National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for opsmax performance reflect

  1. High performance anti-reflection coatings for broadband multi-junction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AIKEN,DANIEL J.

    2000-02-23

    The success of bandgap engineering has made high efficiency broadband multi-junction solar cells possible with photo-response out to the band edge of Ge. Modeling has been conducted which suggests that current double layer anti-reflection coating technology is not adequate for these devices in certain cases. Approaches for the development of higher performance anti-reflection coatings are examined. A new AR coating structure based on the use of Herpin equivalent layers is presented. Optical modeling suggests a decrease in the solar weighted reflectance of over 2.5{percent} absolute as a result. This structure requires no additional optical material development and characterization because no new optical materials are necessary. Experimental results and a sensitivity analysis are presented.

  2. Performance of "Moth Eye" Anti-Reflective Coatings for Solar Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.; Kane, M.; Jiang, P.

    2011-03-14

    An inexpensive, effective anti-reflective coating (ARC) has been developed at the University of Florida to significantly enhance the absorption of light by silicon in solar cells. This coating has nano-scale features, and its microstructure mimics that of various night active insects (e.g. a moth's eye). It is a square array of pillars, each about 700 nm high and having a diameter of about 300 nm. Samples of silicon having this coating were exposed either to various combinations of either elevated temperature and humidity or to gamma irradiation ({sup 60}Co) at the Savannah River National Laboratory, or to a broad spectrum ultraviolet light and to a 532 nm laser light at the University of Florida. The anti-reflective properties of the coatings were unaffected by any of these environmental stresses, and the microstructure of the coating was also unaffected. In fact, the reflectivity of the gamma irradiated ARC became lower (advantageous for solar cell applications) at wavelengths between 400 and 1000 nm. These results show that this coating is robust and should be tested in actual systems exposed to either weather or a space environment. Structural details of the ARCs were studied to optimize their performance. Square arrays performed better than hexagonal arrays - the natural moth-eye coating is indeed a square array. The optimal depth of the templated nanopillars in the ARC was investigated. A wet etching technology for ARC formation was developed that would be less expensive and much faster than dry etching. Theoretical modeling revealed that dimple arrays should perform better than nipple arrays. A method of fabricating both dimple and nipple arrays having the same length was developed, and the dimple arrays performed better than the nipple arrays, in agreement with the modeling. The commercial viability of the technology is quite feasible, since the technology is scalable and inexpensive. This technology is also compatible with current industrial fabrication of solar cells.

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January-March 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DL Sisterson

    2006-03-31

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year; and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the second quarter for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,052 hours (0.95 × 2,160 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,944 hours (0.90 × 2,160), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,836 hours (0.85 × 2,160). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is 2,052 hours (0.95 × 2,160). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the Archive represents the average percent of the time (24 hours per day, 90 days for this quarter) the instruments were operating this quarter.

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report October 1 - December 31, 2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2009-01-15

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, they calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The US Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1-(ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the first quarter of FY 2009 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,097.60 hours (0.95 x 2,208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,987.20 hours (0.90 x 2,208), and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,876.80 hours (0.85 x 2,208). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is not reported this quarter because the data have not yet been released from China to the DMF for processing. The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percentage of data in the Archive represents the average percentage of the time (24 hours per day, 92 days for this quarter) the instruments were operating this quarter. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), actual hours of operation, and variance (unplanned downtime) for the period October 1-December 31, 2008, for the fixed sites. The AMF has been deployed to China, but the data have not yet been released. The first quarter comprises a total of 2,208 hours. The average exceeded their goal this quarter.

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 – September 30, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, DL

    2008-09-30

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the fourth quarter of FY 2008 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,097.60 hours (0.95 x 2,208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,987.20 hours (0.90 x 2,208), and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,876.80 hours (0.85 x 2,208). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is not reported this quarter because the data have not yet been released from China to the DMF for processing. The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percentage of data in the Archive represents the average percentage of the time (24 hours per day, 92 days for this quarter) the instruments were operating this quarter.

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1 - June 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DL Sisterson

    2005-06-30

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The United States Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the third quarter for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,074.8 hours (0.95 2,184 hours this quarter). The annual OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) site is 1,965.6 hours (0.90 2,184), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is 1,856.4 hours (0.85 2,184). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is 2,074.8 (0.95 2,184). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the ACRF Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the Archive represents the average percent of the time (24 hours per day, 91 days for this quarter) the instruments were operating this quarter

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 - September 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DL Sisterson

    2005-09-30

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the ACRF fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at PNNL for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The DOE requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the third quarter for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,097.6 hours (0.95 2,208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) site is 1,987.2 hours (0.90 2,208), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is 1,876.8 hours (0.85 2,208). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is 2,097.6 hours (0.95 2,208). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the ACRF Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the Archive represents the average percent of the time (24 hours per day, 92 days for this quarter) the instruments were operating this quarter.

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1 - December 31, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DL Sisterson

    2005-12-31

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the third quarter for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,097.6 hours (0.95 2,208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,987.2 hours (0.90 2,208), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,876.8 hours (0.85 2,208). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is 2,097.6 hours (0.95 2,208). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the ACRF Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the Archive represents the average percent of the time (24 hours per day, 92 days for this quarter) the instruments were operating this quarter.

  9. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

  10. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

  11. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. One layer of each set of bilayers consist of titanium, and the second layer of each set of bilayers consist of an alloy of nickel with carbon interstitially present in the nickel alloy.

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1 - March 31, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DL Sisterson

    2005-03-31

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The United States Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for this second quarter for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2052 hours (0.95 2,160 hours this quarter). The annual OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) site is 1944 hours (0.90 2,160), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is 1836 hours (0.85 2,160). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the ACRF Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the Archive represents the average percent of the time (24 hours per day, 90 days for this quarter) the instruments were operating this quarter.

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Cumulative Quarterly Report October 1, 2003 - September 30, 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DL Sisterson

    2004-09-30

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The United States Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The annual OPSMAX time for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 8,322 hours per year (0.95 8,760, the number hours in a year, not including leap year). The annual OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) site is 7,884 hours per year (0.90 8,760), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is 7,446 hours per year (0.85 8,760). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the ACRF Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the Archive represents the average percent of the time (24 hours per day, 365 days per year) the instruments were operating.

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1 - December 31, 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DL Sisterson

    2004-12-31

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The United States Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The annual OPSMAX time for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 8,322 hours per year (0.95 8,760, the number hours in a year, not including leap year). The annual OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) site is 7,884 hours per year (0.90 8,760), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is 7,446 hours per year (0.85 8,760). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the ACRF Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the Archive represents the average percent of the time (24 hours per day, 365 days per year) the instruments were operating.

  15. Quarterly Research Performance Progress Report (2015 Q3). Ultrasonic Phased Arrays and Interactive Reflectivity Tomography for Nondestructive Inspection of Injection and Production Wells in Geothermal Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Polsky, Yarom; Kisner, Roger A; Johnson, Christi R; Collins, Case; Bouman, Charles; Abdulrahman, Hani; Foster, Benjamin

    2015-09-01

    For the past quarter, we have placed our effort in implementing the first version of the ModelBased Iterative Reconstruction (MBIR) algorithm, assembling and testing the electronics, designing transducers mounts, and defining our laboratory test samples. We have successfully developed the first implementation of MBIR for ultrasound imaging. The current algorithm was tested with synthetic data and we are currently making new modifications for the reconstruction of real ultrasound data. Beside assembling and testing the electronics, we developed a LabView graphic user interface (GUI) to fully control the ultrasonic phased array, adjust the time-delays of the transducers, and store the measured reflections. As part of preparing for a laboratory-scale demonstration, the design and fabrication of the laboratory samples has begun. Three cement blocks with embedded objects will be fabricated, characterized, and used to demonstrate the capabilities of the system. During the next quarter, we will continue to improve the current MBIR forward model and integrate the reconstruction code with the LabView GUI. In addition, we will define focal laws for the ultrasonic phased array and perform the laboratory demonstration. We expect to perform laboratory demonstration by the end of October 2015.

  16. REFLECT HOME

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sacramento is nicknamed the City of Trees, so it made sense for the California State University, Sacramento, team to showcase nature in its Solar Decathlon 2015 project. The team’s Reflect Home does just that by embracing the city’s sense of expansive greenery.

  17. Impact of laser-contaminant interaction on the performance of the protective capping layer of 1w high-reflection mirror coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiu, S. R.; Norton, M. A.; Raman, R. N.; Rubenchik, A. M.; Boley, C. D.; Rigatti, A.; Mirkarimi, P. B.; Stolz, C. J.; Matthews, M. J.

    2015-10-02

    In this paper, high dielectric constant multilayer coatings are commonly used on high-reflection mirrors for high-peak-power laser systems because of their high laser-damage resistance. However, surface contaminants often lead to damage upon laser exposure, thus limiting the mirror’s lifetime and performance. One plausible approach to improve the overall mirror resistance against laser damage, including that induced by laser-contaminant coupling, is to coat the multilayers with a thin protective capping (absentee) layer on top of the multilayer coatings. An understanding of the underlying mechanism by which laser-particle interaction leads to capping layer damage is important for the rational design and selection of capping materials of high-reflection multilayer coatings. In this paper, we examine the responses of two candidate capping layer materials, made of SiO2 and Al2O3, over silica-hafnia multilayer coatings. These are exposed to a single oblique shot of a 1053 nm laser beam (fluence ~10 J/cm2, pulse length 14 ns), in the presence of Ti particles on the surface. We find that the two capping layers show markedly different responses to the laser-particle interaction. The Al2O3 cap layer exhibits severe damage, with the capping layer becoming completely delaminated at the particle locations. The SiO2 capping layer, on the other hand, is only mildly modified by a shallow depression. Combining the observations with optical modeling and thermal/mechanical calculations, we argue that a high-temperature thermal field from plasma generated by the laser-particle interaction above a critical fluence is responsible for the surface modification of each capping layer. The great difference in damage behavior is mainly attributed to the large disparity in the thermal expansion coefficient of the two capping materials, with that of Al2O3 layer being about 15 times greater than that of SiO2.

  18. Impact of laser-contaminant interaction on the performance of the protective capping layer of 1w high-reflection mirror coatings

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Qiu, S. R.; Norton, M. A.; Raman, R. N.; Rubenchik, A. M.; Boley, C. D.; Rigatti, A.; Mirkarimi, P. B.; Stolz, C. J.; Matthews, M. J.

    2015-10-02

    In this paper, high dielectric constant multilayer coatings are commonly used on high-reflection mirrors for high-peak-power laser systems because of their high laser-damage resistance. However, surface contaminants often lead to damage upon laser exposure, thus limiting the mirror’s lifetime and performance. One plausible approach to improve the overall mirror resistance against laser damage, including that induced by laser-contaminant coupling, is to coat the multilayers with a thin protective capping (absentee) layer on top of the multilayer coatings. An understanding of the underlying mechanism by which laser-particle interaction leads to capping layer damage is important for the rational design and selectionmore » of capping materials of high-reflection multilayer coatings. In this paper, we examine the responses of two candidate capping layer materials, made of SiO2 and Al2O3, over silica-hafnia multilayer coatings. These are exposed to a single oblique shot of a 1053 nm laser beam (fluence ~10 J/cm2, pulse length 14 ns), in the presence of Ti particles on the surface. We find that the two capping layers show markedly different responses to the laser-particle interaction. The Al2O3 cap layer exhibits severe damage, with the capping layer becoming completely delaminated at the particle locations. The SiO2 capping layer, on the other hand, is only mildly modified by a shallow depression. Combining the observations with optical modeling and thermal/mechanical calculations, we argue that a high-temperature thermal field from plasma generated by the laser-particle interaction above a critical fluence is responsible for the surface modification of each capping layer. The great difference in damage behavior is mainly attributed to the large disparity in the thermal expansion coefficient of the two capping materials, with that of Al2O3 layer being about 15 times greater than that of SiO2.« less

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report. October 1 - December 31, 2010.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2011-02-01

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near-real time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 - (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the first quarter of FY2010 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2097.60 hours (0.95 x 2208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1987.20 hours (0.90 x 2208) and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1876.80 hours (0.85 x 2208). The first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) deployment in Graciosa Island, the Azores, Portugal, continued through this quarter, so the OPSMAX time this quarter is 2097.60 hours (0.95 x 2208). The second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) began deployment this quarter to Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The experiment officially began November 15, but most of the instruments were up and running by November 1. Therefore, the OPSMAX time for the AMF2 was 1390.80 hours (.95 x 1464 hours) for November and December (61 days). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or datastream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous datastreams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percentage of data in the Archive represents the average percentage of the time (24 hours per day, 92 days for this quarter) the instruments were operating this quarter. Summary. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), actual hours of operation, and variance (unplanned downtime) for the period October 1-December 31, 2010, for the fixed sites. Because the AMFs operate episodically, the AMF statistics are reported separately and not included in the aggregate average with the fixed sites. This first quarter comprises a total of 2,208 possible hours for the fixed sites and the AMF1 and 1,464 possible hours for the AMF2. The average of the fixed sites exceeded our goal this quarter. The AMF1 has essentially completed its mission and is shutting down to pack up for its next deployment to India. Although all the raw data from the operational instruments are in the Archive for the AMF2, only the processed data are tabulated. Approximately half of the AMF2 instruments have data that was fully processed, resulting in the 46% of all possible data made available to users through the Archive for this first quarter. Typically, raw data is not made available to users unless specifically requested.

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report July 1 - Sep. 30, 2009.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2009-10-15

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near-real time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 - (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the fourth quarter of FY 2009 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,097.60 hours (0.95 ? 2,208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,987.20 hours (0.90 ? 2,208) and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,876.8 hours (0.85 ? 2,208). The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) was officially operational May 1 in Graciosa Island, the Azores, Portugal, so the OPSMAX time this quarter is 2,097.60 hours (0.95 x 2,208). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive result from downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percentage of data in the Archive represents the average percentage of the time (24 hours per day, 92 days for this quarter) the instruments were operating this quarter. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), actual hours of operation, and variance (unplanned downtime) for the period July 1 - September 30, 2009, for the fixed sites. Because the AMF operates episodically, the AMF statistics are reported separately and not included in the aggregate average with the fixed sites. The fourth quarter comprises a total of 2,208 hours for the fixed and mobile sites. The average of the fixed sites well exceeded our goal this quarter. The AMF data statistic requires explanation. Since the AMF radar data ingest software is being modified, the data are being stored in the DMF for data processing. Hence, the data are not at the Archive; they are anticipated to become available by the next report.

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report April 1 - June 30, 2007.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2007-07-26

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 - (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the third quarter of FY 2007 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,074.8 hours (0.95 x 2,184 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,965.6 hours (0.90 x 2,184), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,856.4 hours (0.85 x 2,184). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is 2,074.8 hours (0.95 x 2,184). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the Archive represents the average percent of the time (24 hours per day, 91 days for this quarter) the instruments were operating this quarter. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), the actual hours of operation, and the variance (unplanned downtime) for the period April 1 through June 30, 2007, for the fixed sites only. The AMF has been deployed to Germany and is operational this quarter. The third quarter comprises a total of 2,184 hours. Although the average exceeded our goal this quarter, there were cash flow issues resulting from Continuing Resolution early in the period that did not allow for timely instrument repairs that kept our statistics lower than past quarters at all sites. The low NSA numbers resulted from missing MFRSR data this spring that appears to be recoverable but not available at the Archive at the time of this report.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, D. L.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2006-09-06

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1-(ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the third quarter for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,074.80 hours (0.95 x 2,184 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,965.60 hours (0.90 x 2,184), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,856.40 hours (0.85 x 2,184). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is 2,074.80 hours (0.95 x 2,184). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the Archive represents the average percent of the time (24 hours per day, 91 days for this quarter) the instruments were operating this quarter. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), the actual hours of operation, and the variance (unplanned downtime) for the period April 1 through June 30, 2006, for the fixed and mobile sites. Although the AMF is currently up and running in Niamey, Niger, Africa, the AMF statistics are reported separately and not included in the aggregate average with the fixed sites. The third quarter comprises a total of 2,184 hours. For all fixed sites (especially the TWP locale) and the AMF, the actual data availability (and therefore actual hours of operation) exceeded the individual (and well as aggregate average of the fixed sites) operational goal for the third quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2006.

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report January 1 - March 31, 2009.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2009-04-23

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 - (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the second quarter of FY 2009 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,052.00 hours (0.95 x 2,160 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,944.00 hours (0.90 x 2,160), and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,836.00 hours (0.85 x 2,160). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is not reported this quarter because not all of the metadata have been acquired that are used to generate this metric. The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percentage of data in the Archive represents the average percentage of the time (24 hours per day, 90 days for this quarter) the instruments were operating this quarter. Summary. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), actual hours of operation, and variance (unplanned downtime) for the period January 1 - March 31, 2009, for the fixed sites. The AMF has completed its mission in China but not all of the data can be released to the public at the time of this report. The second quarter comprises a total of 2,160 hours. The average exceeded our goal this quarter.

  4. Mirror: Visually reflecting C{sup ++}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orosco, R.; Campo, M.; Sole, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Reflection is the ability of a system to inspect and change a model of itself. This ability allows to transparently control and extend the functionality of an existing system without performing any changes to the system itself. In dynamic object-oriented languages like CLOS or Smalltalk. the reflective ability is supported directly by the language. In C++, in contrast, reflection must be provided by some form of code annotation and pre-processing. In most cases, this approach either requires modification of the system code, or just supports the reflection of entire classes but not the reflection of determined objects. This work presents the Mirror environment that supports C++ reflective programming through visual association of meta-classes to classes. It allows full transparent reflection of objects using three-dimensional presentations of the different architecture levels. The environment adds reflective ability to C++ classes without any code modification visible to the user, as well as dynamically selective reflection of objects.

  5. Scintillator reflective layer coextrusion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yun, Jae-Chul; Para, Adam

    2001-01-01

    A polymeric scintillator has a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof. The reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and an adhesive binder. The adhesive binder includes polymeric material from which the scintillator is formed. A method of forming the polymeric scintillator having a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof is also provided. The method includes the steps of (a) extruding an inner core member from a first amount of polymeric scintillator material, and (b) coextruding an outer reflective layer on the exterior surface of the inner core member. The outer reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and a second amount of the polymeric scintillator material.

  6. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Lee, Sang Hun

    2006-07-25

    Employing collector optics that have a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics are normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  7. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Lee, Sung Hun

    2007-07-03

    Employing collector optics that has a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics is normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  8. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  9. Reflective diffraction grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lamartine, Bruce C.

    2003-06-24

    Reflective diffraction grating. A focused ion beam (FIB) micromilling apparatus is used to store color images in a durable medium by milling away portions of the surface of the medium to produce a reflective diffraction grating with blazed pits. The images are retrieved by exposing the surface of the grating to polychromatic light from a particular incident bearing and observing the light reflected by the surface from specified reception bearing.

  10. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, Ian J. (Albuquerque, NM); Wendt, Joel R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors.

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facilities quarterly report April 1 - June 30, 2009.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2009-07-14

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near-real time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 - (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the third quarter of FY 2009 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,074.80 hours (0.95 x 2,184 hours this quarter); for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale it is 1,965.60 hours (0.90 x 2,184); and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale it is 1,856.40 hours (0.85 x 2,184). The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) was officially operational May 1 in Graciosa Island, the Azores, Portugal, so the OPSMAX time this quarter is 1390.80 hours (0.95 x 1464). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percentage of data in the Archive represents the average percentage of the time (24 hours per day, 91 days for this quarter) the instruments were operating this quarter. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), actual hours of operation, and variance (unplanned downtime) for April 1 - June 30, 2009, for the fixed sites. Because the AMF operates episodically, the AMF statistics are reported separately and are not included in the aggregate average with the fixed sites. The AMF statistics for this reporting period were not available at the time of this report. The third quarter comprises a total of 2,184 hours for the fixed sites. The average well exceeded our goal this quarter.

  12. Renewable liquid reflection grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Toor, Arthur

    2003-10-07

    A renewable liquid reflection grating. Electrodes are operatively connected to a conducting liquid in an arrangement that produces a reflection grating and driven by a current with a resonance frequency. In another embodiment, the electrodes create the grating by a resonant electrostatic force acting on a dielectric liquid.

  13. AntiReflection Coating D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AIKEN,DANIEL J.

    1999-09-23

    Analytical expressions used to optimize AR coatings for single junction solar cells are extended for use in monolithic, series interconnected multi-junction solar cell AR coating design. The result is an analytical expression which relates the solar cell performance (through J{sub sc}) directly to the AR coating design through the device reflectance. It is also illustrated how AR coating design be used to provide an additional degree of freedom for current matching multi-junction devices.

  14. Reflective optical imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R.

    2000-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  15. reflecting-behavioral-processes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reflecting Behavioral Processes In Integrated Models Of Activity-Travel Demand And Dynamic Network Supply: A Novel Event-Based Framework Presentation at Argonne TRACC March 16, 2012 10:00 AM(CDT) TRACC Conference Room: Building 222, Room D-233 Dr. Karthik Charan Konduri School of Sustainable Energy and the Built Environment Arizona State University Abstract The developments in the microsimulation modeling of two key components of the transportation system, namely, activity-travel demand and

  16. Renewable liquid reflecting zone plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toor, Arthur; Ryutov, Dmitri D.

    2003-12-09

    A renewable liquid reflecting zone plate. Electrodes are operatively connected to a dielectric liquid in a circular or other arrangement to produce a reflecting zone plate. A system for renewing the liquid uses a penetrable substrate.

  17. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, T.C.

    1986-12-23

    Device is described for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles. 9 figs.

  18. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, Thomas C.

    1986-01-01

    Device for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles.

  19. Reflection Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Gritto, Et Al.) Rye Patch Area Integrated Seismic Studies At The Rye Patch Geothermal Reservoir, Nevada Reflection Survey At Rye Patch Area (Laney, 2005) Rye Patch Area Federal...

  20. REFLECT HOME | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    so it made sense for the California State University, Sacramento, team to showcase nature in its Solar Decathlon 2015 project. The team's Reflect Home does just that by...

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operation quarterly report July 1 - September 30, 2010.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2010-10-26

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1-(ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the fourth quarter of FY2010 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2097.60 hours (0.95 2208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) locale is 1987.20 hours (0.90 2208) and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1876.80 hours (0.85 2208). The first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) deployment in Graciosa Island, the Azores, Portugal, continues, so the OPSMAX time this quarter is 2097.60 hours (0.95 x 2208). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or datastream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous datastreams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percentage of data in the Archive represents the average percentage of the time (24 hours per day, 92 days for this quarter) that the instruments were operating this quarter. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), actual hours of operation, and variance (unplanned downtime) for the period July 1-September 30, 2010, for the fixed sites. Because the AMF operates episodically, the AMF statistics are reported separately and not included in the aggregate average with the fixed sites. This fourth quarter comprises a total of 2208 possible hours for the fixed and mobile sites. The average of the fixed sites exceeded our goal this quarter. The Site Access Request System is a web-based database used to track visitors to the fixed and mobile sites, all of which have facilities that can be visited. The NSA locale has the Barrow and Atqasuk sites. The SGP site has historically had a Central Facility, 23 extended facilities, 4 boundary facilities, and 3 intermediate facilities. Beginning in the second quarter of FY2010, the SGP began a transition to a smaller footprint (150 km x 150 km) by rearranging the original instrumentation and new instrumentation made available through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). The Central Facility and 4 extended facilities will remain, but there will be up to 12 new surface characterization facilities, 4 radar facilities, and 3 profiler facilities sited in the smaller domain. This new configuration will provide observations at scales more appropriate to current and future climate models. The transition to the smaller footprint is ongoing through this quarter. The TWP locale has the Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites. These sites will also have expanded measurement capabilities with the addition of new instrumentation made available through ARRA funds. It is anticipated that the new instrumentation at all the fixed sites will be in place by the end of calendar year 2011. AMF1 continues its 20-month deployment in Graciosa Island, the Azores, Portugal, that began on May 1, 2009. The AMF will also have additional observational capabilities by the end of 2011. The second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) was deployed this quarter to Steamboat Springs, Colorado, in support of the Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX). The first field deployment of the second ARM Mobile Facility will be used to validate ARM-developed algorithms that convert the remote sensing measurements to cloud properties for liquid and mixed phase clouds. Although AMF2 is being set up this quarter, the official start date of the field campaign is not until November 1, 2010. This quarterly report provides the cumulative numbers of scientific user accounts by site for the period October 1, 2009-September 30, 2010.

  2. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  3. Reflective coherent spatial light modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, John T.; Richards, Roger K.; Hutchinson, Donald P.; Simpson, Marcus L.

    2003-04-22

    A reflective coherent spatial light modulator (RCSLM) includes a subwavelength resonant grating structure (SWS), the SWS including at least one subwavelength resonant grating layer (SWL) have a plurality of areas defining a plurality of pixels. Each pixel represents an area capable of individual control of its reflective response. A structure for modulating the resonant reflective response of at least one pixel is provided. The structure for modulating can include at least one electro-optic layer in optical contact with the SWS. The RCSLM is scalable in both pixel size and wavelength. A method for forming a RCSLM includes the steps of selecting a waveguide material and forming a SWS in the waveguide material, the SWS formed from at least one SWL, the SWL having a plurality of areas defining a plurality of pixels.

  4. Apparatus to study crystal channeling and volume reflection phenomena at

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the SPS H8 beamline (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Apparatus to study crystal channeling and volume reflection phenomena at the SPS H8 beamline Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Apparatus to study crystal channeling and volume reflection phenomena at the SPS H8 beamline A high performance apparatus has been designed and built by the H8-RD22 collaboration for the study of channeling and volume reflection phenomena in the interaction of 400 GeV/c protons with bent silicon

  5. Reflected beam illumination microscopy using a microfluidics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reflected beam illumination microscopy using a microfluidics device - progress report 6152014. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reflected beam illumination microscopy ...

  6. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Kipling, Kent

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  7. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has...

  8. Microsoft Word - Rapid Reflective Facet Characterization Using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... VSHOT uses a laser, reflected off the facet, and a target to characterize the location of the reflected vector. From this, the surface slope at each selected location can be ...

  9. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reflectance Spectroscopy In a fraction of a second, the photovoltaic (PV) Reflectometer measures the reflectance spectrum of a wafer or cell that is dimensionally within 6 in. × 6 in. The measured reflectance plots are deconvolved to derive physical parameters including surface roughness and texture, antireflective coating thickness, metallization area and height, and backside metallization properties. Pair of drawings showing how direct normal incident light reflects in a scatter from a rough

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report. October 1 - December 31, 2009.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Sisterson

    2010-01-12

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 - (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the first quarter of FY 2010 for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,987.20 hours (0.90 x 2,208); for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,097.60 hours (0.95 x 2,208); and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,876.8 hours (0.85 x 2,208). The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) deployment in Graciosa Island, the Azores, Portugal, continues; its OPSMAX time this quarter is 2,097.60 hours (0.95 x 2,208). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are the result of downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percentage of data in the Archive represents the average percentage of the time (24 hours per day, 92 days for this quarter) the instruments were operating this quarter. The Site Access Request System is a web-based database used to track visitors to the fixed and mobile sites, all of which have facilities that can be visited. The NSA locale has the Barrow and Atqasuk sites. The SGP locale has historically had a central facility, 23 extended facilities, 4 boundary facilities, and 3 intermediate facilities. Beginning this quarter, the SGP began a transition to a smaller footprint (150 km x 150 km) by rearranging the original and new instrumentation made available through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The central facility and 4 extended facilities will remain, but there will be up to 16 surface new characterization facilities, 4 radar facilities, and 3 profiler facilities sited in the smaller domain. This new configuration will provide observations at scales more appropriate to current and future climate models. The TWP locale has the Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites. These sites will also have expanded measurement capabilities with the addition of new instrumentation made available through ARRA funds. It is anticipated that the new instrumentation at all the fixed sites will be in place within the next 12 months. The AMF continues its 20-month deployment in Graciosa Island, Azores, Portugal, that started May 1, 2009. The AMF will also have additional observational capabilities within the next 12 months. Users can participate in field experiments at the sites and mobile facility, or they can participate remotely. Therefore, a variety of mechanisms are provided to users to access site information. Users who have immediate (real-time) needs for data access can request a research account on the local site data systems. This access is particularly useful to users for quick decisions in executing time-dependent activities associated with field campaigns at the fixed sites and mobile facility locations. The eight computers for the research accounts are located at the Barrow and Atqasuk sites; the SGP central facility; the TWP Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites; the AMF; and the DMF at PNNL. However, users are warned that the data provided at the time of collection have not been fully screened for quality and therefore are not considered to be official ACRF data. Hence, these accounts are considered to be part of the facility activities associated with field campaign activities, and users are tracked. In addition, users who visit sites can connect their computer or instrument to an ACRF site data system network, which requires an on-site device account. Remote (off-site) users can also have remote access to any ACRF instrument or computer system at any ACRF site, which requires an off-site device account. These accounts are also managed and tracked.

  11. Photovoltaic module with light reflecting backskin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C.

    2007-07-03

    A photovoltaic module comprises electrically interconnected and mutually spaced photovoltaic cells that are encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant between a light-transparent front cover and a back cover, with the back cover sheet being an ionomer/nylon alloy embossed with V-shaped grooves running in at least two directions and coated with a light reflecting medium so as to provide light-reflecting facets that are aligned with the spaces between adjacent cells and oriented so as to reflect light falling in those spaces back toward said transparent front cover for further internal reflection onto the solar cells, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to the photovoltaic cells, thereby increasing the current output of the module. The internal reflector improves power output by as much as 67%.

  12. Solar Reflection Panels - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Solar Reflection Panels Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This ...

  13. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    demonstrate for the first time a lensless x-ray imaging technique involving holographic principles and carried out in reflection (as opposed to transmission) geometry. The...

  14. Identification coding schemes for modulated reflectance systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Don M.; Briles, Scott D.; Neagley, Daniel L.; Platts, David; Clark, David D.

    2006-08-22

    An identifying coding apparatus employing modulated reflectance technology involving a base station emitting a RF signal, with a tag, located remotely from the base station, and containing at least one antenna and predetermined other passive circuit components, receiving the RF signal and reflecting back to the base station a modulated signal indicative of characteristics related to the tag.

  15. Surface reflectance degradation by microbial communities

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Meng -Dawn; Allman, Steve L.; Graham, David E.; Cheng, Karen R.; Pfiffner, Susan Marie; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2015-11-05

    Building envelope, such as a roof, is the interface between a building structure and the environment. Understanding of the physics of microbial interactions with the building envelope is limited. In addition to the natural weathering, microorganisms and airborne particulate matter that attach to a cool roof tend to reduce the roof reflectance over time, compromising the energy efficiency advantages of the reflective coating designs. We applied microbial ecology analysis to identify the natural communities present on the exposed coatings and investigated the reduction kinetics of the surface reflectance upon the introduction of a defined mixture of both photoautotrophic and heterotrophicmore » microorganisms representing the natural communities. The result are (1) reflectance degradation by microbial communities follows a first-order kinetic relationship and (2) more than 50% of degradation from the initial reflectance value can be caused by microbial species alone in much less time than 3 years required by the current standard ENERGY STAR® test methods.« less

  16. Surface reflectance degradation by microbial communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Meng -Dawn; Allman, Steve L.; Graham, David E.; Cheng, Karen R.; Pfiffner, Susan Marie; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2015-11-05

    Building envelope, such as a roof, is the interface between a building structure and the environment. Understanding of the physics of microbial interactions with the building envelope is limited. In addition to the natural weathering, microorganisms and airborne particulate matter that attach to a cool roof tend to reduce the roof reflectance over time, compromising the energy efficiency advantages of the reflective coating designs. We applied microbial ecology analysis to identify the natural communities present on the exposed coatings and investigated the reduction kinetics of the surface reflectance upon the introduction of a defined mixture of both photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms representing the natural communities. The result are (1) reflectance degradation by microbial communities follows a first-order kinetic relationship and (2) more than 50% of degradation from the initial reflectance value can be caused by microbial species alone in much less time than 3 years required by the current standard ENERGY STAR® test methods.

  17. Glue Film Thickness Measurements by Spectral Reflectance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. R. Marshall

    2010-09-20

    Spectral reflectance was used to determine the thickness of thin glue layers in a study of the effect of the glue on radiance and reflectance measurements of shocked-tin substrates attached to lithium fluoride windows. Measurements based on profilometry of the components were found to be inaccurate due to flatness variations and deformation of the tin substrate under pressure during the gluing process. The accuracy of the spectral reflectance measurements were estimated to be ±0.5 μm, which was sufficient to demonstrate a convincing correlation between glue thickness and shock-generated light.

  18. Bidirectional reflection functions from surface bump maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, B.; Max, N.; Springmeyer, R.

    1987-04-29

    The Torrance-Sparrow model for calculating bidirectional reflection functions contains a geometrical attenuation factor to account for shadowing and occlusions in a hypothetical distribution of grooves on a rough surface. Using an efficient table-based method for determining the shadows and occlusions, we calculate the geometric attenuation factor for surfaces defined by a specific table of bump heights. Diffuse and glossy specular reflection of the environment can be handled in a unified manner by using an integral of the bidirectional reflection function times the environmental illumination, over the hemisphere of solid angle above a surface. We present a method of estimating the integral, by expanding the bidirectional reflection coefficient in spherical harmonics, and show how the coefficients in this expansion can be determined efficiently by reorganizing our geometric attenuation calculation.

  19. Frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kallman, Jeffrey S.

    2000-01-01

    A frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor which allows the acquisition of the acoustic field over an entire plane, all at once. The sensor finds use in acoustic holography and acoustic diffraction tomography. For example, the sensor may be produced by a transparent plate with transparent support members tall enough to support one or more flexible membranes at an appropriate height for frustrated total internal reflection to occur. An acoustic wave causes the membrane to deflect away from its quiescent position and thus changes the amount of light that tunnels through the gap formed by the support members and into the membrane, and so changes the amount of light reflected by the membrane. The sensor(s) is illuminated by a uniform tight field, and the reflection from the sensor yields acoustic wave amplitude and phase information which can be picked up electronically or otherwise.

  20. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the sample in a manner consistent with either technique has prevented the use of coherent imaging techniques with reflective samples. Researchers working at Beamline 12.0.2 have...

  1. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs...

  2. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless...

  3. Preparing reflective substrate surfaces for laser treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flick, F.F.

    1984-11-21

    A coating of either copper oxide or felt tip pen ink is used on reflective copper or gold substrates to enhance laser beam coupling when the substrates are cut or welded with a laser.

  4. Reflectance thermometry in dynamic compression experiments. (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Reflectance thermometry in dynamic compression experiments. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reflectance thermometry in dynamic compression experiments. Abstract not provided. Authors: Dolan, Daniel H., ; Ao, Tommy ; Seagle, Christopher T Publication Date: 2012-02-01 OSTI Identifier: 1118217 Report Number(s): SAND2012-0864C 481321 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: 9th International Temperature Symposium held

  5. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian; Kipling, Kent

    1999-01-01

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture.

  6. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, D.A.; Turner, B.; Kipling, K.

    1999-05-11

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible is disclosed. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture. 20 figs.

  7. Method and apparatus for inspecting reflection masks for defects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bokor, Jeffrey; Lin, Yun

    2003-04-29

    An at-wavelength system for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blank defect detection is provided. When a focused beam of wavelength 13 nm is incident on a defective region of a mask blank, three possible phenomena can occur. The defect will induce an intensity reduction in the specularly reflected beam, scatter incoming photons into an off-specular direction, and change the amplitude and phase of the electric field at the surface which can be monitored through the change in the photoemission current. The magnitude of these changes will depend on the incident beam size, and the nature, extent and size of the defect. Inspection of the mask blank is performed by scanning the mask blank with 13 nm light focused to a spot a few .mu.m in diameter, while measuring the reflected beam intensity (bright field detection), the scattered beam intensity (dark-field detection) and/or the change in the photoemission current.

  8. Origin of deep crustal reflections: Implications of coincident seismic refraction and reflection data in Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holbrook, W.S. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (USA)); Catchings, R.D. (U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Jarchow, C.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA))

    1991-02-01

    The authors compare seismic refraction and reflection results along the PASSCAL/COCORP 40{degree}N transect in the northern Basin and Range of Nevada in order to determine the origin of the prominent reflections from the deep crystalline crust. Reflection data along the transect show a thick zone of discontinuous, subhorizontal reflections, beginning at 4-6 s two-way traveltime (10-20 km depth) and ending at 9-11 s (27-35 km). Two independently derived velocity models, based on refraction data, are largely similar and agree on many important aspects of the reflectivity-velocity relation. Both models show that the top of the reflective zone lies 3-8 km above a prominent mid-crustal velocity discontinuity, which is interpreted to separate bulk silicic from bulk dioritic-gabbroic crust; in most places, the silicic mid-crust is more strongly reflective than the mafic lower crust. This pattern is expected in areas where ductile shearing is the mechanism responsible for the reflectivity. One of the velocity models, however, suggests that, in places, the strongest reflectivity spans both the middle (6.1-6.3 km/s) and lower (6.6 km/s) crust; this pattern suggests that the combined influence of ductile strain fabrics and mafic intrusions gives rise to crustal reflections. Both models show that the lowermost crust and crust/mantle transition are highly reflective, also suggesting the presence of mafic and/or ultramafic intrusions. Thus the observed reflection patterns suggest that ductile shearing and the intrusion of mantle-derived magma - both of which are likely to have accompanied the extreme Cenozoic extension - are important factors in generating deep crustal reflections.

  9. REFLECT: A computer program for the x-ray reflectivity of bent perfect crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etelaeniemi, V.; Suortti, P.; Thomlinson, W. . Dept. of Physics; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY )

    1989-09-01

    The design of monochromators for x-ray applications, using either standard laboratory sources on synchrotron radiation sources, requires a knowledge of the reflectivity of the crystals. The reflectivity depends on the crystals used, the geometry of the reflection, the energy range of the radiation, and, in the present case, the cylindrical bending radius of the optical device. This report is intended to allow the reader to become familiar with, and therefore use, a computer program called REFLECT which we have used in the design of a dual beam Laue monochromator for synchrotron angiography. The results of REFLECT have been compared to measured reflectivities for both bent Bragg and Laue geometries. The results are excellent and should give full confidence in the use of the program. 6 refs.

  10. High reflectance-low stress Mo-Si multilayer reflective coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montcalm, Claude; Mirkarimi, Paul B.

    2000-01-01

    A high reflectance-low stress Mo-Si multilayer reflective coating particularly useful for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength region. While the multilayer reflective coating has particular application for EUV lithography, it has numerous other applications where high reflectance and low stress multilayer coatings are utilized. Multilayer coatings having high near-normal incidence reflectance (R.gtoreq.65%) and low residual stress (.ltoreq.100 MPa) have been produced using thermal and non-thermal approaches. The thermal approach involves heating the multilayer coating to a given temperature for a given time after deposition in order to induce structural changes in the multilayer coating that will have an overall "relaxation" effect without reducing the reflectance significantly.

  11. Process for fabricating high reflectance-low stress Mo--Si multilayer reflective coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montcalm, Claude; Mirkarimi, Paul B.

    2001-01-01

    A high reflectance-low stress Mo--Si multilayer reflective coating particularly useful for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength region. While the multilayer reflective coating has particular application for EUV lithography, it has numerous other applications where high reflectance and low stress multilayer coatings are utilized. Multilayer coatings having high near-normal incidence reflectance (R.gtoreq.65%) and low residual stress (.ltoreq.100 MPa) have been produced using thermal and non-thermal approaches. The thermal approach involves heating the multilayer coating to a given temperature for a given time after deposition in order to induce structural changes in the multilayer coating that will have an overall "relaxation" effect without reducing the reflectance significantly.

  12. Low reflectance high power RF load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M.

    2016-02-02

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  13. Method of making reflecting film reflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cottingham, James G.

    1980-01-01

    A reflector of the reflecting film type is disclosed and which may be used in a heliostatic system for concentrating solar energy and comprising a reflecting film bonded to an appropriate rigid substrate in such a way that specularity of a very high order is achieved. A method of bonding the reflecting film to the substrate is also disclosed and comprises the steps of initially adhering the film to a smooth, clean flat rigid surface with a non-bonding liquid between the rigid surface and film, and then bonding the substrate and film. The non-bonding liquid has a molecular adhesion greater than any stresses due to handling or curing of the bonding agent which is applied between the film and the opposing surface of the rigid substrate.

  14. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  15. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  16. Past Performance Questionnaire

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Contract Value: Initial Amount Current or Final Amount* Estimated Cost $ $ Fixed Price $ $ Fee/Profit $ $ Total Value $ $ *Should reflect any contract value increases/decreases since initial contract award II. PAST PERFORMANCE EVALUATION Please rate the Contractor as "Excellent" (E), "Good" (G), "Satisfactory" (S), "Unsatisfactory" (U), or "Not Applicable" (N/A) in the following areas: A. QUALITY OF PRODUCT OR SERVICES 1. Quality of product

  17. Reflection technique for thermal mapping of semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Martin J.

    1989-06-20

    Semiconductors may be optically tested for their temperatures by illuminating them with tunable monochromatic electromagnetic radiation and observing the light reflected off of them. A transition point will occur when the wavelength of the light corresponds with the actual band gap energy of the semiconductor. At the transition point, the image of the semiconductor will appreciably darken as the light is transmitted through it, rather than being reflected off of it. The wavelength of the light at the transition point corresponds to the actual band gap energy and the actual temperature of the semiconductor.

  18. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are

  19. Ultrafast transient reflectance of epitaxial semiconducting perovskite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolin, S. Y.; Guglietta, G. W.; Baxter, J. B. E-mail: smay@coe.drexel.edu; Scafetta, M. D.; May, S. J. E-mail: smay@coe.drexel.edu

    2014-07-14

    Ultrafast pump-probe transient reflectance (TR) spectroscopy was used to study carrier dynamics in an epitaxial perovskite oxide thin film of LaFeO{sub 3} (LFO) with a thickness of 40 unit cells (16?nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (LaAlO{sub 3}){sub 0.3}(Sr{sub 2}AlTaO{sub 6}){sub 0.7} (LSAT). TR spectroscopy shows two negative transients in reflectance with local maxima at ?2.5?eV and ?3.5?eV which correspond to two optical transitions in LFO as determined by ellipsometry. The kinetics at these transients were best fit with an exponential decay model with fast (540 ps), medium (?200 ps), and slow (??3?ns) components that we attribute mainly to recombination of photoexcited carriers. Moreover, these reflectance transients did not completely decay within the observable time window, indicating that ?10% of photoexcited carriers exist for at least 3?ns. This work illustrates that TR spectroscopy can be performed on thin (<20?nm) epitaxial oxide films to provide a quantitative understanding of recombination lifetimes, which are important parameters for the potential utilization of perovskite films in photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications.

  20. Polarization Studies of Resonant Forbidden Reflections in Liquid Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandes, P.; Barois, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Wang, S. T.; Liu, Z. Q.; McCoy, B. K.; Huang, C. C.; Pindak, R.; Caliebe, W.

    2007-11-30

    We report the results of resonant x-ray diffraction experiments performed on thick films of a biaxial liquid crystal made of achiral bent-core molecules. Polarization properties of forbidden reflections are observed as a function of the sample rotation angle {phi} about the scattering vector Q for the first time on a fluid material. The experimental data are successfully analyzed within a tensor structure factor model by taking the nonperfect alignment of the liquid crystal into account. The local structure of the B{sub 2} mesophase is hence determined to be SmC{sub S}P{sub A}.

  1. Prisms with total internal reflection as solar reflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabl, Arnulf; Rabl, Veronika

    1978-01-01

    An improved reflective wall for radiant energy collection and concentration devices is provided. The wall is comprised of a plurality of prisms whose frontal faces are adjacent and which reflect the desired radiation by total internal reflection.

  2. Total internal reflection laser tools and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Kolachalam, Sharath K.; Grubb, Daryl L.

    2016-02-02

    There is provided high power laser tools and laser heads that utilize total internal reflection ("TIR") structures to direct the laser beam along a laser beam path within the TIR structure. The TIR structures may be a TIR prism having its hypotenuse as a TIR surface.

  3. Multi-reflective acoustic wave device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andle, Jeffrey C.

    2006-02-21

    An acoustic wave device, which utilizes multiple localized reflections of acoustic wave for achieving an infinite impulse response while maintaining high tolerance for dampening effects, is disclosed. The device utilized a plurality of electromechanically significant electrodes disposed on most of the active surface. A plurality of sensors utilizing the disclosed acoustic wave mode device are also described.

  4. Electrochromic window with high reflectivity modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Gerouki, Alexandra; Liu, Te-Yang; Goldner, Mark A.; Haas, Terry E.

    2000-01-01

    A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switching between colored and bleached states, a low absorptivity in the near infrared, and fast switching times, and methods for its manufacture and switching are provided. In one embodiment, a multi-layered device comprising a first indium tin oxide transparent electronic conductor, a transparent ion blocking layer, a tungsten oxide electrochromic anode, a lithium ion conducting-electrically resistive electrolyte, a complimentary lithium mixed metal oxide electrochromic cathode, a transparent ohmic contact layer, a second indium oxide transparent electronic conductor, and a silicon nitride encapsulant is provided. Through elimination of optional intermediate layers, simplified device designs are provided as alternative embodiments. Typical colored-state reflectivity of the multi-layered device is greater than 50% in the near infrared, bleached-state reflectivity is less than 40% in the visible, bleached-state transmissivity is greater than 60% in the near infrared and greater than 40% in the visible, and spectral absorbance is less than 50% in the range from 0.65-2.5 .mu.m.

  5. Sandia Energy - Improved Method to Measure Glare and Reflected...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and more accurate method of measuring the irradiance from solar reflections using a digital camera. Measurements of reflected solar irradiance is of great importance to...

  6. Procedure for measuring the solar reflectance of flat or curved...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Procedure for measuring the solar reflectance of flat or curved roofing assemblies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Procedure for measuring the solar reflectance of flat ...

  7. Measuring solar reflectance Part II: Review of practical methods...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measuring solar reflectance Part II: Review of ... A companion article explored how solar reflectance varies with surface orientation and ...

  8. Shape error analysis for reflective nano focusing optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modi, Mohammed H.; Idir, Mourad

    2010-06-23

    Focusing performance of reflective x-ray optics is determined by surface figure accuracy. Any surface imperfection present on such optics introduces a phase error in the outgoing wave fields. Therefore converging beam at the focal spot will differ from the desired performance. Effect of these errors on focusing performance can be calculated by wave optical approach considering a coherent wave field illumination of optical elements. We have developed a wave optics simulator using Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction integral to calculate the mirror pupil function. Both analytically calculated and measured surface topography data can be taken as an aberration source to outgoing wave fields. Simulations are performed to study the effect of surface height fluctuations on focusing performances over wide frequency range in high, mid and low frequency band. The results using real shape profile measured with long trace profilometer (LTP) suggest that the shape error of {lambda}/4 PV (peak to valley) is tolerable to achieve diffraction limited performance. It is desirable to remove shape error of very low frequency as 0.1 mm{sup -1} which otherwise will generate beam waist or satellite peaks. All other frequencies above this limit will not affect the focused beam profile but only caused a loss in intensity.

  9. Benchmark Evaluation of Plutonium Hemispheres Reflected by Steel and Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Darrell Bess

    2008-06-01

    During the period from June 1967 through September 1969 a series of critical experiments was performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory with spherical and hemispherical plutonium assemblies as nested hemishells as part of a Nuclear Safety Facility Experimental Program to evaluate operational safety margins for the Rocky Flats Plant. These assemblies were both bare and fully or partially oil-reflected. Many of these experiments were subcritical with an extrapolation to critical configurations or critical at a particular oil height. Existing records reveal that 167 experiments were performed over the course of 28 months. Unfortunately, much of the data was not recorded. A reevaluation of the experiments had been summarized in a report for future experimental and computational analyses. This report examines only fifteen partially oil-reflected hemispherical assemblies. Fourteen of these assemblies also had close-fitting stainless-steel hemishell reflectors, used to determine the effective critical reflector height of oil with varying steel-reflector thickness. The experiments and their uncertainty in keff values were evaluated to determine their potential as valid criticality benchmark experiments of plutonium.

  10. Progress toward achieving a commercially viable solar reflective material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, C.E.; Smilgys, R.V. |

    1998-06-01

    Solar thermal technologies use large mirrors to concentrate sunlight for renewable power generation. The development of advanced reflector materials is important to the viability of electricity production by solar thermal energy systems. The reflector materials must be low in cost and maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes under severe outdoor environments. Production processes associated with candidate materials must be scalable to mass production techniques. A promising low-cost construction uses a stainless steel foil substrate with a silver reflective layer protected by an optically transparent oxide topcoat. Thick (2 to 4 micron), dense alumina coatings provide durable protective layers. The excellent performance of alumina-coated reflector materials in outdoor and accelerated testing suggests that a larger field trial of the material is warranted. The key to producing a greater quantity of material for field deployment and testing without incurring substantial capital is the use of a chilled drum coater. An existing chamber is being modified, and the deposition rate will be increased prior to the installation of a drum coater to produce 1-ft wide by 10-ft long strips of solar reflector material. The production and performance of these materials are discussed.

  11. Characterization of background reflectivity for MEDUSA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenborg, R. C.; Tiee, J. J.; Foy, B. R.; Petrin, R. R.; Wilson, C. W.

    2003-01-01

    The DARPA MEDUSA program goal is to detect, locate, and identify electro-optical threats in the vicinity of a moving platform. Laser sensing will be employed to find these threats by looking for anomalous reflections from threat sensors. However, the reflectivity variability (clutter) in both natural and manmade backgrounds will inherently limit target detection levels. In parallel with advanced component development by several aerospace contractors, a study of this clutter limitation was initiated in the long-wave (LW) and midwave (MW) infrared spectral regions to properly drive system design parameters. The analysis of clutter and associated limits on detection has been a major component of LANL efforts in laser remote sensing for non-proliferation. LANL is now analyzing existing data and conducting additional selected measurements in both the LWIR (9 and 10.6 pm) and MWIR (4.6 pm) in support of the DARPA program to increase our understanding of these clutter limitations and, thereby aid in the design and development of the MEDUSA system. The status of the LANL effort will be discussed. A variety of different natural and manmade target types have been investigated. Target scenes range from relatively low clutter sites typical of a southwestern desert to higher clutter downtown urban sites. Images are created by conducting raster scans across a scene interest. These images are then analyzed using data clustering techniques (e g K-means) to identify regions within the scene that contain similar reflectivity profiles. Data will be presented illustrating the reflectivity variability among different samples of the same target type, Le. within the same cluster, and among different data clusters. In general, it is found that the variability of reflectivities among similar targets is well represented by a log-normal distribution. Furthermore, manmade target tend to have higher reflectivities and more variability than natural targets. The implications of this observation for MEDUSA systems designed to locate and identify threat sensors will be discussed. The implications for chemical sensing applications will also be addressed.

  12. Catheter based mid-infrared reflectance and reflectance generated absorption spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N

    2013-10-29

    A method of characterizing conditions in a tissue, by (a) providing a catheter that has a light source that emits light in selected wavenumbers within the range of mid-IR spectrum; (b) directing the light from the catheter to an area of tissue at a location inside a blood vessel of a subject; (c) collecting light reflected from the location and generating a reflectance spectra; and (d) comparing the reflectance spectra to a reference spectra of normal tissue, whereby a location having an increased number of absorbance peaks at said selected wavenumbers indicates a tissue inside the blood vessel containing a physiological marker for atherosclerosis.

  13. Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.; Wright, R.R.

    1982-03-04

    The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes depositing, by electrolysis, an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be-re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

  14. Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

    2006-05-09

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

  15. Reflective optical imaging method and circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R.

    2001-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  16. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  17. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  18. Multiple-reflection optical gas cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matthews, Thomas G.

    1983-01-01

    A multiple-reflection optical cell for Raman or fluorescence gas analysis consists of two spherical mirrors positioned transverse to a multiple-pass laser cell in a confronting plane-parallel alignment. The two mirrors are of equal diameter but possess different radii of curvature. The spacing between the mirrors is uniform and less than half of the radius of curvature of either mirror. The mirror of greater curvature possesses a small circular portal in its center which is the effective point source for conventional F1 double lens collection optics of a monochromator-detection system. Gas to be analyzed is flowed into the cell and irradiated by a multiply-reflected composite laser beam centered between the mirrors of the cell. Raman or fluorescence radiation originating from a large volume within the cell is (1) collected via multiple reflections with the cell mirrors, (2) partially collimated and (3) directed through the cell portal in a geometric array compatible with F1 collection optics.

  19. Light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration light reflecting surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawicki, Richard H.; Sweatt, William

    1987-01-01

    A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration bendable light reflecting surface is disclosed herein. This apparatus includes a structural assembly comprised of a rectangular plate which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, and which has a front side defining the multi-aberration light reflecting surface and an opposite back side, and a plurality of straight leg members rigidly connected with the back side of the plate and extending rearwardly therefrom. The apparatus also includes a number of different adjustment mechanisms, each of which is connected with specific ones of the leg members. These mechanisms are adjustably movable in different ways for applying corresponding forces to the leg members in order to bend the rectangular plate and light reflecting surface into different predetermined curvatures and which specifically include quadratic and cubic curvatures corresponding to different optical aberrations.

  20. A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration light reflecting surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawicki, R.H.; Sweatt, W.

    1985-11-21

    A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration bendable light reflecting surface is disclosed herein. This apparatus includes a structural assembly comprised of a rectangular plate which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, and which has a front side defining the multi-aberration light reflecting surface and an opposite back side, and a plurality of straight leg members rigidly connected with the back side of the plate and extending rearwardly therefrom. The apparatus also includes a number of different adjustment mechanisms, each of which is connected with specific ones of the leg members. These mechanisms are adjustably movable in different ways for applying corresponding forces to the leg members in order to bend the rectangular plate and light reflecting surface into different predetermined curvatures and which specifically include quadratic and cubic curvatures corresponding to different optical aberrations.

  1. Performance Characterization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Procurement and Acquisition » Guidance » Contracting for Support Services » Performance Based Service Acquisition Toolkit Performance Based Service Acquisition Toolkit Performance-based Service Acquisition (PBA) means an acquisition structured around the results to be achieved as opposed to the manner by which the work is to be performed. Performance-based Work Statement (PWS) means that a statement of work for performance-based acquisitions that describes the required results in clear,

  2. Performance Modeling

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The prediction methodology will form the foundation of a more robust resource management ... Accurate performance prediction requires accurate performance models of the components ...

  3. Performance Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimization » Performance Monitoring Performance Monitoring A redirector page has been set up without anywhere to redirect to. Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:34:30

  4. Optimizing Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimizing Performance Optimizing Performance Storage Optimization Optimizing the sizes of the files you store in HPSS and minimizing the number of tapes they are on will lead to...

  5. Performance Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimization Performance Monitoring Performance Monitoring A redirector page has been set up without anywhere to redirect to. Last edited: 2014-08-25 14:37:27...

  6. Application Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NESAP Application Porting and Performance IXPUG Performance and Debugging Tools Measuring Arithmetic Intensity Training & Tutorials Software Policies User Surveys NERSC Users...

  7. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  8. Seismic reflection imaging at a Shallow Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, P.; Rector, J.; Bainer, R.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of our studies was to determine the best seismic method to image these sediments, between the water table at 3 m depth to the basement at 35 m depth. Good cross-correlation between well logs and the seismic data was also desirable, and would facilitate the tracking of known lithological units away from the wells. For instance, known aquifer control boundaries may then be mapped out over the boundaries, and may be used in a joint inversion with reflectivity data and other non-seismic geophysical data to produce a 3-D image containing quantitative physical properties of the target area.

  9. Reflective optical imaging systems with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudyma, Russell M.

    2001-01-01

    Optical systems compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate are described. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical systems are particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput, and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical systems are characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  10. Reflective optical imaging system with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Henry N.; Hudyma, Russell M.; Shafer, David R.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    1999-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical system is characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  11. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  12. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  13. Reflective echo tomographic imaging using acoustic beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kisner, Roger; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J

    2014-11-25

    An inspection system includes a plurality of acoustic beamformers, where each of the plurality of acoustic beamformers including a plurality of acoustic transmitter elements. The system also includes at least one controller configured for causing each of the plurality of acoustic beamformers to generate an acoustic beam directed to a point in a volume of interest during a first time. Based on a reflected wave intensity detected at a plurality of acoustic receiver elements, an image of the volume of interest can be generated.

  14. Reflection-Based Python-C++ Bindings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Generowicz, Jacek; Lavrijsen, Wim T.L.P.; Marino, Massimo; Mato, Pere

    2004-10-14

    Python is a flexible, powerful, high-level language with excellent interactive and introspective capabilities and a very clean syntax. As such, it can be a very effective tool for driving physics analysis. Python is designed to be extensible in low-level C-like languages, and its use as a scientific steering language has become quite widespread. To this end, existing and custom-written C or C++ libraries are bound to the Python environment as so-called extension modules. A number of tools for easing the process of creating such bindings exist, such as SWIG and Boost. Python. Yet, the process still requires a considerable amount of effort and expertise. The C++ language has few built-in introspective capabilities, but tools such as LCGDict and CINT add this by providing so-called dictionaries: libraries that contain information about the names, entry points, argument types, etc. of other libraries. The reflection information from these dictionaries can be used for the creation of bindings and so the process can be fully automated, as dictionaries are already provided for many end-user libraries for other purposes, such as object persistency. PyLCGDict is a Python extension module that uses LCG dictionaries, as PyROOT uses CINT reflection information, to allow /cwPython users to access C++ libraries with essentially no preparation on the users' behalf. In addition, and in a similar way, PyROOT gives ROOT users access to Python libraries.

  15. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.

    2001-01-01

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes an envelope with a discharge forming fill disposed therein which emits light, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the absorbed light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill, a source of microwave energy coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity and configured to reflect at least some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length.

  16. Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jones B.; Steger, Philip J.; Wright, Ralph R.

    1983-01-01

    The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes electrolessly depositing an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The electroplated nickel layer then is separated from the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

  17. Aberration-free, all-reflective laser pulse stretcher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA); Fochs, Scott N. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-09-28

    An all-reflective pulse stretcher for laser systems employing chirped-pulse amplification enables on-axis use of the focusing mirror which results in ease of use, significantly decreased sensitivity to alignment and near aberration-free performance. By using a new type of diffraction grating which contains a mirror incorporated into the grating, the stretcher contains only three elements: 1) the grating, 2) a spherical or parabolic focusing mirror, and 3) a flat mirror. Addition of a fourth component, a retro-reflector, enables multiple passes of the same stretcher resulting in stretching ratios beyond the current state of the art in a simple and compact design. The pulse stretcher has been used to stretch pulses from 20 fsec to over 600 psec (a stretching ratio in excess of 30,000).

  18. Surface roughness effects on the solar reflectance of cool asphalt...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The model is then used to compute the reflectance of shingles with a mixture of different colored granules, when the reflectances of the corresponding mono-color shingles are ...

  19. High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals for x ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals for x ray energies up to 22 keV Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals ...

  20. Performance Tuning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Performance Tuning Performance Tuning Hints and tips on how to optimize your Burst Buffer performance Note: this only applies to the Cori Phase 1 Burst Buffer and should not be taken as general Burst Buffer advice. This page will be updated as the DataWarp software is updated and performance continues to improve. For larger files, ensure your Burst Buffer allocation will be striped over multiple nodes Currently, the Burst Buffer granularity is 213GB. If you request an allocation smaller than

  1. Control of reflected electromagnetic fields at an IFSAR antenna

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Steven E. (Albuquerque, NM); Brock, Billy C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-12-09

    A system for reducing multi-path reflections from adjacent metal objects which cause distortion in an IFSAR includes a reflective cone extending between the top of the IFSAR and the skin of its aircraft, and a reflective shroud surrounding the IFSAR. Each of these components may be coated with radar absorbing material.

  2. A protocol for EBT3 radiochromic film dosimetry using reflection scanning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papaconstadopoulos, Pavlos Hegyi, Gyorgy; Seuntjens, Jan; Devic, Slobodan

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the EBT3 radiochromic film dosimetry system using reflection measurements and to suggest a calibration protocol for precise and accurate reflection film dosimetry. Methods: A set of 14 Gafchromic EBT3 film pieces were irradiated to various doses ranging from 0 to 8 Gy and subsequently scanned using both the reflection and transmission mode. Scanning resolution varied from 50 to 508 dpi (0.50.05 mm/pixel). Both the red and green color channels of scanned images were used to relate the film response to the dose. A sensitivity, uncertainty, and accuracy analysis was performed for all scanning modes and color channels. The total uncertainty, along with the fitting and experimental uncertainty components, was identified and analyzed. A microscope resolution target was used to evaluate possible resolution losses under reflection scanning. The calibration range was optimized for reflection scanning in the low (<2 Gy) and high (>2 Gy) dose regions based on the reported results. Results: Reflection scanning using the red channel exhibited the highest sensitivity among all modes, being up to 150% higher than transmission mode in the red channel for the lowest dose level. Furthermore, there was no apparent loss in resolution between the two modes. However, higher uncertainties and reduced accuracy were observed for the red channel under reflection mode, especially at dose levels higher than 2 Gy. These uncertainties were mainly attributed to saturation effects which were translated in poor fitting results. By restricting the calibration to the 02 Gy dose range, the situation is reversed and the red reflection mode was superior to the transmission mode. For higher doses, the green channel in reflection mode presented comparable results to the red transmission. Conclusions: A two-color reflection scanning protocol can be suggested for EBT3 radiochromic film dosimetry using the red channel for doses less than 2 Gy and the green channel for higher doses. The precision and accuracy are significantly improved in the low dose region following such a protocol.

  3. Passivating overcoat bilayer for multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montcalm, Claude (Livermore, CA); Stearns, Daniel G. (Los Altos, CA); Vernon, Stephen P. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A passivating overcoat bilayer is used for multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or soft x-ray applications to prevent oxidation and corrosion of the multilayer coating, thereby improving the EUV optical performance. The overcoat bilayer comprises a layer of silicon or beryllium underneath at least one top layer of an elemental or a compound material that resists oxidation and corrosion. Materials for the top layer include carbon, palladium, carbides, borides, nitrides, and oxides. The thicknesses of the two layers that make up the overcoat bilayer are optimized to produce the highest reflectance at the wavelength range of operation. Protective overcoat systems comprising three or more layers are also possible.

  4. Volume Reflection Dependence of 400 GeV/c Protons on the Bent Crystal Curvature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scandale, W.; Vomiero, A.; Baricordi, S.; Dalpiaz, P.; Fiorini, M.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Milan, R.; Della Mea, Gianantonio; Ambrosi, G.; Zuccon, P.; Bertucci, B.; Burger, W. J.; Duranti, M.; Cavoto, G.; Santacesaria, R.; Valente, P.; Iacoangeli, F.; Pisano, S.; Luci, C.

    2008-12-05

    The trend of volume reflection parameters (deflection angle and efficiency) in a bent (110) silicon crystal has been investigated as a function of the crystal curvature with 400 GeV/c protons on the H8 beam line at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. This Letter describes the analysis performed at six different curvatures showing that the optimal radius for volume reflection is approximately 10 times greater than the critical radius for channeling. A strong scattering of the beam by the planar potential is also observed for a bend radius close to the critical one.

  5. Economic Performance

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance ... of greenhouse gas emissions a priority for Federal agencies, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Policy. ...

  6. Performance Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Performance characterization efforts within the SunShot Systems Integration activities focus on collaborations with U.S. solar companies to:

  7. LED structure with enhanced mirror reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergmann, Michael; Donofrio, Matthew; Heikman, Sten; Schneider, Kevin S; Haberern, Kevin W; Edmond, John A

    2014-04-01

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally related to LED chips having improved overall emission by reducing the light-absorbing effects of barrier layers adjacent mirror contacts. In one embodiment, a LED chip comprises one or more LEDs, with each LED having an active region, a first contact under the active region having a highly reflective mirror, and a barrier layer adjacent the mirror. The barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that it does not extend beyond the periphery of the mirror. In another possible embodiment, an insulator is further provided, with the insulator adjacent the barrier layer and adjacent portions of the mirror not contacted by the active region or by the barrier layer. In yet another embodiment, a second contact is provided on the active region. In a further embodiment, the barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that the periphery of the mirror is at least 40% free of the barrier layer, and the second contact is below the first contact and accessible from the bottom of the chip.

  8. Model solution for volume reflection of relativistic particles in a bent crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bondarenco, M. V.

    2010-10-15

    For volume reflection process in a bent crystal, exact analytic expressions for positively- and negatively-charged particle trajectories are obtained within a model of parabolic continuous potential in each interplanar interval, with the neglect of incoherent multiple scattering. In the limit of the crystal bending radius greatly exceeding the critical value, asymptotic formulas are obtained for the particle mean deflection angle in units of Lindhard's critical angle, and for the final beam profile. Volume reflection of negatively charged particles is shown to contain effects of rainbow scattering and orbiting, whereas with positively charged particles none of these effects arise within the given model. The model predictions are compared with experimental results and numerical simulations. Estimates of the volume reflection mean angle and the final beam profile robustness under multiple scattering are performed.

  9. Optimizing Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimizing Performance Optimizing Performance Storage Optimization Optimizing the sizes of the files you store in HPSS and minimizing the number of tapes they are on will lead to the most effient use of NERSC HPSS: File sizes of about 1 GB or larger will give the best network performance (see graph below) Files sizes greater than about 500 GB can be more difficult to work with and lead to longer transfer times. Files larger than 15 TB cannot be uploaded to HPSS. Aggregate groups of small files

  10. Presidential Performance Contracting Challenge: Performance Toward...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presidential Performance Contracting Challenge: Performance Toward New 4 Billion Goal Presidential Performance Contracting Challenge: Performance Toward New 4 Billion Goal ...

  11. Performance Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Performance assessment (PA) is defined in the United States by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations as a process to be used in estimating the long-term performance of deep geologic disposal sites for high-level and transuranic radioactive waste. Although specific regulatory requirements differ for individual projects (e.g., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the potential repository at Yucca Mountain), the overall approach to PA is

  12. Performance Period

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill | Department of Energy Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter

  13. A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson scattering

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from electron plasma waves on OMEGA (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson scattering from electron plasma waves on OMEGA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson scattering from electron plasma waves on OMEGA A reflective optical transport system has been designed for the OMEGA Thomson-scattering diagnostic. A Schwarzschild objective that uses two concentric spherical

  14. Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1989) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1989) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1989) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso...

  15. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately ...

  16. Surface roughness effects on the solar reflectance of cool asphalt...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Surface roughness effects on the solar reflectance of cool asphalt shingles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Surface roughness effects on the solar ...

  17. Measurement of reflectivity of spherically bent crystals using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    electrons produced by laser-matter interaction In an experiment at the laser facility ECLIPSE of the CELIA laboratory, University of Bordeaux, we measure the reflectivity of ...

  18. Clean Energy Transition: Reflections on the Past Decade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Clean Energy Transition: Reflections on the Past Decade NREL Industry Growth Forum Dr. Dan E. Arvizu Laboratory Director November 2015 2 Energy Market Fundamentals Globally...

  19. Combined Reflectivity/imaging Method for Assessing Diagnostic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with laser treatment to restore the reflectivity of diagnostic mirrors after degradation by plasma deposition. Multiple mirrors, including an aluminum first surface reference ...

  20. Reflection Survey At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Colwell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Colwell, Et Al., 2012) Exploration Activity Details Location Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity...

  1. Reflection Survey At The Needles Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Needles Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At The Needles Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  2. Reflection Survey At Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  3. Reflection Survey At Wister Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wister Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Wister Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  4. Reflection Survey At Hot Sulphur Springs Area (Goranson, 2005...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References Colin Goranson (2005) Recent Drilling Activities At The Earth Power Resources Tuscarora...

  5. Reflection Survey At Under Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Update to Warpinski, et al., 2002 References N. R. Warpinski, A. R. Sattler, R. Fortuna, D....

  6. Seismic Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    failure of seismic reflection data to image thesubsurface demonstrates the robust reliability of aconceptual model approach to geothermal exploration thatemphasizes the...

  7. Reflection Survey At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Reflection Survey At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home...

  8. Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (2008) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    field, which lies within an extensional step-over between dextral faults, is a young, actively developing metamorphic core complex. The reflection images were processed...

  9. A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transport system for ultraviolet Thomson scattering from electron plasma waves on OMEGA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A reflective optical transport system for ...

  10. Reflection Survey At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP)...

  11. Synchrotron infrared reflectivity measurements of iron at high pressures

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Synchrotron infrared reflectivity measurements of iron at high pressures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synchrotron infrared reflectivity measurements of iron at high pressures The infrared reflectance of iron was studied using high-pressure synchrotron radiation methods up to 50 GPa at room temperature in a diamond anvil cell of 1000-8000 cm{sup -1} (1.25-10 {mu}m). The magnitude of the reflectivity shows a weak pressure

  12. Reflection Survey At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Melosh, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    model of blue mountain. References Glenn Melosh, William Cumming, John Casteel, Kim Niggemann, Brian Fairbank (2010) Seismic Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for...

  13. Apparatus for and method of correcting for astigmatism in a light beam reflected off of a light reflecting surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawicki, R.H.; Sweatt, W.

    1985-11-21

    A technique for adjustably correcting for astigmatism in a light beam is disclosed herein. This technique defines a flat, rectangular light reflecting surface having opposite reinforced side edges and which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, into different concave and/or convex cylindrical curvatures about a particular axis and provides for adjustably bending the light reflecting surface into one of different curvatures depending upon the astigmatism to be corrected and for fixedly maintaining the curvature selected. In the embodiment disclosed, the light reflecting surface is adjustably bendable into the selected cylindrical curvature by application of a particular bending moment to the reinforced side edges of the light reflecting surface.

  14. Spatial-Heterodyne Interferometry For Reflection And Transm Ission (Shirt) Measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN; Bingham, Philip R [Knoxville, TN; Tobin, Ken W [Harriman, TN

    2006-02-14

    Systems and methods are described for spatial-heterodyne interferometry for reflection and transmission (SHIRT) measurements. A method includes digitally recording a first spatially-heterodyned hologram using a first reference beam and a first object beam; digitally recording a second spatially-heterodyned hologram using a second reference beam and a second object beam; Fourier analyzing the digitally recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram to define a first analyzed image; Fourier analyzing the digitally recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram to define a second analyzed image; digitally filtering the first analyzed image to define a first result; and digitally filtering the second analyzed image to define a second result; performing a first inverse Fourier transform on the first result, and performing a second inverse Fourier transform on the second result. The first object beam is transmitted through an object that is at least partially translucent, and the second object beam is reflected from the object.

  15. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, Szymon; Skinner, Charles H.; Rosser, Roy

    1993-01-01

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  16. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Rosser, R.

    1993-01-05

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  17. Measured Energy Savings from the Application of Reflective Roofs in 3 AT and T Regeneration Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashen; Rainer, Leo

    2000-11-01

    Energy use and environmental parameters were monitored in three AT and T regeneration buildings during the summer of 2000. These buildings are constructed with concrete and are about 14.9 m2 (160 f2; 10x16 ft)in size. The buildings were initially monitored for about 1 1/2 months to establish a base condition. Then, the roofs of the buildings were painted with a white coating and the monitoring was continued. The original roof reflectances were about 26 percent; after the application of roof coatings the reflectivities increased to about 72 percent. In two of these buildings, we monitored savings of about 0.5kWh per day (8.6 kWh/m2 [0.8 kWh/ft2]). The third building showed a reduction in air-conditioning energy use of about 13kWh per day. These savings probably resulted from the differences in the performance (EER) of the two dissimilar AC units in this building. The estimated annual savings for two of the buildings are about 125kWh per year; at a cost of dollar 0.1/kWh, savings are about dollar 12.5 per year. Obviously, it costs significantly more than this amount to coat the roofs with reflective coating, particularly because of the remote location of the buildings. However, since the prefabricated roofs are already painted green at the factory, painting them with white (reflective) color would bring no additional cost. Hence the payback time for having reflective roofs is nil, and the reflective roofs save an accumulated 370kWh over 30 years of the life of the roof.

  18. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A FORCE-REFLECTING TELEOPERATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    For certain applications, such as space servicing, undersea operations, and hazardous material handling tasks in nuclear reactors, the environments can be uncertain, complex, and hazardous. Lives may be in danger if humans were to work under these conditions. As a result, a man-machine system--a teleoperator system--has been developed to work in these types of environments. In a typical teleoperator system, the actual system operates at a remote site; the operator located away from this system usually receives visual information from a video image and/or graphical animation on the computer screen. Additional feedback, such as aural and force information, can significantly enhance performance of the system. Force reflection is a type of feedback in which forces experienced by the remote manipulator are fed back to the manual controller. Various control methods have been proposed for implementation on a teleoperator system. In order to examine different control schemes, a one Degree-Of-Freedom (DOF) Force-Reflecting Manual Controller (FRMC) is constructed and integrated into a PC. The system parameters are identified and constructed as a mathematical model. The Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) and fuzzy logic controllers are developed and tested experimentally. Numerical simulation results obtained from the mathematical model are compared with those of experimental data for both types of controllers. In addition, the concept of a telesensation system is introduced. A telesensation system is an advanced teleoperator system that attempts to provide the operator with sensory feedback. In this context, a telesensation system integrates the use of a Virtual Reality (VR) unit, FRMC, and Graphical User Interface (GUI). The VR unit is used to provide the operator with a 3-D visual effect. Various commercial VR units are reviewed and features compared for use in a telesensation system. As for the FRMC, the conceptual design of a 3-DOF FRMC is developed in an effort to make the system portable, compact, and lightweight. A variety of design alternatives are presented and evaluated. Finally, a GUI software package is developed to interface with several teleoperation unit components. These components include an industrial robot, electric motor, encoder, force/torque sensor, and CCD camera. The software includes features such as position scaling, force scaling, and rereferencing and is intended to provide a sound basis for the development of a multi-DOF FRMC system in the future.

  19. Parametric reflection upon cascade interaction of focused optical beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobanov, V E; Sukhorukov, A P; Sukhorukova, A K

    2008-10-31

    The parametric reflection of a signal beam in the waist of the reference pump beam upon mismatched three-frequency interaction in a quadratically nonlinear medium is discussed. The critical angle of total internal reflection from the induced defocusing channel is found as a function of the beam waist parameters. It is shown that when the reference beam is focused, this angle increases and some distortions are introduced into the reflected wave due to a finite length of the waist. The modification of the cross section of a wave reflected from a convex parametric mirror is analysed. The optimal beam focusing geometry is found at which the distortions of the shape and divergence of the reflected wave are minimal. Under certain conditions, the signal wave also flows around a cylindrical inhomogeneity produced by the axially symmetric pump beam. The results of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are in good agreement. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  20. PORTFOLIO PERFORMANCE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE FROM THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR The U.S. Department of Energy’s Loan Programs Oce (LPO) provides the critical financing needed to deploy some of the world’s largest and most innovative clean energy and advanced technology vehicle manufacturing projects to date. Despite its mission to help finance innovation, which carries some degree of financial risk, LPO has maintained strong financial performance, even when compared with private financing of conventional energy projects in the United States. As of September 2014, more than $810 million of interest has already been earned and the estimated loss ratio on LPO’s portfolio is approximately 2% of LPO’s total commitments. This strong performance demonstrates our commitment to protecting taxpayer interests while helping deploy the innovative energy technology necessary to make the United States a global leader in clean energy.

  1. Repository performance confirmation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-09-01

    Repository performance confirmation links the technical bases of repository science and societal acceptance. This paper explores the myriad aspects of what has been labeled performance confirmation in U.S. programs, which involves monitoring as a collection of distinct activities combining technical and social significance in radioactive waste management. This paper is divided into four parts: (1) A distinction is drawn between performance confirmation monitoring and other testing and monitoring objectives; (2) A case study illustrates confirmation activities integrated within a long-term testing and monitoring strategy for Yucca Mountain; (3) A case study reviews compliance monitoring developed and implemented for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; and (4) An approach for developing, evaluating and implementing the next generation of performance confirmation monitoring is presented. International interest in repository monitoring is exhibited by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme 'Monitoring Developments for Safe Repository Operation and Staged Closure' (MoDeRn) Project. The MoDeRn partners are considering the role of monitoring in a phased approach to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. As repository plans advance in different countries, the need to consider monitoring strategies within a controlled framework has become more apparent. The MoDeRn project pulls together technical and societal experts to assimilate a common understanding of a process that could be followed to develop a monitoring program. A fundamental consideration is the differentiation of confirmation monitoring from the many other testing and monitoring activities. Recently, the license application for Yucca Mountain provided a case study including a technical process for meeting regulatory requirements to confirm repository performance as well as considerations related to the preservation of retrievability. The performance confirmation plan developed as part of the Yucca Mountain license application identified a broad suite of monitoring activities. A revision of the plan was expected to winnow the number of activities down to a manageable size. As a result, an objective process for the next stage of performance confirmation planning was developed as an integral part of an overarching long-term testing and monitoring strategy. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance monitoring program at once reflects its importance to stakeholders while demonstrating adequate understanding of relevant monitoring parameters. The compliance criteria were stated by regulation and are currently monitored as part of the regulatory rule for disposal. At the outset, the screening practice and parameter selection were not predicated on a direct or indirect correlation to system performance metrics, as was the case for Yucca Mountain. Later on, correlation to performance was established, and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant continues to monitor ten parameters originally identified in the compliance certification documentation. The monitoring program has proven to be effective for the technical intentions and societal or public assurance. The experience with performance confirmation in the license application process for Yucca Mountain helped identify an objective, quantitative methodology for this purpose. Revision of the existing plan would be based on findings of the total system performance assessment. Identification and prioritization of confirmation activities would then derive from performance metrics associated with performance assessment. Given the understanding of repository performance confirmation, as reviewed in this paper, it is evident that the performance confirmation program for the Yucca Mountain project could be readily re-engaged if licensing activities resumed.

  2. Oxidation-resistant reflective surfaces for solar dynamic power generation in near Earth orbit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulino, D.A.; Egger, R.A.; Banholzer, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    Reflective surfaces for space station power generation systems are required to withstand the atomic oxygen-dominated environment of near Earth orbit. Thin films of platinum and rhodium, which are corrosion resistant reflective metals, have been deposited by ion beam sputter deposition onto various substrate materials. Solar reflectances were then measured as a function of time of exposure to a RF-generated air plasma. Similarly, various protective coating materials, including MgF/sub 2/, SiO/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, were deposited onto silver-coated substrates and then exposed to the plasma. Analysis of the films both before and after exposure by both ESCA and Auger spectroscopy was also performed. The results indicate that Pt and Rh do not suffer any loss in reflectance over the duration of the tests. Also, each of the coating materials survived the plasma environment. The ESCA and Auger analyses are discussed as well.

  3. Reflective optical imaging system for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, Vriddhachalam K.; Newnam, Brian E.

    1993-01-01

    A projection reflection optical system has two mirrors in a coaxial, four reflection configuration to reproduce the image of an object. The mirrors have spherical reflection surfaces to provide a very high resolution of object feature wavelengths less than 200 .mu.m, and preferably less than 100 .mu.m. An image resolution of features less than 0.05-0.1 .mu.m, is obtained over a large area field; i.e., 25.4 mm .times.25.4 mm, with a distortion less than 0.1 of the resolution over the image field.

  4. Reflective optical imaging system for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Newnam, B.E.

    1993-05-18

    A projection reflection optical system has two mirrors in a coaxial, four reflection configuration to reproduce the image of an object. The mirrors have spherical reflection surfaces to provide a very high resolution of object feature wavelengths less than 200 [mu]m, and preferably less than 100 [mu]m. An image resolution of features less than 0.05-0.1 [mu]m, is obtained over a large area field; i.e., 25.4 mm [times] 25.4 mm, with a distortion less than 0.1 of the resolution over the image field.

  5. Fabrication of optically reflecting ohmic contacts for semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1995-01-01

    A method is provided to produce a low-resistivity ohmic contact having high optical reflectivity on one side of a semiconductor device. The contact is formed by coating the semiconductor substrate with a thin metal film on the back reflecting side and then optically processing the wafer by illuminating it with electromagnetic radiation of a predetermined wavelength and energy level through the front side of the wafer for a predetermined period of time. This method produces a thin epitaxial alloy layer between the semiconductor substrate and the metal layer when a crystalline substrate is used. The alloy layer provides both a low-resistivity ohmic contact and high optical reflectance.

  6. Reduction of Glass Surface Reflectance by Ion Beam Surface Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Spitzer

    2011-03-11

    This is the final report for DOE contract DE-EE0000590. The purpose of this work was to determine the feasibility of the reduction of the reflection from the front of solar photovoltaic modules. Reflection accounts for a power loss of approximately 4%. A solar module having an area of one square meter with an energy conversion efficiency of 18% generates approximately 180 watts. If reflection loss can be eliminated, the power output can be increased to 187 watts. Since conventional thin-film anti-reflection coatings do not have sufficient environmental stability, we investigated the feasibility of ion beam modification of the glass surface to obtain reduction of reflectance. Our findings are generally applicable to all solar modules that use glass encapsulation, as well as commercial float glass used in windows and other applications. Ion implantation of argon, fluorine, and xenon into commercial low-iron soda lime float glass, standard float glass, and borosilicate glass was studied by implantation, annealing, and measurement of reflectance. The three ions all affected reflectance. The most significant change was obtained by argon implantation into both low-iron and standard soda-lime glass. In this way samples were formed with reflectance lower than can be obtained with a single-layer coatings of magnesium fluoride. Integrated reflectance was reduced from 4% to 1% in low-iron soda lime glass typical of the glass used in solar modules. The reduction of reflectance of borosilicate glass was not as large; however borosilicate glass is not typically used in flat plate solar modules. Unlike conventional semiconductor ion implantation doping, glass reflectance reduction was found to be tolerant to large variations in implant dose, meaning that the process does not require high dopant uniformity. Additionally, glass implantation does not require mass analysis. Simple, high current ion implantation equipment can be developed for this process; however, before the process can be employed on full scale solar modules, equipment must be developed for ion implanting large sheets of glass. A cost analysis shows that the process can be economical. Our finding is that the reduction of reflectance by ion beam surface modification is technically and economically feasible. The public will benefit directly from this work by the improvement of photovoltaic module efficiency, and indirectly by the greater understanding of the modification of glass surfaces by ion beams.

  7. Method of fabricating reflection-mode EUV diffraction elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2002-01-01

    Techniques for fabricating a well-controlled, quantized-level, engineered surface that serves as substrates for EUV reflection multilayer overcomes problems associated with the fabrication of reflective EUV diffraction elements. The technique when employed to fabricate an EUV diffraction element that includes the steps of: (a) forming an etch stack comprising alternating layers of first and second materials on a substrate surface where the two material can provide relative etch selectivity; (b) creating a relief profile in the etch stack wherein the relief profile has a defined contour; and (c) depositing a multilayer reflection film over the relief profile wherein the film has an outer contour that substantially matches that of the relief profile. For a typical EUV multilayer, if the features on the substrate are larger than 50 nm, the multilayer will be conformal to the substrate. Thus, the phase imparted to the reflected wavefront will closely match that geometrically set by the surface height profile.

  8. NREL: Technology Transfer - NREL and SkyFuel Partnership Reflects...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL and SkyFuel Partnership Reflects Bright Future for Solar Energy In this video, NREL Principal Scientist Gary Jorgensen and SkyFuel Chief Technology Officer Randy Gee talk...

  9. Anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oh, Jihun; Branz, Howard M

    2014-05-20

    Exemplary embodiments are disclosed of anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production by photoelectrolysis of water. A nanoporous black Si is disclosed as an efficient photocathode for H.sub.2 production from water splitting half-reaction.

  10. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective 'cool ...

  11. High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals for x ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In second order the integrated reflectivity decreases from 1.3 mrad at 12.6 keV to ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION; ...

  12. Measuring solar reflectance Part II: Review of practical methods...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar position, and found that clear sky air mass 1 global horizontal (AM1GH) solar ... Rsub g,0more to within 0.006. The air mass 1.5 solar reflectance measured with ...

  13. Evaluation of Plutonium Hemisphere Critical Experiments Partially Reflected by Steel and Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess

    2012-01-01

    A series of 15 critical experiments performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory in the late 1960s were evaluated and then determined to represent acceptable benchmark experiments for the validation of calculational methods. This series of experiments was part of a larger set of experiments performed to evaluate operational safety margins at the Rocky Flats Plant. The experiments consisted of bare plutonium metal hemishells reflected by steel hemishells of increasing thickness and motor oil. The hemishell assembly was suspended within dual aluminum tanks. Criticality was achieved by pumping oil into the tanks such that effectively infinite reflection was achieved in all directions except directly above the assembly; then the critical oil height was recorded. The results of these experiments had been initially ignored because early computational methods had been inadequate to analyze partially-reflected configurations. The dominant uncertainties include the uncertainty in the average plutonium density and the composition of materials in the gaps between the plutonium hemishells. Simple and detailed benchmark models were developed. Eigenvalue calculations using MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 were within 2s of the benchmark values. This benchmark evaluation has been added to the ICSBEP Handbook.

  14. Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystals (Conference) | SciTech Connect Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Spectroscopy provides valuable information about the temperature and density of a compressed pellet in a plasma. Elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals are used as components for spectrometers. Their elliptical geometry gives several

  15. Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystals (Conference) | SciTech Connect ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals The elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals used in the Supersnout 2 X-ray spectrometer on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have been calibrated photometrically in the range of 5.5 to 16 keV. The

  16. Measurement of reflectivity of spherically bent crystals using Kα signal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from hot electrons produced by laser-matter interaction (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Measurement of reflectivity of spherically bent crystals using Kα signal from hot electrons produced by laser-matter interaction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measurement of reflectivity of spherically bent crystals using Kα signal from hot electrons produced by laser-matter interaction In an experiment at the laser facility ECLIPSE of the CELIA laboratory, University of Bordeaux, we

  17. Signal Post-processing and Reflectivity Calibration of the Atmospheric

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation Measurement Program 915 MHz Wind Profilers (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Signal Post-processing and Reflectivity Calibration of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program 915 MHz Wind Profilers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Signal Post-processing and Reflectivity Calibration of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program 915 MHz Wind Profilers Authors: Tridon F. ; Luke E. ; Battaglia, A. ; Kollias, P. ; Williams, C. R. Publication Date: 2013-06-01 OSTI

  18. Repetitive output laser system and method using target reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Roy R.

    1978-01-01

    An improved laser system and method for implosion of a thermonuclear fuel pellet in which that portion of a laser pulse reflected by the target pellet is utilized in the laser system to initiate a succeeding target implosion, and in which the energy stored in the laser system to amplify the initial laser pulse, but not completely absorbed thereby, is used to amplify succeeding laser pulses initiated by target reflection.

  19. Reflected beam illumination microscopy using a microfluidics device -

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    progress report 6/15/2014. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Reflected beam illumination microscopy using a microfluidics device - progress report 6/15/2014. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reflected beam illumination microscopy using a microfluidics device - progress report 6/15/2014. Abstract not provided. Authors: James, Conrad D. ; Finnegan, Patrick Sean ; Renzi, Ronald F. Publication Date: 2014-06-01 OSTI Identifier: 1171452 Report Number(s):

  20. Reflectance spectroscopy for high-speed temperature measurements.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: Reflectance spectroscopy for high-speed temperature measurements. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reflectance spectroscopy for high-speed temperature measurements. Abstract not provided. Authors: Dolan, Daniel H., ; Seagle, Christopher T ; Ao, Tommy ; Herrmann, Mark Publication Date: 2013-05-01 OSTI Identifier: 1106087 Report Number(s): SAND2013-3898C 465305 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type:

  1. Rapid Solar Mirror Characterization with Fringe Reflection Techniques -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Thermal Solar Thermal Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Rapid Solar Mirror Characterization with Fringe Reflection Techniques SOFAST: Sandia Optical Fringe Analysis Slope Tool Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (834 KB) SOFAST Imaging SOFAST Imaging Technology Marketing SummaryThis technology is an automated system in which the reflection of a mirror,

  2. CONCRETE REFLECTED ARRAYS OF U(93.2) METAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackenzie Gorham; John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; Virginia Dean; Davis Reed

    2010-09-01

    During the period from 1963 1973, experiments involving highly enriched uranium units were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility to determine various critical configurations of three-dimensional arrays. The experiments formed a four-part series, and were reported by several different experimenters; the results of interest for this evaluation are those reported for the fourth experimentation, Critical Three-Dimensional Arrays of Neutron Interacting Units: Part IV, published and performed by D.W.Magnuson (Ref 1). Information is also available in the logbook . This set of experiments utilized subcritical metal units on a split table apparatus to determine critical configurations for 222 arrangements of highly enriched uranium reflected by concrete. Magnuson manipulated the configuration of several uranium cylinders and blocks within a concrete reflector. The different permutations utilized uranium cylinders of two different heights in various positions in the three dimensional array; certain cases also placed thin uranium blocks on top of the cylinders. The thickness of the surrounding concrete, as well as the inner dimensions of the concrete reflector was also varied in certain cases. The variations resulted in fourteen different experimental permutations or configurations. All fourteen configurations were judged to be unacceptable for use as criticality safety benchmarks. All experiments were initially evaluated; however only three configurations were evaluated in detail. Configurations 2, 4, 6 and 12 were not evaluated in detail because they are subcritical and configurations 5, 7, 8, 9, and 10 were also were not evaluated in detail because they were supercritical by more than beta effective (~0.007), or prompt critical. The experiments evaluated in detail for this benchmark were configurations 1, 3, and 11. The experimental report also contains the information for HEU-MET-FAST-056. Closely related work has been recorded in HEU-MET-FAST-053, which is a benchmark evaluation of a different series of three dimensional array experiments with four different moderator materials. HEU-MET-FAST-023 and HEU-MET-FAST-026 are also related because they utilize the same metal cylinders as these experiments.

  3. Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Functions from surface bump maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, B.K.

    1988-06-17

    The interaction of light and matter define what we see. This interaction can be characterized by a function which relates incoming light to the distribution of outgoing or reflected light. The Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Function (BRDF) is just such a function. Computer graphics scientists attempting to model this function have made simplifying assumptions about the reflecting surfaces. These simpler models have produced adequate results but only handle very uniform or isotropic surface characteristics. Reality on the other hand is filled with a variety of surface textures which result in a variety of BRDFs. This thesis broadens the class of BRDFs which can be used in computer graphics to render objects more realistically. It presents two enhancements to previous work done by the author. First, it describes a method for the approximation of surface absorption of light through the use of a computed geometric attentuation factor. This factor is computed by calculating the parts of the surface which are visible in the incident and reflecting directions. Specifically, it describes the algorithms and theory behind the visibility calculations and how it affects the reflection properties of the surface. Second, it describes a method for computing Fresnel's Law for conducting and dielectric surface materials and how Fresnel's Law affects surface reflectivity. This work also presents a method for rendering objects using the computed BRDFs. 38 refs., 29 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Entanglement entropy in quantum spin chains with broken reflection symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadar, Zoltan; Zimboras, Zoltan

    2010-09-15

    We investigate the entanglement entropy of a block of L sites in quasifree translation-invariant spin chains concentrating on the effect of reflection-symmetry breaking. The Majorana two-point functions corresponding to the Jordan-Wigner transformed fermionic modes are determined in the most general case; from these, it follows that reflection symmetry in the ground state can only be broken if the model is quantum critical. The large L asymptotics of the entropy are calculated analytically for general gauge-invariant models, which have, until now, been done only for the reflection-symmetric sector. Analytical results are also derived for certain nongauge-invariant models (e.g., for the Ising model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction). We also study numerically finite chains of length N with a nonreflection-symmetric Hamiltonian and report that the reflection symmetry of the entropy of the first L spins is violated but the reflection-symmetric Calabrese-Cardy formula is recovered asymptotically. Furthermore, for noncritical reflection-symmetry-breaking Hamiltonians, we find an anomaly in the behavior of the saturation entropy as we approach the critical line. The paper also provides a concise but extensive review of the block-entropy asymptotics in translation-invariant quasifree spin chains with an analysis of the nearest-neighbor case and the enumeration of the yet unsolved parts of the quasifree landscape.

  5. A simple scanning spectrometer based on a stretchable elastomeric reflective grating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghisleri, C.; Milani, P., E-mail: paolo.milani@mi.infn.it [CIMAINA and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); WISE srl, Piazza Duse 2, 20122 Milano (Italy); Potenza, M. A. C.; Bellacicca, A. [CIMAINA and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ravagnan, L. [WISE srl, Piazza Duse 2, 20122 Milano (Italy)

    2014-02-10

    We report a scanning optical spectrometer based on the use of a stretchable elastomeric reflective grating. The grating is obtained by supersonic cluster beam implantation of silver nanoparticles on polydimethylsiloxane previously grooved by molding to create a replica of a commercial digital versatile disk grating. The use of a stretchable grating allows the spectrometer spanning the whole optical wavelength range by solely extending the diffraction element by more than 100% of its original dimensions. The stretchable reflective optical grating shows excellent performances and stability upon thousands of stretching cycles. The use of this elastomeric element makes the optical layout and the mechanics of the spectrometer extremely simple and advantageous for those applications where spectral resolution is not a major requirement. As a proof of principle, we present the absorption spectrum of Rhodamine B in solution obtained by our spectrometer and compared to commercial instruments.

  6. Apparatus for and method of correcting for astigmatism in a light beam reflected off of a light reflecting surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawicki, Richard H.; Sweatt, William

    1987-01-01

    A technique for adjustably correcting for astigmatism in a light beam is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes first means which defines a flat, rectangular light reflecting surface having opposite reinforced side edges and which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, into different concave and/or convex cylindrical curvatures about a particular axis and second means acting on the first means for adjustably bending the light reflecting surface into a particular selected one of the different curvatures depending upon the astigmatism to be corrected for and for fixedly maintaining the curvature selected. In the embodiment disclosed, the light reflecting surface is adjustably bendable into the selected cylindrical curvature by application of a particular bending moment to the reinforced side edges of the light reflecting surface.

  7. Validation of FSP Reactor Design with Sensitivity Studies of Beryllium-Reflected Critical Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess; Margaret A. Marshall

    2013-02-01

    The baseline design for space nuclear power is a fission surface power (FSP) system: sodium-potassium (NaK) cooled, fast spectrum reactor with highly-enriched-uranium (HEU)-O2 fuel, stainless steel (SS) cladding, and beryllium reflectors with B4C control drums. Previous studies were performed to evaluate modeling capabilities and quantify uncertainties and biases associated with analysis methods and nuclear data. Comparison of Zero Power Plutonium Reactor (ZPPR)-20 benchmark experiments with the FSP design indicated that further reduction of the total design model uncertainty requires the reduction in uncertainties pertaining to beryllium and uranium cross-section data. Further comparison with three beryllium-reflected HEU-metal benchmark experiments performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) concluded the requirement that experimental validation data have similar cross section sensitivities to those found in the FSP design. A series of critical experiments was performed at ORCEF in the 1960s to support the Medium Power Reactor Experiment (MPRE) space reactor design. The small, compact critical assembly (SCCA) experiments were graphite- or beryllium-reflected assemblies of SS-clad, HEU-O2 fuel on a vertical lift machine. All five configurations were evaluated as benchmarks. Two of the five configurations were beryllium reflected, and further evaluated using the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis capabilities of SCALE 6.1. Validation of the example FSP design model was successful in reducing the primary uncertainty constituent, the Be(n,n) reaction, from 0.28 %dk/k to 0.0004 %dk/k. Further assessment of additional reactor physics measurements performed on the SCCA experiments may serve to further validate FSP design and operation.

  8. Performance Engineering Research Center and RECOVERY. Performance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Performance Engineering Research Center and RECOVERY. Performance Engineering Research Institution SciDAC-e Augmentation. Performance enhancement Citation Details In-Document ...

  9. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  10. DYNA3D Non-reflecting Boundary Conditions - Test Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zywicz, E

    2006-09-28

    Two verification problems were developed to test non-reflecting boundary segments in DYNA3D (Whirley and Engelmann, 1993). The problems simulate 1-D wave propagation in a semi-infinite rod using a finite length rod and non-reflecting boundary conditions. One problem examines pure pressure wave propagation, and the other problem explores pure shear wave propagation. In both problems the non-reflecting boundary segments yield results that differ only slightly (less than 6%) during a short duration from their corresponding theoretical solutions. The errors appear to be due to the inability to generate a true step-function compressive wave in the pressure wave propagation problem and due to segment integration inaccuracies in the shear wave propagation problem. These problems serve as verification problems and as regression test problems for DYNA3D.

  11. Fiber optic moisture sensor with moisture-absorbing reflective target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkham, Randy R.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

  12. Corrosion-resistant multilayer structures with improved reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soufli, Regina; Fernandez-Perea, Monica; Robinson, Jeff C.

    2013-04-09

    In one general embodiment, a thin film structure includes a substrate; a first corrosion barrier layer above the substrate; a reflective layer above the first corrosion barrier layer, wherein the reflective layer comprises at least one repeating set of sub-layers, wherein one of the sub-layers of each set of sub-layers being of a corrodible material; and a second corrosion barrier layer above the reflective layer. In another general embodiment, a system includes an optical element having a thin film structure as recited above; and an image capture or spectrometer device. In a further general embodiment, a laser according to one embodiment includes a light source and the thin film structure as recited above.

  13. Reflective insulating blinds for windows and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnes, P.R.; Shapira, H.B.

    1979-12-07

    Energy-conserving window blinds are provided. The blinds are fabricated from coupled and adjustable slats, each slat having an insulation layer and a reflective surface to face outwardly when the blinds are closed. A range of desired light and air transmission may be selected with the reflective surfaces of the slats adapted to direct sunlight upward toward the ceiling when the blinds are open. When the blinds are closed, the insulation of the slats reduces the heat loss or gain produced by the windows. If desired, the reflective surfaces of the slats may be concave. The edges of the slats are designed to seal against adjacent slats when the blinds are closed to ensure minimum air flow between slats.

  14. Reflective insulating blinds for windows and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnes, Paul R.; Shapira, Hanna B.

    1981-01-01

    Energy-conserving window blinds are provided. The blinds are fabricated from coupled and adjustable slats, each slat having an insulation layer and a reflective surface to face outwardly when the blinds are closed. A range of desired light and air transmission may be selected with the reflective surfaces of the slats adapted to direct sunlight upward toward the ceiling when the blinds are open. When the blinds are closed, the insulation of the slats reduces the heat loss or gain produced by the windows. If desired, the reflective surfaces of the slats may be concave. The edges of the slats are designed to seal against adjacent slats when the blinds are closed to ensure minimum air flow between slats.

  15. Effect of window reflections on photonic Doppler velocimetry measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ao, T.; Dolan, D. H.

    2011-02-15

    Photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) has rapidly become a standard diagnostic for measuring velocities in dynamic compression research. While free surface velocity measurements are fairly straightforward, complications occur when PDV is used to measure a dynamically loaded sample through a window. Fresnel reflections can severely affect the velocity and time resolution of PDV measurements, especially for low-velocity transients. Shock experiments of quartz compressed between two sapphire plates demonstrate how optical window reflections cause ringing in the extracted PDV velocity profile. Velocity ringing is significantly reduced by using either a wedge window or an antireflective coating.

  16. Visible Reflectivity System for High-Pressure Studies. (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Visible Reflectivity System for High-Pressure Studies. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Visible Reflectivity System for High-Pressure Studies. Authors: Seagle, Christopher T ; Dolan, III, Daniel H Publication Date: 2013-04-01 OSTI Identifier: 1073453 Report Number(s): SAND2013-2893J Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Review of

  17. The study of frequency-scan photothermal reflectance technique for thermal diffusivity measurement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hua, Zilong; Ban, Heng; Hurley, David H.

    2015-05-05

    A frequency scan photothermal reflectance technique to measure thermal diffusivity of bulk samples is studied in this manuscript. Similar to general photothermal reflectance methods, an intensity-modulated heating laser and a constant intensity probe laser are used to determine the surface temperature response under sinusoidal heating. The approach involves fixing the distance between the heating and probe laser spots, recording the phase lag of reflected probe laser intensity with respect to the heating laser frequency modulation, and extracting thermal diffusivity using the phase lag – (frequency)1/2 relation. The experimental validation is performed on three samples (SiO2, CaF2 and Ge), which havemore » a wide range of thermal diffusivities. The measured thermal diffusivity values agree closely with literature values. Lastly, compared to the commonly used spatial scan method, the experimental setup and operation of the frequency scan method are simplified, and the uncertainty level is equal to or smaller than that of the spatial scan method.« less

  18. The study of frequency-scan photothermal reflectance technique for thermal diffusivity measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hua, Zilong; Ban, Heng; Hurley, David H.

    2015-05-05

    A frequency scan photothermal reflectance technique to measure thermal diffusivity of bulk samples is studied in this manuscript. Similar to general photothermal reflectance methods, an intensity-modulated heating laser and a constant intensity probe laser are used to determine the surface temperature response under sinusoidal heating. The approach involves fixing the distance between the heating and probe laser spots, recording the phase lag of reflected probe laser intensity with respect to the heating laser frequency modulation, and extracting thermal diffusivity using the phase lag – (frequency)1/2 relation. The experimental validation is performed on three samples (SiO2, CaF2 and Ge), which have a wide range of thermal diffusivities. The measured thermal diffusivity values agree closely with literature values. Lastly, compared to the commonly used spatial scan method, the experimental setup and operation of the frequency scan method are simplified, and the uncertainty level is equal to or smaller than that of the spatial scan method.

  19. Channeling and Volume Reflection Based Crystal Collimation of Tevatron Circulating Beam Halo (T-980)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiltsev, V.; Annala, G.; Drozhdin, A.; Johnson, T.; Legan, A.; Mokhov, N.; Reilly, R.; Still, D.; Tesarek, R.; Zagel, J.; Peggs, S.; /Brookhaven /CERN /Serpukhov, IHEP /INFN, Ferrara /PNPI, CSTD

    2010-05-01

    The T980 crystal collimation experiment is underway at the Tevatron to determine if this technique could increase 980 GeV beam-halo collimation efficiency at high-energy hadron colliders such as the Tevatron and the LHC. T980 also studies various crystal types and parameters. The setup has been substantially enhanced during the Summer 2009 shutdown by installing a new O-shaped crystal in the horizontal goniometer, as well as adding a vertical goniometer with two alternating crystals (O-shaped and multi-strip) and additional beam diagnostics. First measurements with the new system are quite encouraging, with channeled and volume-reflected beams observed on the secondary collimators as predicted. Investigation of crystal collimation efficiencies with crystals in volume reflection and channeling modes are described in comparison with an amorphous primary collimator. Results on the system performance are presented for the end-of-store studies and for entire collider stores. The first investigation of colliding beam collimation simultaneously using crystals in both the vertical and horizontal plane has been made in the regime with horizontally channeled and vertically volume-reflected beams. Planning is underway for significant hardware improvements during the FY10 summer shutdown and for dedicated studies during the final year of Tevatron operation and also for a 'post-collider beam physics running' period.

  20. Broad Band Intra-Cavity Total Reflection Chemical Sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pipino, Andrew C. R.

    1998-11-10

    A broadband, ultrahigh-sensitivity chemical sensor is provided that allows etection through utilization of a small, extremely low-loss, monolithic optical cavity. The cavity is fabricated from highly transparent optical material in the shape of a regular polygon with one or more convex facets to form a stable resonator for ray trajectories sustained by total internal reflection. Optical radiation enters and exits the monolithic cavity by photon tunneling in which two totally reflecting surfaces are brought into close proximity. In the presence of absorbing material, the loss per pass is increased since the evanescent waves that exist exterior to the cavity at points where the circulating pulse is totally reflected, are absorbed. The decay rate of an injected pulse is determined by coupling out an infinitesimal fraction of the pulse to produce an intensity-versus-time decay curve. Since the change in the decay rate resulting from absorption is inversely proportional to the magnitude of absorption, a quantitative sensor of concentration or absorption cross-section with 1 part-per-million/pass or better sensitivity is obtained. The broadband nature of total internal reflection permits a single device to be used over a broad wavelength range. The absorption spectrum of the surrounding medium can thereby be obtained as a measurement of inverse decay time as a function of wavelength.

  1. Ion-acoustic shocks with self-regulated ion reflection and acceleratio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ion-acoustic shocks with self-regulated ion reflection and acceleration Citation Details ... Title: Ion-acoustic shocks with self-regulated ion reflection and acceleration Authors: ...

  2. Implementation of solar-reflective surfaces: Materials and utility programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bretz, S.; Akbari, H.; Rosenfeld, A.; Taha, H.

    1992-06-01

    This report focuses on implementation issues for using solar-reflective surfaces to cool urban heat islands, with specific examples for Sacramento, California. Advantages of solar-reflective surfaces for reducing energy use are: (1) they are cost-effective if albedo is increased during routine maintenance; (2) the energy savings coincide with peak demand for power; (3) there are positive effects on environmental quality; and (4) the white materials have a long service life. Important considerations when choosing materials for mitigating heat islands are identified as albedo, emissivity, durability, cost, pollution and appearance. There is a potential for increasing urban albedo in Sacramento by an additional 18%. Of residential roofs, we estimate that asphalt shingle and modified bitumen cover the largest area, and that built-up roofing and modified bitumen cover the largest area of commercial buildings. For all of these roof types, albedo may be increased at the time of re-roofing without any additional cost. When a roof is repaired, a solar-reflective roof coating may be applied to significantly increase albedo and extend the life of the root Although a coating may be cost-effective if applied to a new roof following installation or to an older roof following repair, it is not cost-effective if the coating is applied only to save energy. Solar-reflective pavement may be cost-effective if the albedo change is included in the routine resurfacing schedule. Cost-effective options for producing light-colored pavement may include: (1) asphalt concrete, if white aggregate is locally available; (2) concrete overlays; and (3) newly developed white binders and aggregate. Another option may be hot-rolled asphalt, with white chippings. Utilities could promote solar-reflective surfaces through advertisement, educational programs and cost-sharing of road resurfacing.

  3. Superior Energy Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol for Industry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Measurement and Verification Protocol for Industry defines the procedures that will be used to confirm conformance with the energy performance level requirements of the Superior Energy Performance® (SEP™) Program. The Program has two paths. This document is structured to reflect those different paths.

  4. Performance and Optimization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimization Performance and Optimization Performance Monitoring Last edited: 2012-01-09 12:31:03...

  5. Performance and Optimization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimization Performance and Optimization Performance Monitoring Last edited: 2012-01-09 12:31:03

  6. Reflection-Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy of Thin Films Using an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Craig, Ian M.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2013-02-04

    We present experimental demonstrations using a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) to perform Reflection-Absorption InfraRed Spectroscopy (RAIRS) of thin layers and residues on surfaces. The ECQCL compliance voltage was used to measure fluctuations in the ECQCL output power and improve the performance of the RAIRS measurements. Absorption spectra from self-assembled monolayers of a fluorinated alkane thiol and a thiol carboxylic acid were measured and compared with FTIR measurements. RAIRS spectra of the explosive compounds PETN, RDX, and tetryl deposited on gold substrates were also measured. Rapid measurement times and low noise were demonstrated, with < 1E-3 absorbance noise for a 10 second measurement time.

  7. Improved Method to Measure Glare and Reflected Solar Irradiance - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Early Stage R&D Early Stage R&D Find More Like This Return to Search Improved Method to Measure Glare and Reflected Solar Irradiance Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (767 KB) Solar glare from aerial view Solar glare from aerial view Typical solar glare Typical solar glare

  8. Time Correlations in Backscattering Radar Reflectivity Measurements from Cirrus Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time Correlations in Backscattering Radar Reflectivity Measurements from Cirrus Clouds K. Ivanova, H. N. Shirer, and E. E. Clothiaux Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction The state variables of the atmosphere exhibit correlations at various spatial and temporal scales. These correlations are crucial for understanding short- and long-term trends in climate. Cirrus clouds are important

  9. Multiple-channel, total-reflection optic with controllable divergence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, David M.; Downing, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for providing focused x-ray, gamma-ray, charged particle and neutral particle, including neutron, radiation beams with a controllable amount of divergence are disclosed. The apparatus features a novel use of a radiation blocking structure, which, when combined with multiple-channel total reflection optics, increases the versatility of the optics by providing user-controlled output-beam divergence.

  10. Multiple-channel, total-reflection optic with controllable divergence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, D.M.; Downing, R.G.

    1997-02-18

    An apparatus and method for providing focused x-ray, gamma-ray, charged particle and neutral particle, including neutron, radiation beams with a controllable amount of divergence are disclosed. The apparatus features a novel use of a radiation blocking structure, which, when combined with multiple-channel total reflection optics, increases the versatility of the optics by providing user-controlled output-beam divergence. 11 figs.

  11. Reflection seismic mapping of an abandoned coal mine, Belleville, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, N.; Hinds, R.; Roark, M.

    1997-10-01

    Old mine location maps (1958 vintage) indicate that the northwestern part of an undeveloped property near the town of Belleville, St. Clair County, Illinois, is situated above an abandoned and now water-filled, room-and-pillar type coal mine. The central and southeast parts of the Belleville property are shown as overlying intact (non-mined) coal. The coal unit mined at the Belleville site, the Herrin No. 6 is Pennsylvanian in age and about 2.5 m thick at a depth of around 40 m. The current owners of the Belleville property want to construct a large building on the central and southeast parts of the site, but have been concerned about the accuracy of the old mine location maps because of recent mine-related surface subsidence in areas designated on the maps as not mined. To ensure that the proposed new development is located on structurally stable ground, a grid of ten high-resolution reflection seismic lines was acquired on-site. On these reflection seismic data, mined-out areas can be visually identified and differentiated from non-mined areas. The interpretation of the reflection seismic data was constrained and validated by 15 test boreholes. These seismic and borehole data confirm that the central and southeast parts of the property have not been mined extensively. Development of the Belleville site has proceeded with confidence.

  12. Inversion of seismic reflection traveltimes using a nonlinear optimization scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pullammanappallil, S.K.; Louie, J.N. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines)

    1993-11-01

    The authors present the use of a nonlinear optimization scheme called generalized simulated annealing to invert seismic reflection times for velocities, reflector depths, and lengths. A finite-difference solution of the eikonal equation computes reflection traveltimes through the velocity model and avoids ray tracing. They test the optimization scheme on synthetic models and compare it with results from a linearized inversion. The synthetic tests illustrate that, unlike linear inversion schemes, the results obtained by the optimization scheme are independent of the initial model. The annealing method has the ability to produce a suite of models that satisfy the data equally well. They make use of this property to determine the uncertainties associated with the model parameters obtained. Synthetic examples demonstrate that allowing the reflector length to vary, along with its position, helps the optimization process obtain a better solution. The authors put this to use in imaging the Garlock fault, whose geometry at depth is poorly known. They use reflection times picked from shot gathers recorded along COCORP Mojave Line 5 to invert for the Garlock fault and velocities within the Cantil Basin below Fremont Valley, California. The velocities within the basin obtained by their optimization scheme are consistent with earlier studies, though their results suggest that the basin might extend 1--2 km further south. The reconstructed reflector seems to suggest shallowing of the dip of the Garlock fault at depth.

  13. INL High Performance Building Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-02-01

    High performance buildings, also known as sustainable buildings and green buildings, are resource efficient structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reduce solid waste and pollutants, and limit the depletion of natural resources while also providing a thermally and visually comfortable working environment that increases productivity for building occupants. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish this mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate high performance sustainable design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. Additionally, INL is a large consumer of energy that contributes to both carbon emissions and resource inefficiency. In the current climate of rising energy prices and political pressure for carbon reduction, this guide will help new construction project teams to design facilities that are sustainable and reduce energy costs, thereby reducing carbon emissions. With these concerns in mind, the recommendations described in the INL High Performance Building Strategy (previously called the INL Green Building Strategy) are intended to form the INL foundation for high performance building standards. This revised strategy incorporates the latest federal and DOE orders (Executive Order [EO] 13514, “Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance” [2009], EO 13423, “Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management” [2007], and DOE Order 430.2B, “Departmental Energy, Renewable Energy, and Transportation Management” [2008]), the latest guidelines, trends, and observations in high performance building construction, and the latest changes to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) Green Building Rating System (LEED 2009). The document employs a two-level approach for high performance building at INL. The first level identifies the requirements of the Guiding Principles for Sustainable New Construction and Major Renovations, and the second level recommends which credits should be met when LEED Gold certification is required.

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Cities Reflects on 20 Years of

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels Clean Cities Reflects on 20 Years of Alternative Fuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Cities Reflects on 20 Years of Alternative Fuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Cities Reflects on 20 Years of Alternative Fuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Cities Reflects on 20 Years of Alternative Fuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Cities Reflects on 20 Years of

  15. Performance and Optimization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Performance and Optimization Performance and Optimization Benchmarking Software on Hopper and Carver PURPOSE Test the performance impact of multithreading with representative...

  16. Math Library Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Math Library Performance Math Library Performance Fully optimizing a given application's performance often requires a deep understanding of the source, an accurate profile for a ...

  17. Preliminary evaluation of the lifecycle costs and market barriers of reflective pavements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ting, M.; Koomey, J.G.; Pomerantz, M.

    2001-11-21

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the life cycle costs and market barriers associated with using reflective paving materials in streets and parking lots as a way to reduce the urban heat island effect. We calculated and compared the life cycle costs of conventional asphalt concrete (AC) pavements to those of other existing pavement technologies with higher reflectivity-portland cement concrete (PCC), porous pavements, resin pavements, AC pavements using light-colored chip seals, and AC pavements using light-colored asphalt emulsion additives. We found that for streets and parking lots, PCC can provide a cost-effective alternative to conventional AC when severely damaged pavements must be completely reconstructed. We also found that rehabilitating damaged AC streets and intersections with thin overlays of PCC (ultra-thin white topping) can often provide a cost-effective alternative to standard rehabilitation techniques using conventional AC. Chip sealing is a common maintenance treatment for low-volume streets which, when applied using light-colored chips, could provide a reflective pavement surface. If the incremental cost of using light-colored chips is low, this chip sealing method could also be cost-effective, but the incremental costs of light-colored chips are as of yet uncertain and expected to vary. Porous pavements were found to have higher life cycle costs than conventional AC in parking lots, but several cost-saving features of porous pavements fell outside the boundaries of this study. Resin pavements were found to be only slightly more expensive than conventional AC, but the uncertainties in the cost and performance data were large. The use of light-colored additives in asphalt emulsion seal coats for parking lot pavements was found to be significantly more expensive than conventional AC, reflecting its current niche market of decorative applications. We also proposed two additional approaches to increasing the reflectivity of conventional AC, which we call the chipping and aggregate methods, and calculated their potential life cycle costs. By analyzing the potential for increased pavement durability resulting from these conceptual approaches, we then estimated the incremental costs that would allow them to be cost-effective compared to conventional AC. For our example case of Los Angeles, we found that those allowable incremental costs range from less than dollar 1 to more than dollar 11 per square yard (dollar 1 to dollar 13 per square meter) depending on street type and the condition of the original pavement. Finally, we evaluated the main actors in the pavement market and the existing and potential market barriers associated with reflective pavements. Apart from situations where lifecycle costs are high compared to conventional AC, all reflective paving technologies face a cultural barrier based on the belief that black is better. For PCC, high first costs were found to be the most significant economic barrier, particularly where agencies are cons trained by first cost. Lack of developer standards was found to be a significant institutional barrier to PCC since developers are often not held accountable for the long-term maintenance of roads after initial construction, which creates a misplaced incentive to build low first-cost pavements. PCC also faces site-specific barriers such as poorly compacted base soils and proximity to areas of frequent utility cutting.

  18. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L.

    1993-12-01

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  19. Flourescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing and Facades |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Flourescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing and Facades Flourescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing and Facades Addthis 1 of 3 PPG Industries and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory are partnering to develop a new class of dark-colored pigments for cool metal roof and façade coatings that incorporate near-infrared fluorescence and reflectance to improve energy performance. Image: PPG Industries 2 of 3 Berkeley Lab Heat Island Group physicist Paul

  20. Fluorescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing and Facades |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Fluorescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing and Facades Fluorescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing and Facades 1 of 3 PPG Industries and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory are partnering to develop a new class of dark-colored pigments for cool metal roof and façade coatings that incorporate near-infrared fluorescence and reflectance to improve energy performance. Image: PPG Industries 2 of 3 Berkeley Lab Heat Island Group physicist Paul Berdahl

  1. ESPC Past Performance Questionnaire

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document offers a series of questions to evaluate a contractor’s performance during an energy savings performance contract (ESPC).

  2. Contractor Past Performance Information

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    management controls and the compliance assessments of contractor performance information. Section IV has best practices to address contractor performance information....

  3. Weather-Corrected Performance Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dierauf, T.; Growitz, A.; Kurtz, S.; Cruz, J. L. B.; Riley, E.; Hansen, C.

    2013-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system performance depends on both the quality of the system and the weather. One simple way to communicate the system performance is to use the performance ratio (PR): the ratio of the electricity generated to the electricity that would have been generated if the plant consistently converted sunlight to electricity at the level expected from the DC nameplate rating. The annual system yield for flat-plate PV systems is estimated by the product of the annual insolation in the plane of the array, the nameplate rating of the system, and the PR, which provides an attractive way to estimate expected annual system yield. Unfortunately, the PR is, again, a function of both the PV system efficiency and the weather. If the PR is measured during the winter or during the summer, substantially different values may be obtained, making this metric insufficient to use as the basis for a performance guarantee when precise confidence intervals are required. This technical report defines a way to modify the PR calculation to neutralize biases that may be introduced by variations in the weather, while still reporting a PR that reflects the annual PR at that site given the project design and the project weather file. This resulting weather-corrected PR gives more consistent results throughout the year, enabling its use as a metric for performance guarantees while still retaining the familiarity this metric brings to the industry and the value of its use in predicting actual annual system yield. A testing protocol is also presented to illustrate the use of this new metric with the intent of providing a reference starting point for contractual content.

  4. Fresnel reflection from a cavity with net roundtrip gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansuripur, Tobias S.; Mansuripur, Masud

    2014-03-24

    A planewave incident on an active etalon with net roundtrip gain may be expected to diverge in field amplitude, yet applying the Fresnel formalism to Maxwell's equations admits a convergent solution. We describe this solution mathematically and provide additional insight by demonstrating the response of such a cavity to an incident beam of light. Cavities with net roundtrip gain have often been overlooked in the literature, and a clear understanding of their behavior yields insight to negative refraction in nonmagnetic media, a duality between loss and gain, amplified total internal reflection, and the negative-index lens.

  5. Apparatus to study crystal channeling and volume reflection phenomena at the SPS H8 beamline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scandale, Walter; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Still, Dean A.; Carnera, Alberto; De Salvador, Davide; Della Mea, Gianantonio; Milan, Riccardo; Vomiero, Alberto; Baricordi, Stefano; Chiozzi, Stefano; Dalpiaz, Pietro; Damiani, Chiara; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Guidi, Vincenzo; Martinelli, Giuliano; Mazzolari, Andrea; Milan, Emiliano; Ambrosi, Giovanni; Azzarello, Philipp; Battiston, Roberto

    2008-02-15

    A high performance apparatus has been designed and built by the H8-RD22 collaboration for the study of channeling and volume reflection phenomena in the interaction of 400 GeV/c protons with bent silicon crystals, during the 2006 data taking in the external beamline H8 of the CERN SPS. High-quality silicon short crystals were bent by either anticlastic or quasimosaic effects. Alignment with the highly parallel (8 {mu}rad divergence) proton beam was guaranteed through a submicroradian goniometric system equipped with both rotational and translational stages. Particle tracking was possible by a series of silicon microstrip detectors with high-resolution and a parallel plate gas chamber, triggered by various scintillating detectors located along the beamline. Experimental observation of volume reflection with 400 GeV/c protons proved true with a deflection angle of (10.4{+-}0.5) {mu}rad with respect to the unperturbed beam, with a silicon crystal whose (111) planes were parallel to the beam.

  6. Multivariate calibration techniques applied to NIRA (near infrared reflectance analysis) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, C.L.

    1991-02-01

    Multivariate calibration techniques can reduce the time required for routine testing and can provide new methods of analysis. Multivariate calibration is commonly used with near infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Two feasibility studies were performed to determine the capability of NIRA, using multivariate calibration techniques, to perform analyses on the types of samples that are routinely analyzed at this laboratory. The first study performed included a variety of samples and indicated that NIRA would be well-suited to perform analyses on selected materials properties such as water content and hydroxyl number on polyol samples, epoxy content on epoxy resins, water content of desiccants, and the amine values of various amine cure agents. A second study was performed to assess the capability of NIRA to perform quantitative analysis of hydroxyl numbers and water contents of hydroxyl-containing materials. Hydroxyl number and water content were selected for determination because these tests are frequently run on polyol materials and the hydroxyl number determination is time consuming. This study pointed out the necessity of obtaining calibration standards identical to the samples being analyzed for each type of polyol or other material being analyzed. Multivariate calibration techniques are frequently used with FTIR data to determine the composition of a large variety of complex mixtures. A literature search indicated many applications of multivariate calibration to FTIR data. Areas identified where quantitation by FTIR would provide a new capability are quantitation of components in epoxy and silicone resins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in oils, and additives to polymers. 19 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Diffuse reflectance FTIR of stains on grit blasted metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, G.L.; Hallman, R.L. Jr.; Cox, R.L.

    1997-08-09

    Diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy has been applied to the detection of oil contamination on grit-blasted metals. The object of this application is to detect and discriminate between silicone and hydrocarbon oil contamination at levels approaching 10 mg/m{sup 2}. A portable FTIR spectrometer with dedicated diffuse reflectance optics was developed for this purpose. Using translation devices positioned by instructions from the spectrometer operating system, images of macroscopic substrates were produced with millimeter spatial resolution. The pixels that comprise an image are each a full mid-infrared spectrum with excellent signal-to-noise, each determined as individual files and uniquely saved to disc. Reduced spectra amplitudes, based on peak height, area, or other chemometric techniques, mapped as a function of the spatial coordinates of the pixel are used to display the image. This paper demonstrates the application of the technique to the analysis of stains on grit-blasted metals, including the calibration of the method, the inspection of substrates, and the migration of oil contamination.

  8. 'Water window' sources: Selection based on the interplay of spectral properties and multilayer reflection bandwidth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Otsuka, Takamitsu; Jiang, Weihua; Endo, Akira

    2013-01-28

    Development of laser-produced plasma 'water window' sources poses a major challenge in x-ray research and most effort has focused on line sources for use with zone plate optics. Here, a comparison of carbon and nitrogen line emission with that from both 3d - 4f and 4d - 4f unresolved transition arrays shows that, at power densities available from 'table-top' solid-state lasers, 3d - 4f emission from zirconium plasmas is most intense, and calculations show that in an imaging system based on multilayer mirrors, for reflectance bandwidths >1% has superior performance than either line or broader-band sources. For bandwidths <1%, line sources are preferable.

  9. Assessing the use of reflectance spectroscopy in determining CsCl stress in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martinez, N. E.; Sharp, J. L.; Kuhne, W. W.; Johnson, T. E.; Stafford, C. T.; Duff, M. C.

    2015-11-23

    Here, reflectance spectroscopy is a rapid and non-destructive analytical technique that may be used for assessing plant stress, and has potential applications for use in remediation. Changes in reflectance such as that due to metal stress may occur before damage is visible, and existing studies have shown that metal stress does cause changes in plant reflectance. To further investigate the potential use of reflectance spectroscopy as a method for assessing metal stress in plants, an exploratory study was conducted in which Arabidopsis thaliana plants were treated twice weekly in a laboratory setting with varying levels (0, 0.5, or 5 mMmore » (millimolar)) of caesium chloride (CsCl) solution, and reflectance spectra were collected every week for three weeks using an Analytical Spectral Devices FieldSpec Pro spectroradiometer with both a contact probe (CP) and a field of view (FOV) probe at 36.8 and 66.7 cm, respectively, above the plant. Plants were harvested each week after spectra collection for determination of relative water content and chlorophyll content. A visual assessment of the plants was also conducted using point observations on a uniform grid of 81 points. A mixed-effects model analysis was conducted for each vegetation index (VI) considered to determine the effects of length of treatment, treatment level, view with which spectra were acquired, and the interactions of these terms. Two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were performed on the aforementioned endpoints (e.g. chlorophyll content) to determine the significance of the effects of treatment level and length of treatment. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to develop a predictive model for each endpoint, considering VI acquired at each view (CP, high FOV, and low FOV). Of the 14 VI considered, 8 were included in the MLR models. Contact probe readings and FOV readings differed significantly, but FOV measurements were generally consistent at each height.« less

  10. Presidential Performance Contracting Challenge: Performance Toward...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presidential Performance Contracting Challenge Status graphic. May 9, 2014, the president announced an additional 2 billion goal in federal energy-efficiency upgrades to federal...

  11. Presidential Performance Contracting Challenge: Performance Toward...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    091515 President's Performance Contracting Challenge Status (September 15, 2015) Pipeline: Amount of project costs in procurement process and expected to award. Awarded:...

  12. Reduction in Vehicle Temperatures and Fuel Use from Cabin Ventilation, Solar-Reflective Paint, and a New Solar-Reflective Glazing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Meyer, J.; Rustagi, M.; Olson, K.; Kogler, R.

    2007-05-01

    An analysis to determine the impact of reducing the thermal load on a vehicle using solar-reflective paint and glazing.

  13. V-142: Oracle Java Reflection API Flaw Lets Remote Users Execute...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: Oracle Java Reflection API Flaw Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code V-142: Oracle Java Reflection API Flaw Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code April 25, 2013 - 12:14am...

  14. Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations This...

  15. A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify the Seismic Response of ... A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify the Seismic Response of ...

  16. Writing Performance Objectives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Couse Description: This course provides the opportunity for supervisors and managers to write performance objectives or performance standards based on the department’s performance management system.

  17. Distributed performance counters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Kristan D; Evans, Kahn C; Gara, Alan; Satterfield, David L

    2013-11-26

    A plurality of first performance counter modules is coupled to a plurality of processing cores. The plurality of first performance counter modules is operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of processing cores respectively. A plurality of second performance counter modules are coupled to a plurality of L2 cache units, and the plurality of second performance counter modules are operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of L2 cache units respectively. A central performance counter module may be operable to coordinate counter data from the plurality of first performance counter modules and the plurality of second performance modules, the a central performance counter module, the plurality of first performance counter modules, and the plurality of second performance counter modules connected by a daisy chain connection.

  18. Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of silicon surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toor, Fatima; Branz, Howard

    2014-08-26

    A method (300) for etching a silicon surface (116) to reduce reflectivity. The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 nanometers in size on the silicon surface (116), with a particle-to-particle spacing of 3 to 8 nanometers. The method (300) includes positioning (310) the substrate (112) with a silicon surface (116) into a vessel (122). The vessel (122) is filled (340) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface (116). The etching solution (124) includes an oxidant-etchant solution (146), e.g., an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The silicon surface (116) is etched (350) by agitating the etching solution (124) with, for example, ultrasonic agitation, and the etching may include heating (360) the etching solution (124) and directing light (365) onto the silicon surface (116). During the etching, copper nanoparticles enhance or drive the etching process.

  19. Volume Reflection of a Proton Beam in a Bent Crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, Yu. M.; Petrunin, A. A.; Skorobogatov, V. V.; Gavrikov, Yu. A.; Gelamkov, A. V.; Lapina, L. P.; Schetkovsky, A. I.; Vavilov, S. A.; Baranov, V. I.; Chesnokov, Yu. A.; Afonin, A. G.; Baranov, V. T.; Chepegin, V. N.; Guidi, V.; Vomiero, A.

    2006-10-06

    Volume reflection predicted in the mid-1980s by Taratin and Vorobiev has been observed for the first time in the interactions of a 70 GeV proton beam with a short bent crystal. Incident protons deviate from convex atomic planes in the bulk of the crystal as a result of coherent interaction with bent lattice around the tangency point of particle trajectory with a curved atomic plane. The deflection angle 2{theta}{sub R} was found to be (39.5{+-}2.0) {mu}rad, or (1.65{+-}0.08){theta}{sub c} in terms of the critical angle for channeling. The process has a large probability with respect to channeling and takes place in the angular range equal to the bend angle of atomic planes. It could possibly open new fields of application of crystals in high-energy particle beam optics.

  20. Method of fabricating reflection-mode EUV diffusers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Erik; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2005-03-01

    Techniques for fabricating well-controlled, random relief, engineered surfaces that serve as substrates for EUV optical devices are accomplished with grayscale exposure. The method of fabricating a multilevel EUV optical element includes: (a) providing a substrate; (b) depositing a layer of curable material on a surface of the substrate; (c) creating a relief profile in a layer of cured material from the layer of curable material wherein the relief profile comprises multiple levels of cured material that has a defined contour; and (d) depositing a multilayer reflection film over the relief profile wherein the film has an outer contour that substantially matches that of the relief profile. The curable material can comprise photoresist or a low dielectric constant material.

  1. Impact of Sungate EP on PHEV Performance: Results of a Simulated Solar Reflective Glass PHEV Dynamometer Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J.

    2009-06-01

    Composite fuel economy of a plug-in hybrid electric test vehicle increased 8% to 41.6 mpg because of the reduction in thermal loads from Sungate EP glazings installed in the windshield and backlite.

  2. Performance and Optimization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    application runtimes vs node placement. Read More Hopper Performance Monitoring Benchmarking performance of scientific applications on Hopper Read More Hopper:Improving IO...

  3. Performance Analysis with Vampir

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (frank.winkler@tu-dresden.de) Performance Analysis with Vampir Disclaimer Performance tools will not automatically make you code run faster. They help you understand, what your...

  4. High Performance Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HPC INL Logo Home High-Performance Computing INL's high-performance computing center provides general use scientific computing capabilities to support the lab's efforts in advanced...

  5. PV Reliability & Performance Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reliability & Performance Model - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... Twitter Google + Vimeo GovDelivery SlideShare PV Reliability & Performance Model Home...

  6. PV Performance and Reliability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Performance and Reliability - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... Twitter Google + Vimeo GovDelivery SlideShare PV Performance and Reliability Home...

  7. DOE/IG Annual Performance Report FY 2008, Annual Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOEIG Annual Performance Report FY 2008, Annual Performance Plan FY 2009 DOEIG Annual Performance Report FY 2008, Annual Performance Plan FY 2009 DOEIG Annual Performance Report ...

  8. 2010 DOE Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan - Report to the White

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    House Council on Environmental Quality and Office of Management and Budget | Department of Energy 10 DOE Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan - Report to the White House Council on Environmental Quality and Office of Management and Budget 2010 DOE Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan - Report to the White House Council on Environmental Quality and Office of Management and Budget Sustainability is fundamental to the Department of Energy's research mission and operations as reflected

  9. Improving Radar Antenna Performance with Eigenvalue Processing of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects | Department of Energy Improving Performance of Federal Permitting and Review of Infrastructure Projects Improving Performance of Federal Permitting and Review of Infrastructure Projects The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Electricity and Energy Reliability has built upon its ongoing effort to reflect the Obama Administration's commitment to improving the resiliency, reliability, and security of the nation's electricity delivery system by announcing the upcoming

  10. Improving Performance of Federal Permitting and Review of Infrastructure

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Projects | Department of Energy Improving Performance of Federal Permitting and Review of Infrastructure Projects Improving Performance of Federal Permitting and Review of Infrastructure Projects The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Electricity and Energy Reliability has built upon its ongoing effort to reflect the Obama Administration's commitment to improving the resiliency, reliability, and security of the nation's electricity delivery system by announcing the upcoming

  11. Math Library Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Math Library Performance Math Library Performance Fully optimizing a given application's performance often requires a deep understanding of the source, an accurate profile for a representative run, and the ability to have changes to the source accepted upstream. However, in many cases, significant performance gains can be achieved by simply optimizing the code over the matrix of possible compilers, compiler options and libraries available on a given machine. Here, we explore the performance

  12. Clouds on the hot Jupiter HD189733b: Constraints from the reflection spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barstow, J. K.; Aigrain, S.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Hackler, T.; Fletcher, L. N.; Lee, J. M.; Gibson, N. P.

    2014-05-10

    The hot Jupiter HD 189733b is probably the best studied of the known extrasolar planets, with published transit and eclipse spectra covering the near UV to mid-IR range. Recent work on the transmission spectrum has shown clear evidence for the presence of clouds in its atmosphere, which significantly increases the model atmosphere parameter space that must be explored in order to fully characterize this planet. In this work, we apply the NEMESIS atmospheric retrieval code to the recently published HST/STIS reflection spectrum, and also to the dayside thermal emission spectrum in light of new Spitzer/IRAC measurements, as well as our own re-analysis of the HST/NICMOS data. We first use the STIS data to place some constraints on the nature of clouds on HD 189733b and explore solution degeneracy between different cloud properties and the abundance of Na in the atmosphere; as already noted in previous work, absorption due to Na plays a significant role in determining the shape of the reflection spectrum. We then perform a new retrieval of the temperature profile and abundances of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CO, and CH{sub 4} from the dayside thermal emission spectrum. Finally, we investigate the effect of including cloud in the model on this retrieval process. We find that the current quality of data does not warrant the extra complexity introduced by including cloud in the model; however, future data are likely to be of sufficient resolution and signal-to-noise that a more complete model, including scattering particles, will be required.

  13. Phase coherence and Andreev reflection in topological insulator devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Finck, A. D. K.; Kurter, C.; Hor, Y. S.; Van Harlingen, D. J.

    2014-11-04

    Topological insulators (TIs) have attracted immense interest because they host helical surface states. Protected by time-reversal symmetry, they are robust to nonmagnetic disorder. When superconductivity is induced in these helical states, they are predicted to emulate p-wave pairing symmetry, with Majorana states bound to vortices. Majorana bound states possess non-Abelian exchange statistics that can be probed through interferometry. Here, we take a significant step towards Majorana interferometry by observing pronounced Fabry-Pérot oscillations in a TI sandwiched between a superconducting and a normal lead. For energies below the superconducting gap, we observe a doubling in the frequency of the oscillations, arisingmore » from an additional phase from Andreev reflection. When a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the TI surface, a number of very sharp and gate-tunable conductance peaks appear at or near zero energy, which has consequences for interpreting spectroscopic probes of Majorana fermions. Our results show that TIs are a promising platform for exploring phase-coherent transport in a solid-state system.« less

  14. Three-dimensional light trap for reflective particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neal, Daniel R.

    1999-01-01

    A system for containing either a reflective particle or a particle having an index of refraction lower than that of the surrounding media in a three-dimensional light cage. A light beam from a single source illuminates an optics system and generates a set of at least three discrete focussed beams that emanate from a single exit aperture and focus on to a focal plane located close to the particle. The set of focal spots defines a ring that surrounds the particle. The set of focussed beams creates a "light cage" and circumscribes a zone of no light within which the particle lies. The surrounding beams apply constraining forces (created by radiation pressure) to the particle, thereby containing it in a three-dimensional force field trap. A diffractive element, such as an aperture multiplexed lens, or either a Dammann grating or phase element in combination with a focusing lens, may be used to generate the beams. A zoom lens may be used to adjust the size of the light cage, permitting particles of various sizes to be captured and contained.

  15. Three-dimensional light trap for reflective particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neal, D.R.

    1999-08-17

    A system is disclosed for containing either a reflective particle or a particle having an index of refraction lower than that of the surrounding media in a three-dimensional light cage. A light beam from a single source illuminates an optics system and generates a set of at least three discrete focused beams that emanate from a single exit aperture and focus on to a focal plane located close to the particle. The set of focal spots defines a ring that surrounds the particle. The set of focused beams creates a ``light cage`` and circumscribes a zone of no light within which the particle lies. The surrounding beams apply constraining forces (created by radiation pressure) to the particle, thereby containing it in a three-dimensional force field trap. A diffractive element, such as an aperture multiplexed lens, or either a Dammann grating or phase element in combination with a focusing lens, may be used to generate the beams. A zoom lens may be used to adjust the size of the light cage, permitting particles of various sizes to be captured and contained. 10 figs.

  16. Criticality Benchmark Analysis of Water-Reflected Uranium Oxyfluoride Slabs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

    2009-11-01

    A series of twelve experiments were conducted in the mid 1950's at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility to determine the critical conditions of a semi-infinite water-reflected slab of aqueous uranium oxyfluoride (UO2F2). A different slab thickness was used for each experiment. Results from the twelve experiment recorded in the laboratory notebook were published in Reference 1. Seven of the twelve experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments for the inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. This evaluation will not only be available to handbook users for the validation of computer codes and integral cross-section data, but also for the reevaluation of experimental data used in the ANSI/ANS-8.1 standard. This evaluation is important as part of the technical basis of the subcritical slab limits in ANSI/ANS-8.1. The original publication of the experimental results was used for the determination of bias and bias uncertainties for subcritical slab limits, as documented by Hugh Clark's paper 'Subcritical Limits for Uranium-235 Systems'.

  17. Phase coherence and Andreev reflection in topological insulator devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finck, A. D. K.; Kurter, C.; Hor, Y. S.; Van Harlingen, D. J.

    2014-11-04

    Topological insulators (TIs) have attracted immense interest because they host helical surface states. Protected by time-reversal symmetry, they are robust to nonmagnetic disorder. When superconductivity is induced in these helical states, they are predicted to emulate p-wave pairing symmetry, with Majorana states bound to vortices. Majorana bound states possess non-Abelian exchange statistics that can be probed through interferometry. Here, we take a significant step towards Majorana interferometry by observing pronounced Fabry-Prot oscillations in a TI sandwiched between a superconducting and a normal lead. For energies below the superconducting gap, we observe a doubling in the frequency of the oscillations, arising from an additional phase from Andreev reflection. When a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the TI surface, a number of very sharp and gate-tunable conductance peaks appear at or near zero energy, which has consequences for interpreting spectroscopic probes of Majorana fermions. Our results show that TIs are a promising platform for exploring phase-coherent transport in a solid-state system.

  18. Water-Moderated and -Reflected Slabs of Uranium Oxyfluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; Clinton Gross

    2010-09-01

    A series of ten experiments were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiment Facility in December 1955, and January 1956, in an attempt to determine critical conditions for a slab of aqueous uranium oxyfluoride (UO2F2). These experiments were recorded in an Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Logbook and results were published in a journal of the American Nuclear Society, Nuclear Science and Engineering, by J. K. Fox, L. W. Gilley, and J. H. Marable (Reference 1). The purpose of these experiments was to obtain the minimum critical thickness of an effectively infinite slab of UO2F2 solution by extrapolation of experimental data. To do this the slab thickness was varied and critical solution and water-reflector heights were measured using two different fuel solutions. Of the ten conducted experiments eight of the experiments reached critical conditions but the results of only six of the experiments were published in Reference 1. All ten experiments were evaluated from which five critical configurations were judged as acceptable criticality safety benchmarks. The total uncertainty in the acceptable benchmarks is between 0.25 and 0.33 % ?k/keff. UO2F2 fuel is also evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-043, HEU-SOL-THERM-011, and HEU-SOL-THERM-012, but these those evaluation reports are for large reflected and unreflected spheres. Aluminum cylinders of UO2F2 are evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-050.

  19. Performance on Edison

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Edison Performance Performance on Edison October 10, 2013 Edison-system.pdf.jpg Thursday, Oct. 10, 2013 9:00 a.m. to 2:15 p.m. PDT Attendance: 121 (111 online, 10 local) Location...

  20. Contractor Past Performance Information

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Examples of supportable program and contract management data include cost performance reports, customer comments, quality reviews, technical interchange meetings, financial ...

  1. Performance and Optimization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimization Performance and Optimization Compiler Comparisons Comparison of different compilers with different options on several benchmarks. Read More » Using OpenMP Effectively Performance implications and case studies of codes combining MPI and OpenMP Read More » Reordering MPI Ranks Reordering MPI ranks can result in improved application performance depending on the communication patterns of the application. Read More » Application Performance Variability on Hopper How an application is

  2. Contractor Past Performance Information

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2013) 3 the use of contractor performance information, outlines associated management responsibilities that agency Chief Acquisition Officers (CAOs) and Senior...

  3. IR DIAL performance modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharlemann, E.T.

    1994-07-01

    We are developing a DIAL performance model for CALIOPE at LLNL. The intent of the model is to provide quick and interactive parameter sensitivity calculations with immediate graphical output. A brief overview of the features of the performance model is given, along with an example of performance calculations for a non-CALIOPE application.

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1–March 31, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, DL

    2010-04-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime.

  5. High Performance Home Cost Performance Trade-Offs: Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Performance Home Cost Performance Trade-Offs: Production Builders - Building America Top Innovation High Performance Home Cost Performance Trade-Offs: Production Builders - ...

  6. Doubles counting of highly multiplying items in reflective surroundings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croft, Stephen; Evans, Louise G; Schear, Melissa A; Tobin, Stephen J

    2010-11-18

    When a neutrons are counted from a spontaneously fissile multiplying item in a reflecting environment the temporal behavior of the correlated signal following neutron birth is complex. At early times the signal is dominated by prompt fission events coming from spontaneous fission bursts and also from prompt fast-neutron induced fission events. At later times neutrons 'returning' from the surroundings induce fission and give rise to an additional chain of correlated events. The prompt and returning components probe the fissile and fertile constituents of the item in different ways and it is potentially beneficial to exploit this fact. In this work we look at how the two components can be represented using a linear combination of two simple functions. Fitting of the composite function to the capture time distribution represents one way of quantifying the proportion of each contribution. Another approach however is to use a dual shift register analysis where after each triggering event two coincidence gates are opened, one close to the trigger that responds preferentially to the prompt dynamics and one later in time which is more sensitive to the returning neutron induced events. To decide on the best gate positions and gate widths and also to estimate the counting precision we can use the analytical fit to work out the necessary gate utilization factors which are required in both these calculations. In this work, we develop the approach. Illustrative examples are given using spent Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Pressurized light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies submersed in borated water and counted in a ring of {sup 3}He gas-filled proportional counters. In this case the prompt component is dominated by {sup 244}Cm spontaneous fission and induced fast neutron fission in for example {sup 238}U while the returning low energy neutrons induce fission mainly in the fissile nuclides such as {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu and {sup 235}U. One requirement is to calculate the Random Triggered Interrogation Gate Utilization Factor needed to make a priori precision estimates but not available from Monte Carlo simulation code MCNPX.

  7. Coincident P and Sh reflections from basement rocks at Coso geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is being done to improve the statics, velocities, signal character, and migrated signal positions. The main targets of the profiles were (1) exploring the reflection...

  8. Reflection Survey At Soda Lake Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Soda Lake Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Soda Lake Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  9. Reflection Survey At Rye Patch Area (DOE GTP, 2011) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE GTP, 2011) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Rye Patch Area (DOE GTP, 2011) Exploration Activity Details...

  10. Reflection Survey At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  11. Reflection Survey At New River Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New River Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At New River Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  12. Reflection mass spectrometry technique for monitoring and controlling composition during molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Tsao, J.Y.

    1992-12-15

    A method for on-line accurate monitoring and precise control of molecular beam epitaxial growth of Groups III-III-V or Groups III-V-V layers in an advanced semiconductor device incorporates reflection mass spectrometry. The reflection mass spectrometry is responsive to intentional perturbations in molecular fluxes incident on a substrate by accurately measuring the molecular fluxes reflected from the substrate. The reflected flux is extremely sensitive to the state of the growing surface and the measurements obtained enable control of newly forming surfaces that are dynamically changing as a result of growth. 3 figs.

  13. Reflection mass spectrometry technique for monitoring and controlling composition during molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brennan, Thomas M.; Hammons, B. Eugene; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.

    1992-01-01

    A method for on-line accurate monitoring and precise control of molecular beam epitaxial growth of Groups III-III-V or Groups III-V-V layers in an advanced semiconductor device incorporates reflection mass spectrometry. The reflection mass spectrometry is responsive to intentional perturbations in molecular fluxes incident on a substrate by accurately measuring the molecular fluxes reflected from the substrate. The reflected flux is extremely sensitive to the state of the growing surface and the measurements obtained enable control of newly forming surfaces that are dynamically changing as a result of growth.

  14. Reflection Survey At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  15. Production of Solar Reflective Materials Using a Laboratory-Scale Roll Coater: Final Subcontract Report, September 30, 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smilgys, R.

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) in fulfillment of a contract with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The work described here is a continuation of work performed on an earlier contract (YAR-5-15005-01). The goal of the work has been to demonstrate that it is possible to produce a durable low-cost reflector for solar-thermal-electric power systems. The core technology is a technique called ion-beam-assisted physical vapor deposition to produce a silvered reflector with a protective alumina coating. In the previous contract, SAIC optimized the coating process for batch coating. In this contract, we transitioned the coating process from batch coating to roll coating. In the course of the contract, we successfully designed and built a laboratory-scale web handling machine; integrated the machine into the existing SAIC coating chamber; and roll-coated material using an alumina deposition rate as high as 20 nm/s. For a set of optimized parameters, the reflective material was highly reflective and well adhered.

  16. Background and Reflections on the Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Despite the ever-growing body of life cycle assessment literature on electricity generation technologies, inconsistent methods and assumptions hamper comparison across studies and pooling of published results. Synthesis of the body of previous research is necessary to generate robust results to assess and compare environmental performance of different energy technologies for the benefit of policy makers, managers, investors, and citizens. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory initiated the LCA Harmonization Project in an effort to rigorously leverage the numerous individual studies to develop collective insights.

  17. Buildings Performance Database Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overview Buildings.energy.gov/BPD BuildingsPerformanceDatabase@ee.doe.gov 2 * The BPD statistically analyzes trends in the energy performance and physical & operational characteristics of real commercial and residential buildings. The Buildings Performance Database 3 Design Principles * The BPD contains actual data on existing buildings - not modeled data or anecdotal evidence. * The BPD enables statistical analysis without revealing information about individual buildings. * The BPD cleanses

  18. Monthly Performance Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Monthly Performance Report September 2015 W. K. Johnson President U.S. Department of Energy Contract DE-AC06-09RL14728 MSC Monthly Performance Report SEP 2015 DOE/RL-2009-113 Rev 72 ii This page intentionally left blank. CONTENTS MSC Monthly Performance Report SEP 2015 DOE/RL-2009-113 Rev 72 iii CONTENTS EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW 1.0 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Key Accomplishments

  19. Monthly Performance Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 Monthly Performance Report January 2016 W. K. Johnson President U.S. Department of Energy Contract DE-AC06-09RL14728 MSC Monthly Performance Report JAN 2016 DOE/RL-2009-113 Rev 76 ii This page intentionally left blank. CONTENTS MSC Monthly Performance Report JAN 2016 DOE/RL-2009-113 Rev 76 iii CONTENTS EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW 1.0 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Key Accomplishments

  20. MSC Monthly Performance Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Monthly Performance Report August 2013 F. Armijo President and General Manager U.S. Department of Energy Contract DE-AC06-09RL14728 MSC Monthly Performance Report AUG 2013 DOE/RL-2009-113 Rev 47 ii This page intentionally left blank. CONTENTS MSC Monthly Performance Report AUG 2013 DOE/RL-2009-113 Rev 47 iii CONTENTS EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW 1.0 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Key Accomplishments

  1. MSC Monthly Performance Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Monthly Performance Report February 2010 F.A. Figueroa President and General Manager U.S. Department of Energy Contract DE-AC06-09RL14728 MSC Monthly Performance Report February 2010 DOE/RL-2009-113 REV 5 ii This page intentionally left blank. CONTENTS MSC Monthly Performance Report February 2010 DOE/RL-2009-113 REV 5 iii CONTENTS OVERVIEW 1.0 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Key

  2. MSC Monthly Performance Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monthly Performance Report November 2009 F.A. Figueroa President and General Manager U.S. Department of Energy Contract DE-AC06-09RL14728 MSC Monthly Performance Report November 2009 DOE/RL-2009-113 REV 2 ii This page intentionally left blank. CONTENTS MSC Monthly Performance Report November 2009 DOE/RL-2009-113 REV 2 iii CONTENTS OVERVIEW 1.0 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Key

  3. MSC Monthly Performance Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Monthly Performance Report May 2010 F. Armijo President and General Manager U.S. Department of Energy Contract DE-AC06-09RL14728 MSC Monthly Performance Report May 2010 DOE/RL-2009-113 REV 8 ii This page intentionally left blank. CONTENTS MSC Monthly Performance Report May 2010 DOE/RL-2009-113 REV 8 iii CONTENTS OVERVIEW 1.0 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Key Accomplishments

  4. MSC Monthly Performance Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Monthly Performance Report July 2011 F. Armijo President and General Manager U.S. Department of Energy Contract DE-AC06-09RL14728 MSC Monthly Performance Report July 2011 DOE/RL-2009-113 REV 22 ii This page intentionally left blank. CONTENTS MSC Monthly Performance Report July 2011 DOE/RL-2009-113 REV 22 iii CONTENTS OVERVIEW 1.0 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Key Accomplishments

  5. MSC Monthly Performance Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Monthly Performance Report June 2011 F. Armijo President and General Manager U.S. Department of Energy Contract DE-AC06-09RL14728 MSC Monthly Performance Report June 2011 DOE/RL-2009-113 REV 21 ii This page intentionally left blank. CONTENTS MSC Monthly Performance Report June 2011 DOE/RL-2009-113 REV 21 iii CONTENTS OVERVIEW 1.0 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Key Accomplishments

  6. MSC Monthly Performance Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Monthly Performance Report March 2011 F. Armijo President and General Manager U.S. Department of Energy Contract DE-AC06-09RL14728 MSC Monthly Performance Report March 2011 DOE/RL-2009-113 REV 18 ii This page intentionally left blank. CONTENTS MSC Monthly Performance Report March 2011 DOE/RL-2009-113 REV 18 iii CONTENTS OVERVIEW 1.0 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Key Accomplishments

  7. MSC Monthly Performance Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Monthly Performance Report May 2011 F. Armijo President and General Manager U.S. Department of Energy Contract DE-AC06-09RL14728 MSC Monthly Performance Report May 2011 DOE/RL-2009-113 REV 20 ii This page intentionally left blank. CONTENTS MSC Monthly Performance Report May 2011 DOE/RL-2009-113 REV 20 iii CONTENTS OVERVIEW 1.0 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Key Accomplishments

  8. MSC Monthly Performance Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 Monthly Performance Report November 2011 F. Armijo President and General Manager U.S. Department of Energy Contract DE-AC06-09RL14728 MSC Monthly Performance Report Nov 2011 DOE/RL-2009-113 Rev 26 ii This page intentionally left blank. CONTENTS MSC Monthly Performance Report Nov 2011 DOE/RL-2009-113 Rev 26 iii CONTENTS EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW 1.0 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Key

  9. Performance Measurement Analysis System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-06-01

    The PMAS4.0 (Performance Measurement Analysis System) is a user-oriented system designed to track the cost and schedule performance of Department of Energy (DOE) major projects (MPs) and major system acquisitions (MSAs) reporting under DOE Order 5700.4A, Project Management System. PMAS4.0 provides for the analysis of performance measurement data produced from management control systems complying with the Federal Government''s Cost and Schedule Control Systems Criteria.

  10. High Performance Energy Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Performance Energy Management Reduce energy use and meet your business objectives By applying continuous improvement practices similar to Lean and Six Sigma, the BPA Energy Smart...

  11. Application Porting and Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    opportunities, and manage multiple hierarchies of memory effectively. In the web pages that follow we document strategies for improving your application's performance....

  12. Improving Contractor Past Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Federal Procurement Policy, (OFPP) performed an assessment of how well some agencies, including the Department of Energy, are managing these efforts. The attached OFPP memorandum of January 21, 2011, entitled "Improving the Use of Contractor Performance Information Assessments: Summary of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy's review, and Strategies for Improvement" provides the details of this assessment which includes the Department of Energy. Also, the memo provides some very good guidance on preparing contractor performance evaluation reports. The Acquisition Guide Chapter 42.15 Contractor Performance Information incorporates the guidance that is not otherwise part of the Chapter. Revisions are made to Section II – Parts C and I.

  13. Guidelines for Performance Measurement

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-06-30

    Federal agencies, states, businesses, and foreign governments are increasingly relying on performance measurement information to help chart progress in increasingly frugal times. No cancellations.

  14. Performance and Optimization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Math Library Performance Core Specialization Hyper-Threading DLFM library tools for large ... The compilers are also compared against one another on the... Read More Math Library ...

  15. Advances in Performance Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    safety of geologic repositories for radioactive waste disposal called "performance assessment", PA. The discipline of PA continues to advance within the Defense Waste Management...

  16. Monthly Performance Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... intended to provide an executive-level performance overview. ... Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization Program, which ... Facilities and Land Management team continued ...

  17. Monthly Performance Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... intended to provide an executive-level performance overview. ... On-time delivery status at Waste Sampling and ... PD Project Development. PMTO Portfolio Management Task ...

  18. Monthly Performance Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... intended to provide an executive-level performance overview. ... to Program Data and Management System (PDMS) for use in ... Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) On-Time ...

  19. Monthly Performance Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... to provide an executive-level performance overview. ... Report JAN 2012 DOERL-2009-113 Rev 28 2 of ... - MSA Information Management (IM) continues ...

  20. Contractor Past Performance Information

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... satisfactory performance record or lack of satisfactory record of integrity and business ethics; and o The Small Business Administration does not issue a Certificate of Competency. ...

  1. Hopper Performance and Optimization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Performance and Optimization Compiler Comparisons Comparison of different compilers with different options on several benchmarks. Read More Using OpenMP Effectively...

  2. Monthly Performance Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... proper lifting techniques, and daily stretching and flexing. ... in support of spent fuel activities. 9302014 930... TOTAL OBJECTIVE FEE POOL 5.0 Comprehensive Performance - ...

  3. Monthly Performance Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... will be increasing WIPP shipments to a daily frequency. ... with integrated scheduling and performance evaluation. ... the planned use of 45,000 gallons of diesel fuel per day. ...

  4. ARM - 2008 Performance Metrics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Performance Metrics Science Research Themes Research Highlights Journal Articles Collaborations Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Earth System Modeling Regional & Global Climate...

  5. ARM - 2006 Performance Metrics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 Performance Metrics Science Research Themes Research Highlights Journal Articles Collaborations Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Earth System Modeling Regional & Global Climate...

  6. ARM - 2009 Performance Metrics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Performance Metrics Science Research Themes Research Highlights Journal Articles Collaborations Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Earth System Modeling Regional & Global Climate...

  7. Contractor Past Performance Information

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    officers as they evaluate the integrity and performance of prospective contractors. ... 52.209-8) Contractor Sampling, random inspection of the FAPIIS and other relevant sources. ...

  8. HVAC Performance Maps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... models for building energy simulation tools (mathematical framework - what are the right ... integrated HPWHs were performance mapped in NREL's Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory. ...

  9. Multifamily Performance Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under NYSERDA’s Multifamily Performance Program (MPP), new construction of multifamily buildings and existing multifamily buildings are eligible for incentives that improve energy savings through...

  10. High Performance Sustainable Buildings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    science and bioscience capabiities. Occupational Medicine will become a High Performance Sustainable Building in 2013. On the former County landfill, a photovoltaic array field...

  11. Sustainability Performance Office News

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    management-spo1461771 Sustainability Performance Office News en Executive Order 13693 Training Now Available On Demand http:energy.govmanagementspoarticles...

  12. Contractor Past Performance Information

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    performance record or lack of satisfactory record of integrity and business ethics; and o The Small Business Administration does not issue a Certificate of Competency....

  13. Total internal reflection fluorescence spectrometer to study dynamic adsorption phenomena at liquid/liquid interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tupy, M.J.; Blanch, H.W.; Radke, C.J.

    1998-08-01

    Adsorption at oil/water interfaces affects the performance of many industrial systems including oil recovery, extraction processes, cosmetic products, and food technology. However, no technique currently available can monitor adsorption dynamics using molecularly sensitive methods. The authors have constructed a novel total internal reflection fluorescence spectrometer (TIRFS) to follow dynamic adsorption events at the oil/water interface. The TIRFS monitors changes in fluorescence intensity and fluorescence spectra over time by maintaining an optical focus on the fluid interface during adsorption and desorption processes. Kinetic adsorption phenomena are examined by altering the composition of the aqueous phase and recording surface fluorescence response without mechanically disturbing the fluid/fluid interface. The spectrometer captures changes in the fluorescence intensity over tenths of seconds and maintains optical focus for periods of days. Mass transport of fluorescing surface-active material to and from the oil/water interface is accurately modeled using the simple one-dimensional diffusion equation. The geometry designed for this apparatus can be applied to other light-based techniques studying adsorption at liquid/liquid interfaces. Here, the authors apply the TIRFS apparatus to the study of {beta}-casein adsorption and desorption at an aliphatic oil/water interface. The observed increase in interfacial fluorescence due to {beta}-casein adsorption is slower than the diffusive flux, and desorption is found to be very slow if not irreversible. The TIRF spectrum indicates interaction of sorbed {beta}-casein with the oil phase and subsequent rearrangement of the native structure.

  14. Elucidation of Perovskite Film Micro-Orientations Using Two-Photon Total Internal Reflectance Fluorescence Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, Brianna R; Yang, Bin; Xiao, Kai; Ma, Yingzhong; Doughty, Benjamin L; Calhoun, Tessa R

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of efficient hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite photovoltaic materials has caused the rapid development of a variety of preparation and processing techniques designed to maximize their performance. As processing methods continue to emerge, it is important to understand how the optical properties of these materials are affected on a microscopic scale. Here polarization resolved two-photon total internal reflectance microscopy (TIRFM) was used to probe changes in transition dipole moment orientation as a function of thermal annealing time in hybrid organic-inorganic lead iodide based perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) thin films on glass. These results show that as thermal annealing time is increased the distribution of transition moments pointing out-of-plane decreases in favor of forming areas with increased in-plane orientations. It was also shown through the axial sensitivity of TIRFM that the surface topography is manifested in the signal intensity and can be used to survey aspects of morphology in coincidence with the optical properties of these films.

  15. Elucidation of perovskite film micro-orientations using two-photon total internal reflectance fluorescence microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Watson, Brianna R.; Yang, Bin; Xiao, Kai; Ma, Ying -Zhong; Doughty, Benjamin L.; Calhoun, Tessa R.

    2015-07-29

    The emergence of efficient hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite photovoltaic materials has caused the rapid development of a variety of preparation and processing techniques designed to maximize their performance. As processing methods continue to emerge, it is important to understand how the optical properties of these materials are affected on a microscopic scale. Here polarization resolved two-photon total internal reflectance microscopy (TIRFM) was used to probe changes in transition dipole moment orientation as a function of thermal annealing time in hybrid organic-inorganic lead iodide based perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) thin films on glass. These results show that as thermal annealing time is increased themore » distribution of transition moments pointing out-of-plane decreases in favor of forming areas with increased in-plane orientations. As a result, it was also shown through the axial sensitivity of TIRFM that the surface topography is manifested in the signal intensity and can be used to survey aspects of morphology in coincidence with the optical properties of these films.« less

  16. 2 x 2 Polyethylene Reflected and Moderated Highly Enriched Uranium System with Rhenium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Nichole Ellis; Jesson Hutchinson; John D. Bess; Dmitry N. Polyakov; Evgeny S. Glushkov; Alexey E. Glushkov

    2010-09-01

    The 2 2 array HEU-Re experiment was performed on the Planet universal critical assembly machine on November 4th, 2003 at the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For this experiment, there were 10 units, each full unit containing four HEU foils and two rhenium foils. The top unit contained only two HEU foils and two rhenium foils. A total of 42 HEU foils were used for this experiment. Rhenium is a desirable cladding material for space nuclear power applications. This experiment consisted of HEU foils interleaved with rhenium foils and is moderated and reflected by polyethylene plates. A unit consisted of a polyethylene plate, which has a recess for rhenium foils, and four HEU foils in a single layer in the top recess of each polyethylene plate. The Planet universal criticality assembly machine has been previously used in experiments containing HEU foils interspersed with SiO2 (HEU-MET-THERM-001), Al (HEU-MET-THERM-008), MgO (HEU-MET-THERM-009), Gd foils (HEU-MET-THERM-010), 2 2 26 Al (HEU-MET-THERM-012), Fe (HEU-MET-THERM-013 and HEU-MET-THERM-015), 2 2 23 SiO2 (HEU-MET-THERM-014), 2 2 11 hastalloy plates (HEU-MET-THERM-016), and concrete (HEU-MET-THERM-018). The 2 2 array of HEU-Re is considered acceptable for use as a benchmark critical experiment.

  17. 2D Seismic Reflection Data across Central Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    In a continuing collaboration with the Midwest Geologic Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) on the Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins project, Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco acquired two-dimensional (2D) seismic data in the Illinois Basin. This work included the design, acquisition and processing of approximately 125 miles of (2D) seismic reflection surveys running west to east in the central Illinois Basin. Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco oversaw the management of the field operations (including a pre-shoot planning, mobilization, acquisition and de-mobilization of the field personnel and equipment), procurement of the necessary permits to conduct the survey, post-shoot closure, processing of the raw data, and provided expert consultation as needed in the interpretation of the delivered product. Three 2D seismic lines were acquired across central Illinois during November and December 2010 and January 2011. Traversing the Illinois Basin, this 2D seismic survey was designed to image the stratigraphy of the Cambro-Ordovician sections and also to discern the basement topography. Prior to this survey, there were no regionally extensive 2D seismic data spanning this section of the Illinois Basin. Between the NW side of Morgan County and northwestern border of Douglas County, these seismic lines ran through very rural portions of the state. Starting in Morgan County, Line 101 was the longest at 93 miles in length and ended NE of Decatur, Illinois. Line 501 ran W-E from the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) site to northwestern Douglas County and was 25 miles in length. Line 601 was the shortest and ran N-S past the IBDP site and connected lines 101 and 501. All three lines are correlated to well logs at the IBDP site. Originally processed in 2011, the 2D seismic profiles exhibited a degradation of signal quality below ~400 millisecond (ms) which made interpretation of the Mt. Simon and Knox sections difficult. The data quality also gradually decreased moving westward across the state. To meet evolving project objectives, in 2012 the seismic data was re-processed using different techniques to enhance the signal quality thereby rendering a more coherent seismic profile for interpreters. It is believed that the seismic degradation could be caused by shallow natural gas deposits and Quaternary sediments (which include abandoned river and stream channels, former ponds, and swamps with peat deposits) that may have complicated or changed the seismic wavelet. Where previously limited by seismic coverage, the seismic profiles have provided valuable subsurface information across central Illinois. Some of the interpretations based on this survey included, but are not limited to: - Stratigraphy generally gently dips to the east from Morgan to Douglas County. - The Knox Supergroup roughly maintains its thickness. There is little evidence for faulting in the Knox. However, at least one resolvable fault penetrates the entire Knox section. - The Eau Claire Formation, the primary seal for the Mt. Simon Sandstone, appears to be continuous across the entire seismic profile. - The Mt. Simon Sandstone thins towards the western edge of the basin. As a result, the highly porous lowermost Mt. Simon section is absent in the western part of the state. - Overall basement dip is from west to east. - Basement topography shows evidence of basement highs with on-lapping patterns by Mt. Simon sediments. - There is evidence of faults within the lower Mt. Simon Sandstone and basement rock that are contemporaneous with Mt. Simon Sandstone deposition. These faults are not active and do not penetrate the Eau Claire Shale. It is believed that these faults are associated with a possible failed rifting event 750 to 560 million years ago during the breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia.

  18. Employee Performance Management System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-03-14

    To establish requirements and responsibilities for employee performance appraisals, performance-related awards, and other forms of employee recognition. Cancels DOE O 331.1A and (2) existing provisions of DOE O 3450.1B. Cancelled by DOE O 331.1C.

  19. Employee Performance Management System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-03-14

    To establish requirements and responsibilities for employee performance appraisals, performance-related awards, and other forms of employee recognition. (Cancels existing provisions of DOE O 3450.1B, Incentive Awards, dated 6/23/92.) Cancels DOE O 331.1A, DOE O 3450.1B. Canceled by DOE O 331.1C

  20. Employee Performance Management System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-06-15

    To establish requirements and responsibilities for employee performance appraisals, performance-related awards, and other forms of employee recognition. This Order covers most employees at grades GS-15 and below. Cancels DOE O 331.1. Canceled by DOE O 331.1B.

  1. Superior Energy Performance Video

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Efficiency, Competitiveness, Transparency. These are the tenets of the Superior Energy Performance® (SEP™). SEP is a market-based program that helps manufacturers to improve their plants' energy performance, which in turn helps to make them more competitive.

  2. Technology Performance Exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    To address the need for accessible, high-quality data, the Department of Energy has developed the Technology Performance Exchange (TPEx). TPEx enables technology suppliers, third-party testing laboratories, and other entities to share product performance data. These data are automatically transformed into a format that technology evaluators can easily use in their energy modeling assessments to inform procurement decisions.

  3. Performance testing accountability measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldham, R.D.; Mitchell, W.G.; Spaletto, M.I.

    1993-12-31

    The New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) provides assessment support to the DOE Operations Offices in the area of Material Control and Accountability (MC and A). During surveys of facilities, the Operations Offices have begun to request from NBL either assistance in providing materials for performance testing of accountability measurements or both materials and personnel to do performance testing. To meet these needs, NBL has developed measurement and measurement control performance test procedures and materials. The present NBL repertoire of performance tests include the following: (1) mass measurement performance testing procedures using calibrated and traceable test weights, (2) uranium elemental concentration (assay) measurement performance tests which use ampulated solutions of normal uranyl nitrate containing approximately 7 milligrams of uranium per gram of solution, and (3) uranium isotopic measurement performance tests which use ampulated uranyl nitrate solutions with enrichments ranging from 4% to 90% U-235. The preparation, characterization, and packaging of the uranium isotopic and assay performance test materials were done in cooperation with the NBL Safeguards Measurements Evaluation Program since these materials can be used for both purposes.

  4. Development and evaluation of an automated reflectance microscope system for the petrographic characterization of bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoover, D. S.; Davis, A.

    1980-10-01

    The development of automated coal petrographic techniques will lessen the demands on skilled personnel to do routine work. This project is concerned with the development and successful testing of an instrument which will meet these needs. The fundamental differences in reflectance of the three primary maceral groups should enable their differentiation in an automated-reflectance frequency histogram (reflectogram). Consequently, reflected light photometry was chosen as the method for automating coal petrographic analysis. Three generations of an automated system (called Rapid Scan Versions I, II and III) were developed and evaluated for petrographic analysis. Their basic design was that of a reflected-light microscope photometer with an automatic stage, interfaced with a minicomputer. The hardware elements used in the Rapid Scan Version I limited the system's flexibility and presented problems with signal digitization and measurement precision. Rapid Scan Version II was designed to incorporate a new microscope photometer and computer system. A digital stepping stage was incorporated into the Rapid Scan Version III system. The precision of reflectance determination of this system was found to be +- 0.02 percent reflectance. The limiting factor in quantitative interpretation of Rapid Scan reflectograms is the resolution of reflectance populations of the individual maceral groups. Statistical testing indicated that reflectograms were highly reproducible, and a new computer program, PETAN, was written to interpret the curves for vitrinite reflectance parameters ad petrographic.

  5. Influence of the atmosphere on remotely sensed reflection from vegetation surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmer, C.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1985-01-01

    Multiple scattering of solar radiation in a vegetation canopy is modelled equivalent to absorbing and scattering in a turbid medium with direction-dependent cross sections. Perturbations of plant reflection patterns due to atmospheric effects are computed at different altitudes and compared to the angular reflection characteristics caused by Lambertian surfaces of varying albedoes.

  6. Performance Plans | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance Plans Performance Plans November 13, 2015 Combined Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 Annual Performance Results and FYs 2016 and 2017 Annual Performance Plan Combined Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 Annual Performance Results and FYs 2016 and 2017 Annual Performance Plan November 6, 2014 Combined Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 Annual Performance Results and FYs 2015 and 2016 Annual Performance Plan Combined Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 Annual Performance Results and FYs 2015 and 2016 Annual Performance Plan December 13,

  7. Performance (perfSONAR)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Performance (perfSONAR) Network R&D Software-Defined Networking (SDN) Experimental Network Testbeds Performance (perfSONAR) Software & Tools Development Data for Researchers Partnerships Publications Workshops Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside US) 1 800-333-7638 (Inside US) 1 510-486-7600 (Globally) 1 510-486-7607 (Globally) Report Network Problems: trouble@es.net Provide Web Site Feedback: info@es.net Network Performance and Troubleshooting (perfSONAR) perfSONAR:

  8. Performance expectation plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, P.E.

    1998-09-04

    This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

  9. Building Performance Database

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Building Performance Database (BPD) unlocks the power of building data by providing access to the largest publicly-available dataset of information about the physical and operational characteristics of real buildings. The BPD enables users to perform statistical analysis on an anonymous dataset of hundreds of thousands of commercial and residential buildings from across the country. Users can examine specific building types and geographic areas, compare performance trends among similar buildings, identify and prioritize cost-saving energy efficiency improvements, and assess the range of likely savings from these improvements.

  10. A new trough solar concentrator and its performance analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Tao; Hongfei, Zheng; Kaiyan, He; Mayere, Abdulkarim

    2011-01-15

    The operation principle and design method of a new trough solar concentrator is presented in this paper. Some important design parameters about the concentrator are analyzed and optimized. Their magnitude ranges are given. Some characteristic parameters about the concentrator are compared with that of the conventional parabolic trough solar concentrator. The factors having influence on the performance of the unit are discussed. It is indicated through the analysis that the new trough solar concentrator can actualize reflection focusing for the sun light using multiple curved surface compound method. It also has the advantages of improving the work performance and environment of high-temperature solar absorber and enhancing the configuration intensity of the reflection surface. (author)

  11. Healthcare Project Performance Benchmarks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reports five major performance metrics that can be used to benchmark proposed energy service company projects within the healthcare industry, disaggregated and reported by major retrofit strategy. Author: U.S. Department of Energy

  12. DAS performance analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, G.; Bodine, S.; Carroll, T.; Keller, M.

    1984-02-01

    This report begins with an overview of the Data Acquisition System (DAS), which supports several of PPPL's experimental devices. Performance measurements which were taken on DAS and the tools used to make them are then described.

  13. MSC Monthly Performance Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Report January 2010 F.A. Figueroa President and General Manager U.S. Department of Energy Contract DE-AC06-09RL14728 MSC Monthly Performance Report January 2010 DOE...

  14. MSC Monthly Performance Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Report December 2009 F.A. Figueroa President and General Manager U.S. Department of Energy Contract DE-AC06-09RL14728 MSC Monthly Performance Report December 2009 DOE...

  15. Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) is a partnership between a system owner and an Energy Services Company (ESCO). The ESCO conducts a comprehensive energy audit for the facility under...

  16. Monthly Performance Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Nov-12 Dec-12 Jan-13 Feb-13 Mar-13 Apr-13 ... First Aid 12-Month Average FY 4.22 CY 4.74 EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW MSC Monthly Performance Report MAY 2013 ...

  17. Energy Performance Contracting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides an Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC) overview and summary of ESPC resources, including training, sample documents, and guides from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Author: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development

  18. DOE SES PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This covers Department of Energy SES executives, as well as those Presidential appointees who have retained eligibility for SES performance appraisals and awards under 5 U.S.C. 3392(c).

  19. High Performance Sustainable Building

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-11-09

    This Guide highlights the DOE O 413.3B drivers for incorporating high performance sustainable building (HPSB) principles into Critical Decisions 1 through 4 and provides guidance for implementing the Order's HPSB requirements.

  20. High Performance Sustainable Building

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-11-09

    This Guide provides approaches for implementing the High Performance Sustainable Building (HPSB) requirements of DOE Order 413.3B, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets. Supersedes DOE G 413.3-6.

  1. Pay for Performance Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Hampshire Pay for Performance (P4P) program works with large energy consumers to improve energy efficiency in their facilities. This program is available to commercial, industrial, and...

  2. Performance Application Programming Interface

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-10-31

    PAPI is a programming interface designed to provide the tool designer and application engineer with a consistent interface and methodology for use of the performance counter hardware found in most major microprocessors. PAPI enables software engineers to see, in near real time, the relation between software performance and processor events. This release covers the hardware dependent implementation of PAPI version 3 for the IBM BlueGene/L (BG/L) system.

  3. Electric Vehicle Battery Performance

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-20

    DIANE is used to analyze battery performance in electric vehicle (EV) applications. The principal objective of DIANE is to enable the prediction of EV performance on the basis of laboratory test data for batteries. The model provides a second-by-second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified velocity/time or power/time profile. Two releases are included with the package. Diane21 has a graphics capability; DIANENP has no graphics capability.

  4. Performance-based Contracting

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Performance-based Contracting [Reference: FAR 37.6; DEAR 970.1001] Overview This section provides guidance and instruction for the development and administration of Performance-Based Contracting concepts for the Department's management and operating contracts, and other major operating contracts, as appropriate. Background In 1997, the Department published a final rule (62 FR 34842) which implemented a number of recommendations principally in areas relating to the acquisition processes of its

  5. High Performance Sustainable Buildings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Buildings Goal 3: High Performance Sustainable Buildings Maintaining the conditions of a building improves the health of not only the surrounding ecosystems, but also the well-being of its occupants. Energy Conservation» Efficient Water Use & Management» High Performance Sustainable Buildings» Greening Transportation» Green Purchasing & Green Technology» Pollution Prevention» Science Serving Sustainability» ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY GOALS at LANL The Radiological Laboratory

  6. Application Porting and Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Application Porting and Performance Application Porting and Performance We expect many applications will need to make code modifications in order to run efficiently on the Cori Phase 2 Knights Landing manycore architecture. To run well on Cori Phase 2, your application will need to have good thread scalability, take advantage of vectorization opportunities, and manage multiple hierarchies of memory effectively. In the web pages that follow we document strategies for improving your application's

  7. Application Porting and Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Profiling Your Application Improving OpenMP Scaling Measuring and Understanding Memory Bandwidth Vectorization Using on-package memory Using High Performance Libraries and Tools Testbeds Cori Training Dungeon Session Worksheet NESAP NERSC-8 Procurement Programming models File Storage and I/O Edison PDSF Genepool Testbeds Retired Systems Storage & File Systems Data & Analytics Connecting to NERSC Queues and Scheduling Job Logs & Statistics Application Performance Training &

  8. PERFORMANCE GUARANTEE AGREEMENT

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    F PERFORMANCE GUARANTEE SEE ATTACHED Appendix F - Page 308 PERFORMANCE GUARANTEE AGREEMENT For value received, and in consideration of, and in order to induce the United States (the Government) to enter into Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 for the management and operation of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (the "Contract") dated __________, by and between the Government and Lawrence Livermore National Security LLC (Contractor), the undersigned, Bechtel National, Inc. (Guarantor),

  9. Repository Performance Confirmation - 12119

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Repository performance confirmation links the technical bases of repository science and societal acceptance. Among the countless aspects of monitoring, performance confirmation holds a special place, involving distinct activities combining technical and social significance in radioactive waste management. Discussion is divided into four themes: 1. A distinction is drawn between performance confirmation monitoring and other testing and monitoring objectives, 2. A case study illustrates confirmation activities integrated within a long-term testing and monitoring strategy for Yucca Mountain, 3. A case study reviews compliance monitoring developed and implemented for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, and 4. An approach for developing, evaluating and implementing the next generation of performance confirmation monitoring is presented. International interest in repository monitoring is exhibited by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme 'Monitoring Developments for Safe Repository Operation and Staged Closure' (MoDeRn) Project. The MoDeRn partners are considering the role of monitoring in a phased approach to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. As repository plans advance in different countries, the need to consider monitoring strategies within a controlled framework has become more apparent. The MoDeRn project pulls together technical and societal experts to assimilate a common understanding of a process that could be followed to develop a monitoring program. Experience from two repository programs in the United States sheds light on how performance confirmation has been executed. Lessons learned can help the next generation of performance confirmation. (author)

  10. Femtosecond laser ablation dynamics of fused silica extracted from oscillation of time-resolved reflectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumada, Takayuki Akagi, Hiroshi; Itakura, Ryuji; Otobe, Tomohito; Yokoyama, Atsushi

    2014-03-14

    Femtosecond laser ablation dynamics of fused silica is examined via time-resolved reflectivity measurements. After optical breakdown was caused by irradiation of a pump pulse with fluence F{sub pump}?=?3.314.9?J/cm{sup 2}, the reflectivity oscillated with a period of 63??2 ps for a wavelength ??=?795?nm. The period was reduced by half for ??=?398?nm. We ascribe the oscillation to the interference between the probe pulses reflected from the front and rear surfaces of the photo-excited molten fused silica layer. The time-resolved reflectivity agrees closely with a model comprising a photo-excited layer which expands due to the formation of voids, and then separates into two parts, one of which is left on the sample surface and the other separated as a molten thin layer from the surface by the spallation mechanism. Such oscillations were not observed in the reflectivity of soda-lime glass. Whether the reflectivity oscillates or not probably depends on the layer viscosity while in a molten state. Since viscosity of the molten fused silica is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the soda-lime glass at the same temperature, fused silica forms a molten thin layer that reflects the probe pulse, whereas the soda-lime glass is fragmented into clusters.

  11. Composite refraction-reflection stack sections: Tracing faults in the Atlantic coastal plain sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephenson, D.E.; Coruh, C.; Costain, J.K.

    1993-05-01

    Seismic data from the Atlantic Coastal Plain are reprocessed and composite refraction-reflection stack sections produced to investigate basement faults that penetrate upward into Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments in South Carolina. Reprocessing recovered reflections from within the deep crust to the Moho as well as from within thin veneer (300) of the Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments. One of the major objectives of this paper is to discuss the use of shallow refracted arrivals to construct a composite refraction- reflection stack that allows better imaging of the subsurface at shallow depths.

  12. Durable silver mirror with ultra-violet thru far infra-red reflection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D.

    2010-11-23

    A durable highly reflective silver mirror characterized by high reflectance in a broad spectral range of about 300 nm in the UV to the far infrared (.about.10000 nm), as well as exceptional environmental durability. A high absorptivity metal underlayer is used which prevents the formation of a galvanic cell with a silver layer while increasing the reflectance of the silver layer. Environmentally durable overcoat layers are provided to enhance mechanical and chemical durability and protect the silver layer from corrosion and tarnishing, for use in a wide variety of surroundings or climates, including harsh or extreme environments.

  13. Volume Reflection Dependence of 400 GeV/c Protons on the Bent Crystal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Curvature (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Volume Reflection Dependence of 400 GeV/c Protons on the Bent Crystal Curvature Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Volume Reflection Dependence of 400 GeV/c Protons on the Bent Crystal Curvature The trend of volume reflection parameters (deflection angle and efficiency) in a bent (110) silicon crystal has been investigated as a function of the crystal curvature with 400 GeV/c protons on the H8 beam line at the CERN Super Proton

  14. Annual Performance Report FY 2012, Annual Performance Plan FY...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2, Annual Performance Plan FY 2013 & FY 2014 Annual Performance Report FY 2012, Annual Performance Plan FY 2013 & FY 2014 PDF icon Annual Performance Report and Plan FY12 FY13 FY14 ...

  15. Sandia Energy - High Performance Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Performance Computing Home Energy Research Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) High Performance Computing High Performance Computingcwdd2015-03-18T21:41:24+00:00...

  16. The Trade-off between Solar Reflectance and Above-Sheathing Ventilation for Metal Roofs on Residential and Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desjarlais, Andre Omer; Kriner, Scott; Miller, William A

    2013-01-01

    An alternative to white and cool-color roofs that meets prescriptive requirements for steep-slope (residential and non-residential) and low-slope (non-residential) roofing has been documented. Roofs fitted with an inclined air space above the sheathing (herein termed above-sheathing ventilation, or ASV), performed as well as if not better than high-reflectance, high-emittance roofs fastened directly to the deck. Field measurements demonstrated the benefit of roofs designed with ASV. A computer tool was benchmarked against the field data. Testing and benchmarks were conducted at roofs inclined at 18.34 ; the roof span from soffit to ridge was 18.7 ft (5.7 m). The tool was then exercised to compute the solar reflectance needed by a roof equipped with ASV to exhibit the same annual cooling load as that for a direct-to-deck cool-color roof. A painted metal roof with an air space height of 0.75 in. (0.019 m) and spanning 18.7 ft (5.7 m) up the roof incline of 18.34 needed only a 0.10 solar reflectance to exhibit the same annual cooling load as a direct-to-deck cool-color metal roof (solar reflectance of 0.25). This held for all eight ASHRAE climate zones complying with ASHRAE 90.1 (2007a). A dark heat-absorbing roof fitted with 1.5 in. (0.038 m) air space spanning 18.7 ft (5.7 m) and inclined at 18.34 was shown to have a seasonal cooling load equivalent to that of a conventional direct-to-deck cool-color metal roof. Computations for retrofit application based on ASHRAE 90.1 (1980) showed that ASV air spaces of either 0.75 or 1.5 in. (0.019 and 0.038 m) would permit black roofs to have annual cooling loads equivalent to the direct-to-deck cool roof. Results are encouraging, and a parametric study of roof slope and ASV aspect ratio is needed for developing guidelines applicable to all steep- and low-slope roof applications.

  17. Internet Performance to Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cottrell, L

    2003-10-01

    We report the first results ever for real-time Internet performance to Africa using the PingER methodology. Multiple monitoring hosts were used to enable comparisons with performance from different parts of the world. From these preliminary measurements, we have found that Internet packet losses to some African sites in recent months range from very poor to bad (> 12%), some getting better, others are holding steady or getting worse. This, together with the average monthly Round Trip Times, imply end-to-end maximum TCP throughputs that are order of magnitudes different between countries in the region. Africa is shown to be far from the Internet performance in industrialized nations due to the poor infrastructure in place today. These monitoring efforts can provide valuable information to analyze the relative rates of future improvement and today they help us to quantify the digital divide and can provide quantitative information to policy makers.

  18. U.S. oil production forecast update reflects lower rig count

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. oil production forecast update reflects lower rig count Lower oil prices and fewer rigs drilling for crude oil are expected to slow U.S. oil production growth this year and in ...

  19. Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This letter, from the Director of the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Federal Activities, outlines EPA's position as to how the revised National Air Quality Standard should be reflected in NEPA evaluations of proposed actions.

  20. A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    geophysical and wellbore data for the area, and these data will be complemented with modern, state-of-the-art reflection seismic data. Three-component geophones will record...

  1. On-Line Measurement of Lubricant Film Thickness Using Ultrasonic Reflection Coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drinkwater, B.W.; Dwyer-Joyce, R.S.; Harper, P.

    2004-02-26

    The ultrasonic reflectivity of a lubricant layer between two solid bodies depends on the ultrasonic frequency, the acoustic properties of the liquid and solid, and the layer thickness. In this paper, ultrasonic reflectivity measurements are used as a method for determining the thickness of lubricating films in bearing systems. An ultrasonic transducer is positioned on the outside of a bearing shell such that the wave is focused on the lubricant film layer. For a particular lubricant film the reflected pulse is processed to give a reflection coefficient spectrum. The lubricant film thickness is then obtained from either the layer stiffness or the resonant frequency. The method has been validated using static fluid wedges and the elastohydrodynamic film formed between a ball sliding on a flat. Film thickness values in the range 50-500 nm were recorded which agreed well with theoretical film formation predictions.

  2. Short pulse laser stretcher-compressor using a single common reflective grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erbert, Gaylen V.; Biswal, Subrat; Bartolick, Joseph M.; Stuart, Brent C.; Telford, Steve

    2004-05-25

    The present invention provides an easily aligned, all-reflective, aberration-free pulse stretcher-compressor in a compact geometry. The stretcher-compressor device is a reflective multi-layer dielectric that can be utilized for high power chirped-pulse amplification material processing applications. A reflective grating element of the device is constructed: 1) to receive a beam for stretching of laser pulses in a beam stretcher beam path and 2) to also receive stretched amplified pulses to be compressed in a compressor beam path through the same (i.e., common) reflective multilayer dielectric diffraction grating. The stretched and compressed pulses are interleaved about the grating element to provide the desired number of passes in each respective beam path in order to achieve the desired results.

  3. Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations (EPA, 2007) Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations (EPA, 2007) This letter, from the Director ...

  4. Working Toward a Tech Sector that Reflects America | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Working Toward a Tech Sector that Reflects America Working Toward a Tech Sector that Reflects America February 1, 2013 - 1:51pm Addthis Tech-ies mingled during a networking session after the White House Tech Inclusion Summit on January 31, 2013. (Photo credit: John Werner) Tech-ies mingled during a networking session after the White House Tech Inclusion Summit on January 31, 2013. (Photo credit: John Werner) Valerie Jarrett Senior Advisor to President Barack Obama Editor's Note: This blog was

  5. NREL and SkyFuel Partnership Reflects Bright Future for Solar Energy -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Return to Search NREL and SkyFuel Partnership Reflects Bright Future for Solar Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory Success Story Details Partner Location Agreement Type Publication Date SkyFuel Inc. CO License Cooperative Research (CRADA) August 3, 2009 Video NREL Success Stories - SkyFuel Partnership Reflects Bright Future Summary Huge parabolic mirrors catching the sun's rays could crisscross America's deserts soon, thanks to a

  6. Calculation of infrared plasma reflection spectra of inhomogeneously doped P-type gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHEN Wei-xi; LI Guo-hua; NIU Jin-zhen; GUO Chang-zhi

    1982-01-01

    The influence of the surface concentration and concentration profile of free carriers, the layer thickness and free carrier concentration of the homogeneous substrate on the infrared plasma reflection spectra of inhomogeneously doped P-type GaAs layers is analyzed by computer solutions of differential equations for the optical admittance. Computed spectra are reported for four different profiles and several substrate concentrations. Methods for evaluation of the measured reflection spectra and the limitation of this technique are discussed.

  7. Contractor Past Performance Information

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -----------------------------------------------------------------Chapter 7.2 (May 2014) 1 Strategic Sourcing Requirements Guiding Principles  Improving acquisition through strategic sourcing.  Taking advantage of purchasing opportunities by continually reviewing current needs against market conditions.  Requiring vendors to provide sufficient pricing usage, and performance data to enable the government to ensure we are receiving the best prices for commonly used goods and services. 

  8. Measuring environmental performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weireter, R.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental management has become increasingly complex as regulatory and social forces transform traditional business practices. In recent years, due to the growing importance and cost of environmental management, emphasis has shifted away from regulatory compliance toward the broader areas of strategic environment management and total quality environmental management. This shift in emphasis has sought to incorporate environmental management throughout the entire company, rather than confine it to the {open_quotes}environmental department.{close_quotes} This shift has produced a need to measure environmental performance so that business managers can make more informed decisions regarding appropriate management strategies. Identifying appropriate measurement indicators and incorporating this goal into traditional company management information systems has become a key challenge for many environmental professionals. The objective of the presentation will be to discuss tools which can be used to measure a company`s environmental performance, and how these tools can help managers promote more cost-effective environmental management. The presentation will contain a general overview of the issues involved in establishing an environmental performance measurement system. Topics to be addressed include environmental management information systems, developing effective environmental programs, benchmarking your current status against which to evaluate future performance, and striving for continuous environmental improvement.

  9. Monthly Performance Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Aug-12 Sep-12 Oct-12 Nov-12 Dec-12 Jan-13 Feb-13 ... 4.01 3.89 4.02 4.12 4.22 First Aid Monthly First Aid 12-Month Average FY ... Performance Report JUL 2013 DOERL-2009-113 Rev 46 ...

  10. Monthly Performance Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 0.0 22.4 0.0 22.4 RL-0040 Reliability ... 77 11 Table 3-4. First Aid Case Rate MSC Monthly Performance Report FEB 2016 DOERL-2009-113 ... the baseline for FY 2013, FY 2014, FY 2015, ...

  11. Performance and Optimization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimization Performance and Optimization Running Jobs Efficiently This page defines job efficiency and how to measure the efficiency of your jobs. Read More » PDSF IO Monitoring Plots of continuous IO monitoring for the eliza file systems and project. Read More » Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:20

  12. Annual Performance Report

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    3 Through March 2014 for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Site October 2014 LMS/SHP/S12021 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy Annual Performance Report, Shiprock, New Mexico October 2014 Doc. No. S12021 Page i Contents Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................. iii Executive Summary

  13. Annual Performance Report

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    4 Through March 2015 for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Site August 2015 LMS/SHP/S13080 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy Annual Performance Report, Shiprock, New Mexico August 2015 Doc. No. S13080 Page i Contents Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................. iii Executive Summary

  14. High Performance Window Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S; Hun, Diana E; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2013-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and Traco partnered to develop high-performance windows for commercial building that are cost-effective. The main performance requirement for these windows was that they needed to have an R-value of at least 5 ft2 F h/Btu. This project seeks to quantify the potential energy savings from installing these windows in commercial buildings that are at least 20 years old. To this end, we are conducting evaluations at a two-story test facility that is representative of a commercial building from the 1980s, and are gathering measurements on the performance of its windows before and after double-pane, clear-glazed units are upgraded with R5 windows. Additionally, we will use these data to calibrate EnergyPlus models that we will allow us to extrapolate results to other climates. Findings from this project will provide empirical data on the benefits from high-performance windows, which will help promote their adoption in new and existing commercial buildings. This report describes the experimental setup, and includes some of the field and simulation results.

  15. MCNP Progress & Performance Improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Forrest B.; Bull, Jeffrey S.; Rising, Michael Evan

    2015-04-14

    Twenty-eight slides give information about the work of the US DOE/NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program on MCNP6 under the following headings: MCNP6.1.1 Release, with ENDF/B-VII.1; Verification/Validation; User Support & Training; Performance Improvements; and Work in Progress. Whisper methodology will be incorporated into the code, and run speed should be increased.

  16. High Performance Sustainable Building

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-06-20

    The guide supports DOE O 413.3A and provides useful information on the incorporation of high performance sustainable building principles into building-related General Plant Projects and Institutional General Plant Projects at DOE sites. Canceled by DOE G 413.3-6A. Does not cancel other directives.

  17. Program predicts waterflooding performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fassihi, M.R.; O'Brien, W.J.

    1987-04-01

    Water is a handheld calculator program for estimating waterflooding performance in a multilayered oil reservoir for patterns such as five-spot, direct line drive and staggered line drive. Topics considered in this paper include oil wells, sweep efficiency, well stimulation, computer calculations, stratification, enhanced recovery, calculators, reservoir rock, and reservoir engineering.

  18. High performance systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil, M.B.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  19. Assessing the use of reflectance spectroscopy in determining CsCl stress in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, N. E.; Sharp, J. L.; Kuhne, W. W.; Johnson, T. E.; Stafford, C. T.; Duff, M. C.

    2015-11-23

    Here, reflectance spectroscopy is a rapid and non-destructive analytical technique that may be used for assessing plant stress, and has potential applications for use in remediation. Changes in reflectance such as that due to metal stress may occur before damage is visible, and existing studies have shown that metal stress does cause changes in plant reflectance. To further investigate the potential use of reflectance spectroscopy as a method for assessing metal stress in plants, an exploratory study was conducted in which Arabidopsis thaliana plants were treated twice weekly in a laboratory setting with varying levels (0, 0.5, or 5 mM (millimolar)) of caesium chloride (CsCl) solution, and reflectance spectra were collected every week for three weeks using an Analytical Spectral Devices FieldSpec Pro spectroradiometer with both a contact probe (CP) and a field of view (FOV) probe at 36.8 and 66.7 cm, respectively, above the plant. Plants were harvested each week after spectra collection for determination of relative water content and chlorophyll content. A visual assessment of the plants was also conducted using point observations on a uniform grid of 81 points. A mixed-effects model analysis was conducted for each vegetation index (VI) considered to determine the effects of length of treatment, treatment level, view with which spectra were acquired, and the interactions of these terms. Two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were performed on the aforementioned endpoints (e.g. chlorophyll content) to determine the significance of the effects of treatment level and length of treatment. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to develop a predictive model for each endpoint, considering VI acquired at each view (CP, high FOV, and low FOV). Of the 14 VI considered, 8 were included in the MLR models. Contact probe readings and FOV readings differed significantly, but FOV measurements were generally consistent at each height.

  20. Optical Reflection Spectroscopy of Thick Corrosion Layers on 304 Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R Castelli; P Persans; W Strohmayer; V Parkinson

    2006-03-23

    Corrosion resistant structural materials of both iron and nickel based alloys are used in the electric power industry for the construction of the coolant loops of both conventional and nuclear power generating stations. These materials, in the presence of high temperature (e.g. 287 C), high pH (e.g. 10.0 {at} 20 C) water with dissolved hydrogen will oxidize and form corrosion films that are double metal oxides (or spinels) of the form AB{sub 2}O{sub 4}. This work describes optical reflectivity techniques that have been developed to study the growth of these films in situ. The optical technique uses a dual-beam specular reflection spectrometer to measure the spectrum of reflected light in small angle (i.e. < 15{sup o}) scatter. The reflection spectra are then calibrated using a set of corrosion coupons with corrosion films that are well known. Results are compared with models based on multilayer reflection and Mie scattering from a particle size distribution. Surface roughness is found to be the dominant cause of reduced reflection as the films grow.

  1. Annual Performance Report FY 2005 Annual Performance Plan FY 2006 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 5 Annual Performance Plan FY 2006 Annual Performance Report FY 2005 Annual Performance Plan FY 2006 Annual Performance Report FY 2005 Annual Performance Plan FY 2006 PDF icon Annual Performance Report FY 2005 Annual Performance Plan FY 2006 More Documents & Publications U.S. Department of Energy 2006 Annual Report FTCP Annual Plan - Fiscal Year 2005 FY 2008 E-Government Act Report

  2. Reflection and transmission of light waves from the air-magnetoplasma interface: Spatial and angular Imbert-Fedorov shifts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borhanian, Jafar

    2015-03-15

    We have investigated the reflection and transmission of an electromagnetic wave from the air-magnetoplasma interface. The reflection and transmission coefficients are obtained for an arbitrary polarized incident wave. The spatial and angular Imbert-Fedorov (IF) shifts are discussed. The numerical results are presented to study the dependence of the reflection and transmission coefficients and IF shifts on relevant parameters of the system. The plasma and wave parameters can be used to control the reflection coefficients and IF shifts.

  3. Underhood Thermal Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Underhood Thermal Performance This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. - Computational Fluid Dynamics Project Leader Background As vehicle technology advances, automakers need a better understanding of underhood heat loads, especially as they relate to emissions and fuel efficiency. Manufacturers of heavy-duty vehicles and off-road machines have similar concerns. Ineffective underhood thermal management can lead to higher emissions, reduced

  4. Roadside Hardware Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Roadside Hardware Safety Performance Background Roadside hardware, such as traffic and work zone barriers, bridge railings, and crash cushions, prevent vehicles from leaving the road at dangerous locations. Crash testing of a large variety of vehicles into this hardware, as a means of optimizing the hardware design, is extremely expensive, often costing approximately $500,000 and 10,000 person-hours per test. The increasing diversity of automobiles and trucks, as well as the advent of the next

  5. High Performance Window Attachments

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High Performance Window Attachments D. Charlie Curcija Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory dccurcija@lbl.gov 510-495-2602 April 4, 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Impact of Project: * Motivate manufacturers to make improvements in Window systems U-Factors, SHGC and daylighting utilization * Increase awareness of benefits from energy efficient window attachments Problem Statement: * A wide range of residential window attachments are available, but

  6. Photovoltaic System Performance

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-09-25

    PVFORM4.0 is used to design a photovoltaic (PV) system using a set of design parameters which optimize the system's economic potential for the proposed location and the expected operating conditions. PVFORM3.3 has been used to determine PV system size and optimum mounting configuration. The anticipated electrical load determines the system size and the weather and the mounting configuration affect the system output. PVFORM4.0 uses program-supplied default values or their user-supplied equivalents for each of amore » large number of parameters describing the system and time-series data describing the environment to perform a series of hourly calculations to simulate the physical (photovoltaic) performance of a PV system for a one-year period. These iterative calculations sample the performance of the PV system throughout a simulated 365-day year of system operation. Within any simulated day on which system performance is sampled, the calculations are done hourly. The number of days sampled and the interval between them is determined by an input parameter. The results of these calculations are summarized on a monthly basis in output tables and an optional plot file. The program is applicable to grid interactive or stand-alone flat-plate systems. The grid interactive system is assumed to use power purchased from a local utility to supply that portion of the load not met by the simulated PV array. If the array produces more energy than can be consumed by the load, the excess energy is assumed to be sold back to the utility at a constant energy sellback price. If a stand-alone system is being modeled, the program assumes that all energy produced by the simulated PV array is first applied to the external load, and any excess is then used to charge the battery bank. Energy not consumed by the load or the batteries is considered to be wasted.« less

  7. PV Performance and Reliability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Performance and Reliability - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  8. Performance and Debugging Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tools Performance and Debugging Tools NERSC provides many popular debugging and profiling tools. Some of them are general-purpose tools and others are geared toward more specific tasks. A quick guideline on when to use which debugging tool is as follows: DDT and TotalView: general purpose parallel debuggers allowing users to interactively control the pace of execution of a program using a graphical user interface gdb: serial command line mode debugger; can be useful in quickly examining core

  9. Past Performance Questionnaire

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    The contractor should have provided you with a copy of a completed Relevant Corporate Experience Form for your contract so that you may more readily identify the contract in question and verify the accuracy of information provided therein. Please return the questionnaire to the DOE/NNSA by March 6, 2016 (see pages 3 & 4 for method of submittal) I. CONTRACT INFORMATION 1. This questionnaire relates to work performed by (Name of Contractor/Company/Division - do not use acronyms):

  10. High Performance Buildings Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The High Performance Buildings Database is a shared resource for the building industry, a unique central repository of in-depth information and data on high-performance, green building projects across the United States and abroad. The database includes information on the energy use, environmental performance, design process, finances, and other aspects of each project. Members of the design and construction teams are listed, as are sources for additional information. In total, up to twelve screens of detailed information are provided for each project profile. Projects range in size from small single-family homes or tenant fit-outs within buildings to large commercial and institutional buildings and even entire campuses. The database is a data repository as well. A series of Web-based data-entry templates allows anyone to enter information about a building project into the database. Once a project has been submitted, each of the partner organizations can review the entry and choose whether or not to publish that particular project on its own Web site.

  11. Annual Performance Report FY 2010 Annual Performance Plan FY...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 Annual Performance Plan FY 2011 Annual Performance Report FY 2010 Annual Performance Plan FY 2011 I am pleased to submit the Office of Inspector General's combined Fiscal Year ...

  12. Integration of the EM Corporate QA Performance Metrics With Performance

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Analysis Process | Department of Energy the EM Corporate QA Performance Metrics With Performance Analysis Process Integration of the EM Corporate QA Performance Metrics With Performance Analysis Process August 2009 Presenter: Robert Hinds, Savannah River Remediation, LLC Track 9-12 Topics Covered: Implementing CPMS for QA Corporate QA Performance Metrics Contractor Performance Analysis Contractor Assessment Programs Assessment Program Structure CPMS Integration with P/A Process Validating

  13. PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES FOR TANK FARM CLOSURE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MANN, F.M.; CRUMPLER, J.D.

    2005-09-30

    This report documents the performance objectives (metrics, times of analyses, and times of compliance) to be used in performance assessments of Hanford Site tank farm closure.

  14. DOE Technology Performance Exchange

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Studer, Daniel.Studer@nrel.gov National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL - DOE Technology Performance Exchange 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date: January 27, 2012 Planned end date: November 20, 2015 Key Milestones 1. Calibrated Energy Model; 5/22/15 2. BPA Sector Simulation; 10/16/15 Budget: BTO $ to date: $769,000 FEMP $ to date: $565,000 Other $ to date: $323,759 Total future DOE $: TBD Key Partners: Project Goal: Provides a pipeline for

  15. Energy Performance Score Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PERFORMANCE SCORE $787 10.7 tons/yr 43,000 kWhe/yr Reference Number: Electric: Natural Gas: Electric: Natural Gas: Carbon Carbon Score Energy Score *See Recommended Upgrades *See Recommended Upgrades †With energy from renewable sources This score measures the estimated total energy use (electricity, natural gas, propane, heating oil) of this home for one year. The lower the score, the less energy required for normal use. Actual consumption and costs may vary. Measured in kilowatt hours per

  16. Appendix PA: Performance Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Appendix PA-2014 Performance Assessment United States Department of Energy Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Carlsbad Field Office Carlsbad, New Mexico Compliance Recertification Application 2014 Appendix PA Table of Contents PA-1.0 Introduction PA-1.1 Changes since the CRA-2009 PA PA-1.1.1 Replacement of Option D with the ROMPCS PA-1.1.2 Additional Mined Volume in the Repository North End PA-1.1.3 Refinement to the Probability of Encountering Pressurized Brine

  17. High reflectance and low stress Mo2C/Be multilayers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bajt, Sasa; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    2001-01-01

    A material for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) multilayers that will reflect at about 11.3 nm, have a high reflectance, low stress, and high thermal and radiation stability. The material consists of alternating layers of Mo.sub.2 C and Be deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on a substrate, such as silicon. In one example a Mo.sub.2 C/Be multilayer gave 65.2% reflectance at 11.25 nm measured at 5 degrees off normal incidence angle, and consisted of 70 bilayers with a deposition period of 5.78 nm, and was deposited at 0.83 mTorr argon (Ar) sputtering pressure, with the first and last layers being Be. The stress of the multilayer is tensile and only +88 MPa, compared to +330 MPa of a Mo/Be multilayers of the same thickness. The Mo.sub.2 C/Be multilayer was capped with carbon which produced an increase in reflectivity of about 7% over a similar multilayer with no carbon capping material, thus raising the reflectivity from 58.3% to over 65%. The multilayers were formed using either Mo.sub.2 C or Be as the first and last layers, and initial testing has shown the formation of beryllium carbide at the interfaces between the layers which both stabilizes and has a smoothing effect, and appear to be smoother than the interfaces in Mo/Be multilayers.

  18. Release Path Temperatures of Shock-Compressed Tin from Dynamic Reflectance and Radiance Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La Lone, B. M.; Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D.; Holtkamp, D. B.; Iverson, A. J.; Hixson, R. S.; Veeser, L. R.

    2013-08-01

    Dynamic reflectance and radiance measurements were conducted for tin samples shock compressed to 35 GPa and released to 15 GPa using high explosives. We determined the reflectance of the tin samples glued to lithium fluoride windows using an integrating sphere with an internal xenon flashlamp as an illumination source. The dynamic reflectance (R) was determined at near normal incidence in four spectral bands with coverage in visible and near-infrared spectra. Uncertainties in R/R0 are < 2%, and uncertainties in absolute reflectance are < 5%. In complementary experiments, thermal radiance from the tin/glue/lithium fluoride interface was recorded with similar shock stress and spectral coverage as the reflectance measurements. The two sets of experiments were combined to obtain the temperature history of the tin surface with an uncertainty of < 2%. The stress at the interface was determined from photonic Doppler velocimetry and combined with the temperatures to obtain temperature-stress release paths for tin. We discuss the relationship between the experimental release paths and release isentropes that begin on the principal shock Hugoniot.

  19. Release path temperatures of shock-compressed tin from dynamic reflectance and radiance measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La Lone, B. M. Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D.; Holtkamp, D. B.; Iverson, A. J.; Hixson, R. S.; Veeser, L. R.

    2013-08-14

    Dynamic reflectance and radiance measurements were conducted for tin samples shock compressed to 35 GPa and released to 15 GPa using high explosives. We determined the reflectance of the tin samples glued to lithium fluoride windows using an integrating sphere with an internal xenon flashlamp as an illumination source. The dynamic reflectance (R) was determined at near normal incidence in four spectral bands with coverage in visible and near-infrared spectra. Uncertainties in R/R{sub 0} are <2%, and uncertainties in absolute reflectance are <5%. In complementary experiments, thermal radiance from the tin/glue/lithium fluoride interface was recorded with similar shock stress and spectral coverage as the reflectance measurements. The two sets of experiments were combined to obtain the temperature history of the tin surface with an uncertainty of <2%. The stress at the interface was determined from photonic Doppler velocimetry and combined with the temperatures to obtain temperature-stress release paths for tin. We discuss the relationship between the experimental release paths and release isentropes that begin on the principal shock Hugoniot.

  20. Quantitative Reflectance Spectra of Solid Powders as a Function of Particle Size

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Ertel, Alyssa B.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Richardson, Robert L.

    2015-05-19

    We have recently developed vetted methods for obtaining quantitative infrared directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra using a commercial integrating sphere. In this paper, the effects of particle size on the spectral properties are analyzed for several samples such as ammonium sulfate, calcium carbonate, and sodium sulfate as well as one organic compound, lactose. We prepared multiple size fractions for each sample and confirmed the mean sizes using optical microscopy. Most species displayed a wide range of spectral behavior depending on the mean particle size. General trends of reflectance vs. particle size are observed such as increased albedo for smaller particles: for mostmorewavelengths, the reflectivity drops with increased size, sometimes displaying a factor of 4 or more drop in reflectivity along with a loss of spectral contrast. In the longwave infrared, several species with symmetric anions or cations exhibited reststrahlen features whose amplitude was nearly invariant with particle size, at least for intermediate- and large-sized sample fractions; that is, > ~150 microns. Trends of other types of bands (Christiansen minima, transparency features) are also investigated as well as quantitative analysis of the observed relationship between reflectance vs. particle diameter.less

  1. Measured energy savings from the application of reflective roofsin 2 small non-residential buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem

    2003-01-14

    Energy use and environmental parameters were monitored in two small (14.9 m{sup 2}) non-residential buildings during the summer of 2000. The buildings were initially monitored for about 1 1/2 months to establish a base condition. The roofs of the buildings were then painted with a white coating and the monitoring was continued. The original solar reflectivities of the roofs were about 26%; after the application of roof coatings the reflectivities increased to about 72%. The monitored electricity savings were about 0.5kWh per day (33 Wh/m2 per day). The estimated annual savings are about 125kWh per year (8.4 kWh/m2); at a cost of $0.1/kWh, savings are about $0.86/m2 per year. Obviously, it costs significantly more than this amount to coat the roofs with reflective coating, particularly because of the remote locations of these buildings. However, since the prefabricated roofs are already painted green at the factory, painting them a white (reflective) color would bring no additional cost. Hence, a reflective roof saves energy at no incremental cost.

  2. Conditions for reflection and transmission of an ion acoustic soliton in a dusty plasma with variable charge dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malik, Hitendra K.; Tomar, Renu; Dahiya, Raj P.

    2014-07-15

    Modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equations are derived for the incident, reflected, and transmitted waves in order to examine the soliton reflection and its transmission through an inhomogeneous plasma comprising ions, dust grains with fluctuating charge and two types of electrons, namely nonisothermal electrons and isothermal electrons. All the mKdV equations are coupled at the point of reflection and solved for the reflected soliton. Unlike others, a relation is established between the velocity shifts of the incident, reflected and transmitted solitons, and based on a critical value of the shift of incident soliton the strengths of the soliton reflection and transmission are talked about. Conditions are obtained for the soliton reflection and its transmission, and a comparative study is made for the two cases of fixed and fluctuating charges on the dust grains.

  3. Molecular orientation in soft matter thin films studied by resonant soft x-ray reflectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezger, Markus; Jerome, Blandine; Kortright, Jeffrey B; Valvidares, Manuel; Gullikson, Eric M; Giglia, Angelo; Mahne, Nicola; Nannarone, Stefano

    2011-04-05

    We present a technique to study depth profiles of molecular orientation in soft matter thin films with nanometer resolution. The method is based on dichroism in resonant soft x-ray reflectivity using linear s and p polarization. It combines the chemical sensitivity of near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to specific molecular bonds and their orientation relative to the polarization of the incident beam with the precise depth profiling capability of x-ray reflectivity. We demonstrate these capabilities on side chain liquid crystalline polymer thin films with soft x-ray reflectivity data at the carbon K edge. Optical constants of the anisotropic refractive index ellipsoid were obtained from a quantitative analysis using the Berreman formalism. For films up to 50 nm thickness we find that the degree of orientation of the long axis exhibits no depth variation and is independent of the film thickness.

  4. Molecular orientation in soft matter thin films studied by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezger, Markus; Jerome, Blandine; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Valvidares, Manuel; Gullikson, Eric; Giglia, Angelo; Mahne, Nicola; Nannarone, Stefano

    2011-01-12

    We present a technique to study depth profiles of molecular orientation in soft matter thin films with nanometer resolution. The method is based on dichroism in resonant soft X-ray reflectivity using linear s- and p-polarization. It combines the chemical sensitivity of Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy to specific molecular bonds and their orientation relative to the polarization of the incident beam with the precise depth profiling capability of X-ray reflectivity. We demonstrate these capabilities on side chain liquid crystalline polymer thin films with soft X-ray reflectivity data at the carbon K edge. Optical constants of the anisotropic refractive index ellipsoid were obtained from a quantitative analysis using the Berreman formalism. For films up to 50 nm thickness we find that the degree of orientation of the long axis exhibits no depth variation and isindependent of the film thickness.

  5. What is the temporal analog of reflection and refraction of optical beams?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Plansinis, B. W.; Donaldson, W. R.; Agrawal, G. P.

    2015-10-28

    It is shown numerically and analytically that when an optical pulse approaches a moving temporal boundary across which the refractive index changes, it undergoes a temporal equivalent of reflection and refraction of optical beams at a spatial boundary. The main difference is that the role of angles is played by changes in the frequency. The frequency dependence of the dispersion of the material in which the pulse is propagating plays a fundamental role in determining the frequency shifts experienced by the reflected and refracted pulses. As a result, our analytic expressions for these frequency shifts allow us to find themore » condition under which an analog of total internal reflection may occur at the temporal boundary.« less

  6. What is the temporal analog of reflection and refraction of optical beams?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plansinis, B. W.; Donaldson, W. R.; Agrawal, G. P.

    2015-10-28

    It is shown numerically and analytically that when an optical pulse approaches a moving temporal boundary across which the refractive index changes, it undergoes a temporal equivalent of reflection and refraction of optical beams at a spatial boundary. The main difference is that the role of angles is played by changes in the frequency. The frequency dependence of the dispersion of the material in which the pulse is propagating plays a fundamental role in determining the frequency shifts experienced by the reflected and refracted pulses. As a result, our analytic expressions for these frequency shifts allow us to find the condition under which an analog of total internal reflection may occur at the temporal boundary.

  7. Performance Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SENIOR PROFESSIONAL (SP) PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL CYCLE - CLOSEOUT GUIDANCE The FY 2015 ... June 5, 2015 SES Performance Management System Policy and Operating Procedures The SES ...

  8. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance. Part I: Analysis of roofing product databases

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sleiman, Mohamad; Ban-Weiss, George; Gilbert, Haley E.; François, David; Berdahl, Paul; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Destaillats, Hugo; Levinson, Ronnen

    2011-12-01

    The use of highly reflective “cool” roofing materials can decrease demand for air conditioning, mitigate the urban heat island effect, and potentially slow global warming. However, initially high roof solar reflectance can be degraded by natural soiling and weathering processes. We evaluated solar reflectance losses after three years of natural exposure reported in two separate databases: the Rated Products Directory of the US Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC) and information reported by manufacturers to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s ENERGY STAR® rating program. Many product ratings were culled because they were duplicative (within a database) or not measured. Amore » second, site-resolved version of the CRRC dataset was created by transcribing from paper records the site-specific measurements of aged solar reflectance in Florida, Arizona and Ohio. Products with high initial solar reflectance tended to lose reflectance, while those with very low initial solar reflectance tended to become more reflective as they aged. Within the site-resolved CRRC database, absolute solar reflectance losses for samples of medium-to-high initial solar reflectance were 2 - 3 times greater in Florida (hot and humid) than in Arizona (hot and dry); losses in Ohio (temperate but polluted) were intermediate. Disaggregating results by product type, factory-applied coating, field-applied coating, metal, modified bitumen, shingle, singleply membrane and tile, revealed that absolute solar reflectance losses were largest for fieldapplied coating, modified bitumen and single-ply membrane products, and smallest for factoryapplied coating and metal products.The 2008 Title 24 provisional aged solar reflectance formula overpredicts the measured aged solar reflectance of 0% to 30% of each product type in the culled public CRRC database. The rate of overprediction was greatest for field-applied coating and single-ply membrane products and least for factory-applied coating, shingle, and metal products. New product-specific formulas can be used to estimate provisional aged solar reflectance from initial solar reflectance pending measurement of aged solar reflectance. The appropriate value of soiling resistance varies by product type and is selected to attain some desired overprediction rate for the formula. The correlations for shingle products presented in this paper should not be used to predict aged solar reflectance or estimate provisional aged solar reflectance because the data set is too small and too limited in range of initial solar reflectance.« less

  9. High-performance steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barsom, J.M.

    1996-03-01

    Steel is the material of choice in structures such as storage tanks, gas and oil distribution pipelines, high-rise buildings, and bridges because of its strength, ductility, and fracture toughness, as well as its repairability and recyclability. Furthermore, these properties are continually being improved via advances in steelmaking, casting, rolling, and chemistry. Developments in steelmaking have led to alloys having low sulfur, sulfide shape control, and low hydrogen. They provide reduced chemical segregation, higher fracture toughness, better through-thickness and weld heat-affected zone properties, and lower susceptibility to hydrogen cracking. Processing has moved beyond traditional practices to designed combinations of controlled rolling and cooling known as thermomechanical control processes (TMCP). In fact, chemical composition control and TMCP now enable such precise adjustment of final properties that these alloys are now known as high-performance steels (HPS), engineered materials having properties tailored for specific applications.

  10. Ion-acoustic shocks with self-regulated ion reflection and acceleration

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Ion-acoustic shocks with self-regulated ion reflection and acceleration Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on April 12, 2017 Title: Ion-acoustic shocks with self-regulated ion reflection and acceleration Authors: Malkov, M. A. [1] Search SciTech Connect for author "Malkov, M. A." Search SciTech Connect for ORCID "0000000163601987" Search orcid.org for ORCID

  11. EM Site Manager Reflects on Field Office's Formative Year, Looks to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Future | Department of Energy EM Site Manager Reflects on Field Office's Formative Year, Looks to Future EM Site Manager Reflects on Field Office's Formative Year, Looks to Future April 27, 2016 - 12:40pm Addthis EM Los Alamos Field Office Manager Douglas E. Hintze EM Los Alamos Field Office Manager Douglas E. Hintze LOS ALAMOS, N.M. - EM Los Alamos Field Office Manager Douglas E. Hintze recently spoke with EM Update about the launch of EM's newest site office and its challenges and

  12. Mitigation of substrate defects in reflective reticles using sequential coating and annealing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirkanimi, Paul B.

    2002-01-01

    A buffer-layer to minimize the size of defects on a reticle substrate prior to deposition of a reflective coating on the substrate. The buffer-layer is formed by either a multilayer deposited on the substrate or by a plurality of sequentially deposited and annealed coatings deposited on the substrate. The plurality of sequentially deposited and annealed coating may comprise multilayer and single layer coatings. The multilayer deposited and annealed buffer layer coatings may be of the same or different material than the reflecting coating thereafter deposited on the buffer-layer.

  13. ALS Director's Update 2016: Reflections on Our Past, Present, and Future

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Director's Update 2016: Reflections on Our Past, Present, and Future ALS Director's Update 2016: Reflections on Our Past, Present, and Future Print We entered the new year on a very positive note with the passage of a federal budget for fiscal year 2016 that will provide a modest increase in funding for ALS operations. Another exciting outcome of the budget process was that Congress provided additional funding this year for research and development for the ALS upgrade, ALS-U. We are in the early

  14. Annual Performance Report FY 2011 Annual Performance Plan FY 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Annual Performance Report FY 2011 Annual Performance Plan FY 2012 2 FY 2011 OIG Performance Results The OIG measures its performance against long-term and annual goals set forth in OIG planning documents. During this reporting period, the OIG successfully achieved its FY 2011 performance goals. The following are the specific results: Goal 1 Promote Presidential Reform Initiatives, Secretarial Mission Priorities, and Congress Objective 1: Conduct

  15. Presidential Performance Contracting Challenge: Performance Toward New $4

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Billion Goal | Department of Energy Presidential Performance Contracting Challenge: Performance Toward New $4 Billion Goal Presidential Performance Contracting Challenge: Performance Toward New $4 Billion Goal Presidential Performance Contracting Challenge Status graphic. May 9, 2014, the president announced an additional $2 billion goal in federal energy-efficiency upgrades to federal buildings through 2016. This goal, in combination with the initial commitment of $2 billion in 2011, will

  16. Integrated Reflection Seismic Monitoring and Reservoir Modeling for Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Rogers

    2011-12-31

    The US DOE/NETL CCS MVA program funded a project with Fusion Petroleum Technologies Inc. (now SIGMA) to model the proof of concept of using sparse seismic data in the monitoring of CO{sub 2} injected into saline aquifers. The goal of the project was to develop and demonstrate an active source reflection seismic imaging strategy based on deployment of spatially sparse surface seismic arrays. The primary objective was to test the feasibility of sparse seismic array systems to monitor the CO{sub 2} plume migration injected into deep saline aquifers. The USDOE/RMOTC Teapot Dome (Wyoming) 3D seismic and reservoir data targeting the Crow Mountain formation was used as a realistic proxy to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed methodology. Though the RMOTC field has been well studied, the Crow Mountain as a saline aquifer has not been studied previously as a CO{sub 2} sequestration (storage) candidate reservoir. A full reprocessing of the seismic data from field tapes that included prestack time migration (PSTM) followed by prestack depth migration (PSDM) was performed. A baseline reservoir model was generated from the new imaging results that characterized the faults and horizon surfaces of the Crow Mountain reservoir. The 3D interpretation was integrated with the petrophysical data from available wells and incorporated into a geocellular model. The reservoir structure used in the geocellular model was developed using advanced inversion technologies including Fusion's ThinMAN{trademark} broadband spectral inversion. Seal failure risk was assessed using Fusion's proprietary GEOPRESS{trademark} pore pressure and fracture pressure prediction technology. CO{sub 2} injection was simulated into the Crow Mountain with a commercial reservoir simulator. Approximately 1.2MM tons of CO{sub 2} was simulated to be injected into the Crow Mountain reservoir over 30 years and subsequently let 'soak' in the reservoir for 970 years. The relatively small plume developed from this injection was observed migrating due to gravity to the apexes of the double anticline in the Crow Mountain reservoir of the Teapot dome. Four models were generated from the reservoir simulation task of the project which included three saturation models representing snapshots at different times during and after simulated CO{sub 2} injection and a fully saturated CO{sub 2} fluid substitution model. The saturation models were used along with a Gassmann fluid substitution model for CO{sub 2} to perform fluid volumetric substitution in the Crow Mountain formation. The fluid substitution resulted in a velocity and density model for the 3D volume at each saturation condition that was used to generate a synthetic seismic survey. FPTI's (Fusion Petroleum Technologies Inc.) proprietary SeisModelPRO{trademark} full acoustic wave equation software was used to simulate acquisition of a 3D seismic survey on the four models over a subset of the field area. The simulated acquisition area included the injection wells and the majority of the simulated plume area.

  17. Superior Energy Performance Overview Slides

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation provides a comprehensive overview of the Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program.

  18. High Performance Network Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, Jesse E

    2012-08-10

    Network Monitoring requires a substantial use of data and error analysis to overcome issues with clusters. Zenoss and Splunk help to monitor system log messages that are reporting issues about the clusters to monitoring services. Infiniband infrastructure on a number of clusters upgraded to ibmon2. ibmon2 requires different filters to report errors to system administrators. Focus for this summer is to: (1) Implement ibmon2 filters on monitoring boxes to report system errors to system administrators using Zenoss and Splunk; (2) Modify and improve scripts for monitoring and administrative usage; (3) Learn more about networks including services and maintenance for high performance computing systems; and (4) Gain a life experience working with professionals under real world situations. Filters were created to account for clusters running ibmon2 v1.0.0-1 10 Filters currently implemented for ibmon2 using Python. Filters look for threshold of port counters. Over certain counts, filters report errors to on-call system administrators and modifies grid to show local host with issue.

  19. Performance Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessment Performance Assessment Performance Assessment The Office of Project Management Oversight and Assessments (PM) provides a monthly assessment of DOE's portfolio of capital assets projects, which is summarized in the monthly Project Dashboard report. The current portfolio consists of 34 active projects with established scope, schedule, and cost performance baselines. Based on current performance, projects that are expected to meet their performance baseline are assessed as GREEN,

  20. NREL and SkyFuel Partnership Reflects Bright Future for Solar Energy | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL and SkyFuel Partnership Reflects Bright Future for Solar Energy In this video, NREL Principal Scientist Gary Jorgensen and SkyFuel Chief Technology Officer Randy Gee talk about their partnership to develop a thin film to substitute for bulkier glass mirrors on solar-collecting parabolic troughs. Learn more about NREL's Concentrating Solar Power Research

  1. A Cylindrical Microlens With An Internally Reflective Surface And A Method Of Fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, Raymond J.; Freitas, Barry L.

    2005-09-27

    A fast (high numerical aperture) cylindrical microlens, which includes an internally reflective surface, that functions to deviate the direction of the light that enters the lens from its original propagation direction is employed in optically conditioning laser diodes, laser diode arrays and laser diode bars.

  2. Cylindrical microlens with an internally reflecting surface and a method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, Raymond J.; Freitas, Barry L.

    2004-03-23

    A fast (high numerical aperture) cylindrical microlens, which includes an internally reflective surface, that functions to deviate the direction of the light that enters the lens from its original propagation direction is employed in optically conditioning laser diodes, laser diode arrays and laser diode bars.

  3. Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 100-400 eV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandberg, Richard L.; Allred, David D.; Bissell, Luke J.; Johnson, Jed E.; Turley, R. Steven

    2004-05-12

    We present the measured reflectances (Beamline 6.3.2, ALS at LBNL) of naturally oxidized uranium and naturally oxidized nickel thin films from 100-460 eV (2.7 to 11.6 nm) at 5 and 15 degrees grazing incidence. These show that uranium, as UO2, can fulfill its promise as the highest known single surface reflector for this portion of the soft x-ray region, being nearly twice as reflective as nickel in the 124-250 eV (5-10 nm) region. This is due to its large index of refraction coupled with low absorption. Nickel is commonly used in soft x-ray applications in astronomy and synchrotrons. (Its reflectance at 10 deg. exceeds that of Au and Ir for most of this range.) We prepared uranium and nickel thin films via DC-magnetron sputtering of a depleted U target and resistive heating evaporation respectively. Ambient oxidation quickly brought the U sample to UO2 (total thickness about 30 nm). The nickel sample (50 nm) also acquired a thin native oxide coating (<2nm). Though the density of U in UO2 is only half of the metal, its reflectance is high and it is relatively stable against further changes.

  4. Former Assistant Secretary Reflects on Career High Point Leading EM: 'Well Worth the Effort'

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – In an occasional EM Update series, we feature interviews with former EM Assistant Secretaries to reflect on their achievements and challenges in the world’s largest nuclear cleanup and to discuss endeavors in life after EM.

  5. Method and apparatus for detecting the presence and thickness of carbon and oxide layers on EUV reflective surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malinowski, Michael E.

    2005-01-25

    The characteristics of radiation that is reflected from carbon deposits and oxidation formations on highly reflective surfaces such as Mo/Si mirrors can be quantified and employed to detect and measure the presence of such impurities on optics. Specifically, it has been shown that carbon deposits on a Mo/Si multilayer mirror decreases the intensity of reflected HeNe laser (632.8 nm) light. In contrast, oxide layers formed on the mirror should cause an increase in HeNe power reflection. Both static measurements and real-time monitoring of carbon and oxide surface impurities on optical elements in lithography tools should be achievable.

  6. Westinghouse Hanford Company health and safety performance report. Fourth quarter calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lansing, K.A.

    1996-03-01

    WHC once again achieved significant improvement in its Overall safety performance as reflected by the injury/illness incidence rates. Incidence rates with one exception (Restricted Work Cases Only Incidence Rate) reflect sharp reductions. The increase in the Restricted Work Case Incidence Rate appears to be the result of effective case management activity and the return to work in a partial duty capacity of employees who may otherwise have been off work due to a work-related injury/illness (Page 2--9).

  7. Annual Performance Report FY 2004 Annual Performance Plan FY 2005,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE/IG-APP-007 | Department of Energy 4 Annual Performance Plan FY 2005, DOE/IG-APP-007 Annual Performance Report FY 2004 Annual Performance Plan FY 2005, DOE/IG-APP-007 I am pleased to present the Office of Inspector General's (OIG's) combined Fiscal Year 2004 Annual Performance Report and Fiscal Year 2005 Annual Performance Plan. In Fiscal Year 2004, the Department was ranked first among all cabinet agencies in implementing the President's Management Agenda. We are proud to have played a

  8. HPC Debugging and Performance Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Debugging and Performance Tools HPC Debugging and Performance Tools February 16, 2012 L An error occurred. Try watching this video on www.youtube.com, or enable JavaScript if it is...

  9. VA's Performance Contracting Program Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers the Veteran Administration's (VA's) performance contracting program, including its annual energy savings performance contract (ESPC) plans.

  10. Trinity Acceptance Tests Performance Summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajan, Mahesh

    2015-12-01

    Ensuring Real Applications perform well on Trinity is key to success. Four components: ASC applications, Sustained System Performance (SSP), Extra-Large MiniApplications problems, and Micro-benchmarks.

  11. Performance Based Service Acquisition Toolkit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Performance-based Service Acquisition (PBA) means an acquisition structured around the results to be achieved as opposed to the manner by which the work is to be performed.

  12. Introduction to High Performance Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Introduction to High Performance Computing Introduction to High Performance Computing June 10, 2013 Photo on 7 30 12 at 7.10 AM Downloads Download File Gerber-HPC-2.pdf...

  13. NREL: Transportation Research - Fuels Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels Performance Photo of a man working with laboratory equipment. NREL fuel performance chemists evaluate a broad range of performance criteria, including storage stability. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL's applied fuels performance research takes a whole-vehicle-systems approach, examining not just co-optimization of low-carbon fuels and internal combustion engines, but also fuel production, infrastructure, handling, combustion, and emissions. Putting more energy-efficient vehicles on

  14. Energy Savings Performance Contracting Webinars

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Provides a listing of past Energy Savings Performance Contracting webinars and associated files. Author: U. S Department of Energy

  15. Technology Performance Exchange (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    This fact sheet, 'The Technology Performance Exchange' will be presented at the ET Summit, held at the Pasadena Convention Center on October 15-17, 2012. The Technology Performance Exchange will be a centralized, Web-based portal for finding and sharing energy performance data for commercial building technologies.

  16. Intra-Cavity Total Reflection For High Sensitivity Measurement Of Optical Properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pipino, Andrew C. R.; Hudgens, Jeffrey W.

    1999-08-24

    An optical cavity resonator device is provided for conducting sensitive murement of optical absorption by matter in any state with diffraction-limited spatial resolution through utilization of total internal reflection within a high-Q (high quality, low loss) optical cavity. Intracavity total reflection generates an evanescent wave that decays exponentially in space at a point external to the cavity, thereby providing a localized region where absorbing materials can be sensitively probed through alteration of the Q-factor of the otherwise isolated cavity. When a laser pulse is injected into the cavity and passes through the evanescent state, an amplitude loss resulting from absorption is incurred that reduces the lifetime of the pulse in the cavity. By monitoring the decay of the injected pulse, the absorption coefficient of manner within the evanescent wave region is accurately obtained from the decay time measurement.

  17. Intra-Cavity Total Reflection For High Sensitivity Measurement Of Optical Properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pipino, Andrew Charles Rule

    1999-11-16

    An optical cavity resonator device is provided for conducting sensitive murement of optical absorption by matter in any state with diffraction-limited spatial resolution through utilization of total internal reflection within a high-Q (high quality, low loss) optical cavity. Intracavity total reflection generates an evanescent wave that decays exponentially in space at a point external to the cavity, thereby providing a localized region where absorbing materials can be sensitively probed through alteration of the Q-factor of the otherwise isolated cavity. When a laser pulse is injected into the cavity and passes through the evanescent state, an amplitude loss resulting from absorption is incurred that reduces the lifetime of the pulse in the cavity. By monitoring the decay of the injected pulse, the absorption coefficient of manner within the evanescent wave region is accurately obtained from the decay time measurement.

  18. Energy loss of MeV protons specularly reflected from metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juaristi, J.I.

    1996-05-01

    A parameter-free model is presented to study the energy loss of fast protons specularly reflected from metal surfaces. The contributions to the energy loss from excitation of valence-band electrons and ionization of localized target-atom electronic states are calculated separately. The former is calculated from the induced surface wake potential using linear response theory and the specular-reflection model, while the latter is calculated in the first Born approximation. The results obtained are in good agreement with available experimental data. However, the experimental qualitative trend of the energy loss as a function of the angle of incidence is obtained when the valence-band electron model is replaced by localized target atom electron states, though with a worse quantitative agreement. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  19. The characterization of metal/ceramic interfaces using specular neutron reflection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, P.; Derby, B.; Webster, J.; Penfold, J.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have characterized the chemical composition of three interfaces between metals and a sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) single crystal using specular neutron reflection. The interfaces are Sn/sapphire, Sn/sapphire containing a thin, {approximately}20 nm, Ti interlayer and an interface between sapphire and a Ti-containing Ag-Cu eutectic active braze alloy. The authors have evaluated the neutron reflection results using a multilayer model of the interface. The technique is extremely sensitive to the presence of Ti at the interface being probed because of the negative neutron scattering length of Ti compared with the positive scattering lengths of the other elements present in the systems. The analysis of the data revealed a thin, {approximately}70 nm, titanium suboxide layer t the sapphire/active braze alloy interface, consistent with observations made using other techniques.

  20. "Non-Reflective" Boundary Design via Remote Sensing and PID Control Valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Qin Fen; Karney, Professor Byran W.; Pejovic, Dr. Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of a nonreflective (or semireflective) boundary condition using the combination of a remote sensor and a control system to modulate a relief valve. The essential idea is to sense the pressure change at a remote location and then to use the measured data to adjust the opening of an active control valve at the end of the line to eliminate or attenuate the wave reflections at the valve, thus controlling system transient pressures. This novel idea is shown here through numerical simulation to have considerable potential for transient protection. Using this model, wave reflections and resonance can be effectively eliminated for frictionless pipelines or initial no-flow conditions and can be better controlled in more realistic pipelines for a range of transient disturbances. In addition, the features of even-order harmonics and nonreflective boundary conditions during steady oscillation, obtained through time domain transient analysis, are verified by hydraulic impedance analysis in the frequency domain.

  1. On the observation of multiple volume reflection from different planes inside one bent crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidi, Vincenzo; Mazzolari, Andrea; Tikhomirov, Victor

    2010-06-15

    An interpretation of the first experiment on the observation of 400 GeV proton multiple volume reflection from different skew planes of one bent crystal (MVROC) is given. The possibilities of experimental observation of MVROC at lower particle energies are demonstrated. New features of the effect of particle capture into the channeling regime by bent skew planes are revealed as well as optimal choice of main crystal axis, crystal thickness, and beam orientation with respect to the crystal is discussed.

  2. New Sandia Mirror Isn't Shiny: Instead It Reflects Infrared Light Using a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metamaterial Sandia Mirror Isn't Shiny: Instead It Reflects Infrared Light Using a Metamaterial - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization

  3. Reflection type of terahertz imaging system using a high-T{sub c} superconducting oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashiwagi, T.; Minami, H.; Kadowaki, K. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Division of Materials Science, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Nakade, K.; Saiwai, Y.; Kitamura, T.; Watanabe, C.; Ishida, K.; Sekimoto, S.; Asanuma, K.; Yasui, T.; Shibano, Y. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Markovi?, B.; Mirkovi?, J. [Faculty of Sciences, University of Montenegro, George Washington Str., 81000 Podgorica (Montenegro); Tsujimoto, M. [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, Wide Bandgap Materials Group, Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, Environment and Energy Materials Division, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-01-13

    A reflection type of imaging system is shown at sub-terahertz frequencies generated from high-T{sub c} superconducting intrinsic Josephson junction mesa structures fabricated by single crystalline Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+?} to demonstrate how the sub-terahertz imaging technique using monochromatic radiation is powerful and unique for the variety of practical applications. Several examples are discussed in detail and are compared to other terahertz imaging systems.

  4. Thin film transistors on plastic substrates with reflective coatings for radiation protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D.; Theiss, Steven D.; Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Wickbold, Paul

    2006-09-26

    Fabrication of silicon thin film transistors (TFT) on low-temperature plastic substrates using a reflective coating so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The TFT can be used in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics such as video cameras, personal digital assistants, and cell phones.

  5. Thin film transistors on plastic substrates with reflective coatings for radiation protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D.; Theiss, Steven D.; Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Wickboldt, Paul

    2003-11-04

    Fabrication of silicon thin film transistors (TFT) on low-temperature plastic substrates using a reflective coating so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The TFT can be used in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics such as video cameras, personal digital assistants, and cell phones.

  6. Crystal surface symmetry from zone-axis patterns in reflection high-energy-electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon, M.D.; Eades, J.A.; Meichle, M.E.; Turner, P.S.; Buxton, B.F.

    1984-11-26

    New experimental techniques, sensitive to crystal surface symmetry, for reflection high-energy-electron diffraction have been developed and applied to the (001) surface of MgO. The techniques map the variation of the intensity of one or more diffracted beams as a function of the incident-beam orientation. The symmetry of these surface zone-axis patterns has been studied theoretically and confirmed experimentally. The techniques are expected to provide a sensitive means of surface characterization.

  7. Understanding Soot's Effect on Snow Reflectivity | U.S. DOE Office of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science (SC) Understanding Soot's Effect on Snow Reflectivity Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P:

  8. Development of Abrasion-Resistant Coating for Solar Reflective Films. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-247

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this CRADA is to develop an abrasion-resistant coating, suitable for use on polymeric-based reflective films (e.g., the ReflecTech reflective film), that allows for improved scratch resistance and enables the use of aggressive cleaning techniques (e.g., direct contact methods like brushing) without damaging the specular reflectance properties of the reflective film.

  9. Development of a broadband reflectivity diagnostic for laser driven shock compression experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ali, S. J.; Bolme, C. A.; Collins, G. W.; Jeanloz, R.

    2015-04-01

    A normal - incidence visible and near - infrared Shock Wave Optical Reflectivity Diagnostic (SWORD) was constructed to investigate changes in the optical properties of materials under dynamic laser compression . Documenting wavelength - and time - dependent changes in the optical properties of laser - shock compressed samples has been difficult, primarily due to the small sample sizes and short time scales involved , but we succeeded in doing so by broadening a series of time delayed 800 - nm pulses from an ultra fast Ti: sapphire laser to generate high - intensity broadband light at nanosecond time scalesmore » . This diagnostic was demonstrated over the wavelength range 450 to 1150 nm with up to 16 time displaced spectra during a single shock experiment. Simultaneous off - normal incidence velocity interferometry (VISAR) characterize d the sample under laser - compression , and also provide d a n independent reflectivity measurement at 532 nm wavelength . Lastly, the shock - driven semiconductor - to - metallic transition in germanium was documented by way of reflectivity measurements with 0.5 ns time resolution and a wavelength resolution of 10 nm .« less

  10. Transmission and reflection of terahertz plasmons in two-dimensional plasmonic devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sydoruk, Oleksiy; Choonee, Kaushal; Dyer, Gregory Conrad

    2015-03-10

    We found that plasmons in two-dimensional semiconductor devices will be reflected by discontinuities, notably, junctions between gated and non-gated electron channels. The transmitted and reflected plasmons can form spatially- and frequency-varying signals, and their understanding is important for the design of terahertz detectors, oscillators, and plasmonic crystals. Using mode decomposition, we studied terahertz plasmons incident on a junction between a gated and a nongated channel. The plasmon reflection and transmission coefficients were found numerically and analytically and studied between 0.3 and 1 THz for a range of electron densities. At higher frequencies, we could describe the plasmons by a simplifiedmore » model of channels in homogeneous dielectrics, for which the analytical approximations were accurate. At low frequencies, however, the full geometry and mode spectrum had to be taken into account. Moreover, the results agreed with simulations by the finite-element method. As a result, mode decomposition thus proved to be a powerful method for plasmonic devices, combining the rigor of complete solutions of Maxwell's equations with the convenience of analytical expressions.« less

  11. On identifying the specular reflection of sunlight in earth-monitoring satellite data.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelsen, James M., Jr.; Hohlfelder, Robert James; Jackson, Dale Clayton; Longenbaugh, Randolph S.

    2009-03-01

    Among the background signals commonly seen by Earth-monitoring satellites is the specular reflection of sunlight off of Earth's surface, commonly referred to as a glint. This phenomenon, involving liquid or ice surfaces, can result in the brief, intense illumination of satellite sensors appearing from the satellite perspective to be of terrestrial origin. These glints are important background signals to be able to identify with confidence, particularly in the context of analyzing data from satellites monitoring for transient surface or atmospheric events. Here we describe methods for identifying glints based on the physical processes involved in their production, including spectral fitting and polarization measurements. We then describe a tool that, using the WGS84 spheroidal Earth model, finds the latitude and longitude on Earth where a reflection of this type could be produced, given input Sun and satellite coordinates. This tool enables the user to determine if the surface at the solution latitude and longitude is in fact reflective, thus identifying the sensor response as a true glint or an event requiring further analysis.

  12. Technique for examining biological materials using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and the kubelka-munk function

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alfano, Robert R.; Yang, Yuanlong

    2003-09-02

    Method and apparatus for examining biological materials using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and the Kubelka-Munk function. In one aspect, the method is used to determine whether a tissue sample is cancerous or not and comprises the steps of (a) measuring the diffuse reflectance from the tissue sample at a first wavelength and at a second wavelength, wherein the first wavelength is a wavelength selected from the group consisting of 255-265 nm and wherein the second wavelength is a wavelength selected from the group consisting of 275-285 nm; (b) using the Kubelka-Munk function to transform the diffuse reflectance measurement obtained at the first and second wavelengths; and (c) comparing a ratio or a difference of the transformed Kubelka-Munk measurements at the first and second wavelengths to appropriate standards determine whether or not the tissue sample is cancerous. One can use the spectral profile of KMF between 250 nm to 300 nm to determine whether or not the tissue sample is cancerous or precancerous. According to the value at the first and second wavelengths determine whether or not the malignant tissue is invasive or mixed invasive and in situ or carcinoma in situ.

  13. Feasibility study of the seismic reflection method in Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brocher, T.M.; Hart, P.E.; Carle, S.F.

    1990-11-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) working under an Interagency agreement with the Department of Energy is engaged in a broad geoscience program to assess and identify a potential repository for high level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. The USGS program, referred to as the Yucca Mountain Project, or YMP, consists of integrated geologic, hydrologic and geophysical studies which range in nature from site specific to regional. This report is an evaluation of different acquisition methods for future regional seismic reflection studies to be conducted in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, located in the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). In January 1988, field studies were conducted to investigate the feasibility of using the common-depth point (CDP) seismic reflection method to map subsurface geological horizons within the Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada. The goal of the field study was to investigate which seismic reflection method(s) should be used for mapping shallow to lower-crustal horizons. Therefore, a wide-variety of field acquisition parameters were tested, included point versus linear receiver group arrays; Vibroseis (service and trademark of Conoco, Inc.) versus explosive sources; Vibroseis array patterns; and Vibroseis sweep and frequency range. 31 refs., 33 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. The insensitivity of reflected sh waves to anisotropy in an underlaying layered medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenberg, M.; Costa, J. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports on propagation in the plane of mirror symmetry of a monoclinic medium, with displacement normal to the plane which is the most general circumstance in anisotropic media for which pure shear-wave propagation can occur at all angles. Because the pure shear mode is uncoupled from the other two modes, its slowness surface in the plane is an ellipse. When the mirror symmetry plane is vertical the pure shear waves in this plane are SH waves and the elliptical SH sheet of the slowness surface is, in general, tilted with respect to the vertical axis. Consider a half-space of such a monoclinic medium, called medium M, overlain by a halfspace of isotropic medium I with plane SH waves incident on medium M propagating in the vertical symmetry plane of M. Contrary to the appearance of a lack of symmetry about the vertical axis due to the tilt of the SH-wave slowness ellipse, the reflection and transmission coefficients are symmetrical functions of the angle of incidence, and further, there exists an isotropic medium E with uniquely determined density and shear speed which gives exactly the same reflection and transmission coefficients underlying medium I as does monoclinic medium M. This means that the underlying monoclinic medium M can be replaced by isotropic medium E without changing the reflection and transmission coefficients for all values of the angle of incidence.

  15. Transmission and reflection of terahertz plasmons in two-dimensional plasmonic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sydoruk, Oleksiy; Choonee, Kaushal; Dyer, Gregory Conrad

    2015-03-10

    We found that plasmons in two-dimensional semiconductor devices will be reflected by discontinuities, notably, junctions between gated and non-gated electron channels. The transmitted and reflected plasmons can form spatially- and frequency-varying signals, and their understanding is important for the design of terahertz detectors, oscillators, and plasmonic crystals. Using mode decomposition, we studied terahertz plasmons incident on a junction between a gated and a nongated channel. The plasmon reflection and transmission coefficients were found numerically and analytically and studied between 0.3 and 1 THz for a range of electron densities. At higher frequencies, we could describe the plasmons by a simplified model of channels in homogeneous dielectrics, for which the analytical approximations were accurate. At low frequencies, however, the full geometry and mode spectrum had to be taken into account. Moreover, the results agreed with simulations by the finite-element method. As a result, mode decomposition thus proved to be a powerful method for plasmonic devices, combining the rigor of complete solutions of Maxwell's equations with the convenience of analytical expressions.

  16. L.41 EXHIBIT A - PERFORMANCE GUARANTEE PERFORMANCE GUARANTEE AGREEMENT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 EXHIBIT A - PERFORMANCE GUARANTEE PERFORMANCE GUARANTEE AGREEMENT For value received, and in consideration of, and in order to induce the United States (the Government) to enter into Contract DE-____________ for the (Contract dated, , by and between the Government and (Contractor), the undersigned, (Guarantor), a corporation incorporated in the State of with its principal place of business at hereby unconditionally guarantees to the Government (a) the full and prompt payment and performance of

  17. Hanford Site performance summary -- EM funded programs, July 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, E.A.

    1995-07-01

    Performance data for July 1995 reflects a 4% unfavorable schedule variance and is an improvement over June 1995. The majority of the behind schedule condition is attributed to EM-30, (Office of Waste Management). The majority of the EM-30 schedule variance is associated with the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program. The TWRS schedule variance is attributed to the delay in obtaining key decision 0 (KD-0) for Project W-314, ``Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations`` and the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) workscope still being a part of the baseline. Baseline Change Requests (BCRs) are in process rebaselining Project W-314 and deleting the MWTF from the TWRS baseline. Once the BCR`s are approved and implemented, the overall schedule variance will be reduced to $15.0 million. Seventy-seven enforceable agreement milestones were scheduled FYTD. Seventy-one (92%) of the seventy-seven were completed on or ahead of schedule, two were completed late and four are delinquent. Performance data reflects a continued significant favorable cost variance of $124.3 million (10%). The cost variance is attributed to process improvements/efficiencies, elimination of low-value work, workforce reductions and is expected to continue for the remainder of this fiscal year. A portion of the cost variance is attributed to a delay in billings which should self-correct by fiscal year-end.

  18. NON-INVASIVE DETERMINATION OF THE LOCATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF FREE-PHASE DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS (DNAPL) BY SEISMIC REFLECTION TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. Waddell; William J. Domoracki; Tom J. Temples

    2001-05-01

    This semi-annual technical progress report is for Task 4 site evaluation, Task 5 seismic reflection design and acquisition, and Task 6 seismic reflection processing and interpretation on DOE contact number DE-AR26-98FT40369. The project had planned one additional deployment to another site other than Savannah River Site (SRS) or DOE Hanford. During this reporting period the project had an ASME peer review. The findings and recommendation of the review panel, as well at the project team response to comments, are in Appendix A. After the SUBCON midyear review in Albuquerque, NM and the peer review it was decided that two additional deployments would be performed. The first deployment is to test the feasibility of using non-invasive seismic reflection and AVO analysis as monitoring to assist in determining the effectiveness of Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) in removal of DNAPL. Under the rescope of the project, Task 4 would be performed at the Charleston Navy Weapons Station, Charleston, SC and not at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) project at SRS. The project team had already completed Task 4 at the M-area seepage basin, only a few hundred yards away from the DUS site. Because the geology is the same, Task 4 was not necessary. However, a Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) was conducted in one well to calibrate the geology to the seismic data. The first deployment to the DUS Site (Tasks 5 and 6) has been completed. Once the steam has been turned off these tasks will be performed again to compare the results to the pre-steam data. The results from the first deployment to the DUS site indicated a seismic amplitude anomaly at the location and depths of the known high concentrations of DNAPL. The deployment to another site with different geologic conditions was supposed to occur during this reporting period. The first site selected was DOE Paducah, Kentucky. After almost eight months of negotiation, site access was denied requiring the selection of another site. An alternate, site the Department of Defense (DOD) Charleston Navy Weapons Station, Charleston, SC was selected in consultation with National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and DOD Navy Facilities Engineering Command Southern Division (NAVFAC) personnel. Tasks 4, 5, and 6 will be performed at the Charleston Navy Weapons Station. Task 4 will be executed twice. The project team had almost completed Task 4 at Paducah before access was denied.

  19. Annual Performance Report FY 2011 Annual Performance Plan FY...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exceeded Goal 2d. By June, 2011, complete an annual risk-based programmatic assessment that considers OIG institutional knowledge; past program performance; funding levels; ...

  20. Environmental Compliance Performance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compliance Environmental Compliance Performance Environmental Compliance Performance Most Office of Environmental Management (EM) cleanup is being performed under the ...

  1. Signal processing Model/Method for Recovering Acoustic Reflectivity of Spot Weld

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-09-08

    Until recently, U.S. auto manufacturers have inspected the veracity of welds in the auto bodies they build by using destructive tear-down, which typically results in more than $1 M of scrappage per plant per year. Much of this expense could possibly be avoided with a nondestructive technique (and 100% instead of 1% inspection could be achieved). Recent advances in ultrasound probes promise to provide a sufficiently accurate non-destructive evaluation technique, but the necessary signal processingmore » has not yet been developed. This disclosure describes a signal processing model and method useful for diagnosing the veracity of spot welds between two sheets of the same thickness from ultrasound signals Standard systems theory describes a signal as a convolution of a transducer function, h(t), and an impulse train (beta(t), tau(t)) [1] (see Eq. (1) attached). With a Gaussian wavelet as a transducer function, this model describes the signal from an ultrasound probe quite well, and the literature provides many methods for "deconvolution," for recovery of the impulse train from the signal [see e.g., 2-3]. What is novel about the technique disclosed is the model that describes the impulse train as a function of reflectivity, the share of energy incident on the interface that is reflected, and that allows the recovery of its estimated value. The reflectivity estimate provides an ideal indicator of weld veracity, compressing each signal into a single value between 0 and 1, which can then be displayed as a 2d greyscale or colormap of the weld. The model describing the system is attached as Eqs. (2). These equations account for the energy in the probe-side and opposite sheets. In each period, this energy is a sum of that reflected from the same sheet plus that transmitted from the opposite (dampened by material attenuation at rate a). This model is consistent with physical first principles (in particular the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics) and has been verified empirically. For fast estimation of R using only observations beta(1, ..., T) a receiver state equation has been derived, and is attached as Eq. (3). This equation has the further advantage that the initial impulse S need not be known, rather it is estimated simultaneously. This is necessary because element failure and coupling can cause large variations in S. Constrained nonlinear least squares techniques can be applied to this equation to recover reflectivity (and initial impulse) [4]. In particular, the Gauss-Newton algorithm on the log of the sum of squared errors based on the receiver state equation is recommended. To summarize, it is the model described in Eqs. (2) and (3) that is novel, and that enables the recovery of acoustic reflectivity from the ultrasound signals. It has been verified that this reflectivity estimate provides a better indicator of weld veracity than other features previously derived from such signals.« less

  2. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. ... The AMF is being deployed to China and is not in operation ...

  3. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... not yet been released from China to the DMF for processing. ... and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. ...

  4. LPO Financial Performance Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LPO Financial Performance Report LPO Financial Performance Report PDF icon LPO Financial Performance Report November 2014 More Documents & Publications PORTFOLIO PERFORMANCE LPO ...

  5. Federal Energy Savings Performance Contract Project Performance Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performs an annual assessment of the realization rate of energy and cost savings from DOE’s energy savings performance contract (ESPC) program based on the information reported by the energy service companies that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites.

  6. Direct contact heat exchanger performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, E. F.

    1981-03-12

    Although the final performance result of a DCHE is the cost of the net electricity produced, the best performance cannot be achieved without optimizing the components of the system as well as the whole system. Thus collection and analysis of data on the internal performance of the column assists in optimizing the operation of the particular column as well as in suggesting ways for improving the operation and design of future columns.

  7. Application Performance Variability on Hopper

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Application Performance Variability on Hopper Application Performance Variability on Hopper Introduction The Hopper system is a Cray XE6 system with roughly 6300 compute nodes. In normal day to day operations, Hopper can be running hundreds of individual applications at any given time. Some users have reported application runtime variability, in some cases as large as 30-40%. Non-uniform runtimes makes it more difficult for scientists to measure the performance of their codes and to estimate the

  8. Software and High Performance Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Software and High Performance Computing Software and High Performance Computing Providing world-class high performance computing capability that enables unsurpassed solutions to complex problems of strategic national interest Contact thumbnail of Kathleen McDonald Head of Intellectual Property, Business Development Executive Kathleen McDonald Richard P. Feynman Center for Innovation (505) 667-5844 Email Software Computational physics, computer science, applied mathematics, statistics and the

  9. Connecting HPC and High Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HPC and High Performance Networks for Scientists and Researchers SC15 Austin, Texas November 18, 2015 1 Agenda 2 * Welcome and introductions * BoF Goals * Overview of National Research & Education Networks at work Globally * Discuss needs, challenges for leveraging HPC and high-performance networks * HPC/HTC pre-SC15 ESnet/GEANT/Internet2 survey results overview * Next steps discussion * Closing and Thank You BoF: Connecting HPC and High Performance Networks for Scientists and Researchers

  10. Cray Compiler Performance on Edison

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cray Compiler Performance on Edison Cray Compiler Performance on Edison Cray recommends using the default optimization (-O2) which is equivalent to the higher levels of optimization with other compilers. In addition, the -O3 and -Ofp3 options can improve performance on some codes. These are the Cray optimization options we compared. The quotations are from the Cray compiler on-line man pages. Cray compiler options tested default This is the default level of optimization provided by the compiler

  11. Loan Performance Data and Communication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Network Financing and Revenue Peer Exchange Call: Loan Performance Data and Communication, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, May 23, 2013.

  12. Integrated Planning and Performance Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Lab Plan - Other plans (SiteFacilities, WFD, etc) * Execute--perform technical & business functions - Management systems (CAS) * Check--measureanalyze & evaluate...

  13. Sandia PV Array Performance Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The photovoltaic array performance model was developed at Sandia National Laboratories over the last twelve years. Electrical, thermal, and optical characteristics for photovoltaic modules are included in the model, and the model is designed to use hourly solar resource and meteorological data. The versatility and accuracy of the model has been validated for flat-plate modules (all technologies) and for concentrator modules, as well as for large arrays of modules. Applications include system design and sizing, ‘translation’ of field performance measurements to standard reporting conditions, system performance optimization, and real-time comparison of measured versus expected system performance.

  14. FY 2011 Agency Performance Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Energy: Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Technologies 180 2 Biomass ... of a performance-based culture that clearly links work to ... Moving forward, the Program will employ techniques in FY ...

  15. FY 2008 Annual Performance Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... the target of 35-percent fuel-cell electrical efficiency. ... It enhanced the performance culture and made improvements as ... of their commercial functions using a variety of techniques. ...

  16. Performance Measurement Plans - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CH2M Contract CH2M Contract Modifications WAI Contract WAI Contract Mods Performance Measurement Plans Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease...

  17. performance | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    performance | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy...

  18. Post Secondary Project Performance Benchmarks

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Post Secondary Project Performance Benchmarks (All ASHRAE Zones) continued > We define an ESCO as a company that provides energy efficiency-related and other value-added services ...

  19. Reporting LED Luminaire Product Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-12-01

    This brochure on LED product performance is an outcome of a joint DOE-NGLIA effort to assure and improve the quality of SSL products.

  20. FY 2014 Budget Performance Supplement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CF-0145 FY 2015 DOE ANNUAL PERFORMANCE REPORT 2 | P a g e Contents Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 3 DOE Organization ........................................................................................................................... 3 Strategic Framework....................................................................................................................... 3

  1. Performance | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Submitted by Ocop(5) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK LCOE Reporting Guidance Draft Cost Current DOE LCOE numerical modeling Performance Tidal Wave To normalize competing...

  2. Preliminary performance of HT datalink

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    2014-02-11

    Preliminary performance of HT HS datalink at room temperature over 5000ft of wireline. The data shows ablility of the datalink to adapt by decreasing speed.

  3. Home Performance with ENERGY STAR

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    or other related services 48 Home Performance with ... delivery models that support expanded participation in ... HPwES Leverage of DOE Residential Ecosystem * Better ...

  4. Preliminary performance of HT datalink

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    Preliminary performance of HT HS datalink at room temperature over 5000ft of wireline. The data shows ablility of the datalink to adapt by decreasing speed.

  5. Performance Degradation of LSCF Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alinger, Matthew

    2013-09-30

    This final report summarizes the progress made during the October 1, 2008 - September 30, 2013 period under Cooperative Agreement DE-NT0004109 for the U. S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled Performance Degradation of LSCF Cathodes. The primary objective of this program is to develop a performance degradation mitigation path for high performing, cost-effective solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Strategies to mitigate performance degradation are developed and implemented. In addition, thermal spray manufacturing of SOFCs is explored. Combined, this work establishes a basis for cost-effective SOFC cells.

  6. Thermoelectrics Partnership: High Performance Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Embedded Nanoparticles Thermoelectrics Partnership: High Performance Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery System Based on Zintl Phase Materials with Embedded Nanoparticles 2011 DOE ...

  7. Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-09-01

    Energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) allow Federal agencies to conduct energy projects with limited to no up-front capital costs, minimizing the need for Congressional appropriations.

  8. Budget & Performance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and fund projects based on their risks and financial impacts. The Planning and Baseline Management Division ... projects, including earned value data, performance measures, ...

  9. About the Building Performance Database

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recent technology, market and policy drivers - smart meters, energy performance disclosure laws, etc. - are resulting in a rapid increase in generation of data about buildings and their energy performance. But this data is still hard to access, and analyze because it is being housed in many decentralized and often proprietary databases. The DOE Building Performance Database (BPD) aims to bridge this gap by compiling and cleansing a large dataset required to assess the likely performance of energy efficiency retrofit measures and services. By making the data available anonymously and in aggregate, the BPD enables the public to gain value from the data while addressing the privacy needs of contributors.

  10. Employee Performance and Recognition Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-05-20

    The Order establishes requirements and responsibilities for the administration of performance management program for all non Senior Executive Service and Senior Professional or Technical employees.

  11. Low Group Delay Dispersion Optical Coating for Broad Bandwidth High Reflection at 45° Incidence, P Polarization of Femtosecond Pulses with 900 nm Center Wavelength

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bellum, John C.; Field, Ella S.; Winstone, Trevor B.; Kletecka, Damon E.

    2016-03-01

    We describe an optical coating design suitable for broad bandwidth high reflection (BBHR) at 45° angle of incidence (AOI), P polarization (Ppol) of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses whose wavelengths range from 800 to 1000 nm. The design process is guided by quarter-wave HR coating properties. Our design must afford low group delay dispersion (GDD) for reflected light over the broad, 200 nm bandwidth in order to minimize temporal broadening of the fs pulses due to dispersive alteration of relative phases between their frequency components. The design should also be favorable to high laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT). We base the coatingmore » on TiO2/SiO2 layer pairs produced by means of e-beam evaporation with ion-assisted deposition, and use OptiLayer Thin Film Software to explore designs starting with TiO2/SiO2 layers having thicknesses in a reverse chirped arrangement. This approach led to a design with R > 99% from 800 to 1000 nm and GDD < 20 fs2 from 843 to 949 nm (45° AOI, Ppol). The design’s GDD behaves in a smooth way, suitable for GDD compensation techniques, and its electric field intensities show promise for high LIDTs. Reflectivity and GDD measurements for the initial test coating indicate good performance of the BBHR design. Subsequent coating runs with improved process calibration produced two coatings whose HR bands satisfactorily meet the design goals. Lastly, for the sake of completeness, we summarize our previously reported transmission spectra and LIDT test results with 800 ps, 8 ps and 675 fs pulses for these two coatings, and present a table of the LIDT results we have for all of our TiO2/SiO2 BBHR coatings, showing the trends with test laser pulse duration from the ns to sub-ps regimes.« less

  12. PERFORMANCE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jee Choi Kent Czechowski Cong Hou Chris McClanahan David S. Noble, Jr. Richard (Rich) Vuduc Salishan Conference on High-Speed Computing Gleneden Beach, Oregon -...

  13. Novette chain design and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, J.T.; Speck, D.R.

    1980-12-11

    The design and performance of the Novette laser system, which is a two-beam, two-wavelength (1.05 ..mu.. and 0.53 ..mu..) target irradiation facility using phosphate glass laser chains, are discussed with information on the glass properties, controlling factors in the design selection, and projected performance with varying operating conditions. (LCL)

  14. Biodiesel Performance, Costs, and Use

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    Biodiesel fuel for diesel engines is produced from vegetable oil or animal fat by the chemical process of esterification. This paper presents a brief history of diesel engine technology and an overview of biodiesel, including performance characteristics, economics, and potential demand. The performance and economics of biodiesel are compared with those of petroleum diesel.

  15. Lapped substrate for enhanced backsurface reflectivity in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldasaro, Paul F; Brown, Edward J; Charache, Greg W; DePoy, David M

    2000-01-01

    A method for fabricating a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion cell including a thin semiconductor wafer substrate (10) having a thickness (.beta.) calculated to decrease the free carrier absorption on a heavily doped substrate; wherein the top surface of the semiconductor wafer substrate is provided with a thermophotovoltaic device (11), a metallized grid (12) and optionally an antireflective (AR) overcoating; and, the bottom surface (10') of the semiconductor wafer substrate (10) is provided with a highly reflecting coating which may comprise a metal coating (14) or a combined dielectric/metal coating (17).

  16. High-Efficiency Volume Reflection of an Ultrarelativistic Proton Beam with a Bent Silicon Crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scandale, Walter; Still, Dean A.; Baricordi, Stefano; Dalpiaz, Pietro; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Guidi, Vincenzo; Martinelli, Giuliano; Mazzolari, Andrea; Milan, Emiliano; Ambrosi, Giovanni; Azzarello, Philipp; Battiston, Roberto; Bertucci, Bruna; Burger, William J.; Ionica, Maria; Zuccon, Paolo; Cavoto, Gianluca; Santacesaria, Roberta; Valente, Paolo; Vallazza, Erik

    2007-04-13

    The volume reflection phenomenon was detected while investigating 400 GeV proton interactions with bent silicon crystals in the external beam H8 of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Such a process was observed for a wide interval of crystal orientations relative to the beam axis, and its efficiency exceeds 95%, thereby surpassing any previously observed value. These observations suggest new perspectives for the manipulation of high-energy beams, e.g., for collimation and extraction in new-generation hadron colliders, such as the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  17. Observation of Multiple Volume Reflection of Ultrarelativistic Protons by a Sequence of Several Bent Silicon Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scandale, W.; Vomiero, A.; Baricordi, S.; Dalpiaz, P.; Fiorini, M.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Della Mea, G.; Milan, R.; Ambrosi, G.; Zuccon, P.; Bertucci, B.; Burger, W.; Duranti, M.; Cavoto, G.; Santacesaria, R.; Valente, P.; Luci, C.; Iacoangeli, F.; Vallazza, E.

    2009-02-27

    The interactions of 400 GeV protons with different sequences of bent silicon crystals have been investigated at the H8 beam line of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The multiple volume reflection of the proton beam has been studied in detail on a five-crystal reflector measuring an angular beam deflection {theta}=52.96{+-}0.14 {mu}rad. The efficiency was found larger than 80% for an angular acceptance at the reflector entrance of 70 {mu}rad, with a maximal efficiency value of {epsilon}=0.90{+-}0.01{+-}0.03.

  18. Lapped substrate for enhanced backsurface reflectivity in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldasaro, Paul F; Brown, Edward J; Charache, Greg W; DePoy, David M

    2000-09-05

    A method for fabricating a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion cell including a thin semiconductor wafer substrate (10) having a thickness (.beta.) calculated to decrease the free carrier absorption on a heavily doped substrate; wherein the top surface of the semiconductor wafer substrate is provided with a thermophotovoltaic device (11), a metallized grid (12) and optionally an antireflective (AR) overcoating; and, the bottom surface (10') of the semiconductor wafer substrate (10) is provided with a highly reflecting coating which may comprise a metal coating (14) or a combined dielectric/metal coating (17).

  19. On Performance of Covers and Liners In Performance Assessments...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    December 11 and 12, 2014 To view all the P&RA CoP 2014 Technical Exchange Meeting videos click here. Video Presentation PDF icon On Performance of Covers and Liners In...

  20. Presidential Performance Contracting Challenge: Performance Toward New $4 Billion Goal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Name or Ancillary Text eere.energy.gov Federal Energy Management Program Performance Toward New $4 Billion Goal Kurmit Rockwell U.S. Department of Energy April 15, 2016 Federal Energy Management Program femp.energy.gov 2 Data as of 04/15/16 President's Performance Contracting Challenge Status (April 15, 2016) Pipeline: Amount of project costs in procurement process and expected to award. Awarded: Amount of project costs awarded. Agency Commitments: Amount in project costs committed to. Total of