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1

Small boiler uses waste coal  

SciTech Connect

Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

Virr, M.J. [Spinheat Ltd. (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

2

NETL: News Release - Converting Coal Wastes to Clean Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

November 28, 2000 November 28, 2000 Converting Coal Wastes to Clean Energy DOE to Scale Up 3 Projects That Upgrade Coal Fines, Wastes PITTSBURGH, PA - Three new technologies that can help the nation's coal industry turn waste into energy are now ready for scale up, the U.S. Department of Energy said today. MORE INFO Solid Fuels & Feedstocks Program Each of the three recover carbon-rich materials that in the past have been discarded during coal mining and cleaning operations. Using innovative approaches, the technologies remove unwanted water and other impurities and upgrade the waste materials into clean-burning fuels for power plants. The three were first selected for smaller-scale research in August 1998 as part of the Energy Department's Fossil Energy "solid fuels and feedstocks"

3

Environmental control technology for coal cleaning wastes  

SciTech Connect

Chemical and mineralogical examination of coal wastes and their drainages has led us to consider three approaches to solution of the coal waste drainage problem. The first is alteration of the waste to render it non-polluting. Calcining of the waste has been shown to be an effective way of accomplishing this, but the cost of this technique is too high for it to be of any use. The second approach is codisposal of the coal waste with neutralizing and/or absorbing agents. The best way to implementing this approach is sequential slurry coating of the coal waste with lime and limestone, which is both effective and inexpensive. This is probably the best of the one-time treatments which we have evaluated when both effectiveness and cost are considered. Unfortunately this approach suffers from a lack of permanence and must be augmented with some other method of permanent diposal. The third approach to controlling coal waste effluent is to collect and treat the drainages. Perhaps the most effective way of doing this is by alkaline neutralization of the drainages. This is currently the most widely used technique for this purpose, because of its simplicity and availability. We have shown that it is effective provided that the iron is oxidized to the plus three oxidation state, and that the cost of this treatment is low. However, the need for continued treatment into the indefinite future must be considered a severe limitation.

Wagner, P.; Heaton, R.C.; Wangen, L.E.; Nyitray, A.M.; Jones, M.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Commercialization of waste gob gas and methane produced in conjunction with coal mining operations. Final report, August 1992--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The primary objectives of the project were to identify and evaluate existing processes for (1) using gas as a feedstock for production of marketable, value-added commodities, and (2) enriching contaminated gas to pipeline quality. The following gas conversion technologies were evaluated: (1) transformation to liquid fuels, (2) manufacture of methanol, (3) synthesis of mixed alcohols, and (4) conversion to ammonia and urea. All of these involved synthesis gas production prior to conversion to the desired end products. Most of the conversion technologies evaluated were found to be mature processes operating at a large scale. A drawback in all of the processes was the need to have a relatively pure feedstock, thereby requiring gas clean-up prior to conversion. Despite this requirement, the conversion technologies were preliminarily found to be marginally economic. However, the prohibitively high investment for a combined gas clean-up/conversion facility required that REI refocus the project to investigation of gas enrichment alternatives. Enrichment of a gas stream with only one contaminant is a relatively straightforward process (depending on the contaminant) using available technology. However, gob gas has a unique nature, being typically composed of from constituents. These components are: methane, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor. Each of the four contaminants may be separated from the methane using existing technologies that have varying degrees of complexity and compatibility. However, the operating and cost effectiveness of the combined system is dependent on careful integration of the clean-up processes. REI is pursuing Phase 2 of this project for demonstration of a waste gas enrichment facility using the approach described above. This is expected to result in the validation of the commercial and technical viability of the facility, and the refinement of design parameters.

Not Available

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Energy from waste via coal/waste co-firing  

SciTech Connect

The paper reviews the feasibility of waste-to-energy plants using the cocombustion of coal with refuse-derived fuels. The paper discusses the types of wastes available: municipal solid wastes, plastics, tires, biomass, and specialized industrial wastes, such as waste oils, post-consumer carpet, auto shredder residues, and petroleum coke. The five most common combustion systems used in co-firing are briefly described. They are the stoker boiler, suspension-fired boilers, cyclone furnaces, fluidized bed boilers, and cement kilns. The paper also discusses the economic incentives for generating electricity from waste.

Winslow, J.; Ekmann, J.; Smouse, S. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Ramezan, M. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Harding, S.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

6

Geotechnical/geochemical characterization of advanced coal process waste streams: Task 2  

SciTech Connect

Successful disposal practices for solid wastes produced from advanced coal combustion and coal conversion processes must provide for efficient management of relatively large volumes of wastes in a cost-effective and environmentally safe manner. At present, most coal-utilization solid wastes are disposed of using various types of land-based systems, and it is probable that this disposal mode will continue to be widely used in the future for advanced process wastes. Proper design and operation of land-based disposal systems for coal combustion wastes normally require appropriate waste transfer, storage, and conditioning subsystems at the plant to prepare the waste for transport to an ultimate disposal site. Further, the overall waste management plan should include a by-product marketing program to minimize the amount of waste that will require disposal. In order to properly design and operate waste management systems for advanced coal-utilization processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical properties, chemical and mineral compositions, and leaching behaviors of the wastes is required. In order to gain information about the wastes produced by advanced coal-utilization processes, 55 waste samples from 16 different coal gasification, fluidized-bed coal combustion (FBC), and advanced flue gas scrubbing processes were collected. Thirty-four of these wastes were analyzed for their bulk chemical and mineral compositions and tested for a detailed set of disposal-related physical properties. The results of these waste characterizations are presented in this report. In addition to the waste characterization data, this report contains a discussion of potentially useful waste management practices for advanced coal utilization processes.

Moretti, C.J.; Olson, E.S.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Trash or treasure? Putting coal combustion waste to work  

SciTech Connect

The use of coal combustion wastes from power plants in construction materials, leaching and the impact of regulations are discussed.

Tenenbaum, D.J.

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

8

Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste, and method for producing the same, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces.

Burnet, George (Ames, IA); Gokhale, Ashok J. (College Station, TX)

1990-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

9

Cofiring waste biofuels and coal for emissions reduction  

SciTech Connect

Combustion tests have been performed in two pilot-scale combustion facilities to evaluate the emissions reduction possible while firing coal blended with several different biofuels. Two different boiler simulations, pulverized coal fired boilers and stoker coal fired boilers, were simulated. The pc-fired studies investigated the use of waste hardwood and softwood with pulverized coal, or using the biofuels as potential reburning fuels. The use of these wood waste is attractive because: wood contains little nitrogen and virtually no sulfur; wood is a regenerable biofuel; and wood utilization results in a net reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions. The wood reburning results indicate a reduction of 50-60% NO with approximately 10% wood heat input. Reburn stoichiometry was the most important variable. The NO reduction was strongly dependent upon initial NO and only slightly dependent upon temperature and wood moisture content. Cofiring of wood with pulverized coal; however, did not lead to significant NO reductions with the current NO{sub x} burner configuration. The stoker program investigated barriers for the successful blending of coal with waste railroad ties. Parameters evaluated included blending firing rate, chip size, optimum feed location, overfire/underfire air ratio, and natural gas addition. The results of this study demonstrate that NO emissions can be reduced by more than 50% without any significant increase in CO or THC emissions by the proper use of zoned reburning. Both programs demonstrated several benefits of biofuel cofiring, including: (1) lower operating costs due to reduced fuel prices; (2) reduced waste disposal; (3) reduced maintenance costs; (4) reduced environmental costs; and (5) extension of the useful life of existing equipment.

Brouwer, J.; Owens, W.D.; Harding, N.S. [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Understanding pulverised coal, biomass and waste combustion – A brief overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Pulverised coal (PC) firing has been the dominant technology for generating power in utility boilers for almost a century. During this period, boiler designs have evolved through an accumulating collection of knowledge that has led to many empirical relationships that still guide current and future design directions to some degree. In the late 1940s the developed nations began to undertake coal research based on scientific principles to ensure the most efficient use of the primary energy resource represented by coal. As the body of scientific knowledge on the physics and chemistry of coal combustion grew, it was used to direct the improvements to efficiency required and, later, the control of pollutants produced during the combustion of coal. This involves not only the control of emissions of particulates, \\{SOx\\} and oxides of nitrogen but also of trace elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and, importantly, CO2. There have been a number of significant developments in the coal-fired power generation sector including cofiring with secondary fuels, particularly biomass and waste, and the development of radically different combustion systems (for example, oxyfuel) to meet carbon capture and storage requirements. Each of these developments has impacted upon the way in which PC-fired boilers are configured and operated and further complicated an already complex combustion environment. This paper outlines the developments in PC combustion and the new techniques that have been developed to enhance our understanding of the processes involved. The paper is based on a comprehensive IEA Clean Coal Centre study “Understanding pulverised coal, biomass and waste combustion”. Ian Barnes, CCC/205 ISBN 978-92-9029-525-9, September 2012.

D. Ian Barnes

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Analysis of options for coal combustion waste management in the Pacific Basin  

SciTech Connect

Many Pacific Basin countries rely on oil for electricity production. Alternative fuel sources such as coal, which is available in the Pacific Basin, can help mitigate adverse impacts of sudden price increases or supply disruptions. Coal combustion produces solid and potentially hazardous wastes of concern to environmental regulators and utility managers. This paper identifies issues associated with managing coal combustion wastes in the Pacific Basin, using the state of Hawaii as a case study. Hawaii is typical of many Pacific Basin locations in that it depends on oil, has limited sites, for waste management operations, and is subject to domestic and international waste management regulations. The paper discusses coal-fired utility wastes, environmental impacts of coal combustion waste disposal, and regulatory requirements that impact coal waste management. From this baseline, potential on- and off-island options for coal waste management are identified. Waste management costs are estimated and non-quantifiable issues are addressed for each option. Many options are applicable across the Pacific Rim and may serve as a basis for future fuel-use decisions.

Elcock, D.; Gasper, J.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Coal/waste cofiring: International survey of combustion practices  

SciTech Connect

Coal is an abundant fuel resource worldwide with an historically stable price. The use of coal is expected to increase, particularly in developing countries; and, as industrialization increases, so will the amount of various waste materials and the environmental problems associated with their disposal. Therefore, coal/waste cofiring can offer an environmentally sound, economic approach to both waste remediation and energy production. This paper highlights the results of an international survey of coal/waste cofiring by describing the principal wastes used and the combustion technologies employed. Also provided are examples of cofiring and areas where cofired fuel parameters will have an effect on boiler performance.

Harding, N.S.; Smouse, S.M.; Ekmann, J.M.; Winslow, J.S. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Ramezan, M. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

13

A Forecast of Composition of Coal Wastes and of their Directions of Utilization During Explorations in Coal Deposits in the Ussr  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SUMMARY The production methods used In the USSR as well as the investigations of the composition, technological properties and wastes reserves from mining operations, coal preparation and coal utilization at the process of deposits surveying have been considered in the report. The principles and specifications, used for the evaluation of associated with coal materials, mineral components and rare elements, contained in solid fuels including the methods for investigation of the elements, hazardous for the environment, have been presented. The directions and specifications (norms) for the utilization of overburden sands and gravel, clays, carbonates and other rocks, coaly rocks of internal ripping material, coal preparation wastes, ashes and slags have been considered.

V.R. Kler; M. Ya. Shpirt

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Preliminary Experimental Studies of Waste Coal Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal mining is one of Australia’s most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects ... . To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to ...

S. Su; Y. G. Jin; X. X. Yu; R. Worrall

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Economic environment of coal mining operations in Appalachia, United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Appalachia is a mountainous coal region, in the United States, where the small mining operation dominates. The large number of small coal operations makes the coal industry in that area very competitive, the industry concentration ratio being low. The vast majority of the small coal operations are contractors and nonunionized. There are various circumstances under which a large company will elect to supplement their coal production from their, usually larger, coal mines. The size of the coal mine is generally dictated by the size and location of the coal reserves. The optimum rate of coal extraction, and hence the life of the mine, is a factor of the size of the coal reserves and the contribution margin (coal price less variable cost). Large companies tend to have better safety records than smaller companies due to greater numbers of professional engineers and better management. Small mines have the advantage of closer supervision.

A.B. Szwilski

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Use of the GranuFlow Process in Coal Preparation Plants to Improve Energy Recovery and Reduce Coal Processing Wastes  

SciTech Connect

With the increasing use of screen-bowl centrifuges in today's fine coal cleaning circuits, a significant amount of low-ash, high-Btu coal can be lost during the dewatering step due to the difficulty in capturing coal of this size consist (< 100 mesh or 0.15mm). The GranuFlow{trademark} technology, developed and patented by an in-house research group at DOE-NETL, involves the addition of an emulsified mixture of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons to a slurry of finesized coal before cleaning and/or mechanical dewatering. The binder selectively agglomerates the coal, but not the clays or other mineral matter. In practice, the binder is applied so as to contact the finest possible size fraction first (for example, froth flotation product) as agglomeration of this fraction produces the best result for a given concentration of binder. Increasing the size consist of the fine-sized coal stream reduces the loss of coal solids to the waste effluent streams from the screen bowl centrifuge circuit. In addition, the agglomerated coal dewaters better and is less dusty. The binder can also serve as a flotation conditioner and may provide freeze protection. The overall objective of the project is to generate all necessary information and data required to commercialize the GranuFlow{trademark} Technology. The technology was evaluated under full-scale operating conditions at three commercial coal preparation plants to determine operating performance and economics. The handling, storage, and combustion properties of the coal produced by this process were compared to untreated coal during a power plant combustion test.

Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

17

ELECTROKINETIC DENSIFICATION OF COAL FINES IN WASTE PONDS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research was to demonstrate that electrokinetics can be used to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal-washing ponds and lakes without the addition of chemical additives such as salts and polymeric flocculants. The specific objectives were: Design and develop a scaleable electrophoresis apparatus to clarify suspensions of colloidal coal and clay particles; Demonstrate the separation process using polluted waste water from the coal-washing facilities at the coal-fired power plants in Centralia, WA; Develop a mathematical model of the process to predict the rate of clarification and the suspension electrical properties needed for scale up.

E. James Davis

1999-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

18

Co-processing of agricultural and biomass waste with coal  

SciTech Connect

A major thrust of our research program is the use of waste materials as co-liquefaction agents for the first-stage conversion of coal to liquid fuels. By fulfilling one or more of the roles of an expensive solvent in the direct coal liquefaction (DCL) process, the waste material is disposed off ex-landfill, and may improve the overall economics of DCL. Work in our group has concentrated on co-liquefaction with waste rubber tires, some results from which are presented elsewhere in these Preprints. In this paper, we report on preliminary results with agricultural and biomass-type waste as co-liquefaction agents.

Stiller, A.H.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Wann, Ji-Perng [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

19

GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require ultimate disposal when it is put to use. Each task three waste was evaluated for utilization potential based on its physical properties, bulk chemical composition, and mineral composition. Only one of the thirteen materials studied might be suitable for use as a pozzolanic concrete additive. However, many wastes appeared to be suitable for other high-volume uses such as blasting grit, fine aggregate for asphalt concrete, road deicer, structural fill material, soil stabilization additives, waste stabilization additives, landfill cover material, and pavement base course construction.

Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Weak economy and politics worry US coal operators  

SciTech Connect

A potential decrease in demand, a new administration, and production constraints have coal operators worried about prospects for 2009. This and other interesting facts are revealed in this 2009 forecast by the journal Coal Age. Results are presented of the survey answered by 69 of the 646 executives contacted, on such questions about expected coal production, coal use, attitude in the coal industry, capital expenditure on types of equipment and productive capacity. Coal Age forecasts a 2.3% decline in coal production in 2009, down to 1.145 billion tons from 1.172 billion tons. 8 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operations waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Investigation of benefit of using coal wastes in cement production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Waste disposal in coal preparation plants leads to serious environmental problems. These wastes usually contain about 20% carbon, and the composition of the remaining ash is similar to clay. Addition of these wastes to cement clinker raw material utilises carbon as a source of energy. In this investigation, the effect of addition of these waste materials to the raw materials used in cement manufacture is studied. Ordinary type II cement and sulphoaluminate cement may be produced from the wastes. Mechanical strength, chemical and phase analysis, setting time and particle size distribution of the cement were studied. The results of the experiments show that an addition of about 3% of the coal wastes to the raw materials used in cement manufacture produces cements with good quality. Further, energy consumption may be reduced by up to 15%.

A. Sarrafi; M.R. Izadpanah; A. Ebrahimi; A.I. Mansouri

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Plastic wastes as modifiers of the thermoplasticity of coal  

SciTech Connect

Plastic waste recycling represents a major challenge in environmental protection with different routes now available for dealing with mechanical, chemical, and energy recycling. New concepts in plastic waste recycling have emerged so that now such wastes can be used to replace fossil fuels, either as an energy source or as a secondary raw material. Our objective is to explore the modification of the thermoplastic properties of coal in order to assess the possibility of adding plastic waste to coal for the production of metallurgical coke. Two bituminous coals of different rank and thermoplastic properties were used as a base component of blends with plastic wastes such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and acrilonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS). In all cases, the addition of plastic waste led to a reduction in Gieseler maximum fluidity, the extent of the reduction depending on the fluidity of the base coal, and the amount, the molecular structure, and the thermal behavior of the polymer. As a consequence, the amount of volatile matter released by the plastic waste before, during, and after the maximum fluidity of the coal and the hydrogen-donor and hydrogen-acceptor capacities of the polymer were concluded to be key factors in influencing the extent of the reduction in fluidity and the development of anisotropic carbons. The incorporation of the plastic to the carbon matrix was clearly established in semicokes produced from blends of a high-fluid coal and the plastic tested by SEM examination. 42 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

M.A. Diez; C. Barriocanal; R. Alvarez [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR), Oviedo (Spain)

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Method of operating a two-stage coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of operating an entrained flow coal gasifier (10) via a two-stage gasification process. A portion of the coal (18) to be gasified is combusted in a combustion zone (30) with near stoichiometric air to generate combustion products. The combustion products are conveyed from the combustion zone into a reduction zone (32) wherein additional coal is injected into the combustion products to react with the combustion products to form a combustible gas. The additional coal is injected into the reduction zone as a mixture (60) consisting of coal and steam, preferably with a coal-to-steam weight ratio of approximately ten to one.

Tanca, Michael C. (Tariffville, CT)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Co-processing of agriculture and biomass waste with coal  

SciTech Connect

Biomass and bio-processed waste are potential candidates for co-liquefaction with coal. Specific materials used here include sawdust and poultry manure. Liquefaction experiments were run on each of these materials, separately and with coal, using tetralin as solvent at 350{degrees}C and 1000 psi(cold) hydrogen pressure for 1h. Total conversion was monitored, as well as conversion to asphaltenes, oils and gases. All the biomass samples are converted to oils and gases under the reaction conditions. Poultry manure seems to convert coal more completely, and to produce more oils and gases, than conventional liquefaction.

Stiller, A.H.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Wann, J.P. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Balancing act creating the right regulation for coal combustion waste  

SciTech Connect

The December 2008 collapse of a coal ash pond in Tennessee threw safe management of coal combustion waste (CCW) into the spotlight. Millions of tons of CCW are produced in the United States each year, and a large percentage of that is recycled. The US Environmental Protection Agency is pursuing a host of initiatives that could directly or indirectly affect the disposition of CCW. States, too, are taking a look at how they regulate CCW. Among the options is the possibility of regulating CCW under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, a move that could have far-reaching implications for both the recycling and the disposal of this waste.

Manuel, J.

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

Potential health impacts of burning coal beds and waste banks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Uncontrolled release of pollutants from burning coal beds and waste banks presents potential environmental and human health hazards. On a global scale, the emissions of large volumes of greenhouse gases from burning coal beds may contribute to climate change that alters ecosystems and patterns of disease occurrence. On regional and local scales, the emissions from burning coal beds and waste banks of acidic gases, particulates, organic compounds, and trace elements can contribute to a range of respiratory and other human health problems. Although there are few published reports of health problems caused by these emissions, the potential for problems can be significant. In India, large numbers of people have been displaced from their homes because of health problems caused by emissions from burning coal beds. Volatile elements such as arsenic, fluorine, mercury, and selenium are commonly enriched in coal deposits. Burning coal beds can volatilize these elements, which then can be inhaled, or adsorbed on crops and foods, taken up by livestock or bioaccumulated in birds and fish. Some of these elements can condense on dust particles that can be inhaled or ingested. In addition, selenium, arsenic, lead, tin, bismuth, fluorine, and other elements condense where the hot gaseous emissions come in contact with ambient air, forming mats of concentrated efflorescent minerals on the surface of the ground. These mats can be leached by rainwater and washed into local water bodies providing other potential routes of exposure. Although there are little data linking burning coal beds and waste banks to known health problems, a possibly analogous situation exists in rural China where mineralized coal burned in a residential environment has caused widespread and severe health problems such as fluorosis and arseniasis.

Robert B Finkelman

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Effect of Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation. Effect of Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation. Abstract: The operation of solid oxide fuel cells...

28

Cooperative Research Program in Coal-Waste Liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

The results of a feasibility study for a demonstration plant for the liquefaction of waste plastic and tires and the coprocessing of these waste polymers with coal are presented. The study was conducted by a committee that included nine representatives from the CFFS, six from the U.S. Department of Energy - Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), and four from Burns and Roe, Inc. The study included: (1) An assessment of current recycling practices, particularly feedstock recycling in Germany; (2) A review of pertinent research, and a survey of feedstock availability for various types of waste polymers; and (3) A conceptual design for a demonstration plant was developed and an economic analysis for various feedstock mixes. The base case for feedstock scenarios was chosen to be 200 tons per day of waste plastic and 100 tons per day of waste tires. For this base case with oil priced at $20 per barrel, the return on investment (ROI) was found to range from 9% to 20%, using tipping fees for waste plastic and tires typical of those existing in the U.S. The most profitable feedstock appeared to waste plastic alone, with a plant processing 300 t/d of plastic yielding ROI's from 13 to 27 %, depending on the tipping fees for waste plastic. Feedstock recycling of tires was highly dependent on the price that could be obtained for recovered carbon. Addition of even relatively small amounts (20 t/d) of coal to waste plastic and/or coal feeds lowered the ROI's substantially. It should also be noted that increasing the size of the plant significantly improved all ROI's. For example, increasing plant size from 300 t/d to1200 t/d approximately doubles the estimated ROI's for a waste plastic feedstock.

Gerald Huffman

2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

29

ICDF Complex Operations Waste Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Waste Management Plan functions as a management and planning tool for managing waste streams generated as a result of operations at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex. The waste management activities described in this plan support the selected remedy presented in the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13 Final Record of Decision for the operation of the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex. This plan identifies the types of waste that are anticipated during operations at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex. In addition, this plan presents management strategies and disposition for these anticipated waste streams.

W.M. Heileson

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

INTEGRATED POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS FOR COAL MINE WASTE METHANE UTILIZATION  

SciTech Connect

An integrated system to utilize the waste coal mine methane (CMM) at the Federal No. 2 Coal Mine in West Virginia was designed and built. The system includes power generation, using internal combustion engines, along with gas processing equipment to upgrade sub-quality waste methane to pipeline quality standards. The power generation has a nominal capacity of 1,200 kw and the gas processing system can treat about 1 million cubic feet per day (1 MMCFD) of gas. The gas processing is based on the Northwest Fuel Development, Inc. (NW Fuel) proprietary continuous pressure swing adsorption (CPSA) process that can remove nitrogen from CMM streams. The two major components of the integrated system are synergistic. The byproduct gas stream from the gas processing equipment can be used as fuel for the power generating equipment. In return, the power generating equipment provides the nominal power requirements of the gas processing equipment. This Phase III effort followed Phase I, which was comprised of a feasibility study for the project, and Phase II, where the final design for the commercial-scale demonstration was completed. The fact that NW Fuel is desirous of continuing to operate the equipment on a commercial basis provides the validation for having advanced the project through all of these phases. The limitation experienced by the project during Phase III was that the CMM available to operate the CPSA system on a commercial basis was not of sufficiently high quality. NW Fuel's CPSA process is limited in its applicability, requiring a relatively high quality of gas as the feed to the process. The CPSA process was demonstrated during Phase III for a limited time, during which the processing capabilities met the expected results, but the process was never capable of providing pipeline quality gas from the available low quality CMM. The NW Fuel CPSA process is a low-cost ''polishing unit'' capable of removing a few percent nitrogen. It was never intended to process CMM streams containing high levels of nitrogen, as is now the case at the Federal No.2 Mine. Even lacking the CPSA pipeline delivery demonstration, the project was successful in laying the groundwork for future commercial applications of the integrated system. This operation can still provide a guide for other coal mines which need options for utilization of their methane resources. The designed system can be used as a complete template, or individual components of the system can be segregated and utilized separately at other mines. The use of the CMM not only provides an energy fuel from an otherwise wasted resource, but it also yields an environmental benefit by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The methane has twenty times the greenhouse effect as compared to carbon dioxide, which the combustion of the methane generates. The net greenhouse gas emission mitigation is substantial.

Peet M. Soot; Dale R. Jesse; Michael E. Smith

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Coal cooperative efficiency program: small mine operations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study researched the concept of small coal operators combining to form a coal cooperatives as a means of providing services and to improve their economic position in coal markets. A small coal operators attitude survey was completed in Appalachia, along with actual interviews of numerous operators in two case study areas--Clearfield, Pennsylvania, and Beckley, West Virginia. A profile of small operator facilities and operations was developed along with suggested coal cooperative configurations in the two case study areas. A general administrative services co-op was suggested for the Beckley area and a capital intensive coal processing/transloading co-op for the Clearfield area. From a review of the vast experience in U.S. agricultural cooperatives a step-by-step procedure for forming a coal co-op is detailed from the idea stage to the first Board of Director's meeting. An extensive economic analysis is included to demonstrate potential member benefit-costs. Recommendations are made to operator, state, regional and federal sectors to develop demonstration coal cooperatives to further prove out the concept.

Multcher, J.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Groundwater Protection Rules Coal Mining Operations (West Virginia) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Protection Rules Coal Mining Operations (West Virginia) Protection Rules Coal Mining Operations (West Virginia) Groundwater Protection Rules Coal Mining Operations (West Virginia) < Back Eligibility Utility Commercial Investor-Owned Utility Industrial Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Institutional Nonprofit Program Info State West Virginia Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Protection These rules establish a series of practices for the protection of groundwater which are to be followed by any person who conducts coal mining operations subject to the provisions of West Virginia Groundwater Protection Act and subject to regulation under the West Virginia Coal Mining and Reclamation Act and/or under West Virginia Water Pollution

33

Coal operators prepare for a prosperous new year  

SciTech Connect

Results are given of the Coal Age 2008 annual Forecast Survey of 17 coal mining executives which reinforces that 2008 could be a very good year. Coal operators are planning to invest in new equipment, development and new coal mine start-ups, based on a number of demand- and supply-side fundamentals. 71% of those surveyed thought coal production in 2008 would increase from 2007 levels and US exports are expected to climb due to the weak dollar. If the tax credit on synfuels expires on 31 December 2007 production of coal synfuel will likely cease. Asked about expensive planned purchases, companies answers ranged from $80,000 for an underground scoop to $500 m for a new mine installation. However, most producers admit they will not be able to operate at full capacity. 7 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

34

Adsorption properties of coal from the Ishideiskoe deposit, semicokes, and ash and slag wastes from the combustion of coals from Siberia and Sakhalin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of studying the adsorption properties of black coal, semicoke, and waste coals from a number of coal deposits in Irkutsk oblast and Sakhalin and the Irsha-Borodino deposit are reported. The results...

N. G. Vyazova; V. N. Kryukova; L. P. Shaulina; E. A. Pisar’kova…

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Elevated Trace Element Concentrations in Southern Toads, Bufo terrestris, Exposed to Coal Combustion Waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and behavioral abnormalities in amphibians to coal combustion wastes (coal ash). Few studies, however, have determined trace element concentrations in amphibians exposed to coal ash. In the current study we compare high levels of selenium and may be useful bioindicators in agricultural and coal ash-impacted habitats

Hopkins, William A.

36

Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes  

SciTech Connect

Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid waste produced by advanced coal processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites have been selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute's fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison's limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United's site using waste from Midwest Grain's FBC unit in central Illinois. A fourth site is under consideration at the Dakota Gasification Company in North Dakota. The first two tasks of this project involved the development of test plans and obtaining site access.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Coal properties and system operating parameters for underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Through the model experiment for underground coal gasification, the influence of the properties for gasification agent and gasification methods on underground coal gasifier performance were studied. The results showed that pulsating gasification, to some extent, could improve gas quality, whereas steam gasification led to the production of high heating value gas. Oxygen-enriched air and backflow gasification failed to improve the quality of the outlet gas remarkably, but they could heighten the temperature of the gasifier quickly. According to the experiment data, the longitudinal average gasification rate along the direction of the channel in the gasifying seams was 1.212 m/d, with transverse average gasification rate 0.069 m/d. Experiment indicated that, for the oxygen-enriched steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio was 2:1, gas compositions remained stable, with H{sub 2} + CO content virtually standing between 60% and 70% and O{sub 2} content below 0.5%. The general regularities of the development of the temperature field within the underground gasifier and the reasons for the changes of gas quality were also analyzed. The 'autopneumatolysis' and methanization reaction existing in the underground gasification process were first proposed.

Yang, L. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Water Management Plans for Surface Coal Mining Operations (North Dakota) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Management Plans for Surface Coal Mining Operations (North Management Plans for Surface Coal Mining Operations (North Dakota) Water Management Plans for Surface Coal Mining Operations (North Dakota) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Program Info State North Dakota Program Type Siting and Permitting A water management plan is required for all surface coal mining operations. This plan must be submitted to the State Engineer of the State Water Commission at the same time a surface mining permit is submitted to the

39

Solid waste retrieval. Phase 1, Operational basis  

SciTech Connect

This Document describes the operational requirements, procedures, and options for execution of the retrieval of the waste containers placed in buried storage in Burial Ground 218W-4C, Trench 04 as TRU waste or suspect TRU waste under the activity levels defining this waste in effect at the time of placement. Trench 04 in Burial Ground 218W-4C is totally dedicated to storage of retrievable TRU waste containers or retrievable suspect TRU waste containers and has not been used for any other purpose.

Johnson, D.M.

1994-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

40

Method for analyzing the potential feasibility of coal brokerage operations  

SciTech Connect

There is one major prerequisite for unit train service. High volumes of coal are needed to make the operation both practical and economical. Many existing or potential coal users are too small to directly benefit from the cost savings and reliability of unit train service. If the demand for coal by a number of small users in a region could be aggregated so that the resulting volume was high enough to justify a unit train service, the users of the region could well be served through a single unit train receiving facility. Thus, coal users individually too small to receive unit train shipments could capture cost savings associated with a larger volume operation. It is the intent of this thesis to study the feasibility of such an operation, hereafter referred to as a coal brokerage. The specific purpose is to develop and present an analytical framework for evaluating the long-run economic feasibility of a coal brokerage for a region. The analysis views the brokerage operator, or broker, as a firm, and focuses on the relationships between its long-run cost function and market demand function for coal.

Wilkie, K.; Vezeris, S.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operations waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Influence of Coal Ash/Organic Waste Application on Distribution of Trace Metals in Soil, Plant, and Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study was conducted to evaluate effects of coal ash mixture (coal ash, biosolids and yard waste compost ratio of ... fruits, and its leaching potential into groundwater. Coal ash mixture was applied at rates...

Yuncong Li; Min Zhang; Peter Stoffella; Zhenli He…

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Coal waste seen as valuable resource Published: March. 29, 2011 at 8:09 PM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal waste seen as valuable resource Published: March. 29, 2011 at 8:09 PM ANAHEIM, Calif., March 29 (UPI) -- Fly ash, a byproduct of coal-burning electric power plants, could save billions. More than 450 coal-burning electric power plants in the United States produce about 130 million tons

Belogay, Eugene A.

43

Robotics for mixed waste operations, demonstration description  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) is developing technology to aid in the cleanup of DOE sites. Included in the OTD program are the Robotics Technology Development Program and the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. These two programs are working together to provide technology for the cleanup of mixed waste, which is waste that has both radioactive and hazardous constituents. There are over 240,000 cubic meters of mixed low level waste accumulated at DOE sites and the cleanup is expected to generate about 900,000 cubic meters of mixed low level waste over the next five years. This waste must be monitored during storage and then treated and disposed of in a cost effective manner acceptable to regulators and the states involved. The Robotics Technology Development Program is developing robotics technology to make these tasks safer, better, faster and cheaper through the Mixed Waste Operations team. This technology will also apply to treatment of transuranic waste. The demonstration at the Savannah River Site on November 2-4, 1993, showed the progress of this technology by DOE, universities and industry over the previous year. Robotics technology for the handling, characterization and treatment of mixed waste as well robotics technology for monitoring of stored waste was demonstrated. It was shown that robotics technology can make future waste storage and waste treatment facilities better, faster, safer and cheaper.

Ward, C.R.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes  

SciTech Connect

Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute's fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison's limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United's mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the four landfill test cases constructed in 1989 and 1991 has continued. Option 1 of the contract was approved last year to add financing for the fifth test case at the Freeman United site. The construction of the Test Case 5 cells is scheduled to begin in November, 1992. Work during this past year has focused on obtaining data on the physical and chemical properties of the landfilled wastes, and on developing a conceptual framework for interpreting this information. Results to date indicate that hydration reactions within the landfilled wastes have had a major impact on the physical and chemical properties of the materials but these reactions largely ceased after the first year, and physical properties have changed little since then. Conditions in Colorado remained dry and no porewater samples were collected. In Ohio, hydration reactions and increases in the moisture content of the waste tied up much of the water initially infiltrating the test cells.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Solid waste management of coal conversion residuals from a commercial-size facility: environmental engineering aspects. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Major residuals generated by the conversion process and its auxiliary operations include: (a) coal preparation wastes; (b) gasifier ash; (c) liquefaction solids-char; (d) tail gas or flue gas desulfurization sludge; (e) boiler flyash and bottom ash; (f) raw water treatment sludge, and; (g) biosludges from process wastewater treatment. Recovered sulfur may also require disposal management. Potential environmental and health impacts from each of the residues are described on the basis of characterization of the waste in the perspective of water quality degradation. Coal gasification and liquefaction systems are described in great detail with respect to their associated residuals. Management options are listed with the conclusion that land disposal of the major residual streams is the only viable choice. On-site versus off-site disposal is analyzed with the selection of on-site operations to reduce political, social and institutional pressures, and to optimize the costs of the system. Mechanisms for prevention of leachate generation are described, and various disposal site designs are outlined. It is concluded that co-disposal feasibility of some waste streams must be established in order to make the most preferred solid waste management system feasible. Capacity requirements for the disposal operation were calculated for a 50,000 bbl/day coal liquefaction plant or 250 million SCF/day gasification operation.

Bern, J.; Neufeld, R. D.; Shapiro, M. A.

1980-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

46

Hanford tank waste operation simulator operational waste volume projection verification and validation procedure  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Tank Waste Operation Simulator is tested to determine if it can replace the FORTRAN-based Operational Waste Volume Projection computer simulation that has traditionally served to project double-shell tank utilization. Three Test Cases are used to compare the results of the two simulators; one incorporates the cleanup schedule of the Tri Party Agreement.

HARMSEN, R.W.

1999-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

47

CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL GASIFICATION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST OF HYDROGEN CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL GASIFICATION Final Report April 2003 Prepared for: The United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under: Contract No. DE-AM26-99FT40465 between the NETL and Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) Subcontract No. 990700362 between CTC and Parsons Infrastructure & Technology Group Inc. Task 50611 DOE Task Managers: James R. Longanbach Gary J. Stiegel Parsons Project Manager: Michael D. Rutkowski Principal Investigators: Thomas L. Buchanan Michael G. Klett Ronald L. Schoff PARSONS Capital and Operating Cost of Hydrogen Production from Coal Gasification Page i April 2003 TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Title Page List of Tables iii List of Figures iii

48

NEW SOLID FUELS FROM COAL AND BIOMASS WASTE  

SciTech Connect

Under DOE sponsorship, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Minergy Corporation developed and evaluated a sludge derived fuel (SDF) made from sewage sludge. Our approach is to dry and agglomerate the sludge, combine it with a fluxing agent, if necessary, and co-fire the resulting fuel with coal in a cyclone boiler to recover the energy and to vitrify mineral matter into a non-leachable product. This product can then be used in the construction industry. A literature search showed that there is significant variability of the sludge fuel properties from a given wastewater plant (seasonal and/or day-to-day changes) or from different wastewater plants. A large sewage sludge sample (30 tons) from a municipal wastewater treatment facility was collected, dried, pelletized and successfully co-fired with coal in a cyclone-equipped pilot. Several sludge particle size distributions were tested. Finer sludge particle size distributions, similar to the standard B and W size distribution for sub-bituminous coal, showed the best combustion and slagging performance. Up to 74.6% and 78.9% sludge was successfully co-fired with pulverized coal and with natural gas, respectively. An economic evaluation on a 25-MW power plant showed the viability of co-firing the optimum SDF in a power generation application. The return on equity was 22 to 31%, adequate to attract investors and allow a full-scale project to proceed. Additional market research and engineering will be required to verify the economic assumptions. Areas to focus on are: plant detail design and detail capital cost estimates, market research into possible project locations, sludge availability at the proposed project locations, market research into electric energy sales and renewable energy sales opportunities at the proposed project location. As a result of this program, wastes that are currently not being used and considered an environmental problem will be processed into a renewable fuel. These fuels will be converted to energy while reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from power generating boilers and mitigating global warming concerns. This report describes the sludge analysis, solid fuel preparation and production, combustion performance, environmental emissions and required equipment.

Hamid Farzan

2001-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

49

PREVENTTVE FACILITIES AND EMERGENCY OPERATIONS IN CASE OFFIRES IN CdF COAL MINES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). The upper group consists of a bituminous soft coal, the lower coke coal. The field is sharply folded alongPREVENTTVE FACILITIES AND EMERGENCY OPERATIONS IN CASE OFFIRES IN CdF COAL MINES J.P. AMARTIN HJSJL a stricl methodology. It has been possjble then to resume coal winning, which has cor.tmued until

Boyer, Edmond

50

Unit costs of waste management operations  

SciTech Connect

This report provides estimates of generic costs for the management, disposal, and surveillance of various waste types, from the time they are generated to the end of their institutional control. Costs include monitoring and surveillance costs required after waste disposal. Available data on costs for the treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, transuranic radioactive, hazardous, mixed (low-level radioactive plus hazardous), and sanitary wastes are presented. The costs cover all major elements that contribute to the total system life-cycle (i.e., ``cradle to grave``) cost for each waste type. This total cost is the sum of fixed and variable cost components. Variable costs are affected by operating rates and throughput capacities and vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity. Fixed costs remain constant regardless of changes in the amount of waste, operating rates, or throughput capacities. Key factors that influence cost, such as the size and throughput capacity of facilities, are identified. In many cases, ranges of values for the key variables are presented. For some waste types, the planned or estimated costs for storage and disposal, projected to the year 2000, are presented as graphics.

Kisieleski, W.E.; Folga, S.M.; Gillette, J.L.; Buehring, W.A.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Study of the properties of mine waste in the midwestern coal fields. Phase I report  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to assist the coal industry in complying with the applicable regulations, to design safe and environmentally acceptable disposal systems, and to encourage secondary use of coal mine waste, the US Department of Energy has initiated research programs to develop coal mine waste disposal and use technology. This study of the properties of mine wastes in the Midwestern coal fields has been limited to the waste materials obtained from underground coal mines and preparation plants attached to both underground and surface mines. The program has been divided into two phases. In Phase I, the 20 most important properties relevant to safe disposal, reclamation, underground disposal, and secondary uses have been identified. An inventory of the significant waste disposal sites in the Midwestern coal fields has been prepared. The site locations have been plotted on USGS maps. Estimates of coal production and coal mine waste production during the next 2 decades have been prepared and are presented in this report. Also, all available information obtained from a search of existing literature on physical and chemical properties, including analysis results of the general runoff from the refuse disposal areas, has been collected and is presented. In order to fill the gaps in information, 20 sites have been identified for drilling and sampling to determine the various physical and chemical properties. They have been selected on the basis of the distribution and quantity of waste at the existing locations (both abandoned and active), the future trends in production and likely locations of waste disposal areas, their geographical and geological distribution, and ease of accessibility for drilling and sampling.

None

1980-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

52

Ventilation System to Improve Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste Operations  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

AIKEN, S.C. – The EM program and its liquid waste contractor at the Savannah River Site are improving salt waste disposition work and preparing for eventual operations of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) currently being constructed.

53

Process May Reduce Pollution From Burning Coal Refuse Piles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Process May Reduce Pollution From Burning Coal Refuse Piles ... The process uses a heavy liquid to separate marketable high-ash coal from nonburnable waste rock. ... Nearly 500 mountains of coal refuse, waste material from coal cleaning operations, are burning uncontrollably in 15 states in the U.S., according to a Bureau of Mines survey. ...

1965-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

54

AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital waste. Quarterly report, August--October 1995  

SciTech Connect

The project objective is to design, construct, install provide operator training and start-up a circulating fluidized bed combustion system at the Lebanon Pennsylvania Veteran`s Affairs Medical Center. This unit will co-fire coal and hospital waste providing lower cost steam for heating and possibly cooling (absorption chiller) and operation of a steam turbine-generator for limited power generation. This would permit full capacity operation of the FBC year round in spite of the VA laundry that was shut down as well as efficient destruction of both general and infectious hospital waste and steam generation. The State permitting process required for construction will be completed in early November to allow installation and construction to be completed. Operating permits will be obtained after construction has been completed. A request for proposal for stack sampling and biospore tests was released to four (4) vendors in mid-October. The proposals shall be reviewed during November and the stack sampler will be selected. Funding was approved as of August 1, 1995. Construction and installation resumed on August 21, 1995 at the LVAMC. Construction and installation continues and will be completed by late December 1995.

Stuart, J.M.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.  

SciTech Connect

The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes. Annual technical progress report, October 1987--August 1988  

SciTech Connect

Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (MMRRI) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid waste produced by advanced coal processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. The first two tasks of this project involve the development of test plans. Through July of 1988 we have developed a generic test design manual, detailed test procedures manual, and test plans for three sites. Task three, field studies, will be initiated as soon as final site access is obtained and the facilities producing the waste are fully operational.

NONE

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Recovery and utilization of waste liquids in ultra-clean coal preparation by chemical leaching  

SciTech Connect

Coal with ash lower than 1%, being called an ultra-clean coal, has many potential applications, such as a substitute for diesel fuel, production of carbon electrodes, superior activated carbon and other chemical materials. It is difficult to reduce coal ash to such a level by conventional coal preparation technology. By means of chemical leaching with the proper concentration of alkali and acid solutions, any coal can be deeply deashed to 1% ash level. However, the cost of chemical methods is higher than that of physical ones, additionally, the waste liquids would give rise to environmental pollution if used on a large scale. If the waste liquids from chemical preparation of ultra-clean coal can be recovered and utilized, so as to produce salable by-products, the cost of chemical leaching will be reduced. This processing will also solve the pollution problem of these waste liquids. This paper describes recovery and utilization methods for these liquids used in chemical leaching, including the recoveries of alkali, silica, sodium-salt and aluminium-salt. A preliminary estimate was made regarding its economic benefits. It shows that this research solves the two problems in the chemical preparation of ultra-clean coal. One is the high-cost and the other is environmental pollution. This research demonstrates good potential for the production of ultra-clean coal on an industrial scale.

Xu Zesheng; Shi Zhimin; Yang Qiaowen; Wang Xinguo [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Graduate School

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

58

AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital waste. Quarterly report, November 1995--January 1996  

SciTech Connect

The project objective is to design, construct, install provide operator training and start-up a circulating fluidized bed combustion system at the Lebanon Pennsylvania Veteran`s Affairs Medical Center. This unit will co-fire coal and hospital waste providing lower cost steam for heating and possibly cooling (absorption chiller) and operation of a steam turbine-generator for limited power generation while providing efficient destruction of both general and infectious hospital waste. Operating permits will be obtained after construction has been completed. The stack sampler has been selected. This vendor is currently developing the testing protocol. Severe weather in December and January caused work delays to the project, especially to outside work The fabrication and installation of the stack are complete. Only the insulation of the stack remains to be done. Budget problems began to occur in late January. Correction of this situation should occur shortly in February or March. A current schedule for the project is included with this report.

Stuart, J.M.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Observation of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant High Level Waste Facility Radioactive Liquid Waste Disposal System Hazards Analysis Activities (EA-WTP-HLW-2014-08-18(a))...

60

Wetland regulations affecting coal mining and oil and gas operations  

SciTech Connect

Although the total acreage of wetlands in Appalachia is relatively small, the impact of wetlands on coal mining and the oil and gas industry can be significant. Wetlands are strongly protected from degradation and diminution under both federal and state regulatory programs, and both environmental protection groups and the public are concerned about the disturbance of natural wetlands. If an owner or operator of site is unable to obtain an appropriate permit, the presence of wetlands may completely preclude energy development. This article strives to provide an insight into the regulatory scheme surrounding wetlands and the risks of wetlands development.

Tokarz, A.P. [Bowles Rice McDavid Graff & Love, Charleston, WV (United States); Dulin, B.E. [Univ. Center for Environmental, Geotechnical, and Applied Sciences, Huntington, WV (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operations waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Combustion of high-sulfur coal and anthracite wastes in a rotary kiln combustor with an advanced internal air distributor  

SciTech Connect

Fluid bed combustors have received extensive testing with both high-sulfur coal and anthracite wastes. Rotary kilns are effective and popular devices for waste combustion. The Angelo Rotary Furnace{trademark} has been developed to improve the operation of rotary pyrolyzer/combustor systems through enhanced air distribution, which in this process is defined as staged, swirled combustion air injection. Fourteen of these new furnaces have been installed worldwide. Two units in Thailand, designed for rice hull feed with occasional lignite feed, have been recently started up. An older unit in Pennsylvania is being upgraded with a new, more advanced air distribution system for a series of tests this fall in which inexpensive high-sulfur coal and anthracite wastes will be fired with limestone. The purposes of these tests are to determine the burning characteristics of these two fuels in this system, to discover the Ca/S ratios necessary for operation of a rotary kiln combusting these fuels, and to observe the gas-borne emissions from the furnace. An extensive preliminary design study will be performed on a commercial installation for combustion of anthracite wastes. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Cobb, J.T. Jr. (Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA)); Ahn, Y.K. (Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Reading, PA (USA)); Angelo, J.F. (Universal Energy International, Inc., Little Rock, AR (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Desulfurization of coke oven gas from the coking of coking coal blended with a sorbent and waste plastic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new way to implement the simultaneous reutilization of solid waste, the desulfurization of coke oven gas (COG), and even the desulfurization of coke by the co-coking of coking coal (CC) and waste plastic (WP).....

Zhao Rongfang; Ye Shufeng; Xie Yusheng…

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in burning and non-burning coal waste piles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coal waste material that results from Douro Coalfield exploitation was analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC–MS) for the identification and quantification of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), defined as priority pollutants. It is expected that the organic fraction of the coal waste material contains \\{PAHs\\} from petrogenic origin, and also from pyrolytic origin in burning coal waste piles. The results demonstrate some similarity in the studied samples, being phenanthrene the most abundant PAH followed by fluoranthene and pyrene. A petrogenic contribution of \\{PAHs\\} in unburned samples and a mixture of \\{PAHs\\} from petrogenic and pyrolytic sources in the burning/burnt samples were identified. The lowest values of the sum of the 16 priority \\{PAHs\\} found in burning/burnt samples and the depletion LMW \\{PAHs\\} and greater abundance of HMW \\{PAHs\\} from the unburned coal waste material relatively to the burning/burnt material demonstrate the thermal transformation attributed to the burning process. The potential environmental impact associated with the coal waste piles are related with the release of petrogenic and pyrolytic \\{PAHs\\} in particulate and gaseous forms to soils, sediments, groundwater, surface water, and biodiversity.

Joana Ribeiro; Tais Silva; Joao Graciano Mendonca Filho; Deolinda Flores

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Hazardous-waste analysis plan for LLNL operations  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is involved in many facets of research ranging from nuclear weapons research to advanced Biomedical studies. Approximately 80% of all programs at LLNL generate hazardous waste in one form or another. Aside from producing waste from industrial type operations (oils, solvents, bottom sludges, etc.) many unique and toxic wastes are generated such as phosgene, dioxin (TCDD), radioactive wastes and high explosives. One key to any successful waste management program must address the following: proper identification of the waste, safe handling procedures and proper storage containers and areas. This section of the Waste Management Plan will address methodologies used for the Analysis of Hazardous Waste. In addition to the wastes defined in 40 CFR 261, LLNL and Site 300 also generate radioactive waste not specifically covered by RCRA. However, for completeness, the Waste Analysis Plan will address all hazardous waste.

Roberts, R.S.

1982-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

65

Development of catalyst free carbon nanotubes from coal and waste plastics  

SciTech Connect

DC-Arc technique has been used to synthesize carbon nanotubes from super clean coal, chemically cleaned coal, original coal and waste plastics instead of using high purity graphite in the presence of metal catalysts. The results obtained are compared in terms of yield, purity and type of carbon nanotubes produced from different types of raw material used. In the present study different types of raw materials have been prepared i.e. chemically cleaned coal and super clean coal, and the carbon nanotubes have been synthesized by DC Arc discharge method. Taking in account the present need of utilizing coal as a cheaper raw material for bulk production of carbon nanotubes and utilization of waste plastics (which itself is a potential environmental threat) for production of such an advance material the present work was undertaken. Since the process does not involve presence of any kind of metal catalyst, it avoids the cost intensive process of removal of these metal particles. The residual coal obtained after refining has major fuel potential and can be utilized for various purposes.

Dosodia, A.; Lal, C.; Singh, B.P.; Mathur, R.B.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre of Energy Studies

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Effects on Design and Operation of Coal-Fired Utility Boilers with Changes of Coal Qualities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In recent years, with the development of economic, large-scale coal-fired utility power plants got a rapid ... the situation for the transportation and supply of coal for power plants is still in tense. The actua...

Cao Yu-chun; Wang Zheng-wei

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

the melter handling system (LMH), the melter equipment support handling system (LSH), the radioactive solid waste handling system (RWH), and the radioactive liquid waste disposal...

68

Concept of Operation for Waste Transport, Emplacement, and Retrieval  

SciTech Connect

The preparation of this technical report has two objectives. The first objective is to discuss the base case concepts of waste transport, emplacement, and retrieval operations and evaluate these operations relative to a lower-temperature repository design. Aspects of the operations involved in waste transport, emplacement and retrieval may be affected by the lower-temperature operating schemes. This report evaluates the effects the lower-temperature alternatives may have on the operational concepts involved in emplacing and retrieving waste. The second objective is to provide backup material for the design description, in a traceable and defensible format, for Section 2 of the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document.

Norman T. Raczka

2001-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

69

Liquid and gaseous waste operations section. Annual operating report CY 1997  

SciTech Connect

This document presents information on the liquid and gaseous wastes operations section for calendar year 1997. Operating activities, upgrade activities, and maintenance activities are described.

Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Disposal of soluble salt waste from coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses pollutants in the form of soluble salts and resource recovery in the form of water and land. A design for disposal of soluble salts has been produced. The interactions of its parameters have been shown by a process design study. The design will enable harmonious compliance with United States Public Laws 92-500 and 94-580, relating to water pollution and resource recovery. In the disposal of waste salt solutions, natural water resources need not be contaminated, because an encapsulation technique is available which will immobilize the salts. At the same time it will make useful landforms available, and water as a resource can be recovered. There is a cost minimum when electrodialysis and evaporation are combined, which is not realizable with evaporation alone, unless very low-cost thermal energy is available or unless very high-cost pretreatment for electrodialysis is required. All the processes making up the proposed disposal process are commercially available, although they are nowhere operating commercially as one process. Because of the commercial availability of the processes, the proposed process may be a candidate 'best commercially available treatment' for soluble salt disposal.

McKnight, C.E.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Operating limit evaluation for disposal of uranium enrichment plant wastes  

SciTech Connect

A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) will accept wastes generated during normal plant operations that are considered to be non-radioactive. However, nearly all solid waste from any source or facility contains small amounts of radioactive material, due to the presence in most materials of trace quantities of such naturally occurring radionuclides as uranium and thorium. This paper describes an evaluation of operating limits, which are protective of public health and the environment, that would allow waste materials containing small amounts of radioactive material to be sent to a new solid waste landfill at PGDP. The operating limits are expressed as limits on concentrations of radionuclides in waste materials that could be sent to the landfill based on a site-specific analysis of the performance of the facility. These limits are advantageous to PGDP and DOE for several reasons. Most importantly, substantial cost savings in the management of waste is achieved. In addition, certain liabilities that could result from shipment of wastes to a commercial off-site solid waste landfill are avoided. Finally, assurance that disposal operations at the PGDP landfill are protective of public health and the environment is provided by establishing verifiable operating limits for small amounts of radioactive material; rather than relying solely on administrative controls. The operating limit determined in this study has been presented to the Commonwealth of Kentucky and accepted as a condition to be attached to the operating permit for the solid waste landfill.

Lee, D.W.; Kocher, D.C.; Wang, J.C.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Coal-Cooperative Efficiency Program: small-mine operations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study researched the concept of small coal operators combining to form coal cooperatives as a means of providing services and to improve their economic position in coal markets. A small coal operators attitude survey was completed in Appalachia, along with actual interviews of numerous operators in two case study areas - Clearfield, Pennsylvania, and Beckley, West Virginia. A profile of small operator facilities and operations was developed along with suggested coal cooperative configurations in the two case study areas. A general administrative services co-op was suggested for the Beckley area and a capital intensive coal processing/transloading co-op for the Clearfield area. From a review of the vast experience in US agricultural cooperatives a step-by-step procedure for forming a coal co-op is detailed from the idea stage to the first Board of Director's meeting. An extensive economic analysis is included to demonstrate potential member benefit-costs. Recommendations are made to operator, state, regional and federal sectors to develop demonstration coal cooperatives to further prove out the concept.

Multcher, J.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Presence of an Unusual Methanogenic Bacterium in Coal Gasification Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...waste were enriched in a mineral salts medium containing hydrogen and acetate as potential...Transfer of the enrichments to methanol medium resulted in the initial growth of a strain...waste were enriched in a mineral salts medium containing hydrogen and acetate as potential...

Francisco A. Tomei; Dwight Rouse; James S. Maki; Ralph Mitchell

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Evaluation of AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital wastes  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program is to expand the use of coal by utilizing CFB (circulating fluidized bed) technology to provide an environmentally safe method for disposing of waste materials. Hospitals are currently experiencing a waste management crisis. In many instances, they are no longer permitted to burn pathological and infectious wastes in incinerators. Older hospital incinerators are not capable of maintaining the stable temperatures and residence times necessary in order to completely destroy toxic substances before release into the atmosphere. In addition, the number of available landfills which can safely handle these substances is decreasing each year. The purpose of this project is to conduct necessary research investigating whether the combustion of the hospital wastes in a coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler will effectively destroy dioxins and other hazardous substances before release into the atmosphere. If this is proven feasible, in light of the quantity of hospital wastes generated each year, it would create a new market for coal -- possibly 50 million tons/year.

Not Available

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Conduct of Operations - Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Conduct of Operations - Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for an assessment of the Conduct of Operations Program portion of an Operational Readiness Review at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste

76

DWPF COAL-CARBON WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA LIMIT EVALUATION BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL WORK (TANK 48 IMPACT STUDY)  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of both experimental and modeling studies performed using Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) simulants and FBSR product from Tank 48 simulant testing in order to develop higher levels of coal-carbon that can be managed by DWPF. Once the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process starts up for treatment of Tank 48 legacy waste, the FBSR product stream will contribute higher levels of coal-carbon in the sludge batch for processing at DWPF. Coal-carbon is added into the FBSR process as a reductant and some of it will be present in the FBSR product as unreacted coal. The FBSR product will be slurried in water, transferred to Tank Farm and will be combined with sludge and washed to produce the sludge batch that DWPF will process. The FBSR product is high in both water soluble sodium carbonate and unreacted coal-carbon. Most of the sodium carbonate is removed during washing but all of the coal-carbon will remain and become part of the DWPF sludge batch. A paper study was performed earlier to assess the impact of FBSR coal-carbon on the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) operation and melter off-gas flammability by combining it with SB10-SB13. The results of the paper study are documented in Ref. 7 and the key findings included that SB10 would be the most difficult batch to process with the FBSR coal present and up to 5,000 mg/kg of coal-carbon could be fed to the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. In the present study, a bench-scale demonstration of the DWPF CPC processing was performed using SB10 simulants spiked with varying amounts of coal, and the resulting seven CPC products were fed to the DWPF melter cold cap and off-gas dynamics models to determine the maximum coal that can be processed through the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. Based on the results of these experimental and modeling studies, the presence of coal-carbon in the sludge feed to DWPF is found to have both positive (+) and negative (-) impact as summarized below: (-) Coal-carbon is a melter reductant. If excess coal-carbon is present, the resulting melter feed may be too reducing, potentially shortening the melter life. During this study, the Reduction/Oxidation Potential (REDOX) of the melter could be controlled by varying the ratio of nitric and formic acid. (-) The addition of coal-carbon increases the amount of nitric acid added and decreases the amount of formic acid added to control melter REDOX. This means that the CPC with the FBSR product is much more oxidizing than current CPC processing. In this study, adequate formic acid was present in all experiments to reduce mercury and manganese, two of the main goals of CPC processing. (-) Coal-carbon will be oxidized to carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide in the melter. The addition of coal-carbon to the FBSR product will lead to approximately 55% higher offgas production from formate, nitrate and carbon due to the decomposition of the carbon at the maximum levels in this testing. Higher offgas production could lead to higher cold cap coverage or melter foaming which could decrease melt rate. No testing was performed to evaluate the impact of the higher melter offgas flow. (+) The hydrogen production is greatly reduced in testing with coal as less formic acid is added in CPC processing. In the high acid run without coal, the peak hydrogen generation was 15 times higher than in the high acid run with added coal-carbon. (+) Coal-carbon is a less problematic reducing agent than formic acid, since the content of both carbon and hydrogen are important in evaluating the flammability of the melter offgas. Processing with coal-carbon decreases the amount of formic acid added in the CPC, leading to a lower flammability risk in processing with coal-carbon compared to the current DWPF flowsheet. (+) The seven SB10 formulations which were tested during the bench-scale CPC demonstration were all determined to be within the off-gas flammability safety basis limits during the 9X/5X off-gas surge for normal bubbled melter

Lambert, D.; Choi, A.

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

ELECTROKINETIC DENSIFICATION OF COAL FINES IN WASTE PONDS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to demonstrate that electrokinetics can be used to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal-washing ponds and lakes without the addition of chemical additives such as salts and polymeric flocculants. In this experimental and analytical study the authors elucidate the transport processes that control the rate of concentrated colloidal particle removal, demonstrate the process on a laboratory scale, and develop the scale-up laws needed to design commercial-scale processes. The authors are also addressing the fundamental problems associated with particle-particle interactions (electrical and hydrodynamic), the effects of particle concentration on the applied electric field, the electrochemical reactions that occur at the electrodes, and the prediction of power requirements.

E. James Davis

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Evaluation of Bioremediation in a Coal-Coking Waste Lagoon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bioremediation is a new and relatively unproven alternative for the destruction of complex organic wastes. While bioremediation of relatively simple hydrocarbons, such as the constituents of gasoline and diese...

Maureen E. Leavitt; Duane A. Graves…

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

CH Packaging Operations for High Wattage Waste  

SciTech Connect

This document provides instructions for assembling the following CH packaging payload: Drum payload assembly Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly Ten-Drum Overpack (TDOP)

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

80

DOE Awards Management and Operating Contract for DOE's Waste Isolation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Management and Operating Contract for DOE's Waste Management and Operating Contract for DOE's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant DOE Awards Management and Operating Contract for DOE's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant April 20, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Bill Taylor Environmental Management Consolidated Business Center (803) 952-8564 Deb Gill U.S. DOE Carlsbad Field Office (575) 234-7270 CARLSBAD, N.M. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced today that Nuclear Waste Partnership LLC (members comprised of URS Energy & Construction, Inc., of Boise, Idaho, and Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group, Inc., of Lynchburg, Virginia, and Major Subcontractor, AREVA Federal Services LLC, of Bethesda, Maryland) has been awarded a $1.3 billion contract for management and operating (M&O) at DOE's Waste

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81

Remedial Action and Waste Disposal Conduct of OperationsMatrix  

SciTech Connect

This Conduct of Operations (CONOPS) matrix incorporates the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) CONOPS matrix (BHI-00746, Rev. 0). The ERDF CONOPS matrix has been expanded to cover all aspects of the RAWD project. All remedial action and waste disposal (RAWD) operations, including waste remediation, transportation, and disposal at the ERDF consist of construction-type activities as opposed to nuclear power plant-like operations. In keeping with this distinction, the graded approach has been applied to the developmentof this matrix.

M. A. Casbon.

1999-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

82

Comanagement of coal combustion by-products and low-volume wastes: A midwestern site  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results from a field evaluation of the environmental effects of co-management of high-volume coal combustion residues with low-volume non-combustion wastes at a utility power plant. At the C-site, located in the midwestern United States, fly ash and bottom ash from the combustion of bituminous Indiana coal are co-managed with non-combustion wastes including pyrite rejects from coal cleaning, demineralizer regenerant, runoff water from the plant grounds, and boiler cleaning wastes. These wastes are disposed of in an unlined ash pond on site. The pond discharges primarily to the surrounding shallow groundwater with a limited surface discharge to a nearby river. Hydrological monitoring took place over a nine-month period in 1989 and 1990. Groundwater and soil samples were collected on three occasions during this time. Samples were analyzed to determine the groundwater chemistry, and soil and waste chemistry and geochemistry. Downgradient wells showed an increased concentration of several ash-derived species including boron, calcium, fluoride, potassium, sodium, strontium, and sulfate. The median sulfate concentration in downgradient wells was 350 mg/L, which exceeds the secondary drinking water limit. Statistical comparison of the composition of background groundwater with water from wells downgradient of the ash ponds was limited by a single set of background water samples. Soils beneath the pond appear to have limited attenuative capacity for ash-derived trace metals, and groundwater velocities are high; however, trace metal concentrations in downgradient wells are similar to background levels. No impact uniquely attributable to the co-management of low-volume wastes was detectable at this site.

Holcombe, L.J.; Thompson, C.M.; Weinberg, A. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States)); Erickson, J.R. (GeoTrans, Inc., Sterling, VA (United States)); Fruchter, J.S. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Co-firing coal and biomass waste in an FB boiler  

SciTech Connect

The CSIR has been involved in the field of FBC since 1976, when a small 0.25m{sup 2} test facility was erected. Work really began in earnest in 1984, when the National Fluidised Bed Combustion (NFBC) boiler was commissioned. This facility, situated at the CSIR`s pilot plant terrain in Pretoria West, was designed to produce 12 tph steam while utilising {open_quotes}waste{close_quotes} coal reserves are large, accounting for some 11% of the worlds reserves. Unfortunately the quality of the coal is comparatively poor, and beneficiation is required in order to produce an acceptable fuel for the local and international markets. This leads to a large production of {open_quotes}waste{close_quotes} coal. More detail is given. It was concern about this waste that prompted the Department of Mineral and Energy Affairs (DMEA) to fund the construction of the NFBC boiler, the purpose of which was to prove the ability of FBC technology to utilize the low quality discard coal. The running costs of the unit were at first provided by the DMEA, and later by the National Energy Council (NEC). The NEC also played an active role in the formulation of test campaigns on the boiler. Management of the NFBC was undertaken by the division of Energy Technology (Enertek) at the CSIR in Pretoria, and it was sited at the CSIR`s pilot plant facility in Pretoria West. The boiler has been running since 1984 and many thousands of tonnes of low-grade coal have been burnt in it. During the course of the test campaign on the NFBC the CSIR developed a great deal of experience in the field of FBC, and in particular use of low grade fuels in FBC equipment. The following paper describes the highlights of this test work and details the commercial plant which have since been built using CSIR technology.

North, B.C.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

84

Burning of coal waste piles from Douro Coalfield (Portugal): Petrological, geochemical and mineralogical characterization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the Douro Coalfield anthracites were exploited for decades (1795–1994). Besides many small mines Douro Coalfield had two principal mining areas (S. Pedro da Cova and Pejăo). Coal mining activities cause several impacts on the environment, one of which is the amount of discard or waste which was disposed of all over Douro Coalfield resulting in one of the most significant and severe impacts on the environment. Over 20 waste piles exist in the old mining areas, geographically dispersed, and three of them are presently burning. Their ignition was caused by forest fires during the summer of 2005. Samples from the burning and unburned zones of the waste piles were studied as were the gas from vents and the minerals resulting after combustion. Geochemical processes and mineralogical transformations in the burning coal waste pile were investigated. Microscopic analyses of the samples identified some particular aspects related with combustion: oxidation of pyrite, the presence of iron oxides, organic particles with cracks and rims with lowered (suppressed) Rr, devolatilization vacuoles and some char structures. The occurrence of vitreous (glassy) material as well as Fe–Al spinels in the burning coal waste provide evidences that the combustion temperature could have reached values above 1000 °C. Due to combustion, and as expected, the samples studied reported high ash yields. Samples taken from the burning zones reported an increase of As, Cr, Li, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr and LREE concentrations and a decrease in Zr and HREE concentrations. Enrichment in Cs, Li and Rb was noted when comparing with the geochemical composition of black shales and world coals composition that is related with the contribution of granitic rocks in the sediments that originated the main lithologies of the Douro Coalfield (carbonaceous shale and lithic arenites). Cluster analyses (R-type and Q-type) were performed to understand the trend between the unburned and burning samples and it seems that some chemical variations are responsible for this separation. Elemental sulphur and salammoniac (ammonium salt) are the coal fire gas minerals neoformed on the surface of piles, near the burning zones. They were identified by different techniques, mainly SEM-EDX, XRD and FTIR. Relatively high concentrations of several aromatic compounds were detected in the gas collected at the studied areas, as well as aliphatic hydrocarbons. The highest concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in gas samples from S. Pedro da Cova waste pile. The exposure to hazardous compounds present in the gas is a serious risk to human health and the environment.

J. Ribeiro; E. Ferreira da Silva; D. Flores

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Phase 1 immobilized low-activity waste operational source term  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an engineering analysis of the Phase 1 privatization feeds to establish an operational source term for storage and disposal of immobilized low-activity waste packages at the Hanford Site. The source term information is needed to establish a preliminary estimate of the numbers of remote-handled and contact-handled waste packages. A discussion of the uncertainties and their impact on the source term and waste package distribution is also presented. It should be noted that this study is concerned with operational impacts only. Source terms used for accident scenarios would differ due to alpha and beta radiation which were not significant in this study.

Burbank, D.A.

1998-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

86

Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) Facilities Sprinkler System Hydraulic Calculations  

SciTech Connect

The attached calculations demonstrate sprinkler system operational water requirements as determined by hydraulic analysis. Hydraulic calculations for the waste storage buildings of the Central Waste Complex (CWC), T Plant, and Waste Receiving and Packaging (WRAP) facility are based upon flow testing performed by Fire Protection Engineers from the Hanford Fire Marshal's office. The calculations received peer review and approval prior to release. The hydraulic analysis program HASS Computer Program' (under license number 1609051210) is used to perform all analyses contained in this document. Hydraulic calculations demonstrate sprinkler system operability based upon each individual system design and available water supply under the most restrictive conditions.

KERSTEN, J.K.

2003-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

87

Impact of DOE Orders on Waste Management Operation  

SciTech Connect

Department of Energy Orders are the internal documents which govern the management of all Department of Energy facilities and operations. DOE Orders are the vehicles by which Federal and state laws and regulations are applied to Department of Energy activities. A selected set of 22 Department of Energy Orders was reviewed to identify the applicability and impact of each Order on waste management operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Of the 22 Orders reviewed, five set forth requirements which have a high degree of impact on waste management activities. Eight Orders have a moderate degree of impact on waste management activities, and the remaining nine Orders have a low degree of impact.

Klein, R.B.; Jennrich, E.A.; Shuman, R.; Sandquist, G.M. (Rogers and Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Rutz, A.C.; Littleton, M.W.; McCauce, C.H. (Wastren, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

An analysis of repository waste-handling operations  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to document the operational analysis of waste-handling facilities at a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. The site currently under investigation for the geologic repository is located at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. The repository waste-handling operations have been identified and analyzed for the year 2011, a steady-state year during which the repository receives spent nuclear fuel containing the equivalent of 3000 metric tons of uranium (MTU) and defense high-level waste containing the equivalent of 400 MTU. As a result of this analysis, it has been determined that the waste-handling facilities are adequate to receive, prepare, store, and emplace the projected quantity of waste on an annual basis. In addition, several areas have been identified where additional work is required. The recommendations for future work have been divided into three categories: items that affect the total waste management system, operations within the repository boundary, and the methodology used to perform operational analyses for repository designs. 7 refs., 48 figs., 11 tabs.

Dennis, A.W.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Use of resin-bearing wastes from coke and coal chemicals production at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine  

SciTech Connect

The coke and coal chemicals plant at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine is making trial use of a technology that recycles waste products in 'tar ponds.' Specialists from the Ekomash company have installed a recycling unit in one area of the plant's dump, the unit including an inclined conveyor with a steam heater and a receiving hopper The coal preparation shop receives the wastes in a heated bin, where a screw mixes the wastes with pail of the charge for the coking ovens. The mixture subsequently travels along a moving conveyor belt together with the rest of the charge materials. The addition of up to 2% resin-bearing waste materials to the coal charge has not had any significant effect on the strength properties of the coke.

Kul'kova, T.N.; Yablochkin, N.V.; Gal'chenko, A.I.; Karyakina, E.A.; Litvinova, V.A.; Gorbach, D.A.

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

H-coal pilot plant. Phase II. Construction. Phase III. Operation. Annual report No. 3  

SciTech Connect

At the request of DOE Oak Ridge, ASFI agreed to assume responsibility for completion of Plant construction in December, 1979, at which time Badger Plants' on-site work was ended. This construction effort consisted of electric heat tracing and insulation of piping and instrumentation. At the close of the reporting period the work was completed, or was projected to be completed, within the ASFI budgeted amounts and by dates that will not impact Plant operations. Engineering design solutions were completed for problems encountered with such equipment as the High Pressure Letdown Valves; Slurry Block Valves; Slurry Pumps; the Bowl Mill System; the Dowtherm System; and the Ebullating Pump. A Corrosion Monitoring Program was established. With the exception of Area 500, the Antisolvent Deashing Unit, all operating units were commissioned and operated during the reporting period. Coal was first introduced into the Plant on May 29, 1980, with coal operations continuing periodically through September 30, 1980. The longest continuous coal run was 119 hours. A total of 677 tons of Kentucky No. 11 Coal were processed during the reporting period. The problems encountered were mechanical, not process, in nature. Various Environmental and Health programs were implemented to assure worker safety and protection and to obtain data from Plant operations for scientific analysis. These comprehensive programs will contribute greatly in determining the acceptability of long term H-Coal Plant operations.

Not Available

1981-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

91

Chapter 5 - Mineralogy of Burning-Coal Waste Piles in Collieries of the Czech Republic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Due to long-lasting tradition of coal mining and industrial history on the territory of Czech Republic, significant amount of waste piles of various ages and scales occur. Many of them, along with scarce occurrences of naturally burned coal measures, spontaneously ignited and subsequently, served as a source of diverse assemblage of newly formed minerals – products of pyrometamorphism, alteration, and sublimation. Several new minerals associated with combustion metamorphism were first described from the Czech Republic: tschermigite (1853), rosickýite (1931), letovicite (1932), kratochvílite (1937), kladnoite (1942), koktaite (1948), and rostite (1979). This chapter mainly focuses on two most famous localities, both situated to the Carboniferous sedimentary basins: Kladno Coal District in Central Bohemia near the capital Prague and Radvanice at Trutnov in Eastern Bohemia, close to border with Poland. These two localities, which were studied in detail, provided nearly 100 recently formed minerals and unnamed compounds. Sulfur and As–S efflorescence nucleated around a high-temperature coal-fire gas vent in Radvanice, Czech Republic. Photo by Vladimír Žá?ek, 1994.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Underground coal mining is an industry well suited for robotic automation. Human operators are severely hampered in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Underground coal mining is an industry well suited for robotic automation. Human operators approach meets the requirements for cutting straight entries and mining the proper amount of coal per cycle. Introduction The mining of soft materials, such as coal, is a large industry. Worldwide, a total of 435 million

Stentz, Tony

93

New compounds will help coal operators comply with BELT standards  

SciTech Connect

US coal producers will soon have a new set of conveyor belting standards, which are currently proposed as a rulemaking by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), to bring higher levels of resistance to propagation of fire by a secondary source. The new test being put into effect is known as a Belt Evaluation Laboratory Test (BELT). The article, submitted by Fenner Dunlop, discusses the company's testing procedures and the development of conveyors to comply with regulations. 2 photos.

NONE

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

Identification of solid wastes in geothermal operations  

SciTech Connect

Regulations governing the disposal of hazardous wastes led to an assessment for geothermal solid wastes for potentially hazardous characteristics. Samples were collected from three active geothermal sites in the western United States: The Geysers, Imperial Valley, and northwestern Nevada. Approximately 20 samples were analyzed for corrosivity, EP toxicity, radioactivity, and bioaccumulation potential. The samples were further characterized by analysis for cations, anions, moisture content, priority pollutants, and additional trace metals in the leachate. In addition, an aqueous extraction was conducted at ambient pH. None of the samples collected at The Geysers or northwestern Nevada could be classified as hazardous as defined by the RCRA regulations published May 19, 1980 in the Federal Register. However, several samples from the Imperial Valley could be classified as hazardous. These hazardous characteristics appear to be related to the high salinity of geothermal fluids in that order. This study characterized samples from a limited geographical area and results cannot be extrapolated to other geothermal resource areas.

Hagmann, E.L.; Minicucci, D.D.; Wolbach, C.D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Coal transportation efficiency program: small mine operations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a comprehensive two-year examination of coal distribution in Appalachia. The study was performed to determine if there are opportunities to improve the market position and profitability of smaller coal producers by modifying their distribution systems. In the first phase of the study, an in-depth evaluation of the production, transportation, and market characteristics of small mines and producers resulted in the selection of three representative study areas: Clearfield County, Pennsylvania; Harlan County, Kentucky; and Logan County, West Virginia. In the next phase, a detailed analysis was performed and a preferred distribution strategy was defined for each study area. Finally, the results of the study area analysis were used to determine their applicability to other producing areas. In addition, the implications for the nation's rail system were defined in the event that there were large-scale changes in the coal distribution system for smaller producers. The appendix to the report presents a check list for evaluating the feasibility of potential distribution options.

Not Available

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute and the Office of Physical Plant, Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc., and Cofiring Alternatives.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke; Joseph J. Battista

2001-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

97

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz

2002-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

98

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke

2001-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

99

TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect

Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

James T. Cobb, Jr.

2003-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

100

Research and Development of a New Silica-Alumina Based Cementitious Material Largely Using Coal Refuse for Mine Backfill, Mine Sealing and Waste Disposal Stabilization  

SciTech Connect

Coal refuse and coal combustion byproducts as industrial solid waste stockpiles have become great threats to the environment. To activate coal refuse is one practical solution to recycle this huge amount of solid waste as substitute for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The central goal of this project is to investigate and develop a new silica-alumina based cementitious material largely using coal refuse as a constituent that will be ideal for durable construction, mine backfill, mine sealing and waste disposal stabilization applications. This new material is an environment-friendly alternative to Ordinary Portland Cement. The main constituents of the new material are coal refuse and other coal wastes including coal sludge and coal combustion products (CCPs). Compared with conventional cement production, successful development of this new technology could potentially save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, recycle vast amount of coal wastes, and significantly reduce production cost. A systematic research has been conducted to seek for an optimal solution for enhancing pozzolanic reactivity of the relatively inert solid waste-coal refuse in order to improve the utilization efficiency and economic benefit as a construction and building material.

Henghu Sun; Yuan Yao

2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operations waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

WIPP Remote Handled Waste Facility: Performance Dry Run Operations  

SciTech Connect

The Remote Handled (RH) TRU Waste Handling Facility at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was recently upgraded and modified in preparation for handling and disposal of RH Transuranic (TRU) waste. This modification will allow processing of RH-TRU waste arriving at the WIPP site in two different types of shielded road casks, the RH-TRU 72B and the CNS 10-160B. Washington TRU Solutions (WTS), the WIPP Management and Operation Contractor (MOC), conducted a performance dry run (PDR), beginning August 19, 2002 and successfully completed it on August 24, 2002. The PDR demonstrated that the RHTRU waste handling system works as designed and demonstrated the handling process for each cask, including underground disposal. The purpose of the PDR was to develop and implement a plan that would define in general terms how the WIPP RH-TRU waste handling process would be conducted and evaluated. The PDR demonstrated WIPP operations and support activities required to dispose of RH-TRU waste in the WIPP underground.

Burrington, T. P.; Britain, R. M.; Cassingham, S. T.

2003-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

102

Effect of Coal Properties and Operation Conditions on Flow Behavior of Coal Slag in Entrained Flow Gasifiers: A Brief Review  

SciTech Connect

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a potentially promising clean technology with an inherent advantage of low emissions, since the process removes contaminants before combustion instead of from flue gas after combustion, as in a conventional coal steam plant. In addition, IGCC has potential for cost-effective carbon dioxide capture. Availability and high capital costs are the main challenges to making IGCC technology more competitive and fully commercial. Experiences from demonstrated IGCC plants show that, in the gasification system, low availability is largely due to slag buildup in the gasifier and fouling in the syngas cooler downstream of the gasification system. In the entrained flow gasifiers used in IGCC plants, the majority of mineral matter transforms to liquid slag on the wall of the gasifier and flows out the bottom. However, a small fraction of the mineral matter (as fly ash) is entrained with the raw syngas out of the gasifier to downstream processing. This molten/sticky fly ash could cause fouling of the syngas cooler. Therefore, it is preferable to minimize the quantity of fly ash and maximize slag. In addition, the hot raw syngas is cooled to convert any entrained molten fly slag to hardened solid fly ash prior to entering the syngas cooler. To improve gasification availability through better design and operation of the gasification process, better understanding of slag behavior and characteristics of the slagging process are needed. Slagging behavior is affected by char/ash properties, gas compositions in the gasifier, the gasifier wall structure, fluid dynamics, and plant operating conditions (mainly temperature and oxygen/carbon ratio). The viscosity of the slag is used to characterize the behavior of the slag flow and is the dominating factor to determine the probability that ash particles will stick. Slag viscosity strongly depends on the temperature and chemical composition of the slag. Because coal has varying ash content and composition, different operating conditions are required to maintain the slag flow and limit problems downstream. This report briefly introduces the IGCC process, the gasification process, and the main types and operating conditions of entrained flow gasifiers used in IGCC plants. This report also discusses the effects of coal ash and slag properties on slag flow and its qualities required for the entrained flow gasifier. Finally this report will identify the key operating conditions affecting slag flow behaviors, including temperature, oxygen/coal ratio, and flux agents.

Wang,Ping; Massoudi, Mehrdad

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Influence of operating conditions and coal properties on \\{NOx\\} and N2O emissions in pressurized fluidized bed combustion of subbituminous coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This experimental study is aimed at finding effects of operating conditions in PFBC on nitrogen oxide emissions for subbituminous coals differing in ash content/composition, combustion/gasification reactivities and in particle size distribution. The experiments have been done on a smaller laboratory apparatus with ID=8 cm. The effects of operating pressure (0.1–1 MPa), temperature of the fluidized bed (800–900 °C), freeboard temperature and oxygen concentration (3–10 vol.%) on the nitrogen oxides emissions are relatively complex, coupled with temperature of burning coal particles. The coal ash content/composition (esp. CaO and Fe2O3) and fly ash freeboard concentration play an important role in formation/destruction chemistry of both NO and N2O. The \\{NOx\\} emissions decrease with increasing operating pressure at the same volumetric oxygen concentration and temperature. Temperature, volatile content, reactivities of coals and ash composition are the most important factors for N2O emissions. The N2O emissions are either almost constant or can exhibit a maximum at increasing operating pressure. Influence of increasing oxygen concentration on \\{NOx\\} and N2O emissions is more pronounced at lower operating pressures, esp. for the less reactive, medium ash coal. The particle size distribution of the coal (influence of coal dust) can cause characteristic changes in \\{NOx\\} and N2O emissions in PFBC, esp. at lower combustion temperatures (800–840 °C). The emission changes are dependent on ash properties/composition.

Karel Svoboda; Michael Poho?elý

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox operational test report  

SciTech Connect

The Low Level Waste (LLW) Process Gloveboxes are designed to: receive a 55 gallon drum in an 85 gallon overpack in the Entry glovebox (GBIOI); and open and sort the waste from the 55 gallon drum, place the waste back into drum and relid in the Sorting glovebox (GB 102). In addition, waste which requires further examination is transferred to the LLW RWM Glovebox via the Drath and Schraeder Bagiess Transfer Port (DO-07-201) or sent to the Sample Transfer Port (STC); crush the drum in the Supercompactor glovebox (GB 104); place the resulting puck (along with other pucks) into another 85 gallon overpack in the Exit glovebox (GB 105). The status of the waste items is tracked by the Data Management System (DMS) via the Plant Control System (PCS) barcode interface. As an item is moved from the entry glovebox to the exit glovebox, the Operator will track an items location using a barcode reader and enter any required data on the DMS console. The Operational Test Procedure (OTP) will perform evolution`s (described below) using the Plant Operating Procedures (POP) in order to verify that they are sufficient and accurate for controlled glovebox operation.

Kersten, J.K.

1998-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

105

SYSTEM PLANNING WITH THE HANFORD WASTE OPERATIONS SIMULATOR  

SciTech Connect

At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, 216 million liters (57 million gallons) of nuclear waste is currently stored in aging underground tanks, threatening the Columbia River. The River Protection Project (RPP), a fully integrated system of waste storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal facilities, is in varying stages of design, construction, operation, and future planning. These facilities face many overlapping technical, regulatory, and financial hurdles to achieve site cleanup and closure. Program execution is ongoing, but completion is currently expected to take approximately 40 more years. Strategic planning for the treatment of Hanford tank waste is by nature a multi-faceted, complex and iterative process. To help manage the planning, a report referred to as the RPP System Plan is prepared to provide a basis for aligning the program scope with the cost and schedule, from upper-tier contracts to individual facility operating plans. The Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS), a dynamic flowsheet simulation and mass balance computer model, is used to simulate the current planned RPP mission, evaluate the impacts of changes to the mission, and assist in planning near-term facility operations. Development of additional modeling tools, including an operations research model and a cost model, will further improve long-term planning confidence. The most recent RPP System Plan, Revision 4, was published in September 2009.

CRAWFORD TW; CERTA PJ; WELLS MN

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

106

Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant – December 2014  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Operational Awareness Record for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Facility Reagents Systems Hazards Analysis Activity Observation (EA-WTP-LAW-2014-06-02)

107

Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 126-B-3, 184-B Coal Pit Dumping Area, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-028  

SciTech Connect

The 126-B-3 waste site is the former coal storage pit for the 184-B Powerhouse. During demolition operations in the 1970s, the site was used for disposal of demolition debris from 100-B/C Area facilities. The site has been remediated by removing debris and contaminated soils. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

L. M. Dittmer

2006-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

108

Coal-liquid fuel/diesel engine operating compatibility. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This work is intended to assess the possibilities of using coal-derived liquids (CDL) represented by a specific type (SRC II) and shale-derived distillate fuel in blends of petroleum-derived fuels in medium-speed, high-output, heavy-duty diesel engines. Conclusions are as follows: (1) Blends of solvent refined coal and diesel fuel may be handled safely by experienced diesel engine mechanics. (2) A serious corrosion problem was found in the fuel pump parts when operating with solvent refined coal blended with petroleum. It is expected that a metallurgy change can overcome this problem. (3) Proper selection of materials for the fuel system is required to permit handling coal-derived liquid fuels. (4) A medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engine can be operated on blends of solvent refined coal and petroleum without serious consequences save the fuel system corrosion previously mentioned. This is based on a single, short durability test. (5) As represented by the product evaluated, 100% shale-derived distillate fuel may be used in a medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engine without significant consequences. (6) The shale product evaluated may be blended with petroleum distillate or petroleum residual materials and used as a fuel for medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engines. 7 references, 24 figures, 20 tables.

Hoffman, J.G.; Martin, F.W.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant – December 2014  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Operational Awareness Record for the Observation of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant High Level Waste Facility Radioactive Liquid Waste Disposal System Hazards Analysis Activities (EA-WTP-HLW-2014-08-18(a))

110

Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant – December 2014  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Operational Awareness Record for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Facility Waste Handling Systems Hazard Analysis Activities Observation (EA-WTP-LAW-2014-08-18(b))

111

Assessing determinants of industrial waste reuse: The case of coal ash in the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Devising effective strategies to facilitate waste reuse depends on the solid understanding of reuse behaviors. However, previous studies of reuse behavior have been limited in scope, focusing mostly on household recycling behaviors or very limited types of industrial wastes. To gain a better understanding of the business reuse behaviors, this study examined the impact of various factors in technical, economic, regulatory, and behavioral categories in the case of coal ash generated in the United States. The results of fixed effect models for fly ash and bottom ash particularly showed the significance role of the behavioral factor. In both models, a proxy variable, which represents knowledge sharing among the power plants or the utility's decision-making, turned out to be statistically significant and had the largest coefficient estimates among a group of variables. This finding may imply that the characteristics of waste reuse behavior are determined more by business decision-making behaviors than by market or institutional factors. However, the role of the behavioral variable was stronger in the bottom ash models than in the fly ash models. While the reuse of bottom ash was determined primarily by the behavioral variable, fly ash reuse was determined by more diverse factors including economic and regulatory variables. This could be explained by material characteristics in relation to competing resources and the nature of reuse applications.

Joo Young Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Soil attenuation of leachates from low-rank coal combustion wastes: a literature survey. [116 references  

SciTech Connect

In parallel with pursuing the goal of increased utilization of low-rank solid fuels, the US Department of Energy is investigating various aspects associated with the disposal of coal-combustion solid wastes. Concern has been expressed relative to the potential hazards presented by leachates from fly ash, bottom ash and scrubber wastes. This is of particular interest in some regions where disposal areas overlap aquifer recharge regions. The western regions of the United States are characterized by relatively dry alkaline soils which may effect substantial attenuation of contaminants in the leachates thereby reducing the pollution potential. A project has been initiated to study the contaminant uptake of western soils. This effort consists of two phases: (1) preparation of a state-of-the-art document on soil attenuation; and (2) laboratory experimental studies to characterize attenuation of a western soil. The state-of-the-art document, represented herein, presents the results of studies on the characteristics of selected wastes, reviews the suggested models which account for the uptake, discusses the specialized columnar laboratory studies on the interaction of leachates and soils, and gives an overview of characteristics of Texas and Wyoming soils. 116 references, 10 figures, 29 tables.

Gauntt, R. O.; DeOtte, R. E.; Slowey, J. F.; McFarland, A. R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal processes. Quarterly technical progress report, May--July 1989  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) has initiated research on the disposal of solid wastes from advanced coal processes. The objective of this research is to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for planning waste disposal practices associated with advanced coal processes. To accomplish this objective, DOE has contracted Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy & Mineral Research Center (EMRC) to design, construct and monitor a limited number of field disposal tests with advanced coal process wastes. These field tests will be monitored over a three year period with the emphasis on collecting data on the field disposal of these wastes. The specific objectives for the reporting period were as follows: review fourth site candidates; obtain site access for the Freeman United site; select an ash supplier for the Illinois site and initiate subcontracts for on-site work; commence construction of the Freeman United test cell; and obtain waste for the Colorado Ute test site. Accomplishments under each task are discussed.

NONE

1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

114

Evaluation of AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital wastes. Technical report, January 1989--August 1990  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program is to expand the use of coal by utilizing CFB (circulating fluidized bed) technology to provide an environmentally safe method for disposing of waste materials. Hospitals are currently experiencing a waste management crisis. In many instances, they are no longer permitted to burn pathological and infectious wastes in incinerators. Older hospital incinerators are not capable of maintaining the stable temperatures and residence times necessary in order to completely destroy toxic substances before release into the atmosphere. In addition, the number of available landfills which can safely handle these substances is decreasing each year. The purpose of this project is to conduct necessary research investigating whether the combustion of the hospital wastes in a coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler will effectively destroy dioxins and other hazardous substances before release into the atmosphere. If this is proven feasible, in light of the quantity of hospital wastes generated each year, it would create a new market for coal -- possibly 50 million tons/year.

Not Available

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Fluidised bed co-gasification of coal and olive oil industry wastes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Co-gasification of bagasse wastes mixed with coal is technically feasible, without major installation changes. The effect of experimental conditions on co-gasification process was analysed, to enhance gas production and improve its composition and energetic content. The rise of bagasse content increased tars and gaseous hydrocarbons contents, which can be reduced by increasing gasification temperature and/or air flow rate. The rise of temperature till 890 °C favoured hydrocarbons further reactions and allowed an increase of 45% in hydrogen release and a decrease in gaseous hydrocarbons of 55%. A reduction of around 30% in gaseous hydrocarbons was also achieved by rising O2/fuel ratio till 0.6 g/g daf, which decreased gas heating value, due to nitrogen diluting effect. Though no significant changes in gaseous hydrocarbons composition were obtained, the presence of dolomite in the fluidised bed had the benefit of decreasing tars content and rising gas yield, being the gas richer in hydrogen content.

Rui Neto André; Filomena Pinto; Carlos Franco; M. Dias; I. Gulyurtlu; M.A.A. Matos; I. Cabrita

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Biodegradation of Fuel Oil Hydrocarbons in Soil Contaminated by Oily Wastes Produced During Onshore Drilling Operations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The petroleum industry generates high amount of oily wastes during drilling, storage and refining operations. Onshore drilling operations produce oil based wastes, typically 100–150m-3 well. The drilling cuttings...

Qaude-Henri Chaîneau; Jean-Louis Morel; Jean Oudot

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Transuranic (Tru) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility  

SciTech Connect

Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA 55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Size-reduction operations on glovebox equipment are a common activity when a process has been discontinued and the room is being modified to support a new customer. The Actin ide Processing Group at TA-55 uses one-meter-long glass columns to process plutonium. Disposal of used columns is a challenge, since they must be size-reduced to get them out of the glovebox. The task is a high-risk operation because the glass shards that are generated can puncture the bag-out bags, leather protectors, glovebox gloves, and the worker's skin when completing the task. One of the Lessons Learned from these operations is that Laboratory management should critically evaluate each hazard and provide more effective measures to prevent personnel injury. A bag made of puncture-resistant material was one of these enhanced controls. We have investigated the effectiveness of these bags and have found that they safely and effectively permit glass objects to be reduced to small pieces with a plastic or rubber mallet; the waste can then be easily poured into a container for removal from the glove box as non-compactable transuranic (TRU) waste. This size-reduction operation reduces solid TRU waste generation by almost 2% times. Replacing one-time-use bag-out bags with multiple-use glass crushing bags also contributes to reducing generated waste. In addition, significant costs from contamination, cleanup, and preparation of incident documentation are avoided. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos National Laboratory Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations. In this report, the technical issues, associated with implementing this process improvement are addressed, the results discussed, effectiveness of Lessons Learned evaluated, and waste savings presented.

Cournoyer, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nixon, Archie E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dodge, Robert L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fife, Keith W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Arnold M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Vincent E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

FACTORS AFFECTING THE SAFE AND EFFICIENT OPERATION OF BAGASSE/COAL FIRED WATERTUBE BOILERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper covers various aspects relating to the operation and maintenance of bagasse/coal fired watertube boilers which, if properly implemented, will ensure that the boiler operates safely at optimal performance while maintenance and operating costs are minimised. The current philosophies on instrumentation and controls are discussed. This includes combustion and drum level control loops as well as interlocks and safety devices. Operating problems due to unbalanced steam line pressure drops are covered, and recommendations are given for the design of steam lines. The importance of training courses for operating and maintenance personnel is emphasised, including the day-to-day aspects of proper boiler operation. An overview of present and proposed legal requirements for operating, maintaining and repairing boilers in South Africa is also given.

H Verbanck; K Mcintyre; Q Engelbrecht

119

Supplemental design requirements document solid waste operations complex  

SciTech Connect

This document provides additional and supplemental information to the WHC-SD-W112-FDC-001, WHC-SD-W113-FDC-001, and WHC-SD-W100-FDC-001. It provides additional requirements for the design and summarizes Westinghouse Hanford Company key design guidance and establishes the technical baseline agreements to be used for definitive design common to the Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) Facilities (Project W-112, Project W-113, and WRAP 2A).

Ocampo, V.P.; Boothe, G.F.; Broz, D.R.; Eaton, H.E.; Greager, T.M.; Huckfeldt, R.A.; Kooiker, S.L.; Lamberd, D.L.; Lang, L.L.; Myers, J.B. [and others

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Waste biomass from production process co-firing with coal in a steam boiler to reduce fossil fuel consumption: A case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Waste biomass is always generated during the production process in industries. The ordinary way to get rid of the waste biomass is to send them to landfill or burn it in the open field. The waste may potentially be used for co-firing with coal to save fossil fuel consumption and also reduce net carbon emissions. In this case study, the bio-waste from a Nicotiana Tabacum (NT) pre-treatment plant is used as the biomass to co-fire with coal. The samples of NT wastes were analysed. It was found that the wastes were of the relatively high energy content which were suitable for co-firing with coal. To investigate the potential and benefits for adding NT wastes to a Fluidised Bed Combustion (FBC) boiler in the plant, detailed modelling and simulation are carried out using the European Coal Liquefaction Process Simulation and Evaluation (ECLIPSE) process simulation package. The feedstock blending ratios of NT waste to coal studied in this work are varied from 0% to 30%. The results show that the addition of NT wastes may decrease the emissions of CO2 and \\{SOx\\} without reducing the boiler performance.

Hongyan Gu; Kai Zhang; Yaodong Wang; Ye Huang; Neil Hewitt; Anthony P Roskilly

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operations waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

The Savannah River Site's liquid radioactive waste operations involves the man  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Site's liquid radioactive waste operations involves the management of space in the Site's Site's liquid radioactive waste operations involves the management of space in the Site's 49 underground waste tanks, including the removal of waste materials. Once water is removed from the waste tanks, two materials remain: salt and sludge waste. Removing salt waste, which fills approximately 90 percent of the tank space in the SRS tank farms, is a major step toward closing the Site's waste tanks that currently contain approximately 38 million gallons of waste. Due to the limited amount of tank space available in new-style tanks, some salt waste must be dispositioned in the interim to ensure sufficient tank space for continued sludge washing and to support the initial start-up and salt processing operations at the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF).

122

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are presently being developed for gasification integrated power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50+% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with the Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but direct test data from coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This research effort evaluates the significance of SOFC performance losses associated with exposure of a SOFC anode to direct coal syngas. SOFC specimen of industrially relevant composition are operated in a unique mobile test skid that was deployed to the research gasifier at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. The mobile test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas (up to 300°C) directly to a parallel array of 12 button cell specimen, each of which possesses an active area of approximately 2 cm2. During the 500 hour test period, all twelve cells were monitored for performance at four discrete operating current densities, and all cells maintained contact with a data acquisition system. Of these twelve, nine demonstrated good performance throughout the test, while three of the cells were partially compromised. Degradation associated with the properly functioning cells was attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that was accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that were operated at 0 and 125 mA/cm˛ degraded at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 hours, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA/cm˛ degraded at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 hours, respectively. Post-trial spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

Hackett, Gregory A.; Gerdes, Kirk R.; Song, Xueyan; Chen, Yun; Shutthanandan, V.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Gemmen, Randall

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

Management of solid wastes from the Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) clean coal technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project were to characterize by-products from a pilot Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) process and to develop processes directed toward the safe and economic use or disposal of these wastes. Because LIDS is a developing Clean Coal technology, a database of chemical and physical characteristics of the by-product was first developed. During the course of this project, it was found that the waste alone did not form high-strength products sufficient for use in construction and engineering applications. Therefore, the project was redirected to evaluate the by-product as a soil-cement and Portland cement raw material, agricultural liming agent, backfill/landfill material component, and mine reclamation/neutralizing agent. Based on these evaluations, the most viable uses for the LIDS byproduct include use in mine reclamation or as a neutralization agent. If soluble sulfites can be minimized by avoiding a dolomitic LIDS reagent, use as an agricultural liming agent has promise. Interest from an Ohio utility in the LIDS process suggests possible application of results at the demonstration or commercial stages.

Musiol, W.F. Jr.; Czuczwa, J.M.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Operating experience with a coal-fired two-stage FBC in an industrial plant setting  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the design, operation and emissions performance of a 70,000-lb/h coal-fired fluidized-bed combustor (FBC). The FBC is a novel dual-bed design that enables it to achieve high desulfurizing efficiencies in a short (14 ft. tall) package unit. Topics considered include the dual-bed package boiler, the improved coal feed system, the controls, retrofit capability, and current status. The FBC was installed at the Iowa Beef Processor's, Inc., plant in Texas. In 300 hours of round-the-clock testing, the FBC has demonstrated an availability of 98%. The gaseous emission levels were low, with CO, SO2 and NOx emissions at 100, 50 and 100 ppm respectively as the burner operated at 20% excess air. It is emphasized that FBC's must be designed to meet the requirements of retrofit, including a remote coal handling system (for use in buildup areas), a sufficiently compact boiler (to fit in the existing boilerhouse), and a water circulation system that allows the FBC to operate in conjunction with the existing boiler.

Sadowski, R.S.; Wormser, A.F.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

A novel, integrated treatment system for coal waste waters. Quarterly report, March 2, 1994--June 1, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The aims of this study are to develop, characterize and optimize a novel treatment scheme that would be effective simultaneously against the toxic organics and the heavy metals present in coal conversion waste waters. A specific goal of the study is to remove and recover cationic and anionic heavy metals from aqueous solutions and coal conversion waste waters using modified-clay adsorbents developed in this study. To this end, a multi-step adsorption/desorption process has been carried out with hectorite-CBDA-DT (HCDT) as the adsorbent and Cr(VI) as the adsorbate. Adsorption was carried out at pH 4.0 in 0.02 M buffer, while desorption was effected at the same pH and in the same buffer with either 0.5 M NaCl or 0.02 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as the desorbates. Multi-step involves cycling the same adsorbent through these two sets of operating conditions with a washing step after each adsorption/desorption sequence. The authors results indicate that, during the first two cycles, the potency of the adsorbent remains unchanged, but it diminishes after the third and the fourth cycles. The total decrease in potency is, however, only 15% even after 4 cycles of adsorption/desorption. Addition of 20% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) to the reaction medium, however, diminishes the potency even more after 4 cycles of adsorption and desorption. Both the desorbates yielded identical results, and the overall mass balance on Cr(VI) was between 95 and 102%. Continuous leaching experiments on HCDT revealed that DT bound to HCDT is mobilized to the extent of only 10% after 44 hrs in aqueous medium while in 20% IPA-water mixtures the extent of dissolution of DT from the surface is close to 16%. Thus, the loss of potency of HCDT is attributed partly to the loss of DT from the surface and partly to the incomplete washing of the adsorbent between each adsorption/desorption step.

Wang, H.Y. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Wang, H.Y.; Srinivasan, K.R.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Gasification and co-gasification of biomass wastes: Effect of the biomass origin and the gasifier operating conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Air gasification of different biomass fuels, including forestry (pinus pinaster pruning) and agricultural (grapevine and olive tree pruning) wastes as well as industry wastes (sawdust and marc of grape), has been carried out in a circulating flow gasifier in order to evaluate the potential of using these types of biomass in the same equipment, thus providing higher operation flexibility and minimizing the effect of seasonal fuel supply variations. The potential of using biomass as an additional supporting fuel in coal fuelled power plants has also been evaluated through tests involving mixtures of biomass and coal–coke, the coke being a typical waste of oil companies. The effect of the main gasifier operating conditions, such as the relative biomass/air ratio and the reaction temperature, has been analysed to establish the conditions allowing higher gasification efficiency, carbon conversion and/or fuel constituents (CO, H2 and CH4) concentration and production. Results of the work encourage the combined use of the different biomass fuels without significant modifications in the installation, although agricultural wastes (grapevine and olive pruning) could to lead to more efficient gasification processes. These latter wastes appear as interesting fuels to generate a producer gas to be used in internal combustion engines or gas turbines (high gasification efficiency and gas yield), while sawdust could be a very adequate fuel to produce a H2-rich gas (with interest for fuel cells) due to its highest reactivity. The influence of the reaction temperature on the gasification characteristics was not as significant as that of the biomass/air ratio, although the H2 concentration increased with increasing temperature.

Magín Lapuerta; Juan J. Hernández; Amparo Pazo; Julio López

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Development and Demonstration of Waste Heat Integration with Solvent Process for More Efficient CO2 Removal from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Demonstration of and Demonstration of Waste Heat Integration with Solvent Process for More Efficient CO 2 Removal from Coal-Fired Flue Gas Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) Existing Plants, Emissions, & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-

128

14 - Cost modelling of coal power plant start-up in cyclical operation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: It has long been recognized that large coal plants that are exposed to cyclic operation incur more damage and have higher maintenance costs than units which operate in a base load regimen. This chapter reviews historical studies that have attempted to model the costs of cycling for these units from both bottom-up and top-down perspectives. It describes recent research at the component, unit and system level which attempts to forecast maintenance costs in the high-cycling scenarios likely to result from changes in the relative cost of fuel and the expansion of renewable energy sources.

P. Keatley

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Project Annual Operating Report CY 1999  

SciTech Connect

A total of 5.77 x 10 7 gallons (gal) of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Complex (PWTC) - Building 3544 ion exchange system during calendar year (CY) 1999. This averaged to 110 gpm throughout the year. An additional 3.94 x 10 6 gal of liquid waste (average of 8 gpm throughout the year) was decontaminated using the zeolite treatment system due to periods of high Cesium levels in the influent wastewater. A total of 6.17 x 10 7 gal of liquid waste (average of 118 gpm throughout the year) was decontaminated at Building 3544 during the year. During the year, the regeneration of the ion exchange resins resulted in the generation of 8.00 x 10 3 gal of Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) concentrate and 9.00 x 10 2 gal of LLLW supernate. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at Building 3544. Figure 1 shows a diagram of the Process Waste Collection and Transfer System and Figure 2 shows a diagram of the Building 3544 treatment process. Figures 3, 4 5, and 6 s how a comparison of operations at Building 3544 in 1997 with previous years. Figure 7 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1995.

Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute`s fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison`s limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United`s mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the three landfill test cases constructed in 1989 were completed. Monitoring continued at Test Case Four. Two cells for Test Case Five were constructed in Illinois.

Not Available

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Soil Amendments Promote Vegetation Establishment and Control Acidity in Coal Combustion Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of adding various soil amendments and a pyrite oxidation inhibitor to aid in the establishment of vegetation and to reduce acid drainage (AD) from coal fly ash and coal reject (FA + CR*) were assessed...

R. M. Danker; D. C. Adriano; Bon-Jun Koo…

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

GIS BASED ANALYSIS OF LANDCOVER CHANGES ARISING FROM COAL PRODUCTION WASTES IN ZONGULDAK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mining has been made since 1848 and, based on the records kept since 1865, 328 million tons pit run coal

H. Akç?n A; S. Karak? A; G. Büyüksalih A; M. Oruç A

133

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal Cleaning Costs Process Clean Coal Produced, * T/D (DryMM$ Net Operating Cost, $/T (Clean Coal Basis) Net OperatingCost, $/T (Clean Coal Bases) Case NA Hazen KVB Battelle

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Coal dust exposure among power station workers during normal operations at Hatfield's Ferry Power Station.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Changes in coal composition could produce higher levels of coal dust exposure thanthose found in the past at Hatfield's Ferry Power Station. Air sampling was… (more)

Lewis, Christian S.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste Operations Adds Multi-Functional...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

now been filled. The SDUs play an essential role in the closure of the 45 liquid waste tanks on the site. About 90 percent of the waste in these tanks is salt waste that must be...

136

Wastes from plutonium conversion and scrap recovery operations  

SciTech Connect

This report deals with the handling of defense-related wastes associated with plutonium processing. It first defines the different waste categories along with the techniques used to assess waste content. It then discusses the various treatment approaches used in recovering plutonium from scrap. Next, it addresses the various waste management approaches necessary to handle all wastes. Finally, there is a discussion of some future areas for processing with emphasis on waste reduction. 91 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

Christensen, D.C.; Bowersox, D.F.; McKerley, B.J.; Nance, R.L.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

Sheldon, Ray W. (Huntley, MT)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Low-Level Waste Overview of the Nevada Test Site Waste Disposal Operations  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides an overview and the impacts of new policies, processes, and opportunities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Operational changes have been implemented, such as larger trench sizes and more efficient soil management as have administrative processes to address U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Code of Federal Regulation analyses. Some adverse conditions have prompted changes in transportation and mixed low-level waste polices, and a new funding mechanism was developed. This year has seen many changes to the NTS disposal family. (authors)

Carilli, J.T.; Skougard, M.G. [U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Krenzien, S.K. [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Wrapp, J.K.; Ramirez, C.; Yucel, V.; Shott, G.J.; Gordon, S.J.; Enockson, K.C.; Desotell, L.T. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

EIS-0063: Waste Management Operations, Double-Shell Tanks for Defense High Level Radioactive Waste Storage, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to evaluate the existing tank design and consider additional specific design and safety feature alternatives for the thirteen tanks being constructed for storage of defense high-level radioactive liquid waste at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This statement supplements ERDA-1538, "Final Environmental Statement on Waste Management Operation."

140

Co-management of coal combustion by-products and low-volume wastes: A Southeastern Site  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Research Institute initiated this study to provide environmental data on the co-management of utility high volume and low volume residues. This report presents results from a field investigation at an ash pond located at a 400 MW, coal-fired power plant in the southeastern US. The pond receives wet-sluiced fly ash and bottom ash from the generating station as well as low volume wastes from coal preparation, demineralizer regeneration, and boiler cleaning. A detailed hydrogeochemical characterization of the primary ash disposal pond and surrounding groundwater system was performed. A total of 25 monitoring wells were installed to characterize groundwater flow directions, rates and chemistry. Ash and soil cores were also collected for hydrogeochemical characterization.

Holcombe, L.J.; Thompson, C.M.; Rehage, J.A. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States)); Erickson, J.R. (GeoTrans, Inc., Sterling, VA (United States)); Fruchter, J.S. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operations waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

OSS 19.5 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response 3/21/95 |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response 3/21/95 5 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response 3/21/95 OSS 19.5 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response 3/21/95 The objective of this surveillance is to ensure that workers who are performing activities associated with characterizing, handling, processing, storing or transporting hazardous wastes are adequately protected. The surveillance also evaluates the effectiveness of programs implemented to protect the health and safety of emergency response personnel who may be called upon to mitigate upset conditions at a facility where hazardous waste operations are conducted. Finally, the surveillance includes evaluations of the contractor's compliance with specific requirements regarding hazardous waste operations and emergency response. OSS19-05.doc

142

Waste minimization and pollution prevention initiatives within Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) boiler house operations  

SciTech Connect

The mission of ANL-E Plant Facility and Services-Utilities and Systems (PFS-US) is to operate and maintain utility services in a cost-effective manner, while utilizing new and innovative methods whenever possible. PFS-US operates an on-site coal burning boiler plant that generates steam for use throughout the Laboratory as a source to heat buildings, as well as for use in research experiments. In the recent past, PFS-US has embarked upon a series of initiatives to improve operating efficiency of boiler house operations. The results of these projects have had the following impacts on boiler house performance and operations: (1) boiler house efficiency and operations have improved, (2) boiler house operating costs have been reduced, (3) specific operating and maintenance costs have been avoided or eliminated, and (4) the amount of waste and pollution generated has been reduced. Through the implementation of these initiatives, over $250,000 of revenue and cost savings have been incurred by ANL-E. In addition, the Laboratory and DOE will benefit annually from revenues, cost savings, and the reduction of environmental liability resulting from these initiatives.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal processes. Quarterly technical progress report, November 1991--January 1992  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for planning waste disposal practices associated with advanced coal processes. To accomplish this objective, DOE has contracted Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to design, construct, and monitor a limited number of field disposal tests with advanced coal process wastes. These field tests will be monitored over a three year period with the emphasis on collecting data on the field disposal of these wastes. Accomplishments for this past quarter are as follows: The 9th quarterly measurements at the Colorado site took place in December, 1991. Permeability and neutron absorption moisture content measurements were made and on site data was collected from the data logger; The 9th quarterly sampling at the Ohio site took place in November 1991. Permeability and moisture content measurements were made, and water samples were collected from the wells and lysimeters; The second quarterly core and water samples from the first Illinois test case were collected in mid November, and field data were collected from the data logger; Chemical analysis of all core and water samples continued; all chemical analyses except for some tests on Illinois second quarter cores are now complete.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Characterization of particulate matter (PM10) related to surface coal mining operations in Appalachia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study investigates the environmental exposure of residents of a community in southwest Virginia to respirable concentrations of dust (PM-10 i.e. PM10) generated by trucks hauling coal from surface coal mining operations. The study site is representative of communities in southwest Virginia and other parts of Appalachia that are located in narrow hollows where homes are placed directly along roads that experience heavy coal truck traffic. Preliminary air sampling (Particulate Matter i.e. PM10) was conducted for a period of approximately two weeks during early August 2008 in the unincorporated community of Roda, Virginia, at two locations (about a mile apart along Roda Road (Route 685) in Wise County, Virginia). For the purposes of this study (a combination of logistics, resource, and characterization of PM) we sited the PM samplers near the road to ascertain the micro exposure from the road. The results revealed high levels of PM10 (the mean adjusted 24-h concentration at the Campbell Site = 250.2 ?g m?3 (±135.0 ?g m?3); and at the Willis Site = 144.8 ± 60.0 ?g m?3). The U.S. 24-h national ambient air quality standard for PM10 is 150 ?g m?3. Elemental analysis for samples (blank-corrected) collected on Quartz filter paper (on one randomly selected day) at both the sites revealed the presence of antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium. Electron micrographs reveal the morphology and habit (shapes and aggregates) of the particulate matter collected.

Viney P. Aneja; Aaron Isherwood; Peter Morgan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

SRS Waste Tanks 5 and 6 Are Operationally Closed | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SRS Waste Tanks 5 and 6 Are Operationally Closed SRS Waste Tanks 5 and 6 Are Operationally Closed SRS Waste Tanks 5 and 6 Are Operationally Closed December 19, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis The final amount of grout is poured into Tank 6, marking the operational closure of Tanks 5 and 6. The final amount of grout is poured into Tank 6, marking the operational closure of Tanks 5 and 6. Media Contacts Amy Caver, Amy.Caver@srs.gov, 803-952-7213 Rick Kelley, Rick.Kelley@srs.gov, 803-208-0198 AIKEN, S.C. - Savannah River Remediation (SRR), the liquid waste contractor at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site, has removed from service two more Cold War-era liquid radioactive waste tanks, marking the third and fourth tanks operationally closed by SRR in the last 14 months. Grouting and closure of Tanks 5 and 6 were completed approximately two

146

Degradation Mechanism in a Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Operated with Demineralised Brown Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The performance of a demineralised and devolatilised coal from the Morwell mine in the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, has been investigated in a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) operated at 850 °C. The focus of the investigation has been on understanding degradation issues as a function of time involving a sequence of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and voltage-current characteristic. Diffusion limited processes dominate the electrode polarisation losses in pure N2 atmosphere, however, these decrease substantially in the presence of CO2 as the anode chamber purge gas, due to in situ generation of fuel species by the reaction of CO2 with carbon. Post-mortem analysis of anode by SEM and XRD revealed only a minor degradation due to its reduction, particle agglomeration as well as the formation of small quantity of new phases. However, major fuel cell performance degradation (increase of ohmic resistive and electrode polarisation losses) occurred due to loss of carbon/anode contacts and a reduction in the electron-conducting pathways as the fuel was consumed. The investigations revealed that the demineralised coal char can be used as a viable fuel for DCFC, however, further developments on anode materials and fuel feed mechanism would be required to achieve long-term sustained performance.

Adam C. Rady; Sarbjit Giddey; Aniruddha Kulkarni; Sukhvinder P.S. Badwal; Sankar Bhattacharya

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal or coal refuse, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute and the Office of Physical Plant, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and Cofiring Alternatives. The major emphasis of work during this reporting period was to assess the types and quantities of potential feedstocks and collect samples of them for analysis. Approximately twenty different biomass, animal waste, and other wastes were collected and analyzed.

Bruce G. Miller; Curtis Jawdy

2000-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

148

Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes. Annual technical progress report, October 1991--September 1992  

SciTech Connect

Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute`s fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison`s limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United`s mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the four landfill test cases constructed in 1989 and 1991 has continued. Option 1 of the contract was approved last year to add financing for the fifth test case at the Freeman United site. The construction of the Test Case 5 cells is scheduled to begin in November, 1992. Work during this past year has focused on obtaining data on the physical and chemical properties of the landfilled wastes, and on developing a conceptual framework for interpreting this information. Results to date indicate that hydration reactions within the landfilled wastes have had a major impact on the physical and chemical properties of the materials but these reactions largely ceased after the first year, and physical properties have changed little since then. Conditions in Colorado remained dry and no porewater samples were collected. In Ohio, hydration reactions and increases in the moisture content of the waste tied up much of the water initially infiltrating the test cells.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

149

Influence of coal on coke properties and blast-furnace operation  

SciTech Connect

With unstable coal supplies and properties and a fluctuating content of coking coal in the batch at OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (ZSMK) and of bituminous coal at Kuznetskaya enrichment facility, it is important to optimize the rank composition of the batch for coke production.

G.R. Gainieva; L.D. Nikitin [OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

New EPA Guidelines for Review of Surface Coal Mining Operations in Appalachia (released in AEO2010)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

On April 1, 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a set of new guidelines to several of its Regional offices regarding the compliance of surface coal mining operations in Appalachia with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (CWA), the National Environmental Policy Act, and the environmental justice Executive Order (E.O. 12898). The stated purpose of the guidance was to explain more fully the approach that the EPA will be following in permit reviews, and to provide additional assurance that its Regional offices use clear, consistent, and science-based standards in reviewing the permits. Although the new guidelines go into effect immediately, they will be subjected to review both by the public and by the EPA's Science Advisory Board, with a set of final guidelines to be issued no later than April 1, 2011.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Order Module--self-study program: HAZARDOUS WASTE OPERATIONS AND EMERGENCY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

self-study program: HAZARDOUS WASTE OPERATIONS AND self-study program: HAZARDOUS WASTE OPERATIONS AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE Order Module--self-study program: HAZARDOUS WASTE OPERATIONS AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE This module will discuss the objectives and requirements associated with this rule from the code of federal regulations. We have provided an example to help familiarize you with the material. The example will also help prepare you for the practice at the end of this module and for the criterion test. Before continuing, you should obtain a copy of the regulation at Hazardous waste operations and emergency response or through the course manager. You may need to refer to these documents to complete the example, practice, and criterion test. DOE Order Self Study Modules - 29 CFR 1910.120 Hazardous Waste Operations

152

Solvent refined coal process: operation of the solvent refined coal pilot plant, Wilsonville, Alabama. First quarter report, January-March 1981  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the operating conditions and test results obtained during the first quarter of 1981 at the six ton per day solvent refined coal (SRC-I) pilot plant in Wilsonville, Alabama. The plant operated for approximately two-thirds of the period with a scheduled shutdown, from 22 February to 17 March, accounting for most of the downtime. Kentucky 9 coal from the Fies mine was processed throughout the period. The following potential process improvements and tests were evaluated in the respective process units. SRC Unit: Low severity run tests to evaluate SRC reactor conditions for two-stage liquefaction; process solvent quality studies while simulating demonstration plant conditions with low quality process solvent (anthracene oil); operation of the new, reduced volume and residence time, V103 High Pressure Separator; Evaluation of the hot separator mode of operation; and adjustment of the T102 Vacuum Column operation to determine if it can produce a combined trays 3 and 8 stream that would be an acceptable process solvent (95% boiling at over 450/sup 0/F). CSD Unit: Steam stripping of SRC and LSRC to reduce product-related DAS losses; and ambient and cryogenic SRC sampling comparisons for DAS determination tests. Pressure checking of the hydrotreater unit was completed, and the Dowtherm system was placed in service. Solvent circulation was initiated in the unit as efforts continued to verify equipment performance.

Lewis, H.E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Operating limit study for the proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant  

SciTech Connect

A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) would accept wastes generated during normal operations that are identified as non-radioactive. These wastes may include small amounts of radioactive material from incidental contamination during plant operations. A site-specific analysis of the new solid waste landfill is presented to determine a proposed operating limit that will allow for waste disposal operations to occur such that protection of public health and the environment from the presence of incidentally contaminated waste materials can be assured. Performance objectives for disposal were defined from existing regulatory guidance to establish reasonable dose limits for protection of public health and the environment. Waste concentration limits were determined consistent with these performance objectives for the protection of off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders who might be directly exposed to disposed wastes. Exposures of off-site individuals were estimated using a conservative, site-specific model of the groundwater transport of contamination from the wastes. Direct intrusion was analyzed using an agricultural homesteader scenario. The most limiting concentrations from direct intrusion or groundwater transport were used to establish the concentration limits for radionuclides likely to be present in PGDP wastes.

Lee, D.W.; Wang, J.C.; Kocher, D.C.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Title I operator dose calculations. Final report, LATA report No. 90  

SciTech Connect

The radiation exposure dose was estimated for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) operating personnel who do the unloading and transporting of the transuranic contact-handled waste. Estimates of the radiation source terms for typical TRU contact-handled waste were based on known composition and properties of the waste. The operations sequence for waste movement and storage in the repository was based upon the WIPP Title I data package. Previous calculations had been based on Conceptual Design Report data. A time and motion sequence was developed for personnel performing the waste handling operations both above and below ground. Radiation exposure calculations were then performed in several fixed geometries and folded with the time and motion studies for individual workers in order to determine worker exposure on an annual basis.

Hughes, P.S.; Rigdon, L.D.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

CH Packaging Operations for High Wattage Waste at LANL  

SciTech Connect

This procedure provides instructions for assembling the following CH packaging payload: Drum payload assembly Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly Ten-Drum Overpack (TDOP).

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2005-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

156

CH Packaging Operations for High Wattage Waste at LANL  

SciTech Connect

This procedure provides instructions for assembling the following CH packaging payload: Drum payload assembly Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly Ten-Drum Overpack (TDOP).

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2005-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

157

Surveillance Guide - OSS 19.5 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

HAZARDOUS WASTE OPERATIONS AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE HAZARDOUS WASTE OPERATIONS AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE 1.0 Objective The objective of this surveillance is to ensure that workers who are performing activities associated with characterizing, handling, processing, storing or transporting hazardous wastes are adequately protected. The surveillance also evaluates the effectiveness of programs implemented to protect the health and safety of emergency response personnel who may be called upon to mitigate upset conditions at a facility where hazardous waste operations are conducted. Finally, the surveillance includes evaluations of the contractor's compliance with specific requirements regarding hazardous waste operations and emergency response. 2.0 References 2.1 DOE 5483.1A, Occupational Safety and Health Program

158

Operational Strategies for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site in Egypt - 13513  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate aims of treatment and conditioning is to prepare waste for disposal by ensuring that the waste will meet the waste acceptance criteria of a disposal facility. Hence the purpose of low-level waste disposal is to isolate the waste from both people and the environment. The radioactive particles in low-level waste emit the same types of radiation that everyone receives from nature. Most low-level waste fades away to natural background levels of radioactivity in months or years. Virtually all of it diminishes to natural levels in less than 300 years. In Egypt, The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center has been established since 1983, as a waste management facility for LLW and ILW and the disposal site licensed for preoperational in 2005. The site accepts the low level waste generated on site and off site and unwanted radioactive sealed sources with half-life less than 30 years for disposal and all types of sources for interim storage prior to the final disposal. Operational requirements at the low-level (LLRW) disposal site are listed in the National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control NCNSRC guidelines. Additional procedures are listed in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Standards Manual. The following describes the current operations at the LLRW disposal site. (authors)

Mohamed, Yasser T. [Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center, Atomic Energy Authority, 3 Ahmed El-Zomor St., El-Zohour District, Naser City, 11787, Cairo (Egypt)] [Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center, Atomic Energy Authority, 3 Ahmed El-Zomor St., El-Zohour District, Naser City, 11787, Cairo (Egypt)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Mixed integer model for optimizing equipment scheduling and overburden transport in a surface coal mining operation  

SciTech Connect

The lack of available techniques prompted the development of a mixed integer model to optimize the scheduling of equipment and the distribution of overburden in a typical mountaintop removal operation. Using this format, a (0-1) integer model and transportation model were constructed to determine the optimal equipment schedule and optimal overburden distribution, respectively. To solve this mixed integer program, the model was partitioned into its binary and real-valued components. Each problem was successively solved and their values added to form estimates of the value of the mixed integer program. Optimal convergence was indicated when the difference between two successive estimates satisfied some pre-specific accuracy value. The performance of the mixed integer model was tested against actual field data to determine its practical applications. To provide the necessary input information, production data was obtained from a single seam, mountaintop removal operation located in the Appalachian coal field. As a means of analyzing the resultant equipment schedule, the total idle time was calculated for each machine type and each lift location. Also, the final overburden assignments were analyzed by determining the distribution of spoil material for various overburden removal productivities. Subsequent validation of the mixed integer model was conducted in two distinct areas. The first dealt with changes in algorithmic data and their effects on the optimality of the model. The second area concerned variations in problem structure, specifically those dealing with changes in problem size and other user-inputed values such as equipment productivities or required reclamation.

Goodman, G.V.R.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Overview of Nevada Test Site Radioactive and Mixed Waste Disposal Operations  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is responsible for carrying out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and low-level radioactive mixed waste (MW) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Core elements of this mission are ensuring safe and cost-effective disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on the impacts of new policies, processes, and opportunities at the NTS related to LLW and MW. Covered topics include: the first year of direct funding for NTS waste disposal operations; zero tolerance policy for non-compliant packages; the suspension of mixed waste disposal; waste acceptance changes; DOE Consolidated Audit Program (DOECAP) auditing; the 92-Acre Area closure plan; new eligibility requirements for generators; and operational successes with unusual waste streams.

J.T. Carilli; S.K. Krenzien; R.G. Geisinger; S.J. Gordon; B. Quinn

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operations waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Covanta Begins Operating Nation's First Energy-from-Waste Unit under the EPA's New Source Performance Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Covanta Begins Operating Nation's First Energy-from-Waste Unit under the EPA's New Source in the development and operation of large scale Energy-from-Waste and renewable energy projects, today announced it has begun operating the first energy-from-waste unit built under the U.S. Environmental Protection

Columbia University

162

Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors from Coal  

SciTech Connect

Column biooxidation tests with Kentucky coal confirmed results of earlier shake flask tests showing significant removal from the coal of arsenic, selenium, cobalt, manganese, nickel and cadmium. Rates of pyrite biooxidation in Kentucky coal were only slightly more than half the rates found previously for Indiana and Pittsburgh coals. Removal of pyrite from Pittsburgh coal by ferric ion oxidation slows markedly as ferrous ions accumulate in solution, requiring maintenance of high redox potentials in processes designed for removal of pyrite and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors by circulation of ferric solutions through coal. The pyrite oxidation rates obtained in these tests were used by Unifield Engineering to support the conceptual designs for alternative pyrite and HAP precursor bioleaching processes for the phase 2 pilot plant. Thermophilic microorganisms were tested to determine if mercury could be mobilized from coal under elevated growth temperatures. There was no evidence for mercury removal from coal under these conditions. However, the activity of the organisms may have liberated mercury physically. It is also possible that the organisms dissolved mercury and it readsorbed to the clay preferentially. Both of these possibilities are undergoing further testing. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory?s (INEEL) slurry column reactor was operated and several batches of feed coal, product coal, waste solids and leach solutions were submitted to LBL for HAP precursor analysis. Results to date indicate significant removal of mercury, arsenic and other HAP precursors in the combined physical-biological process.

Gregory J. Olson

1997-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

163

Gasification of waste rigid polyurethane foam: optimizing operational conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of temperature and catalyst type on production of combustible gas during the air gasification of waste rigid polyurethane foam has been...16 (43...) of three parameters was employed to optimize the...

Xiaoya Guo; Lixin Wang; Shouguang Li…

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Order Module--self-study program: HAZARDOUS WASTE OPERATIONS...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

also help prepare you for the practice at the end of this module and for the criterion test. Before continuing, you should obtain a copy of the regulation at Hazardous waste...

165

Shipping Remote Handled Transuranic Waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - An Operational Experience  

SciTech Connect

On January 18, 2007, the first ever shipment of Remote Handled Transuranic (RH TRU) waste left the gate at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), headed toward the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal, thus concluding one of the most stressful, yet rewarding, periods the authors have ever experienced. The race began in earnest on October 16, 2006, with signature of the New Mexico Environment Department Secretary's Final Order, ruling that the '..draft permit as changed is hereby approved in its entirety.' This established the effective date of the approved permit as November 16, 2006. The permit modification was a consolidation of several Class 3 modification requests, one of which included incorporation of RH TRU requirements and another of which incorporated the requirements of Section 311 of Public Law 108-137. The obvious goal was to complete the first shipment by November 17. While many had anticipated its approval, the time had finally come to actually implement, and time seemed to be the main item lacking. At that point, even the most aggressive schedule that could be seriously documented showed a first ship date in March 2007. Even though planning for this eventuality had started in May 2005 with the arrival of the current Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) contractor (and even before that), there were many facility and system modifications to complete, startup authorizations to fulfill, and many regulatory audits and approvals to obtain before the first drum could be loaded. Through the dedicated efforts of the ICP workers, the partnership with Department of Energy (DOE) - Idaho, the coordinated integration with the Central Characterization Project (CCP), the flexibility and understanding of the regulatory community, and the added encouragement of DOE - Carlsbad Field Office and at Headquarters, the first RH TRU canister was loaded on December 22, 2006. Following final regulatory approval on January 17, 2007, the historic event finally occurred the following day. While some of the success of this endeavor can be attributed to the sheer will and determination of the individuals involved, the fact that it was established and managed as a separate sub-project under the ICP, accounts for a majority of the success. Utilizing a structured project management approach, including development of, and management to, a performance baseline, allowed for timely decision making and the flexibility to adapt to changing conditions as the various aspects of the project matured. This paper provides some insight into how this was achieved, in a relatively short time, and provides an overview of the experience of start-up of a new retrieval, characterization, loading, and transportation operation in the midst of an aggressive cleanup project. Additionally, as one might expect, everything within the project did not go as planned, which provides a great opportunity to discuss some lessons learned. Finally, the first shipment was just the beginning. There are 224 additional shipments scheduled. In keeping with the theme of WM 2008, Phoenix Rising: Moving Forward in Waste Management, this paper will address the future opportunities and challenges of RH TRU waste management at the INL. (authors)

Anderson, S.; Bradford, J.; Clements, T.; Crisp, D.; Sherick, M. [CH2M-WG Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); D'Amico, E. [Washington TRU Solutions, Denver, CO (United States); Lattin, W. [United States Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, K. [United States Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Coal flow aids reduce coke plant operating costs and improve production rates  

SciTech Connect

Chemical coal flow aids can provide many benefits to coke plants, including improved production rates, reduced maintenance and lower cleaning costs. This article discusses the mechanisms by which coal flow aids function and analyzes several successful case histories. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Bedard, R.A.; Bradacs, D.J.; Kluck, R.W.; Roe, D.C.; Ventresca, B.P.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Operations to be Performed in the Waste Package Dry Remediation Cell  

SciTech Connect

Describes planned and proposed operations for remediating damaged and/or out-of-compliance waste packages, casks, DPCs, overpacks, and containers at the Yucca Mountain Dry Transfer Facility.

Norman E. Cole; Randy K. Elwood

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Split and collectorless flotation to medium coking coal fines for multi-product zero waste concept  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The medium coking coal fines of ? 0.5 mm from Jharia coal field were taken for this investigation. The release analysis of the composite coal reveals that yield is very low at 10.0% ash, about 25% at 14% ash and 50% at 17% ash level. The low yield is caused by the presence of high ash finer fraction. The size-wise ash analysis of ? 0.5 mm coal indicated that ? 0.5 + 0.15 mm fraction contains less ash than ? 0.15 mm fraction. Thus, the composite feed was split into ? 0.5 + 0.15 mm and ? 0.15 mm fractions and subjected to flotation separately. The low ash bearing fraction (? 0.5 + 0.15 mm) was subjected to two stages collectorless flotation to achieve the concentrate with 10% ash. The cleaner concentrate (18.9%) with 10% ash was recovered which has an application in metallurgical industries. The concentrate of 30.2% yield with 12.5% ash could be achieved in one stage collectorless flotation which is suitable for use in coke making as sweetener. As the ? 0.15 mm fraction contains relatively high ash, collector aided flotation using sodium silicate was performed to get a concentrate of 23.6% yield with about 17% ash. The blending of this product with cleaner tail obtained from ? 0.5 + 0.15 mm produces about 35.0% yield with 17% ash and that can be utilized for coke making. The reject from the two fractions can be used for conventional thermal power plant or cement industries using a 23.5% ash after one stage collector aided flotation and the final tailings produced content ash of 61.6% can be used for fluidization combustion bed (FBC). This eventually leads to complete utilization of coal.

Shobhana Dey; K.K. Bhattacharyya

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Coal preparation: The essential clean coal technology  

SciTech Connect

This chapter is a brief introduction to a broad topic which has many highly specialized areas. The aim is to summarize the essential elements of coal preparation and illustrate its important role in facilitating the clean use of coal. Conventional coal preparation is the essential first step in ensuring the economic and environmentally acceptable use of coal. The aim of coal preparation is to produce saleable products of consistent, specified quality which satisfy customer requirements while optimizing the utilization of the coal resource. Coal preparation covers all aspects of preparing coal for the market. It includes size reduction, blending and homogenization and, most importantly, the process of physical beneficiation or washing, which involves separation of undesirable mineral matter from the coal substance itself. Coal preparation can be performed at different levels of sophistication and cost. The degree of coal preparation required is decided by considering the quality of the raw coal, transport costs and, in particular, the coal quality specified by the consumer. However, the cost of coal beneficiation rises rapidly with the complexity of the process and some coal is lost with the waste matter because of process inefficiencies, therefore each situation requires individual study to determine the optimum coal preparation strategy. The necessary expertise is available within APEC countries such as Australia. Coals destined for iron making are almost always highly beneficiated. Physical beneficiation is mostly confined to the higher rank, hard coals, but all other aspects of coal preparation can be applied to subbituminous and lignitic coals to improve their utilization. Also, there are some interesting developments aimed specifically at reducing the water content of lower rank coals.

Cain, D.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

170

Thermodynamic analysis of a low-pressure economizer based waste heat recovery system for a coal-fired power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An LPE (low-pressure economizer) based waste heat recovery system for a CFPP (coal-fired power plant) is investigated thermodynamically. With the installation of LPE in the flue before the FGD (flue gas desulfurizer), the heat contained in the exhaust flue gas can be recovered effectively and the water consumption can be reduced in the FGD resulted from the temperature dropped flue gas. The impacts on the related apparatuses after installing LPE in a CFPP are analyzed and the internal relationships among correlated parameters are presented. The efficiencies of LPE installed in a CFPP evaluated by the first law, the second law and the thermal equilibrium efficiencies are also compared and analyzed. A detailed case study based on a 350 MW CFPP unit is presented and the variations of the thermal performance after the installation of LPE are investigated. The results show that the second law and the thermal equilibrium efficiencies are increased which can be indicators to evaluate the performance of the LPE system while the first law efficiency is decreased after installing LPE. Results also show that the saving of SCE (standard coal equivalent) is 3.85 g/(kW·h) for this CFPP unit under full load after installing LPE.

Chaojun Wang; Boshu He; Linbo Yan; Xiaohui Pei; Shinan Chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Drum Venting - Operational Experience and Lessons Learned  

SciTech Connect

Remote-handled transuranic (RH TRU) waste drums must be vented to meet transportation and disposal requirement before shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The capability to perform remote venting of drums was developed and implemented at the Idaho National Laboratory. Over 490 drums containing RH TRU waste were successfully vented. Later efforts developed and implemented a long-stem filter to breach inner waste bags, which reduced layers of confinement and mitigated restrictive transportation wattage limits. This paper will provide insight to the technical specifications for the drum venting system, development, and testing activities, startup, operations, and lessons learned. (authors)

Clements, Th.L.Jr.; Bhatt, R.N.; Troescher, P.D. [CH2M-WG Idaho/Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wickland, T.J.; Anderson, L.; Wood, R. [Nuclear Filter Technology, Golden, CO (United States); Lattin, W.J. [Department of Energy-Idaho Operations Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Impact of DOE Orders on Waste Management Operation. Volume 1: [Final report  

SciTech Connect

Department of Energy Orders are the internal documents which govern the management of all Department of Energy facilities and operations. DOE Orders are the vehicles by which Federal and state laws and regulations are applied to Department of Energy activities. A selected set of 22 Department of Energy Orders was reviewed to identify the applicability and impact of each Order on waste management operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Of the 22 Orders reviewed, five set forth requirements which have a high degree of impact on waste management activities. Eight Orders have a moderate degree of impact on waste management activities, and the remaining nine Orders have a low degree of impact.

Klein, R.B.; Jennrich, E.A.; Shuman, R.; Sandquist, G.M. [Rogers and Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Rutz, A.C.; Littleton, M.W.; McCauce, C.H. [Wastren, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) Waste Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Waste Management Plan describes waste management and waste minimization activities for Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory. The waste management activities described in this plan support the selected response action presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. This plan identifies the waste streams that will be generated during implementation of the remedial action and presents plans for waste minimization, waste management strategies, and waste disposition.

G. L. Schwendiman

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

DOE Order Self Study Modules - 29 CFR 1910.120 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

29 CFR 1910.120 29 CFR 1910.120 HAZARDOUS WASTE OPERATIONS AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE CENTER Change No: 0 29 CFR 1910.120 Level: Familiar Date: 3/14/05 1 29 CFR 1910.120 HAZARDOUS WASTE OPERATIONS AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE FAMILIAR LEVEL _________________________________________________________________________ OBJECTIVES Given the familiar level of this module and the resources, you will be able to perform the following: 1. Discuss clean-up operations required by the regulation. 2. Discuss corrective actions during clean-up operations covered by the resource conservation and recovery act (RCRA). 3. Discuss operations involving hazardous wastes that are conducted at treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities.

175

Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

McMillian, Michael H. (Fairmont, WV)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

FY94 Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Operations Robotics Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) develops technologies to help solve waste management and environmental problems at DOE sites. The OTD includes the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) and the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Together these programs will provide technologies for DOE mixed waste cleanup projects. Mixed waste contains both radioactive and hazardous constituents. DOE sites currently store over 240,000 cubic meters of low level mixed waste and cleanup activities will generate several hundred thousand more cubic meters. Federal and state regulations require that this waste must be processed before final disposal. The OTD RTDP Mixed Waste Operations (MWO) team held several robotic demonstrations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during November of 1993. Over 330 representatives from DOE, Government Contractors, industry, and universities attended. The MWO team includes: Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Oak Ridge National Engineering Laboratory (ORNL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). SRTC is the lead site for MWO and provides the technical coordinator. The primary demonstration objective was to show that robotic technologies can make DOE waste facilities run better, faster, more cost effective, and safer. To meet the primary objective, the demonstrations successfully showed the following remote waste drum processing activities: non-destructive drum examination, drum transportation, drum opening, removing waste from a drum, characterize and sort waste items, scarify metal waste, and inspect stored drums. To further meet the primary objective, the demonstrations successfully showed the following remote waste box processing activities: swing free crane control, workcell modeling, and torch standoff control.

Kriikku, E.M.

1994-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

177

Summary of LLNL`s accomplishments for the FY93 Waste Processing Operations Program  

SciTech Connect

Under the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Technology Development (OTD)-Robotic Technology Development Program (RTDP), the Waste Processing Operations (WPO) Program was initiated in FY92 to address the development of automated material handling and automated chemical and physical processing systems for mixed wastes. The Program`s mission was to develop a strategy for the treatment of all DOE mixed, low-level, and transuranic wastes. As part of this mission, DOE`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) was charged with the development of innovative waste treatment technologies to surmount shortcomings of existing baseline systems. Current technology advancements and applications results from cooperation of private industry, educational institutions, and several national laboratories operated for DOE. This summary document presents the LLNL Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER and WM) Automation and Robotics Section`s contributions in support of DOE`s FY93 WPO Program. This document further describes the technological developments that were integrated in the 1993 Mixed Waste Operations (MWO) Demonstration held at SRTC in November 1993.

Grasz, E.; Domning, E.; Heggins, D.; Huber, L.; Hurd, R.; Martz, H.; Roberson, P.; Wilhelmsen, K.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Life Cycle cost Analysis of Waste Heat Operated Absorption Cooling Systems for Building HVAC Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was used to calculate the PWC of the system for annual operating hours of 8760 and the same is compared with the electric based vapour compression chiller (VCRS) of same capacity. The life cycle cost (LCC) of waste heat operated absorption chiller...

Saravanan, R.; Murugavel, V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

CRAD, Conduct of Operations- Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for an assessment of the Conduct of Operations Program portion of an Operational Readiness Review at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility.

180

Tank waste remediation system operation and utilization plan,vol. I {ampersand} II  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (RL) is in the first stages of contracting with private companies for the treatment and immobilization of tank wastes. The components of tank waste retrieval, treatment, and immobilization have been conceived in two phases (Figure 1.0-1). To meet RL's anticipated contractual requirements, the Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) companies will be required to provide waste feeds to the private companies consistent with waste envelopes that define the feeds in terms of quantity, and concentration of both chemicals and radionuclides. The planning that supports delivery of the feed must be well thought out in four basic areas: (1) Low-activity waste (LAW)/high-level waste (HLW) feed staging plans. How is waste moved within the existing tanks to deliver waste that corresponds to the defined feed envelopes to support the Private Contractor's processing schedule and processing rate? (2) Single-shell tank (SST) retrieval sequence. How are Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1994) milestones for SST retrieval integrated into the Phase I processing to set the stage for Phase II processing to complete the mission? (3) Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flowsheet. How do materials flow from existing tank inventories through: (1) blending and pretreatment functions in the double-shell tanks (DSTs), (2) contractor processing facilities, and (3) stored waste forms (Figure 1.0-2); (4) Storage and disposal of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) and immobilized high-level waste (IHLW) product. How is the ILAW and IHLW product received from the private companies, the ILAW disposed onsite, and the IHLW stored onsite until final disposal?

Kirkbride, R.A.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operations waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Cooperative Research Program in coal liquefaction. Technical report, May 1, 1994--October 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

182

Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Waste Management Operations Roadmap Document  

SciTech Connect

At the direction of the Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ), the DOE Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID) is developing roadmaps for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) activities at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). DOE-ID has convened a select group of contractor personnel from EG&G Idaho, Inc. to assist DOE-ID personnel with the roadmapping project. This document is a report on the initial stages of the first phase of the INEL`s roadmapping efforts.

Bullock, M.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Directions in low-level radioactive waste management. Low-level radioactive waste disposal: commercial facilities no longer operating  

SciTech Connect

This publication discusses three commercial facilities-no longer operating-that have received and now contain low-level radioactive waste. The facilities are located at West Valley, New York; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; and Sheffield, Illinois. All three of the facilities were selected and developed in the 1960s. The onset of water management problems caused the closure of the sites at West Valley and Maxey Flats in 1975 and 1977, respectively. Closure of the Sheffield site occurred in 1978, after the operator experienced site problems and consequent lengthy delays in its license renewal procedures. The document provides detailed explanation of the history, basis for closure, and current status of each facility. This information is intended, primarily, to assist state officials-executive, legislative, and agency-in planning for, establishing, and managing low-level waste disposal facilities.

Berlin, R.E.; Tuite, P.T.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Environmental assessment for the construction, operation, and decommissioning of the Waste Segregation Facility at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction, operation and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Waste Segregation Facility (WSF) for the sorting, shredding, and compaction of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. The LLW to be processed consists of two waste streams: legacy waste which is currently stored in E-Area Vaults of SRS and new waste generated from continuing operations. The proposed action is to construct, operate, and D&D a facility to process low-activity job-control and equipment waste for volume reduction. The LLW would be processed to make more efficient use of low-level waste disposal capacity (E-Area Vaults) or to meet the waste acceptance criteria for treatment at the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at SRS.

NONE

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 Syngas (H2 + CO + CO2) Coal Gasifier coal Fuel Production/2 Syngas (H2 + CO + CO2) Coal Gasifier coal Fuel Production/this operational mode, the gasifiers and other parts of the

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Conducting operations at the Solid Waste Management Department at WRSC  

SciTech Connect

Conduct of Operations, which is one of the entities within the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s Performance Improvement Plan, is based on commercial nuclear power industry standards that were developed to improve operations in that industry. Implementation and compliance to the Conduct of Operations requirements are enhancing the Site`s Mission: To serve the national interest of the United States by safely producing nuclear materials while protecting the employee and public health, as well as the environment. It also contributes to our Site`s Vision: To be the recognized model of excellence for the United States Department of Energy Nuclear Weapons Complex, valuing and involving the individual to continually improve operations, safety, health environmental protection, quality, and customer satisfaction.

Bloedau, R.K.; Scogin, J.T.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Grouting Operation to Lead to First SRS Waste Tank Closures Since 1997 |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Grouting Operation to Lead to First SRS Waste Tank Closures Since Grouting Operation to Lead to First SRS Waste Tank Closures Since 1997 Grouting Operation to Lead to First SRS Waste Tank Closures Since 1997 April 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis DOE and Savannah River Remediation team members gather in front of the first cement truck containing grout for Tank 18 at the Savannah River Site. DOE and Savannah River Remediation team members gather in front of the first cement truck containing grout for Tank 18 at the Savannah River Site. A specially formulated grout was poured into a hopper and transferred through lines to Tank 19. A specially formulated grout was poured into a hopper and transferred through lines to Tank 19. The first cement truck with the specially formulated grout arrives at the Savannah River Site earlier this month.

188

The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Design basis integrated operations plan (Title I design)  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) will be a fully integrated, pilotscale facility for the demonstration of low-level, organic-matrix mixed waste treatment technologies. It will provide the bridge from bench-scale demonstrated technologies to the deployment and operation of full-scale treatment facilities. The MWMF is a key element in reducing the risk in deployment of effective and environmentally acceptable treatment processes for organic mixed-waste streams. The MWMF will provide the engineering test data, formal evaluation, and operating experience that will be required for these demonstration systems to become accepted by EPA and deployable in waste treatment facilities. The deployment will also demonstrate how to approach the permitting process with the regulatory agencies and how to operate and maintain the processes in a safe manner. This document describes, at a high level, how the facility will be designed and operated to achieve this mission. It frequently refers the reader to additional documentation that provides more detail in specific areas. Effective evaluation of a technology consists of a variety of informal and formal demonstrations involving individual technology systems or subsystems, integrated technology system combinations, or complete integrated treatment trains. Informal demonstrations will typically be used to gather general operating information and to establish a basis for development of formal demonstration plans. Formal demonstrations consist of a specific series of tests that are used to rigorously demonstrate the operation or performance of a specific system configuration.

NONE

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Coal Production 1992  

SciTech Connect

Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

Not Available

1993-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

190

Enterprise Assessments- Operational Awareness Record of the Observation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Horizon-14 Exercise- January 2015  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Operational Awareness Record of the Observation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Horizon-14 Exercise (EA-WIPP-2014-12-08)

191

Low-level radioactive waste disposal operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) generates Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) from various activities: research and development, sampling and storage of TRU wastes, decommissioning and decontamination of facilities, and from LANL`s major role in stockpile stewardship. The Laboratory has its own active LLW disposal facility located at Technical Area 54, Area G. This paper will identify the current operations of the facility and the issues pertaining to operating a disposal facility in today`s compliance and cost-effective environment.

Stanford, A.R.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Durability testing of medium speed diesel engine components designed for operating on coal/water slurry fuel  

SciTech Connect

Over 200 operating cylinder hours were run on critical wearing engine parts. The main components tested included cylinder liners, piston rings, and fuel injector nozzles for coal/water slurry fueled operation. The liners had no visible indication of scoring nor major wear steps found on their tungsten carbide coating. While the tungsten carbide coating on the rings showed good wear resistance, some visual evidence suggests adhesive wear mode was present. Tungsten carbide coated rings running against tungsten carbide coated liners in GE 7FDL engines exhibit wear rates which suggest an approximate 500 to 750 hour life. Injector nozzle orifice materials evaluated were diamond compacts, chemical vapor deposited diamond tubes, and thermally stabilized diamond. Based upon a total of 500 cylinder hours of engine operation (including single-cylinder combustion tests), diamond compact was determined to be the preferred orifice material.

McDowell, R.E.; Giammarise, A.W.; Johnson, R.N.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

3 - High temperature materials issues in the design and operation of coal-fired steam turbines and plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: The basic design of steam plant is outlined, and it is emphasised how the increase in steam temperatures has required high steam pressures. High efficiency requires the use of feedheating, and reheating operation at high pressure and temperature has implications for superheaters. Critical issues are creep strength, resistance to fireside attack and oxide spallation from steam side surfaces. Coal-fired plant is increasingly required to operate in a two shift manner and to compensate for the effects of the intermittency of wind energy; the implications are summarised. Operation at steam temperatures in excess of 600 °C will require the use of even stronger austenitics. In 700 °C plants, precipitation-hardened nickel-based alloys will be required for superheaters.

F. Starr

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Development of an Advanced Deshaling Technology to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Coal Handling, Processing, and Utilization Operations  

SciTech Connect

The concept of using a dry, density-based separator to achieve efficient, near-face rock removal, commonly referred to as deshaling, was evaluated in several applications across the U.S.. Varying amounts of high-density rock exist in most run-of-mine feed. In the central Appalachian coalfields, a rock content exceeding 50% in the feed to a preparation plant is commonplace due to high amounts of out-of-seam dilution made necessary by extracting coal from thin seams. In the western U.S, an increase in out-of-seam dilution and environmental regulations associated with combustion emissions have resulted in a need to clean low rank coals and dry cleaning may be the only option. A 5 ton/hr mobile deshaling unit incorporating a density-based, air-table technology commercially known as the FGX Separator has been evaluated at mine sites located within the states of Utah, Wyoming, Texas, West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania and Kentucky. The FGX technology utilizes table riffling principles with air as the medium. Air enters through the table and creates a fluidized bed of particles comprised of mostly fine, high density particles. The high density particle bed lifts the low-density coal particles to the top of the bed. The low-density coal moves toward the front of the table due to mass action and the downward slope of the table. The high-density particles settle through the fluidized particle bed and, upon making contact with the table, moves toward the back of the table with the assistance of table vibration. As a result, the low-density coal particles exit the front of the table closest to the feed whereas the high-density, high-ash content particles leave on the side and front of the table located at the farthest from the feed entry. At each test site, the run-of-mine feed was either directly fed to the FGX unit or pre-screened to remove the majority of the -6mm material. The surface moisture of the feed must be maintained below 9%. Pre-screening is required when the surface moisture of the feed coal exceeds the maximum limit. However, the content of -6mm in the feed to the FGX separator should be maintained between 10% and 20% to ensure an adequate fluidized bed. A parametric evaluation was conducted using a 3-level experimental design at each test site to identify the optimum separation performance and parameter values. The test data was used to develop empirical expressions that describe the response variables (i.e., mass yield and product ash content) as a function of the operating parameter values. From this process, it was established that table frequency and longitudinal slope are the most critical factors in controlling both mass yield and clean coal ash while the cross table slope was the least significant. Fan blower frequency is a critical parameter that controls mass yield. Although the splitter positions between product and middling streams and the middling and tailing streams were held constant during the tests, a separate evaluation indicated that performance is sensitive to splitter position within certain lengths of the table and insensitive in others. For a Utah bituminous coal, the FGX separator provided clean coal ash contents that ranged from a low of 8.57% to a high of 12.48% from a feed coal containing around 17% ash. From the 29 tests involved in the statistically designed test program, the average clean coal ash content was 10.76% while the tailings ash content averaged around 72%. One of the best separation performances achieved an ash reduction from 17.36% to 10.67% while recovering 85.9% of the total feed mass, which equated to an ash rejection value of around 47%. The total sulfur content was typically decreased from 1.61% to 1.49%. These performances were quantified by blending the middlings stream with the clean coal product. At a second Utah site, coal sources from three different bituminous coal seams were treated by the FGX deshaling unit. Three parameter values were varied based on the results obtained from Site No. 1 to obtain the optimum results shown in Table E-1. Approximately 9 tests w

Rick Honaker; Gerald Luttrell

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

195

EIS-0357 - Gilberton Coal-to-Clean Fuels and Power Project in Giberton, PA  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7 - Gilberton Coal-to-Clean Fuels and Power Project in 7 - Gilberton Coal-to-Clean Fuels and Power Project in Giberton, PA EIS-0357 - Gilberton Coal-to-Clean Fuels and Power Project in Giberton, PA Summary This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts that would result from a proposed Department of Energy (DOE) action to provide cost-shared funding for construction and operation of facilities near Gilberton, Pennsylvania, which have been proposed by WMPI PTY, LLC, for producing electricity, steam, and liquid fuels from anthracite coal waste (culm). The project was selected by DOE under the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) to demonstrate the integration of coal waste gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of liquid hydrocarbon fuels at commercial scale. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES

196

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

197

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

2003-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

198

INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - HANDSS-55 TRANSURANIC WASTE REPACKAGING MODULE  

SciTech Connect

The Transuranic waste generated at the Savannah River Site from nuclear weapons research, development, and production is currently estimated to be over 10,000 cubic meters. Over half of this amount is stored in 55-gallon drums. The waste in drums is primarily job control waste and equipment generated as the result of routine maintenance performed on the plutonium processing operations. Over the years that the drums have been accumulating, the regulatory definitions of materials approved for disposal have changed. Consequently, many of the drums now contain items that are not approved for disposal at DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The HANDSS-55 technology is being developed to allow remote sorting of the items in these drums and then repackaging of the compliant items for disposal at WIPP.

Unknown

2001-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

199

Preparation of Effective Operating Manuals to Support Waste Management Plant Operator Training  

SciTech Connect

Effective plant operating manuals used in a formal training program can make the difference between a successful operation and a failure. Once the plant process design and control strategies have been fixed, equipment has been ordered, and the plant is constructed, the only major variable affecting success is the capability of plant operating personnel. It is essential that the myriad details concerning plant operation are documented in comprehensive operating manuals suitable for training the non-technical personnel that will operate the plant. These manuals must cover the fundamental principles of each unit operation including how each operates, what process variables are important, and the impact of each variable on the overall process. In addition, operators must know the process control strategies, process interlocks, how to respond to alarms, each of the detailed procedures required to start up and optimize the plant, and every control loop-including when it is appropriate to take manual control. More than anything else, operating mistakes during the start-up phase can lead to substantial delays in achieving design processing rates as well as to problems with government authorities if environmental permit limits are exceeded. The only way to assure return on plant investment is to ensure plant operators have the knowledge to properly run the plant from the outset. A comprehensive set of operating manuals specifically targeted toward plant operators and supervisors written by experienced operating personnel is the only effective way to provide the necessary information for formal start-up training.

Brown, S. R.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

200

Ancillary operations in coal preparation instrumentation on-line low cost sulfur and ash analyzer  

SciTech Connect

A program of design, fabrication, and field testing of an on-line sulfur and ash analyzer was undertaken by The Babcock Wilcox Company. The analyzer is intended for use on coal slurry streams such as those found at coal cleaning facilities. The analyzer design consists of a sample preparation and delivery system (SPAD) and an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). The program consisted of the following major tasks: Selection and screening of delivery systems; Design of the analyzer system; Fabrication of SPAD system; Field testing of the SPAD system; and Laboratory ICP testing of field collected samples. The field testing was conducted at CQ Inc., (Homer City, Pa. pilot plant). Testing was completed without taking the ICP to the field, since the analysis of coal slurry by ICP had been demonstrated during the delivery system screening tests and the field tests were aimed primarily at demonstrating the performance of the SPAD system. Although the ICP was not deployed to the field, the subsequent laboratory testing of field collected samples simulated the performance of the entire system. 16 refs., 103 figs., 38 tabs.

Malito, M.L.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operations waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Low-level waste management program and interim waste operations technologies  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy currently supports an integrated technology development and transfer program aimed at ensuring that the technology necessary for the safe management and disposal of LLW by the commercial and defense sectors is available. The program focuses on five technical areas: (1) corrective measures technology, (2) improved shallow land burial technology, (3) greater confinement disposal technology, (4) model development and validation, and (5) treatment methods for problem wastes. The results of activities in these areas are reported in the open literature and the Proceedings of the LLWMP Annual Participants Information Meeting.

Mezga, L.J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

CRAD, Conduct of Operations- Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a May 2004 assessment of the Conduct of Operations program at the Office of River Protection, K Basin Sludge Waste System.

203

Phase 5 storage (Project W-112) Central Waste Complex operational readiness review, final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report for the RFSH conducted, Contractor Operational Readiness Review (ORR) for the Central Waste Complex (CWC) Project W-112 and Interim Safety Basis implementation. As appendices, all findings, observations, lines of inquiry and the implementation plan are included.

Wight, R.H.

1997-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

204

ivestock and poultry operations frequently use anaerobic lagoons as liquid waste storage and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, The Texas A&M University System. #12;Pumping Pumping from the lagoon should be conducted annually, at least the designed life of sludge storage, frequent agitation and pumping may be necessary. In addition, solidsL ivestock and poultry operations frequently use anaerobic lagoons as liquid waste storage

Mukhtar, Saqib

205

The Application of Performance Assessment to Make Regulatory and Operational Changes in an Operating Nuclear Waste Repository  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes how performance assessment (PA) is used to support changes to the regulatory basis of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The WIPP, located near Carlsbad, New Mexico is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as the nation's only deep geologic repository for the disposal of transuranic nuclear waste. In 1998, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified that the WIPP met the performance requirements of 40 CFR Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes. A PA analysis of long term (10,000 year) repository performance successfully demonstrated that the probability and consequences of potential long-term releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment would be well below the established limits. These results were key in obtaining WIPP's initial certification, allowing the first shipment and disposal of nuclear waste in March of 1999. As disposal operations have taken place over the last eight years, changes have been identified in the regulatory and operational realms of the facility that would enhance waste disposal efficiency. Such changes, however, cannot be made without prior consent of the EPA. Therefore, changes planned by the DOE must be thoroughly described and supported by varying degrees of the same type of analyses that were conducted to demonstrate the WIPP's containment capabilities as presented in the initial compliance application submitted to EPA in 1996. Such analyses are used to identify the impacts or benefits of implementing the planned change. The DOE has successfully used performance assessment analyses for the approval of changes such as: 1) the disposal of super-compacted waste forms, and; 2) the adoption of new parameters and modeling assumptions In some cases the planned changes are simpler in nature than those listed above, and therefore only require targeted or simplified PA analyses to demonstrate the effect on performance. Targeted analyses have been used to successfully gain approval of the following: 1) a reduction in the amount of magnesium oxide (MgO) chemical buffer backfill that must be emplaced in the repository 2) a change in the repository mining/disposal horizon In addition to these approved changes, the DOE has used PA analyses to support the following planned change requests that await EPA's approval: 1) panel closure redesign 2) further reduction in the MgO-to-waste ratio Finally, this paper will discuss some of the changes that the DOE is currently preparing and plans to submit to the EPA for approval in the near future. This paper will describe how a set of analytical tools initially used to open the WIPP continues to have a role in making the repository more efficient and adaptable as variations in waste streams, operational demands, and other dynamic forces change the operating environment over time. (authors)

Patterson, R. [Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Kirkes, R. [John Hart and Associates, P.A., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Optimal Operation of a Waste Incineration Plant for District Heating Johannes Jaschke, Helge Smedsrud, Sigurd Skogestad*, Henrik Manum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal Operation of a Waste Incineration Plant for District Heating Johannes J¨aschke, Helge@chemeng.ntnu.no off-line. This systematic approach is here applied to a waste incineration plant for district heating. In district heating networks, operators usually wish to ob- tain the lowest possible return temperature

Skogestad, Sigurd

207

Radiological and chemical source terms for Solid Waste Operations Complex. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to describe the radiological and chemical source terms for the major projects of the Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC), including Project W-112, Project W-133 and Project W-100 (WRAP 2A). For purposes of this document, the term ``source term`` means the design basis inventory. All of the SWOC source terms involve the estimation of the radiological and chemical contents of various waste packages from different waste streams, and the inventories of these packages within facilities or within a scope of operations. The composition of some of the waste is not known precisely; consequently, conservative assumptions were made to ensure that the source term represents a bounding case (i.e., it is expected that the source term would not be exceeded). As better information is obtained on the radiological and chemical contents of waste packages and more accurate facility specific models are developed, this document should be revised as appropriate. Radiological source terms are needed to perform shielding and external dose calculations, to estimate routine airborne releases, to perform release calculations and dose estimates for safety documentation, to calculate the maximum possible fire loss and specific source terms for individual fire areas, etc. Chemical source terms (i.e., inventories of combustible, flammable, explosive or hazardous chemicals) are used to determine combustible loading, fire protection requirements, personnel exposures to hazardous chemicals from routine and accident conditions, and a wide variety of other safety and environmental requirements.

Boothe, G.F.

1994-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

208

Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.  

SciTech Connect

A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall, the results of the reference design development and the cost analysis support the technical feasibility of the deep borehole disposal concept for high-level radioactive waste.

Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

A novel, integrated treatment system for coal waste waters. Quarterly report, June 2, 1993--September 1, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The aims of this study are to develop, characterize and optimize a novel treatment scheme that would be effective simultaneously against the toxic organics and the heavy metals present in coal conversion waste waters. In this report, the following findings have been reported and discussed. Acid-base titration of Duomeen-T (DT), a diamine surfactant, that has been used in this study to modify smectite surfaces to form smectite-DT complexes has been undertaken. In aqueous medium containing 5% by volume iso propyl alcohol (IPA), DT shows a broad distribution of pKa with a mean value of 7.55. This finding suggests that DT is a much weaker base than a typical diamine and helps explain the fact that Cu(II) adsorbs specifically onto DT with maximal affinity in the pH range 7.2--7.5. Electrokinetic sonic amplitude (ESA) measurements on DT-smectite complexes also reveal that the mean pKa of the adsorbed DT is around 7.0. This finding supports our earlier observations that Cu(II) and Cd(II) cations bind strongly through specific interaction to DT-smectite surface in the pH range 7.0--8.0. Our results also show that DT is fully protonated at pH 4.5, and it is at this pH that Cr(VI) is maximally adsorbed as counterions to the DT-smectite surface. These and our earlier results provide a firm basis to conclude that a heterogeneous mixture of diamine surfactants can be used to adsorb and desorb cationic and anionic heavy metals from their respective aqueous solutions as a function of the solution pH.

Wang, H.Y.; Srinivasan, K.R.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

210

A novel, integrated treatment system for coal waste waters. Quarterly report, September 2, 1993--December 1, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The aims of this study are to develop, characterize and optimize a novel treatment scheme that would be effective simultaneously against the toxic organics and the heavy metals present in coal conversion waste waters. In this report, the following findings have been reported and discussed. Adsorption of {beta}-naphthoic acid (NA) onto hectorite-CBDA containing different amounts of adsorbed CBDA is pH dependent, stronger at pH 4.5 and much weaker at pH 8.6. Partitioning into the hydrophobic patches of hectorite-CBDA and binding as counter ion to CBDA bilayers appear to be the dominant mechanisms of adsorption of NA to hectorite-CBDA. Anionic CR(VI) adsorbs very weakly to MONT-DT at pH 8.5 and this result verifies our earlier finding that the positive surface charge on MONT-DT decreases with increasing pH above pH 7.0. Potentiometric titrations of DT in water-isopropyl alcohol (EPA) binary solutions containing different volume fractions of IPA reveal that the pKa of DT is 7.6 {+-} 0.1 independent of EPA volume fraction. It is also shown that DT forms emulsions at pH lower than 4.0 and these emulsions tend to break up as pH is raised above 6.5. The formation of DT emulsions is reversible with respect to pH, but the process appears to be slow with a time constant of about 30 minutes.

Wang, H.Y.; Srinivasan, K.R.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

211

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. During this reporting period, work focused on performing the design of the conceptual fluidized bed system and determining the system economics.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits

2001-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

212

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences, Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc., Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc., and Cofiring Alternatives. During this reporting period, work focused on completing the biofuel characterization and the design of the conceptual fluidized bed system.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke

2001-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

213

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. During this reporting period, the final technical design and cost estimate were submitted to Penn State by Foster Wheeler. In addition, Penn State initiated the internal site selection process to finalize the site for the boiler plant.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz

2002-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

214

Environmental assessment for the construction and operation of waste storage facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

DOE is proposing to construct and operate 3 waste storage facilities (one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for RCRA waste, one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for toxic waste (TSCA), and one 200,000 ft{sup 2} mixed (hazardous/radioactive) waste storage facility) at Paducah. This environmental assessment compares impacts of this proposed action with those of continuing present practices aof of using alternative locations. It is found that the construction, operation, and ultimate closure of the proposed waste storage facilities would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required.

NONE

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Long-Term Environmental Monitoring of an Operating Deep Geologic Nuclear Waste Repository  

SciTech Connect

In the present energy dilemma in which we find ourselves, the magnitude of humanity's energy needs requires that we embrace a multitude of various energy sources and applications. Nuclear energy must be a major portion of the distribution. One often-cited strategic hurdle to the commercial production of nuclear energy is the apparent lack of an acceptable nuclear waste repository. This issue has been quietly addressed at the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP; see http://www.wipp.energy.gov), the closest population center of significant size being Carlsbad, New Mexico. WIPP has been operating for about nine years, disposing of over 250,000 drum-equivalents of nuclear waste. From the standpoint of addressing operational and environmental risk, as well as public fear, WIPP has had extensive human health and environmental monitoring. The Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center is in the Institute for Energy and the Environment, in the College of Engineering at New Mexico State University. Located in Carlsbad, NM, CEMRC has been the independent monitoring facility for the area around WIPP from 1993 to the present, i.e., from six years before disposal operations began to nine years of waste disposal operations (www.cemcr.org). Based on the radiological analyses of monitoring samples completed to date for area residents and site workers, and for selected aerosols, soils, sediments, drinking water and surface waters, there is no evidence of increases in radiological contaminants in the region of WIPP that could be attributed to releases from WIPP. Levels of radiological and non-radiological analytes measured since operations began in 1999 have been within the range of baseline levels measured previously, and are within the ranges measured by other entities at the State and local levels since well before disposal phase operations began in 1999. (authors)

Conca, J.; Kirchner, Th.; Monk, J.; Sage, S. [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, IEE NMSU, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Imaging through obscurations for sluicing operations in the waste storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

Waste remediators have identified that surveillance of waste remediation operations and periodic inspections of stored waste are required under very demanding and difficult viewing environments. In many cases, obscurants such as dust or water vapor are generated as part of the remediation activity. Methods are required for viewing or imaging beyond the normal visual spectrum. Work space images guide the movement of remediation equipment, creating a need for rapidly updated, near real-time imaging capability. In addition, there is a need for three-dimensional topographical data to determine the contours of the wastes, to plan retrieval campaigns, and to provide a three-dimensional map of a robot`s work space as basis for collision avoidance. Three basic imaging techniques were evaluated: optical, acoustic and radar. The optical imaging methods that were examined used cameras which operated in the visible region and near-infrared region and infrared cameras which operated in the 3--5 micron and 8--12 micron wavelength regions. Various passive and active lighting schemes were tested, as well as the use of filters to eliminate reflection in the visible region. Image enhancement software was used to extend the range where visual techniques could be used. In addition, the operation of a laser range finder, which operated at 0.835 microns, was tested when fog/water droplets were suspended in the air. The acoustic technique involved using commercial acoustic sensors, operating at approximately 50 kHz and 215 kHz, to determine the attenuation of the acoustic beam in a high-humidity environment. The radar imaging methods involved performing millimeter wave (94 GHz) attenuation measurement sin the various simulated sluicing environments and performing preliminary experimental imaging studies using a W-Band (75--110 GHz) linearly scanned transceiver in a laboratory environment. The results of the tests are discussed.

Peters, T.J.; McMakin, D.L.; Sheen, D.M.; Chieda, M.A.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Operational readiness review for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An Operational Readiness Review (ORR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL`s) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) was conducted by EG&G Idaho, Inc., to verify the readiness of WERF to resume operations following a shutdown and modification period of more than two years. It is the conclusion of the ORR Team that, pending satisfactory resolution of all pre-startup findings, WERF has achieved readiness to resume unrestricted operations within the approved safety basis. ORR appraisal forms are included in this report.

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Clean coal technologies market potential  

SciTech Connect

Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

Drazga, B. (ed.)

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

219

Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Integrated Waste Treatment Unit Federal Operational Readiness Review  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Federal Operational Readiness Review June 2012 Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Office of Enforcement and Oversight Office of Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy i Table of Contents 1.0 Purpose ................................................................................................................................................... 1 2.0 Background ............................................................................................................................................ 1 3.0 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 2 4.0 Results ................................................................................................................................................... 2

220

Minimization of formation of wastes from the operation of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

The problem of generation of liquid radioactive wastes at VVER 440 reactor type nuclear power plants at Jaslovske Bohunice, and Dukovany is discussed. Treatment processes at the NPPs are described. The process during which the operating liquid radioactive wastes emerge is analyzed and the major contributors are identified. The technical approaches to the optimization of the performance of the purification stations that have been implemented at the NPPs with the aim to reduce the generation of radioactive wastes are outlined. The basic results of investigation into the potential of membrane processes are given, as are the results of pilot scale experiments concerned with the use of reverse osmosis in the purification of selected water streams. Attention is also devoted to technical solutions that have been introduced in the design of the Temelin NPP. These solutions are based on the acquired experience and recommendations of foreign experts.

Stepanek, J.; Mohyla, O. [DIAMO, Prague (Czech Republic); Kniz, I.; Zboray, L. [Nuclear Power Plant, Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia); Cada, K.; Wild, J. [Nuclear Power Plant, Dukovany (Czech Republic); Seifert, P. [Nuclear Power Plant, Temelin (Czech Republic); Lastovicka, Z. [Energoproject Prague (Czech Republic)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operations waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor  

SciTech Connect

Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150{sup o}C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650{sup o}C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be responsible for the reduction of gaseous chlorine and, consequently, limited mercury emissions reduction during cofiring. 36 refs., 3 figs. 1 tab.

Yan Cao; Hongcang Zhou; Junjie Fan; Houyin Zhao; Tuo Zhou; Pauline Hack; Chia-Chun Chan; Jian-Chang Liou; Wei-ping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (USA). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

222

Shielded Payload Containers Will Enhance the Safety and Efficiency of the DOE's Remote Handled Transuranic Waste Disposal Operations  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal operation currently employs two different disposal methods: one for Contact Handled (CH) waste and another for Remote Handled (RH) waste. CH waste is emplaced in a variety of payload container configurations on the floor of each disposal room. In contrast, RH waste is packaged into a single type of canister and emplaced in pre-drilled holes in the walls of disposal rooms. Emplacement of the RH waste in the walls must proceed in advance of CH waste emplacement. This poses a significant logistical constraint on waste handling operations by requiring significant coordination between waste characterization and preparations for shipping among the various generators. To improve operational efficiency, the Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing a new waste emplacement process for certain RH waste streams that can be safely managed in shielded containers. RH waste with relatively low gamma-emitting activity would be packaged in lead-lined containers, shipped to WIPP in existing certified transportation packages for CH waste, and emplaced in WIPP among the stacks of CH waste containers on the floor of a disposal room. RH waste with high gamma-emitting activity would continue to be emplaced in the boreholes along the walls. The new RH container appears essentially the same as a nominal 208-liter drum, but is built with about 2.5 cm of lead, sandwiched between thick steel sheet. The top and bottom are made of very thick plate steel, for strengthening the package to meet transportation requirements, and provide similar gamma attenuation. This robust configuration provides an overpack for waste that otherwise would be remotely handled. Up to a 3:1 reduction in number of shipments is projected if RH waste were transported in the proposed shielded containers. This paper describes the container design and testing, as well as the regulatory approach used to meet the requirements that apply to WIPP and its associated transportation system. This paper describes the RH transuranic waste inventory that may be candidates for packaging and emplacement in shielded containers. DOE does not propose to use shielded containers to increase the amount of RH waste allowed at WIPP. DOE's approach to gain approval for the transportation of shielded containers and to secure regulatory approval for use of shielded containers from WIPP regulators is discussed. Finally, the paper describes how DOE proposes to count the waste packaged into shielded containers against the RH waste inventory and how this will comply with the volume and radioactivity limitations imposed in the many and sometimes overlapping regulations that apply to WIPP. (authors)

Nelson, R.A. [U. S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad, New Mexico (United States); White, D.S. [Washington Group International, Carlsbad, New Mexico (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

Low rank fuels such as subbituminous coals and lignites contain significant amounts of moisture compared to higher rank coals. Typically, the moisture content of subbituminous coals ranges from 15 to 30 percent, while that for lignites is between 25 and 40 percent, where both are expressed on a wet coal basis. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit. High fuel moisture results in fuel handling problems, and it affects heat rate, mass rate (tonnage) of emissions, and the consumption of water needed for evaporative cooling. This project deals with lignite and subbituminous coal-fired pulverized coal power plants, which are cooled by evaporative cooling towers. In particular, the project involves use of power plant waste heat to partially dry the coal before it is fed to the pulverizers. Done in a proper way, coal drying will reduce cooling tower makeup water requirements and also provide heat rate and emissions benefits. The technology addressed in this project makes use of the hot circulating cooling water leaving the condenser to heat the air used for drying the coal (Figure 1). The temperature of the circulating water leaving the condenser is usually about 49 C (120 F), and this can be used to produce an air stream at approximately 43 C (110 F). Figure 2 shows a variation of this approach, in which coal drying would be accomplished by both warm air, passing through the dryer, and a flow of hot circulating cooling water, passing through a heat exchanger located in the dryer. Higher temperature drying can be accomplished if hot flue gas from the boiler or extracted steam from the turbine cycle is used to supplement the thermal energy obtained from the circulating cooling water. Various options such as these are being examined in this investigation. This is the eleventh Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, the development of analyses to determine the costs and financial benefits of coal drying was continued. The details of the model and key assumptions being used in the economic evaluation are described in this report.

Edward Levy

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

"1. W A Parish","Coal","NRG Texas Power LLC",3664 "2. South Texas Project","Nuclear","STP Nuclear Operating Co",2560  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Texas" Texas" "1. W A Parish","Coal","NRG Texas Power LLC",3664 "2. South Texas Project","Nuclear","STP Nuclear Operating Co",2560 "3. Martin Lake","Coal","TXU Generation Co LP",2425 "4. Comanche Peak","Nuclear","TXU Generation Co LP",2406 "5. Monticello","Coal","TXU Generation Co LP",1890 "6. Sabine","Gas","Entergy Texas Inc.",1814 "7. Limestone","Coal","NRG Texas Power LLC",1689 "8. Fayette Power Project","Coal","Lower Colorado River Authority",1641 "9. Forney Energy Center","Gas","FPLE Forney LP",1640

225

USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

U.S. low rank coals contain relatively large amounts of moisture, with the moisture content of subbituminous coals typically ranging from 15 to 30 percent and that for lignites from 25 and 40 percent. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit, for it can result in fuel handling problems and it affects heat rate, stack emissions and maintenance costs. Theoretical analyses and coal test burns performed at a lignite fired power plant show that by reducing the fuel moisture, it is possible to improve boiler performance and unit heat rate, reduce emissions and reduce water consumption by the evaporative cooling tower. The economic viability of the approach and the actual impact of the drying system on water consumption, unit heat rate and stack emissions will depend critically on the design and operating conditions of the drying system. The present project evaluated the low temperature drying of high moisture coals using power plant waste heat to provide the energy required for drying. Coal drying studies were performed in a laboratory scale fluidized bed dryer to gather data and develop models on drying kinetics. In addition, analyses were carried out to determine the relative costs and performance impacts (in terms of heat rate, cooling tower water consumption and emissions) of drying along with the development of optimized drying system designs and recommended operating conditions.

Edward K. Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Harun Bilirgen; Hugo Caram

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Ash Deposition Behavior of Upgraded Brown Coal and Bituminous Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ash Deposition Behavior of Upgraded Brown Coal and Bituminous Coal ... Ash with a low melting point causes slagging and fouling problems in pulverized coal combustion boilers. ... The ash composition in coal and operational conditions in boilers such as heat load greatly affect the ash deposition behavior. ...

Katsuya Akiyama; Haeyang Pak; Toshiya Tada; Yasuaki Ueki; Ryo Yoshiie; Ichiro Naruse

2010-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

227

Mine stability evaluation of panel 1 during waste emplacement operations at WIPP  

SciTech Connect

The specific objectives of the work were defined by the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) as follows: (1) assess the stability of panel 1 during the proposed operation of waste emplacement; (2) estimate the amount of time before room closure would be expected to transfer rock loads to the waste packages. The work consisted of (1) an analysis of geotechnical data and a review of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) plans for waste emplacement in panel 1, (2) an evaluation of ground conditions based on data analysis and observations of changes in ground conditions since the first evaluation in 1993 (USBM 1993), and (3) preparation of a report and presentation of the results to EEG staff. Excluded from this study are radiological safety issues and policies. The study is based on data provided by DOE and Westinghouse Electric Corporation (operator of the site) and conversations with DOE and Westinghouse personnel. MTI cannot independently verify the accuracy of the data within the scope of this study and recommends independent evaluations of data gathering, quality assurance procedures, and structural designs. The operator has the ultimate responsibility for structural designs and has expressed a strong commitment to ensuring worker safety.

Maleki, H. [Maleki Technologies Inc., Spokane, WA (United States)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System Remedial Action Report  

SciTech Connect

This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The site addressed in this report was defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for the site have been accomplished and is hereafter considered a No Further Action site.

Lee Davison

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

229

Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System Remedial Action Request  

SciTech Connect

This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The site addressed in this report was defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for the site have been accomplished and is hereafter considered a No Further Action site.

L. Davison

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

230

ADMINISTRATIVE AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS FOR THE OPERATION OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS FOR UNDERGROUND RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS  

SciTech Connect

Liquid radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Site are stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The majority of the waste is confined in double shell tanks, which have a primary shell, where the waste is stored, and a secondary shell, which creates an annular region between the two shells, that provides secondary containment and leak detection capabilities should leakage from the primary shell occur. Each of the DST is equipped with a purge ventilation system for the interior of the primary shell and annulus ventilation system for the secondary containment. Administrative flammability controls require continuous ventilation to remove hydrogen gas and other vapors from the waste tanks while preventing the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Should a leak from the primary to the annulus occur, the annulus ventilation would also serve this purpose. The functionality of the annulus ventilation is necessary to preserve the structural integrity of the primary shell and the secondary. An administrative corrosion control program is in place to ensure integrity of the tank. Given the critical functions of the purge and annulus ventilation systems, engineering controls are also necessary to ensure that the systems remain robust. The system consists of components that are constructed of metal (e.g., steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, etc.) and/or polymeric (polypropylene, polyethylene, silicone, polyurethane, etc.) materials. The performance of these materials in anticipated service environments (e.g., normal waste storage, waste removal, etc.) was evaluated. The most aggressive vapor space environment occurs during chemical cleaning of the residual heels by utilizing oxalic acid. The presence of NO{sub x} and mercury in the vapors generated from the process could potentially accelerate the degradation of aluminum, carbon steel, and copper. Once identified, the most susceptible materials were either replaced and/or plans for discontinuing operations are executed.

Wiersma, B.; Hansen, A.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

231

Crystallization In High Level Waste (HLW) Glass Melters: Operational Experience From The Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

processing strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal tolerant high level waste (HLW) glasses targeting higher waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. This report provides a review of the scaled melter testing that was completed in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Testing with scaled melters provided the data to define the DWPF operating limits to avoid bulk (volume) crystallization in the un-agitated DWPF melter and provided the data to distinguish between spinels generated by K-3 refractory corrosion versus spinels that precipitated from the HLW glass melt pool. This report includes a review of the crystallization observed with the scaled melters and the full scale DWPF melters (DWPF Melter 1 and DWPF Melter 2). Examples of actual DWPF melter attainment with Melter 2 are given. The intent is to provide an overview of lessons learned, including some example data, that can be used to advance the development and implementation of an empirical model and operating limit for crystal accumulation for WTP. Operation of the first and second (current) DWPF melters has demonstrated that the strategy of using a liquidus temperature predictive model combined with a 100 °C offset from the normal melter operating temperature of 1150 °C (i.e., the predicted liquidus temperature (TL) of the glass must be 1050 °C or less) has been successful in preventing any detrimental accumulation of spinel in the DWPF melt pool, and spinel has not been observed in any of the pour stream glass samples. Spinel was observed at the bottom of DWPF Melter 1 as a result of K-3 refractory corrosion. Issues have occurred with accumulation of spinel in the pour spout during periods of operation at higher waste loadings. Given that both DWPF melters were or have been in operation for greater than 8 years, the service life of the melters has far exceeded design expectations. It is possible that the DWPF liquidus temperature approach is conservative, in that it may be possible to successfully operate the melter with a small degree of allowable crystallization in the glass. This could be a viable approach to increasing waste loading in the glass assuming that the crystals are suspended in the melt and swept out through the riser and pour spout. Additional study is needed, and development work for WTP might be leveraged to support a different operating limit for the DWPF. Several recommendations are made regarding considerations that need to be included as part of the WTP crystal tolerant strategy based on the DWPF development work and operational data reviewed here. These include: Identify and consider the impacts of potential heat sinks in the WTP melter and glass pouring system; Consider the contributions of refractory corrosion products, which may serve to nucleate additional crystals leading to further accumulation; Consider volatilization of components from the melt (e.g., boron, alkali, halides, etc.) and determine their impacts on glass crystallization behavior; Evaluate the impacts of glass REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) conditions and the distribution of temperature within the WTP melt pool and melter pour chamber on crystal accumulation rate; Consider the impact of precipitated crystals on glass viscosity; Consider the impact of an accumulated crystalline layer on thermal convection currents and bubbler effectiveness within the melt pool; Evaluate the impact of spinel accumulation on Joule heating of the WTP melt pool; and Include noble metals in glass melt experiments because of their potential to act as nucleation site

Fox, K. M.

2014-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

232

A Study on Coal Properties and Combustion Characteristics of Blended Coals in Northwestern China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Because of the tight supply situation and rising price of coals, the actual coals used in coal-fired power plants of China are usually significantly different from the design coal, which may seriously deteriorate the safety and economy of power plants. ... Accurate prediction of coal characteristics of blended coals from those of individual coals is quite significant to ensure the reliable and economic operation of a blended-coal-fired power plant. ...

Chang’an Wang; Yinhe Liu; Xiaoming Zhang; Defu Che

2011-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

233

The Second Opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant? Review of Salient Characteristics and Unique Operational Considerations for Remote Handled Transuranic Waste  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) intends to dispose of remote handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) beginning in 2005. (1) Four principle regulatory agencies are involved in the process of approving the RH TRU waste activities. The DOE is responsible for operational activities. The U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approves the design and use of shipping containers. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for assuring safe and environmentally effective long-term disposal of the radioactive component of the waste and operational environmental monitoring. The New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) is responsible for the handling and the disposal of the non-radioactive hazardous component of the waste. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is responsible for performing independent technical oversight of all WIPP activities, and will comment on documents and practices for the various regulated RH TRU waste activities. The DOE has already obtained the necessary approvals from the NRC, and has submitted a Class 3 Modification request to the NMED. On December 16, 2002 the DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) provided the EPA with a notice of proposed change, in accordance with 40 CFR 194.4 (b) (3), to receive and dispose of remote handled transuranic waste. (2) WIPP procedures for the management of RH TRU waste at the site are being developed. While there are no issues with current NRC Certificates of Compliance for the RH TRU waste shipping containers, it is likely that there will be some controversy over other aspects of the currently planned RH TRU waste program. These issues may include: (1) the published RH TRU waste inventory, (2) the characterization of the radionuclide portion of the waste, for which one planned method is to use dose-to-Curie conversions, and (3) the plans to use bounding estimates for the hazardous portion of the WIPP waste, rather than measuring VOCs on a container-by-container basis or by representative sampling as is done for contact handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste. This paper discusses the currently planned process and the possible issues related to the DOE's efforts to dispose RH TRU waste at the WIPP.

Anastas, G.; Walker, B.A.

2003-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

234

Final Environmental Impact Statement (Supplement to ERDA-1537, September 1977) Waste Management Operations Double-Shell Tanks for Defense High-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Savannah River Plant  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Do Do E/EIS-0062 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT mATEIUIENT (Supplement to ERDA-1537, September 1977) Waste ~ Management Operations Savannah River Plant ! Aiken, South Carolina Double-Shell Tanks for Defense High-Level Radioactive Waste Storage April 1980 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WASHINGTON. D.C.20545 1980 WL 94273 (F.R.) NOTICES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Deputy Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Waste Management Double-Shell Tanks for Defense High-Level Radioactive Waste Storage, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, S.C. Wednesday, July 9, 1980 *46154 Record of Decision Decision. The decision has been made to complete the construction of the 14 double-shell tanks and use them to store defense high-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Background. The SRP, located near Aiken, South Carolina, is a major installation of the

235

Bio-coal briquette  

SciTech Connect

Some of the developing nations aim to earn foreign currency by exporting oil and/or gas and to increase the domestic consumption of coal to ensure a secure energy supply. Therefore, it is very important to promote effective coal utilization in these nations. Currently, these countries experience problems associated with coal use for household cooking and household industries. For household cooking, coal creates too much smoke and smells unpleasant. In addition, illegally obtained firewood is almost free in local agricultural regions. Coal is also used in household industries; however, simple stoker boilers are inefficient, since unburned coal particles tend to drop through screens during the combustion process. The bio-coal briquette, on the other hand, is an effective and efficient fuel, since it utilizes coal, which is to be used extensively in households and in small and medium-scale industry sectors in some coal-producing countries, as a primary fuel and bamboos (agricultural waste) as a secondary fuel. In addition, the use of bio-coal briquettes will greatly help reduce unburned coal content.

Honda, Hiroshi

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

236

Developing Engineered Fuel (Briquettes) Using Fly Ash from the Aquila Coal-Fired Power Plant in Canon City and Locally Available Biomass Waste  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to explore the feasibility of producing engineered fuels from a combination of renewable and non renewable energy sources. The components are flyash (containing coal fines) and locally available biomass waste. The constraints were such that no other binder additives were to be added. Listed below are the main accomplishments of the project: (1) Determination of the carbon content of the flyash sample from the Aquila plant. It was found to be around 43%. (2) Experiments were carried out using a model which simulates the press process of a wood pellet machine, i.e. a bench press machine with a close chamber, to find out the ideal ratio of wood and fly ash to be mixed to get the desired briquette. The ideal ratio was found to have 60% wood and 40% flyash. (3) The moisture content required to produce the briquettes was found to be anything below 5.8%. (4) The most suitable pressure required to extract the lignin form the wood and cause the binding of the mixture was determined to be 3000psi. At this pressure, the briquettes withstood an average of 150psi on its lateral side. (5) An energy content analysis was performed and the BTU content was determined to be approximately 8912 BTU/lb. (6) The environmental analysis was carried out and no abnormalities were noted. (7) Industrial visits were made to pellet manufacturing plants to investigate the most suitable manufacturing process for the briquettes. (8) A simulation model of extrusion process was developed to explore the possibility of using a cattle feed plant operating on extrusion process to produce briquettes. (9) Attempt to produce 2 tons of briquettes was not successful. The research team conducted a trial production run at a Feed Mill in La Junta, CO to produce two (2) tons of briquettes using the extrusion process in place. The goal was to, immediately after producing the briquettes; send them through Aquila's current system to test the ability of the briquettes to flow through the system without requiring any equipment or process changes. (10) Although the above attempt failed, the plant is still interested in producing briquettes. (11) An economic analysis of investing in a production facility manufacturing such briquettes was conducted to determine the economic viability of the project. Such a project is estimated to have an internal rate of return of 14% and net present value of about $400,000. (12) An engineering independent study class (4 students) is now working on selecting a site near the power plant and determining the layout of the future plant that will produce briquettes.

H. Carrasco; H. Sarper

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

237

Operation of the Wilsonville solvent-refined coal pilot plant: startup, calibration, and initial operation of the H-oil ebullated-bed hydrotreater unit. Technical evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This report presents initial operating data and analyses for the H-Oil Ebullated-Bed Hydrotreater (HTR) unit at the Wilsonville Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant in Wilsonville, Alabama. The focus of the report is on the initial period when the HTR unit operated with catalyst (May to June 1981). Additional data relates to the problems and adjustments during pre-operational testing (December 1980 to April 1981), solvent-SRC circulation testing (April to May 1981), and equipment repairs (July 1981). During the first two runs with catalyst (American Cyanamid HDS-1442B), the R1235 Reactor was operated at 756/sup 0/F and 825/sup 0/F. Equal amounts of hydrotreater solvent and deashed SRC were blended to make up the HTR unit feed. At these conditions, SRC conversion was 30 and 53%, respectively, and 82 and 88% of the sulfur was removed from the SRC feed. The total solvent yield was 26 and 39% of the SRC for the two temperatures, 756 and 825/sup 0/F, respectively. Most of the preasphaltenes were converted (less than 0.5% in the solid product). Hydrogen consumption was estimated to be 3 to 4% of the feed SRC. The quality of the HTR solvent was evaluated in short and long microautoclave tests (80% and 80 to 88% THF conversion, respectively) and the values obtained were consistently higher than those for SRC unit solvent. It was noted that the HTR unit solvent gave higher results by the long test than the short test, whereas the opposite is true for SRC unit solvent.

Not Available

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Overview of Low-Level Waste Disposal Operations at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is charged with the responsibility to carry out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site. Core elements of this mission are ensuring that disposal take place in a manner that is safe and cost-effective while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on giving an overview of the Nevada Test Site facilities regarding currant design of disposal. In addition, technical attributes of the facilities established through the site characterization process will be further described. An update on current waste disposal volumes and capabilities will also be provided. This discussion leads to anticipated volume projections and disposal site requirements as the Nevada Test Site disposal operations look towards the future.

DOE /Navarro

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

2003-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

240

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

2002-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operations waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), and up to 5500 psi with emphasis upon 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally-acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national perspective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan

2002-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

242

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

2002-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

243

Sequence optimization in longwall coal mining  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

BHP Billiton’s Illawarra Coal operates several longwall coal extraction systems in the Bulli and Wongawilli coal seams in the Southern Coalfields of the ... . This establishes a basis for comparing the economic m...

L. Rocchi; P. Carter; P. Stone

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Design and operational considerations of United States commercial near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, states are responsible for providing for disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) within their borders. LLW in the US is defined as all radioactive waste that is not classified as spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or by-product material resulting from the extraction of uranium from ore. Commercial waste includes LLW generated by hospitals, universities, industry, pharmaceutical companies, and power utilities. LLW generated by the country`s defense operations is the responsibility of the Federal government and its agency, the Department of Energy. The commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed in this report are located near: Sheffield, Illinois (closed); Maxey Flats, Kentucky (closed); Beatty, Nevada (closed); West Valley, New York (closed); Barnwell, South Carolina (operating); Richland, Washington (operating); Ward Valley, California, (proposed); Sierra Blanca, Texas (proposed); Wake County, North Carolina (proposed); and Boyd County, Nebraska (proposed). While some comparisons between the sites described in this report are appropriate, this must be done with caution. In addition to differences in climate and geology between sites, LLW facilities in the past were not designed and operated to today`s standards. This report summarizes each site`s design and operational considerations for near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The report includes: a description of waste characteristics; design and operational features; post closure measures and plans; cost and duration of site characterization, construction, and operation; recent related R and D activities for LLW treatment and disposal; and the status of the LLW system in the US.

Birk, S.M.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Coal Gasification  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE's Office of Fossil Energy supports activities to advance coal-to-hydrogen technologies, specifically via the process of coal gasification with sequestration. DOE anticipates that coal...

246

Design and fabrication of advanced materials from Illinois coal wastes. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to design and fabricate advanced brake and structural composite materials from Illinois coal combustion residues. During the first two quarters of the project, the thrust of the work directed towards characterizing the various coal combustion residues and FGD residue, i.e., scrubber sludge. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and transmission-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were conducted on PCC fly ash (Baldwin), FBC fly ash (ADK unit l-6), FBC fly ash (S.I. coal), FBC spent bed ash (ADM, unit l-6), bottom ash, and scrubber sludge (CWLP) residues to characterize their geometrical shapes, mineral phases, and thermal stability. Our spectroscopic results indicate that the scrubber sludge is mainly composed of a gypsum-like phase whose lattice structure is different from the lattice structure of conventional gypsum, and sludge does not contain hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3}.0.5H{sub 2}O) phase. Our attempts to fabricate brake frictional shoes, in the form of 1.25 inch disks, from PCC fly ash, FBC spent bed ash, scrubber sludge, coal char, iron particles, and coal tar were successful. Based on the experience gained and microscopic analyses, we have now upscaled our procedures to fabricate 2.5 inch diameter disk,- from coal combustion residues. This has been achieved. The SEM and Young`s modulus analyses of brake composites fabricated at 400 psi < Pressure < 2200 psi suggest pressure has a strong influence on the particle packing and the filling of interstices in our composites. Also, these results along with mechanical behavior of the fabricated disks lead us to believe that the combination of surface altered PCC fly ash and scrubber sludge particles, together ed ash particles are ideal for our composite materials.

Malhotra, V.M.; Wright, M.A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

247

Two-stage coal liquefaction process materials from the Wilsonville Facility operated in the nonintegrated and integrated modes: chemical analyses and biological testing  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the results from chemical analyses and biological testing of process materials sampled during operation of the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility (Wilsonville, Alabama) in both the noncoupled or nonintegrated (NTSL Run 241) and coupled or integrated (ITSL Run 242) two-stage liquefaction operating modes. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity assays were conducted in conjunction with chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses to provide detailed, comparative chemical and biological assessments of several NTSL and ITSL process materials. In general, the NTSL process materials were biologically more active and chemically more refractory than analogous ITSL process materials. To provide perspective, the NTSL and ITSL results are compared with those from similar testing and analyses of other direct coal liquefaction materials from the solvent refined coal (SRC) I, SRC II and EDS processes. Comparisons are also made between two-stage coal liquefaction materials from the Wilsonville pilot plant and the C.E. Lummus PDU-ITSL Facility in an effort to assess scale-up effects in these two similar processes. 36 references, 26 figures, 37 tables.

Later, D.W.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Valves - current operating experience of slurry valves (block and letdown) in coal liquefaction processes. Third quarter report  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the recent letdown and block valve experience in the liquefaction pilot plants. Also included is a brief description of the research and development activities on valves which are conducted in supporting laboratories. The purpose of the summary is to concentrate on critical component problems common to all liquefaction plants, to avoid duplication of efforts, and to help provide timely solutions to the valve problems. The main source of information used in this paper is the Minutes of the Critical Component and Materials Meeting which is sponsored by the Office of Coal Processing, Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. Other sources of information such as the technical progress reports are also included based on availability and relevance to topics covered in this paper. It is intended that this report will be followed by updates as pertinent information concerning valves becomes available. In the subsequent sections of this paper a brief outline of past valve studies is given as background material followed by a summary of the most recent valve operating experience at the liquefaction plants.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Effects of a potential drop of a shipping cask, a waste container, and a bare fuel assembly during waste-handling operations; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the effects of potential drops of a typical shipping cask, waste container, and bare fuel assembly during waste-handling operations at the prospective Yucca Mountain Repository. The waste-handling process (one stage, no consolidation configuration) is examined to estimate the maximum loads imposed on typical casks and containers as they are handled by various pieces of equipment during waste-handling operations. Maximum potential drop heights for casks and containers are also evaluated for different operations. A nonlinear finite-element model is employed to represent a hybrid spent fuel container subject to drop heights of up to 30 ft onto a reinforced concrete floor. The impact stress, strain, and deformation are calculated, and compared to the failure criteria to estimate the limiting (maximum permissible) drop height for the waste container. A typical Westinghouse 17 {times} 17 PWR fuel assembly is analyzed by a simplified model to estimate the energy absorption by various parts of the fuel assembly during a 30 ft drop, and to determine the amount of kinetic energy in a fuel pin at impact. A nonlinear finite-element analysis of an individual fuel pin is also performed to estimate the amount of fuel pellet fracture due to impact. This work was completed on May 1990.

Wu, C.L.; Lee, J.; Lu, D.L.; Jardine, L.J. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Co-Gasification of Biomass Wastes and Coal?Coke Blends in an Entrained Flow Gasifier: An Experimental Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental study of entrained flow, air-blown cogasification of biomass and a coal?coke mixture has been performed in order to evaluate the effect of the relative fuel/air ratio (ranging between 2.5 and 7.5), the reaction temperature (ranging between ...

Juan J. Hernández; Guadalupe Aranda-Almansa; Clara Serrano

2010-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

251

Investigation of feasibility of injecting power plant waste gases for enhanced coalbed methane recovery from low rank coals in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as power plants. CO2 emissions can be offset by sequestration of produced CO2 in natural reservoirs such as coal seams, which may initially contain methane. Production of coalbed methane can be enhanced through CO2 injection, providing an opportunity...

Saugier, Luke Duncan

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

252

Montana Coal Mining Code (Montana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Labor and Industry is authorized to adopt rules pertaining to safety standards for all coal mines in the state. The Code requires coal mine operators to make an accurate map or...

253

coking coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

coking coal [A caking coal suitable for the production of coke for metallurgical use] ? Kokskohle f, verkokbare Kohle

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Design and fabrication of advanced materials from Illinois coal wastes. Quarterly report, 1 March 1995--31 May 1995  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to design and fabricate advanced brake and structural composite materials from Illinois coal combustion residues. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and transmission-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were conducted on PCC fly ash (Baldwin), FBC fly ash (ADM unit1-6), FBC fly ash (S.I. coal), FBC spent bed ash (ADM unit1-6), bottom ash, and scrubber sludge (CWLP) residues to characterize their geometrical shapes, mineral phases, and thermal stability. Our spectroscopic results indicate that the scrubber sludge is mainly composed of a gypsum-like phase whose lattice structure is different from the lattice structure of conventional gypsum, and sludge does not contain hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3}0.5H{sub 2}O) phase. In the second and third quarters the focus of research has been on developing protocols for the formation of advanced brake composites and structural composites. Our attempts to fabricate brake frictional shoes, in the form of 1.25 inch disks, from PCC fly ash, FBC spent bed ash, scrubber sludge, coal char, iron particles, and coal tar were successful. Based on the experience gained and microscopic analyses, we have now upscaled our procedures to fabricate 2.5 inch diameter disks from coal combustion residues. The SEM and Young`s modulus analyses of brake composites fabricated at 400 psi < Pressure < 2200 psi suggest pressure has a strong influence on the particle packing and the filling of interstices in our composites.

Malhotra, V.M.; Wright, M.A.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

255

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, utilizing funds furnished by the U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Power Program, investigated the installation of a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The study was performed using a team that included personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. The activities included assessing potential feedstocks at the University Park campus and surrounding region with an emphasis on biomass materials, collecting and analyzing potential feedstocks, assessing agglomeration, deposition, and corrosion tendencies, identifying the optimum location for the boiler system through an internal site selection process, performing a three circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler design and a 15-year boiler plant transition plan, determining the costs associated with installing the boiler system, developing a preliminary test program, determining the associated costs for the test program, and exploring potential emissions credits when using the biomass CFB boiler.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; Rhett McLaren; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz; Joseph J. Battista

2003-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

256

Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Overview Air Products, operates hydrogen walls. Air Products tasked our team to design an insert to place in the tubes of the WHB to increase flow velocity, thereby reducing fouling of the WHB. Objectives Air Products wishes that our team

Demirel, Melik C.

257

Low-rank coal research  

SciTech Connect

This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

Not Available

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals. Interim final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of this project is to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an Illinois coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high sulfur content and high Btu value of Illinois coals are particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high sulfur coal is more than offset by the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high Btu Illinois coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. The Btu is higher not only because of the higher Btu value of the coal but also because Illinois coal requires less water to produce a pumpable slurry than western coal, i.e., as little as 30--35% water may be used for Illinois coal as compared to approximately 45% for most western coals. Destec Energy, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Dow Chemical Company, will provide guidelines and test compatibility of the slurries developed for gasification feedstock. Williams Technologies, Inc., will provide their expertise in long distance slurry pumping, and test selected products for viscosity, pumpability, and handleability. The Illinois State Geological Survey will study methods for producing clean coal/water slurries from preparation plant wastes including the concentration of pyritic sulfur into the coal slurry to increase the revenue from elemental sulfur produced during gasification operations, and decrease the pyritic sulfur content of the waste streams. ISGS will also test the gasification reactivity of the coals.

Ehrlinger, H.P. III; Lytle, J.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.; Kohlenberger, L.; Brewer, K. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

259

Integration and operation of post-combustion capture system on coal-fired power generation: load following and peak power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal-fired power plants with post combustion capture and sequestration (CCS) systems have a variety of challenges to integrate the steam generation, air quality control, cooling water systems and steam turbine with the ...

Brasington, Robert David, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

CORROSION OF IRON-BASE ALLOYS BY COAL CHAR AT 871 AND 982 C  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Composition of Illinois #6 ash and coal char (6). ASH SiO Zcombustion waste gases and ash Coal can be processed,

Gordon, Bruce Abbott

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operations waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Waste Management Plan for the Remedial Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This Waste Management Plan (WMP) supplements the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Project WMP and defines the criteria and methods to be used for managing and characterizing waste generated during activities associated with the RI of 23 wells near the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF). These wells are within the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 area of contamination (AOC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Field activities for the limited RI of Operable Unit (OU) 3 of WAG 10 will involve sampling and measurement of various environmental media (e.g., liquids and gases). Many of these activities will occur in areas known to be contaminated with radioactive materials or hazardous chemical substances, and it is anticipated that contaminated solid and liquid wastes and noncontaminated wastes will be generated as a result of these activities. On a project-wide basis, handling of these waste materials will be accomplished in accordance with the RI/FS Project WMP and the procedures referenced throughout the plan.

Not Available

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Healy Clean Coal Project: A DOE Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is to provide the energy marketplace with advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization options by conducting demonstrations of new technologies. These demonstration projects are intended to establish the commercial feasibility of promising advanced coal technologies that have been developed to a level at which they are ready for demonstration testing under commercial conditions. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP), selected under Round III of the CCT Program, and described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy, 1991). The desire to demonstrate an innovative power plant that integrates an advanced slagging combustor, a heat recovery system, and both high- and low-temperature emissions control processes prompted the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) to submit a proposal for this project. In April 1991, AIDEA entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. Other team members included Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA), host and operator; Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc., coal supplier; TRW, Inc., Space & Technology Division, combustor technology provider; Stone & Webster Engineering Corp. (S&W), engineer; Babcock & Wilcox Company (which acquired the assets of Joy Environmental Technologies, Inc.), supplier of the spray dryer absorber technology; and Steigers Corporation, provider of environmental and permitting support. Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation supplied the boiler. GVEA provided oversight of the design and provided operators during demonstration testing. The project was sited adjacent to GVEA's Healy Unit No. 1 in Healy, Alaska. The objective of this CCT project was to demonstrate the ability of the TRW Clean Coal Combustion System to operate on a blend of run-of-mine (ROM) coal and waste coal, while meeting strict environmental requirements. DOE provided $117,327,000 of the total project cost of $282,300,000, or 41.6 percent. Construction for the demonstration project was started in May 1995, and completed in November 1997. Operations were initiated in January 1998, and completed in December 1999. The evaluation contained herein is based primarily on information from the AIDEA's Final Report (Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority, 2001), as well as other references cited.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electric Generation Technology Conventional Coal-Fired PowerPlants Advanced Coal-Electric Plants OperatingCharacteristics for Conventional Coal- Fired Power

Ferrell, G.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

PROBABILISTIC SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF OPERATIONAL ACCIDENTS AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a probabilistic safety assessment of radioactive doses as consequences from accident scenarios to complement the deterministic assessment presented in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The International Council of Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommends both assessments be conducted to ensure that ''an adequate level of safety has been achieved and that no major contributors to risk are overlooked'' (ICRP 1993). To that end, the probabilistic assessment for the WIPP accident scenarios addresses the wide range of assumptions, e.g. the range of values representing the radioactive source of an accident, that could possibly have been overlooked by the SAR. Routine releases of radionuclides from the WIPP repository to the environment during the waste emplacement operations are expected to be essentially zero. In contrast, potential accidental releases from postulated accident scenarios during waste handling and emplacement could be substantial, which necessitates the need for radiological air monitoring and confinement barriers (DOE 1999). The WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR) calculated doses from accidental releases to the on-site (at 100 m from the source) and off-site (at the Exclusive Use Boundary and Site Boundary) public by a deterministic approach. This approach, as demonstrated in the SAR, uses single-point values of key parameters to assess the 50-year, whole-body committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The basic assumptions used in the SAR to formulate the CEDE are retained for this report's probabilistic assessment. However, for the probabilistic assessment, single-point parameter values were replaced with probability density functions (PDF) and were sampled over an expected range. Monte Carlo simulations were run, in which 10,000 iterations were performed by randomly selecting one value for each parameter and calculating the dose. Statistical information was then derived from the 10,000 iteration batch, which included 5%, 50%, and 95% dose likelihood, and the sensitivity of each assumption to the calculated doses. As one would intuitively expect, the doses from the probabilistic assessment for most scenarios were found to be much less than the deterministic assessment. The lower dose of the probabilistic assessment can be attributed to a ''smearing'' of values from the high and low end of the PDF spectrum of the various input parameters. The analysis also found a potential weakness in the deterministic analysis used in the SAR, a detail on drum loading was not taken into consideration. Waste emplacement operations thus far have handled drums from each shipment as a single unit, i.e. drums from each shipment are kept together. Shipments typically come from a single waste stream, and therefore the curie loading of each drum can be considered nearly identical to that of its neighbor. Calculations show that if there are large numbers of drums used in the accident scenario assessment, e.g. 28 drums in the waste hoist failure scenario (CH5), then the probabilistic dose assessment calculations will diverge from the deterministically determined doses. As it is currently calculated, the deterministic dose assessment assumes one drum loaded to the maximum allowable (80 PE-Ci), and the remaining are 10% of the maximum. The effective average of drum curie content is therefore less in the deterministic assessment than the probabilistic assessment for a large number of drums. EEG recommends that the WIPP SAR calculations be revisited and updated to include a probabilistic safety assessment.

Rucker, D.F.

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Air Permit Compliance for Hanford Waste Retrieval Operations Involving Multi-Unit Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Since 1970, approximately 38,000 suspect-transuranic and transuranic waste containers have been placed in retrievable storage on the Hanford Site in the 200 Areas burial grounds. Hanford's Waste Retrieval Project is retrieving these buried containers and processing them for safe storage and disposition. Container retrieval activities require an air emissions permit to account for potential emissions of radionuclides. The air permit covers the excavation activities as well as activities associated with assaying containers and installing filters in the retrieved transuranic containers lacking proper venting devices. Fluor Hanford, Inc. is required to track radioactive emissions resulting from the retrieval activities. Air, soil, and debris media contribute to the emissions and enabling assumptions allow for calculation of emissions. Each of these activities is limited to an allowed annual emission (per calendar year) and contributes to the overall total emissions allowed for waste retrieval operations. Tracking these emissions is required to ensure a permit exceedance does not occur. A tracking tool was developed to calculate potential emissions in real time sense. Logic evaluations are established within the tracking system to compare real time data against license limits to ensure values are not exceeded for either an individual activity or the total limit. Data input are based on field survey and workplace air monitoring activities. This tracking tool is used monthly and quarterly to verify compliance to the license limits. Use of this tool has allowed Fluor Hanford, Inc. to successfully retrieve a significant number of containers in a safe manner without any exceedance of emission limits. (authors)

Faulk, D.E.; Simmons, F.M. [Fluor Hanford, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Basis for Interim Operation (BIO)  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) is located in the 200 East Area adjacent to B Plant on the Hanford Site north of Richland, Washington. The current WESF mission is to receive and store the cesium and strontium capsules that were manufactured at WESF in a safe manner and in compliance with all applicable rules and regulations. The scope of WESF operations is currently limited to receipt, inspection, decontamination, storage, and surveillance of capsules in addition to facility maintenance activities. The capsules are expected to be stored at WESF until the year 2017, at which time they will have been transferred for ultimate disposition. The WESF facility was designed and constructed to process, encapsulate, and store the extracted long-lived radionuclides, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, from wastes generated during the chemical processing of defense fuel on the Hanford Site thus ensuring isolation of hazardous radioisotopes from the environment. The construction of WESF started in 1971 and was completed in 1973. Some of the {sup 137}Cs capsules were leased by private irradiators or transferred to other programs. All leased capsules have been returned to WESF. Capsules transferred to other programs will not be returned except for the seven powder and pellet Type W overpacks already stored at WESF.

COVEY, L.I.

2000-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

267

Inspection Report - Radiological Waste Operations in Area G at Los Alamos National Laboratory, INS-O-13-03  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Inspection Report Inspection Report Radiological Waste Operations in Area G at Los Alamos National Laboratory INS-O-13-03 March 2013 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 March 20, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR THE MANAGER, LOS ALAMOS FIELD OFFICE, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FROM: Sandra D. Bruce Assistant Inspector General for Inspections Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Inspection Report on "Radiological Waste Operations in Area G at Los Alamos National Laboratory" INTRODUCTION Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) has a national security mission that includes science, engineering and technology related to radioactive and hazardous materials such as plutonium, americium, asbestos and lead. Material Disposal Area G, located in Technical Area

268

1997 annual ground control operating plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

This plan presents background information and a working guide to assist Mine Operations and Engineering in developing strategies for addressing ground control issues at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). With the anticipated receipt of waste in late 1997, this document provides additional detail to Panel 1 activities and options. The plan also serves as a foundation document for development and revision of the annual long-term ground control plan. Section 2.0 documents the current status of all underground excavations with respect to location, geology, geometry, age, ground support, operational use, projected life, and physical conditions. Section 3.0 presents the methods used to evaluate ground conditions, including visual observations of the roof, ribs, and floor, inspection of observation holes, and review of instrumentation data. Section 4.0 lists several ground support options and specific applications of each. Section 5.0 discusses remedial ground control measures that have been implemented to date. Section 6.0 presents projections and recommendations for ground control actions based on the information in Sections 2.0 through 5.0 of this plan and on a rating of the critical nature of each specific area. Section 7.0 presents a summary statement, and Section 8.0 includes references. Appendix A provides an overview and critique of ground control systems that have been, or may be, used at the site. Because of the dynamic nature of the underground openings and associated geotechnical activities, this plan will be revised as additional data are incorporated.

NONE

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

US coal market softens  

SciTech Connect

The operators table some near term expansion plans, meanwhile long-term fundamentals look strong. This is one of the findings of the Coal Age Forecast 2007 survey of readers predictions on production and consumption of coal and attitudes in the coal industry. 50% of respondents expected product levels in 2007 to be higher than in 2006 and 50% described the attitude in the coal industry to be more optimistic in 2007 than in 2006. Most expenditure is anticipated on going on new equipment but levels of expenditure will be less than in 2006. 7 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

270

Underground Gasification of Coal Reported  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Underground Gasification of Coal Reported ... RESULTS of a first step taken toward determining the feasibility of the underground gasification of coal were reported recently to the Interstate Oil Compact Commission by Milton H. Fies, manager of coal operations for the Alabama Power Co. ...

1947-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

271

Evaluation of improved materials for stationary diesel engines operating on residual and coal based fuels. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results to date from an on-going research program on improved materials for stationary diesel engines using residual or coal-based fuels are presented with little discussion of conclusions about these results. Information is included on ring and liner wear, fuel oil qualities, ceramic materials, coatings, test procedures and equipment, and tribology test results. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

The Complete Gasification of Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... plant designed by C. B. Tully, and operated at Bedford, for the complete gasification of coal. Altogether, since 1919, about two hundred such plants have been erected ...

J. S. G. THOMAS

1923-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

273

Impact of Coal-Coking Effluent on Sediment Microbial Communities: a Multivariate Approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...General Microbial Ecology Impact of Coal-Coking Effluent on Sediment Microbial...response to and recovery from coal-coking waste effluent was evaluated for...community response. Impact of coal-coking effluent on sediment microbial...

Gary S. Sayler; Timothy W. Sherrill; Richard E. Perkins; Lawrence M. Mallory; Michael P. Shiaris; Deana Pedersen

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

NETL: Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

use of our domestic energy resources and infrastructure. Gasification Systems | Advanced Combustion | Coal & Coal-Biomass to Liquids | Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Turbines CO2...

275

Clean coal  

SciTech Connect

The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li [Ohio State University, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

Performance and energy calculation on a green cementitious material composed of coal refuse  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal refuse as industrial solid waste has become great threats to the environment. To activate coal refuse is one practical solution to recycle this huge amount of solid waste as substitute for ordinary Portla...

Yuan Yao; Yu Li; Xiaoming Liu; Henghu Sun…

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Criticality Safety Evaluations on the Use of 200-gram Pu Mass Limit for RHWM Waste Storage Operations  

SciTech Connect

This work establishes the criticality safety technical basis to increase the fissile mass limit from 120 grams to 200 grams for Type A 55-gallon drums and their equivalents. Current RHWM fissile mass limit is 120 grams Pu for Type A 55-gallon containers and their equivalent. In order to increase the Type A 55-gallon drum limit to 200 grams, a few additional criticality safety control requirements are needed on moderators, reflectors, and array controls to ensure that the 200-gram Pu drums remain criticality safe with inadvertent criticality remains incredible. The purpose of this work is to analyze the use of 200-gram Pu drum mass limit for waste storage operations in Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) Facilities. In this evaluation, the criticality safety controls associated with the 200-gram Pu drums are established for the RHWM waste storage operations. With the implementation of these criticality safety controls, the 200-gram Pu waste drum storage operations are demonstrated to be criticality safe and meet the double-contingency-principle requirement per DOE O 420.1.

Chou, P

2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

278

A new conceptual cold-end design of boilers for coal-fired power plants with waste heat recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract After conducting an in-depth analysis of the conventional boiler cold-end design for waste heat recovery, this work proposed a new conceptual boiler cold-end design integrated with the steam cycle in a 1000 MW CFPP, in which the preheating of air was divided into high-temperature air preheater (HTAP), main air preheater (MAP) and low-temperature air preheater (LTAP). The HTAP and an economizer were installed in separate flue ducts, and the low temperature economizer (LTE) was situated between the MAP and the LTAP in the main flue duct to heat the condensed water. In the proposed boiler cold-end design, the flue gas waste heat was not only used to heat condensed water, but also to further preheat the combustion air. The air temperature at the air-preheater outlet increases and part of the steam bleeds with high exergy can be saved, resulting in greater energy-savings and better economics. Results showed that, for a typical 1000 MW CFPP in China, using the proposed boiler cold-end design for waste heat recovery could produce 13.3 MWe additional net power output with a heat rate reduction of approximately 112.0 kJ/kW h and could yield a net benefit of up to $85.8 M per year, which is much greater than those of the conventional cases. Exergy destruction is also reduced from 49.9 MWth in the conventional boiler cold-end design to 39.6 MWth in the proposed design.

Yongping Yang; Cheng Xu; Gang Xu; Yu Han; Yaxiong Fang; Dongke Zhang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute coal dust Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Collection: Engineering 27 Proceedings of NAWTEC18 18th Annual North American Waste-to-Energy Conference Summary: -to-particle conversions. In coal and waste combustion systems,...

280

The foul side of 'clean coal'  

SciTech Connect

As power plants face new air pollution control, ash piles and their environmental threats are poised to grow. Recent studies have shown that carcinogens and other contaminants in piles of waste ash from coal-fired power plants can leach into water supplies at concentrations exceeding drinking water standards. Last year an ash dam broke at the 55-year old power plant in Kingston, TN, destroying homes and rising doubts about clean coal. Despite the huge amounts of ash generated in the USA (131 mtons per year) no federal regulations control the fate of ash from coal-fired plants. 56% of this is not used in products such as concrete. The EPA has found proof of water contamination from many operating ash sites which are wet impoundments, ponds or reservoirs of some sort. Several member of Congress have show support for new ash-handling requirements and an inventory of waste sites. Meanwhile, the Kingston disaster may well drive utilities to consider dry handling. 3 photos.

Johnson, J.

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operations waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Structural Dimensions, Fabrication, Materials, and Operational History for Types I and II Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive waste is confined in 48 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The waste will eventually be processed and transferred to other site facilities for stabilization. Based on waste removal and processing schedules, many of the tanks, including those with flaws and/or defects, will be required to be in service for another 15 to 20 years. Until the waste is removed from storage, transferred, and processed, the materials and structures of the tanks must maintain a confinement function by providing a leak-tight barrier to the environment and by maintaining acceptable structural stability during design basis event which include loading from both normal service and abnormal conditions.

Wiersma, B.J.

2000-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

282

OSS 19.5 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response 3/21/95  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

 The objective of this surveillance is to ensure that workers who are performing activities associated with characterizing, handling, processing, storing or transporting hazardous wastes are...

283

Coal/biomass gasifier lab tests are a success  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal/biomass gasifier lab tests are a success ... The process produces a medium-Btu gas from a mixture of coal, municipal solid waste, and dewatered sewage sludge. ...

1980-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

284

Fuel strategies, coal supply, dust control, and byproduct utilization  

SciTech Connect

This book contains articles presented at the 1990 International Joint Power Generation Conference. Included are the following papers: Waste management on hard coal fired power plants; Acid rain legislation FGD by-product concerns; Innovative transport modes; coal slurry pipelines.

Aananson, M.L. (Philadelphia Electric Co. (US)); Krishna, K. (Burns and McDonnell (US)); Mahr, D. (Burns and Roe Enterprises (US)); Nechvatal, T.M. (Wisconsin Electric Power Co. (US))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

FE Clean Coal News | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5, 2011 5, 2011 Eight Advanced Coal Projects Chosen for Further Development by DOE's University Coal Research Program DOE has selected eight new projects to further advanced coal research under the University Coal Research Program. The selected projects will improve coal conversion and use and will help propel technologies for future advanced coal power systems. January 4, 2011 DOE-Supported Coal Cleaning Technology Succeeds in Commercial Demonstration A novel technology that could help release some of the currently unusable energy in an estimated 2 billion tons of U.S. coal waste has been successfully demonstrated by a Department of Energy supported project. December 16, 2010 Prestigious Coal-Fired Project of the Year Award Goes to Plant Demonstrating Innovative DOE-Funded Technology

286

Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels  

SciTech Connect

CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration in Phase II. In Phase II (June 2001 to December 2004), the project team demonstrated the GranuFlow technology as part of a process to combine paper sludge and coal to produce a composite fuel with combustion and handling characteristics acceptable to existing boilers and fuel handling systems. Bench-scale studies were performed at DOE-NETL, followed by full-scale commercial demonstrations to produce the composite fuel in a 400-tph coal cleaning plant and combustion tests at a 90-MW power plant boiler to evaluate impacts on fuel handling, boiler operations and performance, and emissions. A circuit was successfully installed to re-pulp and inject paper sludge into the fine coal dewatering circuit of a commercial coal-cleaning plant to produce 5,000 tons of a ''composite'' fuel containing about 5% paper sludge. Subsequent combustion tests showed that boiler efficiency and stability were not compromised when the composite fuel was blended with the boiler's normal coal supply. Firing of the composite fuel blend did not have any significant impact on emissions as compared to the normal coal supply, and it did not cause any excursions beyond Title V regulatory limits; all emissions were well within regulatory limits. SO{sub 2} emissions decreased during the composite fuel blend tests as a result of its higher heat content and slightly lower sulfur content as compared to the normal coal supply. The composite fuel contained an extremely high proportion of fines because the parent coal (feedstock to the coal-cleaning plant) is a ''soft'' coal (HGI > 90) and contained a high proportion of fines. The composite fuel was produced and combustion-tested under record wet conditions for the local area. In spite of these conditions, full load was obtained by the boiler when firing the composite fuel blend, and testing was completed without any handling or combustion problems beyond those typically associated with wet coal. Fuel handling and pulverizer performance (mill capacity and outlet temperatures) could become greater concerns when firing composite fuels which contain higher percent

Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

287

Appalachia: the land of coal  

SciTech Connect

The Appalachian region of the United States is an area known worldwide for its long history as a source of coal. If any area of the Unted States is to gain from the projected growth of the coal industry, both domestic and international, it would surely be the coal mining areas of this region, including its biggest coal producing states - Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky and Ohio. An important facet of the region's coal industry is not only the presence of the giant coal companies but also the small, independent operator. These men are owner-operators and every dollar spent for their operations must bring a return. There is no room for error. WORLD COAL editors have recently traveled to areas in Appalachia and visited mines that are run by these independent operators. One such area was Harlan County, Kentucky. Virtually all mining done in Harlan is underground. Shaft mines are uncommon; most operations have access to exposed seams in the hillsides. Most of the small operations in this region use room and pillar mining and productivity is quite good. It is imperative that the transportation infrastructure be improved so that the expected increased movement of coal out of the region be handled efficiently. Potential domestic consumers of coal from Appalachia are numerous. New England, New York, the mid-Atlantic states, and the South are all looking to this nearby region to help reduce their dependence on oil. Other countries also are looking to the area.

Schneiderman, S.J. (ed.)

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{trademark}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{trademark} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{trademark} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{trademark} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury--elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{trademark}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{trademark} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{trademark} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2004-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

289

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2004-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

290

Integration of Pipeline Operations Sourced with CO2 Captured at a Coal-fired Power Plant and Injected for Geologic Storage: SECARB Phase III CCS Demonstration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents a case study of the design and operation of a fit-for-purpose pipeline sourced with anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) associated with a large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) Research & Demonstration Program located in Alabama, USA. A 10.2 centimeter diameter pipeline stretches approximately 19 kilometers from the outlet of the CO2 capture facility, located at Alabama Power Company's James M. Barry 2,657 - megawatt coal-fired electric generating plant, to the point of injection into a saline reservoir within Citronelle Dome. The CO2 pipeline has a 6.5 meter wide easement that primarily parallels an existing high-voltage electric transmission line in undulating terrain with upland timber, stream crossings, and approximately 61,000 square meters of various wetland types. In addition to wetlands, the route transects protected habitat of the Gopher Tortoise. Construction methods included horizontal drilling under utilities, wetlands, and tortoise habitat and ‘open cutting’ trenching where vegetation is removed and silt/storm-water management structures are employed to limit impacts to water quality and ecosystems. A total of 18 horizontal directional borings, approximately 8 kilometers, were used to avoid sensitive ecosystems, roads, and utilities. The project represents one of the first and the largest fully-integrated pulverized coal-fired CCS demonstration projects in the USA and provides a test bed of the operational reliability and risk management for future pipelines sourced with utility CO2 capture and compression operations sole-sourced to injection operations. An update on status of the project is presented, covering the permitting of the pipeline, risk analysis, design, construction, commissioning, and integration with compression at the capture plant and underground injection at the storage site.

R. Esposito; C. Harvick; R. Shaw; D. Mooneyhan; R. Trautz; G. Hill

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

System Performance Testing of the Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Instrument for Critical Velocity Determination during Hanford Tank Waste Transfer Operations - 13584  

SciTech Connect

The delivery of Hanford double-shell tank waste to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is governed by specific Waste Acceptance Criteria that are identified in ICD 19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed. Waste must be certified as acceptable before it can be delivered to the WTP. The fluid transfer velocity at which solid particulate deposition occurs in waste slurry transport piping (critical velocity) is a key waste acceptance parameter that must be accurately characterized to determine if the waste is acceptable for transfer to the WTP. Washington River Protection Solutions and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have been evaluating the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument since 2010 for its ability to detect particle settling and determine critical velocity in a horizontal slurry transport pipeline for slurries containing particles with a mean particle diameter of =14 micrometers (?m). In 2012 the PulseEcho instrument was further evaluated under WRPS' System Performance test campaign to identify critical velocities for slurries that are expected to be encountered during Hanford tank waste retrieval operations or bounding for tank waste feed. This three-year evaluation has demonstrated the ability of the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument to detect the onset of critical velocity for a broad range of physical and rheological slurry properties that are likely encountered during the waste feed transfer operations between the Hanford tank farms and the WTP. (authors)

Denslow, Kayte M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy W.J.; Hopkins, Derek F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Thien, Michael G.; Kelly, Steven E.; Wooley, Theodore A. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

System Performance Testing of the Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Instrument for Critical Velocity Determination during Hanford Tank Waste Transfer Operations - 13584  

SciTech Connect

The delivery of Hanford double-shell tank waste to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is governed by specific Waste Acceptance Criteria that are identified in ICD 19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed. Waste must be certified as acceptable before it can be delivered to the WTP. The fluid transfer velocity at which solid particulate deposition occurs in waste slurry transport piping (critical velocity) is a key waste acceptance parameter that must be accurately characterized to determine if the waste is acceptable for transfer to the WTP. Washington River Protection Solutions and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have been evaluating the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument since 2010 for its ability to detect particle settling and determine critical velocity in a horizontal slurry transport pipeline for slurries containing particles with a mean particle diameter of ?14 micrometers (?m). In 2012 the PulseEcho instrument was further evaluated under WRPS’ System Performance test campaign to identify critical velocities for slurries that are expected to be encountered during Hanford tank waste retrieval operations or bounding for tank waste feed. This three-year evaluation has demonstrated the ability of the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument to detect the onset of critical velocity for a broad range of physical and rheological slurry properties that are likely encountered during the waste feed transfer operations between the Hanford tank farms and the WTP.

Denslow, Kayte M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Hopkins, Derek F.; Thien, Michael G.; Kelly, Steven E.; Wooley, Theodore A.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES TO OPERATING AN ON-SITE LABORATORY AT THE SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES CHEMICAL WASTE LANDFILL  

SciTech Connect

During the excavation of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL), operations were realized by the presence of URS' (formerly known as United Research Services) On-site Mobile Laboratory (OSML) and the close proximity of the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration Chemical Laboratory (ERCL). The laboratory was located adjacent to the landfill in order to provide soil characterization, health and safety support, and waste management data. Although the cost of maintaining and operating an analytical laboratory can be higher than off-site analysis, there are many benefits to providing on site analytical services. This paper describes the synergies between the laboratory, as well as the advantages and disadvantages to having a laboratory on-site during the excavation of SNL/NM CWL.

Young, S.G.; Creech, M.N.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

294

Underground Coal Gasification in the USSR  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By accomplishing in a single operation the extraction of coal and its conversion into a gaseous fuel, underground gasification makes it possible to avoid the heavy capital investments required for coal gasification

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Integrated Waste Treatment Uinit Contractor Operational Readiness Review, June 2012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contractor Contractor Operational Readiness Review June 2012 Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Office of Enforcement and Oversight Office of Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy i Table of Contents 1.0 Purpose ................................................................................................................................................... 1 2.0 Background ............................................................................................................................................ 1 3.0 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 2 4.0 Results ................................................................................................................................................... 2

296

Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Integrated Waste Treatment Uinit Contractor Operational Readiness Review, June 2012  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Contractor Contractor Operational Readiness Review June 2012 Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Office of Enforcement and Oversight Office of Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy i Table of Contents 1.0 Purpose ................................................................................................................................................... 1 2.0 Background ............................................................................................................................................ 1 3.0 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 2 4.0 Results ................................................................................................................................................... 2

297

Continued Evaluation of the Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Instrument for Critical Velocity Determination during Hanford Tank Waste Transfer Operations  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an extensive evaluation of the ability of three ultrasonic instruments to detect critical velocity for a broad range of simulated Hanford nuclear waste streams containing particles with mean particle sizes of >50 microns. Evaluations were perform using the pipe loop at the Process Development Laboratory – East (PDL-E) at PNNL that was designed and built to evaluate the pipeline plugging issue during slurry transfer operations at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. In 2011 the ability of the ultrasonic PulseEcho system to detect critical velocity continued to be evaluated using the PDL-E flow loop and new simulants containing high-density particles with a mean particle size of < 15 microns. The PDL-E flow loop was modified for the 2011 testing to include a new test section that contained 5-MHz and 10-MHz ultrasonic transducers non-invasively mounted to schedule 40 pipe. The test section also contained reference instrumentation to facilitate direct comparison of the real-time PulseEcho transducer responses with experimentally observed critical velocities. This paper presents the results from the 2011 PulseEcho evaluation using a variety of simulated Hanford nuclear waste streams that were selected to encompass the expected high-level waste feed properties.

Denslow, Kayte M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Burns, Carolyn A.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Hopkins, Derek F.; Thien, Michael G.; Wooley, Theodore A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Coal pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

The reduced environmental liability of clean coal technologies  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors will discuss the waste stream minimization that future commercially operated clean coal technologies can effect. They will explore the ability of these now-beginning-to-mature technologies to reduce those aspects of the emission streams that have greatest potential for what the authors term as environmental liability. Environmental liability is manifested in a variety of forms. There are both current liabilities and future liabilities. In addition, uncertainties may reside in future anticipated regulatory compliance and the costs of such compliance. Exposure to liability translates into perceived risk which creates an air of uncertainty to the power industry and its lenders who provide the capital to build new power plants. In the context of electric power generation, newer, high efficiency power generation technologies developed in the course of the Clean Coal Technology Program of the US Department of Energy result in reduced waste stream emissions when compared against more aging conventional combustion technologies. This paper will discuss how the introduction of new clean coal technologies will help balance the conflict between adverse environmental impact and the global demand for increased energy. The authors will discuss how clean coal technologies will facilitate compliance with future air standards that may otherwise expose power producers to modification and cleanup costs, noncompliance penalties, or premature shut down.

Leslie, A.C.D. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); McMillen, M. [Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Catalytic Coal Gasification Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalytic Coal Gasification Process Catalytic Coal Gasification Process for the Production of Methane-Rich Syngas Opportunity Research is active on the patent pending technology, titled "Production of Methane-Rich Syngas from Fuels Using Multi-functional Catalyst/Capture Agent." This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Reducing pollution emitted by coal and waste power plants in an economically viable manner and building power plants that co-generate fuels and chemicals during times of low electricity demand are pressing goals for the energy industry. One way to achieve these goals in an economically viable manner is through the use of a catalytic gasifier that

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301

ENTERPRISE SRS: LEVERAGING ONGOING OPERATIONS TO ADVANCE RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is repurposing its vast array of assets to solve future national issues regarding environmental stewardship, national security, and clean energy. The vehicle for this transformation is Enterprise SRS which presents a new, strategic view of SRS as a united endeavor for “all things nuclear” as opposed to a group of distinct and separate entities with individual missions and organizations. Key among the Enterprise SRS strategic initiatives is the integration of research into facilities in conjunction with ongoing missions to provide researchers from other national laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial entities the opportunity to demonstrate their technologies in a relevant environment and scale prior to deployment. To manage that integration of research demonstrations into site facilities, The DOE Savannah River Operations Office, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have established a center for applied nuclear materials processing and engineering research (hereafter referred to as the Center). The key objective of this initiative is to bridge the gap between promising transformational nuclear materials management advancements and large-scale deployment of the technology by using SRS assets (e.g. facilities, staff, and property) for those critical engineering-scale demonstrations necessary to assure the successful deployment of new technologies. The Center will coordinate the demonstration of R&D technologies and serve as the interface between the engineering-scale demonstration and the R&D programs, essentially providing cradle-to-grave support to the R&D team during the demonstration. While the initial focus of the Center will be on the effective use of SRS assets for these demonstrations, the Center also will work with research teams to identify opportunities to perform R&D demonstrations at other facilities. Unique to this approach is the fact that these SRS assets will continue to accomplish DOE’s critical nuclear material missions (e.g., processing in H-Canyon and plutonium storage in K-Area). These demonstrations can be accomplished in a more cost-effective manner through the use of existing facilities in conjunction with ongoing missions. Essentially, the R&D program would not need to pay the full operational cost of a facility, just the incremental cost of performing the demonstration. Current Center activities have been focused on integrating advanced safeguards monitoring technology demonstrations into the SRS H-Canyon and advanced location technology demonstrations into K-Area Materials Storage. These demonstrations are providing valuable information to researchers and program owners. In addition these demonstrations are providing the Center with an improved protocol for demonstration management that can be exercised across the entire SRS (and to offsite venues) to ensure that future demonstrations are done efficiently and provide an opportunity to use these unique assets for multiple purposes involving national laboratories, academia, and commercial entities. Key among the envisioned future use of SRS assets is the demonstration of new radioactive waste management technologies critical for advancing the mission needs of the DOE-EM program offices in their efforts to cleanup 107 sites across the United States. Of particular interest is the demonstration of separations technologies in H-Canyon. Given the modular design of H-Canyon, those demonstrations would be accomplished using a process frame. The demonstration equipment would be installed on the process frame and that frame would then be positioned into an H-Canyon cell so that the demonstration is performed in a radiological environment involving prototypic nuclear materials.

Murray, A.; Wilmarth, B.; Marra, J.; Mcguire, P.; Wheeler, V.

2013-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

302

The Remotely Operated Nondestructive Examination System for Examining the Knuckle Region of Hanford's Double Shell Waste Tanks.  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed a technology to address the examination requirements associated with the knuckle region of Hanford's double shell waste tanks. This examination poses a significant technical challenge because the area that requires examination is in a confined space, high radiation region and is not accessible using conventional measurement techniques. This paper describes the development, deployment, and modification of the remotely operated nondestructive examination (RONDE) system that utilizes a technique known as Synthetic Aperture Focusing (SAFT). The system detects stress corrosion cracking in the high stress region of the knuckle and characterizes the crack with tandem SAFT. PNNL has qualified the system to perform inspections on the entire knuckle region of Hanford's double shell waste tanks.

Crawford, Susan L.; Pardini, Allan F.; Donald Thompson & Dale Chimenti

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

UNREVIEWED DISPOSAL QUESTION EVALUATION: IMPACT OF NEW INFORMATION SINCE 2008 PA ON CURRENT LOW-LEVEL SOLID WASTE OPERATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Solid low-level waste disposal operations are controlled in part by an E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) Performance Assessment (PA) that was completed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in 2008 (WSRC 2008). Since this baseline analysis, new information pertinent to disposal operations has been identified as a natural outcome of ongoing PA maintenance activities and continuous improvement in model simulation techniques (Flach 2013). An Unreviewed Disposal Question (UDQ) Screening (Attachment 1) has been initiated regarding the continued ability of the ELLWF to meet Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 performance objectives in light of new PA items and data identified since completion of the original UDQ Evaluation (UDQE). The present UDQE assesses the ability of Solid Waste (SW) to meet performance objectives by estimating the influence of new information items on a recent sum-of-fractions (SOF) snapshot for each currently active E-Area low-level waste disposal unit. A final SOF, as impacted by this new information, is projected based on the assumptions that the current disposal limits, Waste Information Tracking System (WITS) administrative controls, and waste stream composition remain unchanged through disposal unit operational closure (Year 2025). Revision 1 of this UDQE addresses the following new PA items and data identified since completion of the original UDQE report in 2013: ? New K{sub d} values for iodine, radium and uranium ? Elimination of cellulose degradation product (CDP) factors ? Updated radionuclide data ? Changes in transport behavior of mobile radionuclides ? Potential delay in interim closure beyond 2025 ? Component-in-grout (CIG) plume interaction correction Consideration of new information relative to the 2008 PA baseline generally indicates greater confidence that PA performance objectives will be met than indicated by current SOF metrics. For SLIT9, the previous prohibition of non-crushable containers in revision 0 of this UDQE has rendered the projected final SOF for SLIT9 less than the WITS Admin Limit. With respect to future disposal unit operations in the East Slit Trench Group, consideration of new information for Slit Trench#14 (SLIT14) reduced the current SOF for the limiting All-Pathways 200-1000 year period (AP2) by an order of magnitude and by one quarter for the Beta-Gamma 12-100 year period (BG2) pathway. On the balance, updates to K{sub d} values and dose factors and elimination of CDP factors (generally favorable) more than compensated for the detrimental impact of a more rigorous treatment of plume dispersion. These observations suggest that future operations in the East Slit Trench Group can be conducted with higher confidence using current inventory limits, and that limits could be increased if desired for future low-level waste disposal units. The same general conclusion applies to future ST’s in the West Slit Trench Group based on the Impacted Final SOFs for existing ST’s in that area.

Flach, G.; Smith, F.; Hamm, L.; Butcher, T.

2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

304

Coal production 1984. [USA; 1984  

SciTech Connect

Coal Production 1984 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data were collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (PL 93-275) as amended. All data presented in this report, except the total production table presented in the Highlights section, the demonstrated reserve base data presented in Appendix A, and the 1983 coal preparation and shipments data presented in Appendix C, were obtained from Form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1984. These mining operations accounted for 99.4% of total US coal production and represented 76.3% of all US coal mining operations in 1984. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1984.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

coal | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

coal coal Dataset Summary Description This dataset is from the report Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies: a review of existing literature (J. Macknick, R. Newmark, G. Heath and K.C. Hallett) and provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released August 28th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords coal consumption csp factors geothermal PV renewable energy technologies Water wind withdrawal Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies (xlsx, 32.3 KiB)

306

Emissions from Open Burning of Simulated Military Waste from Forward Operating Bases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Emissions from two different burning scenarios, so-called “burn piles/pits” and an air curtain burner/“burn box”, were compared using simulated FOB waste from municipal and commercial sources. ... Aerial- and ground-sampled emissions from three prescribed forest burns in the southeastern U.S. were compared to emissions from laboratory open burn tests using biomass from the same locations. ...

Johanna Aurell; Brian K. Gullett; Dirk Yamamoto

2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

307

Savannah River Site’s Liquid Waste Operations Adds Multi-Functional Laboratory  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

AIKEN, S.C. – A new multi-functional laboratory supporting high-level waste processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS) gives workers a new and improved place to provide back-up laboratory support and more space for chemical storage.

308

Direct coal liquefaction at HTI using dispersed slurry catalyst  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Direct Coal Liquefaction effort, in which Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. (HTI) is a major participant, is an integral part of the effort to meet the US National Energy Strategy goal of relying more on indigenous sources of energy. This is also very applicable to the China situation where there is a need to use the abundant coal, and organic waste resources present in China to produce cost-effective fuels that will meet environmental goals of high efficiency with neutral consequences on air, water and ground status. Located at HTI`s Research and Development Center in Lawrenceville, New Jersey are several pilot scale continuous flow operating units to study, develop and demonstrate direct coal liquefaction and hydrocracking. These units include two two-stage, 50 Kg/day process evaluation units, one 3/4 ton/day process confirmation unit and a 5 ton/day process development unit. Each of these units are adaptable for operation as fluidized (ebullated) beds or fully backmixed slurry catalyst reactor units. These units are completely integrated to provide feed preparation and handling, preheating, reaction, vapor/liquid separation, on-line hydrotreating, product fractionation, bottoms recycling and solid removal. These units have not only been used in the processing of coal, but also in the upgrading of heavy oil, tar sand bitumen, shale oil, waste tires, plastics, lignin and other organic municipal and industrial wastes. HTI has developed an advanced direct liquefaction process, HTI Coal Process, that produces clean transportation fuels and chemicals at a US cost of less than $30/bbl., equivalent crude oil price, at a grass roots facility. This process is based on the use of an HTI iron based catalyst, GelCat, with backmixed reactors, a close-coupled hydrotreater and interstage gas/liquid separation. Coal conversion, distillate yields and product qualities are comparable to that seen with a supported catalyst reactor system. The process is continuous, isothermal and free of solids accumulation with all coal ranks tested. Under the auspices of the US DOE, HTI has developed multi-stage liquefaction processes based on both supported and dispersed catalysts. The supported catalyst configuration involves the use of a three-phase ebullated bed reactor in which the supported catalyst is maintained at a random (fluidization) stage by re-circulating a relatively large quantity of catalyst-gas-free process fluid collected from the top of the reactor.

Lee, L.K.; Comolli, A.G.; Popper, G.; Zhou, P.Z. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

309

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Operators prepare drums of contact-handled transuranic waste for loading into transportation containers Operators prepare...

310

Heat Integration Strategy for Economic Production of Combined Heat and Power from Biomass Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heat Integration Strategy for Economic Production of Combined Heat and Power from Biomass Waste ... Dilution of hydrogen rich fuels resulting from coal or heavy hydrocarbon gasification processes with nitrogen prior to the entrance of the gas turbines may be desirable in precombustion carbon capture and storage (CCS) routes, in order to ensure safe operations of gas turbines. ...

Jhuma Sadhukhan; Kok Siew Ng; Nilay Shah; Howard J. Simons

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

311

PNNL Coal Gasification Research  

SciTech Connect

This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

312

Coal Transportation Issues (released in AEO2007)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Most of the coal delivered to U.S. consumers is transported by railroads, which accounted for 64% of total domestic coal shipments in 2004. Trucks transported approximately 12% of the coal consumed in the United States in 2004, mainly in short hauls from mines in the East to nearby coal-fired electricity and industrial plants. A number of minemouth power plants in the West also use trucks to haul coal from adjacent mining operations. Other significant modes of coal transportation in 2004 included conveyor belt and slurry pipeline (12%) and water transport on inland waterways, the Great Lakes, and tidewater areas (9%).

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

Derbidge, T. Craig (Sunnyvale, CA); Mulholland, James A. (Chapel Hill, NC); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers Americans And Their Environment 2010 Thirty-nine New Damage Cases of Contamination from Improperly Disposed Coal Combustion Waste, Editor and Contributing Author #12;IN HARM'S WAY: Lack of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers

Short, Daniel

315

An assessment of waste fuel burning in operating circulating fluidized bed boilers  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized bed combustion (FBC), today's fastest growing boiler technology, has the flexibility to burn a wide range of fuels, including many waste fuels, while satisfying all present and anticipated environmental regulations. The first generation of FBC--atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC)--concentrated on ''bubbling'' fluidized bed designs. These systems have inherent limitations and experienced several problems. In response to these problems, circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology was developed.

Gendreau, R.J.; Raymond, D.L.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Public Participation Plan for Waste Area Group 7 Operable Unit 7-13/14 at the Idaho National Laboratory Site  

SciTech Connect

This Public Participation Plan outlines activities being planned to: (1) brief the public on results of the remedial investigation and feasibility study, (2) discuss the proposed plan for remediation of Operable Unit 7-13/14 with the public, and (3) encourage public participation in the decision-making process. Operable Unit 7-13/14 is the Comprehensive Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for Waste Area Group 7. Analysis focuses on the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory (Site). This plan, a supplement to the Idaho National Laboratory Community Relations Plan (DOE-ID 2004), will be updated as necessary. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will participate in the public involvement activities outlined in this plan. Collectively, DOE, DEQ, and EPA are referred to as the Agencies. Because history has shown that implementing the minimum required public involvement activities is not sufficient for high-visibility cleanup projects, this plan outlines additional opportunities the Agencies are providing to ensure that the public’s information needs are met and that the Agencies can use the public’s input for decisions regarding remediation activities.

B. G. Meagher

2007-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

317

Characterization of air emissions and residual ash from open burning of electronic wastes during simulated rudimentary recycling operations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Air emissions and residual ash samples were collected and analyzed during experiments of open, uncontrolled combustion of electronic waste (e-waste), simulating practices associated with rudimentary e-waste recyc...

Brian K. Gullett; William P. Linak…

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Coal, geophysics, U.S. power generation, and mine safety  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...before and combustion waste is being recycled...permission). The industry has done a good...ones, but coal gasification plants can squeeze...sector, the coal industry has done little...before and combustion waste is being recycled...under way. The industry has done a good...

Lawrence M. Gochioco

319

New developments in coal briquetting technology  

SciTech Connect

Briquetting of coal has been with us for well over a century. In the earliest applications of coal briquetting, less valuable fine coal was agglomerated into briquettes using a wide variety of binders, including coal tar, pitch and asphalt. Eventually, roll briquetters came into more widespread use, permitting the process to become a continuous one. Coal briquetting went out of favor during the 1950s in most of the industrialized world. The major reason for this decline in use was the discovery that the coal gas distillates used for binders were harmful to human health. Also, the abundance of cheap petroleum made coal briquettes a less attractive alternative as an industrial or domestic fuel. The re-emergence of coal as a primary industrial fuel and also its increased prominence as a fuel for thermal electric power stations led to a large increase in the annual volume of coal being mined worldwide. Coal preparation technology steadily improved over the years with the general exception of fine coal preparation. The processes available for treating this size range were considerably more expensive per unit mass of coal treated than coarse coal processes. Also, costly dewatering equipment was required after cleaning to remove surface moisture. Even with dewatering, the high surface area per unit mass of fine coal versus coarse coal resulted in high moisture contents. Therefore, little incentive existed to improve the performance of fine coal processes since this would only increase the amount of wet coal fines which would have to be dealt with. With such an ever-increasing volume of coal fines being created each year, there emerged an interest in recovering this valuable product. Several schemes were developed to recover coal fines discarded in abandoned tailings impoundments by previous operations.

Tucker, P.V. [Kilborn Inc., Ontario (Canada); Bosworth, G.B. [Kilborn Engineering Pacific Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Kalb, G.W. [KKS Systems Inc., Wheeling, WV (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

320

Fluid Bed Waste Heat Boiler Operating Experience in Dirty Gas Streams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from 13 to 15 million BTU per hour for fired boiler efficiencies of 80% to 70% respectively. The savings represents 85 to 90% of the energy entering the waste heat boiler. Equiva lent furnace efficiency increases from 25% to over 60% on high fire... Fired Boiler Efficiency 0.70 0.75 0.80 Energy Savings Furnace Efficiency Corresponding Peak Fuel Equivalent at High (1) . Savi ngs Fire on Melt 4453 kw (15.1x10 6 BTU/hr) 69% 4156 kw (14.1x10 6 BTU/hr) 66% 3896 kw (13.3x10 6 BTU/hr) 63% (1...

Kreeger, A. H.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operations waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Extraction of Lignite Coal Fly Ash for Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Modified and Unmodified Supercritical Fluid Extraction, Enhanced-Fluidity Solvents, and Accelerated Solvent Extraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......7440-44-0 Carbon | Carbon analysis chemistry Coal analysis Coal Ash Gas Chromatography-Mass...Hydrocarbons, Aromatic analysis chemistry Industrial Waste analysis Particulate...particles on the interaction of coal combustion stack ash with organic matter......

Donald V. Kenny; Susan V. Olesik

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by US Department of Energy waste management operations  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms evaluated. A personal-computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for the calculation of human health risk impacts. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated, and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. Key assumptions in the development of the source terms are identified. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also discuss specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Policastro, A.; Freeman, W.; Jackson, R.; Mishima, J.; Turner, S.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Performance Confirmation Strategies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - A Historical Perspective from an Operating Disposal Facility - 12248  

SciTech Connect

Performance confirmation is an important element of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program. Performance confirmation was first used during the early WIPP site characterization phase to focus experimental activities that address the development of probabilistic repository performance models and to address stakeholder assurance needs. The program is currently used to analyze the conditions of the repository and its surroundings to ensure that the basis for the repository's long-term radioactive waste containment predictions is valid. This basis is related to the parameters, assumptions, conceptual and numerical models that are used to predict or validate the potential radioactive waste containment performance of the system. The concept of performance confirmation for the WIPP is one that has evolved since the first repository work was initiated decades ago and plays an important role in assuring adequate repository performance both now and in the long-term. The WIPP mission has progressed from a pilot project to an operational disposal facility and will progress to eventual site closure when disposal operations are completed. Performance confirmation is an important part of each of these progressions. The concept of disposing radioactive waste in a geologic repository today involves a complete understanding of many technical, political, regulatory, societal and economic elements. Many of these elements overlap and solving all relevant issues necessary to site, operate and decommission a disposal facility should be done with knowledge of each element's requirements and impacts. Performance confirmation is one tool that can help to coordinate many of these elements into a program that actively investigates what is thought to be adequately understood about the system and what information is lacking. A performance confirmation program is used to determine ways to challenge and verify those areas that are thought to be understood and to find ways to understand those areas that are not well understood. Performance confirmation programs have been used twice at WIPP, first during site characterization and PA development and later in a Compliance Monitoring program. At first, only certain technical aspects of the system were deemed important because it was a scientifically-based, government project. Early site characterization work was design to gather information about the geology and hydrology of the area and the mechanical properties of the natural barrier. The information would be used in a PA to determine the long-term containment performance of the disposal system. A performance confirmation element was used to identify the sensitive elements of the system that were certain, well understood or justified and those that were not. It identified experimental and analytical programs that could be used to reduce uncertainty, confirm sensitive assumptions and provide useful data. This performance confirmation program provided data to justify the adequacy of the information used in PA to demonstrate compliance with EPA's containment requirements. Performance confirmation will continue to be used in the post-closure period for at least 30 years and likely up to the end of the 100-year institutional controls period. As the technical basis for the repository matures throughout the operational period, the currently planned post-closure monitoring program will need to be reassessed prior to implementation. However, the intent of the program will be the same as it was for the previous programs, to ensure the ultimate goal of the repository. This goal is to safely isolate waste from the accessible environment and ensure public and environmental safety. (authors)

Wagner, Steve [John Hart and Associate for Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, New Mexico 88220 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Development of thermoacoustic engine operating by waste heat from cooking stove  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There are about 1.5 billion people worldwide use biomass as their primary form of energy in household cooking[1]. They do not have access to electricity and are too remote to benefit from grid electrical supply. In many rural communities stoves are made without technical advancements mostly using open fires cooking stoves which have been proven to be extremely low efficiency and about 93% of the energy generated is lost during cooking. The cooking is done inside a dwelling and creates significant health hazard to the family members and pollution to environment. SCORE (www.score.uk.com) is an international collaboration research project to design and build a low-cost high efficiency woodstove that uses about half amount of the wood of an open wood fire and uses the waste heat of the stove to power a thermoacoustic engine (TAE) to produce electricity for applications such as LED lighting charging mobile phones or charging a 12V battery. This paper reviews on the development of two types of the thermoacoustic engine powered by waste heat from cooking stove which is either using Propane gas or burning of wood as a cooking energy to produce an acceptable amount of electricity for the use of rural communities.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Coal extraction  

SciTech Connect

Coal is extracted using a mixed solvent which includes a substantially aromatic component and a substantially naphthenic component, at a temperature of 400/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/C. Although neither component is an especially good solvent for coal by itself, the use of mixed solvent gives greater flexibility to the process and offers efficiency gains.

Clarke, J.W.; Kimber, G.M.; Rantell, T.D.; Snape, C.E.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

326

Zero emission coal  

SciTech Connect

We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Mathematical modelling of the flow and combustion of pulverized coal injected in ironmaking blast furnace.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Pulverized coal injection (PCI) technology is widely practised in blast furnace ironmaking due to economic, operational and environmental benefits. High burnout of pulverized coal in… (more)

Shen, Yansong

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-08, Annual Monitoring Status Report for Fiscal Year 2009  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the status of Fiscal Year 2009 groundwater monitoring performed in Waste Area Group 10 at the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho National Laboratory Site, as identified in the Groundwater Monitoring and Field Sampling Plan for Operable Unit 10-08. Twelve of the fourteen required wells were sampled, and all ten required intervals from the Westbay wells were sampled. Two wells were not sampled because they were in the process of being converted into multiple-sample-interval Westbay wells by the U.S. Geological Survey. Groundwater samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds identified on the Contract Laboratory Program target analyte list as well as metals (filtered), anions, and radionuclides (i.e., I-129, tritium, Tc-99, gross alpha, gross beta, and Sr-90). No contaminant exceeded maximum contaminant levels in wells along the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory Site or in guard wells. Iron was above its secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 ug/L in one well. The cause of the elevated iron concentration is uncertain. Lead was detected just below its action level. However, the zinc concentration was also elevated in these wells, and the source of the lead is probably galvanized riser pipe in the wells. Once the galvanized pipe is replaced, both lead and zinc concentrations should decline, as has been observed at other Waste Area Group 10 wells.

Howard Forsythe

2010-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

329

Project Execution Plan, Waste Management Division, Nevada Operations Office, U.S. Department of Energy, April 2000  

SciTech Connect

This plan addresses project activities encompassed by the U.S. Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office Waste Management Division and conforms to the requirements contained in the ''Life Cycle Asset Management,'' U.S. Department of Energy Order O430.1A; the Joint Program Office Policy on Project Management in Support of DOE Order O430.1, and the Project Execution and Engineering Management Planning Guide. The plan also reflects the milestone philosophies of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, as agreed to by the state of Nevada; and traditional project management philosophies such as the development of life cycle costs, schedules, and work scope; identification of roles and responsibilities; and baseline management and controls.

DOE /NV

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Remedial investigation report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes  

SciTech Connect

This report comprises appendices A--J which support the Y-12 Plant`s remedial action report involving Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch). The appendices cover the following: Sampling fish from McCoy Branch; well and piezometer logs; ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch 1989-1990; heavy metal bioaccumulation data; microbes in polluted sediments; and baseline human health risk assessment data.

Not Available

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

E-Print Network 3.0 - annual clean coal Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

emissions Summary: provides a clean base load electricity that produces waste just a size of a coke can as compared to a coal... ,000 tons of coal to produce same amount of...

332

Coal availability and coal recoverability studies: A reevaluation of the United States coal resources  

SciTech Connect

A cooperative program between the US Geological Survey (USGS), US Bureau of Mines (USBM), and geological agencies of the principal coal-bearing States has began to (1) identify and delineate current major land-use/environmental and technologic/geologic restrictions on the availability of coal resources; (2) estimate the amount of remaining coal resources that may be available for development under those constraints; (3) estimate the amount that can be economically extracted and marketed; and (4) identify possible social and economic disruptions that could occur within local and regional economies as coal resources are exhausted. Within major coal-producing regions, selected 7.5-minute quadrangles are chosen to represent variations in geology, topography, and land-use patterns so that results might be extrapolated throughout the entire region. After identifying State and Federal coal mining regulations, USGS and State scientists consult with local coal-industry engineers, geologists, and mine operators to ascertain local mining practices. Coal bed outcrop lines, current and past mined areas, and restrictions to mining are plotted at 1:24,000 scale and geographic information system (GIS) techniques are applied. Coal availability/recoverability studies have expanded into the central and northern Appalachian regions, Illinois basin, and Powder River basin. The first four basins, with 75% of current US coal production, should be completed by 1998. The total program is designed to cover 150 quadrangles from within the 11 major coal regions of the US. These 11 regions represent 97% of current US coal production. Planned project completion is 2001.

Carter, M.D. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Teeters, D.D. [Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

333

NETL: News Release - From Coal to Chemicals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

May 13, 2003 May 13, 2003 From Coal to Chemicals... Successful Clean Coal-to-Methanol Project Boosts Prospects For "Multi-Product" Coal Plant - The Liquid Phase Methanol Plant at the Eastman Chemicals-from-Coal Complex - The Kingsport, Tenn., clean coal project operated virtually flawlessly throughout its demonstration period and continues its steady operations today. - KINGSPORT, TN - It was 35 years ago that a single word in the smash hit, coming-of-age movie The Graduate made cinema history: "plastics." As a baby-faced Dustin Hoffman learned, the future was "plastics." Now, largely because of one of the Department of Energy's most successful Clean Coal Technology projects, in the next 35 years, the future may well be "plastics?from coal."

334

USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

This is the ninth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, comparative analyses were performed for lignite and PRB coals to determine how unit performance varies with coal product moisture. Results are given showing how the coal product moisture level and coal rank affect parameters such as boiler efficiency, station service power needed for fans and pulverizers and net unit heat rate. Results are also given for the effects of coal drying on cooling tower makeup water and comparisons are made between makeup water savings for various times of the year.

Edward Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Harun Bilirgen; Wei Zhang

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Healy Clean Coal Project  

SciTech Connect

The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under Round 111 of the Clean Coal Technology Program, has been constructed and is currently in the Phase 111 Demonstration Testing. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Construction was 100% completed in mid-November of 1997, with coal firing trials starting in early 1998. Demonstration testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (S02), and particulate from this 50-megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards.

None

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

336

Comparative Study of Gasification Performance between Bituminous Coal and Petroleum Coke in the Industrial Opposed Multiburner Entrained Flow Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SUMMARY : Co-gasification performance of coal and petroleum coke (petcoke) blends in a pilot-scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier was studied exptl. ... Two different coals, including a subbituminous coal (Coal A) and a bituminous coal (Coal B), individually blended with a petcoke in the gasifier were considered. ... results suggested that, when the petcoke was mixed with Coal A over 70%, the slagging problem, which could shorten the operational period due to high ash content in the coal, was improved. ...

Zhonghua Sun; Zhenghua Dai; Zhijie Zhou; Jianliang Xu; Guangsuo Yu

2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

337

Process for selective grinding of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for preparing coal for use as a fuel. Forming a coal-water slurry having solid coal particles with a particle size not exceeding about 80 microns, transferring the coal-water slurry to a solid bowl centrifuge, and operating same to classify the ground coal-water slurry to provide a centrate containing solid particles with a particle size distribution of from about 5 microns to about 20 microns and a centrifuge cake of solids having a particle size distribution of from about 10 microns to about 80 microns. The classifer cake is reground and mixed with fresh feed to the solid bowl centrifuge for additional classification.

Venkatachari, Mukund K. (San Francisco, CA); Benz, August D. (Hillsborough, CA); Huettenhain, Horst (Benicia, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

composition is 6-percent coal/petcoke/animal meal mix, 16-sawdust Coal, plastic, and tires Tires Petcoke, plastic, andwaste oil Petcoke, sunflower shells, and waste oil Tire

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Robbins project - start-up and commercial operation at a leading-edge recycling, waste-to-energy plant  

SciTech Connect

On January 22, 1997, the Robbins Resource Recovery Facility began commercial operation in Robbins, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, after a very successful start-up program. The first installation of its kind in the United States, the Robbins facility converts municipal solid waste (MSW) into refuse-derived fuel (RDF) that is fired in two circulating fluidized-bed boilers. Steam from the boilers powers a turbine generator that can produce enough electricity to service more than 50,000 homes. The Robbins facility processes a minimum of 1600 tons of MSW per day. Some 75 percent of the MSW is converted into RDF. In addition to compostable material, the balance yields reusable aluminum, ferrous materials, and glass. Even ash produced by the circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) boilers can be used to manufacture cement. The Robbins facility is operated by Foster Wheeler Illinois, Inc., a member of the Foster Wheeler Power Systems Group. The plant was engineered by Foster Wheeler USA Corporation and built by Foster Wheeler Constructors, Inc. Foster Wheeler Energy International, Inc. provided the circulating fluidized-bed boilers.

NONE

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

340

Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation  

SciTech Connect

The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operations waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

This is the twelfth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, the development of analyses to determine the costs and financial benefits of coal drying was continued. The details of the model and key assumptions being used in the economic evaluation are described in this report and results are shown for a drying system utilizing a combination of waste heat from the condenser and thermal energy extracted from boiler flue gas.

Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Ursla Levy; John Sale; Nenad Sarunac

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS  

SciTech Connect

This is the first Annual Technical Report of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. Activities from the first three quarters of the fiscal 1998 year were reported previously as Quarterly Technical Progress Reports (DOE/PC93054-57, DOE/PC93054-61, and DOE/PC93054-66). Activities for the period July 1 through September 30, 1998, are reported here. This report describes CONSOL's characterization of process-derived samples obtained from HTI Run PB-08. These samples were derived from operations with Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal, simulated mixed waste plastics, and pyrolysis oils derived from waste plastics and waste tires. Comparison of characteristics among the PB-08 samples was made to ascertain the effects of feed composition changes. A comparison also was made to samples from a previous test (Run PB-06) made in the same processing unit, with Black Thunder Mine coal, and in one run condition with co-fed mixed plastics.

G.A. Robbins; R.A. Winschel; S.D. Brandes

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

The Shenhua coal direct liquefaction plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon Technologies (HTI) has been working on a feasibility study for the construction of a Direct Coal Liquefaction Plant in Shenhua coalfield of China. HTI's direct coal liquefaction process, consisting primarily of two backmixed reactor stages plus a fixed-bed inline hydrotreater, operates at a pressure of 17 \\{MPa\\} and reactor temperatures in the range of 400–460°C. A dispersed superfine iron catalyst, GelCat®, is used in the process. Phase I of the study was successfully completed. Two coal sample from a coal mine in Shenhua coalfield were tested on HTI's continuous flow unit (CFU). Results were very encouraging. Though Shenhua coals are high in inert materials, HTI's coal liquefaction process has been able to achieve coal conversion of higher than 91 wt.% (on moisture and ash free, maf, coal) under all test conditions. Under the best conditions tested, distillate product yields from Shenhua coals are between 63–68 wt.% (maf coal). Liquid products are very low in sulfur and nitrogen, thus, very clean. Phase II is now underway. An additional test was conducted on a coal from another coal mine in Shenhua coalfield, which showed similar performance on liquefaction. Preliminary economic assessment is also discussed.

Alfred G. Comolli; Theo L.K. Lee; Gabriel A. Popper; Peizheng Zhou

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Hazardous Waste Disposal Sites (Iowa)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These sections contain information on fees and monitoring relevant to operators of hazardous waste disposal sites.

345

Electricity from coal and utilization of coal combustion by-products  

SciTech Connect

Most electricity in the world is conventionally generated using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, or hydropower. Due to environmental concerns, there is a growing interest in alternative energy sources for heat and electricity production. The major by-products obtained from coal combustion are fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials. The solid wastes produced in coal-fired power plants create problems for both power-generating industries and environmentalists. The coal fly ash and bottom ash samples may be used as cementitious materials.

Demirbas, A. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Coal cutting research slashes dust  

SciTech Connect

US Bureau of Mines' research projects aimed at the reduction of coal dust during coal cutting operations are described. These include an investigation of the effects of conical bit wear on respirable dust generation, energy and cutting forces; the determination of the best conical bit mount condition to increase life by enhancing bit rotation; a comparison between chisel- and conical-type cutters. In order to establish a suitable homogeneous reference material for cutting experiments, a synthetic coal with a plaster base is being developed.

Roepke, W.W.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Numerical investigation of Solid Recovered Fuels’ co-firing with brown coal in large scale boilers – Evaluation of different co-combustion modes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the current work the co-combustion of Solid Recovered Fuels’ (SRFs’) with brown coal in large scale pulverised coal boilers under different operational conditions is numerically investigated. In order to overcome the difficulty of the complex, inhomogeneous nature of waste recovered fuels, SRF is modelled as a mixture of two different fractions, the biogenic and the plastic one. For each fraction different combustion mechanisms are presented, whilst for the first time the proposed combustion mechanism of the plastic fraction is incorporated in a commercial CFD code and validated against available experimental data. A 600 MWe brown coal boiler is simulated as a reference and its operational characteristics are compared with parameterised scenarios of SRF co-firing conditions. Based on the numerical results, the optimum co-firing concepts regarding the more efficient operation of the boiler (hot spots and fuel’s burnout) are identified, decreasing the environmental impact of the boiler’s emissions.

Michalis Agraniotis; Nikos Nikolopoulos; Aris Nikolopoulos; Panagiotis Grammelis; Emmanuel Kakaras

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Process for electrochemically gasifying coal using electromagnetism  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution.

Botts, Thomas E. (Markham, VA); Powell, James R. (Shoreham, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Coal-Biomass to Liquids News Gasifipedia Coal-Biomass Feed Advanced Fuels Synthesis Systems Analyses International Activity Project Information Project Portfolio Publications...

350

COAL SLAGGING AND REACTIVITY TESTING  

SciTech Connect

Union Fenosa's La Robla I Power Station is a 270-MW Foster Wheeler arch-fired system. The unit is located at the mine that provides a portion of the semianthracitic coal. The remaining coals used are from South Africa, Russia, Australia, and China. The challenges at the La Robla I Station stem from the various fuels used, the characteristics of which differ from the design coal. The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the Lehigh University Energy Research Center (LUERC) undertook a program to assess problematic slagging and unburned carbon issues occurring at the plant. Full-scale combustion tests were performed under baseline conditions, with elevated oxygen level and with redistribution of air during a site visit at the plant. During these tests, operating information, observations and temperature measurements, and coal, slag deposit, and fly ash samples were obtained to assess slagging and unburned carbon. The slagging in almost all cases appeared due to elevated temperatures rather than fuel chemistry. The most severe slagging occurred when the temperature at the sampling port was in excess of 1500 C, with problematic slagging where first-observed temperatures exceeded 1350 C. The presence of anorthite crystals in the bulk of the deposits analyzed indicates that the temperatures were in excess of 1350 C, consistent with temperature measurements during the sampling period. Elevated temperatures and ''hot spots'' are probably the result of poor mill performance, and a poor distribution of the coal from the mills to the specific burners causes elevated temperatures in the regions where the slag samples were extracted. A contributing cause appeared to be poor combustion air mixing and heating, resulting in oxygen stratification and increased temperatures in certain areas. Air preheater plugging was observed and reduces the temperature of the air in the windbox, which leads to poor combustion conditions, resulting in unburned carbon as well as slagging. A second phase of the project involved advanced analysis of the baseline coal along with an Australian coal fired at the plant. These analysis results were used in equilibrium thermodynamic modeling along with a coal quality model developed by the EERC to assess slagging, fouling, and opacity for the coals. Bench-scale carbon conversion testing was performed in a drop-tube furnace to assess the reactivity of the coals. The Australian coal had a higher mineral content with significantly more clay minerals present than the baseline coal. The presence of these clay minerals, which tend to melt at relatively low temperatures, indicated a higher potential for problematic slagging than the baseline coal. However, the pyritic minerals, comprising over 25% of the baseline mineral content, may form sticky iron sulfides, leading to severe slagging in the burner region if local areas with reducing conditions exist. Modeling results indicated that neither would present significant fouling problems. The Australian coal was expected to show slagging behavior much more severe than the baseline coal except at very high furnace temperatures. However, the baseline coal was predicted to exhibit opacity problems, as well as have a higher potential for problematic calcium sulfate-based low-temperature fouling. The baseline coal had a somewhat higher reactivity than the Australian coal, which was consistent with both the lower average activation energy for the baseline coal and the greater carbon conversion at a given temperature and residence time. The activation energy of the baseline coal showed some effect of oxygen on the activation energy, with E{sub a} increasing at the lower oxygen concentration, but may be due to the scatter in the baseline coal kinetic values at the higher oxygen level tested.

Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Jason D. Laumb

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

New coal dewatering technology turns sludge to powder  

SciTech Connect

Virginian Tech's College of Engineering's Roe-Hoan Yoon and his group have developed a hyperbaric centrifuge that can dewater coal as fine as talcum powder. Such coal fines presently must be discarded by even the most advanced coal cleaning plants because of their high moisture content. The new technology can be used with the Microcel technology to remove ash, to re-mine the fine coal discarded to impoundments and to help minimize waste generation. Virginia Tech has received $1 million in funding from the US Department of State to also help the Indian coal industry produce a cleaner product. 1 photo.

NONE

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

352

NETL: News Release - DOE-Supported Coal Cleaning Technology Succeeds in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4, 2011 4, 2011 DOE-Supported Coal Cleaning Technology Succeeds in Commercial Demonstration Novel Centrifuge Paves Way to Recover Tons of Waste Coal for Energy Use Washington, DC -- A novel technology that could help release some of the currently unusable energy in an estimated 2 billion tons of U.S. coal waste has been successfully demonstrated by a Department of Energy (DOE) supported project. The full-scale test of the advanced hyperbaric centrifuge technology at a Jim Walter Resources Inc. coal-cleaning plant in Alabama resulted in the successful reduction of moisture from ultrafine coal waste. The test builds on an eight-year cooperative effort between the Office of Fossil Energy's (FE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) to use the patented process to effectively remove water from very fine coal "slurries," or mixture of waste coal "fines" and water.

353

Field evaluation of cofiring gas with coal for quantifying operational benefits and emissions trim in a utility boiler. Volume 2. Topical report, 1989-1990  

SciTech Connect

The volume consists of 14 appendixes to accompany volume 1 of the report, and covers the following test data: analysis of coal, fylash, and bottom ash samples; cleanliness factors; slagging observation record sheets; stack opacity measurements; stack sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides measurements; total coal flow; fuel gas flow; furnace exit gas temperature; percent oxygen at economizer outlet; percent excess air; bulk steam temperatures at secondary superheater and reheater outlets; secondary superheater and reheater tube outlet leg temperatures; unit heat rate; and models used for data interpretation.

Clark, K.J.; Torbov, T.S.; Impey, R.J.; Hara, K.G.; Burnett, T.D.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department and Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-E Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

Atencio, B.P.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations; the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

Atencio, B.P.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research  

SciTech Connect

Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-08, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Annual Status Report for Fiscal Year 2006  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a status of the progress made in Fiscal Year 2006 on tasks identified in the Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-08, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan. Major accomplishments include: (1) groundwater sampling and review of the groundwater monitoring data, (2) installation of a Sitewide groundwater-level monitoring network, (3) update of the Groundwater Monitoring and Field Sampling Plan of Operable Unit 10-08, (4) re-evaluation of the risk at Site TSF-08, (5) progress on the Operable Unit 10-08 Sitewide Groundwater Model.

R. P. Wells

2007-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

358

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Use of solid waste for chemical stabilization: Adsorption isotherms and {sup 13}C solid-state NMR study of hazardous organic compounds sorbed on coal fly ash  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption of hazardous organic compounds on the Dave Johnston plant fly ash is described. Fly ash from Dave Johnston and Laramie River power plants were characterized using elemental, x-ray, and {sup 29}Si NMR; the Dave Johnston (DJ) fly ash had higher quartz contents, while the Laramie River fly ash had more monomeric silicate anions. Adsorption data for hydroaromatics and chlorobenzenes indicate that the adsorption capacity of DJ coal fly ash is much less than that of activated carbon by a factor of >3000; but it is needed to confirm that solid-gas and solid-liquid equilibrium isotherms can indeed be compared. However, for pyridine, pentachlorophenol, naphthalene, and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, the DJ fly ash appears to adsorb these compounds nearly as well as activated carbon. {sup 13}C NMR was used to study the adsorption of hazardous org. cpds on coal fly ash; the nuclear spin relaxation times often were very long, resulting in long experimental times to obtain a spectrum. Using a jumbo probe, low concentrations of some hazardous org. cpds could be detected; for pentachlorophenol adsorbed onto fly ash, the chemical shift of the phenolic carbon was changed. Use of NMR to study the adsorption needs further study.

Netzel, D.A.; Lane, D.C.; Rovani, J.F.; Cox, J.D.; Clark, J.A.; Miknis, F.P.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Investigation of chemical looping combustion by solid fuels. 2. redox reaction kinetics and product characterization with coal, biomass, and solid waste as solid fuels and CuO as an oxygen carrier  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the second in a series of two on the investigation of the chemical looping combustion (CLC) of solid fuels. The first paper put forward the concept of the CLC of solid fuels using a circulating fluidized bed as a reactor and Cu-CuO as the oxygen carrier, which was based on an analysis of oxygen transfer capability, reaction enthalpy, and chemical equilibrium. In this second paper, we report the results of the evaluation of the reduction of CuO reduced by solid fuels such as coal and some other 'opportunity' solid fuels. Tests on the reduction of CuO by the selected solid fuels were conducted using simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, which simulates a microreactor. An attached mass spectrometer (MS) was used for the characterization of evolved gaseous products. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for the characterization of the solid residues. Results strongly supported the feasibility of CuO reduction by selected solid fuels. CuO can be fully converted into Cu in a reduction process, either in a direct path by solid fuels, which was verified by MS analysis under a N{sub 2} atmosphere, or in an indirect path by pyrolysis and gasification products of solid fuels in the reducer. No Cu{sub 2}O exists in reducing atmospheres, which was characterized by an XRD analysis and mass balance calculations. No carbon deposit was found on the surface of the reduced Cu, which was characterized by SEM analysis. CuO reduction by solid fuels can start at temperatures as low as approximately 500 C. Tests indicated that the solid fuels with higher reactivity (higher volatile matter) would be desirable for the development of the chemical looping combustion process of solid fuels, such as sub-bituminous Powder River Basin coal and solid waste and biomass. 4 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

Yan Cao; Bianca Casenas; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operations waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing coal combustion Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sciences and Ecology 44 Proceedings of NAWTEC18 18th Annual North American Waste-to-Energy Conference Summary: -to-particle conversions. In coal and waste combustion systems,...

362

Horizontal Hydraulic Conductivity Estimates for Intact Coal Barriers Between Closed Underground Mines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...discharges were obtained from industry reports stored at the Consol...mining beneath surface water and waste impoundments: In Proceedings...associated with underground coal gasification: Canadian Geotechnical Journal...underground mining United States waste disposal water quality West...

KURT J. McCOY; JOSEPH J. DONOVAN; BRUCE R. LEAVITT

363

Operating Experience and Lessons Learned in the Use of Soft-Sided Packaging for Transportation and Disposal of Low Activity Radioactive Waste  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the operating experience and lessons learned at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites as a result of an evaluation of potential trailer contamination and soft-sided packaging integrity issues related to the disposal of low-level and mixed low-level (LLW/MLLW) radioactive waste shipments. Nearly 4.3 million cubic meters of LLW/MLLW will have been generated and disposed of during fiscal year (FY) 2010 to FY 2015—either at commercial disposal sites or disposal sites owned by DOE. The LLW/MLLW is packaged in several different types of regulatory compliant packaging and transported via highway or rail to disposal sites safely and efficiently in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations and DOE orders. In 1999, DOE supported the development of LLW containers that are more volumetrically efficient, more cost effective, and easier to use as compared to metal or wooden containers that existed at that time. The DOE Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), working in conjunction with the plastic industry, tested several types of soft-sided waste packaging systems that meet U.S. Department of Transportation requirements for transport of low specific activity and surface contaminated objects. Since then, soft-sided packaging of various capacities have been used successfully by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects to package, transport, and dispose D&D wastes throughout the DOE complex. The joint team of experts assembled by the Energy Facility Contractors Group from DOE waste generating sites, DOE and commercial waste disposal facilities, and soft-sided packaging suppliers conducted the review of soft-sided packaging operations and transportation of these packages to the disposal sites. As a result of this evaluation, the team developed several recommendations and best practices to prevent or minimize the recurrences of equipment contamination issues and proper use of soft-sided packaging for transport and disposal of waste.

Kapoor, A. [DOE; Gordon, S. [NSTec; Goldston, W. [Energy Solutions

2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

364

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

365

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

Braunlin, Walter A. (Spring, TX); Gorski, Alan (Lovington, NM); Jaehnig, Leo J. (New Orleans, LA); Moskal, Clifford J. (Oklahoma City, OK); Naylor, Joseph D. (Houston, TX); Parimi, Krishnia (Allison Park, PA); Ward, John V. (Arvada, CO)

1984-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

366

Performance analysis of co-firing waste materials in an advanced pressurized fluidized-bed combustor  

SciTech Connect

The co-firing of waste materials with coal in utility scale power plants has emerged as an effective approach to produce energy and manage municipal wastes. Leading this approach is the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC). It has demonstrated its commercial acceptance in the utility market as a reliable source of power by burning a variety of waste and alternative fuels. The application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) technology, although relatively new, can provide significant enhancements to the efficient production of electricity while maintaining the waste management benefits of AFBC. A study was undertaken to investigate the technical and economical feasibility of co-firing a PFBC with coal and municipal and industrial wastes. Focus was placed on the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of wastes for application in central power station and distributed locations. Issues concerning waste material preparation and feed, PFBC operation, plant emissions, and regulations are addressed. The results and conclusions developed are generally applicable to current and advanced PFBC design concepts. Wastes considered for co-firing include municipal solid waste (MSW), sewage sludge, and industrial de-inking sludge. Conceptual designs of two power plants rated at 250 MWe and 150 MWe were developed. Heat and material balances were completed for each plant along with environmental issues. With the PFBC`s operation at high temperature and pressure, efforts were centered on defining feeding systems capable of operating at these conditions. Air emissions and solid wastes were characterized to assess the environmental performance comparing them to state and Federal regulations. This paper describes the results of this investigation, presents conclusions on the key issues, and provides recommendations for further evaluation.

Bonk, D.L.; McDaniel, H.M. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); DeLallo, M.R. Jr.; Zaharchuk, R. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Reading, PA (United States)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Chapter 5 - Technologies for Coal Utilization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter deals with the technologies for coal utilization. Coal use in the United States had been primarily for iron and steel production, locomotives for transportation, and household heat. In addition, many chemicals, including medicines, dyes, flavorings, ammonia, and explosives were produced from coal. Coal is used in the industrial sector for producing steam and to a lesser extent electricity, and some chemicals are produced from coal. The chapter explores the technologies used for generating power, heat, coke, and chemicals and includes combustion, carbonization, gasification, and liquefaction, which have been referred to as the four “grand processes” of coal utilization. Advances in materials of construction, system designs, and fuel firing have led to increasing capacity and higher steam operating temperatures and pressures. In the United States, utilities typically choose between two basic pulverized coal-fired watertube steam generators: subcritical drum-type boilers with nominal operating pressures of either 1900 or 2600 psig or once-through supercritical units operating at 3800 psig advances. The chapter concludes by emphasizing on coal combustion, as this technology is the single largest user of coal.

Bruce G. Miller

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

DOE-Supported Coal Cleaning Technology Succeeds in Commercial Demonstration  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Supported Coal Cleaning Technology Succeeds in Commercial Supported Coal Cleaning Technology Succeeds in Commercial Demonstration DOE-Supported Coal Cleaning Technology Succeeds in Commercial Demonstration January 4, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A novel technology that could help release some of the currently unusable energy in an estimated 2 billion tons of U.S. coal waste has been successfully demonstrated by a Department of Energy (DOE) supported project. The full-scale test of the advanced hyperbaric centrifuge technology at a Jim Walter Resources Inc. coal-cleaning plant in Alabama resulted in the successful reduction of moisture from ultrafine coal waste. The test builds on an eight-year cooperative effort between the Office of Fossil Energy's (FE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the Virginia

369

Accumulation and Selective Maternal Transfer of Contaminants in the Turtle Trachemys scripta Associated with Coal Ash Deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal combustion wastes are enriched in a number...Trachemys scripta) are common inhabitants of coal ash settling basins in South Carolina, USA,...T. scripta...may influence the survivorship and quality of their o...

R. D. Nagle; C. L. Rowe; J. D. Congdon

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Municipal Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania) Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania) No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on February 13, 2013. EZFeed Policy Place Pennsylvania Name Municipal Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania) Policy Category Other Policy Policy Type Environmental Regulations Affected Technologies Biomass/Biogas, Coal with CCS, Concentrating Solar Power, Energy Storage, Fuel Cells, Geothermal Electric, Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric (Small), Natural Gas, Nuclear, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind energy Active Policy Yes Implementing Sector State/Province Program Administrator Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection

371

Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

Robert Wilson

2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

372

Municipal Waste Combustion (New Mexico)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This rule establishes requirements for emissions from, and design and operation of, municipal waste combustion units. "Municipal waste" means all materials and substances discarded from residential...

373

Iron Transformation and Ash Fusibility during Coal Combustion in Air and O2/CO2 Medium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(1) The successful design and operation of oxy-fired pulverized coal boilers require comprehensive knowledge of ash deposition characteristics, which have a major impact on the safety and economic performance of the boilers. ... Two bituminous coals (Utah coal and Illinois coal) and one sub-bituminous coal (PRB coal) were burned on a down-fired combustor under both oxy- and air-firing. ...

Dunxi Yu; Liang Zhao; Zuoyong Zhang; Chang Wen; Minghou Xu; Hong Yao

2011-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

374

Chapter 12 - Coal use in iron and steel metallurgy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: This chapter discusses the role of coal in iron and steel metallurgy. The chapter first gives information about routes for steel manufacture, current levels of steel production and forecasts for the future. It then discusses the use of coal in different metallurgical processes with emphasis on various ironmaking technologies as the most energy consuming step of the process chain. Alternatives to coal like biomass, hydrogen or waste plastics are discussed from the point of view of CO2 reduction.

A. Babich; D. Senk

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Implementation of 10 CFR 20.1406, Regarding Minimizing Contamination and the Generation of Waste, and Facilitating Decommissioning through the Design of Facilities and Operating Procedures  

SciTech Connect

In the very near future (perhaps as soon as the fall of 2007), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) anticipates receiving one or more license applications for new nuclear power plants. An important consideration for new facilities is that they be designed and operated to minimize contamination, to minimize the generation of waste, and to facilitate decommissioning. A relatively recent regulation, 10 CFR 20.1406, mandates these requirements. The regulation states, 'Applicants for licenses, other than renewals, after August 20, 1997, shall describe in the application how facility design and procedures for operation will minimize, to the extent practicable, contamination of the facility and the environment, facilitate eventual decommissioning, and minimize, to the extent practicable, the generation of radioactive waste'. This paper summarizes various initiatives taken by the NRC and industry to develop guidance for implementing 10 CFR 20.1406 before submission of license applications. (authors)

O'Donnell, E.; Ott, W.R. [Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Sampling and analysis plan for the site characterization of the waste area Grouping 1 groundwater operable unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes all of the former ORNL radioisotope research, production, and maintenance facilities; former waste management areas; and some former administrative buildings. Site operations have contaminated groundwater, principally with radiological contamination. An extensive network of underground pipelines and utilities have contributed to the dispersal of contaminants to a known extent. In addition, karst geology, numerous spills, and pipeline leaks, together with the long and varied history of activities at specific facilities at ORNL, complicate contaminant migration-pathway analysis and source identification. To evaluate the extent of contamination, site characterization activity will include semiannual and annual groundwater sampling, as well as monthly water level measurements (both manual and continuous) at WAG 1. This sampling and analysis plan provides the methods and procedures to conduct site characterization for the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation of the WAG 1 Groundwater Operable Unit.

NONE

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

The mild hydrothermal synthesis of hydrogrossular from coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, an attempt was made to synthesize hydrogrossular, a group of garnet minerals, under hydrothermal conditions at temperatures below 180°C, using coal ash, which is the solid waste from thermal...

Satoru Fujita; Kenzi Suzuki; Yasuo Shibasaki

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at waste treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations, Volume 1: Sections 1-9  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies are assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms are evaluated. A personal computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for calculation of human health risk impacts. The methodology is in compliance with the most recent guidance from DOE. It considers the spectrum of accident sequences that could occur in activities covered by the WM PEIS and uses a graded approach emphasizing the risk-dominant scenarios to facilitate discrimination among the various WM PEIS alternatives. Although it allows reasonable estimates of the risk impacts associated with each alternative, the main goal of the accident analysis methodology is to allow reliable estimates of the relative risks among the alternatives. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also provide discussion of specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J. [and others

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Characterization of the Products of the Clay Mineral Thermal Reactions during Pulverization Coal Combustion in Order to Study the Coal Slagging Propensity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Slagging is well-known as one problem threatening safe, economic operation of coal-fired boilers. ... (1-4) Today, more and more power plants use new coals or coal blends because of the low availability of the original design fuels, which has increased the demand for predictions of coal slagging characteristics. ...

Sida Tian; Yuqun Zhuo; Changhe Chen

2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

380

Coal Ash and Clean Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IT is the normal view that the incombustible part of coal is not only a useless but even objectionable diluent. At times in the past, ... , familiar with the theory of contact catalysis of gas reactions, have speculated that the ash constituents might well play an active role in the processes of carbonisation and combustion. ...

H. J. HODSMAN

1926-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operations waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Nuclear Materials Contained in High-Activity Waste Arising from the Operations at the 'SHELTER' Facility  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986, the explosion dispeesed nuclear materials contained in the nuclear fuel of the reactor core over the destroyed facilities at Unit No. 4 and over the territory immediately adjacent to the destroyed unit. The debris was buried under the Cascade Wall. Nuclear materials at the SHELTER can be characterized as spent nuclear fuel, fresh fuel assemblies (including fuel assemblies with damaged geometry and integrity, and individual fuel elements), core fragments of the Chernobyl NPP Unit No. 4, finely-dispersed fuel (powder/dust), uranium and plutonium compounds in water solutions, and lava-like nuclear fuel-containing masses. The new safe confinement (NSC) is a facility designed to enclose the Chernobyl NPP Unit No. 4 destroyed by the accident. Construction of the NSC involves excavating operations, which are continuously monitored including for the level of radiation. The findings of such monitoring at the SHELTER site will allow us to characterize the recovered radioactive waste. When a process material categorized as high activity waste (HAW) is detected the following HLW management operations should be involved: HLW collection; HLW fragmentation (if appropriate); loading HAW into the primary package KT-0.2; loading the primary package filled with HAW into the transportation cask KTZV-0.2; and storing the cask in temporary storage facilities for high-level solid waste. The CDAS system is a system of 3He tubes for neutron coincidence counting, and is designed to measure the percentage ratio of specific nuclear materials in a 200-liter drum containing nuclear material intermixed with a matrix. The CDAS consists of panels with helium counter tubes and a polyethylene moderator. The panels are configured to allow one to position a waste-containing drum and a drum manipulator. The system operates on the ‘add a source’ basis using a small Cf-252 source to identify irregularities in the matrix during an assay. The platform with the source is placed under the measurement chamber. The platform with the source material is moved under the measurement chamber. The design allows one to move the platform with the source in and out, thus moving the drum. The CDAS system and radioactive waste containers have been built. For each drum filled with waste two individual measurements (passive/active) will be made. This paper briefly describes the work carried out to assess qualitatively and quantitatively the nuclear materials contained in high-level waste at the SHELTER facility. These efforts substantially increased nuclear safety and security at the facility.

Cherkas, Dmytro

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

1 INTRODUCTION Appalachian coal recovered during mining fre-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Appalachian underground coal mining (Newman 2003). Storage of coal processing waste is limited to above ground, the impact of past and present mining on the long-term stability of the structure must be evalu- ated overlies a section of the mine workings and, therefore, long term stability of the mine work- ings

383

Coal Industry Annual 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Innovative process for concentration of fine particle coal slurries. Technical report, March 1- May 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Williams Technologies, Inc. And Clarke Rajchel Engineering are developing a technology (patent pending) to produce high quality coal water slurries from preparation plant fine coal streams. The WTI/CRE technology uses the novel implementation of high-shear cross-flow separation which replaces and enhances conventional thickening processes by surpassing normally achievable solids loadings. Dilute ultra-fine (minus 100 mesh) solids slurries can be, concentrated to greater than 60 weight percent and re-mixed, as required, with de-watered coarser fractions to produce pumpable, heavily loaded coal slurries. The permeate (filtrate) resulting from this process has been demonstrated to be crystal clear and totally free of suspended solids. The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the WTI/CRE coal slurry production process technology at the pilot scale. The technology can enable Illinois coal producers and users to realize significant cost and environmental benefits both by eliminating fine coal waste disposal problems and producing an IGCC fuel to produce power which meets all foreseeable clean air standards. Testing was also directed at concentrating mine tailings material to produce a tailings paste which can be mine-back-filled, eliminating the need for tailings ponds. During the grant period, a laboratory-scale test apparatus (up to 3 GPM feed rate) was assembled and operated to demonstrate process performance over a range of feed temperatures and pressures. A dilute coal/water slurry from Consol, Inc.`s Rend Lake Preparation Plant was concentrated using the process to a maximum recorded solids loading of 61.9% solids by weight. Analytical results from the concentrate were evaluated by Destec Energy for suitability as an IGCC fuel.

Rajchel, M.; Ehrlinger, H.P.; Fonseca, A.; Mauer, R.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

385

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

386

Coal for the future. Proceedings of the 33rd international technical conference on coal utilization and fuel systems  

SciTech Connect

Topics covered include oxy-fuel technology, modelling and simulations, low NOx technology, gasification technology, pre-utilization beneficiation of coal, advanced energy conversion systems, mercury emissions control, improving power plant efficiency and reducing emissions, biomass and wastes, coal to liquids, post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, multi emission controls, advanced materials, advanced controls, and international highlights.

Sakkestad, B.A. (ed.)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Underground Coal Thermal Treatment  

SciTech Connect

The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalâ??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: â?˘ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). â?˘ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). â?˘ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). â?˘ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

2011-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

388

Clean Coal Research | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clean Coal Research Clean Coal Research Clean Coal Research Clean Coal Projects This interactive map shows the extent of FE's clean coal projects across the United States and Canada. Read more AVESTAR Training FE and local colleges signed an agreement recently to train power plant field operators. Read more FutureGen 2.0 DOE recently announced the beginning of Phase II development for this innovative carbon capture and storage project in Illinois. Read more DOE's clean coal R&D is focused on developing and demonstrating advanced power generation and carbon capture, utilization and storage technologies for existing facilities and new fossil-fueled power plants by increasing overall system efficiencies and reducing capital costs. In the near-term, advanced technologies that increase the power generation

389

FE Clean Coal News | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clean Coal News Clean Coal News FE Clean Coal News RSS February 9, 2009 DOE Award Results in Several Patents, Potential Increased Coal Recovery A $13 million cooperative effort with the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) over the past seven years has resulted in the successful demonstration of a novel technology that addresses a problem plaguing coal operators and environmentalists alike: separating fine coal particles from water and their ultimate use as a significant energy resource. February 5, 2009 SECA Fuel Cell Program Moves Two Key Projects Into Next Phase The U.S. Department of Energy has selected two projects for continuation within the Department's Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program research portfolio. February 3, 2009

390

TRW advanced slagging coal combustor utility demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The TRW Advanced Entrained Coal Combustor Demonstration Project consists of retrofitting Orange and Rockland (O R) Utility Corporation's Lovett Plant Unit No. 3 with four (4) slagging combustors which will allow the gas/oil unit to fire 2.5% sulfur coal. The slagging combustor process will provide NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions that meet NSPS and New York State Environmental Standards. The TRW-Utility Demonstration Unit (UDU) is responsible for the implementation of program policies and overall direction of the project. The following projects will be carried out: process and design development of clean coal technology CCT-1 the development and operation of the entrained coal combustor will enable the boiler to burn low and medium sulfur coal while meeting all the Federal/State emission requirements; demonstrate sulfur dioxide emissions control by pulverized limestone injection into the entrained coal combustor system.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi) Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi) Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Developer Industrial Utility Program Info State Mississippi Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality The Surface Coal Mining Regulations are a combination of permitting requirements and environmental regulations that limit how, where and when coal can be mined. It protects lands that are under special regulation due to their nature, and applies only to state lands. When applied to Coal with Carbon Capture and Storage projects the rules that would apply to a normal coal-mining project still apply. In addition to these measures, a CCS plant would need to adhere to all waste disposal requirements, water usage

392

About Armstrong Coal Company In just a few short years, Armstrong Coal has grown from a start-up  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

About Armstrong Coal Company In just a few short years, Armstrong Coal has grown from a start approximately 370 million tons of coal reserves, Armstrong operates six active mines in Western Kentucky, along the U.S. Midwest and Southeast. Armstrong is fully committed to meeting strict environmental standards

Fisher, Kathleen

393

Engineering development of coal-fired high-performance power systems  

SciTech Connect

In Phase I of the project, a conceptual design of a coal-fired high performance power system was developed, and small scale R&D was done in critical areas of the design. The current Phase Of the project includes development through the pilot plant stage, and design of a prototype plant that would be built in Phase 3. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is leading a team of companies in this effort: AlliedSignal Aerospace Equipment Systems, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI), and Westinghouse Electric Corporation. The power generating system being developed in this project will be an improvement over current coal-fired systems. The following goals have been identified that relate to the efficiency,emissions, costs and general operation of the system: total station efficiency of at least 4 percent on a higher heating value basis; emissions--NOx {lt} 0.06 lb/MMBtu, SOx {lt} 0.06 lb/MMBtu, particulates {lt} 0.003 lb/MMBtu; all solid wastes must be benign with regard to disposal; over 95 percent of the total heat input is ultimately from coal, with initial systems capable of using coal for at least 65 percent of the heat input; 10 percent lower cost of electricity relative to a modern coal-fired plant conforming to NSPS. The base case arrangement of the HIPPS cycle is a combined cycle plant, and is referred to as the All Coal HIPPS because it does not require any other fuels for normal operation. An alternative HIPPS cycle uses a ceramic air heater to heat the air to temperatures above what can be achieved with alloy tubes. This arrangement is referred to as the 35 percent natural gas HIPPS. 2 refs., 11 figs. 3 tabs.

NONE

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the past year are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts some of the highlights are: very promising results have been obtained from the liquefaction of plastics, rubber tires, paper and other wastes, and the coliquefaction of wastes with coal; a number of water soluble coal liquefaction catalysts, iron, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum, have been comparatively tested; mossbauer spectroscopy, XAFS spectroscopy, TEM and XPS have been used to characterize a variety of catalysts and other samples from numerous consortium and DOE liquefaction projects and in situ ESR measurements of the free radical density have been conducted at temperatures from 100 to 600{degrees}C and H{sub 2} pressures up to 600 psi.

Huffman, G.P. [ed.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY)

1992-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

396

Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Coal industry annual 1993  

SciTech Connect

Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

Not Available

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

398

Oxy-coal Combustion Studies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol. To these ends, the project has focused on the following: â?˘ The development of reliable Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of oxy-coal flames using the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) (Subtask 3.1). The simulations were validated for both non-reacting particle-laden jets and oxy-coal flames. â?˘ The modifications of an existing oxy-coal combustor to allow operation with high levels of input oxygen to enable in-situ laser diagnostic measurements as well as the development of strategies for directed oxygen injection (Subtask 3.2). Flame stability was quantified for various burner configurations. One configuration that was explored was to inject all the oxygen as a pure gas within an annular oxygen lance, with burner aerodynamics controlling the subsequent mixing. â?˘ The development of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for identification of velocity fields in turbulent oxy-coal flames in order to provide high-fidelity data for the validation of oxy-coal simulation models (Subtask 3.3). Initial efforts utilized a laboratory diffusion flame, first using gas-fuel and later a pulverized-coal flame to ensure the methodology was properly implemented and that all necessary data and image-processing techniques were fully developed. Success at this stage of development led to application of the diagnostics in a large-scale oxy-fuel combustor (OFC). â?˘ The impact of oxy-coal-fired vs. air-fired environments on SO{sub x} (SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}) emissions during coal combustion in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) (Subtask 3.4). Profiles of species concentration and temperature were obtained for both conditions, and profiles of temperature over a wide range of O{sub 2} concentration were studied for oxy-firing conditions. The effect of limestone addition on SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} emissions were also examined for both air- and oxy- firing conditions. â?˘ The investigation of O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments on SO{sub 2 emissions during coal combustion in a bench-scale single-particle fluidized-bed reactor (Subtask 3.5). Moreover, the sulfation mechanisms of limestone in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments were studied, and a generalized gassolid and diffusion-reaction single-particle model was developed to study the effect of major operating variables. â?˘ The investigation of the effect of oxy-coal combustion on ash formation, particle size distributions (PSD), and size-segregated elemental composition in a drop-tube furnace and the 100 kW OFC (Subtask 3.6). In particular, the effect of coal type and flue gas recycle (FGR, OFC only) was investigated.

J. Wendt; E. Eddings; J. Lighty; T. Ring; P. Smith; J. Thornock; Y. Jia, W. Morris; J. Pedel; D. Rezeai; L. Wang; J. Zhang; K. Kelly

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Appalachian coal awareness conference: promoting Eastern coal  

SciTech Connect

Promoting the development and use of coal, especially coal from the Appalachian region, was the focus of introductory and keynote speeches and a discussion by representatives of the Virginia Coal Council, mining engineers, industry, and the Edison Electric Institute. Governor Dalton's keynote address noted that both producers and consumers attending the conference should work together to promote coal as a solution to the US energy future, and reported the impact that a commitment to coal has had on Virginia's economic growth. Participants in the coal consumers panel discussion raised various economic and regulatory issues.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. In addition, the report

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operations waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Clean Coal Power Initiative  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

"Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other pollutants from coal-burning power plants.

402

Coal Mining (Iowa)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These sections describe procedures for coal exploration and extraction, as well as permitting requirements relating to surface and underground coal mining. These sections also address land...

403

The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air Products supplies oxygen to a number of coal gasification and partial oxidation facilities worldwide. At the high operating pressures of these processes, economics favor the use of 90% and higher oxygen purities. The effect of inerts...

Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

404

Coal Ash Contaminants in Wetlands | SREL Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

trace metals are elevated in sediments of the APW area, including arsenic, selenium, strontium and copper. Coal-fired facilities have been in operation on the SRS since the early...

405

Municipal Solid Waste:  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenic Energy May 2007 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contact This report was prepared by staff of the Renewable Information Team, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels.

406

American Coal Council 2004 Spring Coal Forum  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

American Coal Council American Coal Council 2004 Spring Coal Forum Dallas, Texas May 17-19, 2004 Thomas J. Feeley, III Technology Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Presentation Outline * Background * Power plant-water issues * DOE/NETL R&D program * Conclusion/future plans ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Global Water Availability Ocean 97% Fresh Water 2.5% 0 20 40 60 80 100 Ice Groundwater Lakes and Rivers ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Three Things Power Plants Require 1) Access to transmission lines 2) Available fuel, e.g., coal or natural gas 3) Water ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Freshwater Withdrawals and Consumption Mgal / Day Irrigation 81,300 Irrigation 81,300 Thermoelectric 3,310 Consumption Sources: "Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1995," USGS Circular 1200, 1998

407

Coal Characterization in Relation to Coal Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most coals are used worldwide for combustion today. Generally all kinds of coals are applicable for combustion. The major methods of burning are fixed bed firing, fluidized bed firing and suspension firing. Th...

Harald Jüntgen

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Clean Coal Technology Program Clean Coal Technology Program Clean Coal 101 Lesson 2: The Clean Coal Technology Program The Clean Coal Technology Program began in 1985 when the United States and Canada decided that something had to be done about the "acid rain" that was believed to be damaging rivers, lakes, forests, and buildings in both countries. Since many of the pollutants that formed "acid rain" were coming from big coal-burning power plants in the United States, the U.S. Government took the lead in finding a solution. One of the steps taken by the U.S. Department of Energy was to create a partnership program between the Government, several States, and private companies to test new methods developed by scientists to make coal burning much cleaner. This became the "Clean Coal Technology Program."

409

Clean Fuels from Coal Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...A. G. Horsler, Gas Counc. (Gt. Brit...England, 1962; Gas J. 312, 19 (1962...be-come overdependent on natural gas and oil to supply...gasifier at elevated pressure with a downward flow...operability on coals of high ash-fusion temperature...

Arthur M. Squires

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

410

NETL: IEP - Coal Utilization By-Products : Regulatory Drivers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regulatory Drivers Regulatory Drivers Since 1993, Federal Regulations have treated the four major large-volume CUB's -- fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts -- as solid wastes that do not warrant regulation as hazardous wastes under Subtitle C of RCRA, as long as these CUBÂ’s were not co-managed with other waste materials. On May 22, 2000, EPA published a final Regulatory Determination [PDF-320KB] that retained the hazardous waste exemption for coal utilization by-products. EPA has concluded that fossil fuel combustion wastes do not warrant regulation as hazardous under Subtitle C of RCRA and is retaining the hazardous waste exemption for these wastes. However, the Agency has determined that national non-hazardous waste regulations under RCRA Subtitle D are needed for coal combustion wastes disposed in surface impoundments and landfills and used as minefilling. EPA also concluded beneficial uses of these wastes, other