the absorption relative to submicron particle volume was small compared with the other cases. There was a slight gradient of Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP) mean volume diameter (MVD) towards smaller sizes with increasing height, which suggests more scavenging of the more elevated particles, consistent with a typically longer lifetime of particles higher in the atmosphere. However, in approximately 10% of the cases, the MVD increased (>0.4 ?m) with increasing altitude, suggesting transport of larger fine particle mass (possibly coarse particle mass) at high levels over the Arctic. This may be because of transport of larger particles at higher elevations and relatively slow deposition to the surface.

Shantz, Nicole C.; Gultepe, Ismail; Andrews, Elisabeth; Zelenyuk, Alla; Earle, Michael; MacDonald, A. M.; Liu, Peter S.; Leaitch, W. R.

2014-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

236

Oxazine-based sensor for contaminant detection, fabrication method therefor, and uses thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sensor, a method for its fabrication, and a method for its use to detect contaminants, for example, ammonia, in stagnant and dynamic fluid media, especially liquid media. The sensor is an opto-chemical sensor that includes a polymer optical fiber, a sensing layer comprising oxazine 170 perchlorate on the polymer optical fiber, and a membrane layer on the sensing layer. The membrane layer is gas permeable and not permeable to the fluid in the fluid system, and moisture is entrapped by and between the sensing and membrane layers.

Nnanna, Agbai Agwu; Jalal, Ahmed Hasnian

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

237

Use of sensors in monitoring civil structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis surveys the use of sensors and sensor networks in monitoring civil structures, with particular emphasis on the monitoring of bridges and highways using fiber optic sensors. Following a brief review of the most ...

Daher, Bassam William, 1979-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Planar optical waveguide based sandwich assay sensors and processes for the detection of biological targets including protein markers, pathogens and cellular debris  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An assay element is described including recognition ligands bound to a film on a single mode planar optical waveguide, the film from the group of a membrane, a polymerized bilayer membrane, and a self-assembled monolayer containing polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol groups therein and an assay process for detecting the presence of a biological target is described including injecting a biological target-containing sample into a sensor cell including the assay element, with the recognition ligands adapted for binding to selected biological targets, maintaining the sample within the sensor cell for time sufficient for binding to occur between selected biological targets within the sample and the recognition ligands, injecting a solution including a reporter ligand into the sensor cell; and, interrogating the sample within the sensor cell with excitation light from the waveguide, the excitation light provided by an evanescent field of the single mode penetrating into the biological target-containing sample to a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide thereby exciting the fluorescent-label in any bound reporter ligand within a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide and resulting in a detectable signal.

Martinez, Jennifer S. (Santa Fe, NM); Swanson, Basil I. (Los Alamos, NM); Grace, Karen M. (Los Alamos, NM); Grace, Wynne K. (Los Alamos, NM); Shreve, Andrew P. (Santa Fe, NM)

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

239

Tests gauge LED sensors for fuel-dye measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this work was to develop a low cost, robust sensor to allow direct measurement of Solvent Red 164 dye concentration in off-road fuel at refineries and fuel terminals. Optical absorption sensors based on light emitting diodes (LEDs) are rugged, low-cost, have low power consumption, and can be designed to be intrinsically safe.LED-based systems have been used in a variety of chemical detection applications including heavy metals, pH, CO2, and O2. The approach for this work was to develop a sensor that could be mounted on a pipeline sight glass, precluding the need for direct contact of the sensor with the fuel. Below is described the design and testing of three different LED/photodiode sensors utilizing reflectance spectrometry for the measurement of dye concentration.

Ozanich, Richard M.; Lucke, Richard B.; Melville, Angela M.; Wright, Bob W.

2009-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

240

Buried fiber optic sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and TMom modes. Otherwise vm gives the HEv hm and EHv-hm modest20] 18 Table I. Parameters of the laser source and the fused silica fiber which are used in this experiment. n=n1=1. 4527 n2= 1. 4483 D (core diameter )= 8 um Cladding Diameter = 125 um... Interferometer . B. Frequency Chirping of Laser Diode C. Pressure Sensitivity to Uniform Pressure . . . . . . . . . . D. Pressure Sensitivity to Transverse Pressure . . . . E. Pressure Sensitivity to Longitudinal Pressure . . . . . . . . . . I 3 . . . . 20...

Park, Jaehee

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optic chemical sensors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Fiber Optic Hydrogen Sensor Development: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-05-00158  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NREL and Nuclear Filter Technology collaborated to develop a prototype product for a hydrogen threshold sensor that was used to monitor hydrogen production in the transport of nuclear waste transport containers.

Ringer, M.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

An evaluation of an optically-based, cylinder pressure sensor in a single-cylinder, research, diesel engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in head bolts were tested under a variety of operating conditions on a single cylinder, research, diesel engine. The sensors' pressure vs. crank angle output was compared with the output of a piezoelectric pressure transducer mounted, in the engine head...

Turner, Timothy Troy

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Chemically sensitive polymer-mediated nanoporous alumina SAW sensors for the detection of vapor-phase analytes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have investigated the chemical sensitivity of nanoporous (NP) alumina-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that have been surface-modified with polymeric mediating films. The research in this dissertation covers the refinement of the NP...

Perez, Gregory Paul

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

244

Optical Transduction of Chemical Nathan H. Mack, Jay Wm. Wackerly, Viktor Malyarchuk, John A. Rogers,*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

imaging and spectroscopic modes. Periodically arrayed nanostructured metallic thin films exhibit near-infrared response, eliciting sensitivities of these devices not only in the near-infrared but also the visible collinear transmission (or reflection) optical geometries.3-5 These nanostructured devices come in a variety

Rogers, John A.

245

CHEMICAL KINETICS MODELS FOR THE FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF FUSED SILICA OPTICAL FIBER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of stress, temperature and activity of the corroding species (e.g. water). A power law degradation kinetics the degradation depends on the applied stress. Subcritical Crack Growth Model The reliability of silica optical fiber under stress is usually described by the subcritical crack growth model. It is assumed

Matthewson, M. John

246

Correlation Between Optical Properties And Chemical Composition Of Sputter-deposited Germanium Cxide (GeOx) Films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Germanium oxide (GeOx) films were grown on (1 0 0) Si substrates by reactive Direct-Current (DC) magnetron sputter-deposition using an elemental Ge target. The effects of oxygen gas fraction, ? = O2/(Ar + O2), on the deposition rate, structure, chemical composition and optical properties of GeOx films have been investigated. The chemistry of the films exhibits an evolution from pure Ge to mixed Ge + GeO + GeO2 and then finally to GeO2 upon increasing ? from 0.00 to 1.00. Grazing incidence X-ray analysis indicates that the GeOx films grown were amorphous. The optical properties probed by spectroscopic ellipsometry indicate that the effect of ? is significant on the optical constants of the GeOx films. The measured index of refraction (n) at a wavelength (?) of 550 nm is 4.67 for films grown without any oxygen, indicating behavior characteristic of semiconducting Ge. The transition from germanium to mixed Ge + GeO + GeO2 composition is associated with a characteristic decrease in n (? = 550 nm) to 2.62 and occurs at ? = 0.25. Finally n drops to 1.60 for ? = 0.501.00, where the films become GeO2. A detailed correlation between ?, n, k and stoichiometry in DC sputtered GeOx films is presented and discussed.

Murphy, Neil R.; Grant, J. T.; Sun, L.; Jones, J. G.; Jakubiak, R.; Shutthanandan, V.; Ramana, Chintalapalle V.

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

247

Optical far- and near-field femtosecond laser ablation of Si for nanoscale chemical analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extending spatial resolution in laser-based chemical analysis to the nanoscale becomes increasingly important as nanoscience and nanotechnology develop. Implementation of femtosecond laser pulses arises as a basic strategy for increasing resolution since it is associated with spatially localized material damage. In this work we study femtosecond laser far- and near-field processing of silicon (Si) at two distinct wavelengths (400 and 800 nm), for nanoscale chemical analysis. By tightly focusing femtosecond laser beams in the far-field we were able to produce sub-micrometer craters. In order to further reduce the crater size, similar experiments were performed in the near-field through sub-wavelength apertures, resulting to the formation of sub-30 nm craters. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was used for chemical analysis with a goal to identify the minimum crater size from which spectral emission could be measured. Emission from sub-micrometer craters (full-with-at-half-maximum) was possible, which are among the smallest ever reported for femtosecond LIBS.

Zormpa, Vasileia; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E.

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

248

Spectrally-Quantified Chemical Reactivity of Optical Fluids and Materials in the GMACS Spectrograph for GMT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the middle of the doublet with index matching fluids so that air does not get in and distort the optics. (Marshall et. al. 2012) 3 Furthermore, other astronomers have taken a preemptive approach to this problem. When designing the Deep Imaging Multi... and will have the equivalent resolving power of a 24.5 m (80.4 ft) single primary mirror and the light collecting ability of a 21.4 m (70.2 ft) single primary mirror (Lloyd-Hard et. al. 2006). This will give GMT over four times the light-gathering ability...

Behm, Tyler 1990-

2012-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

249

Sensor readout detector circuit  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems. 6 figs.

Chu, D.D.; Thelen, D.C. Jr.

1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

250

Sensor readout detector circuit  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems.

Chu, Dahlon D. (Albuquerque, NM); Thelen, Jr., Donald C. (Bozeman, MT)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Enhancement of the resolution of full-field optical coherence tomography by using a colour image sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of white balance in a colour image detector on the resolution of a full-field optical coherence tomograph (FFOCT) is studied. The change in the interference pulse width depending on the white balance tuning is estimated in the cases of a thermal radiation source (incandescent lamp) and a white light emitting diode. It is shown that by tuning white balance of the detector in a certain range, the FFOCT resolution can be increased by 20 % as compared to the resolution, attained with the use of a monochrome detector. (optical coherence tomography)

Kalyanov, A L; Lychagov, V V; Smirnov, I V; Ryabukho, V P [N.G. Chernyshevsky Saratov State University, Saratov (Russian Federation)

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

252

Thermal microphotonic sensor and sensor array  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal microphotonic sensor is disclosed for detecting infrared radiation using heat generated by the infrared radiation to shift the resonant frequency of an optical resonator (e.g. a ring resonator) to which the heat is coupled. The shift in the resonant frequency can be determined from light in an optical waveguide which is evanescently coupled to the optical resonator. An infrared absorber can be provided on the optical waveguide either as a coating or as a plate to aid in absorption of the infrared radiation. In some cases, a vertical resonant cavity can be formed about the infrared absorber to further increase the absorption of the infrared radiation. The sensor can be formed as a single device, or as an array for imaging the infrared radiation.

Watts, Michael R. (Albuquerque, NM); Shaw, Michael J. (Tijeras, NM); Nielson, Gregory N. (Albuquerque, NM); Lentine, Anthony L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

253

Chemical Synthesis and Optical Properties of CdS Poly(Lactic Acid) Nanocomposites and Their Transparent Fluorescent Films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the chemical synthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) polymer nanocomposites by covalently grafting poly(lactic acid) (PLA) onto the surfaces of CdS nanocrystals (NCs). Synthesis of the nanocomposites involved two steps. Lactic acid (LA) capped CdS NCs were first prepared by reacting cadmium chloride (CdCl2) with sodium sulfide (Na2S) using LA as the organic ligand in H2O/N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution. Next CdS PLA nanocomposites were formed by in situ ring-opening polymerization of lactide on the surface of modified CdS NCs. Transparent fluorescent films were then successfully prepared by blending as-prepared CdS PLA nanocomposites with high-molecular-weight PLA. The as-prepared CdS NCs and their nanocomposites were studied by transmission electron microscopic imaging, thermogravimetric analyses, and spectroscopic measurements (ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence). The spectroscopic studies revealed that the CdS polymer nanocomposites exhibited good optical properties in terms of their photoluminescence and transparency.

Wang, Cai-Feng [Nanjing University of Technology; Cheng, Yu-Peng [Nanjing University of Technology; Xie, He-Yi [Nanjing University of Technology; Chen, Li [Nanjing University of Technology; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL; Chen, Su [Nanjing University of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Ris-PhD-19(EN) Self Calibrating Interferometric Sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interferometric Sensor Department: Optics and Plasma Research Department Risø-PhD-19(EN) January 2006 This thesis

255

Microscale autonomous sensor and communications module  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Various technologies pertaining to a microscale autonomous sensor and communications module are described herein. Such a module includes a sensor that generates a sensor signal that is indicative of an environmental parameter. An integrated circuit receives the sensor signal and generates an output signal based at least in part upon the sensor signal. An optical emitter receives the output signal and generates an optical signal as a function of the output signal. An energy storage device is configured to provide power to at least the integrated circuit and the optical emitter, and wherein the module has a relatively small diameter and thickness.

Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N

2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

256

Application of an all-solid-state diode-laser-based sensor for carbon monoxide detection by optical absorption in the 4.4 ? 4.8 m spectral region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPLICATION OF AN ALL-SOLID-STATE DIODE-LASER-BASED SENSOR FOR CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTION BY OPTICAL ABSORPTION IN THE 4.4 ? 4.8 ?m SPECTRAL REGION A Dissertation by RODOLFO BARRON JIMENEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate... FOR CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTION BY OPTICAL ABSORPTION IN THE 4.4 ? 4.8 ?m SPECTRAL REGION A Dissertation by RODOLFO BARRON JIMENEZ Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY...

Rodolfo, Barron Jimenez

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

257

Biopsy-implantable chemical sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There is a dire need for tools that can rapidly detect cancer treatment efficacy. A cancer patient must endure the side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It will be weeks before a change in the size of the tumor ...

Vassiliou, Christophoros Christou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Condition monitoring through advanced sensor and computational technology : final report (January 2002 to May 2005).  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of this joint research project was to develop and demonstrate advanced sensors and computational technology for continuous monitoring of the condition of components, structures, and systems in advanced and next-generation nuclear power plants (NPPs). This project included investigating and adapting several advanced sensor technologies from Korean and US national laboratory research communities, some of which were developed and applied in non-nuclear industries. The project team investigated and developed sophisticated signal processing, noise reduction, and pattern recognition techniques and algorithms. The researchers installed sensors and conducted condition monitoring tests on two test loops, a check valve (an active component) and a piping elbow (a passive component), to demonstrate the feasibility of using advanced sensors and computational technology to achieve the project goal. Acoustic emission (AE) devices, optical fiber sensors, accelerometers, and ultrasonic transducers (UTs) were used to detect mechanical vibratory response of check valve and piping elbow in normal and degraded configurations. Chemical sensors were also installed to monitor the water chemistry in the piping elbow test loop. Analysis results of processed sensor data indicate that it is feasible to differentiate between the normal and degraded (with selected degradation mechanisms) configurations of these two components from the acquired sensor signals, but it is questionable that these methods can reliably identify the level and type of degradation. Additional research and development efforts are needed to refine the differentiation techniques and to reduce the level of uncertainties.

Kim, Jung-Taek (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejon, Korea); Luk, Vincent K.

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Study on plasma assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of Zr,,C,N... and Ti,,C,N... thin films and in situ plasma diagnostics with optical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

films and in situ plasma diagnostics with optical emission spectroscopy S. J. Cho, S.-H. Nam, C.-K. JungStudy on plasma assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of Zr,,C,N... and Ti,,C,N... thin C,N films were synthesized by pulsed dc plasma assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

Boo, Jin-Hyo

260

Blueshift of optical band gap in ZnO thin films grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. INTRODUCTION Zinc oxide ZnO is a wide direct band-gap 3.37 eV semiconductor with a broad range of applications. Dimethylzinc DMZn , N2 gas, and high-purity O2 were used as the zinc source, carrier gas, and oxidizing agent including light-emitting devices,1 varistors,2 solar cells,3 and gas sensors.4 Moreover, ZnO is a promising

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optic chemical sensors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Extended range chemical sensing apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus is described for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy. 6 figures.

Hughes, R.C.; Schubert, W.K.

1994-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

262

Capacitance pressure sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microelectromechanical (MEM) capacitance pressure sensor integrated with electronic circuitry on a common substrate and a method for forming such a device are disclosed. The MEM capacitance pressure sensor includes a capacitance pressure sensor formed at least partially in a cavity etched below the surface of a silicon substrate and adjacent circuitry (CMOS, BiCMOS, or bipolar circuitry) formed on the substrate. By forming the capacitance pressure sensor in the cavity, the substrate can be planarized (e.g. by chemical-mechanical polishing) so that a standard set of integrated circuit processing steps can be used to form the electronic circuitry (e.g. using an aluminum or aluminum-alloy interconnect metallization).

Eaton, William P. (Tijeras, NM); Staple, Bevan D. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, James H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Gamma-insensitive optical sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ultra-violet/visible/infra-red gamma-insensitive gas avalanche focal plane array comprising a planar photocathode and a planar anode pad array separated by a gas-filled gap and across which is applied an electric potential. Electrons ejected from the photocathode are accelerated sufficiently between collisions with the gas molecules to ionize them, forming an electron avalanche. The gap acts like a proportional counter. The array of anode pad are mounted on the front of an anode plate and are connected to matching contact pads on the back of the anode via feed through wires. Connection of the anode to signal processing electronics is made from the contact pads using standard indium bump techniques, for example.

Kruger, Hans W. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Gamma-insensitive optical sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ultraviolet/visible/infrared gamma-insensitive gas avalanche focal plane array is described comprising a planar photocathode and a planar anode pad array separated by a gas-filled gap and across which is applied an electric potential. Electrons ejected from the photocathode are accelerated sufficiently between collisions with the gas molecules to ionize them, forming an electron avalanche. The gap acts like a proportional counter. The array of anode pad are mounted on the front of an anode plate and are connected to matching contact pads on the back of the anode via feed through wires. Connection of the anode to signal processing electronics is made from the contact pads using standard indium bump techniques, for example. 6 figures.

Kruger, H.W.

1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

265

On the sub-band gap optical absorption in heat treated cadmium sulphide thin film deposited on glass by chemical bath deposition technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sub-band gap optical absorption in chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide thin films annealed at different temperatures has been critically analyzed with special reference to Urbach relation. It has been found that the absorption co-efficient of the material in the sub-band gap region is nearly constant up to a certain critical value of the photon energy. However, as the photon energy exceeds the critical value, the absorption coefficient increases exponentially indicating the dominance of Urbach rule. The absorption coefficients in the constant absorption region and the Urbach region have been found to be sensitive to annealing temperature. A critical examination of the temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient indicates two different kinds of optical transitions to be operative in the sub-band gap region. After a careful analyses of SEM images, energy dispersive x-ray spectra, and the dc current-voltage characteristics, we conclude that the absorption spectra in the sub-band gap domain is possibly associated with optical transition processes involving deep levels and the grain boundary states of the material.

Chattopadhyay, P.; Karim, B.; Guha Roy, S. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, 92, A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)

2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

266

Fluorescent temperature sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

267

Sensor Relocation with Mobile Sensors:Sensor Relocation with Mobile Sensors: Design,Design,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensor Relocation with Mobile Sensors:Sensor Relocation with Mobile Sensors: Design of Freiburg #12;OverviewOverview · Sensor networks · mobile sensor · mobile robot · Mote · sensor relocation #12;Sensor networks · A wirless network . · Set of sensors. · Static Mote #12;Mobile sensor networks

Schindelhauer, Christian

268

Rank Extraction in Tin-Oxide Sensor Arrays Page 1 of 23 Rank Extraction in Tin-Oxide Sensor Arrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rank Extraction in Tin-Oxide Sensor Arrays Page 1 of 23 Rank Extraction in Tin-Oxide Sensor Arrays the amount of data to be processed. This work is a first example in feature extraction from tin-oxide sensors element array of tin-oxide sensors is presented. Results are extrapolated to other arrays of chemical

Roppel, Thaddeus A.

269

Self-activated ultrahigh chemosensitivity of oxide thin film nanostructures for transparent sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the top design priorities for semiconductor chemical sensors is developing simple, low-cost, sensitive and reliable sensors to be built in handheld devices. However, the need to implement heating elements in sensor ...

Moon, Hi Gyu

270

Quantum optical technologies for metrology, sensing and imaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Over the past 20 years, bright sources of entangled photons have led to a renaissance in quantum optical interferometry. Optical interferometry has been used to test the foundations of quantum mechanics and implement some of the novel ideas associated with quantum entanglement such as quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography, quantum lithography, quantum computing logic gates, and quantum metrology. In this paper, we focus on the new ways that have been developed to exploit quantum optical entanglement in quantum metrology to beat the shot-noise limit, which can be used, e.g., in fiber optical gyroscopes and in sensors for biological or chemical targets. We also discuss how this entanglement can be used to beat the Rayleigh diffraction limit in imaging systems such as in LIDAR and optical lithography.

Jonathan P. Dowling; Kaushik P. Seshadreesan

2014-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

271

Quantum optical technologies for metrology, sensing and imaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Over the past 20 years, bright sources of entangled photons have led to a renaissance in quantum optical interferometry. Optical interferometry has been used to test the foundations of quantum mechanics and implement some of the novel ideas associated with quantum entanglement such as quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography, quantum lithography, quantum computing logic gates, and quantum metrology. In this paper, we focus on the new ways that have been developed to exploit quantum optical entanglement in quantum metrology to beat the shot-noise limit, which can be used, e.g., in fiber optical gyroscopes and in sensors for biological or chemical targets. We also discuss how this entanglement can be used to beat the Rayleigh diffraction limit in imaging systems such as in LIDAR and optical lithography.

Jonathan P. Dowling; Kaushik P. Seshadreesan

2015-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

272

Time resolved optical spectroscopy to examine chemical decomposition of energetic materials under static high pressure and pulsed heating conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study of the deflagration or detonation reactions of energetic materials is challenging due to the high pressure, high temperature, and time domain under which the reactions occur. Experimental measurements are presented that demonstrate the ability to continuously monitor the global reaction times and reaction sequences associated with chemical reactions under these conditions. Time resolved absorption spectroscopy is used in conjunction with a high pressure gem anvil cell to probe the real-time chemical processes during pulsed-heating. Samples are initiated by a rapid thermal jump induced by absorption of a single laser pulse. Time resolved absorption spectroscopy of 3,6 trinitroethylamine tetrazine reaction is demonstrated by the real time measurement of the decrease in the {pi}-{pi}* absorption at 100 ns temporal resolution during laser heating at pressures up to 3.5 GPa.

Russell, T.P. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Chemistry Div.; Allen, T.M.; Gupta, Y.M. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Shock Dynamics Center

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Chemiresistor urea sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sensor to detect and quantify urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures, and in blood and other body fluids. The sensor is based upon a chemiresistor, which consists of an interdigitated array of metal fingers between which a resistance measured. The interdigitated array is fabricated on a suitable substrate. The surface of the array of fingers is covered with a coating containing the enzyme urease which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to form the ammonium ion, the bicarbonate ion, and hydroxide-chemical products which provide the basis for the measured signal. In a typical application, the sensor could be used at bedside, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. Also, the chemiresistor used to detect urea, can be utilized with a reference chemiresistor which does not contain urease, and connected in a differential measurement arrangement, such that the reference chemiresistor would cancel out any fluctuations due to background effects.

Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Production Mechanism, Number Concentration, Size Distribution, Chemical Composition, and Optical Properties of Sea Spray Aerosols Workshop, Summer 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this workshop was to address the most urgent open science questions for improved quantification of sea spray aerosol-radiation-climate interactions. Sea spray emission and its influence on global climate remains one of the most uncertain components of the aerosol-radiation-climate problem, but has received less attention than other aerosol processes (e.g. production of terrestrial secondary organic aerosols). Thus, the special emphasis was placed on the production flux of sea spray aerosol particles, their number concentration and chemical composition and properties.

Meskhidze, Nicholas [NCSU] [NCSU

2013-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

275

Infrared Scattering Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy Using An External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser For Nanoscale Chemical Imaging And Spectroscopy of Explosive Residues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Infrared scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) is an apertureless superfocusing technique that uses the antenna properties of a conducting atomic force microscope (AFM) tip to achieve infrared spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. The instrument can be used either in imaging mode, where a fixed wavelength light source is tuned to a molecular resonance and the AFM raster scans an image, or in spectroscopy mode where the AFM is held stationary over a feature of interest and the light frequency is varied to obtain a spectrum. In either case, a strong, stable, coherent infrared source is required. Here we demonstrate the integration of a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) into an s-SNOM and use it to obtain infrared spectra of microcrystals of chemicals adsorbed onto gold substrates. Residues of the explosive compound tetryl was deposited onto gold substrates. s-SNOM experiments were performed in the 1260-1400 cm?1 tuning range of the ECQCL, corresponding to the NO2 symmetric stretch vibrational fingerprint region. Vibrational infrared spectra were collected on individual chemical domains with a collection area of *500nm2 and compared to ensemble averaged far-field reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) results.

Craig, Ian M.; Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Josberger, Erik E.; Raschke, Markus Bernd

2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

276

Luminescence-Based Spectroelectrochemical Sensor for [Tc(dmpe...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

within a Charge Abstract: A spectroelectrochemical sensor consisting of an indium tin oxide (ITO) optically transparent electrode (OTE) coated with a thin film of sulfonated...

277

Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coatings and sensors are described having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided.

Frye, G.C.; Brinker, C.J.; Doughty, D.H.; Bein, T.; Moller, K.

1993-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

278

Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coatings and sensors having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided.

Frye, Gregory C. (P.O. Box 763, Cedar Crest, NM 87008); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (14 Eagle Nest Dr., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Doughty, Daniel H. (11724 Woodmar La., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Bein, Thomas (1114 Princeton Dr., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87106); Moller, Karin (1114 Princeton Dr., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87106)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coatings and sensors having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided.

Frye, Gregory C. (Bernalillo County, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Doughty, Daniel H. (Albuquerque, NM); Bein, Thomas (Albuquerque, NM); Moller, Karin (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coatings and sensors are disclosed having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided. 7 figs.

Frye, G.C.; Brinker, C.J.; Doughty, D.H.; Bein, T.; Moller, K.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optic chemical sensors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Optical properties of nanowire structures produced by the metal-assisted chemical etching of lightly doped silicon crystal wafers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Layers of Si nanowires produced by the metal-assisted chemical etching of (100)-oriented single-crystal p-Si wafers with a resistivity of 120 ? cm are studied by reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectros-copy, and photoluminescence measurements. The nanowire diameters are 20200 nm. The wafers are supplied by three manufacturing companies and distinguished by their different lifetimes of photoexcited charge carriers. It is established that the Raman intensity for nanowires longer than 1 ?m is 35 times higher than that for the substrates. The interband photoluminescence intensity of nanowires at the wavelength 1.12 ?m is substantially higher than that of the substrates and reaches a maximum for samples with the longest bulk lifetime, suggesting a low nonradiative recombination rate at the nanowire surfaces.

Gonchar, K. A., E-mail: k.a.gonchar@gmail.com; Osminkina, L. A. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Sivakov, V. [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (Germany); Lysenko, V. [Institut National des Sciences Appliques (INSA) de Lyon, Nanotechnology Institute of Lyon (France); Timoshenko, V. Yu. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

282

Molecular sieve sensors for selective detection at the nanogram level  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a selective chemical sensor for selective detection of chemical entities even at the nanogram level. The invention further relates to methods of using the sensor. The sensor comprises: (a) a piezoelectric substrate capable of detecting mass changes resulting from adsorption of material thereon; and (b) a coating applied to the substrate, which selectively sorbs chemical entities of a size smaller than a preselected magnitude.

Bein, Thomas (Albuquerque, NM); Brown, Kelly D. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye, Gregory C. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, Charles J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

MEMS CHIP CO2 SENSOR FOR BUILDING SYSTEMS INTEGRATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research was to develop an affordable, reliable sensor to enable demand controlled ventilation (DCV). A significant portion of total energy consumption in the United States is used for heating or air conditioning (HVAC) buildings. To assure occupant safety and fresh air levels in large buildings, and especially those with sealed windows, HVAC systems are frequently run in excess of true requirements as automated systems cannot now tell the occupancy level of interior spaces. If such a sensor (e.g. thermostat sized device) were available, it would reduce energy use between 10 and 20% in such buildings. A quantitative measure of ''fresh air'' is the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) present. An inert gas, CO{sub 2} is not easily detected by chemical sensors and is usually measured by infrared spectroscopy. Ion Optics research developed a complete infrared sensor package on a single MEMS chip. It contains the infrared (IR) source, IR detector and IR filter. The device resulting from this DOE sponsored research has sufficient sensitivity, lifetime, and drift rate to meet the specifications of commercial instrument manufacturers who are now testing the device for use in their building systems.

Anton Carl Greenwald

2005-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

284

Optics and Diagnostics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

test optic after receiving chemical process called AMP2.5, which is under development for increasing the damage threshold of 3 fused silica optics. Photo Number: 2013-05031...

285

Computational Chemical Materials Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Thermal barrier coatings, wear resistance coatings, radiation resistant materials · Materials for opticalHome Computational Chemical and Materials Engineering Tahir Cagin Chemical Engineering Department to understand behavior and properties of materials as a function of ­ Chemical constitution ­ Composition

286

Chemical Science  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation SitesStandingtheirCheck In &Chemical LabelChemical

287

Optical constants and crystal chemical parameters of Sc{sub 2}W{sub 3}O{sub 12}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single crystal growth of Sc{sub 2}W{sub 3}O{sub 12}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical constants of Sc{sub 2}W{sub 3}O{sub 12} redetermined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Difference between obs. and calc. polarizabilities attributed to crystal structure. -- Abstract: The refractive indices of Sc{sub 2}W{sub 3}O{sub 12}, measured at wavelengths of 435.8-643.8 nm, were used to calculate n{sub a} = 1.7331, n{sub b} = 1.7510, n{sub c} = 1.7586 at {lambda} = 589.3 nm and n{sub {infinity}} values at {lambda} = {infinity} from a one-term Sellmeier equation. Mean refractive indices, Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket n{sub D} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket , and mean dispersion values, Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket A Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket , are, respectively, 1.7475 and 110 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -16} m{sup 2}. Total electronic polarizabilities, {alpha}{sub obs}, were calculated from n{sub {infinity}} and the Lorenz-Lorentz equation. The unusually large difference between the observed polarizability of 28.415 Angstrom-Sign {sup 3} and the calculated total polarizability {alpha}{sub T} of 26.74 Angstrom-Sign {sup 3} ({Delta} = +6.3%) is attributed to (1) a large M-O-W angle, and (2) a high degree of W 5d-O 2p and Sc nd-O 2p hybridization, where n signifies unspecified Sc d orbitals.

Shannon, Robert D., E-mail: bob@theshannons.net [Geological Sciences/CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Medenbach, Olaf [Institut fuer Mineralogie, Fakultaet fuer Geowissenschaften, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstrasse 150, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)] [Institut fuer Mineralogie, Fakultaet fuer Geowissenschaften, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstrasse 150, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Subramanian, M.A. [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-4003 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-4003 (United States); Fischer, Reinhard X. [Universitaet Bremen, FB 5 Geowissenschaften, Klagenfurter Strasse, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)] [Universitaet Bremen, FB 5 Geowissenschaften, Klagenfurter Strasse, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

288

Thermal sensor with an improved coating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for detecting radiation having wavelengths from about 0.4 .mu.m to about 5.6 .mu.m. An optical coating is applied to a thermal sensor that is normally transparent to radiation with such wavelengths. The optical coating is thin and light and includes a modifier and an absorber. The thermal sensor can be a pyroelectric detector such as strontium barium niobate.

LaDelfe, Peter C. (Los Alamos, NM); Stotlar, Suzanne C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Sensor device and methods for using same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sensor device and method of employment is provided. More specifically, a sensor device adapted to detect, identify and/or measure a chemical and/or physical characteristic upon placement of the device into an environment, especially a liquid medium for which monitoring is sought is provided.

Rothgeb, Timothy Michael; Gansle, Kristina Marie; Joyce, Jonathan Livingsto; Jordan, James Madison; Rohwer, Tedd Addison; Lockhart, Randal Ray; Smith, Christopher Lawrence; Trinh, Toan; Cipollone, Mark Gary

2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

290

New functional polymers for sensors, smart materials and solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Organic polymers can be used as the active component of sensors, smart materials, chemical-delivery systems and the active layer of solar cells. The rational design and modification of the chemical structure of polymers ...

Lobez Comeras, Jose Miguel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Development of All-Solid-State Sensors for Measurement of Nitric Oxide and Ammonia Concentrations by Optical Absorption in Particle-Laden Combusion Exhaust Streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. The nitric oxide sensor has been used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based sensor measurements showed good agreement with the results from physical probe sampling of the combustion exhaust. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. Future planned modifications will lead to even faster response times at sensitivity levels at or below 1 ppm.

Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai

2003-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

292

3.5 Nanowire Sensors 3.5.1 Background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

117 3.5 Nanowire Sensors 3.5.1 Background Nanowires are solid, rod-like materials with diameters that similar commercial products will eventually be available. 3.5.2 Description Nanowire sensors have et al. 2003). A comprehensive review of current research activities on chemical sensors based

293

Optical caliper with compensation for specimen deflection and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical non-contact profilometry system and method provided by an optical caliper with matched optical sensors that are arranged conjugate to each other so that the surface profile and thickness of an article can be measured without using a fixed reference surface and while permitting the article to deflect in space within the acquisition range of the optical sensors. The output signals from the two optical sensors are algebraically added to compensate for any such deflection of the article and provide a so compensated signal, the balance and sign of which provides a measurement of the actual thickness of the article at the optical sensors.

Bernacki, Bruce E. (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Optical caliper with compensation for specimen deflection and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical non-contact profilometry system and method provided by an optical caliper with matched optical sensors that are arranged conjugate to each other so that the surface profile and thickness of an article can be measured without using a fixed reference surface and while permitting the article to deflect in space within the acquisition range of the optical sensors. The output signals from the two optical sensors are algebraically added to compensate for any such deflection of the article and provide a so compensated signal, the balance and sign of which provides a measurement of the actual thickness of the article at the optical sensors. 2 figs.

Bernacki, B.E.

1997-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

295

Micromechanical calorimetric sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A calorimeter sensor apparatus is developed utilizing microcantilevered spring elements for detecting thermal changes within a sample containing biomolecules which undergo chemical and biochemical reactions. The spring element includes a bimaterial layer of chemicals on a coated region on at least one surface of the microcantilever. The chemicals generate a differential thermal stress across the surface upon reaction of the chemicals with an analyte or biomolecules within the sample due to the heat of chemical reactions in the sample placed on the coated region. The thermal stress across the spring element surface creates mechanical bending of the microcantilever. The spring element has a low thermal mass to allow detection and measuring of heat transfers associated with chemical and biochemical reactions within a sample placed on or near the coated region. A second surface may have a different material, or the second surface and body of microcantilever may be of an inert composition. The differential thermal stress between the surfaces of the microcantilever create bending of the cantilever. Deflections of the cantilever are detected by a variety of detection techniques. The microcantilever may be approximately 1 to 200 .mu.m long, approximately 1 to 50 .mu.m wide, and approximately 0.3 to 3.0 .mu.m thick. A sensitivity for detection of deflections is in the range of 0.01 nanometers. The microcantilever is extremely sensitive to thermal changes in samples as small as 30 microliters.

Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Multidimensional Architectures for Functional Optical By Kevin A. Arpin, Agustin Mihi, Harley T. Johnson, Alfred J. Baca,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efficient solar cells, and unique sensors. Significant challenges remain including discovery of methods circuitry, enhancement of optical absorption processes in solar cells, and sensors.[1] Since the pioneering

Lewis, Jennifer

297

Volun1e 110, number 1 CHEMICAL I'HYSICS LETTERS l-3 September 198.3 OPTICAL DEPHASING OF IMOLECULAR DlhlERS IN MIXED CRYSTALS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

opticA dephasing of substitutional dinters and monon~crs of tetrxenc and pcntaccne in p-terphenyl host for tenlperature-depcndent opticA dephasing to bc determined. it is shown that csci- tation of librations rather

Fayer, Michael D.

298

Sensors 2008, 8, 3903-3931; DOI: 10.3390/s8063903 OPEN ACCESS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensors 2008, 8, 3903-3931; DOI: 10.3390/s8063903 OPEN ACCESS sensors ISSN 1424-8220 www.mdpi.org/sensors to readers with a background in SAR. Keywords: Microscopy, Interferometric, Synthetic Aperture, Radar, Optical Coherence To- mography. #12;Sensors 2008, 8 3904 1. Introduction Traditional sensing modalities

Bhargava, Rohit

299

NANOSCALE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SENSORS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under this funding, we proposed to: i) develop a ChemFET sensor platform, ii) develop a ChemDiode sensor platform, iii) synthesize receptor molecules suitable for chemical sensing, iv) study the electrostatic potential changes induced by receptor/target binding on surfaces and v) develop VLSI fabrication approaches for micron-scale chemical sensor devices. The accomplishments under these various thrusts are summarized in this section.

Ronald Andres, School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University

2007-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

300

Micromachined pressure sensors: Review and recent developments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the discovery of piezoresistivity in silicon in the mid 1950s, silicon-based pressure sensors have been widely produced. Micromachining technology has greatly benefited from the success of the integrated circuits industry, burrowing materials, processes, and toolsets. Because of this, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are now poised to capture large segments of existing sensor markets and to catalyze the development of new markets. Given the emerging importance of MEMS, it is instructive to review the history of micromachined pressure sensors, and to examine new developments in the field. Pressure sensors will be the focus of this paper, starting from metal diaphragm sensors with bonded silicon strain gauges, and moving to present developments of surface-micromachined, optical, resonant, and smart pressure sensors. Considerations for diaphragm design will be discussed in detail, as well as additional considerations for capacitive and piezoresistive devices.

Eaton, W.P.; Smith, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Micromachines Dept.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optic chemical sensors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Sensors and Actuators B 150 (2010) 183190 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensors and Actuators B 150 (2010) 183­190 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/snb Fast response photonic crystal pH sensor 10 July 2010 Available online 16 July 2010 Keywords: Fast response Photonic crystal pH sensor

Braun, Paul

302

Sensors and Actuators B 141 (2009) 458464 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensors and Actuators B 141 (2009) 458­464 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/snb Pattern recognition for sensor array Fuzzy ARTMAP PCA Sensor array Pareto optimization a b s t r a c t A Fuzzy ARTMAP classifier for pattern

Rucci, Michele

303

Sensors and Actuators B 125 (2007) 489497 A pattern recognition method for electronic noses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensors and Actuators B 125 (2007) 489­497 A pattern recognition method for electronic noses based from a chemical sensor array of electronic noses, which makes the system more bionics. This paper-two-dimensional feature vectors of a sensor array consisting of eight sensors, in which four features were extracted from

Freeman, Walter J.

304

Development of All-Solid-State Sensors for Measurement of Nitric Oxide and Ammonia Concentrations by Optical Absorption in Particle-Laden Combustion Exhaust Streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. In Year 1 of the research, the nitric oxide sensor was used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. In Year 2, the Toptica ECDL in the original system was replaced with a Sacher Lasers ECDL. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Toptica ECDL were 25 GHz and a few Hz, respectively. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Sacher Lasers ECDL were 90 GHz and a few hundred Hz, respectively. The Sacher Lasers ECDL thus allows us to scan over the entire NO absorption line and to determine the absorption baseline with increased accuracy and precision. The increased tuning rate is an advantage in that data can be acquired much more rapidly and the absorption measurements are less susceptible to the effects of transient fluctuations in the properties of the coal combustor exhaust stream. Gas cell measurements were performed using the NO sensor with the new ECDL, and a few spectra were acquired from the coal exhaust stream. However, the laser diode in the new ECDL failed during the coal combustor tests. In Year 3, however, we obtained a new GaN laser diode for our ECDL system, installed it, and completed an extensive series of measurements in the Texas A&M coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The combustor was operated with coal and coal/biomass as fuels, with and without reburn, and with and without ammonia injection. Several different fuel equivalence ratios were investigated for each operating condition.

Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai; Robert P. Lucht

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

305

Development of All-Solid-State Sensors for Measurement of Nitric Oxide and Ammonia Concentrations by Optical Absorption in Particle-Laden Combustion Exhaust Streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. In Year 1 of the research, the nitric oxide sensor was used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. In Year 2, the Toptica ECDL in the original system was replaced with a Sacher Lasers ECDL. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Toptica ECDL were 25 GHz and a few Hz, respectively. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Sacher Lasers ECDL were 90 GHz and a few hundred Hz, respectively. The Sacher Lasers ECDL thus allows us to scan over the entire NO absorption line and to determine the absorption baseline with increased accuracy and precision. The increased tuning rate is an advantage in that data can be acquired much more rapidly and the absorption measurements are less susceptible to the effects of transient fluctuations in the properties of the coal combustor exhaust stream. Gas cell measurements were performed using the NO sensor with the new ECDL, and a few spectra were acquired from the coal exhaust stream. However, the laser diode in the new ECDL failed during the coal combustor tests. In Year 3, however, we obtained a new GaN laser diode for our ECDL system, installed it, and completed an extensive series of measurements in the Texas A&M coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The combustor was operated with coal and coal/biomass as fuels, with and without reburn, and with and without ammonia injection. Several different fuel equivalence ratios were investigated for each operating condition. A series of spectral simulations was performed using the HITRAN code to investigate the potential sensitivity of absorption measurements of ammonia in different spectral regions. It was concluded that ammonia absorption features in the 3000-nm spectral region would be hard to measure due to water vapor interferences. We will concentrate on the spectral region near 1530 nm, where other researchers have had some success in measuring ammonia.

Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai; Robert P. Lucht

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

306

DEVELOPMENT OF ALL-SOLID-STATE SENSORS FOR MEASUREMENT OF NITRIC OXIDE AND AMMONIA CONCENTRATIONS BY OPTICAL ABSORPTION IN PARTICLE-LADEN COMBUSTION EXHAUST STREAMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. In Year 1 of the research, the nitric oxide sensor was used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. In Year 2 described in this progress report, the Toptica ECDL in the original system was replaced with a Sacher Lasers ECDL. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Toptica ECDL were 25 GHz and a few Hz, respectively. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Sacher Lasers ECDL were 90 GHz and a few hundred Hz, respectively. The Sacher Lasers ECDL thus allows us to scan over the entire NO absorption line and to determine the absorption baseline with increased accuracy and precision. The increased tuning rate is an advantage in that data can be acquired much more rapidly and the absorption measurements are less susceptible to the effects of transient fluctuations in the properties of the coal combustor exhaust stream. Gas cell measurements were performed using the NO sensor with the new ECDL, and a few spectra were acquired from the coal exhaust stream. However, the laser diode in the new ECDL failed during the coal combustor tests. A series of spectral simulations was performed using the HITRAN code to investigate the potential sensitivity of absorption measurements of ammonia in different spectral regions. It was concluded that ammonia absorption features in the 3000-nm spectral region would be hard to measure due to water vapor interferences.

Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai; Robert P. Lucht

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

307

Validating optical emission spectroscopy as a diagnostic of microwave activated CH4/Ar/H2 plasmas used for diamond chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

chemical vapor deposition of polycrystalline diamond. Several tracer species are monitored in order to gain used for diamond chemical vapor deposition Jie Ma,1 Michael N. R. Ashfold,1,a and Yuri A. Mankelevich2 spectroscopic methods used to diagnose microwave MW plasmas used for diamond chemical vapor deposition CVD . Zhu

Bristol, University of

308

Theory of the circular closed loop antenna in the terahertz, infrared, and optical regions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-materials, single photon emitters,2 wireless optical broadcasting links,3 bio-sensors,4 and light capture in solar

309

Optical microphone  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical microphone includes a laser and beam splitter cooperating therewith for splitting a laser beam into a reference beam and a signal beam. A reflecting sensor receives the signal beam and reflects it in a plurality of reflections through sound pressure waves. A photodetector receives both the reference beam and reflected signal beam for heterodyning thereof to produce an acoustic signal for the sound waves. The sound waves vary the local refractive index in the path of the signal beam which experiences a Doppler frequency shift directly analogous with the sound waves.

Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

2000-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

310

Gas sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

311

Sensor apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sensor apparatus and method for detecting an environmental factor is shown that includes an acoustic device that has a characteristic resonant vibrational frequency and mode pattern when exposed to a source of acoustic energy and, futher, when exposed to an environmental factor, produces a different resonant vibrational frequency and/or mode pattern when exposed to the same source of acoustic energy.

Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Telschow, Kenneth L. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

312

Molecular Design of Intercalation-Based Sensors. 1. Ammonia Sensing with Quartz Crystal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

portable, ammonia sensors has grown markedly in recent years. Ammonia sensors recently described in the literature have taken advantage of optical or electrochemical responses in both liquids and vapors

313

Virtual Sensors: Abstracting Data from Physical Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Virtual Sensors: Abstracting Data from Physical Sensors TR-UTEDGE-2006-001 Sanem Kabadayi Adam Pridgen Christine Julien © Copyright 2006 The University of Texas at Austin #12;Virtual Sensors: Abstracting Data from Physical Sensors Sanem Kabadayi, Adam Pridgen, and Christine Julien The Center

Julien, Christine

314

AOI [3] High-Temperature Nano-Derived Micro-H2 and - H2S Sensors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The emissions from coal-fired power plants remain a significant concern for air quality. This environmental challenge must be overcome by controlling the emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) throughout the entire coal combustion process. One of the processes which could specifically benefit from robust, low cost, and high temperature compatible gas sensors is the coal gasification process which converts coal and/or biomass into syngas. Hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur compounds make up 33%, 43% and 2% of syngas, respectively. Therefore, development of a high temperature (>500C) chemical sensor for in-situ monitoring of H2, H2S and SO2 levels during coal gasification is strongly desired. The selective detection of SO2/H2S in the presence of H2, is a formidable task for a sensor designer. In order to ensure effective operation of these chemical sensors, the sensor system must inexpensively function within harsh temperature and chemical environment. Currently available sensing approaches, which are based on gas chromatography, electrochemistry, and IR-spectroscopy, do not satisfy the required cost and performance targets. This work focused on the development microsensors that can be applied to this application. In order to develop the high- temperature compatible microsensor, this work addressed various issues related to sensor stability, selectivity, and miniaturization. In the research project entitled High-Temperature Nano-Derived Micro-H2 and -H2S Sensors, the team worked to develop micro-scale, chemical sensors and sensor arrays composed of nano-derived, metal-oxide composite materials to detect gases like H2, SO2, and H2S within high-temperature environments (>500?C). The research was completed in collaboration with NexTech Materials, Ltd. (Lewis Center, Ohio). NexTech assisted in the testing of the sensors in syngas with contaminate levels of H2S. The idea of including nanomaterials as the sensing material within resistive-type chemical sensor platforms was to increase the sensitivity (as shown for room temperature applications). Unfortunately, nanomaterials are not stable at high temperatures due to sintering and coarsening processes that are driven by their high surface to volume ratio. Therefore, new hydrogen and sulfur selective nanomaterial systems with high selectivity and stability properties in the proposed harsh environment were investigated. Different nano-morphologies of zirconate, molybdate, and tungstate compounds were investigated. The fabrication of the microsensors consisted of the deposition of the selective nanomaterial systems over metal based interconnects on an inert substrate. This work utilized the chemi-resistive (resistive- type) microsensor architecture where the chemically and structurally stable, high temperature compatible electrodes were sputtered onto a ceramic substrate. The nanomaterial sensing systems were deposited over the electrodes using a lost mold method patterned by conventional optical lithography. The microsensor configuration with optimized nanomaterial system was tested and compared to a millimeter-size sensor e outcomes of this research will contribute to the economical application of sensor arrays for simultaneous sensing of H2, H2S, and SO2.

Perepezko, John; Lu-Steffes, Otto

2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

315

Fabrication of thermal microphotonic sensors and sensor arrays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal microphotonic sensor is fabricated on a silicon substrate by etching an opening and a trench into the substrate, and then filling in the opening and trench with silicon oxide which can be deposited or formed by thermally oxidizing a portion of the silicon substrate surrounding the opening and trench. The silicon oxide forms a support post for an optical resonator which is subsequently formed from a layer of silicon nitride, and also forms a base for an optical waveguide formed from the silicon nitride layer. Part of the silicon substrate can be selectively etched away to elevate the waveguide and resonator. The thermal microphotonic sensor, which is useful to detect infrared radiation via a change in the evanescent coupling of light between the waveguide and resonator, can be formed as a single device or as an array.

Shaw, Michael J. (Tijeras, NM); Watts, Michael R. (Albuquerque, NM); Nielson, Gregory N. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

316

Corrosion sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A corrosion sensor array incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis.

Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA); Clarke, Jr., Willis L. (San Ramon, CA); Ciarlo, Dino R. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Corrosion sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A corrosion sensor array is described incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis. 7 figures.

Glass, R.S.; Clarke, W.L. Jr.; Ciarlo, D.R.

1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

318

Power inverter with optical isolation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optically isolated power electronic power conversion circuit that includes an input electrical power source, a heat pipe, a power electronic switch or plurality of interconnected power electronic switches, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the input power source, a mechanism for connecting comprising an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or input bus bars, an optically isolated drive circuit connected to the switch, a heat sink assembly upon which the power electronic switch or switches is mounted, an output load, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the output load, the mechanism for connecting including an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or output bus bars, at least one a fiber optic temperature sensor mounted on the heat sink assembly, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar, and at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar.

Duncan, Paul G.; Schroeder, John Alan

2005-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

319

Battery-free Wireless Sensor Network For Advanced Fossil-Fuel Based Power Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the project supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG26-07NT4306. The aim of the project was to conduct basic research into battery-free wireless sensing mechanism in order to develop novel wireless sensors and sensor network for physical and chemical parameter monitoring in a harsh environment. Passive wireless sensing platform and five wireless sensors including temperature sensor, pressure sensor, humidity sensor, crack sensor and networked sensors developed and demonstrated in our laboratory setup have achieved the objective for the monitoring of various physical and chemical parameters in a harsh environment through remote power and wireless sensor communication, which is critical to intelligent control of advanced power generation system. This report is organized by the sensors developed as detailed in each progress report.

Yi Jia

2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

320

Handbook of actuators and edge alignment sensors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This actuator and sensor handbook was developed during a cooperative project between the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, the SDI-Directed Energy Program and LLNL. The common purpose of the joint effort was to develop precision actuators and sensors for the NASA initiated SpacE Laser ENE-rgy Program (SELENE). The purpose of the SELENE Program is to develop a highly cost effective segmented adaptive optics system for beaming laser power directly to spacecraft in earth orbit.

Krulewich, D A

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optic chemical sensors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particles in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements.

Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particle s in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements.

Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

2004-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

323

Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Accomplishments * Extensive sensor characterization - Optical, SEM, X-ray micro tomography, XRD, and EDAX * Identified interfacial issues and worked with ESL to address these...

324

Multiple channel optical data acquisition system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multiple channel optical data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote sensors monitoring specific process variable are interrogated by means of a single optical fiber connecting the remote station/sensors to a base station. The remote station/sensors derive all power from light transmitted through the fiber from the base station. Each station/sensor is individually accessed by means of a light modulated address code sent over the fiber. The remote station/sensors use a single light emitting diode to both send and receive light signals to communicate with the base station and provide power for the remote station. The system described can power at least 100 remote station/sensors over an optical fiber one mile in length.

Fasching, G.E.; Goff, D.R.

1985-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

325

Hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Katy, TX)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

326

Super-Resolution Optical Imaging of Biomass Chemical-Spatial Structure: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-410  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective for this project is to characterize and develop new methods to visualize the chemical spatial structure of biomass at varying stages of the biomass degradation processes in situ during the process.

Ding, S. Y.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Optical Properties of Zn(O,S) Thin Films Deposited by RF Sputtering, Atomic Layer Deposition, and Chemical Bath Deposition: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zn(O,S) thin films 27 - 100 nm thick were deposited on glass or Cu(InxGa1-x)Se2/Molybdenum/glass with RF sputtering, atomic layer deposition, and chemical bath deposition.

Li, J.; Glynn, S.; Christensen, S.; Mann, J.; To, B.; Ramanathan, K.; Noufi, R.; Furtak, T. E.; Levi, D.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Universal signal processing method for multimode reflective sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reference amplitude in the measurements. Generation of transmitted pulse and triggering of the monitoring satnple and hold chips was accomplished using existing PROM technology. Optical signals were received by a 600 MHz unity gain bandwidth receiver.... In the experiment, the effect of losses was introduced in the fiber by the use of bulkhead connections. The reflected pulse amplitudes of the reference and sensor pulses were measured while the sensor mirror distance was varied, and The ratio of sensor...

Larson, Robert Eugene

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Two-Dimensional Chalcogenide Nanoplates as Tunable Metamaterials via Chemical Intercalation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and biological sensors,6,7 solar energy conversion,8 photocatalysts,9 and nanoscale lasers.10 Noble metals in addition to currently studied spintronics, optical sensors, transistors, and catalysts may be possible

Cui, Yi

330

On Optimal Information Capture by Energy-Constrained Mobile Sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In other situations, real-life sensors (chemical, radiation, and biological .... presented a Gaussian process model for the relationship be- tween underlying ..... In this section, we present MATLAB simulation results to illustrate the analysis in the...

2010-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

331

Stable arrangements of mobile sensors for sampling physical fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Today's wireless sensor nodes can be easily attached to mobile platforms such as robots, cars and cell phones enabling pervasive sensing of physical fields (say of temperature, vibrations, air quality and chemicals). We ...

Kumar, Sumeet

332

Ris-PhD-15(EN) Metal-Clad Waveguide Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Risø-PhD-15(EN) Metal-Clad Waveguide Sensors Nina Skivesen Risø National Laboratory Roskilde Denmark September 2005 #12;Author: Nina Skivesen Title: Metal-Clad Waveguide Sensors Department: OPL Risø: 77 Abstract (max. 2000 char.): This work concerns planar optical waveguide sensors for biosensing

333

Compact real-time 2-D gradient-based analog VLSI motion sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the sensor might be favourably applied in industrial applications. Keywords: analog VLSI, motion sensor selectivity even for very low contrast input is demonstrated. As application it is shown how the pixel, smart vision sensor, parallel image processing, real-time computation, optical ow, machine vision, robot

Deutschmann, Rainer

334

Sensor response rate accelerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for sensor signal prediction and for improving sensor signal response time, is disclosed. An adaptive filter or an artificial neural network is utilized to provide predictive sensor signal output and is further used to reduce sensor response time delay.

Vogt, Michael C. (Westmont, IL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Remotely Deployed Virtual Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Remotely Deployed Virtual Sensors TR-UTEDGE-2007-010 Sanem Kabadayi Christine Julien © Copyright 2007 The University of Texas at Austin #12;Remotely Deployed Virtual Sensors Sanem Kabadayi that run on mobile client devices connect to the sensors of a multihop sensor network. For emerging

Julien, Christine

336

Real-time variable rate Pix application system using a plant height sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of this study was to develop a chemical application system that could measure plant size, determine the optimum chemical rate to apply and control that application. A plant height sensor, the MEPRT growth relationship software...

Beck, Andy Dwayne

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

337

Micro-position sensor using faraday effect  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A micro-position sensor and sensing system using the Faraday Effect. The sensor uses a permanent magnet to provide a magnetic field, and a magneto-optic material positioned in the magnetic field for rotating the plane of polarization of polarized light transmitted through the magneto-optic material. The magnet is independently movable relative to the magneto-optic material so as to rotate the plane of polarization of the polarized light as a function of the relative position of the magnet. In this manner, the position of the magnet relative to the magneto-optic material may be determined from the rotated polarized light. The sensing system also includes a light source, such as a laser or LED, for producing polarized light, and an optical fiber which is connected to the light source and to the magneto-optic material at a sensing end of the optical fiber. Processing electronics, such as a polarimeter, are also provided for determining the Faraday rotation of the plane of polarization of the back-reflected polarized light to determine the position of the magnet relative to the sensing end of the optical fiber.

McElfresh, Michael (Livermore, CA); Lucas, Matthew (Pittsburgh, PA); Silveira, Joseph P. (Tracy, CA); Groves, Scott E. (Brentwood, CA)

2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

338

Chemical Sciences Project Description  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation SitesStandingtheirCheck In &Chemical LabelChemicalChemicalModeling

339

Micromechanical potentiometric sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microcantilever potentiometric sensor utilized for detecting and measuring physical and chemical parameters in a sample of media is described. The microcantilevered spring element includes at least one chemical coating on a coated region, that accumulates a surface charge in response to hydrogen ions, redox potential, or ion concentrations in a sample of the media being monitored. The accumulation of surface charge on one surface of the microcantilever, with a differing surface charge on an opposing surface, creates a mechanical stress and a deflection of the spring element. One of a multitude of deflection detection methods may include the use of a laser light source focused on the microcantilever, with a photo-sensitive detector receiving reflected laser impulses. The microcantilevered spring element is approximately 1 to 100 .mu.m long, approximately 1 to 50 .mu.m wide, and approximately 0.3 to 3.0 .mu.m thick. An accuracy of detection of deflections of the cantilever is provided in the range of 0.01 nanometers of deflection. The microcantilever apparatus and a method of detection of parameters require only microliters of a sample to be placed on, or near the spring element surface. The method is extremely sensitive to the detection of the parameters to be measured.

Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Force Sensing Robot Fingers using Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors and Shape Deposition Manufacturing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Manufacturing Yong-Lae Park1 , Kelvin Chau2 , Richard J. Black2 and Mark R. Cutkosky1 1 Center for Design deposition manufacturing (SDM) process was explored. The sensorized SDM-fabricated finger mechanoreceptors on its legs [2], in addition to hair sensors, chemical sensors, etc. [1], [26]. Mechanoreceptors

Park, Yong-Lae

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optic chemical sensors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Fiber-optic displacement sensor system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Light pulses from a light emitting diode (LED) were coupled into a multimode fiber. The displacement of a mirror positioned near the end of the fiber was measured by monitoring the amplitude of the reflected pulses. A reference reflection from a... emitting diode (LED) were coupled into a multimode fiber. The displacement of a mirror positioned near the end of the fiber was measured by monitoring the amplitude...

Cava, Norayda Nora

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

342

Vision based navigation using novel optical sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~ O g M ~ R o 3j a o g O o 4k o + 6go O ) + A O L g A 0 ~O VJ A 'tS A oo A M A O O I4 8 'C el CC + C O C O ~O L 0 A V C C4 . 8 M C5 0 'C 0 C4 8 'C CC . 5 0 27 ~Sl R*Bt Experimental Setup 2 In a first.... Additionally, we define the following quantities: I: Inertia of the robot about G. M: Mass of the robot. Let's calculate the equations of inofion of G. Projecting the thrusters forces: MX ' VU~ cos 8 + VU2 cos 8 VUi sin 8 ? VU4 sin 8 MY = VU, sin 8+ VU...

Wazni, Karim Patrick

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

343

Sandia National Laboratories: Sensors & Optical Diagnostics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErikGroundbreaking Work onClimateSemiconductor RevolutionSensing

344

Sandia National Laboratories: Sensors & Optical Diagnostics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErikGroundbreaking Work onClimateSemiconductor RevolutionSensingMeasurements of

345

Sandia National Laboratories: Sensors & Optical Diagnostics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmitted for US PatentOperational EnergyScientific ResearchSensing

346

Six degree of freedom sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing. 3 figs.

Vann, C.S.

1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

347

Autonomous Robot System for Sensor Characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses an innovative application of new Markov localization techniques that combat the problem of odometry drift, allowing a novel control architecture developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to be utilized within a sensor characterization facility developed at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) in Nevada. The new robotic capability provided by the INEEL will allow RSL to test and evaluate a wide variety of sensors including radiation detection systems, machine vision systems, and sensors that can detect and track heat sources (e.g. human bodies, machines, chemical plumes). By accurately moving a target at varying speeds along designated paths, the robotic solution allows the detection abilities of a wide variety of sensors to be recorded and analyzed.

David Bruemmer; Douglas Few; Frank Carney; Miles Walton; Heather Hunting; Ron Lujan

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Optical limiting materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Optical limiting materials. Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO.sub.2) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400-1100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes.

McBranch, Duncan W. (Santa Fe, NM); Mattes, Benjamin R. (Santa Fe, NM); Koskelo, Aaron C. (Los Alamos, NM); Heeger, Alan J. (Santa Barbara, CA); Robinson, Jeanne M. (Los Alamos, NM); Smilowitz, Laura B. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM); Cha, Myoungsik (Goleta, CA); Sariciftci, N. Serdar (Santa Barbara, CA); Hummelen, Jan C. (Groningen, NL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy sensor and methods for using same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A surface plasmon resonance ("SPR") probe with a detachable sensor head and system and methods for using the same in various applications is described. The SPR probe couples fiber optic cables directly to an SPR substrate that has a generally planar input surface and a generally curved reflecting surface, such as a substrate formed as a hemisphere. Forming the SPR probe in this manner allows the probe to be miniaturized and operate without the need for high precision, expensive and bulky collimating or focusing optics. Additionally, the curved reflecting surface of the substrate can be coated with one or multiple patches of sensing medium to allow the probe to detect for multiple analytes of interest or to provide multiple readings for comparison and higher precision. Specific applications for the probe are disclosed, including extremely high sensitive relative humidity and dewpoint detection for, e.g., moisture-sensitive environment such as volatile chemical reactions. The SPR probe disclosed operates with a large dynamic range and provides extremely high quality spectra despite being robust enough for field deployment and readily manufacturable.

Anderson, Brian Benjamin (N. Augusta, SC); Nave, Stanley Eugene (Evans, GA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Amorphous Diamond MEMS and Sensors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a new microsystems technology for the creation of microsensors and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) using stress-free amorphous diamond (aD) films. Stress-free aD is a new material that has mechanical properties close to that of crystalline diamond, and the material is particularly promising for the development of high sensitivity microsensors and rugged and reliable MEMS. Some of the unique properties of aD include the ability to easily tailor film stress from compressive to slightly tensile, hardness and stiffness 80-90% that of crystalline diamond, very high wear resistance, a hydrophobic surface, extreme chemical inertness, chemical compatibility with silicon, controllable electrical conductivity from insulating to conducting, and biocompatibility. A variety of MEMS structures were fabricated from this material and evaluated. These structures included electrostatically-actuated comb drives, micro-tensile test structures, singly- and doubly-clamped beams, and friction and wear test structures. It was found that surface micromachined MEMS could be fabricated in this material easily and that the hydrophobic surface of the film enabled the release of structures without the need for special drying procedures or the use of applied hydrophobic coatings. Measurements using these structures revealed that aD has a Young's modulus of {approx}650 GPa, a tensile fracture strength of 8 GPa, and a fracture toughness of 8 MPa{center_dot}m {sup 1/2}. These results suggest that this material may be suitable in applications where stiction or wear is an issue. Flexural plate wave (FPW) microsensors were also fabricated from aD. These devices use membranes of aD as thin as {approx}100 nm. The performance of the aD FPW sensors was evaluated for the detection of volatile organic compounds using ethyl cellulose as the sensor coating. For comparable membrane thicknesses, the aD sensors showed better performance than silicon nitride based sensors. Greater than one order of magnitude increase in chemical sensitivity is expected through the use of ultra-thin aD membranes in the FPW sensor. The discoveries and development of the aD microsystems technology that were made in this project have led to new research projects in the areas of aD bioMEMS and aD radio frequency MEMS.

SULLIVAN, JOHN P.; FRIEDMANN, THOMAS A.; ASHBY, CAROL I.; DE BOER, MAARTEN P.; SCHUBERT, W. KENT; SHUL, RANDY J.; HOHLFELDER, ROBERT J.; LAVAN, D.A.

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Method Of Signal Amplification In Multi-Chromophore Luminescence Sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fluorescence-based method for highly sensitive and selective detection of analyte molecules is proposed. The method employs the energy transfer between two or more fluorescent chromophores in a carefully selected polymer matrix. In one preferred embodiment, signal amplification has been achieved in the fluorescent sensing of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) using two dyes, 3-aminofluoranthene (AM) and Nile Red (NR), in a hydrogen bond acidic polymer matrix. The selected polymer matrix quenches the fluorescence of both dyes and shifts dye emission and absorption spectra relative to more inert matrices. Upon DMMP sorption, the AM fluorescence shifts to the red at the same time the NR absorption shifts to the blue, resulting in better band overlap and increased energy transfer between chromophores. In another preferred embodiment, the sensitive material is incorporated into an optical fiber system enabling efficient excitation of the dye and collecting the fluorescent signal form the sensitive material on the remote end of the system. The proposed method can be applied to multichromophore luminescence sensor systems incorporating N-chromophores leading to N-fold signal amplification and improved selectivity. The method can be used in all applications where highly sensitive detection of basic gases, such as dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), Sarin, Soman and other chemical warfare agents having basic properties, is required, including environmental monitoring, chemical industry and medicine.

Levitsky, Igor A. (Fall River, MA); Krivoshlykov, Sergei G. (Shrewsbury, MA)

2004-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

352

Optically stimulated differential impedance spectroscopy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and apparatuses for evaluating a material are described. Embodiments typically involve use of an impedance measurement sensor to measure the impedance of a sample of the material under at least two different states of illumination. The states of illumination may include (a) substantially no optical stimulation, (b) substantial optical stimulation, (c) optical stimulation at a first wavelength of light, (d) optical stimulation at a second wavelength of light, (e) a first level of light intensity, and (f) a second level of light intensity. Typically a difference in impedance between the impedance of the sample at the two states of illumination is measured to determine a characteristic of the material.

Maxey, Lonnie C; Parks, II, James E; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A; Partridge, Jr., William P

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

353

Volatile organic compound sensor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY); Rovani, Jr., Joseph F. (Laramie, WY); Bomstad, Theresa M. (Waxahachie, TX); Sorini-Wong, Susan S. (Laramie, WY); Wong, Gregory K. (Laramie, WY)

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Electric transport, reversible wettability and chemical sensing of single-crystalline zigzag Zn2SnO4 nanowires  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

devices including solar cells, chemical sensors, photodetectors, photocatalysts, and Li-ion batteries performance sensors to detect hosts of chemicals with detection limits down to the 1 ppm level, especially oxide nano- structures have now been widely used in many areas, such as ceramics, catalysis, sensors

Zhou, Chongwu

355

7003A-30, Session 5 Zero-crossing detection algorithm for arrays of optical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

7003A-30, Session 5 Zero-crossing detection algorithm for arrays of optical spatial fi ltering-crossing detection algorithm for arrays of compact low-cost optical sensors for measuring e.g. minor fl uctuations-to-noise ratio, and delivers a "real time" output (0-1 kHz). The sensors use optical spatial-fi ltering

356

Building Adaptable Sensor Networks with Sensor Cubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of layers allows easy experiments, upgrades and extensions Small-scale sensor network Example sensor module- world network algorithm and power management behavior · Results from small scale tests can be compared (short packets and high bit rate reduce collision probability); Transmitter's MAC table logic: Small

Roussos, George

357

Digital Sensor Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy, reliability, availability, and maintainability. This report demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. It also addresses the qualification issues that must be addressed in the application of digital sensor technology.

Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst; Ken Thomas

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Giant magnetoresistive sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetoresistive sensor element with a three-dimensional micro-architecture is capable of significantly improved sensitivity and highly localized measurement of magnetic fields. The sensor is formed of a multilayer film of alternately magnetic and nonmagnetic materials. The sensor is optimally operated in a current perpendicular to plane mode. The sensor is useful in magnetic read/write heads, for high density magnetic information storage and retrieval.

Stearns, Daniel G. (Los Altos, CA); Vernon, Stephen P. (Pleasanton, CA); Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA); Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Full spectrum optical safeguard  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical safeguard device with two linear variable Fabry-Perot filters aligned relative to a light source with at least one of the filters having a nonlinear dielectric constant material such that, when a light source produces a sufficiently high intensity light, the light alters the characteristics of the nonlinear dielectric constant material to reduce the intensity of light impacting a connected optical sensor. The device can be incorporated into an imaging system on a moving platform, such as an aircraft or satellite.

Ackerman, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

360

Sensor system scaling issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model for IR sensor performance is used to compare estimates of sensor cost effectiveness. Although data from aircraft sensors indicate a weaker scaling, their agreement is adequate to support the assessment of the benefits of operating up to the maximum altitude of most current UAVs.

Canavan, G.H.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optic chemical sensors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Sensors for Environmental Observatories  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensors for Environmental Observatories Report of the NSF-Sponsored Workshop December 2004 #12 States of America. 2005. #12;Sensors for Environmental Observatories Report of the NSF Sponsored Workshop sensor technology and the networks that collect data from them. Present work clearly demonstrates

Hamilton, Michael P.

362

Automotive vehicle sensors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

High temperature, minimally invasive optical sensing modules  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A remote temperature sensing system includes a light source selectively producing light at two different wavelengths and a sensor device having an optical path length that varies as a function of temperature. The sensor receives light emitted by the light source and redirects the light along the optical path length. The system also includes a detector receiving redirected light from the sensor device and generating respective signals indicative of respective intensities of received redirected light corresponding to respective wavelengths of light emitted by the light source. The system also includes a processor processing the signals generated by the detector to calculate a temperature of the device.

Riza, Nabeel Agha (Oviedo, FL); Perez, Frank (Tujunga, CA)

2008-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

364

Control and optimization system and method for chemical looping processes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A control system for optimizing a chemical loop system includes one or more sensors for measuring one or more parameters in a chemical loop. The sensors are disposed on or in a conduit positioned in the chemical loop. The sensors generate one or more data signals representative of an amount of solids in the conduit. The control system includes a data acquisition system in communication with the sensors and a controller in communication with the data acquisition system. The data acquisition system receives the data signals and the controller generates the control signals. The controller is in communication with one or more valves positioned in the chemical loop. The valves are configured to regulate a flow of the solids through the chemical loop.

Lou, Xinsheng; Joshi, Abhinaya; Lei, Hao

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

365

Sensor devices comprising field-structured composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new class of sensor devices comprising field-structured conducting composites comprising a textured distribution of conducting magnetic particles is disclosed. The conducting properties of such field-structured materials can be precisely controlled during fabrication so as to exhibit a large change in electrical conductivity when subject to any environmental influence which changes the relative volume fraction. Influences which can be so detected include stress, strain, shear, temperature change, humidity, magnetic field, electromagnetic radiation, and the presence or absence of certain chemicals. This behavior can be made the basis for a wide variety of sensor devices.

Martin, James E. (Tijeras, NM); Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Anderson, Robert A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

366

Spectroelectrochemical Sensor for Pertechnetate Applicable to Hanford and Other DOE Sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The general aim of our work funded by DOE is the design and implementation of a new sensor technology that offers unprecedented levels of specificity needed for analysis of the complex chemical mixtures found at DOE sites nationwide. The specific goal of this project was the development of a sensor for technetium (Tc) that is applicable to characterizing and monitoring the vadose zone and associated subsurface water at the Hanford Site and other DOE sites. The concept for the spectroelectrochemical sensor is innovative and represents a breakthrough in sensor technology. The sensor combines three modes of selectivity (electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and selective partitioning) into a single sensor to substantially improve selectivity. The sensor consists of a basic spectroelectrochemical configuration that we have developed under our previous DOE grants: a waveguide with an optically transparent electrode (OTE) that is coated with a thin chemically-selective film that preconcnetrates the analyte. The key to adapting this generic sensor to detect TcO4- and Tc complexes lies in the development of chemically-selective films that preconcentrate the analyte and, when necessary, chemically convert it into a complex with electrochemical and spectroscopic properties appropriate for sensing. Significant accomplishments were made in the general areas of synthesis and characterization of polymer films that efficiently preconcentrate the analyte, development and characterization of sensors and associated instrumentation, and synthesis and characterization of relevant Re and Tc complexes. Two new polymer films for the preconcentration step in the sensor were developed: partially sulfonated polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene (SSEBS) and phosphine containing polymer films. The latter was a directed polymer film synthesis that combined the proper electrostatic properties to attract TcO4- and also incorporated a suitable ligand for covalently trapping a lower oxidation state Tc complex within the film for spectroelectrochemical detection. Spectroelectrochemical sensors were developed and demonstrated, first using [Re(dmpe)3]+ (dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane) as a model compound with the non-radioactive Re surrogate for radioactive Tc. A fluorescence based spectroelectrochemical sensor for [Tc(dmpe)3]+/2+was then developed using SSEBS as the preconcentrating film. Portable instrumentation for the fluorescence spectroelectrochemical sensor was fabricated and tested. The effects of components in Hanford subsurface water on sensor performance with a detailed evaluation of the effect of total ionic strength on sensitivity demonstrated the ability to use the spectroelectrochemical sensor on representative water samples. A variety Re and Tc complexes were synthesized and characterized to explore the best ligands to use for detection of Tc. A lower oxidation-state Tc-complex [Tc(dmpe)3]+ (dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane) was synthesized to use as a model compound for developing Tc sensors. [Tc(dmpe)3]+/2+ exhibited the important properties of solution fluorescence at ambient temperatures and reversible electrochemistry. A range of low oxidation state dioxo Re- and Tc-complexes of formulae [ReO2(py)4]+, [ReO2(CN)4]-, [ReO2(P-P)2]+ and [ReO2(S-S)2]+ (py = pyridine) were synthesized. An exhaustive study of the spectroscopy and electrochemistry of Re(diimine)(CO)3(halide) complexes was performed. These complexes served as models for the Tc(diimine)(CO)3(halide) complexes that were readily formed from Tc(CO)x(halides)6-x complexes which are themselves constituents of tank waste samples from Hanford. Of particular interest were new Tc complexes with the +5 and +6 oxidation states. Tetrabutylammonium salt of tetrachlorooxotechnetate(V), (nBu4N)[TcOCl4] (I) was synthesized and the structure determined. [TcO2(CN)4]3- , [TcO2(en)2]2+ , [TcO2(im)4]+, and [TcO2(py)4]+ (en = ethylenediamine; im = imidazole; py = pyridine) complexes were synthesized and solution and solid state 99Tc NMR spectra were acquired giving

Heineman, William R; Seliskar, Carl J; Bryan, Samuel A

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

367

Chemical Label Information  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation SitesStandingtheirCheck In &Chemical Label Information Chemical

368

Fiber optic refractive index monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sensor for measuring the change in refractive index of a liquid uses the lowest critical angle of a normal fiber optic to achieve sensitivity when the index of the liquid is significantly less than the index of the fiber core. Another embodiment uses a liquid filled core to ensure that its index is approximately the same as the liquid being measured.

Weiss, Jonathan David (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Solution-gated graphene transistors for chemical and biological sensing applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Various fabrication processes were developed in order to make graphene-based chemical and biological sensors on different substrates. Single-layer graphene is grown by chemical vapor deposition and then transferred to ...

Mailly, Benjamin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Sensors and Actuators B 178 (2013) 366370 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensors and Actuators B 178 (2013) 366­370 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/snb Effect of periodicity on the performance of surface plasmon resonance sensors based on subwavelength nanohole arrays Johny P. Monteiroa

Brolo, Alexandre G.

371

Sensors and Actuators B 163 (2012) 136145 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensors and Actuators B 163 (2012) 136­145 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/snb An ALD aluminum oxide passivated Surface Acoustic Wave sensor for early biofilm detection Young Wook Kima,b, , Saeed Esmaili

Rubloff, Gary W.

372

Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less.

Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

2003-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

373

Optical limiting materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO{sub 2}) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400--1,100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes. 5 figs.

McBranch, D.W.; Mattes, B.R.; Koskelo, A.C.; Heeger, A.J.; Robinson, J.M.; Smilowitz, L.B.; Klimov, V.I.; Cha, M.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Hummelen, J.C.

1998-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

374

Optical Fibers Optics and Photonics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical Fibers Optics and Photonics Dr. Palffy-Muhoray Ines Busuladzic Department of Theoretical and Applied Mathematics The University of Akron April 21, 2008 #12;Outline · History of optical fibers · What are optical fibers? · How are optical fibers made? · Light propagation through optical fibers · Application

Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

375

Working Group Report: Sensors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sensors play a key role in detecting both charged particles and photons for all three frontiers in Particle Physics. The signals from an individual sensor that can be used include ionization deposited, phonons created, or light emitted from excitations of the material. The individual sensors are then typically arrayed for detection of individual particles or groups of particles. Mounting of new, ever higher performance experiments, often depend on advances in sensors in a range of performance characteristics. These performance metrics can include position resolution for passing particles, time resolution on particles impacting the sensor, and overall rate capabilities. In addition the feasible detector area and cost frequently provides a limit to what can be built and therefore is often another area where improvements are important. Finally, radiation tolerance is becoming a requirement in a broad array of devices. We present a status report on a broad category of sensors, including challenges for the future and work in progress to solve those challenges.

Artuso, M.; et al.,

2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

376

Electromagnetic and nuclear radiation detector using micromechanical sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electromagnetic and nuclear radiation is detected by micromechanical sensors that can be coated with various interactive materials. As the micromechanical sensors absorb radiation, the sensors bend and/or undergo a shift in resonance characteristics. The bending and resonance changes are detected with high sensitivity by any of several detection methods including optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive methods. Wide bands of the electromagnetic spectrum can be imaged with picoJoule sensitivity, and specific absorptive coatings can be used for selective sensitivity in specific wavelength bands. Microcantilevers coated with optical cross-linking polymers are useful as integrating optical radiation dosimeters. Nuclear radiation dosimetry is possible by fabricating cantilevers from materials that are sensitive to various nuclear particles or radiation. Upon exposure to radiation, the cantilever bends due to stress and its resonance frequency shifts due to changes in elastic properties, based on cantilever shape and properties of the coating.

Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Warmack, Robert J. (Knoxville, TN); Wachter, Eric A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Contact stress sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing a contact stress sensor that includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

Kotovsky, Jack

2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

378

Remote electrochemical sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical sensor for remote detection, particularly useful for metal contaminants and organic or other compounds. The sensor circumvents technical difficulties that previously prevented in-situ remote operations. The microelectrode, connected to a long communications cable, allows convenient measurements of the element or compound at timed and frequent intervals and instrument/sample distances of ten feet to more than 100 feet. The sensor is useful for both downhole groundwater monitoring and in-situ water (e.g., shipboard seawater) analysis.

Wang, Joseph (Las Cruces, NM); Olsen, Khris (Richland, WA); Larson, David (Las Cruces, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Electro-Mechanical Resonant Magnetic Field Sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe a new type of magnetic field sensor which is termed an Electro-Mechanical Resonant Sensor (EMRS). The key part of this sensor is a small conductive elastic element with low damping rate and therefore a high Q fundamental mode of frequency $f_1$. An AC current is driven through the elastic element which, in the presence of a magnetic field, causes an AC force on the element. When the frequency of the AC current matches the resonant frequency of the element, maximum vibration of the element occurs and this can be measured precisely by optical means. We have built and tested a model sensor of this type using for the elastic element a length of copper wire of diameter 0.030 mm formed into a loop shape. The wire motion was measured using a light emitting diode photo-transistor assembly. This sensor demonstrated a sensitivity better than 0.001G for an applied magnetic field of $ \\sim 1$G and a good selectivity for the magnetic field direction. The sensitivity can be easily improved by a factor of $\\sim ...

Temnykh, A B; Temnykh, Alexander B.; Lovelace, Richard V. E.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optic chemical sensors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Adaptive optics for ophthalmic applications using a pyramid wavefront  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive optics for ophthalmic applications using a pyramid wavefront sensor St´ephane R. Chamot and Chris Dainty Applied Optics, Experimental Physics Department National University of Ireland Galway, University Road Galway, Ireland stephane.chamot@nuigalway.ie http://optics.nuigalway.ie/index.html Simone

Dainty, Chris

382

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol chemical vapor Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chemical and microphysical properties influence aerosol optical properties and radiative effects... distribution of aerosol extensive and intensive properties will aid ......

383

Detection of electrophilic and nucleophilic chemical agents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A "real time" method for detecting chemical agents generally and particularly electrophilic and nucleophilic species by employing tunable, precursor sensor materials that mimic the physiological interaction of these agents to form highly florescent berberine-type alkaloids that can be easily and rapidly detected. These novel precursor sensor materials can be tuned for reaction with both electrophilic (chemical species, toxins) and nucleophilic (proteins and other biological molecules) species. By bonding or otherwise attaching these precursor molecules to a surface or substrate they can be used in numerous applications.

McElhanon, James R.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

384

Micro-Machined Thin Film Sensor Arrays For The Detection Of H2, Containing Gases, And Method Of Making And Using The Same.  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a hydrogen sensor including a thin film sensor element formed by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) or physical vapor deposition (PVD), on a micro-hotplate structure. The thin film sensor element includes a film of a hydrogen-interactive metal film that reversibly interacts with hydrogen to provide a correspondingly altered response characteristic, such as optical transmissivity, electrical conductance, electrical resistance, electrical capacitance, magneto resistance, photoconductivity, etc., relative to the response characteristic of the film in the absence of hydrogen. The hydrogen-interactive metal film may be overcoated with a thin film hydrogen-permeable barrier layer to protect the hydrogen-interactive film from deleterious interaction with non-hydrogen species. The hydrogen permeable barrier may comprise species to scavenge oxygen and other like species. The hydrogen sensor of the invention may be usefully employed for the detection of hydrogen in an environment susceptible to the incursion or generation of hydrogen and may be conveniently configured as a hand-held apparatus.

DiMeo, Jr., Frank (Danbury, CT); Baum, Thomas H. (New Fairfield, CT)

2003-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

385

Energy Conservation in Sensor and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 4 Energy Conservation in Sensor and Sensor-Actuator Networks Ivan Stojmenovic 4 wireless network, and must work unattended. The limited energy budget at the individual sensor level

Stojmenovic, Ivan

386

Chemically Reactive Working Fluids for the Capture and Transport...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power Solar Enegy Collection and Transmission Chemically Reactive Working Fluids Low-Cost Light Weigh Thin Film Solar Concentrators...

387

Sensors and actuators 1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book contains the proceedings on sensors and actuators 1990. Topics covered include: Hot wire air flow meter for engine control systems, A technique for the real-time estimation of air-fuel ratio using molecular weight ratios, combustion knock sensing: Sensor selection and application issues, and An indirect sensing technique for closed-loop diesel fuel quantity control.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Finite Element Modeling of Dermally-implanted Enzymatic Microparticle Glucose Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

recent efforts have focused on the development of optical microscale glucose sensing systems based on the encapsulation of glucose oxidase within microspheres coated with polyelectrolyte multilayer nanofilms. In such sensors, a phosphorescent oxygen...

Ali, Saniya

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

389

Multivariate Optical Computation for Predictive Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multivariate Optical Computation for Predictive Spectroscopy Matthew P. Nelson, Jeffrey F. Aust, J Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0R6 A novel optical approach to predicting chemical into the structure of a set of paired optical filters. Light passing through the paired filters produces an analog

Myrick, Michael Lenn

390

Validation of a Model of a Resonant Optothermoacoustic Trace Gas Sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Validation of a Model of a Resonant Optothermoacoustic Trace Gas Sensor N. Petra1, J. Zweck1, S. E optothermoacoustic sensor is validated by comparison with experiments performed with 0.5% acetylene in nitrogen Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 300.6430, 300.6340. 1. Introduction Quartz-Enhanced Photo

Minkoff, Susan E.

391

Circular chemiresistors for microchemical sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A circular chemiresistor for use in microchemical sensors. A pair of electrodes is fabricated on an electrically insulating substrate. The pattern of electrodes is arranged in a circle-filling geometry, such as a concentric, dual-track spiral design, or a circular interdigitated design. A drop of a chemically sensitive polymer (i.e., chemiresistive ink) is deposited on the insulating substrate on the electrodes, which spreads out into a thin, circular disk contacting the pair of electrodes. This circularly-shaped electrode geometry maximizes the contact area between the pair of electrodes and the polymer deposit, which provides a lower and more stable baseline resistance than with linear-trace designs. The circularly-shaped electrode pattern also serves to minimize batch-to-batch variations in the baseline resistance due to non-uniform distributions of conductive particles in the chemiresistive polymer film.

Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

392

1292 IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 12, NO. 6, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2006 Optical Detection of Single Nanoparticles and Viruses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on a nanoparticle as it passes through a confined optical field, and the other method uses a background, sensor, viruses. I. INTRODUCTION THERE is a high demand for sensors that are able to detect small amounts this threat. Therefore, a broad network of sensors has to be deployed. These sensors must be affordable

Novotny, Lukas

393

Short-wavelength upconversion emissions in codoped glass ceramic and the optical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of electrical engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, 066004, China 3 Laboratory of Sono- and photo. In addition, an optical temperature sensor based on the blue upconversion emissions from 5 F2,3/3 K85 I8 and 5 ceramic be a promising candidate for sensitive optical temperature sensor with high resolution and good

Cao, Wenwu

394

Development of Agile Titania Sensors Via High-Temperature Reductive Etching Process (HiTREPr  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-life are much sought-after features in solid-state chemical sensors for the detection and metering of gas to recreate the smart nanofeatures to impart the desired accentuation effect. This surface modification method

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

395

Active carbon filter health condition detection with piezoelectric wafer active sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Active carbon filter health condition detection with piezoelectric wafer active sensors Jingjing Chemical Biological Center, 5183 Blackhawk Road, APG, MD USA 21010 ABSTRACT The impregnated active carbon in active carbon filters by combining the electromechanical impedance spectroscopy (EMIS

Giurgiutiu, Victor

396

Electrocatalytic cermet sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sensor for O.sub.2 and CO.sub.2 gases. The gas sensor includes a plurality of layers driven by a cyclic voltage to generate a unique plot characteristic of the gas in contact with the sensor. The plurality of layers includes an alumina substrate, a reference electrode source of anions, a lower electrical reference electrode of Pt coupled to the reference source of anions, a solid electrolyte containing tungsten and coupled to the lower reference electrode, a buffer layer for preventing flow of Pt ions into the solid electrolyte and an upper catalytically active Pt electrode coupled to the buffer layer.

Shoemaker, Erika L. (Westmont, IL); Vogt, Michael C. (Westmont, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Electrocatalytic cermet sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sensor is described for O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} gases. The gas sensor includes a plurality of layers driven by a cyclic voltage to generate a unique plot characteristic of the gas in contact with the sensor. The plurality of layers includes an alumina substrate, a reference electrode source of anions, a lower electrical reference electrode of Pt coupled to the reference source of anions, a solid electrolyte containing tungsten and coupled to the lower reference electrode, a buffer layer for preventing flow of Pt ions into the solid electrolyte and an upper catalytically active Pt electrode coupled to the buffer layer. 16 figs.

Shoemaker, E.L.; Vogt, M.C.

1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

398

Remote electrochemical sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical sensor is described for remote detection, particularly useful for metal contaminants and organic or other compounds. The sensor circumvents technical difficulties that previously prevented in-situ remote operations. The microelectrode, connected to a long communications cable, allows convenient measurements of the element or compound at timed and frequent intervals and instrument/sample distances of ten feet to more than 100 feet. The sensor is useful for both downhole groundwater monitoring and in-situ water (e.g., shipboard seawater) analysis. 21 figs.

Wang, J.; Olsen, K.; Larson, D.

1997-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

399

Electrochemical micro sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A micro-amperometric electrochemical sensor for detecting the presence of a pre-determined species in a fluid material is disclosed. The sensor includes a smooth substrate having a thin coating of solid electrolytic material deposited thereon. The working and counter electrodes are deposited on the surface of the solid electrolytic material and adhere thereto. Electrical leads connect the working and counter electrodes to a potential source and an apparatus for measuring the change in an electrical signal caused by the electrochemical oxidation or reduction of the species. Alternatively, the sensor may be fabricated in a sandwich structure and also may be cylindrical, spherical or other shapes.

Setter, Joseph R. (Naperville, IL); Maclay, G. Jordan (Maywood, IL)

1989-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

400

Wireless passive radiation sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optic chemical sensors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

A computational analysis of the carbon-nanotube-based resonant-circuit sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A computational analysis of the carbon-nanotube-based resonant-circuit sensors M. Grujicica,* , G reduction in the resonant frequency of the resonant circuit-based chemical gas sensors. It is found of applications ranging from house gas and fire alarms to medical diagnostic applications and the control

Grujicic, Mica

402

Micro/Nano Materials for Energy Storage, Fuel Cells and Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy including hydrogen storage material, fuel cells such as biofuel cells, proton exchange membrane15 Micro/Nano Materials for Energy Storage, Fuel Cells and Sensors Speaker: Prof. Dr. Li-Xian Sun fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells, clean combustion of coal, etc.; 3) Bio/chemical sensors based

Nakamura, Iku

403

A microcomputer control system for a fiber optic spectrophotometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SENSOR LICH'I SOURCE OPTICAL F I BER ~SAMPLE PHOTODE'IECTOR o r D o o n o 0 ~ o r Figure lb. Block Diagram of a Fiber Optic Spectrophotometer Fiber optic spectrophotometry uses the light conducting properties of tiny optical fibers... to carry the light to and from a remote sensor, as shown in Figure lb, page 2. At the tip of the fibers, a small chamber contains either the sample itself or an indicator for the sample, whose spectrophotometric properties change with the concentration...

Spar, Steven Matthew

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Optical state-of-charge monitor for batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for determining the instantaneous state-of-charge of a battery in which change in composition with discharge manifests itself as a change in optical absorption. In a lead-acid battery, the sensor comprises a fiber optic system with an absorption cell or, alternatively, an optical fiber woven into an absorbed-glass-mat battery. In a lithium-ion battery, the sensor comprises fiber optics for introducing light into the anode to monitor absorption when lithium ions are introduced.

Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Aircraft as a meteorological sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Meteorological Institute 2 | The aircraft as a meteorological sensor Photo cover: A KLM Airbus A330-200 landsAircraft as a meteorological sensor Using Mode-S Enhanced Surveillance data to derive upper air Meteorological Institute 3 | The aircraft as a meteorological sensor Aircraft as a meteorological sensor Using

Haak, Hein

406

Geographically distributed environmental sensor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a sensor network that includes a number of sensor units and a base unit. The base station operates in a network discovery mode (in which network topology information is collected) in a data polling mode (in which sensed information is collected from selected sensory units). Each of the sensor units can include a number of features, including an anemometer, a rain gauge, a compass, a GPS receiver, a barometric pressure sensor, an air temperature sensor, a humidity sensor, a level, and a radiant temperature sensor.

French, Patrick; Veatch, Brad; O'Connor, Mike

2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

407

Moisture sensor based on evanescent wave light scattering by porous sol-gel silica coating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical fiber moisture sensor that can be used to sense moisture present in gas phase in a wide range of concentrations is provided, as well techniques for making the same. The present invention includes a method that utilizes the light scattering phenomenon which occurs in a porous sol-gel silica by coating an optical fiber core with such silica. Thus, a porous sol-gel silica polymer coated on an optical fiber core forms the transducer of an optical fiber moisture sensor according to an embodiment. The resulting optical fiber sensor of the present invention can be used in various applications, including to sense moisture content in indoor/outdoor air, soil, concrete, and low/high temperature gas streams.

Tao, Shiquan; Singh, Jagdish P.; Winstead, Christopher B.

2006-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

408

AquaNodes: An Underwater Sensor Network Iuliu Vasilescu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

modem and an optical mo- dem implemented using green light. The system of sensor nodes communicates communication and support for sensing and mobil- ity. The nodes in the system are connected acoustically for broadcast communication using an acoustic modem we de- veloped. For higher point to point communication

Farritor, Shane

409

AquaNodes: An Underwater Sensor Network Iuliu Vasilescu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and an optical mo- dem implemented using green light. The system of sensor nodes communicates with a TDMA communication and support for sensing and mobil- ity. The nodes in the system are connected acoustically for broadcast communication using an acoustic modem we de- veloped. For higher point to point communication

Zhou, Shengli

410

A CAPACITIVELY BASED MEMS AFFINITY GLUCOSE SENSOR Xian Huang1*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sensors, based on MEMS technology, allow low-cost non-invasive or minimally-invasive glucose monitoring on a magnetically actuated cantilever whose vibration was detected optically, represented our initial effort towards the feasibility for stable and potentially implantable CGM. DEVICE DESIGN AND FABRICATION The device consists

Lin, Qiao

411

Tactile measurement with a GelSight sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis introduces a method of measuring contact force with GelSight. GelSight is an optical-based tactile sensor that uses a piece of coated elastomer as the contact medium. A camera records the distortion of the ...

Yuan, Wenzhen, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Complex pendulum biomass sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Perrenoud, Ben C. (Rigby, ID)

2007-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

413

Remote Sensor Placement  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

developed to place the sensor nodes in the field. Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 663-5330 Email UCSD EI Director Michael Todd (858) 534-5951 Professional Staff...

414

Modular sensor network node  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A distributed wireless sensor network node is disclosed. The wireless sensor network node includes a plurality of sensor modules coupled to a system bus and configured to sense a parameter. The parameter may be an object, an event or any other parameter. The node collects data representative of the parameter. The node also includes a communication module coupled to the system bus and configured to allow the node to communicate with other nodes. The node also includes a processing module coupled to the system bus and adapted to receive the data from the sensor module and operable to analyze the data. The node also includes a power module connected to the system bus and operable to generate a regulated voltage.

Davis, Jesse Harper Zehring (Berkeley, CA); Stark, Jr., Douglas Paul (Tracy, CA); Kershaw, Christopher Patrick (Hayward, CA); Kyker, Ronald Dean (Livermore, CA)

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

415

Magnetic infrasound sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetic infrasound sensor is produced by constraining a permanent magnet inside a magnetic potential well above the surface of superconducting material. The magnetic infrasound sensor measures the position or movement of the permanent magnet within the magnetic potential well, and interprets the measurements. Infrasound sources can be located and characterized by combining the measurements from one or more infrasound sensors. The magnetic infrasound sensor can be tuned to match infrasound source types, resulting in better signal-to-noise ratio. The present invention can operate in frequency modulation mode to improve sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. In an alternate construction, the superconductor can be levitated over a magnet or magnets. The system can also be driven, so that time resolved perturbations are sensed, resulting in a frequency modulation version with improved sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio.

Mueller, Fred M. (Los Alamos, NM); Bronisz, Lawrence (Los Alamos, NM); Grube, Holger (Los Alamos, NM); Nelson, David C. (Santa Fe, NM); Mace, Jonathan L. (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

416

NOx Sensor Development  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

needed to meet emission targets and enable widespread use of diesel vehicles with better fuel economies: We are developing a novel sensor with the potential to meet OEM cost and...

417

Sensor Network Lifetime Maximization Via Sensor Energy Balancing: Construction and Optimal Scheduling of Sensor Trees  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in such a way that the total energy usage of the active sensor nodes in the tree is minimized. However whenSensor Network Lifetime Maximization Via Sensor Energy Balancing: Construction and Optimal Scheduling of Sensor Trees Ling Shi , Agostino Capponi , Karl H. Johansson and Richard M. Murray Abstract

Johansson, Karl Henrik

418

Wavelength-tunable optical ring resonators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Optical ring resonator devices are disclosed that can be used for optical filtering, modulation or switching, or for use as photodetectors or sensors. These devices can be formed as microdisk ring resonators, or as open-ring resonators with an optical waveguide having a width that varies adiabatically. Electrical and mechanical connections to the open-ring resonators are made near a maximum width of the optical waveguide to minimize losses and thereby provide a high resonator Q. The ring resonators can be tuned using an integral electrical heater, or an integral semiconductor junction.

Watts, Michael R. (Albuquerque, NM); Trotter, Douglas C. (Albuquerque, NM); Young, Ralph W. (Albuquerque, NM); Nielson, Gregory N. (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

419

Wavelength-tunable optical ring resonators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Optical ring resonator devices are disclosed that can be used for optical filtering, modulation or switching, or for use as photodetectors or sensors. These devices can be formed as microdisk ring resonators, or as open-ring resonators with an optical waveguide having a width that varies adiabatically. Electrical and mechanical connections to the open-ring resonators are made near a maximum width of the optical waveguide to minimize losses and thereby provide a high resonator Q. The ring resonators can be tuned using an integral electrical heater, or an integral semiconductor junction.

Watts, Michael R. (Albuquerque, NM); Trotter, Douglas C. (Albuquerque, NM); Young, Ralph W. (Albuquerque, NM); Nielson, Gregory N. (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

420

Development of Combined Opto-Acoustical Sensor Modules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The faint fluxes of cosmic neutrinos expected at very high energies require large instrumented detector volumes. The necessary volumes in combination with a sufficient shielding against background constitute forbidding and complex environments (e.g. the deep sea) as sites for neutrino telescopes. To withstand these environments and to assure the data quality, the sensors have to be reliable and their operation has to be as simple as possible. A compact sensor module design including all necessary components for data acquisition and module calibration would simplify the detector mechanics and ensures the long term operability of the detector. The compact design discussed here combines optical and acoustical sensors inside one module, therefore reducing electronics and additional external instruments for calibration purposes. In this design the acoustical sensor is primary used for acoustic positioning of the module. The module may also be used for acoustic particle detection and marine science if an appropriat...

Enzenhfer, A; Graf, K; Hl, J; Katz, U; Lahmann, R; Neff, M; Richardt, C

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optic chemical sensors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

CAMD Cleanroom Chemical List  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route Segments (notCAMD Cleanroom Chemical List

422

Tunable Diode Laser Sensor for Monitoring and Control of Harsh Combustion Environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work represents the collaborative effort between American Air Liquide and Physical Sciences, Inc. for developing a sensor based on near-IR tunable diode lasers (TDL). The multi-species capability of the sensor for simultaneous monitoring of CO, O2, and H2O concentration as well as gas temperature is ideal for in-situ monitoring on industrial furnaces. The chemical species targeted are fundamental for controlling the combustion space for improved energy efficiency, reduced pollutants, and improved product quality, when coupling the measurement to a combustion control system. Several add-on modules developed provide flexibility in the system configuration for handling different process monitoring applications. For example, the on-Demand Power Control system for the 1.5 ?m laser is used for high particle density exhaust streams where laser transmission is problematic. For long-distance signal collection a fiber optic communication system is used to reduce noise pick-up. Finally, hardened modules to withstand high ambient temperatures, immune to EMF interference, protection from flying debris, and interfaced with pathlength control laser beam shielding probes were developed specifically for EAF process monitoring. Demonstration of these different system configurations was conducted on Charter Steel's reheat furnace, Imco Recycling, Inc. (now Aleris International, Inc.) aluminum reverberatory furnace, and Gerdau Ameristeel's EAF. Measurements on the reheat furnace demonstrated zone monitoring with the measurement performed close to the steel billet. Results from the aluminum furnace showed the benefit of measuring in-situ near the bath. In this case, low-level furnace optimization was performed and demonstrated 5% fuel savings. Monitoring tests on the EAF off-gas demonstrated the level of industrialization of the sensor to survive the harsh EAF environment. Long-term testing on the EAF has been on-going for over 6 months with essentially zero maintenance. Validation of the TDL measurement on the EAF was confirmed by comparison with extractive sampling CO measurements.

VonDrasek, William; Melsio-Pubill, Anna

2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

423

Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of adaptive optics was originally conceived by astronomers seeking to correct the blurring of images made with large telescopes due to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The basic idea is to use a device, a wave front corrector, to adjust the phase of light passing through an optical system, based on some measurement of the spatial variation of the phase transverse to the light propagation direction, using a wave front sensor. Although the original concept was intended for application to astronomical imaging, the technique can be more generally applied. For instance, adaptive optics systems have been used for several decades to correct for aberrations in high-power laser systems. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the world's largest laser system, the National Ignition Facility, uses adaptive optics to correct for aberrations in each of the 192 beams, all of which must be precisely focused on a millimeter scale target in order to perform nuclear physics experiments.

Olivier, S

2008-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

424

Sensors and Controls Workshop Summary Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Higher operating efficiencies, emission reductions, improved reliability, and lower operating costs are benefits that the power industry can realize with the utilization of sensors and controls. However, for the power industry to derive the maximum benefit from sensors and controls, improvements in existing technologies and novel approaches to challenging measurements are needed. Recognizing the importance of sensors and controls, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) sponsored a sensors and controls workshop on April 17 to 18, 2001, in Washington, DC. The workshop focused on identifying technology needs in sensors and controls for existing fossil-energy power plants as well as future facilities conceived under the Vision 21 Program. Forty-six experts from 29 organizations, including private industry, research laboratories, academia, and government agencies, attended the workshop. The meeting opened with keynote speakers from NETL and the private sector. NETL officials spoke of the Vision 21 and advanced research programs. Speakers from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Delphi Automotive Systems Research Laboratory discussed the improvements realized with their respective operation through the use of sensors and controls. NETL keynote speakers Robert Romanosky and Carl Bauer emphasized that developing sensor and control systems plays a critical role in DOE Office of Fossil Energy Vision 21 Program, clean coal activities under the Power Plant Improvement Initiative, and the proposed Clean Coal Power Initiative. The Vision 21 Program is aimed at providing technologies for ultra-clean fossil-fuel-based energy production with 60- to 75-percent efficiencies and near zero emissions. The program also uses a modular approach to present opportunities to not only generate power, but also co-produce clean fuels, chemicals, steam, and other useful products. The ultra-high efficiency and environmental performance goals of the Vision 21 Program mean that facilities must operate at optimum conditions, while adapting in real-time to changes in load and feedstock. These are challenging performance goals. They will require advanced control and sensing systems that can be adapted and optimized in real time. To improve the overall plant performance of existing power plants, one of the most cost-effective methods is to update the sensor and control systems.

Susan Maley; Robert R. Romanosky

2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

425

Volatile Organic Compound Discrimination using Nanostructured Polythiophene Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in determining response to specific VOCs. I. INTRODUCTION A low-cost, low-power, and portable device for volatile selectivity. While there has been limited success in sensor development for greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, NO and CO), the technology for detection of VOCs remains weak due to the similarity of chemical composition

Weiss, Lee E.

426

Analysis of Gradient-Based Routing Protocols in Sensor Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensor networks are envisioned to be widely used for habitat and environmental monitoring where, etc. Every physical event leaves some fingerprints in the environment in terms of the event's effect; e.g., fire increases the temperature, chemical spilling increases the contamination, nuclear leakage

427

Integrating fiber optic radiation dosimeter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this research effort was to determine the feasibility of forming a radiation sensor coupled to an optical fiber capable of measuring gamma photon, x-ray, and beta particle dose rates and integrated dose, and to construct a prototype dosimeter read-out system utilizing the fiber optic sensor. The key component of the prototype dosimeter system is a newly developed radiation sensitive storage phosphor. When this phosphor is excited by energetic radiation, a proportionate population of electron-hole pairs are created which become trapped at specific impurities within the phosphor. Trapped electrons can subsequently be stimulated optically with near-infrared at approximately 1 micrometer wavelength; the electrons can recombine with holes at luminescent centers to produce a luminescence which is directly proportional to the trapped electron population, and thus to the radiation exposure. By attaching the phosphor to the end of an optical fiber, it is possible to transmit both the IR optical stimulation and the characteristic phosphor luminescence through the fiber to and from the read-out instrument, which can be located far (e.g., kilometers) from the radiation field. This document reports on the specific design of the prototype system and its operating characteristics, including its sensitivity to various radiation dose rates and energies, its dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratio at various radiation intensities, and other system characteristics. Additionally, the radiation hardness of the phosphor and fiber are evaluated. 17 refs., 29 figs., 5 tabs.

Soltani, P.K.; Wrigley, C.Y.; Storti, G.M.; Creager, R.E.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

OPTI 577-Advanced Optical Interference Coatings Course Description  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to current market design, optical characterization and post-process analysis software. Prerequisite: OPTI 575, inhomogeneity. Electrochromic Coatings. Introduction to Chemical Vapor Deposition and Coater #4. Refinement

Arizona, University of

429

Fiber Optic Based Thermometry System for Superconducting RF Cavities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermometry is recognized as the best technique to identify and characterize losses in SRF cavities. The most widely used and reliable apparatus for temperature mapping at cryogenic temperatures is based on carbon resistors (RTDs). The use of this technology on multi-cell cavities is inconvenient due to the very large number of sensors required to obtain sufficient spatial resolution. Recent developments make feasible the use of multiplexible fiber optic sensors for highly distributed temperature measurements. However, sensitivity of multiplexible cryogenic temperature sensors was found extending only to 12K at best and thus was not sufficient for SRF cavity thermometry. During the course of the project the team of MicroXact, JLab and Virginia Tech developed and demonstrated the multiplexible fiber optic sensor with adequate response below 20K. The demonstrated temperature resolution is by at least a factor of 60 better than that of the best multiplexible fiber optic temperature sensors reported to date. The clear path toward at least 10times better temperature resolution is shown. The first to date temperature distribution measurements with ~2.5mm spatial resolution was done with fiber optic sensors at 2K to4K temperatures. The repeatability and accuracy of the sensors were verified only at 183K, but at this temperature both parameters significantly exceeded the state of the art. The results of this work are expected to find a wide range of applications, since the results are enabling the whole new testing capabilities, not accessible before.

Dr. Kochergin, Vladimir [Microxact Inc.] [Microxact Inc.

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

430

Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe are disclosed. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped borosilicate glass, accurate to [+-]0.5 C over an operating temperature range of about [minus]196 C to 400 C; and a mixture of D[sub 2]O and H[sub 2]O, accurate to [+-]0.1 C over an operating range of about 5 C to 90 C. 13 figs.

O'Rourke, P.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

432

Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped boresilicate glass, accurate to .+-.0.5.degree. C. over an operating temperature range of about -196.degree. C. to 400.degree. C.; and a mixture of D.sub.2 O and H.sub.2 O, accurate to .+-.0.1.degree. C. over an operating range of about 5.degree. C. to 90.degree. C.

O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA); Livingston, Ronald R. (Aiken, SC); Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Capacitive proximity sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Capacitive proximity sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit is disclosed. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change. 14 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

435

Chemical Occurrences  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Classification of Chemical Occurrence Reports into the following four classes: Occurrences characterized by serious energy release, injury or exposure requiring medical treatment, or severe environmental damage, Occurrences characterized by minor injury or exposure, or reportable environmental release, Occurrences that were near misses including notable safety violations and Minor occurrences.

436

Chemical Evolution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this series of lectures we first describe the basic ingredients of galactic chemical evolution and discuss both analytical and numerical models. Then we compare model results for the Milky Way, Dwarf Irregulars, Quasars and the Intra-Cluster- Medium with abundances derived from emission lines. These comparisons allow us to put strong constraints on the stellar nucleosynthesis and the mechanisms of galaxy formation.

Francesca Matteucci

2007-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

437

SUPPORTING CHEMICALS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program 1 was conceived as a voluntary initiative aimed at developing and making publicly available screening-level health and environmental effects information on chemicals manufactured in or imported into the United States in quantities greater than one million pounds per year. In the Challenge Program, producers and importers of HPV chemicals voluntarily sponsored chemicals; sponsorship entailed the identification and initial assessment of the adequacy of existing toxicity data/information, conducting new testing if adequate data did not exist, and making both new and existing data and information available to the public. Each complete data submission contains data on 18 internationally agreed to SIDS (Screening Information Data Set 1,2) endpoints that are screening-level indicators of potential hazards (toxicity) for humans or the environment. The Environmental Protection Agencys Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) is evaluating the data submitted in the HPV Challenge Program on approximately 1400 sponsored chemicals by developing hazard characterizations (HCs). These HCs consist of an evaluation of the quality and completeness of the data set provided in the Challenge Program submissions. They are not intended to be definitive statements regarding the possibility of unreasonable risk of

See Section

438

Sensors as Information Transducers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This chapter reviews the mechanisms by which sensors gather information from the physical world and transform it into the electronic signals that are used in today's information and control systems. It introduces a new methodology for describing sensing mechanisms based on the process of information flow and applies it to the broad spectrum of sensors, instruments and data input devices in current use. We identify four distinct elemental transduction processes: energy conversion, energy dispersion, energy modulation and modulation of a material property. We posit that these four mechanisms form a complete set for describing information transduction in sensing systems.

J. David zook; Norbert Schroeder

2008-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

439

Magnetic differential torque sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new torque sensor structure is presented. The basic idea is a simple torque sensor with a variable magnetic circuit excited by an axially magnetized permanent magnet ring. The circuit is constituted by iron toothed rings, whose teeth relative position changes whenever an applied torque twists the rotating shaft. A Hall probe measures the induction in an airgap where the induction is uniform. The new structure is an association of two previous ones, thus creating a differential system with the related advantages: diminution of thermal drifts, zero mean value for the signal. The new magnetic circuit is studied by calculating equivalent reluctances through energy calculations and by using electrical analogies.

Lemarquand, V.; Lemarquand, G. [Univ. de Savoie, Annecy-le-Vieux (France)] [Univ. de Savoie, Annecy-le-Vieux (France)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Thin film hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Fleming, Pamela H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optic chemical sensors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

ON THE GAGE FACTOR FOR OPTICAL FIBER GRATING STRAIN GAGES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of grating and fiber types. KEY WORDS: Fiber-Optic Gratings, Fiber-Optic Sensors, Strain Gage Factor 1 theoretical background. Then, in Section 3, we discuss measurement methods followed by the experimental tests and results in Section 4, before concluding in Section 5. 2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Consider an FBG fabricated

Park, Yong-Lae

442

Controlled mobility in sensor networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

K. Gupta. Optimizing energy-latency trade- o? in sensoras Optimizing Energy-Latency Trade-o? in Sensor NetworksK. Gupta, Optimizing Energy-Latency Trade-o? in Sensor

Sugihara, Ryo

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Cone penetrometer fiber optic raman spectroscopy probe assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chemically and mechanically robust optical Raman spectroscopy probe assembly that can be incorporated in a cone penetrometer (CPT) for subsurface deployment. This assembly consists of an optical Raman probe and a penetrometer compatible optical probe housing. The probe is intended for in-situ chemical analysis of chemical constituents in the surrounding environment. The probe is optically linked via fiber optics to the light source and the detection system at the surface. A built-in broadband light source provides a strobe method for direct measurement of sample optical density. A mechanically stable sapphire window is sealed directly into the side-wall of the housing using a metallic, chemically resistant, hermetic seal design. This window permits transmission of the interrogation light beam and the resultant signal. The spectroscopy probe assembly is capable of accepting Raman, Laser induced Fluorescence, reflectance, and other optical probes with collimated output for CPT deployment.

Kyle, Kevin R. (Brentwood, CA); Brown, Steven B. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Sensors & Measurement | Clean Energy | ORNL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Systems Research Sustainable Electricity Systems Biology Transportation Clean Energy Home | Science & Discovery | Clean Energy | Research Areas | Sensors & Measurement...

445

Spectroelectrochemical Sensor for Technetium Applicable to the Vadose Zone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The general aim of this project is to continue the design and implementation of a new sensor technology that offers the unprecedented levels of specificity needed for analysis of the complex chemical mixtures found at DOE sites nationwide. The new sensor concept combines the elements of electrochemistry, spectroscopy and selective partitioning into a single device that provides three levels of selectivity. The specific goal of this project is the development of a sensor for technetium (Tc) that is applicable to characterizing and monitoring the Vadose Zone and associated subsurface water at the Hanford site. The first goal is a sensor that determines technetium in the chemical form pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). This report summarizes work during 6/16/01-6/15/02 of a three-year project that began on 9/15/99. During this period our efforts have focused on four areas that are discussed in the following sections. Electrochemistry of pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) at bare ITO and film-coated ITO electrodes; Enhancing sensitivity by increasing analyte absorptivity; Development and characterization of selective films; and Improved field portable spectroelectrochemical sensor.

William R. Heineman; Carl J. Seliskar; Samuel A. Bryan; Timothy L. Hubler

2003-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

446

Chemical Inventory | Sample Preparation Laboratories  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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447

Open Standards for Sensor Information Processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document explores sensor standards, sensor data models, and computer sensor software in order to determine the specifications and data representation best suited for analyzing and monitoring computer system health using embedded sensor data. We review IEEE 1451, OGC Sensor Model Language and Transducer Model Language (TML), lm-sensors and Intelligent Platform Management Inititative (IPMI).

Pouchard, Line Catherine [ORNL; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL; Lothian, Josh [ORNL

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Sensor Network Demonstration for In Situ Decommissioning - 13332  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Florida International University's (FIU's) Applied Research Center is currently supporting the Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Management Office of D and D and Facility Engineering program. FIU is supporting DOE's initiative to improve safety, reduce technical risks, and limit uncertainty within D and D operations by identifying technologies suitable to meet specific facility D and D requirements, assessing the readiness of those technologies for field deployment, and conducting feasibility studies and large scale demonstrations of promising technologies. During FY11, FIU collaborated with Savannah River National Laboratory in the development of an experimental test site for the demonstration of multiple sensor systems for potential use in the in situ decommissioning process. In situ decommissioning is a process in which the above ground portion of a facility is dismantled and removed, and the underground portion is filled with a cementious material such as grout. In such a scenario, the question remains on how to effectively monitor the structural health of the grout (cracking, flexing, and sinking), as well as track possible migration of contaminants within and out of the grouted monolith. The right types of sensors can aid personnel in better understanding the conditions within the entombed structure. Without sensors embedded in and around the monolith, it will be very difficult to estimate structural integrity and contaminant transport. Yet, to fully utilize the appropriate sensors and the provided data, their performance and reliability must be evaluated outside a laboratory setting. To this end, a large scale experimental setup and demonstration was conducted at FIU. In order to evaluate a large suite of sensor systems, FIU personnel designed and purchased a pre-cast concrete open-top cube, which served as a mock-up of an in situ DOE decommissioned facility. The inside of the cube measures 10 ft x 10 ft x 8 ft. In order to ensure that the individual sensors would be immobilized during the grout pouring activities, a set of nine sensor racks were designed. The 270 sensors provided by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Mississippi State University (MSU), University of Houston (UH), and University of South Carolina (USC) were secured to these racks based on predetermined locations. Once sensor racks were installed inside the test cube, connected and debugged, approximately 32 cubic yards of special grout material was used to entomb the sensors. MSU provided and demonstrated four types of fiber loop ring-down (FLR) sensors for detection of water, temperature, cracks, and movement of fluids. INL provided and demonstrated time differenced 3D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), advanced tensiometers for moisture content, and thermocouples for temperature measurements. University of Houston provided smart aggregate (SA) sensors, which detect crack severity and water presence. An additional UH sensor system demonstrated was a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) fiber optic system measuring strain, presence of water, and temperature. USC provided a system which measured acoustic emissions during cracking, as well as temperature and pH sensors. All systems were connected to a Sensor Remote Access System (SRAS) data networking and collection system designed, developed and provided by FIU. The purpose of SRAS was to collect and allow download of the raw sensor data from all the sensor system, as well as allow upload of the processed data and any analysis reports and graphs. All this information was made available to the research teams via the Deactivation and Decommissioning Knowledge Management and Information Tool (D and D KM-IT). As a current research effort, FIU is performing an energy analysis, and transferring several sensor systems to a Photovoltaic (PV) System to continuously monitor energy consumption parameters and overall power demands. Also, One final component of this research is focusing on developing an integrated data network to capture, log and analyze sensor system data in near real time from a single inte

Lagos, L.; Varona, J.; Awwad, A. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)] [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Rivera, J.; McGill, J. [Department of Energy - DOE, Environmental Management Office (United States)] [Department of Energy - DOE, Environmental Management Office (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Future Directions for Magnetic Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Engineering Laboratory Magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors are rapidly becoming the technology of choiceFuture Directions for Magnetic Sensors: HYBRIDMATERIALS Our goal is to develop the scientific expertise needed to allow modeling and simulation to become the driving force in improving magnetic sensors

450

Sensor system for web inspection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for electrically measuring variations over a flexible web has a capacitive sensor including spaced electrically conductive, transmit and receive electrodes mounted on a flexible substrate. The sensor is held against a flexible web with sufficient force to deflect the path of the web, which moves relative to the sensor.

Sleefe, Gerard E. (1 Snowcap Ct., Cedar Crest, NM 87008); Rudnick, Thomas J. (626 E. Jackson Rd., St. Louis, MO 63119); Novak, James L. (11048 Malaguena La. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Fiber optic detector for immuno-testing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals in air or a gas by exchanging the target chemical for a fluoroescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ward, Thomas E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grey, Alan E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Multiplexed Sensor for Synthesis Gas Compsition and Temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of this project has been to develop a highly sensitive, multiplexed TDL-based sensor for CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O (and temperature), CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}S, and NH{sub 3}. Such a sensor was designed with so-called 'plug-and-play' characteristics to accommodate additional sensors, and provided in situ path-integrated measurements indicative of average concentrations at speeds suitable for direct gasifier control. The project developed the sensor and culminated in a real-world test of the underlying technology behind the sensor. During the project, new underlying measurements of spectroscopic constants for all of the gases of interest performed, in custom cells built for the project. The envisioned instrument was built from scratch from component lasers, fiber optics, amplifier blocks, detectors, etc. The sensor was tested for nearly a week in an operational power plant. The products of this research are expected to have a direct impact on gasifier technology and the production of high-quality syngas, with substantial broader application to coal and other energy systems. This report is the final technical report on project DE-FG26-04NT42172. During the project we completed all of the milestones planned in the project, with a modification of milestone (7) required due to lack of funding and personnel.

Steven Buckley; Reza Gharavi; Marco Leon

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Carbon dioxide sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

454

Thick film hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Lean blowoff detection sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for detecting incipient lean blowoff conditions in a lean premixed combustion nozzle of a gas turbine. A sensor near the flame detects the concentration of hydrocarbon ions and/or electrons produced by combustion and the concentration monitored as a function of time are used to indicate incipient lean blowoff conditions.

Thornton, Jimmy (Morgantown, WV); Straub, Douglas L. (Morgantown, WV); Chorpening, Benjamin T. (Morgantown, WV); Huckaby, David (Morgantown, WV)

2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

456

Ammonia and ammonium hydroxide sensors for ammonia/water absorption machines: Literature review and data compilation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes an evaluation of various sensing techniques for determining the ammonia concentration in the working fluid of ammonia/water absorption cycle systems. The purpose of this work was to determine if any existing sensor technology or instrumentation could provide an accurate, reliable, and cost-effective continuous measure of ammonia concentration in water. The resulting information will be used for design optimization and cycle control in an ammonia-absorption heat pump. PNL researchers evaluated each sensing technology against a set of general requirements characterizing the potential operating conditions within the absorption cycle. The criteria included the physical constraints for in situ operation, sensor characteristics, and sensor application. PNL performed an extensive literature search, which uncovered several promising sensing technologies that might be applicable to this problem. Sixty-two references were investigated, and 33 commercial vendors were identified as having ammonia sensors. The technologies for ammonia sensing are acoustic wave, refractive index, electrode, thermal, ion-selective field-effect transistor (ISFET), electrical conductivity, pH/colormetric, and optical absorption. Based on information acquired in the literature search, PNL recommends that follow-on activities focus on ISFET devices and a fiber optic evanescent sensor with a colormetric indicator. The ISFET and fiber optic evanescent sensor are inherently microminiature and capable of in situ measurements. Further, both techniques have been demonstrated selective to the ammonium ion (NH{sub 4}{sup +}). The primary issue remaining is how to make the sensors sufficiently corrosion-resistant to be useful in practice.

Anheier, N.C. Jr.; McDonald, C.E.; Cuta, J.M.; Cuta, F.M.; Olsen, K.B.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Physical and chemical manipulation of carbon nanotubes and graphene for nanoelectronics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electron confinement in carbon nanomaterials provides them with many interesting electronic, mechanical and optical properties, thus making them one of the best suited materials for electronic and sensor applications. ...

Sharma, Richa, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Intelligent Sensor Validation and Fusion with distributed "MEMS Dust" Sensors Shijun Qiu*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Intelligent Sensor Validation and Fusion with distributed "MEMS Dust" Sensors (Abstract) Shijun Qiu, Berkeley aagogino@euler.berkeley.edu Key Words : sensor networks, sensor fusion, sensor validation, micro-electromechanical systems, MEMS MEMS sensors make a rich design space of networked sensors viable. They can be deeply

Agogino, Alice M.

459

Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas sensor measures O.sub.2 content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas sensor measures O{sub 2} content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons, H{sub 2}O and/or CO{sub 2}, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system. 4 figs.

Ruka, R.J.; Basel, R.A.

1996-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "optic chemical sensors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer is disclosed comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. 5 figs.

Sopori, B.L.

1996-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

462

Hydrocarbon sensors and materials therefor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical hydrocarbon sensor and materials for use in sensors. A suitable proton conducting electrolyte and catalytic materials have been found for specific application in the detection and measurement of non-methane hydrocarbons. The sensor comprises a proton conducting electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. At least one of the electrodes is covered with a hydrocarbon decomposition catalyst. Two different modes of operation for the hydrocarbon sensors can be used: equilibrium versus non-equilibrium measurements and differential catalytic. The sensor has particular application for on-board monitoring of automobile exhaust gases to evaluate the performance of catalytic converters. In addition, the sensor can be utilized in monitoring any process where hydrocarbons are exhausted, for instance, industrial power plants. The sensor is low cost, rugged, sensitive, simple to fabricate, miniature, and does not suffer cross sensitivities.

Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Two terminal micropower radar sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A simple, low power ultra-wideband radar motion sensor/switch configuration connects a power source and load to ground. The switch is connected to and controlled by the signal output of a radar motion sensor. The power input of the motion sensor is connected to the load through a diode which conducts power to the motion sensor when the switch is open. A storage capacitor or rechargeable battery is connected to the power input of the motion sensor. The storage capacitor or battery is charged when the switch is open and powers the motion sensor when the switch is closed. The motion sensor and switch are connected between the same two terminals between the source/load and ground. 3 figs.

McEwan, T.E.

1995-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

464

Two terminal micropower radar sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A simple, low power ultra-wideband radar motion sensor/switch configuration connects a power source and load to ground. The switch is connected to and controlled by the signal output of a radar motion sensor. The power input of the motion sensor is connected to the load through a diode which conducts power to the motion sensor when the switch is open. A storage capacitor or rechargeable battery is connected to the power input of the motion sensor. The storage capacitor or battery is charged when the switch is open and powers the motion sensor when the switch is closed. The motion sensor and switch are connected between the same two terminals between the source/load and ground.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Nuclear sensor signal processing circuit  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method are disclosed for a compact and temperature-insensitive nuclear sensor that can be calibrated with a non-hazardous radioactive sample. The nuclear sensor includes a gamma ray sensor that generates tail pulses from radioactive samples. An analog conditioning circuit conditions the tail-pulse signals from the gamma ray sensor, and a tail-pulse simulator circuit generates a plurality of simulated tail-pulse signals. A computer system processes the tail pulses from the gamma ray sensor and the simulated tail pulses from the tail-pulse simulator circuit. The nuclear sensor is calibrated under the control of the computer. The offset is adjusted using the simulated tail pulses. Since the offset is set to zero or near zero, the sensor gain can be adjusted with a non-hazardous radioactive source such as, for example, naturally occurring radiation and potassium chloride.

Kallenbach, Gene A. (Bosque Farms, NM); Noda, Frank T. (Albuquerque, NM); Mitchell, Dean J. (Tijeras, NM); Etzkin, Joshua L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

466

X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at picosecond resolution using RadOptic detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report recent progress in the development of RadOptic detectors, radiation to optical converters, that rely upon x-ray absorption induced modulation of the optical refractive index of a semiconductor sensor medium to amplitude modulate an optical probe beam. The sensor temporal response is determined by the dynamics of the electron-hole pair creation and subsequent relaxation in the sensor medium. Response times of a few ps have been demonstrated in a series of experiments conducted at the LLNL Jupiter Laser Facility (JLF). This technology will enable x-ray bang-time and fusion burn-history measurements with {approx} ps resolution.

Vernon, S. P.; Lowry, M. E.; Baker, K. L.; Bennett, C. V.; Celeste, J. R.; Cerjan, C.; Haynes, S.; Hernandez, V. J.; Hsing, W. W.; LaCaille, G. A.; London, R. A.; Moran, B.; Schach von Wittenau, A.; Steele, P. T.; Stewart, R. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

467

X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at ~ps resolution using RadOptic detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report recent progress in the development of RadOptic detectors, radiation to optical converters, that rely upon x-ray absorption induced modulation of the optical refractive index of a semiconductor sensor medium to amplitude modulate an optical probe beam. The sensor temporal response is determined by the dynamics of the electron-hole pair creation and subsequent relaxation in the sensor medium. Response times of a few ps have been demonstrated in a series of experiments conducted at the LLNL Jupiter Laser Facility. This technology will enable x-ray bang-time and fusion burn-history measurements with {approx} ps resolution.

Vernon, S P; Lowry, M E; Baker, K L; Bennett, C V; Celeste, J R; Cerjan, C; Haynes, S; Hernandez, V J; Hsing, W W; London, R A; Moran, B; von Wittenau, A S; Steele, P T; Stewart, R E

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Chemical sensor development leading to an glucose detection method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

semiconductor, which when mated to a metallic contact and alloyed, facilitates the transfer of charge and forms an ohmic bridge

Caballero, Jonathan Bano

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Researchers develop new acoustic sensor for chemical and biological  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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470

Nanojunction Sensors for the Detection of chemical and Biological Species -  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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471

Nanomechanical Sensor Detects and Identifies Chemical Analytes - Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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472

Nanotechnology-Based Electrochemical Sensors for Biomonitoring Chemical  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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473

Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One crucial challenge for subwavelength optics has been thedevelopment of a tunable source of coherent laser radiation for use inthe physical, information, and biological sciences that is stable at roomtemperature and physiological conditions. Current advanced near-fieldimaging techniques using fiber-optic scattering probes1,2 have alreadyachieved spatial resolution down to the 20-nm range. Recently reportedfar-field approaches for optical microscopy, including stimulatedemission depletion (STED)3, structured illumination4, and photoactivatedlocalization microscopy (PALM)5, have also enabled impressive,theoretically-unlimited spatial resolution of fluorescent biomolecularcomplexes. Previous work with laser tweezers6-8 has suggested the promiseof using optical traps to create novel spatial probes and sensors.Inorganic nanowires have diameters substantially below the wavelength ofvisible light and have unique electronic and optical properties9,10 thatmake them prime candidates for subwavelength laser and imagingtechnology. Here we report the development of an electrode-free,continuously-tunable coherent visible light source compatible withphysiological environments, from individual potassium niobate (KNbO3)nanowires. These wires exhibit efficient second harmonic generation(SHG), and act as frequency converters, allowing the local synthesis of awide range of colors via sum and difference frequency generation (SFG,DFG). We use this tunable nanometric light source to implement a novelform of subwave