Sample records for opsmax performance reflect

  1. The important effect of electron reflection on thermionic converter performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasor, N.S.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although only a few percent of high energy electrons are reflected from bare metal surfaces, 20--60% of low energy incident electrons are reflected from thermionic converter electrodes with adsorbed cesium and oxygen. The TECMDL computer model indicates that electron reflection in cesium vapor thermionic converters increases the arc potential drop, offsetting the gain in performance obtainable by lowering the collector work function via the coadsorbed Cs/O layer. The possible suppression of electron reflection by using electrodes with sub-micron surface structure is hypothesized and supported by experimental data obtained by employing a new method for testing in cesium-oxygen vapor.

  2. In situ thermal performance of APP modified bitumen roof membranes coated with reflective coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, J.D.; Smith, T.L. (National Roofing Contractors Association, Rosemont, IL (United States)); Christian, J.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-faceted field research program regarding seven atactic polypropylene (APP) modified bitumen membrane roof systems and four reflective coatings began in 1991. This long-term project is evaluating the performance of various APP modified bitumen membranes (both coated and uncoated), the comparative performance of coating application soon after membrane installation versus preweathering, coating performance, and aspects of recoating. This paper is a progress report on the in situ thermal performance of the various types of coatings compared to the thermal performance of the exposed membrane. The thermal performance of an adjacent ballasted ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) roofing system is also described.

  3. In situ thermal performance of APP modified bitumen roof membranes coated with reflective coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, J.D.; Smith, T.L. [National Roofing Contractors Association, Rosemont, IL (United States); Christian, J.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-faceted field research program regarding seven atactic polypropylene (APP) modified bitumen membrane roof systems and four reflective coatings began in 1991. This long-term project is evaluating the performance of various APP modified bitumen membranes (both coated and uncoated), the comparative performance of coating application soon after membrane installation versus preweathering, coating performance, and aspects of recoating. This paper is a progress report on the in situ thermal performance of the various types of coatings compared to the thermal performance of the exposed membrane. The thermal performance of an adjacent ballasted ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) roofing system is also described.

  4. Performance of "Moth Eye" Anti-Reflective Coatings for Solar Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.; Kane, M.; Jiang, P.

    2011-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An inexpensive, effective anti-reflective coating (ARC) has been developed at the University of Florida to significantly enhance the absorption of light by silicon in solar cells. This coating has nano-scale features, and its microstructure mimics that of various night active insects (e.g. a moth's eye). It is a square array of pillars, each about 700 nm high and having a diameter of about 300 nm. Samples of silicon having this coating were exposed either to various combinations of either elevated temperature and humidity or to gamma irradiation ({sup 60}Co) at the Savannah River National Laboratory, or to a broad spectrum ultraviolet light and to a 532 nm laser light at the University of Florida. The anti-reflective properties of the coatings were unaffected by any of these environmental stresses, and the microstructure of the coating was also unaffected. In fact, the reflectivity of the gamma irradiated ARC became lower (advantageous for solar cell applications) at wavelengths between 400 and 1000 nm. These results show that this coating is robust and should be tested in actual systems exposed to either weather or a space environment. Structural details of the ARCs were studied to optimize their performance. Square arrays performed better than hexagonal arrays - the natural moth-eye coating is indeed a square array. The optimal depth of the templated nanopillars in the ARC was investigated. A wet etching technology for ARC formation was developed that would be less expensive and much faster than dry etching. Theoretical modeling revealed that dimple arrays should perform better than nipple arrays. A method of fabricating both dimple and nipple arrays having the same length was developed, and the dimple arrays performed better than the nipple arrays, in agreement with the modeling. The commercial viability of the technology is quite feasible, since the technology is scalable and inexpensive. This technology is also compatible with current industrial fabrication of solar cells.

  5. Whole House Thermal Performance of Asphalt Shingles Exploiting Special Infrared Reflective Pigments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, L.; Miller, W.; Desjarlais, A.; Jacobs, J.; Youngquist, A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -04 using cycle 4 as described in Table X2.1, Common Exposure Conditions, of the G 154 standard (ASTM 2002b). A UVB-340 lamp was used for simulating direct solar UV radiation; this lamp has no UV output below 300 nm, which is the cutoff wavelength... for this behavior is unknown; overall, however, the data clearly show that the IRR shingles perform just as well when subjected to direct solar UV radiation as standard products accepted on the open market. The IRR asphalt shingles do not lose solar reflectance...

  6. Thermal performance of typical light frame walls with reflective surface insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.G. (Jim Walter Research Corp., St. Petersburg, FL (US)); Riskowski, G.L.; Christianson, L.L. (Agricultural Engineering Dept., Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (US))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of tests were conducted in a guarded hotbox to evaluate the thermal performance (R-value) of wall constructions typical of light-frame buildings that are commonly used in agricultural applications. The systems were insulated with either a commercially available foil-faced bubble pack material (FFBP) or foil-faced polyisocyanurate (PIR) foam board. Tests were conducted under two different temperature conditions, chosen to be representative of a midwestern winter and summer. This paper reports temperatures of the surfaces bounding the reflective airspaces measured and the R-value calculated. These data were used in the ASHRAE series/parallel calculations and the resultant R-value was compared to the measured R-value. Agreement was usually better than 10%.

  7. Whole House Thermal Performance of Asphalt Shingles Exploiting Special Infrared Reflective Pigments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, L.; Miller, W.; Desjarlais, A.; Jacobs, J.; Youngquist, A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are formulated with certain cool color pigments that are highly reflective in the near-infrared (NIR) portion of the solar spectrum. Brady and Wake (1992) found that 10-µm particles of TiO 2, when combined with colorants such as red and yellow iron oxides...-04 using cycle 4 as described in Table X2.1, Common Exposure Conditions, of the G 154 standard (ASTM 2002b). A UVB-340 lamp was used for simulating direct solar UV radiation; this lamp has no UV output below 300 nm, which is the cutoff wavelength...

  8. Development of electron reflection suppression materials for improved thermionic energy converter performance using thin film deposition techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islam, Mohammad; Inal, Osman T.; Luke, James R. [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States); New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Institute for Engineering Research and Applications (IERA) , 901 University Blvd. SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106-4339 (United States)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonideal electrode surfaces cause significant degree of electron reflection from collector during thermionic converter operation. The effect of the collector surface structure on the converter performance was assessed through the development of several electron reflection suppression materials using various thin film deposition techniques. The double-diode probe method was used to compare the J-V characteristics of converters with polished and modified collector surfaces for emitter temperature and cesium vapor pressure in the ranges of 900-2000 K and 0.02-1.5 torr, respectively. The coadsorption of cesium and oxygen with respective partial vapor pressures of {approx}1.27 torr and a few microtorrs reduced the emitter work function to a minimum value of 0.99 eV. It was found that the collector surfaces with matte black appearance such as platinum black, voided nickel from radio-frequency plasma sputtering, and etched electroless Ni-P with craterlike pore morphology exhibited much better performance compared with polished collector surface. For these thin films, the increase in the maximum output voltage was up to 2.0 eV. For optimum performance with minimum work function and maximum saturation emission current density, the emitter temperature was in the range of 1100-1500 K, depending on the collector surface structure. The use of these materials in cylindrical converter design and/or in combination with hybrid mode triode configuration holds great potential in low and medium scale power generators for commercial use.

  9. Performance of a variable line spaced master reflection grating for use in the reflection grating spectrometer on the X-ray Multimirror Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bixler, J.V.; Hailey, C.J.; Mauche, C.W.; Teague, P.F.; Thoe, R.S. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Kahn, S.M.; Paerels, F.B.S. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Space Sciences Lab.)

    1991-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The X-ray Multimirror Mission will include a spectrometer consisting of two arrays of variable line spaced reflection gratings for use in the 350 eV to 2.5 keV energy range. Approximately 720 replica gratings will be needed for two flight grating arrays and one spare. We have begun evaluation of potential master gratings to be used in the replication process. We report both reflectivity and scattering X-ray measurements for three mechanically ruled prototype master gratings. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Effects of emitter sheath ion reflection and trapped ions on thermionic converter performance using an isothermal electron model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Main, G.L.; Lam, S.H.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper couples exact collisionless sheath calculations to an isothermal electron model of a thermionic converter. The emitter sheath structure takes into account reflected ions, trapped ions, and surface emission ions. It is shown that lessening the net loss of ions at the emitter in the ignited mode by these phenomena degrades performance. In addition, it is shown that when the emitter returns too many of the ions, the arc is extinguished because there is insufficient resistive heating to maintain the necessary plasma electron temperature for ionization. These results suggest that the ignited mode cannot be improved much. However, nonignited modes in which the electron temperature remains low, such as the pulsed mode, do not suffer from this adverse behavior.

  11. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

  12. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, J.L.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

  13. Performance Testing of a Novel Off-plane Reflection Grating and Silicon Pore Optic Spectrograph at PANTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marlowe, Hannah; Allured, Ryan; DeRoo, Casey; Miles, Drew M; Donovan, Benjamin D; Tutt, James H; Burwitz, Vadim; Menz, Benedikt; Hartner, Gisela D; Smith, Randall K; Günther, Ramses; Yanson, Alex; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Ackermann, Marcelo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An X-ray spectrograph consisting of radially ruled off-plane reflection gratings and silicon pore optics was tested at the Max Planck Institute for extraterrestrial Physics PANTER X-ray test facility. The silicon pore optic (SPO) stack used is a test module for the Arcus small explorer mission, which will also feature aligned off-plane reflection gratings. This test is the first time two off-plane gratings were actively aligned to each other and with a SPO to produce an overlapped spectrum. The gratings were aligned using an active alignment module which allows for the independent manipulation of subsequent gratings to a reference grating in three degrees of freedom using picomotor actuators which are controllable external to the test chamber. We report the line spread functions of the spectrograph and the actively aligned gratings, and plans for future development.

  14. Fabrication and performance of polymer-nanocomposite anti-reflective thin films deposited by RIR-MAPLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singaravelu, S.; Mayo, D. C.; Park, H-. K.; Schriver, K. E.; Klopf, John M. [W& M, JLAB; Kelley, Michael J. [W& M; Haglund, R. F. [VANDERBILT

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design of polymer anti-reflective (AR) optical coatings for plastic substrates is challenging because polymers exhibit a relatively narrow range of refractive indices. Here, we report synthesis of a four-layer AR stack using hybrid polymer: nanoparticle materials deposited by resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation. An Er: YAG laser ablated frozen solutions of a high-index composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), alternating with a layer of PMMA. The optimized AR coatings, with thicknesses calculated using commercial software, yielded a coating for polycarbonate with transmission over 97 %, scattering <3 %, and a reflection coefficient below 0.5 % across the visible range, with a much smaller number of layers than would be predicted by a standard thin film calculation. The TiO2 nanoparticles contribute more to the enhanced refractive index of the high-index layers than can be accounted for by an effective medium model of the nanocomposite.

  15. Barrier performance optimization of atomic layer deposited diffusion barriers for organic light emitting diodes using x-ray reflectivity investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Aarti, E-mail: aarti.singh@namlab.com; Schröder, Uwe [Nanoelectronics Materials Laboratory NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzer Str. 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany)] [Nanoelectronics Materials Laboratory NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzer Str. 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Klumbies, Hannes; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Leo, Karl [Dresden Innovation Center Energy Efficiency, Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)] [Dresden Innovation Center Energy Efficiency, Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Geidel, Marion; Knaut, Martin; Hoßbach, Christoph; Albert, Matthias [Institute of Semiconductor and Microsystems Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, 01187 Dresden (Germany)] [Institute of Semiconductor and Microsystems Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Mikolajick, Thomas [Nanoelectronics Materials Laboratory NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzer Str. 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany) [Nanoelectronics Materials Laboratory NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzer Str. 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Institute of Semiconductor and Microsystems Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The importance of O{sub 3} pulse duration for encapsulation of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with ultra thin inorganic atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers is demonstrated for deposition temperatures of 50 °C. X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements show that O{sub 3} pulse durations longer than 15?s produce dense and thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. Correspondingly, black spot growth is not observed in OLEDs encapsulated with such layers during 91 days of aging under ambient conditions. This implies that XRR can be used as a tool for process optimization of OLED encapsulation layers leading to devices with long lifetimes.

  16. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. One layer of each set of bilayers consist of titanium, and the second layer of each set of bilayers consist of an alloy of nickel with carbon interstitially present in the nickel alloy.

  17. Dispositional reflections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brummans, Boris H. J. M.

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    analysis suggests that the studied scholars enact these games to understand a more or less common object of knowledge, but also to constitute a more or less identifiable position in this given social space. Reflection on the ontological complicity between...

  18. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Lee, Sang Hun

    2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Employing collector optics that have a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics are normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  19. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Sung Hun (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Employing collector optics that has a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics is normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  20. Wideband reflectance tympanometry in chinchillas and humansa)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Jont

    Wideband reflectance tympanometry in chinchillas and humansa) Robert H. Margolis,b) Saurav Paul reflectance tympanometry was performed on twelve chinchillas ears. The complex input impedance of the middle. The complex impedance of the chinchilla ear has a lower stiffness reactance at low frequencies, a higher mass

  1. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  2. Reflecting to learn mathematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rachael Kenney

    2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    integrating reflective practice and writing to learn mathematics (WTLM) in order ... concern or interest as well as potential explanations for and solutions to ..... teacher, I know I need to be universally good in both language and numbers. ... The PSMTs' reflections also revealed that completing the prompts encouraged them to.

  3. Reflective optical imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  4. Solar Reflectance Index Calculator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9MorganYouof Energy Projects to ReduceReflectance

  5. Reflective Cracking Study: HVS Test Section Forensic Investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, David; Steven, B.; Harvey, John T

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the asphalt concrete. Summary of Testing on the Underlyingtesting performed to validate Caltrans overlay strategies for the rehabilitation of cracked asphalt concrete.concrete. It describes the forensic investigation of the HVS rutting and reflective cracking testing

  6. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, T.C.

    1986-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Device is described for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles. 9 figs.

  7. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, Thomas C. (Raleigh, NC)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Device for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles.

  8. Ultrasonic flowmetering with reflected pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoyle, David C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transit time type ultrasonic flowmeter was tested with two different reflected pulse trajectories in flowing air at ambient conditions against an orifice meter. The flowmeter was designed to be highly accurate, to require ...

  9. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  10. Reflective Cracking Study: First-level Report on HVS Testing on Section 588RF - 90 mm AR4000-DOverlay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, David; Wu, R; Harvey, John T

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    testing being performed to validate Caltrans overlay strategies for the rehabilitation of cracked asphalt concrete.concrete. It describes the results of the fourth HVS reflective cracking testingconcrete. It describes the results of the fourth HVS reflective cracking testing

  11. Reflective Cracking Study: First-Level Report on HVS Testing on Section 590RF - 90 mm MB4-G Overlay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, David; Tsai, Bor-Wen; Harvey, John T

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    testing being performed to validate Caltrans overlay strategies for the rehabilitation of cracked asphalt concrete.concrete. It describes the results of the first HVS reflective cracking testingconcrete. It describes the results of the first HVS reflective cracking testing

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: reflected optical wave

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reflected optical wave New Sandia Mirror Isn't Shiny: Instead It Reflects Infrared Light Using a Metamaterial On December 12, 2014, in Capabilities, Materials Science, News, News &...

  13. Quantum field theoretical description for the reflectivity of graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordag, M; Mostepanenko, V M; Petrov, V M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the polarization tensor of graphene at nonzero temperature in (2+1)-dimensional space-time. The obtained tensor coincides with the previously known one at all Matsubara frequencies, but, in contrast to it, admits analytic continuation to the real frequency axis satisfying all physical requirements. Using the obtained representation for the polarization tensor, we develope quantum field theoretical description for the reflectivity of graphene. The analytic asymptotic expressions for the reflection coefficients and reflectivities at low and high frequencies are derived for both independent polarizations of the electromagnetic field. The dependencies of reflectivities on the frequency and angle of incidence are investigated. Numerical computations using the exact expressions for the polarization tensor are performed and application regions for the analytic asymptotic results are determined.

  14. Standardization of Solar Mirror Reflectance Measurements - Round Robin Test: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyen, S.; Lupfert, E.; Fernandez-Garcia, A.; Kennedy, C.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the SolarPaces Task III standardization activities, DLR, CIEMAT, and NREL have concentrated on optimizing the procedure to measure the reflectance of solar mirrors. From this work, the laboratories have developed a clear definition of the method and requirements needed of commercial instruments for reliable reflectance results. A round robin test was performed between the three laboratories with samples that represent all of the commercial solar mirrors currently available for concentrating solar power (CSP) applications. The results show surprisingly large differences in hemispherical reflectance (sh) of 0.007 and specular reflectance (ss) of 0.004 between the laboratories. These differences indicate the importance of minimum instrument requirements and standardized procedures. Based on these results, the optimal procedure will be formulated and validated with a new round robin test in which a better accuracy is expected. Improved instruments and reference standards are needed to reach the necessary accuracy for cost and efficiency calculations.

  15. Fabrication and performance of polymer-nanocomposite anti-reflective...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AR stack using hybrid polymer: nanoparticle materials deposited by resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation. An Er: YAG laser ablated frozen solutions...

  16. Performance of a Passive UHF RFID Tag in Reflective Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsherbeni, Atef Z.

    with Impinj chip, RSI IN-38 with NXP ucode gen 2 chip and self made bowtie type tag with Impinj Monza chip to right ad- 222, RSI ID Technologies IN-38, Bowtie) Results The power transmission between the tag of bowtie tag in an anechoic chamber is presented in Fig.3 and threshold powers for all three tags

  17. December2010 AboutReflections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Jens-Dominik

    in the student-nominated category. In addition we focus on a range of innovations in teaching, learning of Reflections, the newsletter which focuses on teaching, learning and assessment in Queen's and more generally and this time focused on Increasing Students' Satisfaction in the context of the National Student Survey (NSS

  18. Multiple reflection solar energy absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooley, W.L.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of converting solar energy into heat energy thereby generating power is described comprising the steps: (a) focusing said solar energy by means of a primary concentrator, (b) concentrating said solar energy from said primary concentrator by means of a secondary concentrator located at the focal point of said primary concentrator, (c) slowing the flux of said solar energy from said secondary concentrator by means of a multiple reflection chamber attached to the rear aperture of the secondary concentrator, (d) circulating a working fluid by means of a working fluid delivery tube into said secondary concentrator and said multiple reflection chamber, (e) absorbing said solar energy into said working fluid by means of an ultra high concentration of said solar energy in said multiple reflection chamber, (f) insulating said working fluid by means of a surrounding thermal barrier, (g) exhausting the heat working fluid by means as of a nozzle joined to said multiple reflection chamber, (h) replacing said working fluid by means of a working fluid delivery tube, thereby completing a cycle for generating power.

  19. Nonhyperbolic reflection moveout for orthorhombic media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Dajani, A.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflection moveout in azimuthally anisotropic media is not only azimuthally dependent but it is also

  20. High-accuracy measurements of the normal specular reflectance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voarino, Philippe; Piombini, Herve; Sabary, Frederic; Marteau, Daniel; Dubard, Jimmy; Hameury, Jacques; Filtz, Jean Remy

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The French Laser Megajoule (LMJ) is designed and constructed by the French Commissariata l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Its amplifying section needs highly reflective multilayer mirrors for the flash lamps. To monitor and improve the coating process, the reflectors have to be characterized to high accuracy. The described spectrophotometer is designed to measure normal specular reflectance with high repeatability by using a small spot size of 100 {mu}m. Results are compared with ellipsometric measurements. The instrument can also perform spatial characterization to detect coating nonuniformity.

  1. Reflectance Function Approximation for Material Classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Charles R.

    Reflectance Function Approximation for Material Classification Edward Wild CS 766 Final Project This report summarizes the results of a project to approximate reflectance functions and classify materials to classify materials. Classification algorithms are proposed to deal with unseen materials. Experimental

  2. GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan Abstract. Green functions called symbols. Generali* *zing this, we define Green functions associated to complex reflection

  3. Reflective equilibrium and the 'moral conservatism' objection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandler, James Robert

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflective equilibrium is widely accepted as a method of justifying ethical beliefs. Narrow reflective equilibrium justifies moral beliefs by achieving coherence between moral principles and moral judgments. However, this theory has been accused...

  4. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  5. April 22, 2010 Seismic Reflection VI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Garrett

    4/21/2010 1 GG450 April 22, 2010 Seismic Reflection VI Data Interpretation II Today's material section Chrono- stratigraphic section Relations of strata to boundaries of a depositional sequence Seismic stratigraphic reflection terminations within an idealized seismic sequence Reflection configurations #12

  6. The effect of multiply reflected molecules in free molecule flow over a general body

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Gordon Lee

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method was devised and calculations were performed to determine the effects of reflected molecules on the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for a body in free molecule flow. A procedure was developed for determining the velocity...

  7. A system for optimizing interior daylight distribution using reflective Venetian blinds with independent blind angle control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuire, Molly E

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An operational algorithm for blind angle control is developed to optimize the daylighting performance of a system of reflective Venetian blinds. Numerical modeling and experiment confirm that independent control of alternating ...

  8. The effect of multiply reflected molecules in free molecule flow over a general body 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Gordon Lee

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method was devised and calculations were performed to determine the effects of reflected molecules on the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for a body in free molecule flow. A procedure was developed for determining the velocity...

  9. Comparison between arc drops in ignited thermionic converters with and without ion reflections at the emitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundgren, L.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The output performance of two thermionic energy converters is compared. One converter has a normal emitter, working with zero field at the emitter which is close to the optimum working point, and the other has a low work function emitter and ion reflection at the emitter. A simple model of the plasma and the sheaths shows that a converter working with a low work function emitter and ion reflections gives a worse performance than a similar converter with a normal emitter.

  10. Photovoltaic module with light reflecting backskin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C. (Danvers, MA)

    2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic module comprises electrically interconnected and mutually spaced photovoltaic cells that are encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant between a light-transparent front cover and a back cover, with the back cover sheet being an ionomer/nylon alloy embossed with V-shaped grooves running in at least two directions and coated with a light reflecting medium so as to provide light-reflecting facets that are aligned with the spaces between adjacent cells and oriented so as to reflect light falling in those spaces back toward said transparent front cover for further internal reflection onto the solar cells, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to the photovoltaic cells, thereby increasing the current output of the module. The internal reflector improves power output by as much as 67%.

  11. Thermonuclear Reflect AB-Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2008-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The author offers a new kind of thermonuclear reflect reactor. The remarkable feature of this new reactor is a three net AB reflector, which confines the high temperature plasma. The plasma loses part of its energy when it contacts with the net but this loss can be compensated by an additional permanent plasma heating. When the plasma is rarefied (has a small density), the heat flow to the AB reflector is not large and the temperature in the triple reflector net is lower than 2000 - 3000 K. This offered AB-reactor has significantly less power then the currently contemplated power reactors with magnetic or inertial confinement (hundreds-thousands of kW, not millions of kW). But it is enough for many vehicles and ships and particularly valuable for tunnelers, subs and space apparatus, where air to burn chemical fuel is at a premium or simply not available. The author has made a number of innovations in this reactor, researched its theory, developed methods of computation, made a sample computation of typical project. The main point of preference for the offered reactor is its likely cheapness as a power source. Key words: Micro-thermonuclear reactor, Multi-reflex AB-thermonuclear reactor, Self-magnetic AB-thermonuclear reactor, aerospace thermonuclear engine.

  12. Optimization Online - Constrained optimization in seismic reflection ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Delbos

    2004-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Jul 7, 2004 ... Constrained optimization in seismic reflection tomography: an SQP augmented Lagrangian approach. F. Delbos (Frederic.Delbos ***at*** ifp.fr)

  13. Understanding teacher beliefs with reflective tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karwan, Vanessa Ann

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflective Tools by Vanessa Ann Karwan Doctor of EducationLeadership by Vanessa Ann Karwan Committee in charge:Kathleen Cohn Copyright Vanessa Ann Karwan, 2009 All rights

  14. GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS TOSHIAKI SHOJI Department of Mathematics Science University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278­8510, Japan Abstract. Green functions of classical groups this, we define Green functions associated to complex reflection groups G(e, 1, n), and study

  15. Measurement of Marine Animal Reflectance Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffe, Jules

    angular reflectance behavior and point the way toward future studies. Definition of BRDF and REFF of the ridges seen in the enlarged light microscope image of the specimen (shown at right), reflectance exposure images, and combination of three measured wavelengths. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM

  16. Use of bitumen reflectance in hydrocarbon exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodarzi, F.; Gentzis, T. (Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, Alberta)

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bitumen is a sensitive indicator of the thermal maturity of sedimentary rocks, particularly in carbonates and lower Paleozoic, where vitrinite is scarce. The optical properties of bitumen (at 546 nm) follow trends similar to those of vitrinite with increasing maturity. However, the following differences exist: (1) bitumen has lower reflectance than vitrinite up to the onset of oil generation, as determined by vitrinite reflectance; (2) reflectance of bitumen follows a higher trend than that of vitrinite at an R{sub 0} level of 1.0% (peak of oil generation). Bitumen reflectance can be converted to vitrinite reflectance using Jacob's formula. In lower Paleozoic rocks (Ordovician and older) bitumen can be used as a thermal indicator for determining the level of maturity with increasing burial depth. There are, however, complexities in the above application because of differentiation between reservoir-migrated and primary bitumen.

  17. CSC418 / CSCD18 / CSC2504 Basic Lighting and Reflection 8 Basic Lighting and Reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    CSC418 / CSCD18 / CSC2504 Basic Lighting and Reflection 8 Basic Lighting and Reflection Up things, on the lighting that illuminates the scene, and on the interaction of light with the objects in the scene. Some of the basic qualitative properties of lighting and object reflectance that we need

  18. Multipath Reflections Analysis on Indoor Visible Light Positioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Wenjun; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Visible light communication (VLC) has become a promising research topic in recent years, and finds its wide applications in indoor environments. Particularly, for location based services (LBS), visible light also provides a practical solution for indoor positioning. Multipath-induced dispersion is one of the major concerns for complex indoor environments. It affects not only the communication performance but also the positioning accuracy. In this paper, we investigate the impact of multipath reflections on the positioning accuracy of indoor VLC positioning systems. Combined Deterministic and Modified Monte Carlo (CDMMC) approach is applied to estimate the channel impulse response considering multipath reflections. Since the received signal strength (RSS) information is used for the positioning algorithm, the power distribution from one transmitter in a typical room configuration is first calculated. Then, the positioning accuracy in terms of root mean square error is obtained and analyzed.

  19. Method and apparatus for inspecting reflection masks for defects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bokor, Jeffrey (Oakland, CA); Lin, Yun (Berkeley, CA)

    2003-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An at-wavelength system for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blank defect detection is provided. When a focused beam of wavelength 13 nm is incident on a defective region of a mask blank, three possible phenomena can occur. The defect will induce an intensity reduction in the specularly reflected beam, scatter incoming photons into an off-specular direction, and change the amplitude and phase of the electric field at the surface which can be monitored through the change in the photoemission current. The magnitude of these changes will depend on the incident beam size, and the nature, extent and size of the defect. Inspection of the mask blank is performed by scanning the mask blank with 13 nm light focused to a spot a few .mu.m in diameter, while measuring the reflected beam intensity (bright field detection), the scattered beam intensity (dark-field detection) and/or the change in the photoemission current.

  20. Fluorescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing and Facades...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    dark-colored pigments for cool metal roof and faade coatings that incorporate near-infrared fluorescence and reflectance to improve energy performance. Image: PPG Industries 2...

  1. Flourescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing and Facades...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    dark-colored pigments for cool metal roof and faade coatings that incorporate near-infrared fluorescence and reflectance to improve energy performance. Image: PPG Industries 2...

  2. Fresnel Reflection 9.0.3 polarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    Chapter 9 Fresnel Reflection 9.0.3 polarization: iE rE tE i r t 1 2 iH rH tH iE rE tE i r t 1 2 i that n1 sin i = n2 sin t (9.2) 45 #12;46 CHAPTER 9. FRESNEL REFLECTION Boundary conditions iH rH tH #12;48 CHAPTER 9. FRESNEL REFLECTION and here Ei + Er = Et (9.16) or Hi Z-1 1 + Hr Z-1 1

  3. Unmasking online reflective practices in higher education 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, Jennifer

    2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Online reflective practices that are high-stakes – summatively assessed, or used as evidence for progression or membership in a professional body – are increasingly prevalent in higher education, especially in professional ...

  4. Preparing reflective substrate surfaces for laser treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flick, F.F.

    1984-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A coating of either copper oxide or felt tip pen ink is used on reflective copper or gold substrates to enhance laser beam coupling when the substrates are cut or welded with a laser.

  5. Diffuse reflectance imaging with astronomical applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasinoff, Samuel W.

    Diffuse objects generally tell us little about the surrounding lighting, since the radiance they reflect blurs together incident lighting from many directions. In this paper we discuss how occlusion geometry can help invert ...

  6. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs...

  7. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field...

  8. Effective Field Theory for Bound State Reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michelle Pine; Dean Lee

    2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Elastic quantum bound-state reflection from a hard-wall boundary provides direct information regarding the structure and compressibility of quantum bound states. We discuss elastic quantum bound-state reflection and derive a general theory for elastic reflection of shallow dimers from hard-wall surfaces using effective field theory. We show that there is a small expansion parameter for analytic calculations of the reflection scattering length. We present a calculation up to second order in the effective Hamiltonian in one, two, and three dimensions. We also provide numerical lattice results for all three cases as a comparison with our effective field theory results. Finally, we provide an analysis of the compressibility of the alpha particle confined to a cubic lattice with vanishing Dirichlet boundaries.

  9. Oblique reflections of internal gravity wave beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karimi, Hussain H. (Hussain Habibullah)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study nonlinear effects in reflections of internal gravity wave beams in a continuously stratified liquid which are incident upon a uniform slope at an oblique angle. Wave motion in a stratified fluid medium is unique ...

  10. REFLECTION PRINCIPLE IN HIGHER DIMENSION SERGEY PINCHUK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbondandolo, Alberto

    's for Complex and CR-Geometry" held at ITC-IRST in Povo - Trento. The focus is on the reflection (Schwarz) (Diederich & Pinchuk [6] 2003) The previous results hold also when f is not a biholomorphism, but only

  11. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, D.A.; Turner, B.; Kipling, K.

    1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible is disclosed. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture. 20 figs.

  12. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Butler, PA); Turner, Brian (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture.

  13. Reflective masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Khanh Bao

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extreme ultraviolet lithographic masks are made by patterning multilayer reflective coatings with high normal incidence reflectivity. Masks can be patterned by depositing a patterned absorber layer above the coating or by etching the pattern directly into the coating itself. Electromagnetic simulations showed that absorber-overlayer masks have superior imaging characteristics over etched masks (less sensitive to incident angles and pattern profiles). In an EUVL absorber overlayer mask, defects can occur in the mask substrate, reflective coating, and absorber pattern. Electromagnetic simulations showed that substrate defects cause the most severe image degradation. A printability study of substrate defects for absorber overlayer masks showed that printability of 25 nm high substrate defects are comparable to defects in optical lithography. Simulations also indicated that the manner in which the defects are covered by multilayer reflective coatings can affect printability. Coverage profiles that result in large lateral spreading of defect geometries amplify the printability of the defects by increasing their effective sizes. Coverage profiles of Mo/Si coatings deposited above defects were studied by atomic force microscopy and TEM. Results showed that lateral spread of defect geometry is proportional to height. Undercut at defect also increases the lateral spread. Reductions in defect heights were observed for 0.15 {mu}m wide defect lines. A long-term study of Mo/Si coating reflectivity revealed that Mo/Si coatings with Mo as the top layer suffer significant reductions in reflectivity over time due to oxidation.

  14. Unitary reflection groups for quantum fault tolerance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Planat, Michel

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores the representation of quantum computing in terms of unitary reflections (unitary transformations that leaves invariant a hyperplane of a vector space). The symmetries of qubit systems are found to be supported by Euclidean real reflections (i.e., Coxeter groups) or by specific imprimitive reflection groups, introduced (but not named) in a recent paper [Planat M and Jorrand Ph 2008, J Phys A: Math Theor 41, 182001]. The automorphisms of multiple qubit systems are found to relate to some Clifford operations once the corresponding group of reflections is identified. For a short list, one may point out the Coxeter systems of type B3 and G2 (for single qubits), D5 and A4 (for two qubits), E7 and E6 (for three qubits), and the complex reflection groups G(2l, 2, 5). The relevant fault tolerant groups of reflections (the Bell groups) are generated, as subgroups of the Clifford groups, by the Hadamard gate, the $\\pi$/4 phase gate and an entangling (braid) gate [Kauffman L H and Lomonaco S J 2004 Ne...

  15. REFLECT: A computer program for the x-ray reflectivity of bent perfect crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etelaeniemi, V.; Suortti, P.; Thomlinson, W. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of monochromators for x-ray applications, using either standard laboratory sources on synchrotron radiation sources, requires a knowledge of the reflectivity of the crystals. The reflectivity depends on the crystals used, the geometry of the reflection, the energy range of the radiation, and, in the present case, the cylindrical bending radius of the optical device. This report is intended to allow the reader to become familiar with, and therefore use, a computer program called REFLECT which we have used in the design of a dual beam Laue monochromator for synchrotron angiography. The results of REFLECT have been compared to measured reflectivities for both bent Bragg and Laue geometries. The results are excellent and should give full confidence in the use of the program. 6 refs.

  16. Camera-based reflectivity measurement for solar thermal applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . A survey of good practices for reflectivity measurement in CSP applications was completed by Solar of reflectivity includes both specular and diffuse reflectivity as well a directional and spectral measurement

  17. Unitary reflection groups for quantum fault tolerance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michel Planat; Maurice R. Kibler

    2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores the representation of quantum computing in terms of unitary reflections (unitary transformations that leave invariant a hyperplane of a vector space). The symmetries of qubit systems are found to be supported by Euclidean real reflections (i.e., Coxeter groups) or by specific imprimitive reflection groups, introduced (but not named) in a recent paper [Planat M and Jorrand Ph 2008, {\\it J Phys A: Math Theor} {\\bf 41}, 182001]. The automorphisms of multiple qubit systems are found to relate to some Clifford operations once the corresponding group of reflections is identified. For a short list, one may point out the Coxeter systems of type $B_3$ and $G_2$ (for single qubits), $D_5$ and $A_4$ (for two qubits), $E_7$ and $E_6$ (for three qubits), the complex reflection groups $G(2^l,2,5)$ and groups No 9 and 31 in the Shephard-Todd list. The relevant fault tolerant subsets of the Clifford groups (the Bell groups) are generated by the Hadamard gate, the $\\pi/4$ phase gate and an entangling (braid) gate [Kauffman L H and Lomonaco S J 2004 {\\it New J. of Phys.} {\\bf 6}, 134]. Links to the topological view of quantum computing, the lattice approach and the geometry of smooth cubic surfaces are discussed.

  18. Reflective Cracking Study: First-level Report on HVS Testing on Section 586RF - 45 mm MB15-GOverlay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, David; Wu, R; Harvey, John T

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the asphalt concrete layer. Testing was stopped when thetesting being performed to validate Caltrans overlay strategies for the rehabilitation of cracked asphalt concrete.concrete. It describes the results of the fifth HVS reflective cracking testing

  19. Reflective Cracking Study: First-Level Report on HVS Testing on Section 589RF - 45 mm MB4-G Overlay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, David; Harvey, John T; Wu, R; Lea, J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the asphalt concrete layer. Testing was stopped when thetesting being performed to validate Caltrans overlay strategies for the rehabilitation of cracked asphalt concrete.concrete. It describes the results of the second HVS reflective cracking testing

  20. Constrained optimization in seismic reflection tomography: an SQP ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Seismic reflection tomography is a method for determining a subsurface velocity model from the traveltimes of seismic waves reflecting on geological interfaces.

  1. ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS This presentation was delivered...

  2. Characterization of the plastic substrates, the reflective layers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the plastic substrates, the reflective layers, the adhesives, and the grooves of today's archival-grade Characterization of the plastic substrates, the reflective layers, the...

  3. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces,transfer at the siding surface. Direct solar radiation tosiding, reflected solar radiation from nearby surfaces,

  4. Terra Sigillata: Evolution of Roman Ceramics Reflect Changes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Terra Sigillata: Evolution of Roman Ceramics Reflect Changes in Technology, Life Terra Sigillata: Evolution of Roman Ceramics Reflect Changes in Technology, Life Print Wednesday,...

  5. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  6. X-ray induced optical reflectivity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Durbin, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The change in optical reflectivity induced by intense x-ray pulses can now be used to study ultrafast many body responses in solids in the femtosecond time domain. X-ray absorption creates photoelectrons and core level holes subsequently filled by Auger or fluorescence processes, and these excitations ultimately add conduction and valence band carriers that perturb optical reflectivity.Optical absorption associated with band filling and band gap narrowing is shown to explain the basic features found in recent measurements on an insulator (silicon nitride, Si3N4), a semiconductor(gallium arsenide,GaAs), and a metal (gold,Au), obtained with ?100 fs x-ray pulses at 500-2000 eV and probed with 800 nm laser pulses. In particular GaAs exhibits an abrupt drop in reflectivity, persisting only for a time comparable to the x-ray excitation pulse duration, consistent with prompt band gap narrowing.

  7. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  8. Method of making reflecting film reflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cottingham, James G. (Center Moriches, NY)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reflector of the reflecting film type is disclosed and which may be used in a heliostatic system for concentrating solar energy and comprising a reflecting film bonded to an appropriate rigid substrate in such a way that specularity of a very high order is achieved. A method of bonding the reflecting film to the substrate is also disclosed and comprises the steps of initially adhering the film to a smooth, clean flat rigid surface with a non-bonding liquid between the rigid surface and film, and then bonding the substrate and film. The non-bonding liquid has a molecular adhesion greater than any stresses due to handling or curing of the bonding agent which is applied between the film and the opposing surface of the rigid substrate.

  9. Theoretical analysis of reflected ray error from surface slope error and their application to the solar concentrated collector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Weidong

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface slope error of concentrator is one of the main factors to influence the performance of the solar concentrated collectors which cause deviation of reflected ray and reduce the intercepted radiation. This paper presents the general equation to calculate the standard deviation of reflected ray error from slope error through geometry optics, applying the equation to calculate the standard deviation of reflected ray error for 5 kinds of solar concentrated reflector, provide typical results. The results indicate that the slope error is transferred to the reflected ray in more than 2 folds when the incidence angle is more than 0. The equation for reflected ray error is generally fit for all reflection surfaces, and can also be applied to control the error in designing an abaxial optical system.

  10. Reflection technique for thermal mapping of semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Martin J. (Lee, NY)

    1989-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductors may be optically tested for their temperatures by illuminating them with tunable monochromatic electromagnetic radiation and observing the light reflected off of them. A transition point will occur when the wavelength of the light corresponds with the actual band gap energy of the semiconductor. At the transition point, the image of the semiconductor will appreciably darken as the light is transmitted through it, rather than being reflected off of it. The wavelength of the light at the transition point corresponds to the actual band gap energy and the actual temperature of the semiconductor.

  11. Metasurfaces for suppressing reflection over broadband

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patra, Anuradha; Nagarajan, Arvind; Achanta, Venu Gopal

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surfaces patterned with arrays of quasi-periodic air holes having conical depth profile have been studied for their effectiveness in suppressing air-substrate reflection in the wavelength range of 450-1350 nm (limited by our measurement). The role of quasi-periodic air-hole pattern, depth of holes and launch angle on the observed antireflection behavior are investigated. The average optical transmittance of the patterned quartz substrate at near normal incidence is more than 97% and reflectance is less than 2%. Patterned quartz surfaces with 450 nm thin graded rarefaction region maintain the antireflective property up to 30{\\deg} (limited by our measurements) angle of incidence.

  12. Fracture detection in crystalline rock using ultrasonic reflection techniques: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, S.P. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research was initiated to investigate using ultrasonic seismic reflection techniques to detect fracture discontinuities in a granitic rock. Initial compressional (P) and shear (SH) wave experiments were performed on a 0.9 {times} 0.9 {times} 0.3 meter granite slab in an attempt to detect seismic energy reflected from the opposite face of the slab. It was found that processing techniques such as deconvolution and array synthesis could improve the standout of the reflection event. During the summers of 1979 and 1980 SH reflection experiments were performed at a granite quarry near Knowles, California. The purpose of this study was to use SH reflection methods to detect an in situ fracture located one to three meters behind the quarry face. These SH data were later analyzed using methods similar to those applied in the laboratory. Interpretation of the later-arriving events observed in the SH field data as reflections from a steeply-dipping fracture was inconclusive. 41 refs., 43 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Electrochromic window with high reflectivity modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Gerouki, Alexandra (Medford, MA); Liu, Te-Yang (Arlington, MA); Goldner, Mark A. (Cambridge, MA); Haas, Terry E. (Southborough, MA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switching between colored and bleached states, a low absorptivity in the near infrared, and fast switching times, and methods for its manufacture and switching are provided. In one embodiment, a multi-layered device comprising a first indium tin oxide transparent electronic conductor, a transparent ion blocking layer, a tungsten oxide electrochromic anode, a lithium ion conducting-electrically resistive electrolyte, a complimentary lithium mixed metal oxide electrochromic cathode, a transparent ohmic contact layer, a second indium oxide transparent electronic conductor, and a silicon nitride encapsulant is provided. Through elimination of optional intermediate layers, simplified device designs are provided as alternative embodiments. Typical colored-state reflectivity of the multi-layered device is greater than 50% in the near infrared, bleached-state reflectivity is less than 40% in the visible, bleached-state transmissivity is greater than 60% in the near infrared and greater than 40% in the visible, and spectral absorbance is less than 50% in the range from 0.65-2.5 .mu.m.

  14. Optical Reflectivity of Graphene Christopher Yaluma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    Optical Reflectivity of Graphene Christopher Yaluma Stephen Johnson Patrick Hunley Andrei Terentiev Aaron Meacham Abhishek Sundararajan Santiago de León Doug Strachan #12;Graphene transistors on membranes · Want to construct few-layer graphene Field Effect Transistors (FETs) on transparent membranes #12

  15. Reflections of Murray F. Hawkins, Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Jacqueline

    of petroleum engineering and technology came largely from several petroleum production research laboratoriesReflections of Murray F. Hawkins, Jr. On joining the petroleum engineering faculty at LSU in 1947 I and political implications for the world. It was about this time that U.S. energy usage of petroleum first

  16. Static corrections from shallow-reflection surveys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steeples, Don W.; Miller, Richard D.; Black, Ross A.

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of unconsolidated materials can be substantially less than the velocity of sound in air. Weathered-layer thickness variation of 1 m in these low-velocity materials could result in a static anomaly in excess of 3 ms. Shallow-reflection data from the Texas panhandle...

  17. Multi-reflective acoustic wave device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andle, Jeffrey C.

    2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An acoustic wave device, which utilizes multiple localized reflections of acoustic wave for achieving an infinite impulse response while maintaining high tolerance for dampening effects, is disclosed. The device utilized a plurality of electromechanically significant electrodes disposed on most of the active surface. A plurality of sensors utilizing the disclosed acoustic wave mode device are also described.

  18. Electrochromic window with high reflectivity modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldner, R.B.; Gerouki, A.; Liu, T.Y.; Goldner, M.A.; Haas, T.E.

    2000-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switching between colored and bleached states, a low absorptivity in the near infrared, and fast switching times, and methods for its manufacture and switching are provided. In one embodiment, a multi-layered device comprising a first indium tin oxide transparent electronic conductor, a transparent ion blocking layer, a tungsten oxide electrochromic anode, a lithium ion conducting-electrically resistive electrolyte, a complimentary lithium mixed metal oxide electrochromic cathode, a transparent ohmic contact layer, a second indium oxide transparent electronic conductor, and a silicon nitride encapsulant is provided. Through elimination of optional intermediate layers, simplified device designs are provided as alternative embodiments. Typical colored-state reflectivity of the multi-layered device is greater than 50% in the near infrared, bleached-state reflectivity is less than 40% in the visible, bleached-state transmissivity is greater than 60% in the near infrared and greater than 40% in the visible, and spectral absorbance is less than 50% in the range from 0.65-2.5 mum.

  19. Reflections "Welcome back! Have a good

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reflections "Welcome back! Have a good vacation"? "I wasn't on vacation. I was in the field." "I in a dig at the granting agency that spent nearly $1,750 in support of your research. A basic stock of fine, they will sprint to their typewriters and set their two forefingers to banging out near poetry in praise of basic

  20. Reflections of Edmond J. Langhetee, Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Jacqueline

    Reflections of Edmond J. Langhetee, Jr. My education at Louisiana State University began in March, wondering whether I should reconsider my decision to enter petroleum engineering. Nuclear energy in its most, I was able to handle these and many other projects because of my educational background

  1. Deep reflection-mode photoacoustic imaging of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lihong

    near-infrared laser pulses of 804-nm wavelength for PA excitation to achieve deep penetration-frequency PAM system. To achieve deep penetration of light, we chose the 804-nm near-infrared wavelengthDeep reflection-mode photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue Kwang Hyun Song and Lihong V. Wang

  2. 14. Reflections on Legality Michael Caie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitelson, Branden

    14. Reflections on Legality Michael Caie 85. The Primacy of Law -We have seen that, on Bennett, and in order to get from one event to the occurrence of another we need, as Bennett puts it, " `the cement. -Bennett claims to have little sympathy for this account, and levels three objections against it

  3. Performance Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimization Performance Monitoring Performance Monitoring A redirector page has been set up without anywhere to redirect to. Last edited: 2014-08-25 14:37:27...

  4. Catheter based mid-infrared reflectance and reflectance generated absorption spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of characterizing conditions in a tissue, by (a) providing a catheter that has a light source that emits light in selected wavenumbers within the range of mid-IR spectrum; (b) directing the light from the catheter to an area of tissue at a location inside a blood vessel of a subject; (c) collecting light reflected from the location and generating a reflectance spectra; and (d) comparing the reflectance spectra to a reference spectra of normal tissue, whereby a location having an increased number of absorbance peaks at said selected wavenumbers indicates a tissue inside the blood vessel containing a physiological marker for atherosclerosis.

  5. Photothermal and thermo-refractive effects in high reflectivity mirrors at room and cryogenic temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessandro Farsi; Mario Siciliani de Cumis; Francesco Marino; Francesco Marin

    2011-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing requirements in the sensitivity of interferometric measurements is a common feature of several research fields, from gravitational wave detection to quantum optics. This motivates refined studies of high reflectivity mirrors and of noise sources that are tightly related to their structure. In this work we present an experimental characterization of photothermal and thermo-refractive effects in high reflectivity mirrors, i.e., of the variations in the position of their effective reflection plane due to weak residual power absorption. The measurements are performed by modulating the impinging power in the range 10 Hz $\\div$ 100 kHz. The experimental results are compared with an expressly derived theoretical model in order to fully understand the phenomena and exploit them to extract useful effective thermo-mechanical parameters of the coating. The measurements are extended at cryogenic temperature, where most high sensitivity experiments are performed (or planned in future versions) and where characterizations of dielectric film coatings are still poor.

  6. EXPERIMENT #3 REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY We will use the reflectance attachment and fiber optics OceanOptics spectrophotometer to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nazarenko, Alexander

    EXPERIMENT #3 REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY We will use the reflectance attachment and fiber optics OceanOptics spectrophotometer to measure the reflectance spectrum of several paint samples in the special optically flat-bottomed cell so that the bottom is completely covered. Scan the reflectance

  7. Performance assurance program plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, B.H.

    1997-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    B and W Protec, Inc. (BWP) is responsible for implementing the Performance Assurance Program for the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) in accordance with DOE Order 470.1, Safeguards and Security Program (DOE 1995a). The Performance Assurance Program applies to safeguards and security (SAS) systems and their essential components (equipment, hardware, administrative procedures, Protective Force personnel, and other personnel) in direct support of Category I and H special nuclear material (SNM) protection. Performance assurance includes several Hanford Site activities that conduct performance, acceptance, operability, effectiveness, and validation tests. These activities encompass areas of training, exercises, quality assurance, conduct of operations, total quality management, self assessment, classified matter protection and control, emergency preparedness, and corrective actions tracking and trending. The objective of the Performance Assurance Program is to capture the critical data of the tests, training, etc., in a cost-effective, manageable program that reflects the overall effectiveness of the program while minimizing operational impacts. To aid in achieving this objective, BWP will coordinate the Performance Assurance Program for Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and serve as the central point for data collection.

  8. Wurtzite GaN Surface Structures Studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Reflection High Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    Wurtzite GaN Surface Structures Studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Reflection High Energy studies of the surface reconstructions for both the Ga-face and the N-face of wurtzite GaN films grown a surface phenomenon. Although numerous surface studies of wurtzite GaN have been performed, progress

  9. Singlehole GPR reflection imaging of solute transport in a granitic aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Singlehole GPR reflection imaging of solute transport in a granitic aquifer Caroline Dorn,1 Niklas mmaperture fractures. A dipole tracer test was performed in a granitic aquifer by injecting a saline solution of solute transport in a granitic aquifer, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L08401, doi:10.1029/ 2011GL047152. 1

  10. First-order design of off-axis reflective ophthalmic adaptive optics systems using afocal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    First-order design of off-axis reflective ophthalmic adaptive optics systems using afocal for designing laser cavities, spectrographs and adaptive optics retinal imaging systems. The use, range respectively. This is discussed using examples from adaptive optics retinal imaging systems. The performance

  11. ForPeerReview Influence of woody elements of a Norway spruce canopy on nadir reflectance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ForPeerReview Only Influence of woody elements of a Norway spruce canopy on nadir reflectance) for a simulated Norway spruce canopy was performed at a very high spatial resolution (modelling resolution 0.2 m the Norway spruce canopy as being composed of i) leaves, ii) leaves, trunks and first order branches

  12. X-ray reflectivity and surface roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ocko, B.M.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the advent of high brightness synchrotron radiation sources there has been a phenomenal growth in the use of x-rays as a probe of surface structure. The technique of x-ray reflectivity is particularly relevant to electrochemists since it is capable of probing the structure normal to an electrode surface in situ. In this paper the theoretical framework for x-ray reflectivity is reviewed and the results from previous non-electrochemistry measurements are summarized. These measurements are from the liquid/air interface (CCl/sub 4/), the metal crystal vacuum interface (Au(100)), and from the liquid/solid interface(liquid crystal/silicon). 34 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.; Wright, R.R.

    1982-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes depositing, by electrolysis, an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be-re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

  14. Reflective optical imaging method and circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  15. Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

    2006-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

  16. Performative architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Araya, Sergio (Sergio Alejandro)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following thesis explores two central hypotheses. On the one hand it introduces the idea of performative architecture (performance in design), and has done so with the desire to contribute directly to the expansion of ...

  17. Passivating overcoat bilayer for multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montcalm, Claude (Livermore, CA); Stearns, Daniel G. (Los Altos, CA); Vernon, Stephen P. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A passivating overcoat bilayer is used for multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or soft x-ray applications to prevent oxidation and corrosion of the multilayer coating, thereby improving the EUV optical performance. The overcoat bilayer comprises a layer of silicon or beryllium underneath at least one top layer of an elemental or a compound material that resists oxidation and corrosion. Materials for the top layer include carbon, palladium, carbides, borides, nitrides, and oxides. The thicknesses of the two layers that make up the overcoat bilayer are optimized to produce the highest reflectance at the wavelength range of operation. Protective overcoat systems comprising three or more layers are also possible.

  18. Spin, Statistics, and Reflections, II. Lorentz Invariance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernd Kuckert; Reinhard Lorenzen

    2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The analysis of the relation between modular P$_1$CT-symmetry -- a consequence of the Unruh effect -- and Pauli's spin-statistics relation is continued. The result in the predecessor to this article is extended to the Lorentz symmetric situation. A model $\\G_L$ of the universal covering $\\widetilde{L_+^\\uparrow}\\cong SL(2,\\complex)$ of the restricted Lorentz group $L_+^\\uparrow$ is modelled as a reflection group at the classical level. Based on this picture, a representation of $\\G_L$ is constructed from pairs of modular P$_1$CT-conjugations, and this representation can easily be verified to satisfy the spin-statistics relation.

  19. Reflective optical imaging systems with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudyma, Russell M. (San Ramon, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical systems compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate are described. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical systems are particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput, and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical systems are characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  20. Reflective optical imaging system with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Henry N. (Sunol, CA); Hudyma, Russell M. (San Ramon, CA); Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT); Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical system is characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  1. Reflective echo tomographic imaging using acoustic beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kisner, Roger; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An inspection system includes a plurality of acoustic beamformers, where each of the plurality of acoustic beamformers including a plurality of acoustic transmitter elements. The system also includes at least one controller configured for causing each of the plurality of acoustic beamformers to generate an acoustic beam directed to a point in a volume of interest during a first time. Based on a reflected wave intensity detected at a plurality of acoustic receiver elements, an image of the volume of interest can be generated.

  2. Reflection Survey (Majer, 2003) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ | Roadmap Jump to:bJumpRed Bank, NewCatalystReflection

  3. Mapping bedrock beneath glacial till using CDP seismic reflection methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keiswetter, Dean; Black, Ross A.; Steeples, Don W.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a case history demonstrating the applicability of the common depth point (CDP) seismic reflection method to image bedrock beneath glacial till in northwestern Iowa. Reflections from the base of the 40-m thick glacial till are clearly...

  4. SX-02484-100, Rev. 2 Reflectance and Transmittance Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    ................................................. 10 Operating Procedures Measurements ................. 20 Maintenance through a sample medium. Labsphere offers two standard products for reflectance and transmittance

  5. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes an envelope with a discharge forming fill disposed therein which emits light, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the absorbed light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill, a source of microwave energy coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity and configured to reflect at least some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length.

  6. A replaceable reflective film for solar concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 3M Company manufactures a silvered acrylic film called ECP-305 that is regarded as the preferred reflective film for use on stretched-membrane heliostats. However, ECP-305 will degrade in time, due to both corrosion of the silver layer and delamination at the film's silver-to-acrylic interface, and will eventually need to be replaced. 3M uses a very aggressive adhesive on this film, and once it is laminated, replacement is very difficult. The purpose of this investigation was the development of a replaceable reflector, a reflective film that can be easily removed and replaced. A replaceable reflector was successfully configured by laminating ECP-305 to the top surface of a smooth, dimensionally stable polymer film, with a removable adhesive applied to the underside of the polymer film. Several stages of screening and testing led to the selection of a 0.010-inch thick polycarbonate (GE 8030) as the best polymer film and a medium tack tape (3M Y-9425) was selected as the best removable adhesive. To demonstrate the feasibility of the replaceable reflector concept and to provide a real-time field test, the chosen construction was successfully applied to the 50-m{sup 2} SKI heliostat at the Central Receiver Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque. 4 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Does Shareholder Voting Reflect Shareholder Preferences?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Listokin, Yair Jason

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2000-2006. Annual Corporate Governance Report. Harris,Josef. 1993. “Corporate Governance Through the ProxyFund Activism, Corporate Governance, and Firm Performance" (

  8. Performance Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Performance characterization efforts within the SunShot Systems Integration activities focus on collaborations with U.S. solar companies to:

  9. Device Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Device Performance group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we measure the performance of PV cells and modules with respect to standard reporting conditions--defined as a reference temperature (25 C), total irradiance (1000 Wm-2), and spectral irradiance distribution (IEC standard 60904-3). Typically, these are ''global'' reference conditions, but we can measure with respect to any reference set. To determine device performance, we conduct two general categories of measurements: spectral responsivity (SR) and current versus voltage (I-V). We usually perform these measurements using standard procedures, but we develop new procedures when required by new technologies. We also serve as an independent facility for verifying device performance for the entire PV community. We help the PV community solve its special measurement problems, giving advice on solar simulation, instrumentation for I-V measurements, reference cells, measurement procedures, and anomalous results. And we collaborate with researchers to analyze devices and materials.

  10. Reflective Cracking Study: First-level Report on HVS Testing on Section 591RF - 45 mm MAC15TR-GOverlay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, David; Wu, R.; Harvey, John T

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the asphalt concrete layer. Testing was stopped when thetesting being performed to validate Caltrans overlay strategies for the rehabilitation of cracked asphalt concrete.concrete. It describes the results of the sixth HVS reflective cracking testing

  11. Spatial-Heterodyne Interferometry For Reflection And Transm Ission (Shirt) Measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN; Bingham, Philip R [Knoxville, TN; Tobin, Ken W [Harriman, TN

    2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are described for spatial-heterodyne interferometry for reflection and transmission (SHIRT) measurements. A method includes digitally recording a first spatially-heterodyned hologram using a first reference beam and a first object beam; digitally recording a second spatially-heterodyned hologram using a second reference beam and a second object beam; Fourier analyzing the digitally recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram to define a first analyzed image; Fourier analyzing the digitally recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram to define a second analyzed image; digitally filtering the first analyzed image to define a first result; and digitally filtering the second analyzed image to define a second result; performing a first inverse Fourier transform on the first result, and performing a second inverse Fourier transform on the second result. The first object beam is transmitted through an object that is at least partially translucent, and the second object beam is reflected from the object.

  12. Impact of Reflective Roofing on Cooling Electrical Use and Peak Demand in a Florida Retail Mall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Sonne, J. K.; Sherwin, J. R.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Experimental Plan To isolate the impact of adding a reflective roof surface, a before-and-after experimental protocol was used. With this experimental approach, a period of base line data is collected on the space cooling performance at the facility... roof resurfacing. Firstly, a potential utility program would want to target facilities for a light colored roof that were involved in re-roofing. Whereas discretionary change to a white roof costs approximately $0.50/ft2, the incremental cost...

  13. Repository performance confirmation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Repository performance confirmation links the technical bases of repository science and societal acceptance. This paper explores the myriad aspects of what has been labeled performance confirmation in U.S. programs, which involves monitoring as a collection of distinct activities combining technical and social significance in radioactive waste management. This paper is divided into four parts: (1) A distinction is drawn between performance confirmation monitoring and other testing and monitoring objectives; (2) A case study illustrates confirmation activities integrated within a long-term testing and monitoring strategy for Yucca Mountain; (3) A case study reviews compliance monitoring developed and implemented for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; and (4) An approach for developing, evaluating and implementing the next generation of performance confirmation monitoring is presented. International interest in repository monitoring is exhibited by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme 'Monitoring Developments for Safe Repository Operation and Staged Closure' (MoDeRn) Project. The MoDeRn partners are considering the role of monitoring in a phased approach to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. As repository plans advance in different countries, the need to consider monitoring strategies within a controlled framework has become more apparent. The MoDeRn project pulls together technical and societal experts to assimilate a common understanding of a process that could be followed to develop a monitoring program. A fundamental consideration is the differentiation of confirmation monitoring from the many other testing and monitoring activities. Recently, the license application for Yucca Mountain provided a case study including a technical process for meeting regulatory requirements to confirm repository performance as well as considerations related to the preservation of retrievability. The performance confirmation plan developed as part of the Yucca Mountain license application identified a broad suite of monitoring activities. A revision of the plan was expected to winnow the number of activities down to a manageable size. As a result, an objective process for the next stage of performance confirmation planning was developed as an integral part of an overarching long-term testing and monitoring strategy. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance monitoring program at once reflects its importance to stakeholders while demonstrating adequate understanding of relevant monitoring parameters. The compliance criteria were stated by regulation and are currently monitored as part of the regulatory rule for disposal. At the outset, the screening practice and parameter selection were not predicated on a direct or indirect correlation to system performance metrics, as was the case for Yucca Mountain. Later on, correlation to performance was established, and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant continues to monitor ten parameters originally identified in the compliance certification documentation. The monitoring program has proven to be effective for the technical intentions and societal or public assurance. The experience with performance confirmation in the license application process for Yucca Mountain helped identify an objective, quantitative methodology for this purpose. Revision of the existing plan would be based on findings of the total system performance assessment. Identification and prioritization of confirmation activities would then derive from performance metrics associated with performance assessment. Given the understanding of repository performance confirmation, as reviewed in this paper, it is evident that the performance confirmation program for the Yucca Mountain project could be readily re-engaged if licensing activities resumed.

  14. LED structure with enhanced mirror reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergmann, Michael; Donofrio, Matthew; Heikman, Sten; Schneider, Kevin S; Haberern, Kevin W; Edmond, John A

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally related to LED chips having improved overall emission by reducing the light-absorbing effects of barrier layers adjacent mirror contacts. In one embodiment, a LED chip comprises one or more LEDs, with each LED having an active region, a first contact under the active region having a highly reflective mirror, and a barrier layer adjacent the mirror. The barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that it does not extend beyond the periphery of the mirror. In another possible embodiment, an insulator is further provided, with the insulator adjacent the barrier layer and adjacent portions of the mirror not contacted by the active region or by the barrier layer. In yet another embodiment, a second contact is provided on the active region. In a further embodiment, the barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that the periphery of the mirror is at least 40% free of the barrier layer, and the second contact is below the first contact and accessible from the bottom of the chip.

  15. Quantum radiation from a partially reflecting moving mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nistor Nicolaevici

    2000-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the quantum radiation from a partially reflecting moving mirror for the massless scalar field in 1+1 Minkowski space. Partial reflectivity is achieved by localizing a delta-type potential at the mirror's position. The radiated flux is exactly obtained for arbitrary motions as an integral functional of the mirror's past trajectory. Partial reflectivity corrections to the perfect mirror result are discussed.

  16. Quantum reflection and Liouville transformations from wells to walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabriel Dufour; Romain Guérout; Astrid Lambrecht; Serge Reynaud

    2014-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Liouville transformations map in a rigorous manner one Schr\\"odinger equation into another, with a changed scattering potential. They are used here to transform quantum reflection of an atom on an attractive well into reflection of the atom on a repulsive wall. While the scattering properties are preserved, the corresponding semiclassical descriptions are completely different. A quantitative evaluation of quantum reflection probabilities is deduced from this method.

  17. angular dependent reflection: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    structure factor near Bragg reflections: Graphite Physics Websites Summary: -binding model (see e. g. 15, 16) have been used extensively to study in-plane properties of...

  18. analyzing solar reflective: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and thermal emittance are referred to as "Cool Roof hot, light-colored surfaces reflect solar energy and stay cooler. However, high emittance is also 6 Microstructured...

  19. Ion reflection, gyration, and dissipation at supercritical shocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gosling, J.T.; Robson, A.E.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brief review emphasizes the following points: (1) Ion reflection is the dominant ion dissipation mechanism at nearly perpendicular, supercritical shocks. (2) An increasing fraction of the ions incident on a supercritical shock is reflected as the Mach number increases. The actual fraction reflected can be predicted using the Rankine-Hugoniot conservation relations. (3) The effective temperature associated with the dispersion in velocity space associated with ion reflection accounts for a large fraction of the temperature rise observed across supercritical, quasi-perpendicular shocks.

  20. KP solitons and Mach reflection in shallow water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuji Kodama

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This gives a survey of our recent studies on soliton solutions of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation with an emphasis on the Mach reflection problem in shallow water.

  1. U-043: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Lifecycle Attachmate Downloads SecurityTracker Alert ID: 1026340 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Medium Discussion: A vulnerability was reported in Attachmate Reflection. A remote user...

  2. Characterization of material degradation in ceramic matrix composites using infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooney, Adam T.; Flattum-Riemers, Richard Y. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, NonDestructive Evaluation Branch, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Scott, Benjamin J. [Universal Technology Corporation, Dayton, OH (United States)

    2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceramic matrix composite materials for thermal protection systems are required to maintain operational performance in extreme thermal and mechanical environments. In-service inspection of materials capable of assessing the degree and extent of damage and degradation will be required to ensure the safety and readiness of future air vehicles. Infrared reflectance spectroscopy is an established material characterization technique capable of extracting information regarding the chemical composition of substances. The viability of this technique as a potentially powerful nondestructive evaluation method capable of monitoring degradation in thermal protection system materials subjected to extreme mechanical and thermal environments is analyzed. Several oxide-based and non-oxide-based ceramic matrix composite materials were stressed to failure in a high temperature environment and subsequently measured using infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Spectral signatures at locations along the length of the samples were compared resulting in distinct and monotonic reflectance peak changes while approaching the fracture point. The chemical significance of the observed signatures and the feasibility of infrared reflectance nondestructive evaluation techniques are discussed.

  3. Daylighting and solar shading performances of an innovative automated reflective louver system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hashemi, Arman

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    follows initial investigations into the design and applicability of an automated retrofitted panel thermal shutters which can also act as a sunshade and daylighting system. The system has a patented function which allows each shutter...

  4. Applying Appearance Standards to Light Reflection Models Harold B. Westlund

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Gary

    standards for gloss, haze, and goniochromatic color are applied to computer graphic reflection modelsApplying Appearance Standards to Light Reflection Models Harold B. Westlund Gary W. Meyer. Correspondences are derived between both the gloss and haze standards and the specular exponent of the Phong model

  5. Mirror contamination and secondary electron effects during EUV reflectivity analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Mirror contamination and secondary electron effects during EUV reflectivity analysis M. Catalfanoa, USA; b SEMATECH Inc., Albany, NY 12203, USA ABSTRACT We investigated Ru mirror contamination film at different angles. During the contamination process, the EUV reflectivity of the Ru film

  6. Phase matching using Bragg reflection waveguides for monolithic nonlinear optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , (2005). 9. P. Yeh, A. Yariv, " Bragg reflection waveguides," Opt. Commun. 19, 427-430 (1976). 10. P. Yeh, A. Yariv, C Hong "Electromagnetic propagation in periodic stratified media: I. General Theory," JPhase matching using Bragg reflection waveguides for monolithic nonlinear optics applications A. S

  7. Fabricating Microgeometry for Custom Surface Reflectance Tim Weyrich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a variety of sur- faces, ranging from reproductions of measured BRDFs to materials with unconventional reflectance mod- els continue to be used in rendering applications, more complex and realistic material models material (metal, dielectric, translucent / scattering, etc.). Many analytic reflectance models used

  8. Reflection of focused beams from opal photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonsson, Fredrik

    . Chutinan, "Full Three-Dimensional Photonic Bandgap Crystals at Near-Infrared Wavelengths," Science 289, 604Reflection of focused beams from opal photonic crystals Karri Varis, Marco Mattila Optoelectronics 10-14, D-55099 Mainz, Germany Abstract: We present a robust method for computing the reflection

  9. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Rosser, R.

    1993-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  10. Reflections on fieldwork among the Gurungs of Nepal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2003-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

      REFLECTIONS ON FIELDWORK AMONG THE GURUNGS OF NEPAL     These reflections on work among the Gurungs were filmed in the autumn of 2000 A.D. I talked into the camera in order to capture some of the reasons why I ended up doing fieldwork...

  11. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A FORCE-REFLECTING TELEOPERATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For certain applications, such as space servicing, undersea operations, and hazardous material handling tasks in nuclear reactors, the environments can be uncertain, complex, and hazardous. Lives may be in danger if humans were to work under these conditions. As a result, a man-machine system--a teleoperator system--has been developed to work in these types of environments. In a typical teleoperator system, the actual system operates at a remote site; the operator located away from this system usually receives visual information from a video image and/or graphical animation on the computer screen. Additional feedback, such as aural and force information, can significantly enhance performance of the system. Force reflection is a type of feedback in which forces experienced by the remote manipulator are fed back to the manual controller. Various control methods have been proposed for implementation on a teleoperator system. In order to examine different control schemes, a one Degree-Of-Freedom (DOF) Force-Reflecting Manual Controller (FRMC) is constructed and integrated into a PC. The system parameters are identified and constructed as a mathematical model. The Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) and fuzzy logic controllers are developed and tested experimentally. Numerical simulation results obtained from the mathematical model are compared with those of experimental data for both types of controllers. In addition, the concept of a telesensation system is introduced. A telesensation system is an advanced teleoperator system that attempts to provide the operator with sensory feedback. In this context, a telesensation system integrates the use of a Virtual Reality (VR) unit, FRMC, and Graphical User Interface (GUI). The VR unit is used to provide the operator with a 3-D visual effect. Various commercial VR units are reviewed and features compared for use in a telesensation system. As for the FRMC, the conceptual design of a 3-DOF FRMC is developed in an effort to make the system portable, compact, and lightweight. A variety of design alternatives are presented and evaluated. Finally, a GUI software package is developed to interface with several teleoperation unit components. These components include an industrial robot, electric motor, encoder, force/torque sensor, and CCD camera. The software includes features such as position scaling, force scaling, and rereferencing and is intended to provide a sound basis for the development of a multi-DOF FRMC system in the future.

  12. Performance Contracting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodin, E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    deferred maintenance Issues with no capital funding source Schneider Electric ? Buildings Business ? CATEE 2011 4 The Details ?Facility/Capital Improvement Program ?Energy Savings Realized Offset Project Costs ?No Up-Front Capital is Required...Performance Contracting ? A Resource for Energy Efficiency Projects Schneider Electric ? Buildings Business ? CATEE 2011 2 Top Challenges for Cities & Schools Tax Revenue Reductions Property values down, sales tax revenue down, etc Energy...

  13. Performance Reviews

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FALL 1978 85 Performance Reviews Abolición de la propiedad In the fall 1974 issue of LATR, Juan Bruce-Novoa observed that the inherent difficulties and expense in staging Abolición de la propiedad by José Agustín made it a risky undertaking... not only by the complex technology involved, but also by the fact that José Agustín di rected the production himself. Agustin's tremendous energy and professional experience, coupled with the enthusiasm of his able student casts, led to excellent...

  14. Wurtzite GaN surface structures studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and reflection high energy electron diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtzite GaN surface structures studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and reflection high energy-face of wurtzite GaN films grown using molecular beam epitaxy. N-face reconstructions are primarily adatom numerous surface studies of wurtzite GaN have been performed, progress in determining the true surface

  15. Performance Characterization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomassPPPO WebsitePalmsthe Price (Percent) YearPerformance

  16. Performance Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding accessPeptoid Nanosheets Offer a Diversity ofPerformance assessment

  17. Solids Fraction Measurement with a Reflective Fiber Optic Probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seachman, S.M.; Yue, P.C.; Ludlow, J.C.; Shadle, L.J.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method has been developed to extract solids fraction information from a reflective fiber optic probe. The commercially available reflective fiber optic probe was designed to measure axial particle velocity (both up and down directions). However, the reflected light intensity measured is related to particle size and particle concentration. A light reflection model is used to relate the reflected light intensity to solids fraction. In this model we assume that the reflected light intensity is a fixed fraction, K1, of the total light intensity lost in penetration of a solid layer. Also, the solids fraction is related to particle concentration, N, in the light path, by N = K2 (1- ?), where (1-?) is the solids fraction. The parameters K1 and K2 are determined through a calibration and curve fitting procedure. This paper describes this procedure and the steps taken to derive the values of K1 and K2. It is proposed that the reflective fiber optic can be used for real time measurement of solids fraction in a circulating fluid bed.

  18. The Influence of Particle Size on Infrared Reflectance Spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Richardson, Robert L.

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflectance spectra of solids are influenced by the absorption coefficient as well as the particle size and morphology. In the infrared, spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: in general, the upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from surface scattering, which are rays that have reflected from the surface without penetration, whereas downward-going peaks result from either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated into the sample or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signal reflected from solids usually encompasses all these effects which include dependencies on particle size, morphology and sample density. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to understand the effects on the spectral features as a function of the mean grain size of the sample. The bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and then sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions: 0-45, 45-90, 90-180, 180-250, 250-500, and >500 microns. The directional-hemispherical spectra were recorded using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere to measure the reflectance for all of the particle-size fractions. We have studied both organic and inorganic materials, but this paper focuses on inorganic salts, NaNO3 in particular. Our studies clearly show that particle size has an enormous influence on the measured reflectance spectra for bulk materials and that successful identification requires sufficient representative reflectance data so as to include the particle size(s) of interest. Origins of the effects are discussed.

  19. Validation of FSP Reactor Design with Sensitivity Studies of Beryllium-Reflected Critical Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess; Margaret A. Marshall

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The baseline design for space nuclear power is a fission surface power (FSP) system: sodium-potassium (NaK) cooled, fast spectrum reactor with highly-enriched-uranium (HEU)-O2 fuel, stainless steel (SS) cladding, and beryllium reflectors with B4C control drums. Previous studies were performed to evaluate modeling capabilities and quantify uncertainties and biases associated with analysis methods and nuclear data. Comparison of Zero Power Plutonium Reactor (ZPPR)-20 benchmark experiments with the FSP design indicated that further reduction of the total design model uncertainty requires the reduction in uncertainties pertaining to beryllium and uranium cross-section data. Further comparison with three beryllium-reflected HEU-metal benchmark experiments performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) concluded the requirement that experimental validation data have similar cross section sensitivities to those found in the FSP design. A series of critical experiments was performed at ORCEF in the 1960s to support the Medium Power Reactor Experiment (MPRE) space reactor design. The small, compact critical assembly (SCCA) experiments were graphite- or beryllium-reflected assemblies of SS-clad, HEU-O2 fuel on a vertical lift machine. All five configurations were evaluated as benchmarks. Two of the five configurations were beryllium reflected, and further evaluated using the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis capabilities of SCALE 6.1. Validation of the example FSP design model was successful in reducing the primary uncertainty constituent, the Be(n,n) reaction, from 0.28 %dk/k to 0.0004 %dk/k. Further assessment of additional reactor physics measurements performed on the SCCA experiments may serve to further validate FSP design and operation.

  20. Reduction of Glass Surface Reflectance by Ion Beam Surface Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Spitzer

    2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report for DOE contract DE-EE0000590. The purpose of this work was to determine the feasibility of the reduction of the reflection from the front of solar photovoltaic modules. Reflection accounts for a power loss of approximately 4%. A solar module having an area of one square meter with an energy conversion efficiency of 18% generates approximately 180 watts. If reflection loss can be eliminated, the power output can be increased to 187 watts. Since conventional thin-film anti-reflection coatings do not have sufficient environmental stability, we investigated the feasibility of ion beam modification of the glass surface to obtain reduction of reflectance. Our findings are generally applicable to all solar modules that use glass encapsulation, as well as commercial float glass used in windows and other applications. Ion implantation of argon, fluorine, and xenon into commercial low-iron soda lime float glass, standard float glass, and borosilicate glass was studied by implantation, annealing, and measurement of reflectance. The three ions all affected reflectance. The most significant change was obtained by argon implantation into both low-iron and standard soda-lime glass. In this way samples were formed with reflectance lower than can be obtained with a single-layer coatings of magnesium fluoride. Integrated reflectance was reduced from 4% to 1% in low-iron soda lime glass typical of the glass used in solar modules. The reduction of reflectance of borosilicate glass was not as large; however borosilicate glass is not typically used in flat plate solar modules. Unlike conventional semiconductor ion implantation doping, glass reflectance reduction was found to be tolerant to large variations in implant dose, meaning that the process does not require high dopant uniformity. Additionally, glass implantation does not require mass analysis. Simple, high current ion implantation equipment can be developed for this process; however, before the process can be employed on full scale solar modules, equipment must be developed for ion implanting large sheets of glass. A cost analysis shows that the process can be economical. Our finding is that the reduction of reflectance by ion beam surface modification is technically and economically feasible. The public will benefit directly from this work by the improvement of photovoltaic module efficiency, and indirectly by the greater understanding of the modification of glass surfaces by ion beams.

  1. Quantitative laboratory observations of internal wave reflection on ascending slopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dauxois, Thierry

    a stratified fluid with an angle that is fixed with respect to gravity. Upon reflection on a sloping bed that for a fixed frequency, the direction in which energy propagates with respect to the horizontal, , is fixed

  2. Seismic reflection analysis of the Manson Impact Structure, Iowa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keiswetter, Dean; Black, Ross A.; Steeples, Don W.

    1996-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Our combined interpretation of new, high-resolution seismic reflection data and reprocessed, but previously published, industrial Vibroseis data indicates that the Manson Impact Structure, Iowa, has an apparent crater ...

  3. Image statistics and the perception of surface reflectance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharan, Lavanya

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Humans are surprisingly good at judging the reflectance of complex surfaces even when the surfaces are viewed in isolation, contrary to the Gelb effect. We argue that textural cues are important for this task. Traditional ...

  4. Seismic Reflection Studies in Long Valley Caldera, Califomia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Ross A.; Deemer, Sharon J.; Smithson, Scott B.

    1991-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Seismic reflection studies in Long Valley caldera, California, indicate that seismic methods may be successfully employed to image certain types of features in young silicic caldera environments. However, near-surface ...

  5. Reflective Interfaces : assisting teens with stressful situations online

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Birago (Birago Korayga)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the concept of Reflective Interfaces, a novel approach to user experience design that promotes positive behavioral norms. Traditional interface design methodologies such as User Centered Design are ...

  6. GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS, II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS, II University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan Abstract. Green functions and Hall-Littlewoo* *d functions associated to W are introduced, and Green functions are described

  7. Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction Beam-Induced Structural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beam-Induced Structural and Property Changes on WO3 Thin Films. Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction Beam-Induced Structural and Property Changes on WO3 Thin...

  8. alfven wave reflection: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    viscosity and the magnetic diffusivity of the fluid, also known as the magnetic Prandtl number Pm. In the special case Pm1, there is no reflection on an insulating, no-slip...

  9. Method of fabricating reflection-mode EUV diffraction elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P. (Oakland, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Techniques for fabricating a well-controlled, quantized-level, engineered surface that serves as substrates for EUV reflection multilayer overcomes problems associated with the fabrication of reflective EUV diffraction elements. The technique when employed to fabricate an EUV diffraction element that includes the steps of: (a) forming an etch stack comprising alternating layers of first and second materials on a substrate surface where the two material can provide relative etch selectivity; (b) creating a relief profile in the etch stack wherein the relief profile has a defined contour; and (c) depositing a multilayer reflection film over the relief profile wherein the film has an outer contour that substantially matches that of the relief profile. For a typical EUV multilayer, if the features on the substrate are larger than 50 nm, the multilayer will be conformal to the substrate. Thus, the phase imparted to the reflected wavefront will closely match that geometrically set by the surface height profile.

  10. Reflective Middleware Solutions for Context-Aware Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmerich, Wolfgang

    Reflective Middleware Solutions for Context-Aware Applications Licia Capra, Wolfgang Emmerich and Cecilia Mascolo Dept. of Computer Science University College London Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK {L.Capra|W.Emmerich

  11. aqua modis reflectance: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Standards Process Breakout Session June 15, 2005 Robert Wolfe NASA GSFC Code 614.5 & Raytheon ITSS 12;June 15, 2005 - Wolfe - San Diego 2 MODIS Land Surface Reflectance products:...

  12. Reflection and Transmission of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields through Multilayered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oughstun, Kurt

    Reflection and Transmission of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields through Multilayered Biological Media- cally rigorous, physically correct description of the propagation of pulsed electromagnetic fields pulses through multilayered biological media consisting of three biological tissue layers rep- resenting

  13. andreev reflection spectroscopy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Probing Exotic Superconducting Order Parameters Using Point-contact Andreev Reflection Spectroscopy. Open Access...

  14. andreev reflection measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Probing Exotic Superconducting Order Parameters Using Point-contact Andreev Reflection Spectroscopy. Open Access...

  15. Accessibility of Computer Science: A Reflection for Faculty Members

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Leary, Dianne P.

    Accessibility of Computer Science: A Reflection for Faculty Members Dianne P. O'Leary http O'Leary. Copyright Dianne P. O'Leary, 1999 Version 1: June 1999 1 Picture Yourself: You are male

  16. Anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oh, Jihun; Branz, Howard M

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Exemplary embodiments are disclosed of anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production by photoelectrolysis of water. A nanoporous black Si is disclosed as an efficient photocathode for H.sub.2 production from water splitting half-reaction.

  17. CONCRETE REFLECTED ARRAYS OF U(93.2) METAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackenzie Gorham; John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; Virginia Dean; Davis Reed

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the period from 1963 – 1973, experiments involving highly enriched uranium units were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility to determine various critical configurations of three-dimensional arrays. The experiments formed a four-part series, and were reported by several different experimenters; the results of interest for this evaluation are those reported for the fourth experimentation, Critical Three-Dimensional Arrays of Neutron Interacting Units: Part IV, published and performed by D.W.Magnuson (Ref 1). Information is also available in the logbook . This set of experiments utilized subcritical metal units on a split table apparatus to determine critical configurations for 2×2×2 arrangements of highly enriched uranium reflected by concrete. Magnuson manipulated the configuration of several uranium cylinders and blocks within a concrete reflector. The different permutations utilized uranium cylinders of two different heights in various positions in the three dimensional array; certain cases also placed thin uranium blocks on top of the cylinders. The thickness of the surrounding concrete, as well as the inner dimensions of the concrete reflector was also varied in certain cases. The variations resulted in fourteen different experimental permutations or configurations. All fourteen configurations were judged to be unacceptable for use as criticality safety benchmarks. All experiments were initially evaluated; however only three configurations were evaluated in detail. Configurations 2, 4, 6 and 12 were not evaluated in detail because they are subcritical and configurations 5, 7, 8, 9, and 10 were also were not evaluated in detail because they were supercritical by more than beta effective (~0.007), or prompt critical. The experiments evaluated in detail for this benchmark were configurations 1, 3, and 11. The experimental report also contains the information for HEU-MET-FAST-056. Closely related work has been recorded in HEU-MET-FAST-053, which is a benchmark evaluation of a different series of three dimensional array experiments with four different moderator materials. HEU-MET-FAST-023 and HEU-MET-FAST-026 are also related because they utilize the same metal cylinders as these experiments.

  18. Universal signal processing method for multimode reflective sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Robert Eugene

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sensitivity, but the sensor configuration is complicated and requires the use of expensive lasers and single mode fibers. Amplitude modulation trades sensitivity for low cost and ease of configuration by using light emitting diodes and multimode fibers. A... method for reflective sensors using optical fibers as the data transmission media. The proposed transmitter - receiver unit was based on the amplitude modulation of reflected optical signals. This involves the use of an light emitting diode (LED...

  19. X-ray reflectivity studies of the metal/solution interphase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    You, H.; Nagy, Z.; Melendres, C.A.; Zurawski, D.J.; Chiarello, R.P.; Yonco, R.M.; Kim, H.K.; Maroni, V.A.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have designed an electrochemical cell that permits x-ray scattering studies in a transmission geometry under in-situ electrochemical control and have performed x-ray specular reflectivity studies of several metal/solution interphases as a function of electrochemical potential. For the copper/solution interphase, we found that the reflectivity changes upon oxidation and reduction, indicating a phase transition between copper and copper oxide at the interphase. We also found that the thickness of the pure copper and the roughness of the interfaces exhibited electrochemical irreversibility that is consistent with the potentials for the oxidation waves in the anodic sweep and the reduction waves in the cathodic sweep of the voltammogram. A standard Fresnel expression for the x-ray specular reflectivity was applied in the data analysis, and a smoothly varying Lorentzian interface profile was used for the individual rough interfaces. Furthermore, an incoherent average was used to include the effect of correlated roughness between a pair of interfaces. Preliminary results are also presented for the silver/solution and platinum/solution interphases. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Channeling and Volume Reflection Based Crystal Collimation of Tevatron Circulating Beam Halo (T-980)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiltsev, V.; Annala, G.; Drozhdin, A.; Johnson, T.; Legan, A.; Mokhov, N.; Reilly, R.; Still, D.; Tesarek, R.; Zagel, J.; /Fermilab; Peggs, S.; /Brookhaven /CERN /Serpukhov, IHEP /INFN, Ferrara /PNPI, CSTD

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The T980 crystal collimation experiment is underway at the Tevatron to determine if this technique could increase 980 GeV beam-halo collimation efficiency at high-energy hadron colliders such as the Tevatron and the LHC. T980 also studies various crystal types and parameters. The setup has been substantially enhanced during the Summer 2009 shutdown by installing a new O-shaped crystal in the horizontal goniometer, as well as adding a vertical goniometer with two alternating crystals (O-shaped and multi-strip) and additional beam diagnostics. First measurements with the new system are quite encouraging, with channeled and volume-reflected beams observed on the secondary collimators as predicted. Investigation of crystal collimation efficiencies with crystals in volume reflection and channeling modes are described in comparison with an amorphous primary collimator. Results on the system performance are presented for the end-of-store studies and for entire collider stores. The first investigation of colliding beam collimation simultaneously using crystals in both the vertical and horizontal plane has been made in the regime with horizontally channeled and vertically volume-reflected beams. Planning is underway for significant hardware improvements during the FY10 summer shutdown and for dedicated studies during the final year of Tevatron operation and also for a 'post-collider beam physics running' period.

  1. INL High Performance Building Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High performance buildings, also known as sustainable buildings and green buildings, are resource efficient structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reduce solid waste and pollutants, and limit the depletion of natural resources while also providing a thermally and visually comfortable working environment that increases productivity for building occupants. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish this mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate high performance sustainable design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. Additionally, INL is a large consumer of energy that contributes to both carbon emissions and resource inefficiency. In the current climate of rising energy prices and political pressure for carbon reduction, this guide will help new construction project teams to design facilities that are sustainable and reduce energy costs, thereby reducing carbon emissions. With these concerns in mind, the recommendations described in the INL High Performance Building Strategy (previously called the INL Green Building Strategy) are intended to form the INL foundation for high performance building standards. This revised strategy incorporates the latest federal and DOE orders (Executive Order [EO] 13514, “Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance” [2009], EO 13423, “Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management” [2007], and DOE Order 430.2B, “Departmental Energy, Renewable Energy, and Transportation Management” [2008]), the latest guidelines, trends, and observations in high performance building construction, and the latest changes to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) Green Building Rating System (LEED 2009). The document employs a two-level approach for high performance building at INL. The first level identifies the requirements of the Guiding Principles for Sustainable New Construction and Major Renovations, and the second level recommends which credits should be met when LEED Gold certification is required.

  2. Reflection and Exclusion of Shear Zones in Inhomogeneous Granular Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamas Borzsonyi; Tamas Unger; Balazs Szabo; Sandra Wegner; Frank Angenstein; Ralf Stannarius

    2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Shear localization in granular materials is studied experimentally and numerically. The system consists of two material layers with different effective frictions. The presence of the material interface leads to a special type of "total internal reflection" of the shear zone. In a wide range of configurations the reflection is characterized by a fixed angle which is analogous to the critical angle of refraction in optics. The zone leaves and reenters the high friction region at this critical angle and in between it stays near the interface in the low friction region. The formalism describing the geometry of the shear zones and that of refracted and reflected light beams is very similar. For the internal visualization of shear localization two independent experimental techniques were used (i) excavation and (ii) Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

  3. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  4. Corrosion-resistant multilayer structures with improved reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soufli, Regina; Fernandez-Perea, Monica; Robinson, Jeff C.

    2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In one general embodiment, a thin film structure includes a substrate; a first corrosion barrier layer above the substrate; a reflective layer above the first corrosion barrier layer, wherein the reflective layer comprises at least one repeating set of sub-layers, wherein one of the sub-layers of each set of sub-layers being of a corrodible material; and a second corrosion barrier layer above the reflective layer. In another general embodiment, a system includes an optical element having a thin film structure as recited above; and an image capture or spectrometer device. In a further general embodiment, a laser according to one embodiment includes a light source and the thin film structure as recited above.

  5. Simulation of the Reflected Blast Wave froma C-4 Charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, W M; Kuhl, A L; Tringe, J W

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reflection of a blast wave from a C4 charge detonated above a planar surface is simulated with our ALE3D code. We used a finely-resolved, fixed Eulerian 2-D mesh (167 {micro}m per cell) to capture the detonation of the charge, the blast wave propagation in nitrogen, and its reflection from the surface. The thermodynamic properties of the detonation products and nitrogen were specified by the Cheetah code. A programmed-burn model was used to detonate the charge at a rate based on measured detonation velocities. Computed pressure histories are compared with pressures measured by Kistler 603B piezoelectric gauges at 8 ranges (GR = 0, 2, 4, 8, 10, and 12 inches) along the reflecting surface. Computed and measured waveforms and positive-phase impulses were similar, except at close-in ranges (GR < 2 inches), which were dominated by jetting effects.

  6. Relativistic Effects on Reflection X-ray Spectra of AGN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Khee-Gan; /University Coll. London; Fuerst, Steven V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Brandwardi-Raymond, Graziella; Wu, Kinwah; Crowley, Oliver; /University Coll. London

    2007-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We have calculated the reflection component of the X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and shown that they can be significantly modified by the relativistic motion of the accretion flow and various gravitational effects of the central black hole. The absorption edges in the reflection spectra suffer severe energy shifts and smearing. The degree of distortion depends on the system parameters, and the dependence is stronger for some parameters such as the inner radius of the accretion disk and the disk viewing inclination angles. The relativistic effects are significant and are observable. Improper treatment of the reflection component of the X-ray continuum in spectral fittings will give rise to spurious line-like features, which will mimic the fluorescent emission lines and mask the relativistic signatures of the lines.

  7. Simultaneous imaging/reflectivity measurements to assess diagnostic mirror cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, C. H.; Gentile, C. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Doerner, R. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Practical methods to clean ITER's diagnostic mirrors and restore reflectivity will be critical to ITER's plasma operations. We describe a technique to assess the efficacy of mirror cleaning techniques and detect any damage to the mirror surface. The method combines microscopic imaging and reflectivity measurements in the red, green, and blue spectral regions and at selected wavelengths. The method has been applied to laser cleaning of single crystal molybdenum mirrors coated with either carbon or beryllium films 150-420 nm thick. It is suitable for hazardous materials such as beryllium as the mirrors remain sealed in a vacuum chamber.

  8. Millisecond time resolution neutron reflection from a nematic liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalgliesh, R.M.; Lau, Y.G.J.; Richardson, R.M.; Riley, D.J. [ISIS Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantocks Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The director reorientation of the liquid crystal 4,4' octyl cyanobiphenyl in the nematic phase under application of bursts of ac field have been observed using time-resolved neutron scattering in reflection geometry. The relaxation of the director has been shown to agree with existing theory, as determined by material and cell parameters. This result shows that it is possible to use neutron reflection measurements from buried interfaces to follow kinetic processes on a time scale comparable with the pulse length of the ISIS neutron source (20 ms)

  9. Effect of window reflections on photonic Doppler velocimetry measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ao, T.; Dolan, D. H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) has rapidly become a standard diagnostic for measuring velocities in dynamic compression research. While free surface velocity measurements are fairly straightforward, complications occur when PDV is used to measure a dynamically loaded sample through a window. Fresnel reflections can severely affect the velocity and time resolution of PDV measurements, especially for low-velocity transients. Shock experiments of quartz compressed between two sapphire plates demonstrate how optical window reflections cause ringing in the extracted PDV velocity profile. Velocity ringing is significantly reduced by using either a wedge window or an antireflective coating.

  10. Freie Universitt Berlin Transient reflectivity and coherent phonon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, Martin

    Freie Universität Berlin Transient reflectivity and coherent phonon excitation: An ultrafast probe-Hubbard? . . . . . . 35 1.3.3 The photoinduced phase transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 I #12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 2.1.1 Generation of ultrashort laser pulses: the mode-locked Ti:Sapphire oscillator

  11. Visible and near infrared reflectances measured from laboratory ice clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    ,aswellasuncertaintiesin data, validation by means of the independent in situ airborne and ground-based measurements that are co. Liou Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles the measured ice particle morphology. We demonstrate that laboratory scat- tering and reflectance data for thin

  12. Propagation and reflection of internal waves B. R. Sutherlanda)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutherland, Bruce

    Propagation and reflection of internal waves B. R. Sutherlanda) Department of Mathematical Sciences 01205-2 I. INTRODUCTION An internal wave is a disturbance propagating under the effects of buoyancy gravity waves incident upon a level where the Doppler-shifted frequency of the waves is comparable

  13. Vitrinite reflectance anisotropy as a tectonic fabric element

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington); Davis, A.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The anisotropy of the coal maceral vitrinite was analyzed in relation to the tectonic setting of a coal from the Southern Anthracite Field in Pennsylvania. For the coal studied, the maximum-intermediate reflectance plane essentially paralleled the axial plane of the synclinorium (N66/sup 0/E strike, 64/sup 0/SE dip).

  14. Toward Infusing Modular and Reflective Design Learning throughout the Curriculum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgas, John

    Toward Infusing Modular and Reflective Design Learning throughout the Curriculum John C. Georgas intervention that cen- ters on the widespread infusion of design learning throughout the curriculum using: An emphasis on broadly infusing design learning through the curriculum using modular design challenges

  15. architecture reflects pluripotency: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    architecture reflects pluripotency First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 A Preliminary...

  16. Recent supermarket prices may reflect strong consumer demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    's population should help to sustain relatively high prices that are needed to pay for the labor- and management) efficient horticultural practices; 5) effective management of weeds, pests and diseases; 6) timely crop management plan" should be derived to reflect the specific philosophy (eg., organic vs. conven

  17. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. for residential buildings. To meet IECC's U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) requirements insulatingLBNL-5022E Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding Authors: R. Hart*, C. Curcija of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would

  18. Green functions and Macdonald functions associated to complex reflection groups

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    Green functions and Macdonald functions associated to complex reflection groups Toshiaki Shoji Department of Mathematics Science University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278­8510, Japan 1. Introduction 1.1. Green functions are introduced by J.A. Green [G] in 1955, in connection with the representation theory of general

  19. GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS, II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS, II TOSHIAKI SHOJI Department of Mathematics Science University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278­8510, Japan Abstract. Green functions associated­Littlewood functions associated to W are introduced, and Green functions are described as the transition matrix between

  20. ON GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    ON GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS TOSHIAKI SHOJI Department of Mathematics Science University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278­8510, Japan §1. What are the Green functions Green functions are introduced by J.A. Green[G] in 1955, in connection with the representation theory of general linear groups GL

  1. ON GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    ON GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan x1. What are the Green functions Green functions are introduced by J.A. Green[G] in 1955, in connection with * *the

  2. Stochastic Systems Group MR Bias Correction and Reflectance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willsky, Alan S.

    . Fisher, M. Cetin, S. Haker, A. Willsky #12;Stochastic Systems Group Outline 1. Introduction 2. MR) · Both maps will have edges #12;Stochastic Systems Group Outline 1. Introduction 2. MR measurement modelStochastic Systems Group MR Bias Correction and Reflectance and Illumination Separation Ayres Fan

  3. Fiber optic hydrophone sensor arrays using low reflectance internal mirrors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong-Seo

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new design of fiber optic hydrophone sensor arrays phics. using low reflectance internal mirrors in optical fibers is investigated. The mirrors are produced by fusion arc splicing of two fibers, one of which has a thin film of TiO2 on the end. A...

  4. AOP and Reflection for Dynamic Hyperslices R. Chitchyan, I. Sommerville

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommerville, Ian

    ­ for decomposition and reflection as a means for composition of software modules. This model allows for structured Hyperslices model [8, 9] is intended to support the dynamic evolution of non-stop systems, i.e. systems. The model uses the Hyperspaces approach [10-12] to decompose the software system into "single

  5. Reflections on Fusion's History and Implications for Fusion's Future*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reflections on Fusion's History and Implications for Fusion's Future* Robert Conn Fusion Energy, "Opportunities and Directions in Fusion Energy Science for the Next Decade", held July 11-23, 1999 in Snowmass, Colorado. #12;2 Abstract History shows that all the major opportunities to advance fusion research were

  6. Skin cancer detection by oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Elizabeth Brooks

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer and it is on the rise. If skin cancer is diagnosed early enough, the survival rate is close to 90%. Oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance (OIR) spectroscopy offers a technology that may be used...

  7. Some reflections on mathematics and its relation to computer science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Some reflections on mathematics and its relation to computer science Liesbeth De Mol "No paradigm, it is worthless Knuth used this story to explain how he considered mathematics and computer science to be distinct, for developing my thoughts on experimental mathematics and computer science. Of equal importance is the fact

  8. Light Source Interpolation for Sparsely Sampled Reflectance Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Light Source Interpolation for Sparsely Sampled Reflectance Fields Billy Chen, Hendrik P. A. Lensch present a technique that approximates the correct result of relighting from intermediate light source resolution in the light source positions is rather lim- ited. As a consequence, smoothly moving high- lights

  9. REFLECTIONS: PERSONAL ESSAYS ON EVOLUTION Use the Word Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, John N.

    REFLECTIONS: PERSONAL ESSAYS ON EVOLUTION Use the Word Evolution John N. Thompson Published online: 20 November 2007 # Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2007 Examples of rapid evolution abound that evolution is a glacially slow process that is almost impossible for humans to observe. This disconnection

  10. Some Reflections on the Periodization of Tibetan History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuevas, Bryan

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some Reflections on the Periodization of Tibetan History* Bryan J. Cuevas(Florida State University, USA) istory is always expressed as a narrative, a story about the past. Towrite a story out of the events of the past, historians must give...

  11. Accessibility of Computer Science: A Reflection for Faculty Members

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Leary, Dianne P.

    Accessibility of Computer Science: A Reflection for Faculty Members Dianne P. O'Leary \\Lambda June. This document benefitted from helpful advice and references from Nora Sleumer and Timothy O'Leary. Copyright Dianne P. O'Leary, 1999 Version 1: June 1999 1 Picture Yourself: You are male, almost 20 years old, naive

  12. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L. [ed.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  13. Math Library Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Math Library Performance Math Library Performance Fully optimizing a given application's performance often requires a deep understanding of the source, an accurate profile for a...

  14. Relationships Between Residual Feed Intake and Performance of Heifers of Diverse Breedtypes and Brahman Cows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loyd, Andrea N.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    et al., 1990) and can be manipulated to influence reproductive performance. Residual feed intake reflects differences in how cattle use nutrients for life processes such as maintenance, growth, gestation and lactation (Kennedy et al., 1993). As a...

  15. Weather-Corrected Performance Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dierauf, T.; Growitz, A.; Kurtz, S.; Cruz, J. L. B.; Riley, E.; Hansen, C.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic (PV) system performance depends on both the quality of the system and the weather. One simple way to communicate the system performance is to use the performance ratio (PR): the ratio of the electricity generated to the electricity that would have been generated if the plant consistently converted sunlight to electricity at the level expected from the DC nameplate rating. The annual system yield for flat-plate PV systems is estimated by the product of the annual insolation in the plane of the array, the nameplate rating of the system, and the PR, which provides an attractive way to estimate expected annual system yield. Unfortunately, the PR is, again, a function of both the PV system efficiency and the weather. If the PR is measured during the winter or during the summer, substantially different values may be obtained, making this metric insufficient to use as the basis for a performance guarantee when precise confidence intervals are required. This technical report defines a way to modify the PR calculation to neutralize biases that may be introduced by variations in the weather, while still reporting a PR that reflects the annual PR at that site given the project design and the project weather file. This resulting weather-corrected PR gives more consistent results throughout the year, enabling its use as a metric for performance guarantees while still retaining the familiarity this metric brings to the industry and the value of its use in predicting actual annual system yield. A testing protocol is also presented to illustrate the use of this new metric with the intent of providing a reference starting point for contractual content.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of the lifecycle costs and market barriers of reflective pavements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ting, M.; Koomey, J.G.; Pomerantz, M.

    2001-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the life cycle costs and market barriers associated with using reflective paving materials in streets and parking lots as a way to reduce the urban heat island effect. We calculated and compared the life cycle costs of conventional asphalt concrete (AC) pavements to those of other existing pavement technologies with higher reflectivity-portland cement concrete (PCC), porous pavements, resin pavements, AC pavements using light-colored chip seals, and AC pavements using light-colored asphalt emulsion additives. We found that for streets and parking lots, PCC can provide a cost-effective alternative to conventional AC when severely damaged pavements must be completely reconstructed. We also found that rehabilitating damaged AC streets and intersections with thin overlays of PCC (ultra-thin white topping) can often provide a cost-effective alternative to standard rehabilitation techniques using conventional AC. Chip sealing is a common maintenance treatment for low-volume streets which, when applied using light-colored chips, could provide a reflective pavement surface. If the incremental cost of using light-colored chips is low, this chip sealing method could also be cost-effective, but the incremental costs of light-colored chips are as of yet uncertain and expected to vary. Porous pavements were found to have higher life cycle costs than conventional AC in parking lots, but several cost-saving features of porous pavements fell outside the boundaries of this study. Resin pavements were found to be only slightly more expensive than conventional AC, but the uncertainties in the cost and performance data were large. The use of light-colored additives in asphalt emulsion seal coats for parking lot pavements was found to be significantly more expensive than conventional AC, reflecting its current niche market of decorative applications. We also proposed two additional approaches to increasing the reflectivity of conventional AC, which we call the chipping and aggregate methods, and calculated their potential life cycle costs. By analyzing the potential for increased pavement durability resulting from these conceptual approaches, we then estimated the incremental costs that would allow them to be cost-effective compared to conventional AC. For our example case of Los Angeles, we found that those allowable incremental costs range from less than dollar 1 to more than dollar 11 per square yard (dollar 1 to dollar 13 per square meter) depending on street type and the condition of the original pavement. Finally, we evaluated the main actors in the pavement market and the existing and potential market barriers associated with reflective pavements. Apart from situations where lifecycle costs are high compared to conventional AC, all reflective paving technologies face a cultural barrier based on the belief that black is better. For PCC, high first costs were found to be the most significant economic barrier, particularly where agencies are cons trained by first cost. Lack of developer standards was found to be a significant institutional barrier to PCC since developers are often not held accountable for the long-term maintenance of roads after initial construction, which creates a misplaced incentive to build low first-cost pavements. PCC also faces site-specific barriers such as poorly compacted base soils and proximity to areas of frequent utility cutting.

  17. Measuring large optical reflection matrices of turbid media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Hyeonseung; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the measurement of a large optical reflection matrix (RM) of a highly disordered medium. Incident optical fields onto a turbid sample are controlled by a spatial light modulator, and the corresponding fields reflected from the sample are measured using full-field Michelson interferometry. The number of modes in the measured RM is set to exceed the number of resolvable modes in the scattering media. We successfully study the subtle intrinsic correlations in the RM which agrees with the theoretical prediction by random-matrix theory when the effect of the limited numerical aperture on the eigenvalue distribution of the RM is taken into account. The possibility of the enhanced delivery of incident energy into scattering media is also examined from the eigenvalue distribution which promises efficient light therapeutic applications.

  18. Quantum Brownian motion near a point-like reflecting boundary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. De Lorenci; E. S. Moreira Jr.; M. M. Silva

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Brownian motion of a test particle interacting with a quantum scalar field in the presence of a perfectly reflecting boundary is studied in (1 + 1)-dimensional flat spacetime. Particularly, the expressions for dispersions in velocity and position of the particle are explicitly derived and their behaviors examined. The results are similar to those corresponding to an electric charge interacting with a quantum electromagnetic field near a reflecting plane boundary, mainly regarding the divergent behavior of the dispersions at the origin (where the boundary is placed), and at the time interval corresponding to a round trip of a light pulse between the particle and the boundary. We close by addressing some effects of allowing the position of the particle to fluctuate.

  19. Management and Performance PERFORMANCE REPORTING AND PLANNING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waliser, Duane E.

    2015 Performance Plan, starting with the currently reported year of FY 2013 and spanning backward from FY 2008 to FY 2012, go to http://www.nasa.gov/about/budget/PAR_Reports.html. The combined report 2014 and/or FY 2015. The performance goal summary is followed by: · The annual performance indicators

  20. A fractal set from the binary reflected Gray code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. A. Oteo; J. Ros

    2005-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The permutation associated with the decimal expression of the binary reflected Gray code with $N$ bits is considered. Its cycle structure is studied. Considered as a set of points, its self-similarity is pointed out. As a fractal, it is shown to be the attractor of a IFS. For large values of $N$ the set is examined from the point of view of time series analysis

  1. Multiple-channel, total-reflection optic with controllable divergence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, David M. (Voorheesville, NY); Downing, Robert G. (Albany, NY)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for providing focused x-ray, gamma-ray, charged particle and neutral particle, including neutron, radiation beams with a controllable amount of divergence are disclosed. The apparatus features a novel use of a radiation blocking structure, which, when combined with multiple-channel total reflection optics, increases the versatility of the optics by providing user-controlled output-beam divergence.

  2. Multiple-channel, total-reflection optic with controllable divergence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, D.M.; Downing, R.G.

    1997-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for providing focused x-ray, gamma-ray, charged particle and neutral particle, including neutron, radiation beams with a controllable amount of divergence are disclosed. The apparatus features a novel use of a radiation blocking structure, which, when combined with multiple-channel total reflection optics, increases the versatility of the optics by providing user-controlled output-beam divergence. 11 figs.

  3. A statistical study of bright spot reflection parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godwin, David Lee

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cal Study of Bright Spot Reflection Parameters. (December 1981) David Lee Godwin, B. S. , Pepperdine University Chairman of Adv1sory Committee: Dr. T. W. Spencer A data set consisting of two seismic lines served as the basis of study... obtained from each of the seismic lines were compared to deter- mine if the presence of commercial quantities of gas could be identified. The measurement process revealed that the interval travel time measurements between the marker horizons...

  4. Reflection beamshifts of visible light due to graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hermosa, N

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I present theoretical calculations of reflection beamshifts, Goos-H\\"anchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts, due to the presence of a monolayer graphene on a dielectric media when using a beam with wavelength in the visible range. Specifically, I look at beamshifts for different polarization states (p, s, $45^0$, $\\sigma^+$). The Goos-H\\"anchen shifts I calculated are in good agreement with results of a recent experiment. I will discuss other possible experimental routes to determine beamshifts in graphene.

  5. Benchmarking of Graphite Reflected Critical Assemblies of UO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of experiments were carried out in 1963 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) for use in space reactor research programs. A core containing 93.2% enriched UO2 fuel rods was used in these experiments. The first part of the experimental series consisted of 253 tightly-packed fuel rods (1.27 cm triangular pitch) with graphite reflectors [1], the second part used 253 graphite-reflected fuel rods organized in a 1.506 cm triangular pitch [2], and the final part of the experimental series consisted of 253 beryllium-reflected fuel rods with a 1.506 cm triangular pitch. [3] Fission rate distribution and cadmium ratio measurements were taken for all three parts of the experimental series. Reactivity coefficient measurements were taken for various materials placed in the beryllium reflected core. The first part of this experimental series has been evaluated for inclusion in the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) [4] and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbooks, [5] and is discussed below. These experiments are of interest as benchmarks because they support the validation of compact reactor designs with similar characteristics to the design parameters for a space nuclear fission surface power systems. [6

  6. An asymptotic model of seismic reflection from a permeable layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silin, D.; Goloshubin, G.

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of compression wave propagation in a poroelastic medium predicts a peak of reflection from a high-permeability layer in the low-frequency end of the spectrum. An explicit formula expresses the resonant frequency through the elastic moduli of the solid skeleton, the permeability of the reservoir rock, the fluid viscosity and compressibility, and the reservoir thickness. This result is obtained through a low-frequency asymptotic analysis of Biot's model of poroelasticity. A review of the derivation of the main equations from the Hooke's law, momentum and mass balance equations, and Darcy's law suggests an alternative new physical interpretation of some coefficients of the classical poroelasticity. The velocity of wave propagation, the attenuation factor, and the wave number, are expressed in the form of power series with respect to a small dimensionless parameter. The absolute value of this parameter is equal to the product of the kinematic reservoir fluid mobility and the wave frequency. Retaining only the leading terms of the series leads to explicit and relatively simple expressions for the reflection and transmission coefficients for a planar wave crossing an interface between two permeable media, as well as wave reflection from a thin highly-permeable layer (a lens). Practical applications of the obtained asymptotic formulae are seismic modeling, inversion, and at-tribute analysis.

  7. Partially Reflected Brownian Motion: A Stochastic Approach to Transport Phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denis S. Grebenkov

    2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Transport phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and known to be important for various scientific domains. Examples can be found in physics, electrochemistry, heterogeneous catalysis, physiology, etc. To obtain new information about diffusive or Laplacian transport towards a semi-permeable or resistive interface, one can study the random trajectories of diffusing particles modeled, in a first approximation, by the partially reflected Brownian motion. This stochastic process turns out to be a convenient mathematical foundation for discrete, semi-continuous and continuous theoretical descriptions of diffusive transport. This paper presents an overview of these topics with a special emphasis on the close relation between stochastic processes with partial reflections and Laplacian transport phenomena. We give selected examples of these phenomena followed by a brief introduction to the partially reflected Brownian motion and related probabilistic topics (e.g., local time process and spread harmonic measure). A particular attention is paid to the use of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator. Some practical consequences and further perspectives are discussed.

  8. Polyethylene-Reflected Arrays of HEU(93.2) Metal Units Separated by Vermiculite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackenzie Gorham; J. Blair Briggs; John D. Bess; Virginia Dean; Davis Reed

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This benchmark details the results of an experiment performed in the early 1970s as part of a series testing critical configurations in three dimensional arrays. For this experiment, cylinders of 93.2% enriched uranium metal were arranged in a 2x2x2 array inside of a polyethylene reflector. Layers of vermiculite of varying heights were surrounding each cylinder to achieve criticality variations. A total of four experimental configurations were tested by D.W. Magnuson, and detailed in his experimental report “Critical Three-Dimensional Arrays of Neutron Interacting Units: Part IV. Arrays of U(93.2) Metal Reflected by Concrete and Arrays Separated by Vermiculite and Reflected by Polyethylene.” The benchmark HEU-MET-FAST054 is closely related; the results of both experiments are discussed in the same report (Ref. 1) Closely related work has been recorded in HEU-MET-FAST-053, which is a benchmark evaluation of a different series of three dimensional array experiments with four different moderator materials. HEU-MET-FAST-023 and HEU-MET-FAST-026 are also related because they utilize the same metal cylinders as these experiments.

  9. Integrated Planning and Performance Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systems Performance Monitoring and Analysis Monitor, measure, and evaluate performance * Performance Indicators * Assessment * Performance Analysis Communication, Feedback, and...

  10. Distributed performance counters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Kristan D; Evans, Kahn C; Gara, Alan; Satterfield, David L

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A plurality of first performance counter modules is coupled to a plurality of processing cores. The plurality of first performance counter modules is operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of processing cores respectively. A plurality of second performance counter modules are coupled to a plurality of L2 cache units, and the plurality of second performance counter modules are operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of L2 cache units respectively. A central performance counter module may be operable to coordinate counter data from the plurality of first performance counter modules and the plurality of second performance modules, the a central performance counter module, the plurality of first performance counter modules, and the plurality of second performance counter modules connected by a daisy chain connection.

  11. Improving experimental phases for strong reflections prior to density modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin [University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Lübeck (Germany); University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Lübeck (Germany); Hilgenfeld, Rolf, E-mail: hilgenfeld@biochem.uni-luebeck.de [University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Lübeck (Germany); Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zu Chong Zhi Road, Shanghai 201203, People’s Republic of (China); Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Read, Randy J. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY (United Kingdom); University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Lübeck (Germany)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A genetic algorithm has been developed to optimize the phases of the strongest reflections in SIR/SAD data. This is shown to facilitate density modification and model building in several test cases. Experimental phasing of diffraction data from macromolecular crystals involves deriving phase probability distributions. These distributions are often bimodal, making their weighted average, the centroid phase, improbable, so that electron-density maps computed using centroid phases are often non-interpretable. Density modification brings in information about the characteristics of electron density in protein crystals. In successful cases, this allows a choice between the modes in the phase probability distributions, and the maps can cross the borderline between non-interpretable and interpretable. Based on the suggestions by Vekhter [Vekhter (2005 ?), Acta Cryst. D61, 899–902], the impact of identifying optimized phases for a small number of strong reflections prior to the density-modification process was investigated while using the centroid phase as a starting point for the remaining reflections. A genetic algorithm was developed that optimizes the quality of such phases using the skewness of the density map as a target function. Phases optimized in this way are then used in density modification. In most of the tests, the resulting maps were of higher quality than maps generated from the original centroid phases. In one of the test cases, the new method sufficiently improved a marginal set of experimental SAD phases to enable successful map interpretation. A computer program, SISA, has been developed to apply this method for phase improvement in macromolecular crystallography.

  12. A Survey of Near Infrared Emission in Visual Reflection Nebulae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Sellgren; M. W. Werner; L. J. Allamandola

    1995-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a survey for extended 2.2 $\\mu$m emission in 20 new visual reflection nebulae, illuminated by stars with temperatures of 3,600 --- 33,000 K. We detect extended 2.2 $\\mu$m emission in 13 new nebulae, illuminated by stars with temperatures of 6,800 -- 33,000 K. For most of these 13 nebulae we have measured $J-K$, $H-K$, and $K-L'$, as well as obtaining surface brightness measurements at the wavelength of the 3.3 $\\mu$m emission feature. All of the reflection nebulae with extended near infrared emission in excess over scattered starlight have very similar near infrared colors and show the 3.3 $\\mu$m feature in emission with similar feature-to-continuum ratios. The 3.3 $\\mu$m feature-to-continuum ratio ranges from $\\sim$3 to $\\sim$9, both within individual nebulae and from nebula to nebula, which suggests that the 3.3 $\\mu$m feature and its underlying continuum arise from different materials, or from different ranges of sizes within a size distribution of particles. No dependence on the temperature of the illuminating star is seen in the near infrared colors or 3.3 $\\mu$m feature-to-continuum ratio, over a factor of two in stellar temperature. This is similar to our previous IRAS results, in which we found no dependence of the ratio of 12 $\\mu$m to 100 $\\mu$m surface brightnesses in reflection nebulae illuminated by stars with temperatures of 5,000--33,000 K.

  13. Graphene fish-scale array as controllable reflecting photonic structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitriev, Victor; Prosvirnin, Sergey L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report resonant features of novel controllable reflectarray which consists of meander-like graphene strips placed on a metal-backed dielectric substrate. The structure manifests two kinds of resonances appeared as sharp deeps of reflectivity. The first one exists because the strips of periodic cells of the structure have resonant sizes for induced surface plasmon-polaritons. The second kind of resonances is defined by excitation of TM eigenwaves of the whole structure as a plane photonic crystal. The latter resonances do not depend on whether the strips of the unit cells have resonant sizes or not.

  14. The reflection of very cold neutrons from diamond powder nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Nesvizhevsky; E. V. Lychagin; A. Yu. Muzychka; A. V. Strelkov; G. Pignol; K. V. Protasov

    2008-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We study possibility of efficient reflection of very cold neutrons (VCN) from powders of nanoparticles. In particular, we measured the scattering of VCN at a powder of diamond nanoparticles as a function of powder sample thickness, neutron velocity and scattering angle. We observed extremely intense scattering of VCN even off thin powder samples. This agrees qualitatively with the model of independent nanoparticles at rest. We show that this intense scattering would allow us to use nanoparticle powders very efficiently as the very first reflectors for neutrons with energies within a complete VCN range up to $10^{-4}$ eV.

  15. Accurate hydrogen depth profiling by reflection elastic recoil detection analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verda, R. D. (Raymond D.); Tesmer, Joseph R.; Nastasi, Michael Anthony,; Bower, R. W. (Robert W.)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique to convert reflection elastic recoil detection analysis spectra to depth profiles, the channel-depth conversion, was introduced by Verda, et al [1]. But the channel-depth conversion does not correct for energy spread, the unwanted broadening in the energy of the spectra, which can lead to errors in depth profiling. A work in progress introduces a technique that corrects for energy spread in elastic recoil detection analysis spectra, the energy spread correction [2]. Together, the energy spread correction and the channel-depth conversion comprise an accurate and convenient hydrogen depth profiling method.

  16. Fresnel reflection from a cavity with net roundtrip gain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mansuripur, Tobias S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A planewave incident on an active etalon with net roundtrip gain may be expected to diverge in field amplitude, yet Maxwell's equations admit only a convergent solution. By examining a Gaussian beam obliquely incident on such a cavity, we find that the "side-tail" of the beam leaks into the cavity and gives rise to a field that interferes with the main portion of the beam, which is ultimately responsible for the convergence of the field. This mechanism offers perspective for many phenomena, and we specifically discuss the implications for amplified total internal reflection.

  17. Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (2001) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ | Roadmap Jump to:bJumpRed Bank,Reflection Survey Activity

  18. Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (2008) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ | Roadmap Jump to:bJumpRed Bank,Reflection Survey

  19. Reflection Survey At Hot Sulphur Springs Area (Goranson, 2005) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ | Roadmap Jump to:bJumpRed Bank,Reflection| OpenEnergy

  20. Thermal performance measurements of insulated roof systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courville, G.E.; Childs, K.W.; Walukas, D.J.; Childs, P.W.; Griggs, E.I.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has established a Roof Thermal Researcch Apparatus for carrying out thermal and hygric experiments on sections of low-sloped roofs. Test panels are exposed to a controlled temperature interior space and to the prevailing East Tennessee exterior environment. They are well instrumented and all data are stored and aided in the analysis by computer systems. Current experiments include studies of the effect of wet insulation on membrane temperature, thermal storage phenomena in built-up roof insulation, and the effects of varying surface reflectance on roof thermal performance.

  1. Evolutionary History of Helicobacter pylori Sequences Reflect Past Human Migrations in Southeast Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Evolutionary History of Helicobacter pylori Sequences Reflect Past Human Migrations in Southeast analyse housekeeping gene sequences of the human stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori from various, Dieye FB, et al. (2011) Evolutionary History of Helicobacter pylori Sequences Reflect Past Human

  2. Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations This...

  3. Complex harmonic wave scattering asthe framework for investigation of bounded beam reflection and transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Complex harmonic wave scattering asthe framework for investigation of bounded beam reflection their pro- files.We will verifythesestatementswith a largenumberof illustrations. I. COMPLEX HARMONIC WAVE REFLECTION AND TRANSMISSION A. Representation of a complex harmonic wave in a viscoelastic medium

  4. Energy Saving Performance Contract Project Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performs an annual assessment of the realization rate of energy and cost savings from DOE’s energy savings performance contract (ESPC) program based on the information reported by the energy service companies that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites.

  5. Management and Performance PERFORMANCE REPORTING AND PLANNING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Administration (FAA), the Aviation Safety #12;Management and Performance PERFORMANCE REPORTING AND PLANNING M on real flight datasets of at least 10 terabytes. NASA provided the capabilities to the Federal Aviation necessary to design radically new aviation systems, and enabling efficient, high-confidence design

  6. Energy Saving Performance Contract Project Performance Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performs an annual assessment of the realization rate of energy and cost savings from DOE’s energy savings performance contract (ESPC) program based on the information reported by the energy service companies that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites.

  7. The aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE) over clouds is quantified using measured reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol polluted cloud scenes and modeled reflectance spectra of unpolluted cloud scenes. The cloud reflectance spectra are read from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    distribution of clouds and aerosols along the white CALIPSO track in Fig.1b is shown in Fig. 2. The distanceThe aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE) over clouds is quantified using measured reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol polluted cloud scenes and modeled reflectance spectra of unpolluted cloud

  8. Measured Energy Savings from the Application of Reflective Roofs in 3 AT&T Regeneration Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to save 22% after the application of a highly reflective coating (Boutwell and Salinas 1986). In addition

  9. Measurements of submillimeter polarization induced by oblique reflection from aluminum alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novak, Giles

    Measurements of submillimeter polarization induced by oblique reflection from aluminum alloy Tom of submillimeter radiation when it is obliquely reflected by a flat mirror made of aluminum alloy. For angles by oblique reflection from aluminum alloy at a wavelength of 1 cm agrees with the prediction of the ordinary

  10. Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) Calculation Worksheet SRI-WS Computer Generated Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) Calculation Worksheet SRI-WS Computer Generated Form Date: Climate Roof) Roofing products with high solar reflectance and thermal emittance are referred to as "Cool Roof hot, light-colored surfaces reflect solar energy and stay cooler. However, high emittance is also

  11. Revised 1/19/06 Reflection Seismic Data Interpretation -GEY 772/772L Spring 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Revised 1/19/06 Reflection Seismic Data Interpretation - GEY 772/772L ­ Spring 2006 Room TEC 104 Processing, Yilmaz; and Practical Seismic Interpretation, Badley; A Lab Manual of Seismic Reflection the fundamentals of geologic interpretation of 2D and 3D reflection seismic data. The class provides hands

  12. Normalized Microwave Reflection Index: A Vegetation Measurement Derived From GPS Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Small, Eric

    is known as Normalized Differ- ence Water Index (NDWI) [12]. It is calculated using reflectance in two near infrared (NIR) channels. Similar indices have been proposed that use reflectance at other NIR wavelengthsNormalized Microwave Reflection Index: A Vegetation Measurement Derived From GPS Networks Kristine

  13. The roles of working memory, language proficiency, and training in simultaneous interpretation performance: evidence from Chinese-English bilinguals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tzou, Yeh-Zu

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Simultaneous interpretation is a cognitively demanding task involving concurrent listening and speaking in two languages. Successful performance in this task likely relies on a good working memory, which reflects a person’s ability to process...

  14. An Exploratory Study of the New Performance Index of the Heat Pump System Based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, W.; Li, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump system, based on the first law of thermodynamics and reflecting the quantity relation of input and output energy, has certain limitations on the evaluation of energy-saving efficiency...

  15. An Exploratory Study of the New Performance Index of the Heat Pump System Based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, W.; Li, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump system, based on the first law of thermodynamics and reflecting the quantity relation of input and output energy, has certain limitations on the evaluation of energy-saving efficiency...

  16. A two-in-one superhydrophobic and anti-reflective nanodevice in the grey cicada $\\textit{Cicada orni}$ (Hemiptera)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dellieu, Louis; Simonis, Priscilla; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two separated levels of functionality are identified in the nanostructure which covers the wings of the grey cicada $\\textit{Cicada orni}$ (Hemiptera). The upper level is responsible for superhydrophobic character of the wing while the lower level enhances its anti-reflective behavior. Extensive wetting experiments with various chemical species and optical measurements were performed in order to assess the bi-functionality. Scanning electron microscopy imaging was used to identify the nanostructure morphology. Numerical optical simulations and analytical wetting models were used to prove the roles of both levels of the nanostructure. In addition, the complex refractive index of the chitinous material of the wing was determined from measurements.

  17. A two-in-one superhydrophobic and anti-reflective nanodevice in the grey cicada $\\textit{Cicada orni}$ (Hemiptera)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louis Dellieu; Michael Sarrazin; Priscilla Simonis; Olivier Deparis; Jean Pol Vigneron

    2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Two separated levels of functionality are identified in the nanostructure which covers the wings of the grey cicada $\\textit{Cicada orni}$ (Hemiptera). The upper level is responsible for superhydrophobic character of the wing while the lower level enhances its anti-reflective behavior. Extensive wetting experiments with various chemical species and optical measurements were performed in order to assess the bi-functionality. Scanning electron microscopy imaging was used to identify the nanostructure morphology. Numerical optical simulations and analytical wetting models were used to prove the roles of both levels of the nanostructure. In addition, the complex refractive index of the chitinous material of the wing was determined from measurements.

  18. Sustainability Performance Office | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Sustainability Performance Office Sustainability Performance Office Sustainability Performance Office Sustainability Performance Office Sustainability Performance Office...

  19. Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of silicon surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toor, Fatima; Branz, Howard

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method (300) for etching a silicon surface (116) to reduce reflectivity. The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 nanometers in size on the silicon surface (116), with a particle-to-particle spacing of 3 to 8 nanometers. The method (300) includes positioning (310) the substrate (112) with a silicon surface (116) into a vessel (122). The vessel (122) is filled (340) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface (116). The etching solution (124) includes an oxidant-etchant solution (146), e.g., an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The silicon surface (116) is etched (350) by agitating the etching solution (124) with, for example, ultrasonic agitation, and the etching may include heating (360) the etching solution (124) and directing light (365) onto the silicon surface (116). During the etching, copper nanoparticles enhance or drive the etching process.

  20. Method of fabricating reflection-mode EUV diffusers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Erik; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Techniques for fabricating well-controlled, random relief, engineered surfaces that serve as substrates for EUV optical devices are accomplished with grayscale exposure. The method of fabricating a multilevel EUV optical element includes: (a) providing a substrate; (b) depositing a layer of curable material on a surface of the substrate; (c) creating a relief profile in a layer of cured material from the layer of curable material wherein the relief profile comprises multiple levels of cured material that has a defined contour; and (d) depositing a multilayer reflection film over the relief profile wherein the film has an outer contour that substantially matches that of the relief profile. The curable material can comprise photoresist or a low dielectric constant material.

  1. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance Part I: Analysis of roofing product databases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sleiman, Mohamad

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells Arizona Ohio Single-Energy Materials & Solar Cells no change Aged solar reflectance OHIO (OHIO Initial solar reflectance Initial solar reflectance July 29, 2011 Resubmitted to Solar Energy

  2. IC performance prediction system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramakrishnan, Venkatakrishnan

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electrical test data, supplemented with in-line and in-situ data to make performance predictions. Based on the waterlevel parametric test, we will predict chip performance in order to select the appropriate package. Predictions that fall outside acceptable...

  3. Predicting Steam Turbine Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harriz, J. T.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tracking the performance of extraction, back-pressure and condensing steam turbines is a crucial part of minimising energy and maintenance costs for large process industries. A thorough understanding of key equipment performance characteristics...

  4. Superior Energy Performance Video

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Efficiency, Competitiveness, Transparency. These are the tenets of the Superior Energy Performance® (SEP™). SEP is a market-based program that helps manufacturers to improve their plants' energy performance, which in turn helps to make them more competitive.

  5. High Performance Computing in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stamatakis, Alexandros

    High Performance Computing in Bioinformatics Thomas Ludwig (t.ludwig@computer.org) Ruprecht PART I: High Performance Computing Thomas Ludwig PART II: HPC Computing in Bioinformatics Alexandros #12;© Thomas Ludwig, Alexandros Stamatakis, GCB'04 3 PART I High Performance Computing Introduction

  6. Performance Computing with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Stephen John

    High Performance Computing with Iceberg. Mike Griffiths Bob Booth November 2005 AP-Unix4 © University of Sheffield #12;Bob Booth High Performance Computing with Iceberg Contents 1. REVIEW OF AVAILABLE 23 7.1 USING FUSE TO MOUNT FILE SYSTEMS ON ICEBERG 23 2 #12;Bob Booth High Performance Computing

  7. Presented by Performance Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Presented by Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI) Philip C. Roth Future Technologies of Energy Roth_PERI_SC10 Performance engineering: enabling petascale science Maximizing performance accelerator modeling S3D turbulent combustion modeling Photo courtesy of Argonne National Laboratory Cray XT5

  8. High-performance combinatorial algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinar, Ali

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mathematics, and high performance computing. The numericalalgorithms on high performance computing platforms.algorithms on high performance computing platforms, which

  9. 5CAL PERFORMANCES CAL PERFORMANCES PRESENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    Joshua Gersen, conductor red fish blue fish American String Quartet Daniel Avshalomov Laurie Carney Williams, bass-baritone Hrabba Atladottir, violin Colin Fowler, organ & piano Sycil Mathai, trumpet Yegor Auditorium & Faculty Glade Ojai North! FESTIVAL SCHEDULE Wednesday, June 12, 6pm red fish blue fish performs

  10. A simple method for the measurement of reflective foil emissivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballico, M. J.; Ham, E. W. M. van der [National Measurement Institute, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflective metal foil is widely used to reduce radiative heat transfer within the roof space of buildings. Such foils are typically mass-produced by vapor-deposition of a thin metallic coating onto a variety of substrates, ranging from plastic-coated reinforced paper to 'bubble-wrap'. Although the emissivity of such surfaces is almost negligible in the thermal infrared, typically less than 0.03, an insufficiently thick metal coating, or organic contamination of the surface, can significantly increase this value. To ensure that the quality of the installed insulation is satisfactory, Australian building code AS/NZS 4201.5:1994 requires a practical agreed method for measurement of the emissivity, and the standard ASTM-E408 is implied. Unfortunately this standard is not a 'primary method' and requires the use of specified expensive apparatus and calibrated reference materials. At NMIA we have developed a simple primary technique, based on an apparatus to thermally modulate the sample and record the apparent modulation in infra-red radiance with commercially available radiation thermometers. The method achieves an absolute accuracy in the emissivity of approximately 0.004 (k=2). This paper theoretically analyses the equivalence between the thermal emissivity measured in this manner, the effective thermal emissivity in application, and the apparent emissivity measured in accordance with ASTM-E408.

  11. Water-Moderated and -Reflected Slabs of Uranium Oxyfluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; Clinton Gross

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of ten experiments were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiment Facility in December 1955, and January 1956, in an attempt to determine critical conditions for a slab of aqueous uranium oxyfluoride (UO2F2). These experiments were recorded in an Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Logbook and results were published in a journal of the American Nuclear Society, Nuclear Science and Engineering, by J. K. Fox, L. W. Gilley, and J. H. Marable (Reference 1). The purpose of these experiments was to obtain the minimum critical thickness of an effectively infinite slab of UO2F2 solution by extrapolation of experimental data. To do this the slab thickness was varied and critical solution and water-reflector heights were measured using two different fuel solutions. Of the ten conducted experiments eight of the experiments reached critical conditions but the results of only six of the experiments were published in Reference 1. All ten experiments were evaluated from which five critical configurations were judged as acceptable criticality safety benchmarks. The total uncertainty in the acceptable benchmarks is between 0.25 and 0.33 % ?k/keff. UO2F2 fuel is also evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-043, HEU-SOL-THERM-011, and HEU-SOL-THERM-012, but these those evaluation reports are for large reflected and unreflected spheres. Aluminum cylinders of UO2F2 are evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-050.

  12. Developing Human Performance Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Joe; Bruce Hallbert; Larry Blackwood; Donald Dudehoeffer; Kent Hansen

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the reactor oversight process (ROP), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors the performance of utilities licensed to operate nuclear power plants. The process is designed to assure public health and safety by providing reasonable assurance that licensees are meeting the cornerstones of safety and designated crosscutting elements. The reactor inspection program, together with performance indicators (PIs), and enforcement activities form the basis for the NRC’s risk-informed, performance based regulatory framework. While human performance is a key component in the safe operation of nuclear power plants and is a designated cross-cutting element of the ROP, there is currently no direct inspection or performance indicator for assessing human performance. Rather, when human performance is identified as a substantive cross cutting element in any 1 of 3 categories (resources, organizational or personnel), it is then evaluated for common themes to determine if follow-up actions are warranted. However, variability in human performance occurs from day to day, across activities that vary in complexity, and workgroups, contributing to the uncertainty in the outcomes of performance. While some variability in human performance may be random, much of the variability may be attributed to factors that are not currently assessed. There is a need to identify and assess aspects of human performance that relate to plant safety and to develop measures that can be used to successfully assure licensee performance and indicate when additional investigation may be required. This paper presents research that establishes a technical basis for developing human performance measures. In particular, we discuss: 1) how historical data already gives some indication of connection between human performance and overall plant performance, 2) how industry led efforts to measure and model human performance and organizational factors could serve as a data source and basis for a framework, 3) how our use of modeling and simulation techniques could be used to develop and validate measures of human performance, and 4) what the possible outcomes are from this research as the modeling and simulation efforts generate results.

  13. Using Van Manen's model to assess levels of reflectivity among preservice physical education teachers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ballard, Kristy Kay

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    as we improvise, revise, and create new ways of deriving meaning from experience ? thinking to learn.? (p. 844). Rodgers states that reflection includes four criteria: a meaning-making process that makes continuity of learning possible; a systematic... and society; and reflective teaching is committed to reflection as a communal activity. According to Van Manen (1977), teachers must be able to apply a variety of techniques to the curriculum and to the teaching-learning process so that a predetermined...

  14. Building Performance Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, A.; Harris, J.; Mbentin, B.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building Performance Evaluation Anne King and Jo Harris, MBEKTN and BSRIA Agenda ? Background to funding and programme ? The Building Performance Evaluation Programme in the UK ? Requirements ? Results ? Impact ? Discussion ? Do you/ How do... you do Building Performance Evaluation? ? What gaps are there and what could research do to fill them? Background ? The Technology Strategy Board ? the funders ? Low Impact Building programme ? BSRIA and others ? evaluators ? Soft Landings...

  15. Guidelines for Performance Measurement

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Federal agencies, states, businesses, and foreign governments are increasingly relying on performance measurement information to help chart progress in increasingly frugal times. No cancellations.

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    performance Photovoltaic (PV) Regional Test Center (RTC) Website Goes Live On February 26, 2013, in Energy, National Solar Thermal Test Facility, News, News & Events, Partnership,...

  17. Preliminary Expected Performance Characteristics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capabilities. To facilitate discussion of the scientific impact and design optimization of such a lattice, this document describes the expected performance characteristics...

  18. High Performance Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of ever-demanding workloads 13:01 Gary Grider, HPC Divison Leader The High Performance Computing (HPC) Division supports the Laboratory mission by managing world-class...

  19. UESC Performance Assurance

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Performance Assurance (M&V) Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR May 7 - 8, 2014 Virginia Beach, VA Outline * Federal Requirements - Commissioning...

  20. Clinical Reflectance Confocal Microscope for Imaging of Oral Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jabbour, Joey

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    in vivo imaging of the human oral cavity, an electrically tunable lens was integrated in the system for axial scanning and a miniature objective lens was designed and fabricated for access into the oral cavity. Performance of the system was characterized...

  1. General calculation model for reflection and transmission matrices of nanowire end facets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svendsen, Guro K; Skaar, Johannes

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanowires show a large potential for various electrooptical devices, such as light emitting diodes, solar cells and nanowire lasers. We present a direct method developed to calculate the modal reflection and transmission matrix at the end facets of a waveguide of arbitrary cross section, resulting in a generalized version of the Fresnel equations. The reflection can be conveniently computed using Fast Fourier Transforms. We demonstrate that the reflection is qualitatively described by two main parameters, the modal field confinement and the average Fresnel reflection of the plane waves constituting the waveguide mode.

  2. Nanosecond dynamics of a gallium mirror's light-induced reflectivity change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Albanis; S. Dhanjal; V. I. Emelyanov; V. A. Fedotov; K. F. MacDonald; P. Petropoulos; D. J. Richardson; N. I. Zheludev

    2000-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Transient pump-probe optical reflectivity measurements of the nano/microsecond dynamics of a fully reversible, light-induced, surface-assisted metallization of gallium interfaced with silica are reported. The metallization leads to a considerable increase in the interface's reflectivity when solid a-gallium is on the verge of melting. The reflectivity change was found to be a cumulative effect that grows with light intensity and pulse duration. The reflectivity relaxes back to that of alpha-gallium when the excitation is withdrawn in a time that increases critically at gallium's melting point. The effect is attributed to a non-thermal light-induced structural phase transition.

  3. Time dependent changes in extreme ultraviolet reflectivity of Ru mirrors from electron-induced surface chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering Purdue University, West Lafayette verified by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Moreover, the impact on EUV reflectivity (EUVR) with time

  4. Home, Home (Video) on the Range: Reflections on Small-Town Video Stores in 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herbert, Daniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    theory, and practices of video culture in the United States.Home, Home (Video) on the RangeReflections on Small-Town Video Stores in 2010 Daniel

  5. DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF PERFORMANCE DEVELOPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perl, Jürgen

    for scheduling optimal training planes. (a) offline analysis (b) online prediction load profile original) online prediction load profile original performance profile simulated performance profile predicted performance profile Figure 1: Offline load-performance-analysis (a) compared to online performance

  6. Measurement of the specific surface area of snow using infrared reflectance in an integrating sphere at 1310 and 1550 nm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallet, J.-C.; Domine, F.; Zender, C. S; Picard, G.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflection of solar radiation by the Antarctic snow surface at ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared

  7. Reflection nebulae in the Galactic Center: the case for soft X-ray imaging polarimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marin, F; Soffitta, P; Karas, V; Kunneriath, D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The origin of irradiation and fluorescence of the 6.4 keV bright giant molecular clouds surrounding Sgr A*, the central supermassive black hole of our Galaxy, remains enigmatic. Testing the theory of a past active period of Sgr A* requires X-ray polarimetry. In this paper, we show how modern imaging polarimeters could revolutionize our understanding of the Galactic Center. Through Monte Carlo modeling, we produce a 4-8 keV polarization map of the Galactic Center, focusing on the polarimetric signature produced by Sgr B1, Sgr B2, G0.11-0.11, Bridge E, Bridge D, Bridge B2, MC2, MC1, Sgr C3, Sgr C2, and Sgr C1. We estimate the resulting polarization, include polarized flux dilution by the diffuse plasma emission detected toward the GC, and simulate the polarization map that modern polarimetric detectors would obtain assuming the performances of a mission prototype. The eleven reflection nebulae investigated in this paper present a variety of polarization signatures, ranging from nearly unpolarized to highly pola...

  8. 2 x 2 Polyethylene Reflected and Moderated Highly Enriched Uranium System with Rhenium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Nichole Ellis; Jesson Hutchinson; John D. Bess; Dmitry N. Polyakov; Evgeny S. Glushkov; Alexey E. Glushkov

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2 × 2 array HEU-Re experiment was performed on the Planet universal critical assembly machine on November 4th, 2003 at the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For this experiment, there were 10 ½ units, each full unit containing four HEU foils and two rhenium foils. The top unit contained only two HEU foils and two rhenium foils. A total of 42 HEU foils were used for this experiment. Rhenium is a desirable cladding material for space nuclear power applications. This experiment consisted of HEU foils interleaved with rhenium foils and is moderated and reflected by polyethylene plates. A unit consisted of a polyethylene plate, which has a recess for rhenium foils, and four HEU foils in a single layer in the top recess of each polyethylene plate. The Planet universal criticality assembly machine has been previously used in experiments containing HEU foils interspersed with SiO2 (HEU-MET-THERM-001), Al (HEU-MET-THERM-008), MgO (HEU-MET-THERM-009), Gd foils (HEU-MET-THERM-010), 2 × 2 × 26 Al (HEU-MET-THERM-012), Fe (HEU-MET-THERM-013 and HEU-MET-THERM-015), 2 × 2 × 23 SiO2 (HEU-MET-THERM-014), 2 × 2 × 11 hastalloy plates (HEU-MET-THERM-016), and concrete (HEU-MET-THERM-018). The 2 × 2 array of HEU-Re is considered acceptable for use as a benchmark critical experiment.

  9. The Genome Organization of Thermotoga maritima Reflects Its Lifestyle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latif, Haythem; Lerman, Joshua A.; Portnoy, Vasiliy A.; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Nagarajan, Harish; Rutledge, Alexandra C.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lee, Dae-Hee; Qiu, Yu; Zengler, Karsten

    2013-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies have revealed that microbial genomes have many more organizational features than previously thought. Here, an integrated approach utilizing multiple ‘omics’ datasets and bioinformatics tools is established that elucidates genomic features spanning various levels of cellular organization. This methodology produces gene annotation improvements and includes the definition of transcription units. These enhancements to the annotation enable identification of a set of genetic elements instrumental to gene expression and regulation including promoters, ribosome binding sites (RBSs) and untranslated regions (UTRs). This was applied to characterize the genome organization of Thermotoga maritima—a phylogenetically deep-branching, hyperthermophilic bacterium with a small 1.86 Mb genome. Analysis derived from this multiomics approach in combination with bioinformatics tools demonstrate that the genome organization of T. maritima reflects its lifestyle, both with respect to its extreme growth temperature and compact genome. Comparative analysis of genome features suggests that thermodynamic limitations on binding kinetics for RNA polymerase and the ribosome necessitate increased sequence conservation of promoters and RBSs. Thus, restricting the sequences capable of initiating transcription and translation. Furthermore, this organism has uncharacteristically short 5’UTRs (11-17 nucleotides), which reduce the potential for 5’UTR regulatory interactions. The short intergenic distances in the T. maritima genome (5 bp on average) leave little space for regulation through transcription factor binding. The net effect of these constraints, temperature and genomic space, is a reduced ability to tune gene expression. This effect is readily apparent in global gene expression patterns, which show a high fraction of genes expressed independent of growth state with a tight, linear mRNA/protein correlation (Pearson r = 0.62, p < 2.2 x 10-16 t-test). This methodology for characterizing the genome organization is applicable to any culturable bacteria, and as similar studies are completed in diverse taxa, comparative analysis of genome features may provide insights into microbial evolution.

  10. Employee Performance Management System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish requirements and responsibilities for employee performance appraisals, performance-related awards, and other forms of employee recognition. Cancels DOE O 331.1A and (2) existing provisions of DOE O 3450.1B. Cancelled by DOE O 331.1C.

  11. Employee Performance Management System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish requirements and responsibilities for employee performance appraisals, performance-related awards, and other forms of employee recognition. (Cancels existing provisions of DOE O 3450.1B, Incentive Awards, dated 6/23/92.) Cancels DOE O 331.1A, DOE O 3450.1B. Canceled by DOE O 331.1C

  12. Employee Performance Management System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish requirements and responsibilities for employee performance appraisals, performance-related awards, and other forms of employee recognition. This Order covers most employees at grades GS-15 and below. Cancels DOE O 331.1. Canceled by DOE O 331.1B.

  13. Residential Furnace Blower Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    conditioner performance1 , standby power, as well as igniter and combustion air blower power. Energy savings for a typical three-and-a-half ton air conditioner with typical California ducts are 45 kWh. Peak demand combinations of blowers and residential furnaces were tested for air moving performance. The laboratory test

  14. Study of neutron noise from reflected, metal assemblies with criticality safety applications in mind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, C.S.

    1985-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The author studied the statistics of detected neutrons that leaked from four subcritical reflected, enriched-uranium assemblies, to explore the feasibility of developing a criticality warning system based on neutron noise analysis. The calculated multiplication factors of the assemblies are 0.59, 0.74, 0.82, and 0.92. The author studied three possible discriminators, i.e., three signatures that might be used to discriminate among assemblies of various multiplications. They are: (1) variance-to-mean ratio of the counts in a time bin (V/M); (2) covariance-to-mean ratio of the counts in a common time bin from two different detectors (C/M); and (3) covariance-to-mean ratio of the counts from a single detector in two adjacent time bins of equal length, which the author calls the serial-covariance-to-mean ratio (SC/M). The performances of the three discriminators were not greatly different, but a hierarchy did emerge: SC/M greater than or equal to V/M greater than or equal to C/M. An example of some results: in the neighborhood of k = 0.6 the ..delta..k required for satisfactory discrimination varies from about 3% to 7% as detector solid angle varies from 19% to 5%. In the neighborhood of k = 0.8 the corresponding ..delta..ks are 1% and 2%. The noise analysis techniques studied performed well enough in deeply subcritical situations to deserve testing in an applications environment. They have a good chance of detecting changes in reactivity that are potentially dangerous. One can expect sharpest results when doing comparisons, i.e., when comparing two records, one taken in the past under circumstances known to be normal and one taken now to search for change.

  15. Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy is a Rapid, Cost-Effective Predictor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marsh, Helene

    Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy is a Rapid, Cost-Effective Predictor of Seagrass Nutrients + Business Media, Inc. 2006 Abstract Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy was used to analyze nutrient com to the laboratory, and separated into leaf and root/rhizome fractions. They were dried, ground, and near-infrared

  16. Development and evaluation of an automated reflectance microscope system for the petrographic characterization of bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoover, D. S.; Davis, A.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of automated coal petrographic techniques will lessen the demands on skilled personnel to do routine work. This project is concerned with the development and successful testing of an instrument which will meet these needs. The fundamental differences in reflectance of the three primary maceral groups should enable their differentiation in an automated-reflectance frequency histogram (reflectogram). Consequently, reflected light photometry was chosen as the method for automating coal petrographic analysis. Three generations of an automated system (called Rapid Scan Versions I, II and III) were developed and evaluated for petrographic analysis. Their basic design was that of a reflected-light microscope photometer with an automatic stage, interfaced with a minicomputer. The hardware elements used in the Rapid Scan Version I limited the system's flexibility and presented problems with signal digitization and measurement precision. Rapid Scan Version II was designed to incorporate a new microscope photometer and computer system. A digital stepping stage was incorporated into the Rapid Scan Version III system. The precision of reflectance determination of this system was found to be +- 0.02 percent reflectance. The limiting factor in quantitative interpretation of Rapid Scan reflectograms is the resolution of reflectance populations of the individual maceral groups. Statistical testing indicated that reflectograms were highly reproducible, and a new computer program, PETAN, was written to interpret the curves for vitrinite reflectance parameters ad petrographic.

  17. In-flight degradation correction of SCIAMACHY UV reflectances and Absorbing Aerosol Index

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    In-flight degradation correction of SCIAMACHY UV reflectances and Absorbing Aerosol Index L. G) derived from the observed Earth reflectance. Instrument degradation of the Scanning Imaging Absorption mean should be more or less constant when instrument degradation is absent. The analysis reveals

  18. Light is said to be reflected when the angle at which light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    1 #12;2 Light is said to be reflected when the angle at which light initially strikes a surface is equal to the angle at which light bounces off the same surface. In the diagram, light strikes a surface", this is an example of reflected light. Refraction is the bending of a wave when it enters a medium where it's speed

  19. {beta}{sub eff} measurements in reflected reactors using a Rossi-{alpha} technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doulin, V.A. [Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Spriggs, G.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report the authors calculate the effective delayed neutron fraction equation for reflected reactors using the Rossi-{alpha} technique. They determine that the equation for the delayed neutron fraction is just as valid for reflected systems as it is for unreflected systems.

  20. Doppler Effect Associated with the Reflection of Light on a Moving Mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernhard Rothenstein; Ioan Damian

    2005-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Doppler Effect associated with the reflection on a moving mirror is reduced to two Doppler Effect experiments involving the incoming incident ray and the outgoing reflected ray or vice-versa. The dependence of the corresponding Doppler factors on the incidence angle on the stationary mirror.

  1. Laboratory measurements of spectral reflection from ice clouds of various habits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    ­4 It has been shown theoretically and from in situ measurements that ice cloud visi- ble and near-infrared, as described in Section 2, can be largely controlled. Zander8,9 measured the infrared reflection proper- ties preliminary comparisons between the near-IR ice cloud reflection and expectations based on the mea- sured

  2. Wide-field near-infrared all-reflecting camera with Fabry--Perot for astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashley, Michael C. B.

    Wide-field near-infrared all-reflecting camera with Fabry--Perot for astronomy Yin-sheng Sun to small temperature differences in the optical system. Keywords: Fabry-Perot etalon, reflecting, near-infrared, imaging, astronomy 1 INTRODUCTION Our goal is to build a camera that can acquire near-infrared images

  3. Spectral variations in the near-infrared ocean reflectance Mava Doron a,b,c,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babin, Marcel

    Spectral variations in the near-infrared ocean reflectance Maéva Doron a,b,c, , Simon Bélanger d Available online 5 April 2011 Keywords: Ocean color Near-infrared Reflectance Satellite data In situ data range, in the near-infrared (NIR, 700­900 nm), have received little attention because they are often

  4. Simultaneous measurement of laser reflection and transmission of poly,,vinyl chloride...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Ven, James D.

    , unpigmented state are highly transmissive of light in the near-infrared range, al- lowing laser transmissionSimultaneous measurement of laser reflection and transmission of poly,,vinyl chloride... James D reflection, emphasizing the light transmitted through a material. This paper presents work creating a low

  5. No oceans on Titan from the absence of a near-infrared specular reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael E.

    No oceans on Titan from the absence of a near-infrared specular reflection R. A. West1 , M. E shown specular reflection are shown in Fig. 2. To understand how sensitive the near-infrared images-based observations (at near-infrared wavelengths) and calculations showing that there is no evidence thus far

  6. Microstructured anti-reflection surface design for the omni-directional solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Weidong

    Microstructured anti-reflection surface design for the omni-directional solar cells Li Chen for the formation of hemispherical structures as an omni-directional anti-reflection (omni-AR) coating in solar cell current in such hemispherical solar cells hence enhanced to 1.5 times of bulk silicon solar cells

  7. 596revision:1997-03-23modified:1997-03-23 Some independence results on reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelah, Saharon

    596revision:1997-03-23modified:1997-03-23 Some independence results on reflection James Cummings;596revision:1997-03-23modified:1997-03-23 Baumgartner proved in [1] that if is weakly compact, GCH holds sense the strong non-reflection principle captures 2 #12;596revision:1997-03-23modified:1997

  8. Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 150-350 eV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    of depleted uranium metal (less than 0.2% U-235). After sputtering, the uranium was allowed to oxidize1 Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 150-350 eV Richard L. Sandberg, David D. Allred.byu.edu ABSTRACT We present the measured reflectances (beamline 6.3.2, ALS at LBNL) of naturally oxidized uranium

  9. Measurement of reflective liquid crystal displays S. T. Tang and H. S. Kwoka)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measurement of reflective liquid crystal displays S. T. Tang and H. S. Kwoka) Department . Existing measurement methods only apply to transmittive LC cells. These methods are obviously unsuitable for measuring the cell gaps of reflective LCDs with internal reflectors. This kind of LCD includes single

  10. Reflection systems and partial root systems Ottmar Loos and Erhard Neher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Erhard

    Reflection systems and partial root systems Ottmar Loos and Erhard Neher Abstract. We develop a general theory of reflection systems and, more specifically, partial root sys- tems which provide a unifying framework for finite root systems, Kac-Moody root systems, extended affine root systems

  11. Performance expectation plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, P.E.

    1998-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.

  12. Sandia Energy - High Performance Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Performance Computing Home Energy Research Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) High Performance Computing High Performance Computingashoter2015-03-18T21:41:24+00:00...

  13. Team Identity and Performance-based Compensation Effects on Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blazovich, Janell L.

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    ). Results indicate that while the combination of team and individual performance-based compensation results in the highest performance, the incremental performance boost is higher from the first performance-based reward strategy, regardless of whether...

  14. The authors are solely responsible for the content of this technical presentation. The technical presentation does not necessarily reflect the official position of ASAE, and its printing and distribution does not constitute an endorsement of views which m

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kentucky, University of

    presentation does not necessarily reflect the official position of ASAE, and its printing and distribution does and system performance as caused by factors such as operation static pressure, fan belt condition, and dust alternative to estimating ventilation rate. The reliability of CO2 balance method depends on the validity

  15. Quantitative Total and Diffuse Reflectance Laboratory Measurements for Remote, Standoff, and Point Sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Forland, Brenda M.; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for making total and diffuse directional/hemispherical reflectance measurements in the shortwave to longwave infrared using an integrating sphere are described. The sphere is a commercial, off-the-shelf optical device with its sample port at the bottom, which is essential for examining powdered samples without using a cover glass. The reflectance spectra of recently-developed National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) infrared reflectance standards have been measured using the sphere. Reflectance spectra of other materials such as Spectralon and Infragold were also measured. The relative systematic error for the total reflectance measurements is estimated to be on the order of 3%, and random measurement error for multiple samples of each material is on the order of 0.5%.

  16. Enhanced reflection via phase compensation from anomalous dispersion in atomic vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Junxiang; Zhou Haitao [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Wang Dawei [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhu Shiyao [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Physics, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The phase compensation mechanism induced by anomalous dispersion in the reflection process of four-wave mixing (or reflection from a grating) in a three-level system is investigated, where the four wave vectors do not match in vacuum. An efficiency of the reflected signal of as high as 43% from a hot atomic cell of Cs is observed. The maximum reflection occurs when the frequency of the probe beam (and consequently the frequency of the reflected signal) is slightly red detuned from the transition frequency, which is attributed to the phase compensation from the steep anomalous dispersion accompanied with a strong probe absorption. The dependences of the efficiency on the angle between the coupling and probe lights, on the intensity of the coupling, field and on atomic density are studied. A theoretical model is presented and it is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  17. Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) is a partnership between a system owner and an Energy Services Company (ESCO). The ESCO conducts a comprehensive energy audit for the facility under...

  18. Healthcare Project Performance Benchmarks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reports five major performance metrics that can be used to benchmark proposed energy service company projects within the healthcare industry, disaggregated and reported by major retrofit strategy. Author: U.S. Department of Energy

  19. High Performance Sustainable Building

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This Guide provides approaches for implementing the High Performance Sustainable Building (HPSB) requirements of DOE Order 413.3B, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets. Cancels DOE G 413.3-6.

  20. Improving Deaerator Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, D. F.; Maples, G.

    The objectives of deaeration of feedwater are reviewed. A discussion of appropriate test data and methods for assessing deaerator performance are given. Analysis procedures are developed to analyze the test data. Typical problems such as over...

  1. Predicting Steam Turbine Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harriz, J. T.

    ," PREDICTING STEAM TURBINE PERFORMANCE James T. Harriz, EIT Waterland, Viar & Associates, Inc. Wilmington, Delaware ABSTRACT Tracking the performance of extraction, back pressure and condensing steam turbines is a crucial part... energy) and test data are presented. Techniques for deriving efficiency curves from each source are described. These techniques can be applied directly to any steam turbine reliability study effort. INTRODUCTION As the cost of energy resources...

  2. Preprint. Final version published as: Roger B. Dannenberg and Istvan Derenyi, 1998. "Combining Instrument and Performance Models for High-Quality Music Synthesis," Journal of New Music Research,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    synthesis that relies on a performance model to generate musical control signals and an instrument model realistic performances. #12;Instrument and Performance Models Dannenberg and Derenyi Page 2 Score Control signals. On the other hand, if control parameters reflect peculiarities of the synthesis model (such as

  3. Thermoelectrics Partnership: High Performance Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Performance Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery System Based on Zintl Phase Materials with Embedded Nanoparticles Thermoelectrics Partnership: High Performance Thermoelectric...

  4. The Trade-off between Solar Reflectance and Above-Sheathing Ventilation for Metal Roofs on Residential and Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL; Kriner, Scott [Metal Construction Association, Glenview, IL] [Metal Construction Association, Glenview, IL; Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alternative to white and cool-color roofs that meets prescriptive requirements for steep-slope (residential and non-residential) and low-slope (non-residential) roofing has been documented. Roofs fitted with an inclined air space above the sheathing (herein termed above-sheathing ventilation, or ASV), performed as well as if not better than high-reflectance, high-emittance roofs fastened directly to the deck. Field measurements demonstrated the benefit of roofs designed with ASV. A computer tool was benchmarked against the field data. Testing and benchmarks were conducted at roofs inclined at 18.34 ; the roof span from soffit to ridge was 18.7 ft (5.7 m). The tool was then exercised to compute the solar reflectance needed by a roof equipped with ASV to exhibit the same annual cooling load as that for a direct-to-deck cool-color roof. A painted metal roof with an air space height of 0.75 in. (0.019 m) and spanning 18.7 ft (5.7 m) up the roof incline of 18.34 needed only a 0.10 solar reflectance to exhibit the same annual cooling load as a direct-to-deck cool-color metal roof (solar reflectance of 0.25). This held for all eight ASHRAE climate zones complying with ASHRAE 90.1 (2007a). A dark heat-absorbing roof fitted with 1.5 in. (0.038 m) air space spanning 18.7 ft (5.7 m) and inclined at 18.34 was shown to have a seasonal cooling load equivalent to that of a conventional direct-to-deck cool-color metal roof. Computations for retrofit application based on ASHRAE 90.1 (1980) showed that ASV air spaces of either 0.75 or 1.5 in. (0.019 and 0.038 m) would permit black roofs to have annual cooling loads equivalent to the direct-to-deck cool roof. Results are encouraging, and a parametric study of roof slope and ASV aspect ratio is needed for developing guidelines applicable to all steep- and low-slope roof applications.

  5. Self-induced frequency scanning and distributed Bragg reflection in semiconductor lasers with phase-conjugate feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cronin-Golomb; Yariv

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A GaA1As semiconductor laser with feedback from a barium titanate photorefractive ring passive phase-conjugate mirror can be made to perform repeating or nonrepeating frequency scans over a 10-nm range toward either the blue or the red. The direction of scanning and whether the scans repeat may be controlled by adjusting the overlap of the interaction beams in the crystal. This overlap region may be adjusted so that the diode frequency spectrum, originally occupying about 10 longitudinal modes, scans and narrows as the conjugate signal builds up, coming to rest often in one, but sometimes two or three, longitudinal modes as a result of self-generated distributed-feedback effects. Also reported similar effects caused by feedback from the total-internal-reflection passive phase-conjugate mirror. The alignment-control mechanism of the ring mirror is, however, not available in this case.

  6. Self-induced frequency scanning and distributed Bragg reflection in semiconductor lasers with phase-conjugate feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cronin-Golomb, M.; Yariv, A.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A GaAlAs semiconductor laser with feedback from a barium titanate photorefractive ring passive phase-conjugate mirror can be made to perform repeating or nonrepeating frequency scans over a 10-nm range toward either the blue or the red. The direction of scanning and whether the scans repeat may be controlled by adjusting the overlap of the interaction beams in the crystal. This overlap region may be adjusted so that the diode frequency spectrum, originally occupying about 10 longitudinal modes, scans and narrows as the conjugate signal builds up, coming to rest often in one, but sometimes two or three, longitudinal modes as a result of self-generated distributed-feedback effects. We also report similar effects caused by feedback from the total-internal-reflection passive phase-conjugate mirror. The alignment-control mechanism of the ring mirror is, however, not available in this case.

  7. Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy on Operating Surface Acoustic Wave Chemical Sensors During Exposure to Gas-Phase Analytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hierlemann, A.; Hill, M.; Ricco, A.J.; Staton, A.W.; Thomas, R.C.

    1999-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed instrumentation to enable the combination of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor measurements with direct, in-situ molecular spectroscopic measurements to understand the response of the SAW sensors with respect to the interfacial chemistry of surface-confined sensing films interacting with gas-phase analytes. Specifically, the instrumentation and software was developed to perform in-situ Fourier-transform infrared external-reflectance spectroscopy (FTIR-ERS) on operating SAW devices during dosing of their chemically modified surfaces with analytes. By probing the surface with IR spectroscopy during gas exposure, it is possible to understand in unprecedented detail the interaction processes between the sorptive SAW coatings and the gaseous analyte molecules. In this report, we provide details of this measurement system, and also demonstrate the utility of these combined measurements by characterizing the SAW and FTIR-ERS responses of organic thin-film sensor coatings interacting with gas-phase analytes.

  8. CANDU human performance analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, I.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaluation of human performance is presented in this paper in the context of the operational safety management system. To focus on problems, an experience review program has been developed to establish trends, demonstrate the degree of compliance with standards, and determine the causes of poor performance. The primary method by which the experience review takes place is significant event reporting (SER). A significant event is an incident that causes an undesirable effect on safety, product quality, environmental protection, or product cost. In spite of advanced technology and the degree of automation of the Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) design, mistakes and malfunctions to occur. Considerable effort has been made to prevent or reduce the incidence of error. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations developed a system to analyze human error, called the Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES). To encourage an open exchange of information, the system is anonymous and nonpunitive. All data gathered during HPES evaluations are kept confidential.

  9. Plasma waves reflection from a boundary with specular accommodative boundary conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. V. Gritsienko; A. V. Latyshev; A. A. Yushkanov

    2010-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present work the linearized problem of plasma wave reflection from a boundary of a half--space is solved analytically. Specular accommodative conditions of plasma wave reflection from plasma boundary are taken into consideration. Wave reflectance is found as function of the given parameters of the problem, and its dependence on the normal electron momentum accommodation coefficient is shown by the authors. The case of resonance when the frequency of self-consistent electric field oscillations is close to the proper (Langmuir) plasma oscillations frequency, namely, the case of long wave limit is analyzed. Refs. 17. Figs. 6.

  10. Relativistic smearing of the reflection spectrum in Galactic Black Hole Candidates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Done; P. T. Zycki; D. A. Smith

    1997-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We identify the reflected component in the GINGA spectra of Nova Muscae, a Black Hole transient system which has been used as the prototype for the recent advection dominated disk models. We see that the reflected spectrum is generally significantly relativistically smeared, and use this and the amount of reflection to track the innermost extent of the accretion disk. We see that the optically thick disk does retreat during the decline, but more slowly than predicted by the advective models, posing problems for this description of the accretion flow.

  11. A theoretical analysis of reflection of X-rays from water at energies relevant for diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arsenovic, Dusan [Institute of Physics, Pregrevica 118, P.O. Box 57, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Davidovic, Dragomir M.; Vukanic, Jovan [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O Box 522, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2003-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The reflection of X-rays from a semi-infinite water target, for energies used in X-ray diagnostics, is treated by the analog Monte Carlo simulation. In the developed procedure it was possible to calculate separately contributions of photons scattered, before reflection, fixed number of times with target electrons. It turned out that multiple collision type of reflection dominates at all energies investigated, whenever the absorption is small. The same process was also treated analytically as the classical albedo problem for isotropic scattering without energy loss. Very good agreement of results of the two approaches is obtained.

  12. Durable silver mirror with ultra-violet thru far infra-red reflection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D. (Discovery Bay, CA)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A durable highly reflective silver mirror characterized by high reflectance in a broad spectral range of about 300 nm in the UV to the far infrared (.about.10000 nm), as well as exceptional environmental durability. A high absorptivity metal underlayer is used which prevents the formation of a galvanic cell with a silver layer while increasing the reflectance of the silver layer. Environmentally durable overcoat layers are provided to enhance mechanical and chemical durability and protect the silver layer from corrosion and tarnishing, for use in a wide variety of surroundings or climates, including harsh or extreme environments.

  13. Performance Requirements for the Double Shell Tank (DST) System Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SMITH, D.F.

    2000-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the performance requirements for the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System. These requirements reflect the Case 3, Project Planning Case from the Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan, Revision 1. These requirements, in turn, will be incorporated into a specification for the DST System.

  14. Currency Depreciation and Korean Stock Market Performance during the Asian Financial Crisis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    market volatility can reflect changes in money supply and oil prices (Engle and Rodrigues, 1989Currency Depreciation and Korean Stock Market Performance during the Asian Financial Crisis Wen the volatility of the Korean stock and foreign exchange markets during the 1997 Asian financial crisis

  15. PERFORMANCE OF DISTRIBUTED UTILITY-BASED POWER CONTROL FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuzmanovic, Aleksandar

    PERFORMANCE OF DISTRIBUTED UTILITY-BASED POWER CONTROL FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS Jianwei Huang network. The users exchange prices that reflect their loss in utility due to interference. The prices are then used to determine optimal (utility maximizing) power levels for each user. We present simulation

  16. Performance comparison of pulse-pair and wavelets methods for the pulse Doppler weather radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - eters. The radar reflectivity (Z), the radial velocity (Vr) and the spectral width of velocities (W). [1). Generally, the meteorological targets move with speeds lower than 50 m/secs. The Doppler Effect wouldPerformance comparison of pulse-pair and wavelets methods for the pulse Doppler weather radar

  17. Management and Performance NASA'S APPROACH TO PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waliser, Duane E.

    TO PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT conduct the Agency's day-to-day work. Figure 1 depicts NASA's organizational structureManagement and Performance NASA'S APPROACH TO PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT NASA's FY 2015 Management as an organization and NASA's approach to performance management, strategic planning, and performance reporting

  18. High Performance Sustainable Building

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The guide supports DOE O 413.3A and provides useful information on the incorporation of high performance sustainable building principles into building-related General Plant Projects and Institutional General Plant Projects at DOE sites. Canceled by DOE G 413.3-6A. Does not cancel other directives.

  19. High performance systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil, M.B. [comp.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  20. General Indicators: Performance Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Peter

    Bank Central Svcs. Energy Mgmt Admin Preventive Maintenance: Fire/Life/Safety (FLS) 87% -4% 100% 47 Trend Initial Target Steam Chilled Utility Outages 2 +1% 0 0 0 Preventive Maintenance: Fire participation reading will be June 2012 *Budget data FYTD through March 2012 Maintenance: Performance Statistics

  1. General Indicators: Performance Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Peter

    Bank Central Svcs. Energy Mgmt Admin Preventive Maintenance: Fire/Life/Safety (FLS) 85% -12% 100% 80 Trend Initial Target Steam Chilled Utility Outages 3 -5 0 1 0 Preventive Maintenance: Fire participation reading will be August 2012 *Budget data FYTD through May 2012 Maintenance: Performance Statistics

  2. General Indicators: Performance Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Peter

    . Energy Mgmt Admin Preventive Maintenance: Fire/Life/Safety (FLS) 97% +10% 100% 96% 93% 99% 98% Non Chilled Utility Outages 8 +6% 0 1 2 Preventive Maintenance: Fire/Life/Safety (FLS) 100% No Change 100 will be June 2012 *Budget data FYTD through April 2012 Maintenance: Performance Statistics Current Month Change

  3. High Performance Window Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Hun, Diana E [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and Traco partnered to develop high-performance windows for commercial building that are cost-effective. The main performance requirement for these windows was that they needed to have an R-value of at least 5 ft2 F h/Btu. This project seeks to quantify the potential energy savings from installing these windows in commercial buildings that are at least 20 years old. To this end, we are conducting evaluations at a two-story test facility that is representative of a commercial building from the 1980s, and are gathering measurements on the performance of its windows before and after double-pane, clear-glazed units are upgraded with R5 windows. Additionally, we will use these data to calibrate EnergyPlus models that we will allow us to extrapolate results to other climates. Findings from this project will provide empirical data on the benefits from high-performance windows, which will help promote their adoption in new and existing commercial buildings. This report describes the experimental setup, and includes some of the field and simulation results.

  4. An analysis of some properties of paving asphalts in Texas as they relate to pavement performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DuBose, Emmett Haygood

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    51 73 93 115 115 DISTRESS AND CRACKING FACTORS THE PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE SYSTEM 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS REFERENCES . APPENDIX A: RAW DATA APPENDIX B: PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE VS. TIME CURVES APPENDIX C... harden1ng model. It had been shown in earlier research that excessive asphalt1c concrete binder hardening was a detrimental factor influencing certain types of pavement distress such as thermal cracking, raveling, fatigue cracking, and reflective crack...

  5. Study of the potential of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy in the analysis of the tree foliage intake of goats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Study of the potential of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy in the analysis of the tree whether near-infrared reflectance spec- troscopy (NIRS) could be of future use in the analysis of the food

  6. In Vitro Human Embryos: Interdisciplinary reflections on the first 4 decades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Gispert, Adrià

    , in the Marshall Lab in the early 1970's #12;1 In Vitro Human Embryos: Interdisciplinary reflections on the first Department) for providing organisational support; Debbie Spikins for her untiring work dealing

  7. A TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM OF TITAN'S NORTH POLAR ATMOSPHERE FROM A SPECULAR REFLECTION OF THE SUN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnes, Jason W.

    Cassini/VIMS T85 observations of a solar specular reflection off of Kivu Lacus (87[° over .]4N 241[° over .]1E) provide an empirical transmission spectrum of Titan's atmosphere. Because this observation was acquired from ...

  8. Using Van Manen's model to assess levels of reflectivity among preservice physical education teachers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ballard, Kristy Kay

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The intent of this study was two-fold. The first purpose was to apply Van Manen's model to specific strategies (i.e., written assignments) and supervisory practices (i.e., interviews) to examine levels of reflectivity ...

  9. NON-INVASIVE OPTICAL DETECTION OF EPITHELIAL CANCER USING OBLIQUE INCIDENCE DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation describes the design, fabrication and testing of an oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry (OIDRS) system for in-vivo and noninvasive detection of epithelial cancer. Two probes were fabricated using micromachining...

  10. Recent advances in reflective optics for EUV/x-ray light sources...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recent advances in reflective optics for EUVx-ray light sources Wednesday, June 24, 2015 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Regina Soufli, LLNL Program...

  11. Ultra-Shallow Imaging Using 2D & 3D Seismic Reflection Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloan, Steven D.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research presented in this dissertation focuses on the survey design, acquisition, processing, and interpretation of ultra-shallow seismic reflection (USR) data in two and three dimensions. The application of 3D USR ...

  12. A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify the Seismic Response of Fractures and Permeable Zones Over a Known Geothermal Resource at Soda Lake, Churchill...

  13. Short pulse laser stretcher-compressor using a single common reflective grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erbert, Gaylen V.; Biswal, Subrat; Bartolick, Joseph M.; Stuart, Brent C.; Telford, Steve

    2004-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides an easily aligned, all-reflective, aberration-free pulse stretcher-compressor in a compact geometry. The stretcher-compressor device is a reflective multi-layer dielectric that can be utilized for high power chirped-pulse amplification material processing applications. A reflective grating element of the device is constructed: 1) to receive a beam for stretching of laser pulses in a beam stretcher beam path and 2) to also receive stretched amplified pulses to be compressed in a compressor beam path through the same (i.e., common) reflective multilayer dielectric diffraction grating. The stretched and compressed pulses are interleaved about the grating element to provide the desired number of passes in each respective beam path in order to achieve the desired results.

  14. Quality Control of WSR-88D Reflectivity Data V Lakshmanan, Kurt Hondl, Gregory Stumpf, Travis Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lakshmanan, Valliappa

    Quality Control of WSR-88D Reflectivity Data V Lakshmanan, Kurt Hondl, Gregory Stumpf, Travis Smith this to compare our technique. · Steiner and Smith, from Princeton University, developed a rule base. Similar

  15. High-amplitude reflection packets (HARPs) of the Mississippi Fan, Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francis, Jason Michael

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Examination of seismic data from the deep-water Gulf of Mexico reveals the presence of High-Amplitude Reflection Packets (HARPs). An analog study conducted by the Ocean Drilling Program Leg 155 identified and described ...

  16. Reflections on my conjecture, and several new ones Donald G. Saari

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saari, Don

    Reflections on my conjecture, and several new ones Donald G. Saari August 3, 2005 1 Introduction] and Saari [15]) and the general setting for N = 3 (e.g., Llibre and Pina [8] and McCord [9]). The current

  17. Coincident P and Sh reflections from basement rocks at Coso geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coincident P and Sh reflections from basement rocks at Coso geothermal field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Coincident P and Sh...

  18. A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to Identify the Seismic Response of Fractures and Permeable Zones Over a Known Geothermal Resource at Soda Lake, Churchhill Co., NV A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data...

  19. Geophysical Prospecting 31,265-292, 1983. REFLECTION OF ELASTIC WAVES FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    Geophysical Prospecting 31,265-292, 1983. REFLECTION OF ELASTIC WAVES FROM PERIODICALLY STRATIFIED from Periodically Stratified Media with Interfacial Slip, Geophysical Prospecting 31 phase propagation in some other direction. INTRODUCTION Geophysical media often exhibit anisotropic

  20. Multiple gene genealogies and microsatellite markers reflect relationships between morphotypes of Sphaeropsis sapinea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple gene genealogies and microsatellite markers reflect relationships between morphotypes between isolates representing different S. sapinea morphotypes, using multiple gene genealogies inferred from partial sequences of six protein-coding genes and six microsatellite loci. Genealogies generated

  1. Non-invasive detection of oral cancer using reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGee, Sasha Alanda

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In vivo reflectance and fluorescence spectra were collected from patients with oral lesions, as well as healthy volunteers, in order to evaluate the potential of spectroscopy to serve as a non-invasive tool for the detection ...

  2. Simulation Studies of Hydrogen Ion reflection from Tungsten for the Surface Production of Negative Hydrogen Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Wada, Motoi [Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0394 (Japan)

    2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The production efficiency of negative ions at tungsten surface by particle reflection has been investigated. Angular distributions and energy spectra of reflected hydrogen ions from tungsten surface are calculated with a Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT. The results obtained with ACAT have indicated that angular distributions of reflected hydrogen ions show narrow distributions for low-energy incidence such as 50 eV, and energy spectra of reflected ions show sharp peaks around 90% of incident energy. These narrow angular distributions and sharp peaks are favorable for the efficient extraction of negative ions from an ion source equipped with tungsten surface as negative ionization converter. The retained hydrogen atoms in tungsten lead to the reduction in extraction efficiency due to boarded angular distributions.

  3. A program to design asphalt concrete overlays to mitigate reflection cracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satyanarayana Rao, Sindhu

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the research are to understand the occurrence and behavior of reflection cracking and for devising ways of mitigating them and to put together an effective and complete package of computer programs to design asphalt concrete overlays. Another primary objective...

  4. Procedure for measuring the solar reflectance of flat or curved roofing assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy-use effects of cool roofs on California commercialfrom the application of reflective roofs in two small non-saving potentials of light-colored roofs for residential and

  5. Does monetary poverty reflect caloric intake? Ibrahima BOCOUM CIRAD, UMR MOISA, F-34398 Montpellier, France

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Does monetary poverty reflect caloric intake? Ibrahima BOCOUM CIRAD, UMR MOISA, F-34398 poverty. Using a Maliansurvey thatincorporatesexceptionally detailed information on food consumption, we: poverty, food insecurity, caloric intake, household surveys, Mali 1 Introduction Estimating the number

  6. The estimation of geotechnical properties of marine sediments from their acoustic reflectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ebel, Martin

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 3.5 kilohertz subbottom profiler was calibrated such that digitized signals from reflections can be used to quantitatively describe the acoustic response of the seafloor. Two methods were used to calibrate the system, both methods require...

  7. The use of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict protein fractions in free-ranging cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitley, Evan Micah

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research was conducted to assess the feasibility of using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) technology to predict fractional protein utilization in cattle on forage based diets. Forage samples were obtained from esophageal and ruminal...

  8. Impacts of a recurrent resuspension event and variable phytoplankton community composition on remote sensing reflectance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Impacts of a recurrent resuspension event and variable phytoplankton community composition resuspension event and variable phytoplankton community composition on remote sensing reflectance, J. Geophys shoreline erosion, and high river runoff. These forces lead to significant resuspension of particles, which

  9. Reflectivity of silver and silver-coated substrates from 25 C to 800 C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaworske, D.A. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A bench top facility was used to evaluate the reflectivity of several candidate coating-substrate combinations in vacuum at elevated temperatures. Silver was selected as the reflective coating of choice, while copper, nickel, electroless nickel on copper, and 304 stainless steel were selected as substrates. Pure silver, with no coating at all, was also evaluated. An optically flat silver-coated sapphire substrate was used as a standard. All metal substrates were either metallurgically polished or diamond turned to a mirror finish prior to silver deposition. Silicon dioxide was used as a protective coating in most cases. Reflectivity measurements were made at room temperature in the visible range with a spectrophotometer, and at elevated temperatures up to 800 C with a helium-neon laser at 632 nm. Results from the high temperature reflectivity measurements will be presented.

  10. Generating intense ultrashort radiation by reflecting an ultrashort laser pulse from a thin target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Wenmin [Department of Physics, Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, 310027 Hangzhou (China); Yu, M. Y. [Department of Physics, Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, 310027 Hangzhou (China); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik I, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle-in-cell simulation and analytical modeling demonstrate that the reflection of a single-cycle light pulse from a thin target can produce an ultrashort ultraintense electromagnetic field.

  11. NON-INVASIVE OPTICAL DETECTION OF EPITHELIAL CANCER USING OBLIQUE INCIDENCE DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation describes the design, fabrication and testing of an oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry (OIDRS) system for in-vivo and noninvasive detection of epithelial cancer. Two probes were fabricated using micromachining...

  12. Team Identity and Performance-based Compensation Effects on Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blazovich, Janell L.

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates whether team members work harder and perform better when they are compensated based on both team and individual performance than when compensated based on team or individual performance alone and whether teammates...

  13. Seismic reflection data analysis of the Oriente and Swan Fracture Zones bounding the Cayman Trough 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tinker, Mary Norris

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SEISMIC REFLECTION DATA ANALYSIS OF THE ORIENTE AND SWAN FRACTURE ZONES BOUNDING THE CAYMAN TROUGH A Thesis by MARY NORRIS TINKER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1986 Major Subject: Geophysics SEISMIC REFLECTION DATA ANALYSIS OF THE ORIENTE AND SWAN FRACTURE ZONES BOUNDING THE CAYMAN TROUGH A Thesis by MARY NORRIS TINKER Approved as to style and content by: D. A. Fa quiet...

  14. Present and Near-Future Reflected Light Searches for Close-In Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Charbonneau; Robert W. Noyes

    2000-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Close-in extrasolar giant planets may be directly detectable by their reflected light, due to the proximity of the planet to the illuminating star. The spectrum of the system will contain a reflected light component that varies in amplitude and Doppler shift as the planet orbits the star. Intensive searches for this effect have been carried out for only one extrasolar planet system, tau Boo. There exist several other attractive targets, including the transiting planet system HD 209458.

  15. Reflection, absorption, and transmission of ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic waves through a Gaussian conductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammond, R.T. [Physics Department, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58105 (United States)] [Physics Department, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58105 (United States); Davis, J.; Bobb, L. [Naval Air Warfare Center, Code 4556, Mail Stop 2, Patuxent River, Maryland 20670 (United States)] [Naval Air Warfare Center, Code 4556, Mail Stop 2, Patuxent River, Maryland 20670 (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reflection, transmission, and absorption coefficients are derived for long-wavelength electromagnetic radiation propagating through a medium that exhibits a Gaussian conductivity. It is shown that, under certain circumstances, this applies to the ionosphere. The effects of different peak conductivities and Gaussian widths are examined, and a useful form for calculating transmission and reflection coefficients is presented. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Multilayer deposition and EUV reflectance characterization of 131 ? flight mirrors for AIA at LLNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soufli, R; Robinson, J C; Spiller, E; Baker, S L; Dollar, F J; Gullikson, E M

    2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Mo/Si multilayer coatings reflecting at 131 {angstrom} were deposited successfully on the AIA primary and secondary flight mirrors and on two coating witness Si wafers, on November 16, 2005, at LLNL. All coatings were characterized by means of EUV reflectance measurements at beamline 6.3.2 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron at LBNL, and were found to be well within specifications.

  17. Semianalytic Monte Carlo calculation of reflected and transmitted radiance in a plane parallel atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moffitt, John Russell

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SEMIANALYTIC MONTE CARLO CALCULATION OF REFLECTED AND TRANSMITTED RADIANCE IN A PLANE PARALLEL ATMOSPHERE A Thesis by JOHN RUSSELL MOFFITT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1972 Major Subject: Physics SEMIANALYTIC MONTE CARLO CALCULATION OF REFLECTED AND TRANSMITTED RADIANCE IN A PLANE PARALLEL ATMOSPHERE A Thesis by JOHN RUSSELL MOFFITT Approved as to style and content by: (Cha...

  18. Using Visible and Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy to Characterize and Classify Soil Profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, Katrina Margarette

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    USING VISIBLE AND NEAR INFRARED DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY TO CHARACTERIZE AND CLASSIFY SOIL PROFILES A Thesis by KATRINA MARGARETTE WILKE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2010 Major Subject: Soil Science USING VISIBLE AND NEAR INFRARED DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY TO CHARACTERIZE AND CLASSIFY SOIL PROFILES A Thesis...

  19. Seismic reflection data analysis of the Oriente and Swan Fracture Zones bounding the Cayman Trough

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tinker, Mary Norris

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SEISMIC REFLECTION DATA ANALYSIS OF THE ORIENTE AND SWAN FRACTURE ZONES BOUNDING THE CAYMAN TROUGH A Thesis by MARY NORRIS TINKER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1986 Major Subject: Geophysics SEISMIC REFLECTION DATA ANALYSIS OF THE ORIENTE AND SWAN FRACTURE ZONES BOUNDING THE CAYMAN TROUGH A Thesis by MARY NORRIS TINKER Approved as to style and content by: D. A. Fa quiet...

  20. Effects of the reflective scattering in hadron production at high energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. M. Troshin; N. E. Tyurin

    2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A gradual transition to the reflecting scattering mode developing already at the LHC energies is affecting multiparticle production dynamics, in particular, relation of the centrality with the impact parameter values of $pp$--collisions. We discuss the issues in the framework of the geometrical picture for the multiparticle production processes proposed by Chou and Yang. We consider effects of reflective scattering mode presence for the inclusive cross-sections.

  1. Study of anisotropy of spin cast and vapor deposited polyimide films using internal reflection techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liberman, V.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have compared anisotropy of spin cast and vapor deposited polyimide (VDP) films, using internal reflection infrared spectroscopy. The films were deposited directly on the internal reflection element. We find that spin cast films are more anisotropic than their VDP counterparts, with the polyimide chains tending to align parallel to the substrate. Both films are found to contain more and less ordered regions. Within the ordered regions, the plane of the phenyl ring tends to align parallel to the substrate.

  2. Reflectivity Measurements for Copper and Aluminumin the Far Infrared and the Resistive Wall Impedance in the LCLS Undulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bane, K L F; Tu, J J

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflectivity Measurements for Copper and Aluminumin the Far Infrared and the Resistive Wall Impedance in the LCLS Undulator

  3. Summary Leaf reflectance at visible and near-infrared wavelengths (4001000 nm) is related primarily to pigmenta-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Andrew D.

    Summary Leaf reflectance at visible and near-infrared wavelengths (400­1000 nm) is related physiology and relationships between plants and their growth environment. We studied reflectance of two co collected from 24 sites and white spruce from 30 sites. Overall, reflectance spectra of the two species were

  4. Forecasting oilfield economic performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, M.E. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)); Wood, A.R.O. (BP Exploration, Anchorage, AK (United States))

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a general method for forecasting oilfield economic performance that integrates cost data with operational, reservoir, and financial information. Practices are developed for determining economic limits for an oil field and its components. The economic limits of marginal wells and the role of underground competition receive special attention. Also examined is the influence of oil prices on operating costs. Examples illustrate application of these concepts. Categorization of costs for historical tracking and projections is recommended.

  5. Evaluating Steam Trap Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, N. Y.

    EVALUATING STEAM TRAP PERFORMANCE Noel Y Fuller, P.E. Holston Defense Corporation Kingsport, Tennessee ABSTRACT Laboratory tests were conducted on several types of steam traps at Holston Defense Corporation in Kingsport, Tennessee. Data... that live steam loss is the heaviest contributor to the annual operating cost of any steam trap and that maintenance frequency and repair cost are also more important than a trap's first cost. INTRODUCTION Steam traps used on distribution line drip...

  6. High Performance New Construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores, M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Agenda • Concept of Project – Challenging Metrics • HPDB / IPD – Accountability / Outcomes Focus • Energy Modeling = Total Cost of Ownership • GMAX = Predictable Costs...-18 High Performance Design-Build • Age Myth • Cost Myth • Complexity Myth • Time Advantage • Early Cost Confirmation • Lower Cost For Design Changes ESL-KT-13-12-40 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16...

  7. Network Performance MONASH UNIVERSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekercioglu, Y. Ahmet

    "&" at the end of a command line tells to the shell command line interpreter to run the command in back- ground with the Emacs2 text editor: emacs Makefile &3. 5. Type these lines into the Makefile: 1 hworld: hworld.c 2 . netperf-lab-warmup.tex,v1.6 (teaching/digicomm) 1 #12;Network Performance 7. Type the lines of the C

  8. High performance polymeric foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gargiulo, M.; Sorrentino, L. [Institute for Composite and Biomedical Materials (IMCB)-CNR, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Iannace, S. [Institute for Composite and Biomedical Materials (IMCB)-CNR, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy) and Technological District on Polymeric and Composite Materials Engineering and Structures (IMAST), P.le E.Fermi 1, location Porto del Granatello, 80055 Portici (Naples)

    2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this work was to investigate the foamability of high-performance polymers (polyethersulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyetherimide and polyethylenenaphtalate). Two different methods have been used to prepare the foam samples: high temperature expansion and two-stage batch process. The effects of processing parameters (saturation time and pressure, foaming temperature) on the densities and microcellular structures of these foams were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy.

  9. Background and Reflections on the Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G. A.; Mann, M. K.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the ever-growing body of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature on electricity generation technologies, inconsistent methods and assumptions hamper comparison across studies and pooling of published results. Synthesis of the body of previous research is necessary to generate robust results to assess and compare environmental performance of different energy technologies for the benefit of policy makers, managers, investors, and citizens. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory initiated the LCA Harmonization Project in an effort to rigorously leverage the numerous individual studies to develop collective insights. The goals of this project were to: (1) understand the range of published results of LCAs of electricity generation technologies, (2) reduce the variability in published results that stem from inconsistent methods and assumptions, and (3) clarify the central tendency of published estimates to make the collective results of LCAs available to decision makers in the near term. The LCA Harmonization Project's initial focus was evaluating life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electricity generation technologies. Six articles from this first phase of the project are presented in a special supplemental issue of the Journal of Industrial Ecology on Meta-Analysis of LCA: coal (Whitaker et al. 2012), concentrating solar power (Burkhardt et al. 2012), crystalline silicon photovoltaics (PVs) (Hsu et al. 2012), thin-film PVs (Kim et al. 2012), nuclear (Warner and Heath 2012), and wind (Dolan and Heath 2012). Harmonization is a meta-analytical approach that addresses inconsistency in methods and assumptions of previously published life cycle impact estimates. It has been applied in a rigorous manner to estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from many categories of electricity generation technologies in articles that appear in this special supplemental supplemental issue, reducing the variability and clarifying the central tendency of those estimates in ways useful for decision makers and analysts. Each article took a slightly different approach, demonstrating the flexibility of the harmonization approach. Each article also discusses limitations of the current research, and the state of knowledge and of harmonization, pointing toward a path of extending and improving the meta-analysis of LCAs.

  10. High Performance Buildings Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The High Performance Buildings Database is a shared resource for the building industry, a unique central repository of in-depth information and data on high-performance, green building projects across the United States and abroad. The database includes information on the energy use, environmental performance, design process, finances, and other aspects of each project. Members of the design and construction teams are listed, as are sources for additional information. In total, up to twelve screens of detailed information are provided for each project profile. Projects range in size from small single-family homes or tenant fit-outs within buildings to large commercial and institutional buildings and even entire campuses. The database is a data repository as well. A series of Web-based data-entry templates allows anyone to enter information about a building project into the database. Once a project has been submitted, each of the partner organizations can review the entry and choose whether or not to publish that particular project on its own Web site.

  11. High Performance Computing School COMSC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ralph R.

    High Performance Computing School COMSC This module aims to provide the students with fundamental knowledge and understanding of techniques associated with High Performance Computing and its practical' skills in analysing and evaluating High Performance Computing and will be structured around

  12. Mentoring Human Performance - 12480

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geis, John A.; Haugen, Christian N. [CALIBRE Systems, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the positive effects of implementing a human performance approach to operations can be hard to quantify, many organizations and industry areas are finding tangible benefits to such a program. Recently, a unique mentoring program was established and implemented focusing on improving the performance of managers, supervisors, and work crews, using the principles of Human Performance Improvement (HPI). The goal of this mentoring was to affect behaviors and habits that reliably implement the principles of HPI to ensure continuous improvement in implementation of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) within a Conduct of Operations framework. Mentors engaged with personnel in a one-on-one, or one-on-many dialogue, which focused on what behaviors were observed, what factors underlie the behaviors, and what changes in behavior could prevent errors or events, and improve performance. A senior management sponsor was essential to gain broad management support. A clear charter and management plan describing the goals, objectives, methodology, and expected outcomes was established. Mentors were carefully selected with senior management endorsement. Mentors were assigned to projects and work teams based on the following three criteria: 1) knowledge of the work scope; 2) experience in similar project areas; and 3) perceived level of trust they would have with project management, supervision, and work teams. This program was restructured significantly when the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) and the associated funding came to an end. The program was restructured based on an understanding of the observations, attributed successes and identified shortfalls, and the consolidation of those lessons. Mentoring the application of proven methods for improving human performance was shown effective at increasing success in day-to-day activities and increasing confidence and level of skill of supervisors. While mentoring program effectiveness is difficult to measure, and return on investment is difficult to quantify, especially in complex and large organizations where the ability to directly correlate causal factors can be challenging, the evidence presented by Sydney Dekker, James Reason, and others who study the field of human factors does assert managing and reducing error is possible. Employment of key behaviors-HPI techniques and skills-can be shown to have a significant impact on error rates. Our mentoring program demonstrated reduced error rates and corresponding improvements in safety and production. Improved behaviors are the result, of providing a culture with consistent, clear expectations from leadership, and processes and methods applied consistently to error prevention. Mentoring, as envisioned and executed in this program, was effective in helping shift organizational culture and effectively improving safety and production. (authors)

  13. Current performance and potential improvements in solar thermal industrial heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, M.J.; Williams, T.; Barker, G.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A representive current state-of-the-art system using parabolic trough technology was developed using data from a system recently installed in Tehachapi, California. A simulation model was used to estimate the annual energy output from the system at three different insolation locations. Based on discussions with industry personnel and within NREL, we identified a number of technology improvements that offer the potential for increasing the energy performance and reducing the energy-cost of the baseline system. The technology improvements modeled included an evacuated-tube receiver, an antireflective coating on the receiver tube, an improved absorber material, a cleaner reflecting surface, a reflecting surface that can withstand contact cleaning, and two silver reflectors. The properties associated with the improvements were incorporated into the model simulation at the three insolation locations to determine if there were any performance gains. The results showed that there was a potential for a more am 50% improvement in the annual energy delivered by a 2677 m{sup 2} system incorporating a combination of the enumerated technology improvements. We discuss the commercial and technological status of each design improvement and present performance predictions for the trough-design improvements.

  14. Current performance and potential improvements in solar thermal industrial heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, M.J.; Williams, T.; Barker, G.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A representive current state-of-the-art system using parabolic trough technology was developed using data from a system recently installed in Tehachapi, California. A simulation model was used to estimate the annual energy output from the system at three different insolation locations. Based on discussions with industry personnel and within NREL, we identified a number of technology improvements that offer the potential for increasing the energy performance and reducing the energy-cost of the baseline system. The technology improvements modeled included an evacuated-tube receiver, an antireflective coating on the receiver tube, an improved absorber material, a cleaner reflecting surface, a reflecting surface that can withstand contact cleaning, and two silver reflectors. The properties associated with the improvements were incorporated into the model simulation at the three insolation locations to determine if there were any performance gains. The results showed that there was a potential for a more am 50% improvement in the annual energy delivered by a 2677 m[sup 2] system incorporating a combination of the enumerated technology improvements. We discuss the commercial and technological status of each design improvement and present performance predictions for the trough-design improvements.

  15. An advanced thermionic theory for development of high performance thermionic energy conversion diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, A.C.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for improving the performance of thermionic energy conversion diodes have been studied and successfully applied. However, puzzling anomalies and inaccurate predictions have impeded the development of high performance thermionic energy converters. An inconsistency was recently found in the conventional approach for predicting net thermionic currents in energy conversion diodes; the observed inconsistency may be a primary source of predictive inaccuracies. The conventional method for predicting net currents in vacuum energy conversion diodes can be expressed by J = J{sub E} {minus} J{sub C} . Here J is the net currently density, and J{sub E} and J{sub C} are the emitter and collector emission current densities, respectively. The parameters J{sub E} and J{sub C} are obtained using the basic form of the Richardson-Dushman equation. This review found that the conventional method can conflict with the second law of thermodynamics for some operational conditions. The conflict was traced to an inconsistency in the treatment of electron reflection at the electrode surface. Quantum symmetry rules require that surfaces reflecting internal electrons (from within the electrode) must also reflect external electrons (from the opposite electrode). However, the standard method accounts only for internal electron reflection. The error caused by this inconsistency can be important because significant electron reflection has been reported for electrode materials in the energy range important for thermionic energy conversion. A simple derivation has yielded a revised formulation that properly accounts for electron reflection. The revised equation is given by, J = {tau}(J{sub E} {minus} {Gamma}J{sub C}). Several alternative formulations have been developed to compute the values of {tau} and {Gamma}. The parameters {tau} and {Gamma} can be computed using average reflection (or transmission) parameters for both electrodes, or the parameters can be computed using the energy and angle dependent scattering kernels for both electrodes. Operating temperatures and voltages are also used in the computation of {tau} and {Gamma}. The revised formulations show that even a cold collector can significantly impact net current, and when reflection is absent for both electrodes, the revised equation reduces to the original equation. Predictions using the revised equation were compared to predictions using the conventional approach and to predictions using an alternative (incorrect) method. For the alternative method, all reflection effects are included as an adjustment to the work function. The results of this comparison suggest that large errors are possible when the revised equations are not used. Discrepancies due to improper treatment of reflection are most likely to be observed when reflection effects are large and comparisons with measurements are made for conditions basically different from those used to fit equation parameters. In conclusion, conventional methods for predicting net thermionic current densities do not correctly account for electron reflection. The improper treatment of reflection may cause significant predictive errors. A revised formulation has been developed for vacuum energy conversion diodes to properly account for electron reflection. Future plans include validation experiments, an extension of the theory to include other types of diodes, and investigations of reflection mechanisms.

  16. NON-INVASIVE DETERMINATION OF THE LOCATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF FREE-PHASE DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS (DNAPL) BY SEISMIC REFLECTION TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. Waddell; William J. Domoracki; Tom J. Temples

    2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This semi-annual technical progress report is for part of Task 4 (site evaluation), on DOE contact number DE-AR26-98FT40369. The project had planned one additional deployment to another site other than Savannah River Site (SRS) or DOE Hanford. After the SUBCON midyear review in Albuquerque, NM, it was decided that two additional deployments would be performed. The first deployment is to test the feasibility of using non-invasive seismic reflection and AVO analysis as monitoring to assist in determining the effectiveness of Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) in removal of DNAPL. The Second deployment site is the Department of Defense (DOD) Charleston Navy Weapons Station, Solid Waste Management Unit 12 (SWMU-12) Charleston, SC was selected in consultation with National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and DOD Navy Facilities Engineering Command Southern Division (NAVFAC) personnel. Base upon the review of existing data and due to the shallow target depth the project team has collected three Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP) and experimental reflection line. At the time of preparing this report VSP data and experimental reflection line data has been collected and has have preliminary processing on the data sets.

  17. Measurement of the radial velocity of the Sun as a star by means of a reflecting solar system body. The effect of the body rotation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanza, A F

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Minor bodies of the solar system can be used to measure the spectrum of the Sun as a star by observing sunlight reflected by their surfaces. To perform an accurate measurement of the radial velocity of the Sun as a star by this method, it is necessary to take into account the Doppler shifts introduced by the motion of the reflecting body. Here we discuss the effect of its rotation. It gives a vanishing contribution only when the inclinations of the body rotation axis to the directions of the Sun and of the Earth observer are the same. When this is not the case, the perturbation of the radial velocity does not vanish and can reach up to about 2.4 m/s for an asteroid such as 2 Pallas that has an inclination of the spin axis to the plane of the ecliptic of about 30 degrees. We introduce a geometric model to compute the perturbation in the case of a uniformly reflecting body of spherical or triaxial ellipsoidal shape and provide general results to easily estimate the magnitude of the effect.

  18. Westinghouse Hanford Company health and safety performance report. Fourth quarter calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lansing, K.A.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WHC once again achieved significant improvement in its Overall safety performance as reflected by the injury/illness incidence rates. Incidence rates with one exception (Restricted Work Cases Only Incidence Rate) reflect sharp reductions. The increase in the Restricted Work Case Incidence Rate appears to be the result of effective case management activity and the return to work in a partial duty capacity of employees who may otherwise have been off work due to a work-related injury/illness (Page 2--9).

  19. Commissioning for High Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meline, K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    &M Energy Systems Laboratory Type of Cx Previously Cx’d? Performance Monitoring Req’d? Functional Testing Req’d? Re-Cx Yes No Yes Retro-Cx No No Yes CC® Yes/No Yes No Monitoring-Based Cx Yes/No Yes No • New Building Commissioning ? Process Commissioning... Benefits of Cx Owners can achieve savings in operations of $4.00 over the first years of occupancy 5 as a direct result of every invested in commissioning* $1.00 * Data from Whole Building Design Guide – a program of National...

  20. Carver Performance and Optimization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccess StoriesFebruary 26,ComputersTrinitytheOptimization Performance

  1. Performance and Optimization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding accessPeptoid Nanosheets Offer a Math Library Performance Core

  2. Performance and Optimization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding accessPeptoid Nanosheets Offer a Math Library Performance

  3. ARM - 2007 Performance Metrics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearchSOLICITATIONIMODI FICATION OF CONTRACT 1 OTATI OEPMeeting7 Performance

  4. Solar Trough Performance Evaluation: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-00289

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, A.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New HCEs were installed on the hot sides of the thermal loops at SEGS VIII and IX from mid-2007 to mid-2008. Due to significant increases in plant performance, an interest in a further increase performance by installing new HCEs on the cold portions of the loop developed. Although it was assumed that the plant performance would increase, the exact amount was unknown. The objective of this project was to estimate the performance improvements with new HCEs installed on the cold sides of the loop, with performance being evaluated as potential increases in electrical power production (megawatt-hours). A comparison of performance prior to and post installation of new HCEs on the hot sides of the loops was done. For completeness, an estimate of performance losses - such as the optical efficiency, mirror reflectivity, and optical accuracy - was also included in this analysis. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) HCE Survey System was used to determine if the HCEs were hot or cold.

  5. Delineation of spall zone from pre/post shot reflections studies: Preliminary results from BEXAR. Los Alamos Source Region Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, S.R.; Cogbill, A.H.; Weaver, T.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Miller, R.; Steeples, D. [Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States)

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to delineate the lateral and depth extent of spall from a buried nuclear explosion, we have performed a high-resolution pre- and post-shot seismic reflection survey from BEXAR. Although the data quality were marginal due to poor wave propagation through the volcanic tuffs of Pahute Mesa, a number of interesting differences are observed on the pre- and post-shot surveys. On the pre-shot survey, a reflector (reflector `` 1 ``) is observed at 250 ms (or about 150 m depth) using a stacking velocity of 1300 m/s. On the post-shot survey two reflectors are observed and a stacking velocity of 1150 m/s was used representing a 12% reduction in compressional velocity. With this stacking velocity, reflector `` 1 `` is recorded at 290 ms (still at about 150 m depth) and a new reflector ``2`` is observed at 210 ms (or about 100 m depth). These stacking velocities correspond well with available uphole travel times collected in U19ba and nearby U19ax (BEXAR and KEARSARGE emplacement holes, respectively). The cause for the differences observed in the pre- and post-shot surveys may be due to one of two reasons. First, it is possible that the near-surface rocks were damaged as part of the spallation process (thus reducing the in situ velocities) and reflector ``2`` represents a spall detachment surface. However, analysis of acceleration data collected close to the reflection line suggests that the ground motions were probably inadequate to damage the tuffs. Also, no evidence of actual spallation was actually observed. The second hypothesis is that the near-surface velocities of the tuffs were altered by the change in saturation state due to extensive rains occurring between the pre- and postshot surveys. Although the dependence of seismic velocity on saturation state is controlled by a number of complex factors, it cannot be ruled out.

  6. REVIEWING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS SUPPORTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert J. Lewis

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To summarize current NRC policy and guidance, which should assist in making informed decisions regarding land disposal of unique low-level radioactive waste streams, including disposal of significant quantities of depleted uranium until a new regulation is implemented. Background: In September 2009, NRC staff conducted two public workshops soliciting early public input on major issues associated with a potential rulemaking for land disposal of unique waste streams including, but not limited to, significant quantities of depleted uranium. During these workshops, a number of stakeholders expressed interest or concern with the review of performance assessments supporting land disposal of unique waste streams prior to completion of the rulemaking process. Discussion: The enclosure contains a summary of existing guidance for reviewing performance assessments with a focus on issues associated with the safe disposal of unique waste streams. NRC staff is providing this guidance to the Agreement States for their information, and for distribution to their licensees, as appropriate. If you have any questions regarding this correspondence, please contact me at 301-415-3340 or the individuals named below.

  7. High reflectance and low stress Mo2C/Be multilayers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bajt, Sasa (Livermore, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A material for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) multilayers that will reflect at about 11.3 nm, have a high reflectance, low stress, and high thermal and radiation stability. The material consists of alternating layers of Mo.sub.2 C and Be deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on a substrate, such as silicon. In one example a Mo.sub.2 C/Be multilayer gave 65.2% reflectance at 11.25 nm measured at 5 degrees off normal incidence angle, and consisted of 70 bilayers with a deposition period of 5.78 nm, and was deposited at 0.83 mTorr argon (Ar) sputtering pressure, with the first and last layers being Be. The stress of the multilayer is tensile and only +88 MPa, compared to +330 MPa of a Mo/Be multilayers of the same thickness. The Mo.sub.2 C/Be multilayer was capped with carbon which produced an increase in reflectivity of about 7% over a similar multilayer with no carbon capping material, thus raising the reflectivity from 58.3% to over 65%. The multilayers were formed using either Mo.sub.2 C or Be as the first and last layers, and initial testing has shown the formation of beryllium carbide at the interfaces between the layers which both stabilizes and has a smoothing effect, and appear to be smoother than the interfaces in Mo/Be multilayers.

  8. Quantitative Reflectance Spectra of Solid Powders as a Function of Particle Size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Ertel, Alyssa B.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Richardson, Robert L.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have recently developed vetted methods for obtaining quantitative infrared directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra using a commercial integrating sphere. In this paper, the effects of particle size on the spectral properties are analyzed for several samples such as ammonium sulfate, calcium carbonate, and sodium sulfate as well as one organic compound, lactose. We prepared multiple size fractions for each sample and confirmed the mean sizes using optical microscopy. Most species displayed a wide range of spectral behavior depending on the mean particle size. General trends of reflectance vs. particle size are observed such as increased albedo for smaller particles: for most wavelengths, the reflectivity drops with increased size, sometimes displaying a factor of 4 or more drop in reflectivity along with a loss of spectral contrast. In the longwave infrared, several species with symmetric anions or cations exhibited reststrahlen features whose amplitude was nearly invariant with particle size, at least for intermediate- and large-sized sample fractions; that is, > ~150 microns. Trends of other types of bands (Christiansen minima, transparency features) are also investigated as well as quantitative analysis of the observed relationship between reflectance vs. particle diameter.

  9. MPQC: Performance Analysis and Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarje, Abhinav; Williams, Samuel; Bailey, David

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    MPQC (Massively Parallel Quantum Chemistry) is a widely used computational quantum chemistry code. It is capable of performing a number of computations commonly occurring in quantum chemistry. In order to achieve better performance of MPQC, in this report we present a detailed performance analysis of this code. We then perform loop and memory access optimizations, and measure performance improvements by comparing the performance of the optimized code with that of the original MPQC code. We observe that the optimized MPQC code achieves a significant improvement in the performance through a better utilization of vector processing and memory hierarchies.

  10. Using Weibull Distribution Analysis to Evaluate ALARA Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. L. Frome, J. P. Watkins, and D. A. Hagemeyer

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) is the underlying principle for protecting nuclear workers from potential health outcomes related to occupational radiation exposure. Radiation protection performance is currently evaluated by measures such as collective dose and average measurable dose, which do not indicate ALARA performance. The purpose of this work is to show how statistical modeling of individual doses using the Weibull distribution can provide objective supplemental performance indicators for comparing ALARA implementation among sites and for insights into ALARA practices within a site. Maximum likelihood methods were employed to estimate the Weibull shape and scale parameters used for performance indicators. The shape parameter reflects the effectiveness of maximizing the number of workers receiving lower doses and is represented as the slope of the fitted line on a Weibull probability plot. Additional performance indicators derived from the model parameters include the 99th percentile and the exceedance fraction. When grouping sites by collective total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) and ranking by 99th percentile with confidence intervals, differences in performance among sites can be readily identified. Applying this methodology will enable more efficient and complete evaluation of the effectiveness of ALARA implementation.

  11. Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.

  12. High Performance Quantum Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon J. Devitt; William J. Munro; Kae Nemoto

    2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The architecture scalability afforded by recent proposals of a large scale photonic based quantum computer, utilizing the theoretical developments of topological cluster states and the photonic chip, allows us to move on to a discussion of massively scaled Quantum Information Processing (QIP). In this letter we introduce the model for a secure and unsecured topological cluster mainframe. We consider the quantum analogue of High Performance Computing, where a dedicated server farm is utilized by many users to run algorithms and share quantum data. The scaling structure of photonics based topological cluster computing leads to an attractive future for server based QIP, where dedicated mainframes can be constructed and/or expanded to serve an increasingly hungry user base with the ideal resource for individual quantum information processing.

  13. Ion-acoustic shocks with reflected ions: modeling and PIC simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liseykina, T; Vshivkov, V; Malkov, M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-relativistic collisionless shock waves are widespread in space and astrophysical plasmas and are known as efficient particle accelerators. However, our understanding of collisionless shocks, including their structure and the mechanisms whereby they accelerate particles remains incomplete. We present here the results of numerical modeling of an ion-acoustic collisionless shock based on one-dimensional (1D) kinetic approximation both for electrons and ions with a real mass ratio. Special emphasis is made on the shock-reflected ions as the main driver of shock dissipation. The reflection efficiency, velocity distribution of reflected particles and the shock electrostatic structure are studied in terms of the shock parameters. Applications to particle acceleration in geophysical and astrophysical shocks are discussed.

  14. Molecular orientation in soft matter thin films studied by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezger, Markus; Jerome, Blandine; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Valvidares, Manuel; Gullikson, Eric; Giglia, Angelo; Mahne, Nicola; Nannarone, Stefano

    2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a technique to study depth profiles of molecular orientation in soft matter thin films with nanometer resolution. The method is based on dichroism in resonant soft X-ray reflectivity using linear s- and p-polarization. It combines the chemical sensitivity of Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy to specific molecular bonds and their orientation relative to the polarization of the incident beam with the precise depth profiling capability of X-ray reflectivity. We demonstrate these capabilities on side chain liquid crystalline polymer thin films with soft X-ray reflectivity data at the carbon K edge. Optical constants of the anisotropic refractive index ellipsoid were obtained from a quantitative analysis using the Berreman formalism. For films up to 50 nm thickness we find that the degree of orientation of the long axis exhibits no depth variation and isindependent of the film thickness.

  15. Develop statewide recommendations for application of PCC joint reflective cracking rehabilitation strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Rahul Padamkumar

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Spalling of cracks and joints is the cracking, breaking or chipping of the slab edges within 2 ft (0.6m) if the joint or crack (Huang et. al 2004). Joint spalling is a construction related distress in the rigid pavement that mainly affects the structural... in the asphalt concrete overlays laid on the concrete pavements. Reflection cracks are caused by discontinuities in the underlying layers which propagate through the HMA surface due to movement at crack (Roberts et al 1996). Reflection cracks in AC overlays...

  16. EVALUATION OF THE SACCHAROFLEX 2000 REFLECTANCE MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR REFINED SUGAR COLOUR ESTIMATION AT HULETTS REFINERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M Moodley; N K Padayachee; V Govender

    Due to the successful use of the Saccharoflex 2000 reflectance measurement instrument on the estimation of refined sugar colour elsewhere in the world, it was decided by Tongaat-Hulett Sugar to evaluate the instrument at the refinery in Durban. Tests were carried out on first, second, third and fourth refined sugars, the results of which showed a good correlation between the ICUMSA colour measurement and the reflectance reading obtained from the Saccharoflex 2000. The instrument offers a number of advantages, the main one being that a refined sugar colour value can be obtained in less than a minute. The refinery has therefore purchased one for process control.

  17. Semianalytic Monte Carlo calculation of reflected and transmitted radiance in a plane parallel atmosphere 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moffitt, John Russell

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    thickness. Both Rayleigh and isotropic scattering are considered and examples are included for r = 1, m = 1, n = -1, m ' o ' 1 and A = 0. The method is also extended to include non-zero ground albedos and an example is included. A method... scattering for = 1 m = 1 n = -1 and A = 0. The continuous m o 1 10 curve is Matrix Operator Theory result 27 INTROBNCTION 1. Current and Past Methods for Calculating Reflected and Trans- mitted Radiance Early work in calculating the reflected...

  18. Reflectivity of linear and nonlinear gamma radiated apodized chirped Bragg grating under ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamdalla, Taymour A. [Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Faculty of Science, Tabuk University, Tabuk (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the effect Co{sup 60} gamma radiation is investigated on the effective refractive index of apodized chirped Bragg grating. Nine apodization profiles are considered. Comparison between the reflectivity of the gamma radiated and non radiated fiber Bragg grating has been carried out. The electric field of signals propagating through the apodized chirped fiber Bragg grating (ACFBG) is first calculated from which, new values for the refractive index are determined. The nonlinear effects appear on the ACFBG reflectivity. The effect of nonlinearity and undersea temperature and pressure on the grating is also studied.

  19. Reflection of electromagnetic radiation from plasma with an anisotropic electron velocity distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vagin, K. Yu., E-mail: vagin@sci.lebedev.ru; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The reflection of a test electromagnetic pulse from the plasma formed as a result of tunnel ionization of atoms in the field of a circularly polarized high-power radiation pulse is analyzed using the kinetic approach to describe electron motion. It is shown that the reflected pulse is significantly amplified due to the development of Weibel instability. The amplification efficiency is determined by the maximum value of the instability growth rate, which depends on the degree of anisotropy of the photoelectron distribution function.

  20. Annual Performance Report FY 2004 Annual Performance Plan FY...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOEIG-APP-007 Annual Performance Report FY 2004 Annual Performance Plan FY 2005, DOEIG-APP-007 I am pleased to present the Office of Inspector General's (OIG's) combined...

  1. Performance and Performativity in Elizabeth Gaskell's Cranford and Ruth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nurulhady, Eta Farmacelia

    2008-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis analyzes the aspects of performance and performativity in Elizabeth Gaskell's Cranford and Ruth. Gaskell shows through her characters how gender and class intertwine, involving the notions of cultural, social, ...

  2. Integrated Reflection Seismic Monitoring and Reservoir Modeling for Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Rogers

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The US DOE/NETL CCS MVA program funded a project with Fusion Petroleum Technologies Inc. (now SIGMA) to model the proof of concept of using sparse seismic data in the monitoring of CO{sub 2} injected into saline aquifers. The goal of the project was to develop and demonstrate an active source reflection seismic imaging strategy based on deployment of spatially sparse surface seismic arrays. The primary objective was to test the feasibility of sparse seismic array systems to monitor the CO{sub 2} plume migration injected into deep saline aquifers. The USDOE/RMOTC Teapot Dome (Wyoming) 3D seismic and reservoir data targeting the Crow Mountain formation was used as a realistic proxy to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed methodology. Though the RMOTC field has been well studied, the Crow Mountain as a saline aquifer has not been studied previously as a CO{sub 2} sequestration (storage) candidate reservoir. A full reprocessing of the seismic data from field tapes that included prestack time migration (PSTM) followed by prestack depth migration (PSDM) was performed. A baseline reservoir model was generated from the new imaging results that characterized the faults and horizon surfaces of the Crow Mountain reservoir. The 3D interpretation was integrated with the petrophysical data from available wells and incorporated into a geocellular model. The reservoir structure used in the geocellular model was developed using advanced inversion technologies including Fusion's ThinMAN{trademark} broadband spectral inversion. Seal failure risk was assessed using Fusion's proprietary GEOPRESS{trademark} pore pressure and fracture pressure prediction technology. CO{sub 2} injection was simulated into the Crow Mountain with a commercial reservoir simulator. Approximately 1.2MM tons of CO{sub 2} was simulated to be injected into the Crow Mountain reservoir over 30 years and subsequently let 'soak' in the reservoir for 970 years. The relatively small plume developed from this injection was observed migrating due to gravity to the apexes of the double anticline in the Crow Mountain reservoir of the Teapot dome. Four models were generated from the reservoir simulation task of the project which included three saturation models representing snapshots at different times during and after simulated CO{sub 2} injection and a fully saturated CO{sub 2} fluid substitution model. The saturation models were used along with a Gassmann fluid substitution model for CO{sub 2} to perform fluid volumetric substitution in the Crow Mountain formation. The fluid substitution resulted in a velocity and density model for the 3D volume at each saturation condition that was used to generate a synthetic seismic survey. FPTI's (Fusion Petroleum Technologies Inc.) proprietary SeisModelPRO{trademark} full acoustic wave equation software was used to simulate acquisition of a 3D seismic survey on the four models over a subset of the field area. The simulated acquisition area included the injection wells and the majority of the simulated plume area.

  3. A review of electrochromic window performance factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Rubin, M.; Lee, E.S.; Sullivan, R.; Finlayson, E.; Hopkins, D.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance factors which will influence the market acceptance of electrochromic windows are reviewed. A set of data representing the optical properties of existing and foreseeable electrochromic window devices was generated. The issue of reflective versus absorbing electrochromics was explored. This data was used in the DOE 2.1 building energy model to calculate the expected energy savings compared to conventional glazings. The effects of several different control strategies were tested. Significant energy and peak electric demand benefits were obtained for some electrochromic types. Use of predictive control algorithms to optimize cooling control may result in greater energy savings. Initial economic results considering annual savings, cooling equipment cost savings, and electrochromic window costs are presented. Calculations of thermal and visual comfort show additional benefits from electrochromics but more work is needed to quantify their importance. The design freedom and aesthetic possibilities of these dynamic glazings should provide additional market benefits, but their impact is difficult to assess at this time. Ultimately, a full assessment of the market viability of electrochromics must consider the impacts of all of these issues.

  4. High Performance Network Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, Jesse E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Network Monitoring requires a substantial use of data and error analysis to overcome issues with clusters. Zenoss and Splunk help to monitor system log messages that are reporting issues about the clusters to monitoring services. Infiniband infrastructure on a number of clusters upgraded to ibmon2. ibmon2 requires different filters to report errors to system administrators. Focus for this summer is to: (1) Implement ibmon2 filters on monitoring boxes to report system errors to system administrators using Zenoss and Splunk; (2) Modify and improve scripts for monitoring and administrative usage; (3) Learn more about networks including services and maintenance for high performance computing systems; and (4) Gain a life experience working with professionals under real world situations. Filters were created to account for clusters running ibmon2 v1.0.0-1 10 Filters currently implemented for ibmon2 using Python. Filters look for threshold of port counters. Over certain counts, filters report errors to on-call system administrators and modifies grid to show local host with issue.

  5. Dispositional reflections 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brummans, Boris H. J. M.

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In this dissertation, I explicate how scholars implicate themselves in the subfield of organizational communication studies by engaging in antinomic language-games which make the conduct of research (and textwork in particular) possible. My...

  6. Reflecting Absence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arad, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fox, and asked the owner, Jimmy Awad, if I could borrowfinalists. I went back to Jimmy Awad’s model shop, this timetogether over a few short days. Jimmy is from Syria, and the

  7. Environmental Public Health Performance Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environmental Public Health Performance Standards Environmental Health Program Self Agency: Total Environmental Health Program Budget: #12;Environmental Public Health Performance Standards (v. 2.0); Environmental Health Program Assessment Instrument, 1/7/2010 Page 2 Proportion

  8. Performance Metrics for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Wang, Na; Romero, Rachel L.; Deru, Michael P.

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial building owners and operators have requested a standard set of key performance metrics to provide a systematic way to evaluate the performance of their buildings. The performance metrics included in this document provide standard metrics for the energy, water, operations and maintenance, indoor environmental quality, purchasing, waste and recycling and transportation impact of their building. The metrics can be used for comparative performance analysis between existing buildings and industry standards to clarify the impact of sustainably designed and operated buildings.

  9. Feeding the Arena Performance Horse 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbs, Pete G.; Potter, Gary D.; Scott, Brett D.

    2003-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication explains how proper nutrition and feeding management can improve the athletic performance of an arena horse.

  10. Immanent Shakespearing: Politics, Performance, Pedagogy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnes, Todd Landon

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    shadow on the upstage wall. Marcellus points at the wall,Hughes, the actor playing Marcellus in the 1964 performance,

  11. Determining the Density Profile of Confined Polymer Brushes with Neutron Reflectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhl, Tonya L.

    , University of South Florida, Florida 33620 3 Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center, LANSCE-12, MS H805Determining the Density Profile of Confined Polymer Brushes with Neutron Reflectivity W. A. HAMILTON,1 G. S. SMITH,1 N. A. ALCANTAR,2 J. MAJEWSKI,3 R. G. TOOMEY,4 T. L. KUHL5 1 Center for Neutron

  12. Detecting voids in a 0.6 m coal seam, 7 m deep, using seismic reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Richard D.; Steeples, Don W.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface collapse over abandoned subsurface coal mines is a problem in many parts of the world. High-resolution P-wave reflection seismology was successfully used to evaluate the risk of an active sinkhole to a main north-south ...

  13. Synthesis of Multipole Acoustic Logging Measurements Using the Generalized Reflection/Transmission Matrices Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    Synthesis of Multipole Acoustic Logging Measurements Using the Generalized Reflection, the Thomson-Haskell method is the only analytical method available to simulate multipole acoustic logging is slower than the compressional velocity of the drilling fluid in the borehole. Because a multipole tool

  14. High Mercury Concentrations Reflect Trophic Ecology of Three Deep-Water Chondrichthyans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, Michael C.

    High Mercury Concentrations Reflect Trophic Ecology of Three Deep-Water Chondrichthyans Michael C concentrations were explored for three deep-water chondrichthyans (Etmopterus princeps, Cen- troscymnus position in the trophic web (as indicated by differences in d15 N). Mercury is a major contaminant

  15. Explicit Reflection in Prolog-Tutor Josephine Tchetagni, Roger Nkambou, GDAC, Computer Science Department, UQM,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    @licef.teluq.uquebec.ca Abstract. This paper describes a reflection-based approach for open learner modeling (OLM). Tutoring these strategies. The main contribution of this approach to OLM is that it provides a set of principled theories. Furthermore, an evaluation of such a principled approach to OLM is straightforward in certain

  16. Perception, 26, 807-822 Effects of Texture, Illumination and Surface Reflectance on Stereoscopic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todd, James T.

    Perception, 26, 807-822 Effects of Texture, Illumination and Surface Reflectance on Stereoscopic Shape Perception James T. Todd1, J. Farley Norman2, Jan J. Koenderink3, Astrid M. L. Kappers3 1 with many other animals. For the ecology of human observers, however, this cost is apparently out- weighed

  17. Campus Sustainability Plan "UCSC's commitment to sustainability reflects one of our most closely held campus values

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    1 Campus Sustainability Plan "UCSC's commitment to sustainability reflects one of our most closely, which inspired faculty and staff to join in. Today, sustainability is a campuswide commitment, and our, Chancellor 2013­16 #12;2 1 From the Chancellor-- UC Santa Cruz is serious about sustainability, and our

  18. The 1954 Tenth Solvay Congress on "Electrons in Metals": Some Professional and Personal Reflections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    The 1954 Tenth Solvay Congress on "Electrons in Metals": Some Professional and Personal Reflections interaction in metals was explored in depth, the 1954 Solvay Congress on "Electrons in Metals". At 30, I was its youngest participant. The memoir below celebrates the Solvay anniversary and the participants

  19. Ice iron/sodium film as cause for high noctilucent cloud radar reflectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellan, Paul M.

    Ice iron/sodium film as cause for high noctilucent cloud radar reflectivity P. M. Bellan1 Received] Noctilucent clouds, tiny cold electrically charged ice grains located at about 85 km altitude, exhibit by assuming the ice grains are coated by a thin metal film; substantial evidence exists indicating

  20. National Center for Digital Government Reflections on The Fog of (Cyber)War

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweik, Charles M.

    National Center for Digital Government Reflections on The Fog of (Cyber)War Diego. These assertions are: (a) Cyberspace is a new operational domain for waging war; (b) Cyber warfare can be as severe, it aims at reconnecting the idea of "fog of war" to its Clausewitzian roots, highlighting the importance

  1. Reflection and tunneling of ocean waves observed at a submarine Jim Thomson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, James T.

    ., 1995], and can be used as proxies to detect tsunamis [Rabinovich and Stephenson, 2004]. Much transport and morphological evolution [Guza and Inman, 1975; Werner and Fink, 1993]. Consequently, mod- els be included in models for coastal waves, currents, and morphological evolution. 2. Theory [3] The reflection

  2. Martine Kaluszynski The return of the dangerous man1. Reflections on the idea of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Martine Kaluszynski The return of the dangerous man1. Reflections on the idea of dangerousness and its uses Abstract In France, the re-emergence of the notion of dangerousness in the process of law of recidivating and pose a particular danger based on serious personality problems. The law regarding security

  3. GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS G(e, 1, n)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS G(e, 1, n) TOSHIAKI SHOJI Department of Mathematics Science University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278­8510, Japan 0. Introduction Green polynomials Q µ # (q) of GL n (F q ), where #, µ are partitions of n, were first introduced by J.A.Green [G] in 1955

  4. Green's function retrieval from reflection data, in absence of a receiver at the virtual source position

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snieder, Roel

    Green's function retrieval from reflection data, in absence of a receiver at the virtual source; accepted 6 March 2014) The methodology of Green's function retrieval by cross-correlation has led to many, a virtual source is created at the position of a receiver. Here a method is discussed for Green's function

  5. GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS G(e, 1, n)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS G(e, 1, n.Introduction Green polynomials Q~~(q) of GLn(Fq), where ~, ~ are partitions of n, were fi* *rst introduced by J.A.Green [G] in 1955 in a combinatorial framework of symmetric f* *unc- tions

  6. REFLECT: Supporting Active Listening and Grounding on the Web through Restatement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Richard

    , March 19­23, 2011, Hangzhou, China. ACM XXX-X-XXXXX-XXX-X/XX/XX. Travis Kriplean Computer Science & Eng the creative energy, emotion, and intelligence of many, are important for moving us toward institutional political, is often hyperbolic. Our hypothesis is that reflective discourse's fragility and elusiveness

  7. Suppressing light reflection from polycrystalline silicon thin films through surface texturing and silver nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akhter, Perveen [Department of Physics, University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, New York 12222 (United States); Huang, Mengbing, E-mail: mhuang@albany.edu; Kadakia, Nirag; Spratt, William; Malladi, Girish; Bakhru, Hassarum [SUNY College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This work demonstrates a novel method combining ion implantation and silver nanostructures for suppressing light reflection from polycrystalline silicon thin films. Samples were implanted with 20-keV hydrogen ions to a dose of 10{sup 17}/cm{sup 2}, and some of them received an additional argon ion implant to a dose of 5?×?10{sup 15} /cm{sup 2} at an energy between 30 and 300?keV. Compared to the case with a single H implant, the processing involved both H and Ar implants and post-implantation annealing has created a much higher degree of surface texturing, leading to a more dramatic reduction of light reflection from polycrystalline Si films over a broadband range between 300 and 1200?nm, e.g., optical reflection from the air/Si interface in the AM1.5 sunlight condition decreasing from ?30% with an untextured surface to below 5% for a highly textured surface after post-implantation annealing at 1000?°C. Formation of Ag nanostructures on these ion beam processed surfaces further reduces light reflection, and surface texturing is expected to have the benefit of diminishing light absorption losses within large-size (>100?nm) Ag nanoparticles, yielding an increased light trapping efficiency within Si as opposed to the case with Ag nanostructures on a smooth surface. A discussion of the effects of surface textures and Ag nanoparticles on light trapping within Si thin films is also presented with the aid of computer simulations.

  8. Measuring contact angle and meniscus shape with a reflected laser beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eibach, T. F.; Nguyen, H.; Butt, H. J.; Auernhammer, G. K., E-mail: auhammer@mpip-mainz.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Fell, D. [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany) [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Center of Smart Interfaces, Technical University Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Side-view imaging of the contact angle between an extended planar solid surface and a liquid is problematic. Even when aligning the view perfectly parallel to the contact line, focusing one point of the contact line is not possible. We describe a new measurement technique for determining contact angles with the reflection of a widened laser sheet on a moving contact line. We verified this new technique measuring the contact angle on a cylinder, rotating partially immersed in a liquid. A laser sheet is inclined under an angle ? to the unperturbed liquid surface and is reflected off the meniscus. Collected on a screen, the reflection image contains information to determine the contact angle. When dividing the laser sheet into an array of laser rays by placing a mesh into the beam path, the shape of the meniscus can be reconstructed from the reflection image. We verified the method by measuring the receding contact angle versus speed for aqueous cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide solutions on a smooth hydrophobized as well as on a rough polystyrene surface.

  9. Computer Graphics Volume 15, Number3 August 1981 A REFLECTANCE MODEL FOR COMPUTER GRAPHICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, James F.

    Computer Graphics Volume 15, Number3 August 1981 A REFLECTANCE MODEL FOR COMPUTER GRAPHICS Robert L. Cook Program of Computer Graphics Cornell University Ithaca, New York 14853 Kenneth E. Torrance Sibley with incidence angle. The paper presents a method for obtaining the spectral energy distribution of the light

  10. Potential Economic Impacts of Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania: Reflections on the Perryman Group Analysis from Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Potential Economic Impacts of Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania: Reflections on the Perryman Group The exploration and development of the Marcellus Shale natural gas play has significant potential to affect in the Barnett Shale region of north Texas. The Barnett Shale play is very similar in geology to the Marcellus

  11. Dnr LTH 2011/ 534 EQ11: Faculty of Engineering (LTH) -self-reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dnr LTH 2011/ 534 EQ11: Faculty of Engineering (LTH) - self-reflection Contents Introduction: The Faculty of Engineering - LTH 2 Part 1: Questions related to individual success factors Area I. Research;2 Introduction: The Faculty of Engineering ­ LTH The Faculty of Engineering (also referred to by the initials

  12. Comparing Local and Global Software Effort Estimation Models Reflections on a Systematic Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    protocols. Keywords: D.2.9.b Cost estimation, project effort prediction, systematic review, empirical of practice in the form of benchmarking, assessment of current activities, estimation of future tasksComparing Local and Global Software Effort Estimation Models ­ Reflections on a Systematic Review

  13. Degradation of polymer/substrate interfaces an attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Degradation of polymer/substrate interfaces ­ an attenuated total reflection Fourier transform degradation of the polymer near the interface. However, such changes were not observed when PVB coated Zn for the observed structural deterioration. Liquid water uptake kinetics for the degraded PVB monitored using ATR

  14. Evaluating CERES angular distribution models for snow using surface reflectance observations from the East Antarctic Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Stephen

    techniques. Data products produced by the CERES team include the observed broadband solar, window long- wave data processing algorithms, used to convert the observed upwelling radiance to an estimate of the upwelling hemispheric flux. We model top-of-atmosphere anisotropic reflectance factors using an atmospheric

  15. Polyimide-waveguide-based thermal optical switch using total-internal-reflection effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    Polyimide-waveguide-based thermal optical switch using total-internal-reflection effect Jianyi Yang with an X junction was designed and fabricated by using the thermo-optic effect of polyimide materials and fabricated the TIR TO switch us- ing polyimide materials. The TO effect of polymeric materials is negative, i

  16. MDE and Mobile agents: another reflection on the agent migration Tahar GHERBI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    code. Mobile agents are a very interesting technology to develop applications for mobile introduces MDE. Section 3 presents the mobile-agent technology, describes the migration operationMDE and Mobile agents: another reflection on the agent migration Tahar GHERBI Computer science

  17. Former Assistant Secretary Reflects on Career High Point Leading EM: 'Well Worth the Effort'

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – In an occasional EM Update series, we feature interviews with former EM Assistant Secretaries to reflect on their achievements and challenges in the world’s largest nuclear cleanup and to discuss endeavors in life after EM.

  18. Fibratus tactile sensor using reflection on an optical lever Satoshi Saga

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tachi, Susumu

    Fibratus tactile sensor using reflection on an optical lever Satoshi Saga Tohoku University Shinobu this fibratus tactile sensor. Keywords: tactile sensor, fiber, image sensor, optical measure- ment, optical measure- ments; further, the wiring assembly is complicated. Some optical sensors [Yamada et al. 2002

  19. CAN REMOTE OBSERVING BE GOOD OBSERVING? REFLECTIONS ON PROCRUSTES AND ANTAEUS 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groppi, Christopher

    CAN REMOTE OBSERVING BE GOOD OBSERVING? REFLECTIONS ON PROCRUSTES AND ANTAEUS 1 Felix J. Lockman 2 National Radio Astronomy Observatory 520 Edgemont Rd. Charlottesville, Va. 22903 USA ABSTRACT Remote tales of Procrustes and Antaeus. This article considers some of the human factors involved in remote

  20. CAN REMOTE OBSERVING BE GOOD OBSERVING? REFLECTIONS ON PROCRUSTES AND ANTAEUS 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lockman, Jay

    CAN REMOTE OBSERVING BE GOOD OBSERVING? REFLECTIONS ON PROCRUSTES AND ANTAEUS 1 Felix J. Lockman National Radio Astronomy Observatory Green Bank, WV 24944 USA ABSTRACT Remote observing seeks to simulate, written in 1992 for a conference proceedings on remote observing, is reprinted here with only slight

  1. Low light reflectance may explain the attraction of birds to defoliated trees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laaksonen, Toni

    Low light reflectance may explain the attraction of birds to defoliated trees Elina Ma¨ntyla¨, Tero autumnata) in nontest branches. Species, age, or sex of the experimental bird or lighting (ultraviolet [UV light than the herbivore trees, whereas no such difference was found in the shadier forest patch trees

  2. Human lightness perception is guided by simple assumptions about reflectance and lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Richard

    Human lightness perception is guided by simple assumptions about reflectance and lighting Richard F 0009, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M3J 1P3 ABSTRACT Lightness constancy is the remarkable ability of human successful approaches to understanding lightness perception that have developed along independent paths

  3. On the Rossi-{alpha} measurement of {beta}{sub eff} in reflected reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doulin, V.A. [Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Spriggs, G.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In unreflected reactors, the probability of detecting chain-related counts is given by the well known Rossi-{alpha} expression. Using this the author derives an expression for the effective delayed neutron fraction, {beta}. He demonstrates that this expression for {beta} is equally applicable for a reflected systems in which two alphas are experimentally observed.

  4. Movement of oxygen vacancies in oxide film during annealing observed by an optical reflectivity difference technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Xiangdong

    Movement of oxygen vacancies in oxide film during annealing observed by an optical reflectivity. The growth and annealing of the film in vacuum and in oxygen ambient are monitored in real time by an oblique tell whether the oxygen vacancies are moving into or moving out of the film during the annealing

  5. Non-Reflecting Internal Wave Beam Propagation in the Deep Ocean Roger Grimshaw1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ). Here we analyze theoretically the penetration of internal waves in an ocean with continuousNon-Reflecting Internal Wave Beam Propagation in the Deep Ocean Roger Grimshaw1) , Efim Pelinovsky1 2008 Using linear internal wave theory for an ocean stratified by both density and current, we identify

  6. Usefulness of the Interface Fresnel zone for simulating the seismic reflected amplitudes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Usefulness of the Interface Fresnel zone for simulating the seismic reflected amplitudes Nathalie.favretto@univ-pau.fr 211 route du Bourg, 64230 Beyrie-en-Béarn, France Keywords Fresnel volume, Interface Fresnel zone Abstract The aim of the paper is to emphasize the importance of accounting for the Fresnel volume (FV

  7. Specular Highlight Detection Based on the Fresnel Reflection Coefficient Elli Angelopoulou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angelopoulou, Elli

    Specular Highlight Detection Based on the Fresnel Reflection Coefficient Elli Angelopoulou a new, physics-based specularity detection method, which de- pends on the Fresnel term of the specular to the Fresnel term at various wave- lengths. We then use mean-shift analysis to segment the im- age based

  8. Selective reflection spectroscopy of a vapour at a calcium fluoride interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Selective reflection spectroscopy of a vapour at a calcium fluoride interface T. Passerat de Silans materials exhibit surface resonances located in the thermal infrared. This makes them interesting to search for a fundamental temperature dependence of the atom-surface interaction, originating in the near-field thermal

  9. Using sheep preference, near infrared reflectance and laboratory tests for predicting voluntary intake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Using sheep preference, near infrared reflectance and laboratory tests for predicting voluntary for grinding ; N, NDF, ADF ; in vitro DMD ; and 4 promising second derivatives of the near infrared spectrum in VDMI, gas production methods lose their predictive ability in favour of in sacco methods. Near Infrared

  10. Needle-based reflection refractometry of scattering samples using coherence-gated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boppart, Stephen

    effects of internal refractive index variation in near-infrared optical tomography: a finite element, and K. D. Paulsen, "Effects of refractive index on near- infrared tomography of the breast," Appl. OptNeedle-based reflection refractometry of scattering samples using coherence-gated detection Adam M

  11. Reflectivity and scattering measurements of an Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility test coating sample

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bixler, J.V.; Mauche, C.W.; Hailey, C.J.; Madison, L. [Laboratory for Experimental Astrophysics, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflectivity and scattering profile measurements were made on a gold-coated witness sample produced to evaluate mirror coatings for the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility program. Reflectivity measurements were made at Al K, Ti K, and Cu K energies as a function of incident graze angle. The results are fit to a model that includes the effects of roughness, particulate and organic contamination layers, and gold-coating density. Reflectivities are close to theoretical, with the difference being well accounted for by 4.1 A of roughness at spatial frequencies above 4 {mu}m{sup {minus}1}, a gold-coating density equal to 0.98 bulk, and a surface contaminant layer 27 A thick. Scattering measurements extending to {plus_minus}35 arcmin of the line center were obtained by the use of Al K x rays and incidence angles from 0.75{degree} to 3{degree}. The scattering profiles imply a power spectral density of surface-scattering frequencies that follows a power law with an index of {minus}1.0 and a total surface roughness for the spatial frequency band between 0.05 {mu}m{sup {minus}1} and 4 {mu}m{sup {minus}1} of 3.3 A. Combining the roughnesses derived from both the reflectivity and scattering measurements yields a total roughness of 5.3 A for scattering frequencies between 0.05 {mu}m{sup {minus}1} and 15,000 {mu}m{sup {minus}1}.

  12. Infrared reflectance and transmission spectra in II-VI alloys and superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talwar, Devki N.

    Room temperature measurements of the far-infrared (FIR) reflectance spectra are reported for the polar optical phonons in a series of bulk Cd[subscript x]Zn[subscript 1?x]Te (0 ? x ? 1) and CdSe[subscript x]Te[subscript ...

  13. Carotenoid Gene Nucleotide Diversity Reflects Carrot History and J. Clotault1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Carotenoid Gene Nucleotide Diversity Reflects Carrot History and Selection J. Clotault1 , Emmanuel. The purpose of our work was to study the nucleotide diversity of carotenoid biosynthesis genes. A sample of 48). Compared to other species, a quite high single nucleotide (SNP) frequency was found for these genes (1

  14. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700251 Control of Specular and Diffuse Reflection of Light Using Particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Ilsoon

    reflectors are widely used in the back-light units of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels,[1­4] light-emitting diodes (LED)[5,6] and solar cell devices.[7,8] A perfect diffuse reflector is matter that reflects and low solar absorption, metals easily satisfy the general requirements for diffuse reflectors

  15. The secret symmetries of the AdS/CFT reflection matrices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vidas Regelskis

    2011-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We find new twisted Yangian symmetries of the AdS/CFT reflection matrices for the Y=0 maximal giant graviton and D5-brane. These new symmetries originate from the known secret symmetries of the Yangian symmetry of the AdS/CFT S-matrix.

  16. Difference-frequency generation in AlGaAs Bragg reflection waveguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) at DF. Conservation of energy requires that DF ¼ p - s. For maximizing power transfer among the inter span of 40 nm, which was limited by instrumentation. © 2010 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 190 as a Bragg mode, while the signal and DF propagate as total internal reflection (TIR) modes. A detailed

  17. In situ growth regime characterization of cubic GaN using reflection high energy electron diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    As, Donat Josef

    from Knudsen cells. Cubic GaN layers were deposited at 720 °C directly on 3C-SiC substrates shutters the GaN surface was exposed to different Ga fluxes for a certain time. The substrate temperatureIn situ growth regime characterization of cubic GaN using reflection high energy electron

  18. Oblique-incidence reflectivity difference microscope for label-free high-throughput detection of biochemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Xiangdong

    Oblique-incidence reflectivity difference microscope for label-free high-throughput detection (OI-RD) microscope, a form of polarization-modulated imaging ellipsometer, for label on the polarizer­ compensator­sample­analyzer scheme and under the off-null condition, a polarization-modulated OI

  19. Reflection on a model of accident reporting to help to implement efficient prevention strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Reflection on a model of accident reporting to help to implement efficient prevention strategies to deliver the relevant action plan especially to control occupational accidents. The aim of the article is to present our approach to analyze the classical Heinrich's model of occupational accidents and the classical

  20. The effect of specular reflection on spaceborne lidar measurements of ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    Chapter 2 The effect of specular reflection on spaceborne lidar measurements of ice clouds Summary increase in extinction, it can make interpretation of the lidar echo in terms of cloud radiative properties stage which have among their primary aims the global measurement of ice clouds. The NASA Calipso lidar

  1. Technology Performance Exchange (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet, 'The Technology Performance Exchange' will be presented at the ET Summit, held at the Pasadena Convention Center on October 15-17, 2012. The Technology Performance Exchange will be a centralized, Web-based portal for finding and sharing energy performance data for commercial building technologies.

  2. BUILDING PERFORMANCE ENGINEERING DURING CONSTRUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toole, T. Michael

    1 BUILDING PERFORMANCE ENGINEERING DURING CONSTRUCTION T. Michael Toole1 and Matthew Hallowell2 of building performance engineering tasks on design-bid-build projects are typically provided by entities building construction projects. Twenty four building performance engineering tasks were required

  3. Environmental Public Health Performance Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environmental Public Health Performance Standards (Version 2.0) Updated May 2014 National Center for Environmental Health Division of Emergency and Environmental Health Services #12;#12;Environmental Public Health Performance Standards (Version 2.0) Updated May 2014 #12;Environmental Public Health Performance Standards

  4. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF PID CONTROLLERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF PID CONTROLLERS W. Tan, H. J. Marquez, and T. Chen§ Abstract: Criteria based on disturbance rejection and system robustness are proposed to assess the performance of PID-loop or multi-loop. Key Words: PID Control; Tuning; Performance; Robustness; Structured Singular Value. 1

  5. High Performance Computing contributions to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Performance Computing contributions to DoD Mission Success 2002 #12;Approved for public/C nanotube in a field emitter configuration #12;HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING contributions tocontributions ­ SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Introduction 3 Overview of the High Performance Computing Modernization Program 3

  6. Environmental Compliance Performance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compliance Environmental Compliance Performance Environmental Compliance Performance Most Office of Environmental Management (EM) cleanup is being performed under the...

  7. Effects of composition and exposure on the solar reflectance of Portland cement concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem

    2001-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing the solar reflectance (albedo) of a paved surface keeps it cooler in the sun, reducing convection of heat from pavement to air and thereby decreasing the ambient air temperature. Simulations of the influence of pavement albedo on air temperature in Los Angeles predict that increasing the albedo of 1,250 km2 of pavement by 0.25 would save cooling energy worth $15M yr-1, and reduce smog-related medical and lost-work expenses by $76M yr-1. Most sidewalks and a small fraction of roads and parking areas are paved with portland cement concrete, which can be made quite reflective through suitable choice of cement and aggregate. Variations with composition and environmental exposure of the albedos of portland cement concrete pavements were investigated through laboratory fabrication and exposure of 32 mixes of concrete. Twenty-four mixes yielded substandard, ''rough'' concretes due to high, unmet aggregate water demand. The albedos of the remaining eight ''smooth'' concrete mixes ranged from 0.41 to 0.77 (mean 0.59). Simulated weathering, soiling, and abrasion each reduced average concrete albedo (mean decreases 0.06, 0.05, and 0.19, respectively), though some samples became slightly more reflective through weathering or soiling. Simulated rain (wetting) strongly depressed the albedos of concretes (mean decrease 0.23) until their surfaces were dried. Concrete albedo grew as the cement hydration reaction progressed (mean increase 0.08), but stabilized within six weeks of casting. White-cement concretes were on average significantly more reflective than gray-cement concretes. The albedo of the most-reflective white-cement concrete was 0.18 to 0.39 higher than that of the most-reflective gray-cement concrete, depending on state of exposure. Concrete albedo generally correlated with cement albedo and sand albedo, and, after abrasion, with rock albedo. Cement albedo had a disproportionately strong influence on the reflectance of concrete. Efflorescence and surface carbonation whitened some gray-cement mixes.

  8. Method and apparatus for detecting the presence and thickness of carbon and oxide layers on EUV reflective surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malinowski, Michael E.

    2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristics of radiation that is reflected from carbon deposits and oxidation formations on highly reflective surfaces such as Mo/Si mirrors can be quantified and employed to detect and measure the presence of such impurities on optics. Specifically, it has been shown that carbon deposits on a Mo/Si multilayer mirror decreases the intensity of reflected HeNe laser (632.8 nm) light. In contrast, oxide layers formed on the mirror should cause an increase in HeNe power reflection. Both static measurements and real-time monitoring of carbon and oxide surface impurities on optical elements in lithography tools should be achievable.

  9. NON-INVASIVE DETERMINATION OF THE LOCATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF FREE-PHASE DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS (DNAPL) BY SEISMIC REFLECTION TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. Waddell; William J. Domoracki; Tom J. Temples

    2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This semi-annual technical progress report is for Task 4 site evaluation, Task 5 seismic reflection design and acquisition, and Task 6 seismic reflection processing and interpretation on DOE contact number DE-AR26-98FT40369. The project had planned one additional deployment to another site other than Savannah River Site (SRS) or DOE Hanford. During this reporting period the project had an ASME peer review. The findings and recommendation of the review panel, as well at the project team response to comments, are in Appendix A. After the SUBCON midyear review in Albuquerque, NM and the peer review it was decided that two additional deployments would be performed. The first deployment is to test the feasibility of using non-invasive seismic reflection and AVO analysis as monitoring to assist in determining the effectiveness of Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) in removal of DNAPL. Under the rescope of the project, Task 4 would be performed at the Charleston Navy Weapons Station, Charleston, SC and not at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) project at SRS. The project team had already completed Task 4 at the M-area seepage basin, only a few hundred yards away from the DUS site. Because the geology is the same, Task 4 was not necessary. However, a Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) was conducted in one well to calibrate the geology to the seismic data. The first deployment to the DUS Site (Tasks 5 and 6) has been completed. Once the steam has been turned off these tasks will be performed again to compare the results to the pre-steam data. The results from the first deployment to the DUS site indicated a seismic amplitude anomaly at the location and depths of the known high concentrations of DNAPL. The deployment to another site with different geologic conditions was supposed to occur during this reporting period. The first site selected was DOE Paducah, Kentucky. After almost eight months of negotiation, site access was denied requiring the selection of another site. An alternate, site the Department of Defense (DOD) Charleston Navy Weapons Station, Charleston, SC was selected in consultation with National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and DOD Navy Facilities Engineering Command Southern Division (NAVFAC) personnel. Tasks 4, 5, and 6 will be performed at the Charleston Navy Weapons Station. Task 4 will be executed twice. The project team had almost completed Task 4 at Paducah before access was denied.

  10. Mid- and Far-Infrared Reflection/Absorption Spectroscopy (IRAS) Studies of NO on Rh Single Crystal Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peden, Charles HF; He, Ting; Pilling, M.; Hirschmugl, Carol J.; Gardner, P.

    2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The NO/CO reaction over Rh metal in automobile catalytic converters is critical to the control of emissions of these pollutant molecules. As part of a program to determine the elementary mechanism(s) of this reaction, we have been performing mid- and far-infrared reflection/absorption spectroscopic (IRAS) measurements of the adsorption and co-adsorption and co-adsorption of NO and CO on Rh single crystal surfaces. Of particular interest is the low-frequency range of the IRAS spectra where we hoped to observe features due to metal-N stretching and/or bending vibrational motions. In particular, we hoped to obtain information regarding the site-requirements for the dissociation of the NO molecule on various Rh single crystal surfaces. An important result from our earlier work is that the selectivity of the reaction for the two nitrogen-containing products, N2 and N2O, is a strong function of the Rh surface structure. On the basis of ancillary data, we suggested that the location of adsorbed NO and N-atoms (formed from dissociation of adsorbed NO) on various Rh surfaces could, perhaps account for the selectivity differences.

  11. Gafchromic EBT2 film dosimetry in reflection mode with a novel plan-based calibration method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendez, I.; Hartman, V.; Hudej, R.; Strojnik, A.; Casar, B. [Department of Medical Physics, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Zaloska cesta 2, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose:A dosimetric system formed by Gafchromic EBT2 radiochromic film and Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner was commissioned for dosimetry. In this paper, several open questions concerning the commissioning of radiochromic films for dosimetry were addressed: (a) is it possible to employ this dosimetric system in reflection mode; (b) if so, can the methods used in transmission mode also be used in reflection mode; (c) is it possible to obtain accurate absolute dose measurements with Gafchromic EBT2 films; (d) which calibration method should be followed; (e) which calibration models should be used; and (f) does three-color channel dosimetry offer a significant improvement over single channel dosimetry. The purpose of this paper is to help clarify these questions. Methods: In this study, films were scanned in reflection mode, the effect of surrounding film was evaluated and the feasibility of EBT2 film dosimetry in reflection mode was studied. EBT2's response homogeneity has been reported to lead to excessive dose uncertainties. To overcome this problem, a new plan-based calibration method was implemented. Plan-based calibration can use every pixel and each of the three color channels of the scanned film to obtain the parameters of the calibration model. A model selection analysis was conducted to select lateral correction and sensitometric curve models. The commonly used calibration with fragments was compared with red-channel plan-based calibration and with three-channel plan-based calibration. Results: No effect of surrounding film was found in this study. The film response inhomogeneity in EBT2 films was found to be important not only due to differences in the fog but also due to differences in sensitivity. The best results for lateral corrections were obtained using absolute corrections independent of the dose. With respect to the sensitometric curves, an empirical polynomial fit of order 4 was found to obtain results equivalent to a gamma-distributed single hit model based on physical assumptions. Three-channel dosimetry was found to be substantially superior to red-channel dosimetry. Conclusions: Reflection mode with Gafchromic EBT2 radiochromic film was found to be a viable alternative to transmission mode. The same methods that are used in transmission mode can be followed in reflection mode. A novel plan-based method was developed for calibration and multichannel dosimetry. This novel method offers increased robustness against film response inhomogeneities and reduces considerably the time required for calibration.

  12. The “I” in Team: Coach Incivility, Coach Sex, and Team Performance in Female Basketball Teams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smittick, Amber Leola

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    construct. Affective commitment has demonstrated strong relationships with organization-relevant criteria (e.g., attendance, performance, and organizational citizenship behavior) in comparison to the other forms of commitment (Meyer, Stanley, David... through the combination of each individual team member’s evaluation of commitment to their team. In short it represents the team’s collective level of attachment to the team; this definition reflects Meyer and Allen’s (1991) affective commitment...

  13. Infrared reflection of GaN and AlGaN thin film heterostructures with AlN buffer layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetzel, Christian M.

    Infrared reflection of GaN and AlGaN thin film heterostructures with AlN buffer layers C. Wetzel, Nagoya, Japan Received 11 December 1995; accepted for publication 21 February 1996 Infrared reflection, their alloys and potential substrates need to be investigated as well. Here we present a study of the infrared

  14. Adsorption and Reaction of NO on Cu(100): An Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopic Study at 25 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    Adsorption and Reaction of NO on Cu(100): An Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopic Study oxide (NO) on a Cu(100) surface at 25 K has been studied using infrared reflection absorption to the Cu(100) surface. Heating to 55 K leads to reorientation of the dimer molecules in the multilayer

  15. Materials Science and Engineering B72 (2000) 5658 High-temperature infrared reflectivity of yttria-stabilized hafnia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    KuÂ?el, Petr

    and to follow its development upon heating in order to check for presence of possible effects in far infraredMaterials Science and Engineering B72 (2000) 56­58 Letter High-temperature infrared reflectivity Prague 8, Czech Republic Received 11 November 1999 Abstract Infrared reflectivity spectra of cubic yttria

  16. The effect of encapsulation on the reflectance of photovoltaic modules using textured multicrystalline-silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, J.M.; Schubert, W.K.; Tardy, H.L.; Hund, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robison, G. [Semiconductor Assembly Network, Prescott Valley, AZ (United States)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Texturing multicrystalline-silicon cells is a promising technique for reducing reflectance losses. We investigated two methods for texturing multicrystalline-silicon solar cells - anisotropic chemical etch and mechanical dicing saw. Our work emphasized reducing reflectance in the encapsulated module by using optical confinement in the module. We found that optical confinement in the module is very important in the optimization of texture geometries.

  17. Local order measurement in SnGe alloys and monolayer Sn films on Si with reflection electron energy loss spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    fine structure EXELFS data obtained by reflection electron energy loss spectrometry REELS-range order obtained using reflection high energy electron diffraction. The results suggest that EXELFS synthesis of artificial structures with abrupt strain and composition profiles. Re- flection high energy

  18. /II sifu reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements of low temperature surface cleaning for Si molecular beam epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    /II sifu reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements of low temperature surface cleaning for Si molecular beam epitaxy Shouleh Nikzad, Selmer S. Wong, Channing C. Ahn, Aimee L. Smith molecular beam epitaxy system, using reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy, in conjunction

  19. Comparison and detection of total and available soil carbon fractions using visible/near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grunwald, Sabine

    . With the advent of visible/near-infrared-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VNIR-DRS) to infer on soil C fractionsComparison and detection of total and available soil carbon fractions using visible/near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy D.V. Sarkhot a,1,2 , S. Grunwald a, , Y. Ge b,3 , C.L.S. Morgan c,4

  20. DO THE INFRARED EMISSION FEATURES NEED ULTRAVIOLET EXCITATION? THE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON MODEL IN UV-POOR REFLECTION NEBULAE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Draine, Bruce T.

    '' PAHs in reflection nebulae near stars as cool as Teff ¼ 3000 K can result in observable emis- sion at 6DO THE INFRARED EMISSION FEATURES NEED ULTRAVIOLET EXCITATION? THE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON MODEL IN UV-POOR REFLECTION NEBULAE Aigen Li and B. T. Draine Department of Astrophysical Sciences