Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operational cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Optimization of Cooling Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A cooling water system can be optimized by operation at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces. The way to optimize will be shown, with a number of examples of new systems....

Matson, J.

2

Water-cooled pyrolytic graphite targets at LAMPF: design and operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Design considerations and actual operating experience are reported for water-cooled pyrolytic graphite targets at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Emphasis is placed on the use of finite element computer calculations to determine target temperatures and stresses, which can then be evaluated to judge the usefulness of a particular design. Consideration is also given to the swelling of the target following irradiation, and to the measures taken to prolong target lifetime.

Brown, R.D.; Grisham, D.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Cooling water distribution system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Cooling Water System Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

During summer months, many manufacturing plants have to cut back in rates because the cooling water system is not providing sufficient cooling to support higher production rates. There are many low/no-cost techniques available to improve tower...

Aegerter, R.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Secondary condenser Cooling water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Receiver Secondary condenser LC LC Reboiler TC PC Cooling water PC FCPC Condenser LC XC Throttling valve ¨ mx my l© ª y s § y m «¬ ly my wx l n® ® x np © ¯ Condenser Column Compressor Receiver Super-heater Decanter Secondary condenser Reboiler Throttling valve Expansion valve Cooling water

Skogestad, Sigurd

6

A better cooling water system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To prepare their newly constructed reduced crude conversion (RCC) open recirculating cooling water system for the implementation of a corrosion and deposit control water treatment program, Ashland Petroleum, Catlettsburg, Ky., made plans for and carried out precleaning and passivation procedures. Here, the authors share the results, and some potential guidelines for one's own operations. Inspection of equipment after precleaning showed that the precleaning procedures was very effective in removing undesirable matter. After precleaning and passivation of the system, the recommended cooling water treatment program was started. Corrosion rates for mild steel specimens ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 mils per year (mpy), with an average of 1.0 mpy. The corrosion rates for admiralty specimens ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 mpy. Benefits of the precleaning and passivating programs greatly outweigh the costs, since the normal cooling water treatment program for corrosion and deposit control can then operate more effectively.

Gale, T.E.; Beecher, J.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Water cooled steam jet  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Research and Development of High Temperature Light Water Cooled Reactor Operating at Supercritical-Pressure in Japan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the status and future plans of research and development of the high temperature light water cooled reactor operating at supercritical-pressure in Japan. It includes; the concept development; material for the fuel cladding; water chemistry under supercritical pressure; thermal hydraulics of supercritical fluid; and the conceptual design of core and plant system. Elements of concept development of the once-through coolant cycle reactor are described, which consists of fuel, core, reactor and plant system, stability and safety. Material studies include corrosion tests with supercritical water loops and simulated irradiation tests using a high-energy transmission electron microscope. Possibilities of oxide dispersion strengthening steels for the cladding material are studied. The water chemistry research includes radiolysis and kinetics of supercritical pressure water, influence of radiolysis and radiation damage on corrosion and behavior on the interface between water and material. The thermal hydraulic research includes heat transfer tests of single tube, single rod and three-rod bundles with a supercritical Freon loop and numerical simulations. The conceptual designs include core design with a three-dimensional core simulator and sub-channel analysis, and balance of plant. (authors)

Yoshiaki Oka [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112-0006 (Japan); Katsumi Yamada [Isogo Nuclear Engineering Center, Toshiba Corporation, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8523 (Japan)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Thermoelectrically cooled water trap  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

Micheels, Ronald H. (Concord, MA)

2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

10

Conservation of Energy Through The Use of a Predictive Performance Simulator of Operating Cooling Water Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.20 MANGANESE N/D ALUMINUM N/D ZINC O. O. PARAMETERS PH 7.2 7.2 TEMPERATURE DEG F 130.0 N/D = VALUE NOT DETERMINED FOR RECIRCULATING WATER: THE RYZNAR INDEX IS 5.752 THE LANGELIER INDEX IS 0.724 THIS SYSTEM IS AT THESE SATURATION LEVELS: 1.95... Wastage, gpm 2065 Make-Up, gpm 5782 Recirculating Water Temperature, OF 120 pH 8.3 Calcium Carbonate Saturation Level 6.91 Langelier Index 2.44 Ryznar Index 3.45 TABLE IV East Coast Utility Daily Costs Basis: Low D.S. Water Cycles...

Schell, C. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Stability analysis of supercritical water cooled reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) is a concept for an advanced reactor that will operate at high pressure (25MPa) and high temperature (500C average core exit). The high coolant temperature as it leaves the ...

Zhao, Jiyun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

points for maximum cooling liquid supply temperatures thatLiquid cooling guidelines may include: Supply temperatureliquid supply temperature for liquid cooling guidelines. Due

Coles, Henry

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF COOLING WATER MANAGEMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF COOLING WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM GUIDELINES for Wet and Hybrid Cooling Towers at Power Plants May 17, 2004 A and needs, and may vary from the examples cited here. Staff recommend that such a cooling water management

14

Electrochemistry of Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project developed a comprehensive mathematical and simulation model for calculating thermal hydraulic, electrochemical, and corrosion parameters, viz. temperature, fluid flow velocity, pH, corrosion potential, hydrogen injection, oxygen contamination, stress corrosion cracking, crack growth rate, and other important quantities in the coolant circuits of water-cooled nuclear power plants, including both Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The model is being used to assess the three major operational problems in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), which include mass transport, activity transport, and the axial offset anomaly, and provide a powerful tool for predicting the accumulation of SCC damage in BWR primary coolant circuits as a function of operating history. Another achievement of the project is the development of a simulation tool to serve both as a training tool for plant operators and as an engineering test-bed to evaluate new equipment and operating strategies (normal operation, cold shut down and others). The development and implementation of the model allows us to estimate the activity transport or "radiation fields" around the primary loop and the vessel, as a function of the operating parameters and the water chemistry.

Macdonald, Dgiby; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Pitt, Jonathan

2006-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

15

Passive containment cooling water distribution device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using a series of radial guide elements and cascading weir boxes to collect and then distribute the cooling water into a series of distribution areas through a plurality of cascading weirs. The cooling water is then uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weir notches in the face plate of the weir box.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Hookstown, PA); Fanto, Susan V. (Plum Borough, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Evaluation and Analysis of an Integrated PEM Fuel Cell with Absorption Cooling and Water Heating System for Sustainable Building Operation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/cm2 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 TFC [ K ] C O P COPEn at tmem = 0.016 cm COPEx at tmem = 0.016 cm COPEn at tmem = 0.017 cm COPEx at tmem = 0.017 cm COPEn at tmem = 0.018 cm COPEx at tmem = 0.018 cm PFC = 3... + QFC s 7,ammonia = s ( 'Ammonia' , P = P7 , h =h7 ) s 7,water = s ( 'Water' , P = P7 , h =h7 ) s 7 = x7 ? s 7,ammonia + ( 1 ? x7 ) ? s 7,water h 19,ammonia = h ( 'Ammonia' , T =T19 , P = P19 ) h 19,water = h ( 'Water' , T =T19...

Gadalla, M.; Ratlamwala, T.; Dincer, I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers Theresa Pistochini May 23rd, 2012 ResearchAirCapacity,tons Gallons of Water Continuous Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F Cyclic Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F #12 AverageWaterHardness(ppm) Cooling Degree Days (60°F Reference) 20% Population 70% Population 10

California at Davis, University of

18

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transitionone half of an air-cooled datacenter's energy consumption isof time if desired by the datacenter owner. If the building

Coles, Henry

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Chemical Treatment Fosters Zero Discharge by Making Cooling Water Reusable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dramatically. Once-through cooling has been largely replaced by open recirculating cooling water methods. This approach reduces water consumption by increasing the use of recycled water. Simplistically, the circulating cooling water flows through heat... exchanger equipment and is cooled by passing through a cooling tower. The recycled water is cooled by evaporation of some of the circulating water as it passes through the tower. As a result of the evaporation process, the dissolved solids in the water...

Boffardi, B. P.

20

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and remains on the roadmap for the foreseeable future. This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders of magnitude larger than that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transition from air to liquid cooling is an inflection point providing an opportunity to work collectively to set guidelines for facilitating the energy efficiency of liquid-cooled High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities and systems. The vision is to use non-compressor-based cooling, to facilitate heat re-use, and thereby build solutions that are more energy-efficient, less carbon intensive and more cost effective than their air-cooled predecessors. The Energy Efficient HPC Working Group is developing guidelines for warmer liquid-cooling temperatures in order to standardize facility and HPC equipment, and provide more opportunity for reuse of waste heat. This report describes the development of those guidelines.

IBM Corporation; Energy Efficient HPC Working Group; Hewlett Packard Corporation; SGI; Cray Inc.; Intel Corporation; U.S. Army Engineer Research Development Center; Coles, Henry; Ellsworth, Michael; Martinez, David J.; Bailey, Anna-Maria; Banisadr, Farhad; Bates, Natalie; Coghlan, Susan; Cowley, David E.; Dube, Nicholas; Fields, Parks; Greenberg, Steve; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Kulesza, Peter R.; Loncaric, Josip; McCann, Tim; Pautsch, Greg; Patterson, Michael K.; Rivera, Richard G.; Rottman, Greg K.; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William; Vinson, Wade; Wescott, Ralph

2011-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operational cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Closed loop cooling operation with MICON. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Document provides instructions for testing the closed loop cooling operation with the MICON Computer System at PFP.

Navarro, G.E.

1995-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

22

Air and water cooled modulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Arnold, Phillip A. (Livermore, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Air and water cooled modulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

24

Designing a 'Near Optimum' Cooling-Water System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cooling water is expensive to circulate. Reducing its flow - i.e., hiking exchanger outlet temperatures - can cut tower, pump and piping investment as much as one-third and operating cost almost in half. Heat-exchanger-network optimization has been...

Crozier, R. A., Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous radiological monitoring of the pool water. The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System, Site-Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, Site Radiological Monitoring System, Waste Handling Building Electrical System, Site Water System, and the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System.

V. King

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

26

Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exchanger was configured to use higher temperature water produced by a cooling tower alone. The other coilLBNL-6660E Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a Dual Heat Exchanger-temperature cooling water, so that it can support many more hours of free cooling compared to traditional systems

27

Improved water-cooled cyclone constructions in CFBs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The construction of CFB boilers has advanced in comparison with early designs. One improvement has been the use of water or steam cooled cyclones, which allows the use of thin refractories and minimizes maintenance needs. Cooled cyclones are also tolerant of wide load variations when the main fuel is biologically based, and coal or some other fuel is used as a back-up. With uncooled cyclones, load changes with high volatile fuels can mean significant temperature transients in the refractory, due to post-combustion phenomena in the cyclone. Kvaerner's development of water-cooled cyclones for CFBs began in the early 1980s. The first boiler with this design was delivered in 1985 in Sweden. Since then, Kvaerner Pulping has delivered over twenty units with cooled cyclones, in capacity ranging from small units up to 400 MW{sub th}. Among these units, Kvaerner has developed unconventional solutions for CFBs, in order to simplify the constructions and to increase the reliability for different applications. The first of them was CYMIC{reg{underscore}sign}, which has its water-cooled cyclone built inside the boiler furnace. There are two commercial CYMIC boilers in operation and one in project stages. The largest CYMIC in operation is a 185 MW{sub th} industrial boiler burning various fuels. For even larger scale units Kvaerner developed the Integrated Cylindrical Cyclone and Loopseal (ICCL) assembly. One of these installations is in operation in USA, having steaming capacity of over 500 t/h. The design bases of these new solutions are quite different in comparison with conventional cyclones. Therefore, an important part of the development has been cold model testing and mathematical modeling of the cyclones. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in water-cooled cyclone construction. The new solutions, their full-scale experience, and a comparison of the actual experience with the preliminary modeling work are introduced.

Alliston, M.G.; Luomaharju, T.; Kokko, A.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

ASSESSING POWER PLANT COOLING WATER INTAKE SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASSESSING POWER PLANT COOLING WATER INTAKE SYSTEM ENTRAINMENT IMPACTS Prepared For: California be obvious that large studies like these require the coordinated work of many people. We would first like from the Duke Energy South Bay and Morro Bay power plants and the PG&E Diablo Canyon Power Plant

29

Water cooling of HVDC thyristor valves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is generally accepted that water is a very effective medium to remove heat losses from any type of equipment. When used for HVDC thyristor valves, the fundamentals of electrolyte conduction and water chemistry need to be considered in the design of the cooling circuit. The characteristics of the materials used, in conjunction with high voltage stresses and circuit configuration, play an important role to assure longevity and corrosion-free performance.

Lips, H.P. (Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany))

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: sizing, installation and operation of systems. 1980 edition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manual was prepared as a text for a training course on solar heating and cooling of residential buildings. The course and text are directed toward sizing, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar systems for space heating and hot water supply, and solar cooling is treated only briefly. (MHR)

None

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Ice Machines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and federal efficiency requirements for water-cooled ice machines.

32

GROUND WATER USE FOR COOLING: ASSOCIATED AQUIFER TEMPERATURE CHANGES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

steam-electric power plants, large voluMes of surface waters are used for cooling the planes condensers

Lippmann, Marcelo J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

The EPRI state-of-the-art cooling water treatment research project: A tailored collaboration program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The EPRI Tailored Collaboration State-of-the-Art Cooling Water Treatment Research Program has been initiated with several electric utility participants. Started in January 1995, the program provides O&M cost reduction through improved cooling water system reliability and operation,. This effort is discussed along with the objectives and goals, the participants and project timetable. The program will provide three (3) main results to the participating utilities: cost effective optimization of cooling water treatment, production of a new Cooling Water Treatment Manual and updating of two (2) EPRI software products - SEQUIL and COOLADD. A review of the specific objectives, project timetable and results to date will be presented. 1 tab.

Zammitt, K. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Selby, K.A. [Puckorius & Associates, Inc., Evergreen, CO (United States); Brice, T. [Entergy Operations - River Bend Station, St. Francisville, LA (United States)] [and others

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

Michael Corradini; Mark Anderson; Yassin Hassan; Akira Tokuhiro

2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

35

Review of High Temperature Water and Steam Cooled Reactor Concepts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This review summarizes design concepts of supercritical-pressure water cooled reactors (SCR), nuclear superheaters and steam cooled fast reactors from 1950's to the present time. It includes water moderated supercritical steam cooled reactor, SCOTT-R and SC-PWR of Westinghouse, heavy water moderated light water cooled SCR of GE, SCLWR and SCFR of the University of Tokyo, B-500SKDI of Kurchatov Institute, CANDU -X of AECL, nuclear superheaters of GE, subcritical-pressure steam cooled FBR of KFK and B and W, Supercritical-pressure steam cooled FBR of B and W, subcritical-pressure steam cooled high converter by Edlund and Schultz and subcritical-pressure water-steam cooled FBR by Alekseev. This paper is prepared based on the previous review of SCR2000 symposium, and some author's comments are added. (author)

Oka, Yoshiaki [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, The University of Tokyo, 3-1, Hongo 7-Chome, Bunkyo-ku (Japan)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

USE of mine pool water for power plant cooling.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water and energy production issues intersect in numerous ways. Water is produced along with oil and gas, water runs off of or accumulates in coal mines, and water is needed to operate steam electric power plants and hydropower generating facilities. However, water and energy are often not in the proper balance. For example, even if water is available in sufficient quantities, it may not have the physical and chemical characteristics suitable for energy or other uses. This report provides preliminary information about an opportunity to reuse an overabundant water source--ground water accumulated in underground coal mines--for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which has implemented a water/energy research program (Feeley and Ramezan 2003). Among the topics studied under that program is the availability and use of ''non-traditional sources'' of water for use at power plants. This report supports NETL's water/energy research program.

Veil, J. A.; Kupar, J. M .; Puder, M. G.

2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

37

Water-cooled solid-breeder concept for ITER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A water-cooled solid-breeder blanket concept was developed for ITER. The main function of this blanket is to produce the necessary tritium for the ITER operation. Several design features are incorporated in this blanket concept to increase its attractiveness. It is assumed that the blanket operation at commercial power reactor conditions can be sacrificed to achieve a high tritium breeding ratio with minimum additional research and development, and minimal impact on reactor design and operation. Operating temperature limits are enforced for each material to insure a satisfactory blanket performance. In fact, the design was iterated to maximize the tritium breeding ratio and satisfy these temperature limits. The other design constraint is to permit a large increase in the neutron wall loading without exceeding the temperature limits for the different blanket materials. The blanket concept contains 1.8 cm of Li/sub 2/O and 22.5 cm of beryllium both with a 0.8 density factor. The water coolant is isolated from the breeder material by several zones which reduces the tritium buildup in the water by permeation, reduces the chance for water-breeder interaction, and permits the breeder to operate at high temperature with a low temperature coolant. This improves the safety and environmental aspects of the blanket and eliminates the costly process of the tritium recovery from the water. The key features and design analysis of this blanket are summarized in this paper. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.C.; Attaya, H.; Billone, M.; Clemmer, R.C.; Finn, P.A.; Hassanein, A.; Johnson, C.E.; Majumdar, S.; Mattas, R.F.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Improving the Water Efficiency of Cooling Production System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For most of the time, cooling towers (CTs) of cooling systems operate under partial load conditions and by regulating the air circulation with a variable frequency drive (VFD), significant reduction in the fan power can be achieved. In Kuwait...

Maheshwari, G.; Al-Hadban, Y.; Al-Taqi, H. H.; Alasseri, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

THE MECHANICAL DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A CONVECTIVELY COOLED ION ACCELERATOR FOR CONTINUOUSLY OPERATING NEUTRAL BEAM SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

over the grid rails. cooling water supply piping is not areliability. The cooling water supply pres- sure and flowwill sound if the cooling water supply temperature rises. A.

Paterson, J.A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

TRITIUM ANALYSIS OF A WATER-COOLED SOLID BREEDER BLANKET FOR ITER*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TRITIUM ANALYSIS OF A WATER-COOLED SOLID BREEDER BLANKET FOR ITER* G. Federici, A.R. Raffray, M breeder blanket for the InternationalThermonuclearExperimental Reac- tor (ITER) obtained from the tritium-cooled solid breeder blanket has been proposed for the ITER tritium-producing blanket [2]. The breeder is oper

Abdou, Mohamed

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operational cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation of silica scale is a problem for thermoelectric power generating facilities, and this study investigated the potential for removal of silica by means of chemical coagulation from source water before it is subjected to mineral concentration in cooling towers. In Phase I, a screening of many typical as well as novel coagulants was carried out using concentrated cooling tower water, with and without flocculation aids, at concentrations typical for water purification with limited results. In Phase II, it was decided that treatment of source or make up water was more appropriate, and that higher dosing with coagulants delivered promising results. In fact, the less exotic coagulants proved to be more efficacious for reasons not yet fully determined. Some analysis was made of the molecular nature of the precipitated floc, which may aid in process improvements. In Phase III, more detailed study of process conditions for aluminum chloride coagulation was undertaken. Lime-soda water softening and the precipitation of magnesium hydroxide were shown to be too limited in terms of effectiveness, speed, and energy consumption to be considered further for the present application. In Phase IV, sodium aluminate emerged as an effective coagulant for silica, and the most attractive of those tested to date because of its availability, ease of use, and low requirement for additional chemicals. Some process optimization was performed for coagulant concentration and operational pH. It is concluded that silica coagulation with simple aluminum-based agents is effective, simple, and compatible with other industrial processes.

Nyman, May Devan; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Stewart, Tom

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Candidate Materials Evaluation for Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Final technical report on the corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and radiation response of candidate materials for the supercritical water-cooled reactor concept.

T. R. Allen and G. S. Was

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

43

Direct Water-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Packaging  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Packaging Randy H. Wiles Oak Ridge National Laboratory June 10, 2010 Project ID: APE001 This presentation does not contain any proprietary,...

44

Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Electric Chillers | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Electric Chillers Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Electric Chillers The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency...

45

A simulation software for cooling towers optimal operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deregulation of power markets in Europe will facilitate competing alternatives in power supplies, more competitive energy prices and will improve customer service. The Romanian power sector is also characterized by profound transformation from old, polluting system to one reaching for efficiencies of market-driven economy. In order to reduce the production costs of combined electricity and heat generation power plants, the paper presents the software called CTO for optimization of the cross-current cooling tower`s operation. The optimum operation of the cooling tower will be that which performs the removal of the waste heat-of imposed thermal level- at a minimum specific cost. For different alternatives of the known input values and for all possible operation diagrams the cooling tower parameters are calculated through the developed software. As a result its optimum operation conditions are indicated.

Damian, M.; Motoiu, I.; Caracasian, L. [Inst. of Power Studies and Design, Bucharest (Romania)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

46

Mining Gold from your Cooling Water System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to be achieved. GPM 2 /GPM 1 = RPM 2 /RPM 1 Equation (1) (RPM 2 /RPM 1 ) 3 = HP 2 /HP 1 Equation (2) ESL-IE-07-05-25 Proceedings from the Twenty-ninth Industrial Energy Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 8-11, 2007. COOLING WATER PUMPING Pumping... Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Months Ri ver l eve l ( f t ) 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 T e mp er at ur e ( F) Average River Level Average River Temperature ESL-IE-07-05-25 Proceedings from the Twenty...

Mendez, T.

47

Cooling Water Systems - Energy Savings/Lower Costs By Reusing Cooling Tower Blowdown  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reuse of cooling tower blow down cannot only provide energy conservation, but can provide water conservation and chemical conservation. To be effective, it is critical that the water treatment program be coordinated with the treatment of the blow...

Puckorius, P. R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that cooling water intake structures must reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. Many existing power plants in the United States utilize once-through cooling systems to condense steam. Once-through systems withdraw large volumes (often hundreds of millions of gallons per day) of water from surface water bodies. As the water is withdrawn, fish and other aquatic organisms can be trapped against the screens or other parts of the intake structure (impingement) or if small enough, can pass through the intake structure and be transported through the cooling system to the condenser (entrainment). Both of these processes can injure or kill the organisms. EPA adopted 316(b) regulations for new facilities (Phase I) on December 18, 2001. Under the final rule, most new facilities could be expected to install recirculating cooling systems, primarily wet cooling towers. The EPA Administrator signed proposed 316(b) regulations for existing facilities (Phase II) on February 28, 2002. The lead option in this proposal would allow most existing facilities to achieve compliance without requiring them to convert once-through cooling systems to recirculating systems. However, one of the alternate options being proposed would require recirculating cooling in selected plants. EPA is considering various options to determine best technology available. Among the options under consideration are wet-cooling towers and dry-cooling towers. Both types of towers are considered to be part of recirculating cooling systems, in which the cooling water is continuously recycled from the condenser, where it absorbs heat by cooling and condensing steam, to the tower, where it rejects heat to the atmosphere before returning to the condenser. Some water is lost to evaporation (wet tower only) and other water is removed from the recirculating system as a blow down stream to control the building up of suspended and dissolved solids. Makeup water is withdrawn, usually from surface water bodies, to replace the lost water. The volume of makeup water is many times smaller than the volume needed to operate a once-through system. Although neither the final new facility rule nor the proposed existing facility rule require dry cooling towers as the national best technology available, the environmental community and several States have supported the use of dry-cooling technology as the appropriate technology for addressing adverse environmental impacts. It is possible that the requirements included in the new facility rule and the ongoing push for dry cooling systems by some stakeholders may have a role in shaping the rule for existing facilities. The temperature of the cooling water entering the condenser affects the performance of the turbine--the cooler the temperature, the better the performance. This is because the cooling water temperature affects the level of vacuum at the discharge of the steam turbine. As cooling water temperatures decrease, a higher vacuum can be produced and additional energy can be extracted. On an annual average, once-through cooling water has a lower temperature than recirculated water from a cooling tower. By switching a once-through cooling system to a cooling tower, less energy can be generated by the power plant from the same amount of fuel. This reduction in energy output is known as the energy penalty. If a switch away from once-through cooling is broadly implemented through a final 316(b) rule or other regulatory initiatives, the energy penalty could result in adverse effects on energy supplies. Therefore, in accordance with the recommendations of the Report of the National Energy Policy Development Group (better known as the May 2001 National Energy Policy), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), has studied the energy penalty resulting from converting plants with once-through cooling to wet towers or indirect-dry towers. Five l

Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

49

Water-cooled solid-breeder blanket concept for ITER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A water cooled solid-breeder blanket concept was developed for ITER. The main function of this blanket is to produce the necessary tritium for the ITER operation. Several design features are incorporated in this blanket concept to increase its attractiveness. The main features are the following: (a) a multilayer concept which reduces fabrication cost; (b) a simple blanket configuration which results in reliability advantages; (c) a very small breeder volume is employed to reduce the tritium inventory and the blanket cost; (d) a high tritium breeding ratio eliminates the need for an outside tritium supply; (e) a low-pressure system decreases the required steel fraction for structural purposes; (f) a low-temperature operation reduces the swelling concerns for beryllium; and (g) the small fractions of structure and breeder materials used in the blanket reduce the decay heat source. The key features and design analyses of this blanket are summarized in this paper.

Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.C.; Attaya, H.; Billone, M.; Clemmer, R.C.; Finn, P.A.; Hassanein, A.; Johnson, C.E.; Majumdar, S.; Mattas, R.F.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Commissioning Process and Operational Improvement in the District Heating and Cooling-APCBC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-09-25 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 18 Energy simulation In case of the variable cooling water flow system, the cooling water outlet temperature should be a parameter...,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 2012/10/072012/10/28 2012/11/18 2012/12/09 2012/12/30 2/24 ? 3/2 C o n su m ed e le ct ri ci ty p er h ea t u n it [ k W h /G J ] Variable water flow control Cooling tower fun Chilled...

Takase,T.; Takada,O; Shima,K.; Moriya, M.; Shimoda,Y.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface Controls Upgrade  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The modernization of the Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface (MHC PP OI) consisted of upgrading the antiquated single board computer with a proprietary operating system to off-the-shelf hardware and off-the-shelf software with customizable software options. The pump package is the machine interface between a central heating and cooling system that pumps heat transfer fluid through an injection or compression mold base on a local plastic molding machine. The operator interface provides the intelligent means of controlling this pumping process. Strict temperature control of a mold allows the production of high quality parts with tight tolerances and low residual stresses. The products fabricated are used on multiple programs.

Josh A. Salmond

2009-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

52

Design and Operation of Fluid Beds for Heating, Cooling and Quenching Operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Castings are then normalized and tempered in separate fluid bath furnaces with the entire operation being completed within a few hours of pouring. Fluid baths are also used for cooling of spent sand and for quenching of castings. Trial applications...

Kemp, W. E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Cooling Semiconductor Manufacturing Facilities with Chilled Water Storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper examines the 5.2 million gallon chilled water storage system installed at TI's Expressway manufacturing complex in Dallas, Texas. During the peak cooling season ending September 30, 1994, it provided 3,750 tons of additional peak cooling...

Fiorino, D. P.

54

Water Cooling of High Power Light Emitting Diode Henrik Srensen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Cooling of High Power Light Emitting Diode Henrik Sørensen Department of Energy Technology and product lifetime. The high power Light Emitting Diodes (LED) belongs to the group of electronics

Berning, Torsten

55

Development of Materials for Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) was selected as one of the promising candidates in Generation IV reactors for its prominent advantages; those are the high thermal efficiency, the system...

56

Purification of water from cooling towers and other heat exchange systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The amount of silica in cooling tower water is reduced by passing cooling tower water through a column of silica gel.

Sullivan; Enid J. (Los Alamos, NM), Carlson; Bryan J. (Ojo Caliente, NM), Wingo; Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM), Robison; Thomas W. (Stilwell, KS)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

57

DUSEL Facility Cooling Water Scaling Issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Precipitation (crystal growth) in supersaturated solutions is governed by both kenetic and thermodynamic processes. This is an important and evolving field of research, especially for the petroleum industry. There are several types of precipitates including sulfate compounds (ie. barium sulfate) and calcium compounds (ie. calcium carbonate). The chemical makeup of the mine water has relatively large concentrations of sulfate as compared to calcium, so we may expect that sulfate type reactions. The kinetics of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4 {center_dot} 2H20, gypsum) scale formation on heat exchanger surfaces from aqueous solutions has been studied by a highly reproducible technique. It has been found that gypsum scale formation takes place directly on the surface of the heat exchanger without any bulk or spontaneous precipitation in the reaction cell. The kinetic data also indicate that the rate of scale formation is a function of surface area and the metallurgy of the heat exchanger. As we don't have detailed information about the heat exchanger, we can only infer that this will be an issue for us. Supersaturations of various compounds are affected differently by temperature, pressure and pH. Pressure has only a slight affect on the solubility, whereas temperature is a much more sensitive parameter (Figure 1). The affect of temperature is reversed for calcium carbonate and barium sulfate solubilities. As temperature increases, barium sulfate solubility concentrations increase and scaling decreases. For calcium carbonate, the scaling tendencies increase with increasing temperature. This is all relative, as the temperatures and pressures of the referenced experiments range from 122 to 356 F. Their pressures range from 200 to 4000 psi. Because the cooling water system isn't likely to see pressures above 200 psi, it's unclear if this pressure/scaling relationship will be significant or even apparent. The most common scale minerals found in the oilfield include calcium carbonates (CaCO3, mainly calcite) and alkaline-earth metal sulfates (barite BaSO4, celestite SrSO4, anhydrite CaSO4, hemihydrate CaSO4 1/2H2O, and gypsum CaSO4 2H2O or calcium sulfate). The cause of scaling can be difficult to identify in real oil and gas wells. However, pressure and temperature changes during the flow of fluids are primary reasons for the formation of carbonate scales, because the escape of CO2 and/or H2S gases out of the brine solution, as pressure is lowered, tends to elevate the pH of the brine and result in super-saturation with respect to carbonates. Concerning sulfate scales, the common cause is commingling of different sources of brines either due to breakthrough of injected incompatible waters or mixing of two different brines from different zones of the reservoir formation. A decrease in temperature tends to cause barite to precipitate, opposite of calcite. In addition, pressure drops tend to cause all scale minerals to precipitate due to the pressure dependence of the solubility product. And we can expect that there will be a pressure drop across the heat exchanger. Weather or not this will be offset by the rise in pressure remains to be seen. It's typically left to field testing to prove out. Progress has been made toward the control and treatment of the scale deposits, although most of the reaction mechanisms are still not well understood. Often the most efficient and economic treatment for scale formation is to apply threshold chemical inhibitors. Threshold scale inhibitors are like catalysts and have inhibition efficiency at very low concentrations (commonly less than a few mg/L), far below the stoichiometric concentrations of the crystal lattice ions in solution. There are many chemical classes of inhibitors and even more brands on the market. Based on the water chemistry it is anticipated that there is a high likelihood for sulfate compound precipitation and scaling. This may be dependent on the temperature and pressure, which vary throughout the system. Therefore, various types and amounts of scaling may occur at different

Daily, W D

2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

58

Evaluation of models for predicting evaporative water loss in cooling impoundments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cooling impoundments can offer a number of advantages over cooling towers for condenser water cooling at steam electric power plants. However, a major disadvantage of cooling ponds is a lack of confidence in the ability ...

Helfrich, Karl Richard

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

The Full Water Disposal Ways and Study on Central Air-conditioning Circulation Cooling Water System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with automatic inspection, control the condense times and installing toroidal swirl type filtering water purifier. We have solved the water quality fundamentally of the circulation cooling water. This way will make the chem..with medicine more reliable...

Zhang, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tree ring studies indicate that, for the greater part of the last three decades, New Mexico has been relatively 'wet' compared to the long-term historical norm. However, during the last several years, New Mexico has experienced a severe drought. Some researchers are predicting a return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters to supplement current fresh water supplies for power plant operation and cooling and other uses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. These were (1) an assessment of using water produced with oil and gas as a supplemental supply for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS); (2) a field evaluation of the wet-surface air cooling (WSAC) system at SJGS; and (3) the development of a ZeroNet systems analysis module and an application of the Watershed Risk Management Framework (WARMF) to evaluate a range of water shortage management plans. The study of the possible use of produced water at SJGS showed that produce water must be treated to justify its use in any reasonable quantity at SJGS. The study identified produced water volume and quality, the infrastructure needed to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements, and delivery and treatment economics. A number of produced water treatment alternatives that use off-the-shelf technology were evaluated along with the equipment needed for water treatment at SJGS. Wet surface air-cooling (WSAC) technology was tested at the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) to determine its capacity to cool power plant circulating water using degraded water. WSAC is a commercial cooling technology and has been used for many years to cool and/or condense process fluids. The purpose of the pilot test was to determine if WSAC technology could cool process water at cycles of concentration considered highly scale forming for mechanical draft cooling towers. At the completion of testing, there was no visible scale on the heat transfer surfaces and cooling was sustained throughout the test period. The application of the WARMF decision framework to the San Juan Basis showed that drought and increased temperature impact water availability for all sectors (agriculture, energy, municipal, industry) and lead to critical shortages. WARMF-ZeroNet, as part of the integrated ZeroNet decision support system, offers stakeholders an integrated approach to long-term water management that balances competing needs of existing water users and economic growth under the constraints of limited supply and potential climate change.

C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operational cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Air-cooled condensers eliminate plant water use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

River or ocean water has been the mainstay for condensing turbine exhaust steam since the first steam turbine began generating electricity. A primary challenge facing today's plant developers, especially in drought-prone regions, is incorporating processes that reduce plant water use and consumption. One solution is to shed the conventional mindset that once-through cooling is the only option and adopt dry cooling technologies that reduce plant water use from a flood to a few sips. A case study at the Astoria Energy plant, New York City is described. 14 figs.

Wurtz, W.; Peltier, R. [SPX Cooling Technologies Inc. (United States)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Summary of research and development effort on air and water cooling of gas turbine blades  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The review on air- and water-cooled gas turbines from the 1904 Lemale-Armengaud water-cooled gas turbine, the 1948 to 1952 NACA work, and the program at GE indicates that the potential of air cooling has been largely exploited in reaching temperatures of 1100/sup 0/C (approx. 2000/sup 0/F) in utility service and that further increases in turbine inlet temperature may be obtained with water cooling. The local heat flux in the first-stage turbine rotor with water cooling is very high, yielding high-temperature gradients and severe thermal stresses. Analyses and tests indicate that by employing a blade with an outer cladding of an approx. 1-mm-thick oxidation-resistant high-nickel alloy, a sublayer of a high-thermal-conductivity, high-strength, copper alloy containing closely spaced cooling passages approx. 2 mm in ID to minimize thermal gradients, and a central high-strength alloy structural spar, it appears possible to operate a water-cooled gas turbine with an inlet gas temperature of 1370/sup 0/C. The cooling-water passages must be lined with an iron-chrome-nickel alloy must be bent 90/sup 0/ to extend in a neatly spaced array through the platform at the base of the blade. The complex geometry of the blade design presents truly formidable fabrication problems. The water flow rate to each of many thousands of coolant passages must be metered and held to within rather close limits because the heat flux is so high that a local flow interruption of only a few seconds would lead to a serious failure.Heat losses to the cooling water will run approx. 10% of the heat from the fuel. By recoverying this waste heat for feedwater heating in a command cycle, these heat losses will give a degradation in the power plant output of approx. 5% relative to what might be obtained if no cooling were required. However, the associated power loss is less than half that to be expected with an elegant air cooling system.

Fraas, A.P.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 143: Availability of chilled water system and room cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the regulatory analysis for Generic Issue (GI-143), {open_quotes}Availability of Chilled Water System and Room Cooling.{close_quotes} The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and related auxiliaries are required to provide control of environmental conditions in areas in light water reactor (LWR) plants that contain safety-related equipment. In some plants, the HVAC and chilled water systems serve to maintain a suitable environment for both safety and non-safety-related areas. Although some plants have an independent chilled water system for the safety-related areas, the heat removal capability often depends on the operability of other supporting systems such as the service water system or the component cooling water system. The operability of safety-related components depends upon operation of the HVAC and chilled water systems to remove heat from areas containing the equipment. If cooling to dissipate the heat generated is unavailable, the ability of the safety-related equipment to operate as intended cannot be assured. Typical components or areas in the nuclear power plant that could be affected by the failure of cooling from HVAC or chilled water systems include the (1) emergency switchgear and battery rooms, (2) emergency diesel generator room, (3) pump rooms for residual heat removal, reactor core isolation cooling, high-pressure core spray, and low-pressure core spray, and (4) control room. The unavailability of such safety-related equipment or areas could cause the core damage frequency (CDF) to increase significantly.

Leung, V.T.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Electric Chillers  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including water-cooled electric chillers, which is a FEMP-designated product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

66

Use of Air2Air Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program was undertaken to build and operate the first Air2Air{trademark} Water Conservation Cooling Tower at a power plant, giving a validated basis and capability for water conservation by this method. Air2Air{trademark} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10%-25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate).

Ken Mortensen

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

67

Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated box located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OPERATION: APPLICATION OF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHAPTER 5 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OPERATION: APPLICATION OF SIMULATED ANNEALING Fred E. Goldman Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 5.1 INTRODUCTION The operation of water distribution systems affects the water quality in these systems. EPA regulations require that water quality be maintained

Mays, Larry W.

69

Deployment Scenario of Heavy Water Cooled Thorium Breeder Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deployment scenario of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor has been studied. We have assumed to use plutonium and thorium oxide fuel in water cooled reactor to produce {sup 233}U which will be used in thorium breeder reactor. The objective is to analysis the potential of water cooled Th-Pu reactor for replacing all of current LWRs especially in Japan. In this paper, the standard Pressurize Water Reactor (PWR) has been designed to produce 3423 MWt; (i) Th-Pu PWR, (ii) Th-Pu HWR (MFR = 1.0) and (iii) Th-Pu HWR (MFR 1.2). The properties and performance of the core were investigated by using cell and core calculation code. Th-Pu PWR or HWR produces {sup 233}U to introduce thorium breeder reactor. The result showed that to replace all (60 GWe) LWR by thorium breeder reactor within a period of one century, Th-Pu oxide fueled PWR has insufficient capability to produce necessary amount of {sup 233}U and Th-Pu oxide fueled HWR has almost enough potential to produce {sup 233}U but shows positive void reactivity coefficient.

Mardiansah, Deby; Takaki, Naoyuki [Course of Applied Science, School of Engineering, Tokai University (Japan)

2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

70

Critical Design Issues of Tokamak Cooling Water System of ITER's Fusion Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

U.S. ITER is responsible for the design, engineering, and procurement of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS). The TCWS transfers heat generated in the Tokamak to cooling water during nominal pulsed operation 850 MW at up to 150 C and 4.2 MPa water pressure. This water contains radionuclides because impurities (e.g., tritium) diffuse from in-vessel components and the vacuum vessel by water baking at 200 240 C at up to 4.4MPa, and corrosion products become activated by neutron bombardment. The system is designated as safety important class (SIC) and will be fabricated to comply with the French Order concerning nuclear pressure equipment (December 2005) and the EU Pressure Equipment Directive using ASME Section VIII, Div 2 design codes. The complexity of the TCWS design and fabrication presents unique challenges. Conceptual design of this one-of-a-kind cooling system has been completed with several issues that need to be resolved to move to next stage of the design. Those issues include flow balancing between over hundreds of branch pipelines in parallel to supply cooling water to blankets, determination of optimum flow velocity while minimizing the potential for cavitation damage, design for freezing protection for cooling water flowing through cryostat (freezing) environment, requirements for high-energy piping design, and electromagnetic impact to piping and components. Although the TCWS consists of standard commercial components such as piping with valves and fittings, heat exchangers, and pumps, complex requirements present interesting design challenges. This paper presents a brief description of TCWS conceptual design and critical design issues that need to be resolved.

Kim, Seokho H [ORNL] [ORNL; Berry, Jan [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced water cooled Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

water cooled Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: advanced water cooled Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Proceedings of the 18th Annual North...

72

Patterns of fish assemblage structure and dynamics in waters of the Savannah River Plant. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research conducted as part of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) has elucidated many factors that are important to fish population and community dynamics in a variety of habitats on the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Information gained from these studies is useful in predicting fish responses to SRP operations. The overall objective of the CCWS was (1) to determine the environmental effects of SRP cooling water withdrawals and discharges and (2) to determine the significance of the cooling water impacts on the environment. The purpose of this study was to: (1) examine the effects of thermal plumes on anadromous and resident fishes, including overwintering effects, in the SRP swamp and associated tributary streams; (2) assess fish spawning and locate nursery grounds on the SRP; (3) examine the level of use of the SRP by spawning fish from the Savannah River, this objective was shared with the Savannah River Laboratory, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; and (4) determine impacts of cooling-water discharges on fish population and community attributes. Five studies were designed to address the above topics. The specific objectives and a summary of the findings of each study are presented.

Aho, J.M.; Anderson, C.S.; Floyd, K.B.; Negus, M.T.; Meador, M.R.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

1. Cooling water is one-third of US water usage Basic approach: (a) estimate power consumption, from which you estimate cooling water usage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1. Cooling water is one-third of US water usage Basic approach: (a) estimate power consumption) Water for power consumption I happen to know that total energy usage is roughly 10 kW per person energy usage by a lot. Now we assume that a power plant is 50% efficient. I assumed more than 20%, less

Nimmo, Francis

74

Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a Dual Heat Exchanger Rack Cooling Device  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

eliminating the need for compressor cooling. The plant modelunique design (using compressor cooling only when needed by

Greenberg, Steve

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Heat Recovery From Arc Furnaces Using Water Cooled Panels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HEAT RECOVERY FROM ARC FURNACES USING WATER COOLED PANELS D. F. Darby Deere & Company Moline, Illinois ABSTRACT In 1980-81, the John Deere Foundry at East Moline underwent an expansion program that in creased its capacity by over 60...%. This expansion was centered around the melt department where the four existing 13MVA electric arc furnaces were augmented with two additional 13MVA arc furnaces. A waste heat recovery system was installed on all six of the arc furnaces which, with modifica...

Darby, D. F.

76

Operating experience feedback report: Assessment of spent fuel cooling. Volume 12  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the results of an independent assessment by a team from the Office of Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data of spent-fuel-pool (SFP) cooling in operating nuclear power plants. The team assessed the likelihood and consequences of an extended loss of SFP cooling and suggested corrective actions, based on their findings.

Ibarra, J.G.; Jones, W.R.; Lanik, G.F.; Ornstein, H.L.; Pullani, S.V.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir) and type of plant (nuclear vs. fossil fuel). This is accomplished in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, the nature of any compacts or agreements that give priority to users (i.e., which users must stop withdrawing water first) is examined. This is examined on a regional or watershed basis, specifically for western water rights, and also as a function of federal and state water management programs. Chapter 5 presents the findings and conclusions of this study. In addition to the above, a related intent of this study is to conduct preliminary modeling of how lowered surface water levels could affect generating capacity and other factors at different regional power plants. If utility managers are forced to take some units out of service or reduce plant outputs, the fuel mix at the remaining plants and the resulting carbon dioxide emissions may change. Electricity costs and other factors may also be impacted. Argonne has conducted some modeling based on the information presented in the database described in Chapter 2 of this report. A separate report of the modeling effort has been prepared (Poch et al. 2009). In addition to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet, this modeling also includes an evaluation of power production of hydroelectric facilities. The focus of this modeling is on those power plants located in the western United States.

Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

2009-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

78

Case Study of Stratified Chilled Water Storage Utilization for Comfort and Process Cooling in a Hot, Humid Climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the system and its operation is followed by presentation of operating data taken during 1997. INTRODUCTION Chilled water thermal energy storage ('TES) in naturally stratified tanks has been shown to be a valuable central cooling plant load management... and humid environment and presents new data on the performance of a large stratified chilled water storage tank. Figure 1. Plant Schematic. SITE The case study site is the Dallas, TX world headquarters of a major semiconductor manufacturer. The 6...

Bahnfleth, W. P.; Musser, A.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Power generation and water consumption are inextricably linked. Because of this relationship DOE/NETL has funded a competitive research and development initiative to address this relationship. This report is part of that initiative and is in response to DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41719-0. Thermal electric power generation requires large volumes of water to cool spent steam at the end of the turbine cycle. The required volumes are such that new plant siting is increasingly dependent on the availability of cooling circuit water. Even in the eastern U.S., large rivers such as the Monongahela may no longer be able to support additional, large power stations due to subscription of flow to existing plants, industrial, municipal and navigational requirements. Earlier studies conducted by West Virginia University (WV 132, WV 173 phase I, WV 173 Phase II, WV 173 Phase III, and WV 173 Phase IV in review) have identified that a large potential water resource resides in flooded, abandoned coal mines in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, and likely elsewhere in the region and nation. This study evaluates the technical and economic potential of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin water source to supply new power plants with cooling water. Two approaches for supplying new power plants were evaluated. Type A employs mine water in conventional, evaporative cooling towers. Type B utilizes earth-coupled cooling with flooded underground mines as the principal heat sink for the power plant reject heat load. Existing mine discharges in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin were evaluated for flow and water quality. Based on this analysis, eight sites were identified where mine water could supply cooling water to a power plant. Three of these sites were employed for pre-engineering design and cost analysis of a Type A water supply system, including mine water collection, treatment, and delivery. This method was also applied to a ''base case'' river-source power plant, for comparison. Mine-water system cost estimates were then compared to the base-case river source estimate. We found that the use of net-alkaline mine water would under current economic conditions be competitive with a river-source in a comparable-size water cooling system. On the other hand, utilization of net acidic water would be higher in operating cost than the river system by 12 percent. This does not account for any environmental benefits that would accrue due to the treatment of acid mine drainage, in many locations an existing public liability. We also found it likely that widespread adoption of mine-water utilization for power plant cooling will require resolution of potential liability and mine-water ownership issues. In summary, Type A mine-water utilization for power plant cooling is considered a strong option for meeting water needs of new plant in selected areas. Analysis of the thermal and water handling requirements for a 600 megawatt power plant indicated that Type B earth coupled cooling would not be feasible for a power plant of this size. It was determined that Type B cooling would be possible, under the right conditions, for power plants of 200 megawatts or less. Based on this finding the feasibility of a 200 megawatt facility was evaluated. A series of mines were identified where a Type B earth-coupled 200 megawatt power plant cooling system might be feasible. Two water handling scenarios were designed to distribute heated power-plant water throughout the mines. Costs were developed for two different pumping scenarios employing a once-through power-plant cooling circuit. Thermal and groundwater flow simulation models were used to simulate the effect of hot water injection into the mine under both pumping strategies and to calculate the return-water temperature over the design life of a plant. Based on these models, staged increases in required mine-water pumping rates are projected to be part of the design, due to gradual heating and loss of heat-sink efficiency of the rock sequence above the mines. Utilizing pumping strategy No.1 (two mines) capital costs were 25 percent lower a

Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

State waste discharge permit application 400 Area secondary cooling water. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document constitutes the Washington Administrative Code 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit Application that serves as interim compliance as required by Consent Order DE 91NM-177, for the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream. As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site that affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permitting Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order DE 91NM-177. The Consent Order DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. Based upon compositional and flow rate characteristics, liquid effluent streams on the Hanford Site have been categorized into Phase 1, Phase 2, and Miscellaneous streams. This document only addresses the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream, which has been identified as a Phase 2 stream. The 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream includes contribution streams from the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility, the Maintenance and Storage Facility, the 481-A pump house, and the Fast Flux Test Facility.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operational cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Cooling rate, heating rate, and aging effects in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be glassified by cooling using hyper- quenching techniques (i.e., with rates of the order of 105 K/s [8Cooling rate, heating rate, and aging effects in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1 H. Eugene of water molecules during the process of generating a glass by cooling, and during the process

Sciortino, Francesco

82

Direct Water-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Packaging | Department of  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct, Parent(CRADA and DOW Automotive) |andEnergy Water-Cooled

83

RAMI Analysis for Designing and Optimizing Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) for the ITER's Fusion Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

U.S.-ITER is responsible for the design, engineering, and procurement of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS). TCWS is designed to provide cooling and baking for client systems that include the first wall/blanket, vacuum vessel, divertor, and neutral beam injector. Additional operations that support these primary functions include chemical control of water provided to client systems, draining and drying for maintenance, and leak detection/localization. TCWS interfaces with 27 systems including the secondary cooling system, which rejects this heat to the environment. TCWS transfers heat generated in the Tokamak during nominal pulsed operation - 850 MW at up to 150 C and 4.2 MPa water pressure. Impurities are diffused from in-vessel components and the vacuum vessel by water baking at 200-240 C at up to 4.4 MPa. TCWS is complex because it serves vital functions for four primary clients whose performance is critical to ITER's success and interfaces with more than 20 additional ITER systems. Conceptual design of this one-of-a-kind cooling system has been completed; however, several issues remain that must be resolved before moving to the next stage of the design process. The 2004 baseline design indicated cooling loops that have no fault tolerance for component failures. During plasma operation, each cooling loop relies on a single pump, a single pressurizer, and one heat exchanger. Consequently, failure of any of these would render TCWS inoperable, resulting in plasma shutdown. The application of reliability, availability, maintainability, and inspectability (RAMI) tools during the different stages of TCWS design is crucial for optimization purposes and for maintaining compliance with project requirements. RAMI analysis will indicate appropriate equipment redundancy that provides graceful degradation in the event of an equipment failure. This analysis helps demonstrate that using proven, commercially available equipment is better than using custom-designed equipment with no field experience and lowers specific costs while providing higher reliability. This paper presents a brief description of the TCWS conceptual design and the application of RAMI tools to optimize the design at different stages during the project.

Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL] [ORNL; Reiersen, Wayne T [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Optimization of water distribution operation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water demands consistent to LEG ENO FORECAST ? ACTUAL /'4 / /g / I I I /4 / . / li, / 1000 0 2. 5 5. 0 7. 5 10. 0 12. 5 15. 0 17. 5 20. 0 22. 5 25. 0 27. 5 30. 0 TIME [DAYS] FIG. 5. - June 1986, Forecasted vs Actua1 Water Demands O O O Q z... X a CI 4500 3500 3000 2500 2000 l( I '( I l / FORECAST 2. 5 5. 0 7. 5 10. 0 12. 5 15. 0 17. 5 20. 0 22. 5 25. 0 27. 5 30. 0 TIME [DAYS] FIG. 6. - July 1986, Forecasted vs Actual Water Demands 33 the actual variation but the error...

Pennington, Walter Carlton

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Applying a Domestic Water-cooled Air-conditioner in Subtropical Cities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water-cooled air-conditioning systems (WACS) are in general more energy efficient than air-cooled air-conditioning systems (AACS), especially in subtropical climates where the outdoor air is hot and humid. Related studies focused on evaluating...

Lee, W.; Chen, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The program for providing water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley is reviewed with respect to fabrication and metrology of the surfaces. Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from prototype mirrors and grating blanks will be presented, which show exceptionally low microroughness and mid-period error. We will briefly describe out improved version of the Long Trace Profiler, and its importance to out metrology program. We have completely redesigned the mechanical, optical and computational parts of the profiler system with the cooperation of Peter Takacs of Brookhaven, Continental Optical, and Baker Manufacturing. Most important is that one of our profilers is in use at the vendor to allow testing during fabrication. Metrology from the first water cooled mirror for an ALS beamline is presented as an example. The preplating processing and grinding and polishing were done by Tucson Optical. We will show significantly better surface microroughness on electroless nickel, over large areas, than has been reported previously.

McKinney, W.R.; Irick, S.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Lunt, D.L.J. [Tucson Optical Research Corp., AZ (United States)

1991-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

87

Proposal for the Award of a Contract for Maintenance, Operation and Minor Installation Work for CERN Cooling and HVAC Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal for the Award of a Contract for Maintenance, Operation and Minor Installation Work for CERN Cooling and HVAC Systems

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

A STUDY ON LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA, WATER CHEMISTRY, AND ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS IN COOLING TOWERS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Legionnaires disease is a pneumonia caused by the inhalation of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. The majority of illnesses have been associated with cooling towers since these devices can harbor and disseminate the bacterium in the aerosolized mist generated by these systems. Historically, Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling towers have had occurrences of elevated levels of Legionella in all seasons of the year and in patterns that are difficult to predict. Since elevated Legionella in cooling tower water are a potential health concern a question has been raised as to the best control methodology. In this work we analyze available chemical, biological, and atmospheric data to determine the best method or key parameter for control. The SRS 4Q Industrial Hygiene Manual, 4Q-1203, 1 - G Cooling Tower Operation and the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program, states that 'Participation in the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program is MANDATORY for all operating cooling towers'. The resulting reports include L. pneumophila concentration information in cells/L. L. pneumophila concentrations >10{sup 7} cells/L are considered elevated and unsafe so action must be taken to reduce these densities. These remedial actions typically include increase biocide addition or 'shocking'. Sometimes additional actions are required if the problem persists including increase tower maintenance (e.g. cleaning). Evaluation of 14 SRS cooling towers, seven water quality parameters, and five Legionella serogroups over a three-plus year time frame demonstrated that cooling tower water Legionella densities varied widely though out this time period. In fact there was no one common consistent significant variable across all towers. The significant factors that did show up most frequently were related to suspended particulates, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen, not chlorine or bromine as might be expected. Analyses of atmospheric data showed that there were more frequent significant elevated Legionella concentrations when the dew point temperature was high--a summertime occurrence. However, analysis of the three years of Legionella monitoring data of the 14 different SRS Cooling Towers demonstrated that elevated concentrations are observed at all temperatures and seasons. The objective of this study is to evaluate the ecology of L. pneumophila including serogroups and population densities, chemical, and atmospheric data, on cooling towers at SRS to determine whether relationships exist among water chemistry, and atmospheric conditions. The goal is to more fully understand the conditions which inhibit or encourage L. pneumophila growth and supply this data and associated recommendations to SRS Cooling Tower personnel for improved management of operation. Hopefully this information could then be used to help control L. pneumophila growth more effectively in SRS cooling tower water.

Smith, C.; Brigmon, R.

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

89

Modeling the transient operation of an endothermic fuel cooling system for high Mach number vehicle missions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A computer model was developed to simulate the transient operation of a hypothetical endothermic fuel cooling system. The model simulated the performance of a cross-flow, shell and tube heat exchanger. This model was applied to a representative...

Williams, Mark Robert

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

The Operation Management and Energy Consumption Analysis of the District Cooling System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the operation management. It can be concluded that the district cooling system not only can save energy and protect the environment, but also is economically feasible. It should be developed and popularized in China because of its significant advantages....

Xu, Q.; Li, D.; Xu, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility tempered water and tempered water cooling system design description  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Tempered Water (TW) and Tempered Water Cooling (TWC) System . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the TW and TWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SOD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

IRWIN, J.J.

1998-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

92

Cooling Towers- Energy Conservation Strategies Understanding Cooling Towers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cooling towers are energy conservation devices that Management, more often than not, historically overlooks in the survey of strategies for plant operating efficiencies. The utilization of the colder water off the cooling tower is the money maker!...

Smith, M.

93

Operating temperatures for a convectively cooled recessed incandescent light fixture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Test results are given for the operation of a recessed incandescent light fixture intended for residential use. The fixture is labeled for use in direct contact with attic thermal insulation. Temperature control of the powered fixture is provided by convective heat transfer from the ceiling side of the fixture. The fixture was operated at power levels up to two times the rated power of 75 watts and under thermal insulations up to R-40. In all operating configurations tested the fixture surface in contact with attic insulation was found to be less than 175/sup 0/C. The observed surface temperatures are judged to be safe for operation in contact with loose-fill or batt-type insulations. It was observed that the power leads inside one fixture configuration are exposed to temperatures as high as 168/sup 0/C. The electrical insulation could, therefore, have a limited life. The properties of the internal fixture wiring were not, however, studied in detail.

Yarbrough, D.W.; Toor, I.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Behavioral Factors Influencing Fish Entrapment at Offshore Cooling-Water Intake Structures in Southern California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Behavioral Factors Influencing Fish Entrapment at Offshore Cooling-Water Intake Structures in Southern California MARK HELVEY Introduction Fish entrapment by offshore cooling-water intake structures. Based on con- comitant in-plant impingement monitoring, it was also learned that these same reef species

95

State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

Haggard, R.D.

1996-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

96

Investigation of the Difference in Cool Flame Characteristics between Petroleum Diesel and Soybean Biodiesel Operating in Low Temperature Combustion Mode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The focus of this study is to investigate the difference in the cool flame combustion characteristics between petroleum diesel and soybean biodiesel, when operating in low temperature combustion mode. Previous studies have attributed the absence of the cool...

Muthu Narayanan, Aditya

2014-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

97

Optimization of Chilled Water Flow and Its Distribution in Central Cooling System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

inefficiency included improper distribution of chilled water in the main branches, and bypassing return water through non-operation chillers....

Maheshwari, G. P.; Hajiah, A. E.; ElSherbini, A. I.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Water Use in the Development and Operation of Geothermal Power...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Operation of Geothermal Power Plants Water Use in the Development and Operation of Geothermal Power Plants This report summarizes what is currently known about the life cycle water...

99

Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants This report summarizes what is...

100

Iowa Water and Wastewater Operators Seek SEP Certification in...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Iowa Water and Wastewater Operators Seek SEP Certification in New Pilot Program Iowa Water and Wastewater Operators Seek SEP Certification in New Pilot Program September 18, 2014 -...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operational cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Fuel Breeding and Core Behavior Analyses on In Core Fuel Management of Water Cooled Thorium Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thorium fuel cycle with recycled U-233 has been widely recognized having some contributions to improve the water-cooled breeder reactor program which has been shown by a feasible area of breeding and negative void reactivity which confirms that fissile of 233U contributes to better fuel breeding and effective for obtaining negative void reactivity coefficient as the main fissile material. The present study has the objective to estimate the effect of whole core configuration as well as burnup effects to the reactor core profile by adopting two dimensional model of fuel core management. About more than 40 months of cycle period has been employed for one cycle fuel irradiation of three batches fuel system for large water cooled thorium reactors. All position of fuel arrangement contributes to the total core conversion ratio which gives conversion ratio less than unity of at the BOC and it contributes to higher than unity (1.01) at the EOC after some irradiation process. Inner part and central part give the important part of breeding contribution with increasing burnup process, while criticality is reduced with increasing the irradiation time. Feasibility of breeding capability of water-cooled thorium reactors for whole core fuel arrangement has confirmed from the obtained conversion ratio which shows higher than unity. Whole core analysis on evaluating reactivity change which is caused by the change of voided condition has been employed for conservative assumption that 100% coolant and moderator are voided. It obtained always a negative void reactivity coefficient during reactor operation which shows relatively more negative void coefficient at BOC (fresh fuel composition), and it becomes less negative void coefficient with increasing the operation time. Negative value of void reactivity coefficient shows the reactor has good safety properties in relation to the reactivity profile which is the main parameter in term of criticality safety analysis. Therefore, this evaluation has confirmed that breeding condition and negative coefficient can be obtained simultaneously for water-cooled thorium reactor obtains based on the whole core fuel arrangement.

Permana, Sidik [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-17, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Gedung Fisika, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Sekimoto, Hiroshi [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-17, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Waris, Abdul; Subhki, Muhamad Nurul [Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Gedung Fisika, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Ismail, [BAPETEN (Indonesia)

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

102

USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 2 focuses on transportation--the largest obstacle to produced water reuse in the San Juan Basin (the Basin). Most of the produced water in the Basin is stored in tanks at the well head and must be transported by truck to salt water disposal (SWD) facilities prior to injection. Produced water transportation requirements from the well head to SJGS and the availability of existing infrastructure to transport the water are discussed in this deliverable.

Michael N. DiFilippo

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Treatment of produced water using chemical and biological unit operations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Water generated along with oil and gas during coal bed methane and oil shale operations is commonly known as produced water, formation water, or oilfield (more)

Li, Liang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

COOLING WATER ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES AT U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report has been prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), for the purpose of providing a status report on the challenges and opportunities facing the U.S. commercial nuclear energy industry in the area of plant cooling water supply. The report was prompted in part by recent Second Circuit and Supreme Court decisions regarding cooling water system designs at existing thermo-electric power generating facilities in the U.S. (primarily fossil and nuclear plants). At issue in the courts have been Environmental Protection Agency regulations that define what constitutes Best Technology Available for intake structures that withdraw cooling water that is used to transfer and reject heat from the plants steam turbine via cooling water systems, while minimizing environmental impacts on aquatic life in nearby water bodies used to supply that cooling water. The report was also prompted by a growing recognition that cooling water availability and societal use conflicts are emerging as strategic energy and environmental issues, and that research and development (R&D) solutions to emerging water shortage issues are needed. In particular, cooling water availability is an important consideration in siting decisions for new nuclear power plants, and is an under-acknowledged issue in evaluating the pros and cons of retrofitting cooling towers at existing nuclear plants. Because of the significant ongoing research on water issues already being performed by industry, the national laboratories and other entities, this report relies heavily on ongoing work. In particular, this report has relied on collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), including its recent work in the area of EPA regulations governing intake structures in thermoelectric cooling water systems.

Gary Vine

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Operational control of boiling water reactor stability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Boiling water reactor cores are susceptible to instabilities, which generate power oscillations. Specific reactor operating practices can provide a mechanism for control of the instability phenomenon. An axial separation of the core into a single-phase region and a two-phase region resolves the influence of axial flux shapes on core stability. This separation provides the means to derive a core stability control that ensures significant reactor stability margin. The control is achieved by maintaining the core average bulk coolant saturation elevation above a predetermined axial plane. The control can be reliably and efficiently implemented during reactor operations. Analysis demonstrates that variations in parameters important to stability have only secondary influences on stability margin when the control is in effect. Actual plant experience with a large commercial boiling water reactor confirms the capabilities of this stability control in an operational setting.

Mowry, C.M. [PECO Energy, Wayne, PA (United States); Nir, I. [Entergy Operations, Jackson, MS (United States); Newkirk, D.W. [GE Nuclear Energy, San Jose, CA (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Environmental Response Team Standard Operating Procedures for Contaminated Water Diving Operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dilution of Contaminants ·· Small Closed Body of WaterSmall Closed Body of Water ·· Pond or Flooded QuarryPond or FloodedEnvironmental Response Team Standard Operating Procedures for Contaminated Water Diving Operations for Contaminated Water Diving OperationsProcedures for Contaminated Water Diving Operations AAUS March 2010 Meeting

Sura, Philip

107

Room temperature "super-cooling" of water by interaction with hydrophobic groups in a lipidic gel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water, reflecting greater occupancy of higher energy vibrational states. In pure water, hydrogen bonding state between 250K and 240K. (Tiny droplets of water have been shown to spontaneously freeze at aboutRoom temperature "super-cooling" of water by interaction with hydrophobic groups in a lipidic gel F

108

Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of water cooling systems for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of water cooling systems for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Proposal to negotiate two contracts, without competitive tendering, for the supply and upgrade of cooling water pumps for the LHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal to negotiate two contracts, without competitive tendering, for the supply and upgrade of cooling water pumps for the LHC

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Rules Governing Water and Wastewater Operator Certification (Tennessee)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Rules Governing Water and Wastewater Operator Certification are applicable to all projects that will require a water treatment site. Everyone who plans to operate a wastewater or water...

111

WATER-LITHIUM BROMIDE DOUBLE-EFFECT ABSORPTION COOLING ANALYSIS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

1980 Final Report f o r Contract: DE AC03-79SF10540 (Mu1 tiple-Effect Absorption Cycle Solar Cooling) with the U.S. Department of Energy DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an...

112

Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our teams exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive ancillary socio-economic, ecosystem, and water treatment/polishing benefits when used to complement water resources at thermoelectric power plants. Through the Phase II pilot study segment of the contract, the project team partnered with Progress Energy Florida (now Duke Energy Florida) to quantify the wetland water cooling benefits at their Hines Energy Complex in Bartow, Florida. The project was designed to test the wetlands ability to cool and cleanse power plant cooling pond water while providing wildlife habitat and water harvesting benefits. Data collected during the monitoring period was used to calibrate a STELLA model developed for the site. It was also used to inform management recommendations for the demonstration site, and to provide guidance on the use of cooling wetlands for other power plants around the country. As a part of the pilot study, Duke Energy is scaling up the demonstration project to a larger, commercial scale wetland instrumented with monitoring equipment. Construction is expected to be finalized in early 2014.

Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

113

E-Print Network 3.0 - applying water cooled Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: applying water cooled Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Proceedings of the 18th Annual North American...

114

Sustained Recycle in Light Water and Sodium-Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain recycle of used fuel in either thermal or fast reactors. This paper examines multi-recycle potential performance by considering three recycling approaches and calculating several fuel cycle parameters, including heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; radiotoxicity of waste; and uranium utilization. The first recycle approach is homogeneous mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies in a light water reactor (LWR). The transuranic portion of the MOX was varied among Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. (All-TRU means all isotopes through Cf-252.) The Pu case was allowed to go to 10% Pu in fresh fuel, but when the minor actinides were included, the transuranic enrichment was kept below 8% to satisfy the expected void reactivity constraint. The uranium portion of the MOX was enriched uranium. That enrichment was increased (to as much as 6.5%) to keep the fuel critical for a typical LWR irradiation. The second approach uses heterogeneous inert matrix fuel (IMF) assemblies in an LWR - a mix of IMF and traditional UOX pins. The uranium-free IMF fuel pins were Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. The UOX pins were limited to 4.95% U-235 enrichment. The number of IMF pins was set so that the amount of TRU in discharged fuel from recycle N (from both IMF and UOX pins) was made into the new IMF pins for recycle N+1. Up to 60 of the 264 pins in a fuel assembly were IMF. The assembly-average TRU content was 1-6%. The third approach uses fast reactor oxide fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor with transuranic conversion ratio of 0.50 and 1.00. The transuranic conversion ratio is the production of transuranics divided by destruction of transuranics. The FR at CR=0.50 is similar to the CR for the MOX case. The fast reactor cases had a transuranic content of 33-38%, higher than IMF or MOX.

Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Michael A. Pope; Gilles J. Youinou

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

A Free Cooling Based Chilled Water System at Kingston  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-04-13 Proceedings from the Sixth Annual Industrial Energy Technology Conference Volume I, Houston, TX, April 15-18, 1984 COOLING TOWER #3 FROM EAST FROM WEST TOWER TO TO EAST WES TOWER TOW8:R ELEC. #9 2000 TON MOOE, ?YAP. CHILLING LOAD SHAVING Sl...

Jansen, P. R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Cooling Towers--Energy Conservation Strategies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A cooling water system can be optimized by operating the cooling tower at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces, tube bundles, refrigeration equipment, overhead condensers...

Matson, J.

117

Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Operations of Geothermal Power Plants Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants This report summarizes what is currently known about the life cycle...

118

Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winner 22nd Operations...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Winner 22nd Operations Group Fuel Efficiency Office Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winner 22nd Operations Group Fuel Efficiency Office fewm13mcconnellafbhighres.pdf...

119

Life Cycle cost Analysis of Waste Heat Operated Absorption Cooling Systems for Building HVAC Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

effect from CO2 emission resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels in utility power plants and the use of chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants, which is currently thought to affect depletion of the ozone layer. The ban on fluorocarbon fluids has been...LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS OF WASTE HEAT OPERATED ABSORPTION COOLING SYSTEMS FOR BUILDING HVAC APPLICATIONS V. Murugavel and R. Saravanan Refrigeration and Air conditioning Laboratory Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University...

Saravanan, R.; Murugavel, V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Heat Transfer Performance and Piping Strategy Study for Chilled Water Systems at Low Cooling Loads  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

studied in this thesis is the chilled water system at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW Airport). This system has the problem of low delta-T under low cooling loads. When the chilled water flow is much lower than the design conditions at low...

Li, Nanxi 1986-

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operational cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Underground Mine Water Heating and Cooling Using Geothermal Heat Pump Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In many regions of the world, flooded mines are a potentially cost-effective option for heating and cooling using geothermal heat pump systems. For example, a single coal seam in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio contains 5.1 x 1012 L of water. The growing volume of water discharging from this one coal seam totals 380,000 L/min, which could theoretically heat and cool 20,000 homes. Using the water stored in the mines would conservatively extend this option to an order of magnitude more sites. Based on current energy prices, geothermal heat pump systems using mine water could reduce annual costs for heating by 67% and cooling by 50% over conventional methods (natural gas or heating oil and standard air conditioning).

Watzlaf, G.R.; Ackman, T.E.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Hot Water Heating System Operation and Energy Conservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on an example of the reconstruction of a hot water heating system, this paper provides an analysis and comparison of the operations of hot water heating systems, including supply water temperature adjustment, flow adjustment during each...

Shao, Z.; Chen, H.; Wei, P.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Study on Performance Verification and Evaluation of District Heating and Cooling System Using Thermal Energy of River Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

source and cooling water overall (in comparison with normal system 15% of energy saving) -Adopt large-scale ice heat storage system and realize equalization of electricity load -Adopt turbo chiller and heat recovery facilities as high efficiency heat... screw heat pump - 838MJ/? 1 IHP/Water source screw heat pump (Ice storage and heat recovery) Cool water? 3,080MJ/h Ice Storage? 1,936MJ/h Cool water heat recovery? 3,606MJ/h Ice storage heat recovery? 2,448MJ/h 8Unit ?16? TR1 Water cooling turbo...

Takahashi,N.; Niwa, H.; Kawano,M.; Koike,K.; Koga,O.; Ichitani, K.; Mishima,N.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

The design and evaluation of a water delivery system for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An investigation was performed to demonstrate system design for the delivery of water required for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The water delivery system uses spray nozzles capable of injecting water directly...

Al-Asad, Dawood Khaled Abdullah

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

125

Development of a Water Based, Critical Flow, Non-Vapor Compression cooling Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Expansion of a high-pressure liquid refrigerant through the use of a thermostatic expansion valve or other device is commonplace in vapor-compression cycles to regulate the quality and flow rate of the refrigerant entering the evaporator. In vapor-compression systems, as the condensed refrigerant undergoes this expansion, its pressure and temperature drop, and part of the liquid evaporates. We (researchers at Kansas State University) are developing a cooling cycle that instead pumps a high-pressure refrigerant through a supersonic converging-diverging nozzle. As the liquid refrigerant passes through the nozzle, its velocity reaches supersonic (or critical-flow) conditions, substantially decreasing the refrigerants pressure. This sharp pressure change vaporizes some of the refrigerant and absorbs heat from the surrounding conditions during this phase change. Due to the design of the nozzle, a shockwave trips the supersonic two-phase refrigerant back to the starting conditions, condensing the remaining vapor. The critical-flow refrigeration cycle would provide space cooling, similar to a chiller, by running a secondary fluid such as water or glycol over one or more nozzles. Rather than utilizing a compressor to raise the pressure of the refrigerant, as in a vapor-cycle system, the critical-flow cycle utilizes a high-pressure pump to drive refrigerant liquid through the cooling cycle. Additionally, the design of the nozzle can be tailored for a given refrigerant, such that environmentally benign substances can act as the working fluid. This refrigeration cycle is still in early-stage development with prototype development several years away. The complex multi-phase flow at supersonic conditions presents numerous challenges to fully understanding and modeling the cycle. With the support of DOE and venture-capital investors, initial research was conducted at PAX Streamline, and later, at Caitin. We (researchers at Kansas State University) have continued development of the cycle and have gained an in-depth understanding of the governing fundamental knowledge, based on the laws of physics and thermodynamics and verified with our testing results. Through this research, we are identifying optimal working fluid and operating conditions to eventually demonstrate the core technology for space cooling or other applications.

Hosni, Mohammad H.

2014-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

126

Decoupled Modeling of Chilled Water Cooling Coils Using a Finite Element Method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Decoupled Modeling of Chilled Water Cooling Coils Using a Finite Element Method Gang Wang Research Associate University of Nebraska Lincoln Mingsheng Liu Professor University of Nebraska Lincoln David E. Claridge Professor Texas A... be decoupled using a constant sensible heat ratio (SHR) and the saturation humidity ratio vs. temperature curve can be treated as linear in a small area corresponding to a finite element of the coil. This paper presents the decoupled cooling coil model...

Wang, G.; Liu, M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Natural Cooling Retrofit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the most important design considerations for any method of Natural Cool ing is the chil led water temperature range selected for use during Natural Cool ing. Figure VI shows that for a hypo thetical Chicago plant, the hours of operation for a Natural..." system on the Natural Cool ing cycle. As the pressures and flow rates of the condenser and chil led water systems are seldom the same, the designer must pay careful attention to the cross over system design to ensure harmonious operations on both...

Fenster, L. C.; Grantier, A. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy sources of cooling supply water and an aggressiveas the primary source of cooling supply water. The analysisthermal mass to the cooling supply water source, nighttime

Moore, Timothy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Use of caged fish for mariculture and environmental monitoring in a power-plant cooling-water system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-nydrocarbon pesticides in fishes cultured at various locations within the cooling system. 203 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Map of the research site ~g the location of the power plant, cooling-water system, and research facilities 17 Schematic representation... quality might conceivably be available considering the large number of power plants utilizing coastal waters for cooling. Other important benefits of thermal fish-culture include ample water supply, and reduced pumping costs as a result of the massive...

Chamberlain, George William

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

130

Survival of zooplankton entrained into the cooling water system and supplemental cooling towers of a steam-electric generating station located on Galveston Bay, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

not necessarily be used to predict conditions at power plants in other areas (Bauereis 1975; Davies and Jensen 1975). Aquatic organisms drawn into the current of cooling water flowing towards the intake structure of a power plant are sus- ceptible... organisms are those that are located in the dilution water contributing to the turbulent mixing and cooling at the discharge from the power plant (Coutant 1974). Damage to intake-entrained organisms can be re- lated to the individual or synergistic...

Chase, Cathleen Louise

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

131

Cost reduction performance enhancements of multiple site cooling water systems, enabled by remote system monitoring/control and multifaceted data management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An outsourced cooling water treatment automated control and data acquisition package, has been designed, installed, and commissioned in over 70 sites in North America and offshore. The standard package consists of a controller, sensors, human-machine interface software, data acquisition and management software, communications, and reporting. Significant challenges to applying this standard package in multiple sites arose from variations in cooling system design and makeup water quality as well as operations, environmental considerations, metrics, and language. A standard approach has met these challenges and overcome effects of downsizing through significant reduction in non-value-added, manual activities. Overall system reliability has been improved by migration to best practice throughout the organizations involved and immediate proactive response to out-of-specification conditions. This paper documents the evolution of a standard cooling water automation and data management package from its inception to current practice.

Cook, B. [BetzDearborn Water Management Group, Horsham, PA (United States); Young, D. [BetzDearborn Water Management Group, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Tari, K. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, New York, NY (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

132

Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tube sheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tube sheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tube sheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch there between. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight. 6 figures.

Gillett, J.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Orr, R.S.; Schulz, T.L.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

133

Lattice cell and full core physics of internally cooled annular fuel in heavy water moderated reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A program is underway at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to develop a new fuel bundle concept to enable greater burnups for PT-HWR (pressure tube heavy water reactor) cores. One option that AECL is investigating is an internally cooled annular fuel (ICAF) element concept. ICAF contains annular cylindrical pellets with cladding on the inner and outer diameters. Coolant flows along the outside of the element and through the centre. With such a concept, the maximum fuel temperature as a function of linear element rating is significantly reduced compared to conventional, solid-rod type fuel. The preliminary ICAF bundle concept considered in this study contains 24 half-metre long internally cooled annular fuel elements and one non-fuelled centre pin. The introduction of the non-fuelled centre pin reduces the coolant void reactivity (CVR), which is the increase in reactivity that occurs on voiding the coolant in accident scenarios. Lattice cell and full core physics calculations of the preliminary ICAF fuel bundle concept have been performed for medium burnups of approximately 18 GWd/tU using WIMS-AECL and reactor fuel simulation program (RFSP). The results will be used to assist in concept configuration optimization. The effects of radial and axial core power distributions, linear element power ratings, refuelling rates and operational power ramps have been analyzed. The results suggest that burnups of greater than 18 GWd/tU can be achieved in current reactor designs. At approximately 18 GWd/tU, expected maximum linear element ratings in a PT-HWR with online-refuelling are approximately 90 kW/m. These conditions would be prohibitive for solid-rod fuel, but may be possible in ICAF fuel given the reduced maximum fuel temperature as a function of linear element rating. (authors)

Armstrong, J.; Hamilton, H.; Hyland, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

REINFORCEMENT LEARNING IN THE OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT OF A WATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REINFORCEMENT LEARNING IN THE OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT OF A WATER SYSTEM Andrea Castelletti Giorgio an operating policy for the management of a multi-purpose water reservoir. The model-free approach is applied on the case of the regulation of Lake Como. Keywords: Water Resources Management, Reinforcement Learning

Corani, Giorgio

135

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Cooling Systems with Hot Aisle Containment in Data Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The supply water temperature to the cooling modules used ininlet supply air temperatures, as was the cooling modulesCooling System 2 be evaluated when operating with higher supply

Adams, Barbara J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Activation analysis and characteristics of the European community water cooled ceramic breeder blanket design proposal for ITER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The European Community (EC) Home Team has proposed various alternative blanket designs to the basic concept (essentially integrated first wall, cooled by liquid metal, with structures made by vanadium alloys). One of the EC proposal is the Water Cooled Ceramic Blanket developed on the basis of a common action between NET and ENEA. It is based on a more conservative approach, but involving well proven technologies and qualified materials: SS-316L as structural material, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} as first breeder material choice (50% Li{sup 6} enrichment) and low temperature water coolant (160/200{degrees}C). Beryllium has been chosen as multiplying material. The nominal performance are: 1 MW/m{sup 2} as average neutron wall load, corresponding to 1.5 GW fusion power, 1 MW-y/m{sup 2} beneath it has been proved to withstand power excursion till 5 GW. The proposed blanket concept is based on a Breeder Inside Tube (BIT) type technology, with poloidal breeding elements, each one consisting of two concentric tubes. Breeder pebbles are filled into the inner tube, the water coolant flows in the annular channel between the two tubes. Beryllium pebbles fill the space of the blanket box outside the outer tube. A helium purge gas flows through the breeder pebbles bed for tritium recovery. Alternative operating water temperature and pressure are proposed, considering also batch tritium recovery.

Petrizzi, L.; Rado, V. [ENEA-ERG-FUS, Frascati (Italy); Cepraga, D.G. [ENEA-INN-FIS, Bologna (Italy)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

137

A Synergistic Combination of Advanced Separation and Chemical Scale Inhibitor Technologies for Efficient Use of Imparied Water As Cooling Water in Coal-based Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nalco Company is partnering with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in this project to jointly develop advanced scale control technologies that will provide cost-effective solutions for coal-based power plants to operate recirculating cooling water systems at high cycles using impaired waters. The overall approach is to use combinations of novel membrane separations and scale inhibitor technologies that will work synergistically, with membrane separations reducing the scaling potential of the cooling water and scale inhibitors extending the safe operating range of the cooling water system. The project started on March 31, 2006 and ended in August 30, 2010. The project was a multiyear, multi-phase project with laboratory research and development as well as a small pilot-scale field demonstration. In Phase 1 (Technical Targets and Proof of Concept), the objectives were to establish quantitative technical targets and develop calcite and silica scale inhibitor chemistries for high stress conditions. Additional Phase I work included bench-scale testing to determine the feasibility of two membrane separation technologies (electrodialysis ED and electrode-ionization EDI) for scale minimization. In Phase 2 (Technology Development and Integration), the objectives were to develop additional novel scale inhibitor chemistries, develop selected separation processes, and optimize the integration of the technology components at the laboratory scale. Phase 3 (Technology Validation) validated the integrated system's performance with a pilot-scale demonstration. During Phase 1, Initial evaluations of impaired water characteristics focused on produced waters and reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents. Literature and new data were collected and evaluated. Characteristics of produced waters vary significantly from one site to another, whereas reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents have relatively more uniform characteristics. Assessment to date confirmed that calcite and silica/silicate are two common potential cycle-limiting minerals for using impaired waters. For produced waters, barium sulfate and calcium sulfate are two additional potential cycle-limiting minerals. For reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents, calcium phosphate scaling can be an issue, especially in the co-presence of high silica. Computational assessment, using a vast amount of Nalco's field data from coal fired power plants, showed that the limited use and reuse of impaired waters is due to the formation of deposit caused by the presence of iron, high hardness, high silica and high alkalinity in the water. Appropriate and cost-effective inhibitors were identified and developed - LL99B0 for calcite and gypsum inhibition and TX-15060 for silica inhibition. Nalco's existing dispersants HSP-1 and HSP-2 has excellent efficacy for dispersing Fe and Mn. ED and EDI were bench-scale tested by the CRADA partner Argonne National Laboratory for hardness, alkalinity and silica removal from synthetic make-up water and then cycled cooling water. Both systems showed low power consumption and 98-99% salt removal, however, the EDI system required 25-30% less power for silica removal. For Phase 2, the EDI system's performance was optimized and the length of time between clean-in-place (CIP) increased by varying the wafer composition and membrane configuration. The enhanced EDI system could remove 88% of the hardness and 99% of the alkalinity with a processing flux of 19.2 gal/hr/m{sup 2} and a power consumption of 0.54 kWh/100 gal water. Bench tests to screen alternative silica/silicate scale inhibitor chemistries have begun. The silica/silicate control approaches using chemical inhibitors include inhibition of silicic acid polymerization and dispersion of silica/silicate crystals. Tests were conducted with an initial silica concentration of 290-300 mg/L as SiO{sub 2} at pH 7 and room temperature. A proprietary new chemistry was found to be promising, compared with a current commercial product commonly used for silica/silicate control. Additional pilot cooling tower testing confirmed

Jasbir Gill

2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

138

Questions About Your Cooling Water System That You Need To Ask  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TO BE TREATED? Yes, yes, yes. Two bad th ings happen to water in cooling systems. The impurities in the water concentrate due to evaporation, and the impurities in the air are scrubbed into the water. These impurities, without treatment, would foul... and corrode the system rapidly. HOW CAN I DETERMINE WHAT TREATMENT I NEED? First, you must have tests performed on the water. The chemical constituents must be identified. Your system must be defined in terms of its sca1 ing and foul ing tendencies by a...

Matson, J. V.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Impacts of Water Loop Management on Simultaneous Heating and Cooling in Coupled Control Air Handling Units  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The impacts of the water loop management on the heating and cooling energy consumption are investigated by using model simulation. The simulation results show that the total thermal energy consumption can be increased by 24% for a typical AHU in San...

Guan, W.; Liu, M.; Wang, J.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

EIS-0121: Alternative Cooling Water Systems, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into the selection and implementation of cooling water systems for thermal discharges from K and C-Reactors and from a coal-fired powerhouse in the D-Area at the Savannah River Plant (SRP)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operational cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Water Management Plans for Surface Coal Mining Operations (North Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A water management plan is required for all surface coal mining operations. This plan must be submitted to the State Engineer of the State Water Commission at the same time a surface mining permit...

142

Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA); Lau, Louis K. (Monroeville, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps. 1 figures.

Corletti, M.M.; Lau, L.K.; Schulz, T.L.

1993-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

144

Effect of makeup water properties on the condenser fouling in power planr cooling system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermoelectric power industry in the U.S. uses a large amount of fresh water. As available freshwater for use in thermoelectric power production becomes increasingly limited, use of nontraditional water sources is of growing interest. Utilization of nontraditional water, in cooling systems increases the potential for mineral precipitation on heat exchanger surfaces. In that regard, predicting the accelerated rate of scaling and fouling in condenser is crucial to evaluate the condenser performance. To achieve this goal, water chemistry should be incorporated in cooling system modeling and simulation. This paper addresses the effects of various makeup water properties on the cooling system, namely pH and aqueous speciation, both of which are important factors affecting the fouling rate in the main condenser. Detailed modeling of the volatile species desorption (i.e. CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}), the formation of scale in the recirculating system, and the relationship between water quality and the corresponding fouling rates is presented.

Safari, I.; Walker, M.; Abbasian, J.; Arastoopour, H.; Hsieh, M-K.; Dzombak, D.; Miller, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

A Novel Absorption Cycle for Combined Water Heating, Dehumidification, and Evaporative Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, development of a novel system for combined water heating, dehumidification, and space evaporative cooling is discussed. Ambient water vapor is used as a working fluid in an open system. First, water vapor is absorbed from an air stream into an absorbent solution. The latent heat of absorption is transferred into the process water that cools the absorber. The solution is then regenerated in the desorber, where it is heated by a heating fluid. The water vapor generated in the desorber is condensed and its heat of phase change is transferred to the process water in the condenser. The condensed water can then be used in an evaporative cooling process to cool the dehumidified air exiting the absorber, or it can be drained if primarily dehumidification is desired. Essentially, this open absorption cycle collects space heat and transfers it to process water. This technology is enabled by a membrane-based absorption/desorption process in which the absorbent is constrained by hydrophobic vapor-permeable membranes. Constraining the absorbent film has enabled fabrication of the absorber and desorber in a plate-and-frame configuration. An air stream can flow against the membrane at high speed without entraining the absorbent, which is a challenge in conventional dehumidifiers. Furthermore, the absorption and desorption rates of an absorbent constrained by a membrane are greatly enhanced. Isfahani and Moghaddam (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2013) demonstrated absorption rates of up to 0.008 kg/m2s in a membrane-based absorber and Isfahani et al. (Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 2013) have reported a desorption rate of 0.01 kg/m2s in a membrane-based desorber. The membrane-based architecture also enables economical small-scale systems, novel cycle configurations, and high efficiencies. The absorber, solution heat exchanger, and desorber are fabricated on a single metal sheet. In addition to the open arrangement and membrane-based architecture, another novel feature of the cycle is recovery of the solution heat energy exiting the desorber by process water (a process-solution heat exchanger ) rather than the absorber exiting solution (the conventional solution heat exchanger ). This approach has enabled heating the process water from an inlet temperature of 15 C to 57 C (conforming to the DOE water heater test standard) and interfacing the process water with absorbent on the opposite side of a single metal sheet encompassing the absorber, process-solution heat exchanger, and desorber. The system under development has a 3.2 kW water heating capacity and a target thermal coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.6.

CHUGH, Devesh [University of Florida, Gainesville; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Moghaddam, Saeed [University of Florida, Gainesville

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivers solar-heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provides auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

None

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Water turbine system and method of operation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

Costin, Daniel P.

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

Water turbine system and method of operation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

Costin, Daniel P. (Montpelier, VT)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

149

Managing Uncertainty in Operational Control of Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Managing Uncertainty in Operational Control of Water Distribution Systems A. Bargiela Department. There are system management decisions concerning the regulatory measures such as water pricing principles, effluent in water distribution systems con- cern reservoir(s) management with associated pump scheduling

Bargiela, Andrzej

150

Cold side thermal energy storage system for improved operation of air cooled power plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air cooled power plants experience significant performance fluctuations as plant cooling capacity reduces due to higher daytime temperature than nighttime temperature. The purpose of this thesis is to simulate the detailed ...

Williams, Daniel David

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

The ultra-high lime with aluminum process for removing chloride from recirculating cooling water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE ULTRA-HIGH LIME WITH ALUMINUM PROCESS FOR REMOVING CHLORIDE FROM RECIRCULATING COOLING WATER A Dissertation by AHMED IBRAHEEM ALI ABDEL-WAHAB Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...-WAHAB Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved as to style and content by: Bill Batchelor (Chair of Committee) Robin L. Autenrieth (Member...

Abdel-wahab, Ahmed Ibraheem Ali

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

152

Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseWinterConsumed | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformationInyoCoolingTowerWaterUseSummerConsumed Jump to: navigation, search

153

Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseWinterGross | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformationInyoCoolingTowerWaterUseSummerConsumed Jump to: navigation,

154

Mass-density and Phonon-frequency Relaxation Dynamics of Water and Ice at Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coulomb repulsion between the bonding electron pair in the H-O covalent bond (denoted by "-") and the nonbonding electron pair of O (":") and the specific-heat disparity between the O:H and the H-O segments of the entire hydrogen bond (O:H-O) are shown to determine the O:H-O bond angle-length-stiffness relaxation dynamics and the density anomalies of water and ice. The bonding part with relatively lower specific-heat is more easily activated by cooling, which serves as the "master" and contracts, while forcing the "slave" with higher specific-heat to elongate (via Coulomb repulsion) by different amounts. In the liquid and solid phases, the O:H van der Waals bond serves as the master and becomes significantly shorter and stiffer while the H-O bond becomes slightly longer and softer (phonon frequency is a measure of bond stiffness), resulting in an O:H-O cooling contraction and the seemingly "regular" process of cooling densification. In the water-ice transition phase, the master and the slave swap roles, thus resulting in an O:H-O elongation and volume expansion during freezing. In ice, the O--O distance is longer than it is in water, resulting in a lower density, so that ice floats.

Chang Q. Sun

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

155

Presence of pathogenic amoebae in power plant cooling waters. Final report, October 15, 1977-September 30, 1979. [Naegleria fowleri  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cooling-water-associated algae and sediments from five northern and five southern or western electric power plants were tested for the presence of pathogenic amoebae. In addition, water algae and sediments from five northern and five southern/western sites not associated with power plants were tested. There was a significant correlation at northern power plants between the presence of thermophilic, pathogenic amoebae in cooling waters and thermal additions. Presence of the pathogenic did not correlate with salinity, pH, conductivity, or a variety of various chemical components of the cooling waters. Selected pathogenic isolates were tested serologically and were classified as Naegleria fowleri. Although thermal additions were shown to be contributing factor in predisposing cooling waters to the growth of pathogenic amoebae, the data suggest the involvement of other currently undefined parameters associated with the presence of the pathogenic amoebae. 35 refs., 21 tabs.

Tyndall, R.L.; Willaert, E.; Stevens, A.R.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consumptions. The cooling capacities for WC and AC systems were 373 and 278 tons-of- refrigeration, respectively. It was found that for the same cooling production, the peak power demand and the daily energy consumption of the WC system were 45 and 32% less...

Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Feasibility of Water Cooled Thorium Breeder Reactor Based on LWR Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The feasibility of Th-{sup 233}U fueled, homogenous breeder reactor based on matured conventional LWR technology was studied. The famous demonstration at Shipping-port showed that the Th-{sup 233}U fueled, heterogeneous PWR with four different lattice fuels was possible to breed fissile but its low averaged burn-up including blanket fuel and the complicated core configuration were not suitable for economically competitive reactor. The authors investigated the wide design range in terms of fuel cell design, power density, averaged discharge burn-up, etc. to determine the potential of water-cooled Th reactor as a competitive breeder. It is found that a low moderated (MFR=0.3) H{sub 2}O-cooled reactor with comparable burn-up with current LWR is feasible to breed fissile fuel but the core size is too large to be economical because of the low pellet power density. On the other hand, D{sub 2}O-cooled reactor shows relatively wider feasible design window, therefore it is possible to design a core having better neutronic and economic performance than H{sub 2}O-cooled. Both coolant-type cores show negative void reactivity coefficient while achieving breeding capability which is a distinguished characteristics of thorium based fuel breeder reactor. (authors)

Takaki, Naoyuki; Permana, Sidik; Sekimoto, Hiroshi [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Sensitivity Analysis of Reprocessing Cooling Times on Light Water Reactor and Sodium Fast Reactor Fuel Cycles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of variations of the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and fast reactor reprocessing cooling time on a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) assuming a single-tier fuel cycle scenario. The results from this study show the effects of different cooling times on the SFRs transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio (CR) and transuranic fuel enrichment. Also, the decay heat, gamma heat and neutron emission of the SFRs fresh fuel charge were evaluated. A 1000 MWth commercial-scale SFR design was selected as the baseline in this study. Both metal and oxide CR=0.50 SFR designs are investigated.

R. M. Ferrer; S. Bays; M. Pope

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

IAEA coordinated research project on thermal-hydraulics of Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors (SCWRs)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) is an innovative water-cooled reactor concept, which uses supercritical pressure water as reactor coolant. It has been attracting interest of many researchers in various countries mainly due to its benefits of high thermal efficiency and simple primary systems, resulting in low capital cost. The IAEA started in 2008 a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Thermal-Hydraulics of SCWRs as a forum to foster the exchange of technical information and international collaboration in research and development. This paper summarizes the activities and current status of the CRP, as well as major progress achieved to date. At present, 15 institutions closely collaborate in several tasks. Some organizations have been conducting thermal-hydraulics experiments and analysing the data, and others have been participating in code-to-test and/or code-to-code benchmark exercises. The expected outputs of the CRP are also discussed. Finally, the paper introduces several IAEA activities relating to or arising from the CRP. (authors)

Yamada, K. [Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Aksan, S. N. [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Soy-Based, Water-Cooled, TC W-III Two Cycle Engine Oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to achieve technical approval and commercial launch for a biodegradable soy oil-based, environmentally safe, TC W-III performance, water-cooled, two cycle engine oil. To do so would: (1) develop a new use for RBD soybean oil; (2) increase soybean utilization in North America in the range of 500 K-3.0 MM bushels; and (3) open up supply opportunities of 1.5-5.0 MM bushels worldwide. These goals have been successfully obtained.

Scharf, Curtis R.; Miller, Mark E.

2003-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operational cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

General features of direct-cycle, supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concept of direct-cycle, supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors is developed. Breeding is possible in the tight lattice core. The power output can be maximized in the fast converter reactor. The gross thermal efficiency of the high temperature reactor adopting Inconel as fuel cladding is expected to be 44.8%. The plant system is similar to the supercritical-fossil-fired power plant which adopts once-through type coolant circulation system. The volume and height of the containment are approximately half of the BWR. The basic safety principles follows those of LWRs. The reactor will solve the economic problems of LWR and LMFBR.

Oka, Y.; Koshizuka, S. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerConsumed | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformationInyoCoolingTowerWaterUseSummerConsumed Jump to: navigation, search Property Name

163

Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerGross | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformationInyoCoolingTowerWaterUseSummerConsumed Jump to: navigation, search Property

164

Fabrication of gas turbine water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware employing plasma spray process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In the method for fabrication of water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware for high temperature gas turbines, a high thermal conductivity copper alloy is applied, employing a high velocity/low pressure (HV/LP) plasma arc spraying process, to an assembly comprising a structural framework of copper alloy or a nickel-based super alloy, or combination of the two, and overlying cooling tubes. The copper alloy is plamsa sprayed to a coating thickness sufficient to completely cover the cooling tubes, and to allow for machining back of the copper alloy to create a smooth surface having a thickness of from 0.010 inch (0.254 mm) to 0.150 inch (3.18 mm) or more. The layer of copper applied by the plasma spraying has no continuous porosity, and advantageously may readily be employed to sustain a pressure differential during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonding of the overall structure to enhance bonding by solid state diffusion between the component parts of the structure.

Schilke, Peter W. (4 Hempshire Ct., Scotia, NY 12302); Muth, Myron C. (R.D. #3, Western Ave., Amsterdam, NY 12010); Schilling, William F. (301 Garnsey Rd., Rexford, NY 12148); Rairden, III, John R. (6 Coronet Ct., Schenectady, NY 12309)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

The Binary Cooling Tower Process: An Energy Conserving Water Reuse Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Binary Cooling Tower (BCT) harnesses cooling system waste heat to accomplish concentration of waste and process streams. The BCT can also be integrated to isolate and improve the efficiency of critical cooling loops. This paper describes the BCT...

Lancaster, R. L.; Sanderson, W. G.; Cooke, R. L., Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine geothermal ORC system Optimization of hybrid-waterair-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine geothermal ORC system DOE Geothermal...

167

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced water-cooled reactors Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in the Subcritical, Gas-Cooled Fast Transmutation Reactor Concept", Nucl... Cooled, Fast, Subcritical Advanced Burner ... Source: MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Collection:...

168

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The supercritical water reactor (SCWR) has been the object of interest throughout the nuclear Generation IV community because of its high potential: a simple, direct cycle, compact configuration; elimination of many traditional LWR components, operation at coolant temperatures much higher than traditional LWRs and thus high thermal efficiency. It could be said that the SWR was viewed as the water counterpart to the high temperature gas reactor.

Philip MacDonald; Jacopo Buongiorno; James Sterbentz; Cliff Davis; Robert Witt; Gary Was; J. McKinley; S. Teysseyre; Luca Oriani; Vefa Kucukboyaci; Lawrence Conway; N. Jonsson: Bin Liu

2005-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

169

Knowledge and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Boiling water reactors, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Boiling-Water Reactors (BWRs) (NUREG-1123, Revision 1) provides the basis for the development of content-valid licensing examinations for reactor operators (ROs) and senior reactor operators (SROs). The examinations developed using the BWR Catalog along with the Operator Licensing Examiner Standards (NUREG-1021) and the Examiner`s Handbook for Developing Operator Licensing Written Examinations (NUREG/BR-0122), will cover the topics listed under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55 (10 CFR 55). The BWR Catalog contains approximately 7,000 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for ROs and SROs at BWRs. The catalog is organized into six major sections: Organization of the Catalog, Generic Knowledge and Ability Statements, Plant Systems grouped by Safety Functions, Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions, Components, and Theory. Revision 1 to the BWR Catalog represents a modification in form and content of the original catalog. The K/As were linked to their applicable 10 CFR 55 item numbers. SRO level K/As were identified by 10 CFR 55.43 item numbers. The plant-wide generic and system generic K/As were combined in one section with approximately one hundred new K/As. Component Cooling Water and Instrument Air Systems were added to the Systems Section. Finally, High Containment Hydrogen Concentration and Plant Fire On Site evolutions added to the Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions section.

NONE

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Optimizing Cooling Tower Performance Refrigeration Systems, Chemical Plants, and Power Plants All Have A Resource Quietly Awaiting Exploitation-Cold Water!!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

requirements before a cooling tower is purchased. This relates to the volume of circulating water, hot water temperature on the tower, cold water discharge, and wet bulb temperature (consisting of ambient temperature and relative humidity). After the tower...

Burger, R.

171

Technology to Facilitate the Use of Impaired Waters in Cooling Towers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project goal was to develop an effective silica removal technology and couple that with existing electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) technology to achieve a cost effective treatment for impaired waters to allow for their use in the cooling towers of coal fired power plants. A quantitative target of the program was a 50% reduction in the fresh water withdrawal at a levelized cost of water of $3.90/Kgal. Over the course of the program, a new molybdenum-modified alumina was developed that significantly outperforms existing alumina materials in silica removal both kinetically and thermodynamically. The Langmuir capacity is 0.11g silica/g adsorbent. Moreover, a low cost recycle/regeneration process was discovered to allow for multiple recycles with minimal loss in activity. On the lab scale, five runs were carried out with no drop in performance between the second and fifth run in ability to absorb the silica from water. The Mo-modified alumina was successfully prepared on a multiple kilogram scale and a bench scale model column was used to remove 100 ppm of silica from 400 liters of simulated impaired water. Significant water savings would result from such a process and the regeneration process could be further optimized to reduce water requirements. Current barriers to implementation are the base cost of the adsorbent material and the fine powder form that would lead to back pressure on a large column. If mesoporous materials become more commonly used in other areas and the price drops from volume and process improvements, then our material would also lower in price because the amount of molybdenum needed is low and no additional processing is required. There may well be engineering solutions to the fine powder issue; in a simple concept experiment, we were able to pelletize our material with Boehmite, but lost performance due to a dramatic decrease in surface area.

Colborn, Robert

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

172

A Qualitative Assessment of Thorium-Based Fuels in Supercritical Pressure Water Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The requirements for the next generation of reactors include better economics and safety, waste minimization (particularly of the long-lived isotopes), and better proliferation resistance (both intrinsic and extrinsic). A supercritical pressure water cooled reactor has been chosen as one of the lead contenders as a Generation IV reactor due to the high thermal efficiency and compact/simplified plant design. In addition, interest in the use of thorium-based fuels for Generation IV reactors has increased based on the abundance of thorium, and the minimization of transuranics in a neutron flux; as plutonium (and thus the minor actinides) is not a by-product in the thorium chain. In order to better understand the possibility of the combination of these concepts to meet the Generation IV goals, the qualitative burnup potential and discharge isotopics of thorium and uranium fuel were studied using pin cell analyses in a supercritical pressure water cooled reactor environment. Each of these fertile materials were used in both nitride and metallic form, with light water reactor grade plutonium and minor actinides added. While the uranium-based fuels achieved burnups that were 1.3 to 2.7 times greater than their thorium-based counterparts, the thorium-based fuels destroyed 2 to 7 times more of the plutonium and minor actinides. The fission-to-capture ratio is much higher in this reactor as compared to PWRs and BWRs due to the harder neutron spectrum, thus allowing more efficient destruction of the transuranic elements. However, while the uranium-based fuels do achieve a net depletion of plutonium and minor actinides, the breeding of these isotopes limits this depletion; especially as compared to the thorium-based fuels.

Weaver, Kevan Dean; Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Pollution prevention and water conservation in metals finishing operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Attleboro, Massachusetts is the headquarters of the Materials and Controls Group of Texas Instruments Incorporated (Texas Instruments). In support of their activities, Texas Instruments operates a number of metal finishing and electroplating processes. The water supply and the wastewater treatment requirements are supplied throughout the facility from a central location. Water supply quality requirements varies with each manufacturing operation. As a result, manufacturing operations are classified as either high level or a lower water quality. The facility has two methods of wastewater treatment and disposal. The first method involves hydroxide and sulfide metals precipitation prior to discharge to a surface water. The second method involves metals precipitation, filtration, and discharge via sewer to the Attleboro WTF. The facility is limited to a maximum wastewater discharge of 460,000 gallons per day to surface water under the existing National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. There is also a hydraulic flow restriction on pretreated wastewater that is discharged to the Attleboro WTF. Both of these restrictions combined with increased production could cause the facility to reach the treatment capacity. The net effect is that wastewater discharge problems are becoming restrictive to the company`s growth. This paper reviews Texas Instruments efforts to overcome these restrictions through pollution prevention and reuse practices rather than expansion of end of pipe treatment methods.

O`Shaughnessy, J.; Clark, W. [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., MA (United States); Lizotte, R.P. Jr.; Mikutel, D. [Texas Instruments Inc., Attleboro, MA (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by nitrification helped to reduce the corrosivity and biocide demand. Also, the lower pH and alkalinity resulting from nitrification reduced the scaling to an acceptable level, without the addition of anti-scalant chemicals. Additional GAC adsorption treatment, MWW_NFG, yielded no net benefit. Removal of organic matter resulted in pitting corrosion in copper and cupronickel alloys. Negligible improvement was observed in scaling control and biofouling control. For all of the tertiary treatments, biofouling control was achievable, and most effectively with pre-formed monochloramine (2-3 ppm) in comparison with NaOCl and ClO2. Life cycle cost (LCC) analyses were performed for the tertiary treatment systems studied experimentally and for several other treatment options. A public domain conceptual costing tool (LC3 model) was developed for this purpose. MWW_SF (lime softening and sand filtration) and MWW_NF were the most cost-effective treatment options among the tertiary treatment alternatives considered because of the higher effluent quality with moderate infrastructure costs and the relatively low doses of conditioning chemicals required. Life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis along with integration of external costs of emissions with direct costs was performed to evaluate relative emissions to the environment and external costs associated with construction and operation of tertiary treatment alternatives. Integrated LCI and LCC analysis indicated that three-tiered treatment alternatives such as MWW_NSF and MWW_NFG, with regular chemical addition for treatment and conditioning and/or regeneration, tend to increase the impact costs and in turn the overall costs of tertiary treatment. River water supply and MWW_F alternatives with a single step of tertiary treatment were associated with lower impact costs, but the contribution of impact costs to overall annual costs was higher than all other treatment alternatives. MWW_NF and MWW_SF alternatives exhibited moderate external impact costs with moderate infrastructure and chemical conditioner dosing, which makes them (especially

David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

175

GROUND-WATER CONTRIBUTION TO DOSE FROM PAST HANFORD OPERATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEOR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides originating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: 1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; 2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; 3) through wells that draw some or all of their water from the Columbia River (riparian wells); and 4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in the contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring. These four pathways make up the "ground-water pathway ," which is the subject of this study. The objective of the study was to assess the extent to which the groundwater pathway contributed to radiation doses that populations or individuals may have received from past operations at Hanford. The assessment presented in this report was performed by 1) reviewing the extensive ?literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and 2) performing simple calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations in ground water and the Columbia River resulting from ground-water discharge. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to this ground water and surface water were calculated. The study conclusion is that the ground-water pathways did not contribute significantly to dose. Compared with background radiation in the TriCities {300 mrem/yr), estimated doses are small: 0.02 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from discharge of contaminated ground water to the Columbia River; 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from Hanford Site wells; 11 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from riparian wells; and 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from the watershed. Because the estimated doses are so small, the recommendation is that further work on the ground-water pathway be limited to tracking ongoing ground-water studies at the Hanford Site.

Freshley, M. D.; Thorne, P. D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Delivering Tons to the Register: Energy Efficient Design and Operation of Residential Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, was used to determine the effect of several parameters on energy consumption, peak electrical demand cooling performance and lower energy consumption than houses with ducts in conventional attics. However consumption, and power demand. The effects of refrigerant charge, evaporator air flow), oversizing (relative

178

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2003, 2nd Annual/8th Quarterly Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation-IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% vs. about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors, LWRs) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus the need for recirculation and jet pumps, a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies, LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which is also in use around the world.

Philip E. MacDonald

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of three backup water cooling stations for the LHC cryogenic plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of three backup water cooling stations for the LHC cryogenic plants

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Proposal for the award of a blanket contract for the supply, commissioning and maintenance of water-and air-cooled chillers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal for the award of a blanket contract for the supply, commissioning and maintenance of water-and air-cooled chillers

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operational cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Proposal to negotiate an amendment to a blanket purchase contract for the supply and installation of water-cooled bus bars and cables for the LHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal to negotiate an amendment to a blanket purchase contract for the supply and installation of water-cooled bus bars and cables for the LHC

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Passive containment cooling system with drywell pressure regulation for boiling water reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A boiling water reactor is described having a regulating valve for placing the wetwell in flow communication with an intake duct of the passive containment cooling system. This subsystem can be adjusted to maintain the drywell pressure at (or slightly below or above) wetwell pressure after the initial reactor blowdown transient is over. This addition to the PCCS design has the benefit of eliminating or minimizing steam leakage from the drywell to the wetwell in the longer-term post-LOCA time period and also minimizes the temperature difference between drywell and wetwell. This in turn reduces the rate of long-term pressure buildup of the containment, thereby extending the time to reach the design pressure limit. 4 figures.

Hill, P.R.

1994-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

183

Kinetic model for predicting the concentrations of active halogens species in chlorinated saline cooling waters. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A kinetic model has been developed for describing the speciation of chlorine-produced oxidants in seawater as a function of time. The model is applicable under a broad variety of conditions, including all pH range, salinities, temperatures, ammonia concentrations, organic amine concentrations, and chlorine doses likely to be encountered during power plant cooling water chlorination. However, the effects of sunlight are not considered. The model can also be applied to freshwater and recirculating water systems with cooling towers. The results of the model agree with expectation, however, complete verification is not feasible at the present because analytical methods for some of the predicted species are lacking.

Haag, W.R.; Lietzke, M.H.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Shockwave generation by a semiconductor bridge operation in water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A semiconductor bridge (SCB) is a silicon device, used in explosive systems as the electrical initiator element. In recent years, SCB plasma has been extensively studied, both electrically and using fast photography and spectroscopic imaging. However, the value of the pressure buildup at the bridge remains unknown. In this study, we operated SCB devices in water and, using shadow imaging and reference beam interferometry, obtained the velocity of the shock wave propagation and distribution of the density of water. These results, together with a self-similar hydrodynamic model, were used to calculate the pressure generated by the exploding SCB. In addition, the results obtained showed that the energy of the water flow exceeds significantly the energy deposited into the exploded SCB. The latter can be explained by the combustion of the aluminum and silicon atoms released in water, which acts as an oxidizing medium.

Zvulun, E.; Toker, G.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

185

Feasibility study for use of the natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) for VHTR water-cooled RCCS shutdown.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In summary, a scaling analysis of a water-cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) system was performed based on generic information on the RCCS design of PBMR. The analysis demonstrates that the water-cooled RCCS can be simulated at the ANL NSTF facility at a prototypic scale in the lateral direction and about half scale in the vertical direction. Because, by necessity, the scaling is based on a number of approximations, and because no analytical information is available on the performance of a reference water-cooled RCCS, the scaling analysis presented here needs to be 'validated' by analysis of the steady state and transient performance of a reference water-cooled RCCS design. The analysis of the RCCS performance by CFD and system codes presents a number of challenges including: strong 3-D effects in the cavity and the RCCS tubes; simulation of turbulence in flows characterized by natural circulation, high Rayleigh numbers and low Reynolds numbers; validity of heat transfer correlations for system codes for heat transfer in the cavity and the annulus of the RCCS tubes; the potential of nucleate boiling in the tubes; water flashing in the upper section of the RCCS return line (during limiting transient); and two-phase flow phenomena in the water tanks. The limited simulation of heat transfer in cavities presented in Section 4.0, strongly underscores the need of experimental work to validate CFD codes, and heat transfer correlations for system codes, and to support the analysis and design of the RCCS. Based on the conclusions of the scaling analysis, a schematic that illustrates key attributes of the experiment system is shown in Fig. 4. This system contains the same physical elements as the PBMR RCCS, plus additional equipment to facilitate data gathering to support code validation. In particular, the prototype consists of a series of oval standpipes surrounding the reactor vessel to provide cooling of the reactor cavity during both normal and off-normal operating conditions. The standpipes are headered (in groups of four in the prototype) to water supply (header) tanks that are situated well above the reactor vessel to facilitate natural convection cooling during a loss of forced flow event. During normal operations, the water is pumped from a heat sink located outside the containment to the headered inlets to the standpipes. The water is then delivered to each standpipe through a centrally located downcomer that passes the coolant to the bottom of each pipe. The water then turns 180{sup o} and rises up through the annular gap while extracting heat from the reactor cavity due to a combination of natural convection and radiation across the gap between the reactor vessel and standpipes. The water exits the standpipes at the top where it is headered (again in groups of four) into a return line that passes the coolant to the top of the header tank. Coolant is drawn from each tank through a fitting located near the top of the tank where it flows to the heat rejection system located outside the containment. This completes the flow circuit for normal operations. During off-normal conditions, forced convection water cooling in the RCCS is presumed to be lost, as well as the ultimate heat sink outside the containment. In this case, water is passively drawn from an open line located at the bottom of the header tank. This line is orificed so that flow bypass during normal operations is small, yet the line is large enough to provide adequate flow during passive operations to remove decay heat while maintaining acceptable fuel temperatures. In the passive operating mode, water flows by natural convection from the bottom of the supply tank to the standpipes, and returns through the normal pathway to the top of the tanks. After the water reaches saturation and boiling commences, steam will pass through the top of the tanks and be vented to atmosphere. In the experiment system shown in Fig. 4, a steam condensation and collection system is included to quantify the boiling rate, thereby providing additional validation data. This sys

Tzanos, C.P.; Farmer, M.T.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2007-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

186

Preliminary Retro-Commissioning Study on Optimal Operation for the Heat Source System of a District Heating Cooling Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heating Water Suuply Chilled Water Return Heating Water Return To User New System ESL-IC-08-10-57 Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 2 attract attention due..., R6 450 1, 1 ESL-IC-08-10-57 Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 3 (one office building and one building with hotel rooms and leisure facilities) since November...

Shingu, H.; Yoshida, H.; Wang, F.; Ono, E.

187

Operating Experience Review of Tritium-in-Water Monitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monitoring tritium facility and fusion experiment effluent streams is an environmental safety requirement. This paper presents data on the operating experience of a solid scintillant monitor for tritium in effluent water. Operating experiences were used to calculate an average monitor failure rate of 4E-05/hour for failure to function. Maintenance experiences were examined to find the active repair time for this type of monitor, which varied from 22 minutes for filter replacement to 11 days of downtime while waiting for spare parts to arrive on site. These data support planning for monitor use; the number of monitors needed, allocating technician time for maintenance, inventories of spare parts, and other issues.

S. A. Bruyere; L. C. Cadwallader

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Seismicity and seismic response of the Soviet-designed VVER (Water-cooled, Water moderated Energy Reactor) reactor plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On March 4, 1977, a strong earthquake occurred at Vrancea, Romania, about 350 km from the Kozloduy plant in Bulgaria. Subsequent to this event, construction of the unit 2 of the Armenia plant was delayed over two years while seismic features were added. On December 7, 1988, another strong earthquake struck northwest Armenia about 90 km north of the Armenia plant. Extensive damage of residential and industrial facilities occurred in the vicinity of the epicenter. The earthquake did not damage the Armenia plant. Following this event, the Soviet government announced that the plant would be shutdown permanently by March 18, 1989, and the station converted to a fossil-fired plant. This paper presents the results of the seismic analyses of the Soviet-designed VVER (Water-cooled, Water moderated Energy Reactor) plants. Also presented is the information concerning seismicity in the regions where VVERs are located and information on seismic design of VVERs. The reference units are the VVER-440 model V230 (similar to the two units of the Armenia plant) and the VVER-1000 model V320 units at Kozloduy in Bulgaria. This document provides an initial basis for understanding the seismicity and seismic response of VVERs under seismic events. 1 ref., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Ma, D.C.; Gvildys, J.; Wang, C.Y.; Spencer, B.W.; Sienicki, J.J.; Seidensticker, R.W.; Purvis, E.E. III

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

A European proposal for a ITER water cooled solid breeder blanket  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Water Cooled Solid Breeder Blanket concept here proposed is based on a conservative approach, involving well proven technologies and-qualified materials. 316 L type stainless steel has been selected as the structural material. The nominal performances are: 1 MW/m{sup 2} as the average neutron wall load which corresponds to a fusion power of about 1.5 GW, and 1 MWy/m{sup 2} as the average neutron fluence. The power margins of the proposed concept have been estimated. The proposed blanket concept is based on a Breeder Inside Tube (BIT) type blanket with poloidal breeding elements, whose dimensions are compatible with space available in test fission reactor core channels, that makes easier in-pile testing required for the blanket development and qualification. Each breeding element consists of two concentric tubes. 1.2 mm lithium metazirconate (Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) pebbles are filled into the inner tube, the water coolant flows in the annular channel between the two tubes, and 2 mm Beryllium pebbles are poured into the blanket box outside the outer tube. Lithium metazirconate has been selected as the breeder material because it presents today the best tritium release properties at low temperature. A helium purge gas flows through the breeder pebble bed for tritium recovery. A Shielding Blanket can be derived from the proposed Blanket concept by removing the breeder pebbles from the inner tube. In-situ convertibility issues are addressed.

Lorenzetto, P. [NET, Garching (Germany); Gierszewski, P. [CFFTP, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Simbolotti, G. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

Water use in the development and operation of geothermal power plants.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geothermal energy is increasingly recognized for its potential to reduce carbon emissions and U.S. dependence on foreign oil. Energy and environmental analyses are critical to developing a robust set of geothermal energy technologies. This report summarizes what is currently known about the life cycle water requirements of geothermal electric power-generating systems and the water quality of geothermal waters. It is part of a larger effort to compare the life cycle impacts of large-scale geothermal electricity generation with other power generation technologies. The results of the life cycle analysis are summarized in a companion report, Life Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other Power Systems. This report is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to inform power plant design and operations. Chapter 2 summarizes the geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study, which include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists but water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 3 describes the methods and approach to this work and identifies the four power plant scenarios evaluated: a 20-MW EGS plant, a 50-MW EGS plant, a 10-MW binary plant, and a 50-MW flash plant. The two EGS scenarios include hydraulic stimulation activities within the construction stage of the life cycle and assume binary power generation during operations. The EGS and binary scenarios are assumed to be air-cooled power plants, whereas the flash plant is assumed to rely on evaporative cooling. The well field and power plant design for the scenario were based on simulations using DOE's Geothermal Economic Technology Evaluation Model (GETEM). Chapter 4 presents the water requirements for the power plant life cycle for the scenarios evaluated. Geology, reservoir characteristics, and local climate have various effects on elements such as drilling rate, the number of production wells, and production flow rates. Over the life cycle of a geothermal power plant, from construction through 30 years of operation, plant operations is where the vast majority of water consumption occurs. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or non-geothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. For the EGS scenarios, plant operations consume between 0.29 and 0.72 gal/kWh. The binary plant experiences similar operational consumption, at 0.27 gal/kWh. Far less water, just 0.01 gal/kWh, is consumed during operations of the flash plant because geofluid is used for cooling and is not replaced. While the makeup water requirements are far less for a hydrothermal flash plant, the long-term sustainability of the reservoir is less certain due to estimated evaporative losses of 14.5-33% of produced geofluid at operating flash plants. For the hydrothermal flash scenario, the average loss of geofluid due to evaporation, drift, and blowdown is 2.7 gal/kWh. The construction stage requires considerably less water: 0.001 gal/kWh for both the binary and flash plant scenarios and 0.01 gal/kWh for the EGS scenarios. The additional water requirements for the EGS scenarios are caused by a combination of factors, including lower flow rates per well, which increases the total number of wells needed per plant, the assumed well depths, and the hydraulic stimulation required to engineer the reservoir. Water quality results are presented in Chapter 5. The chemical composition of geofluid has important implications for plant operations and the potential environmental impacts of geothermal energy production. An extensive dataset containing more than 53,000 geothermal geochemical data points was compiled and analyzed for general trends and statistics for typical geofluids. Geofluid composition was found to vary significantly both among and within geothermal fields. Seven main chemical constituents were found to

Clark, C. E.; Harto, C. B.; Sullivan, J. L.; Wang, M. Q. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

2010-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

191

Design and Operation of Fan-Coil Units in Using River Water as Chilled Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in P. R. China. The concentrated A/C system utilizing natural cool resource of the river-water was built and put into service in 2000. The A/C system does not need any chiller, and the medium inlet-water provided to terminal equipment is just... The dew-point temperature of air at different dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity lt t ? t ? ? ? ?%? 20 22 24 26 28 40 6.09 7.85 9.62 11.39 13.17 50 9.31 11.13 12.96 14.80 16.63 60 12.02 13.90 15.78 17.66 19.55 70 14.38 16.30 18.22 20...

Jiang, A.; Chen, H.; Ma, W.; Zhu, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

Ken Mortensen

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

193

Storing carbon dioxide in saline formations : analyzing extracted water treatment and use for power plant cooling.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an effort to address the potential to scale up of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and sequestration in the United States saline formations, an assessment model is being developed using a national database and modeling tool. This tool builds upon the existing NatCarb database as well as supplemental geological information to address scale up potential for carbon dioxide storage within these formations. The focus of the assessment model is to specifically address the question, 'Where are opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use for existing and expanding power plants, and what are the economic impacts of these systems relative to traditional power systems?' Initial findings indicate that approximately less than 20% of all the existing complete saline formation well data points meet the working criteria for combined CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water treatment systems. The initial results of the analysis indicate that less than 20% of all the existing complete saline formation well data may meet the working depth, salinity and formation intersecting criteria. These results were taken from examining updated NatCarb data. This finding, while just an initial result, suggests that the combined use of saline formations for CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use may be limited by the selection criteria chosen. A second preliminary finding of the analysis suggests that some of the necessary data required for this analysis is not present in all of the NatCarb records. This type of analysis represents the beginning of the larger, in depth study for all existing coal and natural gas power plants and saline formations in the U.S. for the purpose of potential CO{sub 2} storage and water reuse for supplemental cooling. Additionally, this allows for potential policy insight when understanding the difficult nature of combined potential institutional (regulatory) and physical (engineered geological sequestration and extracted water system) constraints across the United States. Finally, a representative scenario for a 1,800 MW subcritical coal fired power plant (amongst other types including supercritical coal, integrated gasification combined cycle, natural gas turbine and natural gas combined cycle) can look to existing and new carbon capture, transportation, compression and sequestration technologies along with a suite of extracting and treating technologies for water to assess the system's overall physical and economic viability. Thus, this particular plant, with 90% capture, will reduce the net emissions of CO{sub 2} (original less the amount of energy and hence CO{sub 2} emissions required to power the carbon capture water treatment systems) less than 90%, and its water demands will increase by approximately 50%. These systems may increase the plant's LCOE by approximately 50% or more. This representative example suggests that scaling up these CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies to many plants throughout the country could increase the water demands substantially at the regional, and possibly national level. These scenarios for all power plants and saline formations throughout U.S. can incorporate new information as it becomes available for potential new plant build out planning.

Dwyer, Brian P.; Heath, Jason E.; Borns, David James; Dewers, Thomas A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Roach, Jesse D.; McNemar, Andrea; Krumhansl, James Lee; Klise, Geoffrey T.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Radiant cooling research scoping study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6165 F (1618C) cooling supply air temperatures requiredprovide appropriate cooling with supply water no cooler thancirculation of the cooling/heating supply water through the

Moore, Timothy; Bauman, Fred; Huizenga, Charlie

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

hybrid-waterair-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine geothermal ORC system Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title...

196

Development of an internally cooled annular fuel bundle for pressurized heavy water reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A number of preliminary studies have been conducted at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited to explore the potential of using internally cooled annular fuel (ICAF) in CANDU reactors including finite element thermo-mechanical modelling, reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, fabrication and mechanical design. The most compelling argument for this design compared to the conventional solid-rod design is the significant reduction in maximum fuel temperature for equivalent LERs (linear element ratings). This feature presents the potential for power up-rating or higher burnup and a decreased defect probability due to in-core power increases. The thermal-mechanical evaluation confirmed the significant reduction in maximum fuel temperatures for ICAF fuel compared to solid-rod fuel for equivalent LER. The maximum fuel temperature increase as a function of LER increase is also significantly less for ICAF fuel. As a result, the sheath stress induced by an equivalent power increase is approximately six times less for ICAF fuel than solid-rod fuel. This suggests that the power-increase thresholds to failure (due to stress-corrosion cracking) for ICAF fuel should be well above those for solid-rod fuel, providing improvement in operation flexibility and safety.

Hamilton, H.; Armstrong, J.; Kittmer, A.; Zhuchkova, A.; Xu, R.; Hyland, B.; King, M.; Nava-Dominguez, A.; Livingstone, S.; Bergeron, A. [Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd., Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Neurocontrol of Pressurized Water Reactors in Load-Follow Operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The neurocontrol technique was applied to control a pressurized water reactor (PWR) in load-follow operations. Generalized learning or direct inverse control architecture was adopted in which the neural network was trained off-line to learn the inverse model of the PWR. Two neural network controllers were designed: One provided control rod position, which controlled the axial power distribution, and the other provided the change in boron concentration, which adjusted core total power. An additional feedback controller was designed so that power tracking capability was improved. The time duration between control actions was 15 min; thus, the xenon effect is limited and can be neglected. Therefore, the xenon concentration was not considered as a controller input variable, which simplified controller design. Center target strategy and minimum boron strategy were used to operate the reactor, and the simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness and performance of the proposed controller.

Lin Chaung; Shen Chihming

2000-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

198

Work Domain Analysis of a Predecessor Sodium-cooled Reactor as Baseline for AdvSMR Operational Concepts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of the Work Domain Analysis for the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). This is part of the phase of the research designed to incorporate Cognitive Work Analysis in the development of a framework for the formalization of an Operational Concept (OpsCon) for Advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMRs). For a new AdvSMR design, information obtained through Cognitive Work Analysis, combined with human performance criteria, can and should be used in during the operational phase of a plant to assess the crew performance aspects associated with identified AdvSMR operational concepts. The main objective of this phase was to develop an analytical and descriptive framework that will help systems and human factors engineers to understand the design and operational requirements of the emerging generation of small, advanced, multi-modular reactors. Using EBR-II as a predecessor to emerging sodium-cooled reactor designs required the application of a method suitable to the structured and systematic analysis of the plant to assist in identifying key features of the work associated with it and to clarify the operational and other constraints. The analysis included the identification and description of operating scenarios that were considered characteristic of this type of nuclear power plant. This is an invaluable aspect of Operational Concept development since it typically reveals aspects of future plant configurations that will have an impact on operations. These include, for example, the effect of core design, different coolants, reactor-to-power conversion unit ratios, modular plant layout, modular versus central control rooms, plant siting, and many more. Multi-modular plants in particular are expected to have a significant impact on overall OpsCon in general, and human performance in particular. To support unconventional modes of operation, the modern control room of a multi-module plant would typically require advanced HSIs that would provide sophisticated operational information visualization, coupled with adaptive automation schemes and operator support systems to reduce complexity. These all have to be mapped at some point to human performance requirements. The EBR-II results will be used as a baseline that will be extrapolated in the extended Cognitive Work Analysis phase to the analysis of a selected advanced sodium-cooled SMR design as a way to establish non-conventional operational concepts. The Work Domain Analysis results achieved during this phase have not only established an organizing and analytical framework for describing existing sociotechnical systems, but have also indicated that the method is particularly suited to the analysis of prospective and immature designs. The results of the EBR-II Work Domain Analysis have indicated that the methodology is scientifically sound and generalizable to any operating environment.

Ronald Farris; David Gertman; Jacques Hugo

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Operating Experience and Economic Assessment of Commercial and Industrial Cool Storage Systems - TVA Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal storage systems offer utilities a means to change the energy use patterns of both residential and commercial and industrial (C&I) customers by moving water-heating and space-conditioning loads from peak to offpeak periods. Benefits from...

Sieber, R. E.; Dahmus, A. B.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Economic analysis of wind-powered refrigeration cooling/water-heating systems in food processing. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in refrigeration cooling and water heating systems in food processing plants. Types of plants included were meat and poultry, dairy, fruit and vegetable, and aquaculture.

Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operational cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Decommissioning the Romanian Water-Cooled Water-Moderated Research Reactor: New Environmental Perspective on the Management of Radioactive Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pre-feasibility and feasibility studies were performed for decommissioning of the water-cooled water-moderated research reactor (WWER) located in Bucharest - Magurele, Romania. Using these studies as a starting point, the preferred safe management strategy for radioactive wastes produced by reactor decommissioning is outlined. The strategy must account for reactor decommissioning, as well as for the rehabilitation of the existing Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant and for the upgrade of the Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at Baita-Bihor. Furthermore, the final rehabilitation of the laboratories and ecological reconstruction of the grounds need to be provided for, in accordance with national and international regulations. In accordance with IAEA recommendations at the time, the pre-feasibility study proposed three stages of decommissioning. However, since then new ideas have surfaced with regard to decommissioning. Thus, taking into account the current IAEA ideology, the feasibility study proposes that decommissioning of the WWER be done in one stage to an unrestricted clearance level of the reactor building in an Immediate Dismantling option. Different options and the corresponding derived preferred option for waste management are discussed taking into account safety measures, but also considering technical, logistical and economic factors. For this purpose, possible types of waste created during each decommissioning stage are reviewed. An approximate inventory of each type of radioactive waste is presented. The proposed waste management strategy is selected in accordance with the recommended international basic safety standards identified in the previous phase of the project. The existing Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (RWTP) from the Horia Hulubei Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering (IFIN-HH), which has been in service with no significant upgrade since 1974, will need refurbishing due to deterioration, as well as upgrading in order to ensure the plant complies with current safety standards. This plant will also need to be adapted to treat wastes generated by WWER dismantling. The Baita-Bihor National Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility consists of two galleries in an abandoned uranium mine located in the central-western part of the Bihor Mountains in Transylvania. The galleries lie at a depth of 840 m. The facility requires a considerable overhaul. Several steps recommended for the upgrade of the facility are explored. Environmental concerns have lately become a crucial part of the radioactive waste management strategy. As such, all decisions must be made with great regard for land utilization around nuclear objectives. (authors)

Barariu, G.; Giumanca, R. [Romanian Authority for Nuclear Activity (RAAN), Subsidiary of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Objectives (SITON), 111 Atomistilor St., Bucuresti-Magurele, Ilfov (Romania)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Effect of Cooling Flow on the Operation of a Hot Rotor-Gas Foil Bearing System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.2 Drive end GFB: Predicted bearing static parameters ................................. 157 M.3 Free end GFB: Predicted bearing static parameters ................................... 158 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Micro gas turbine engines (<400... kW) are light-weight compact units operating at extreme temperatures and at high rotor speeds to achieve the desired power with reduced emissions [1]. Employing gas foil bearings (GFBs) in micro gas turbines increases system efficiency...

Ryu, Keun

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

203

Thermal-hydraulic performance of a water-cooled tungsten-rod target for a spallation neutron source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermal-hydraulic (T-H) analysis is conducted to determine the feasibility and limitations of a water-cooled tungsten-rod target at powers of 1 MW and above. The target evaluated has a 10-cm x 10-cm cross section perpendicular to the beam axis, which is typical of an experimental spallation neutron source - both for a short-pulse spallation source and long-pulse spallation source. This report describes the T-H model and assumptions that are used to evaluate the target. A 1-MW baseline target is examined, and the results indicate that this target should easily handle the T-H requirements. The possibility of operating at powers >1 MW is also examined. The T-H design is limited by the condition that the coolant does not boil (actual limits are on surface subcooling and wall heat flux); material temperature limits are not approached. Three possible methods of enhancing the target power capability are presented: reducing peak power density, altering pin dimensions, and improving coolant conditions (pressure and temperature). Based on simple calculations, it appears that this target concept should have little trouble reaching the 2-MW range (from a purely T-H standpoint), and possibly much higher powers. However, one must keep in mind that these conclusions are based solely on thermal-hydraulics. It is possible, and perhaps likely, that target performance could be limited by structural issues at higher powers, particularly for a short-pulse spallation source because of thermal shock issues.

Poston, D.I.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Operating characteristics of a spray tower for cooling gas at moderate temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of multiport gas burners was placed. The top of the tower was fitted with an adapter, a square duct elbow and a reducing duct tying the top of the tower to a cyclone separator. A circular 12-inch elbow out of the top of the cyclone separator led to a venturi..., in the inlet-gas 11 stream, in the outlet-gas stream and in the ventur1. Wet bulb tempera- tures were obtained at top of tower and in the venturi by mercury-column thermometers fitted with wicks. Water-and gas-flow rates were measured by calibrated...

Legler, Bobby

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

205

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling Henry Coles, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. INTRODUCTION Approximately one third to one half of an air-cooled datacenter's energy consumption is wasted

206

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electrical Power Production, 5th Quarterly Report, October - December 2002  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project is to evaluate the feasibility of supercritical light water cooled reactors for electric power production. The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies for the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed. If no additional moderator is added to the fuel rod lattice, it is possible to attain fast neutron energy spectrum conditions in a supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). This type of core can make use of either fertile or fertile-free fuel and retain a hard spectrum to effectively burn plutonium and minor actinides from LWR spent fuel while efficiently generating electricity. One can also add moderation and design a thermal spectrum SCWR that can also burn actinides. The project is organized into three tasks:

Philip MacDonald; Jacopo Buongiorno; Cliff Davis; J. Stephen Herring; Kevan Weaver; Ron Latanision; Bryce Mitton; Gary Was; Luca Oriani; Mario Carelli; Dmitry Paramonov; Lawrence Conway

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Reactor water cleanup system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

1994-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

208

Reactor water cleanup system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Taft, William E. (Los Gatos, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Municipal water-based heat pump heating and/or cooling systems: Findings and recommendations. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the present work was to determine if existing heat pump systems based on municipal water systems meet existing water quality standards, to analyze water that has passed through a heat pump or heat exchanger to determine if corrosion products can be detected, to determine residual chlorine levels in municipal waters on the inlet as well as the outlet side of such installations, to analyses for bacterial contaminants and/or regrowth due to the presence of a heat pump or heat exchanger, to develop and suggest criteria for system design and construction, to provide recommendations and specifications for material and fluid selection, and to develop model rules and regulations for the installation, operation, and monitoring of new and existing systems. In addition, the Washington State University (WSU) has evaluated availability of computer models that would allow for water system mapping, water quality modeling and system operation.

Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington, State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Wegman, S. [South Dakota Utilities Commission (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Optimizing Cooling Tower Performance- Refrigeration Systems, Chemical Plants, and Power Plants all Have A Resource Quietly Awaiting Exploitation-Cold Water!!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

requirements before a cooling tower is purchased. This relates to the volume of circulatlng water, hot water temperature on the tower, cold water temperature discharge, and wet bulb temperature (consisting of ambient temperature and relative humidity... rather than a portion of it for water breakup and splash resulting in a net lower temperature. b. Water ~roughs or enclosed flumes in counterflow towers should be changed to a low-pressure spray piping system. c. Existing spray systems can...

Burger, R.

211

An Improved Simple Chilled Water Cooling Coil Author(s), Liping Wang, Philip Haves and Fred Buhl  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and in the prediction of HVAC system energy consumption for support of both design and operations. It is frequently and in the prediction of HVAC system energy consumption to support both design and operation. Simulation of transient. INTRODUCTION Coils in HVAC systems couple air and water (or refrigerant) loops. The accurate prediction

212

Internet Based, GIS Catalog of Non-Traditional Sources of Cooling Water for Use at America's Coal-Fired Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years, rising populations and regional droughts have caused coal-fired power plants to temporarily curtail or cease production due to a lack of available water for cooling. In addition, concerns about the availability of adequate supplies of cooling water have resulted in cancellation of plans to build much-needed new power plants. These issues, coupled with concern over the possible impacts of global climate change, have caused industry and community planners to seek alternate sources of water to supplement or replace existing supplies. The Department of Energy, through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is researching ways to reduce the water demands of coal-fired power plants. As part of the NETL Program, ALL Consulting developed an internet-based Catalog of potential alternative sources of cooling water. The Catalog identifies alternative sources of water, such as mine discharge water, oil and gas produced water, saline aquifers, and publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), which could be used to supplement or replace existing surface water sources. This report provides an overview of the Catalog, and examines the benefits and challenges of using these alternative water sources for cooling water.

J. Daniel Arthur

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

213

3-D Numerical Study of Impinging Water Jets in Run Out Table Cooling Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

product quality, and even to create new microstructures, in order to fulfill the increasing demands surface, which are generally obtained from plant measurements. The design of better cooling header systems, where complex boiling, steam-layer development, and Leidenfrost effects occur. Heat transfer depends

Thomas, Brian G.

214

Sustaining Industrial Energy Efficiency in Process Cooling in a Potentially Water-Short Future  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by Energy-Intensive Plants* Source: Anonymous US petrochemical company *Includes refineries and ethylene plants ESL-IE-14-05-18 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 Estimated Water Use... Sources Strategy: Education on New(er) Technologies and Approaches Barriers to Use of Unconventional Water Sources (sea water, brackish water or brine water) High pipeline costs; Need to address upgrades to metallurgy as well as minimizing...

Ferland, K.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Recommended requirements to code officials for solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems. Model document for code officials on solar heating and cooling of buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These recommended requirements include provisions for electrical, building, mechanical, and plumbing installations for active and passive solar energy systems used for space or process heating and cooling, and domestic water heating. The provisions in these recommended requirements are intended to be used in conjunction with the existing building codes in each jurisdiction. Where a solar relevant provision is adequately covered in an existing model code, the section is referenced in the Appendix. Where a provision has been drafted because there is no counterpart in the existing model code, it is found in the body of these recommended requirements. Commentaries are included in the text explaining the coverage and intent of present model code requirements and suggesting alternatives that may, at the discretion of the building official, be considered as providing reasonable protection to the public health and safety. Also included is an Appendix which is divided into a model code cross reference section and a reference standards section. The model code cross references are a compilation of the sections in the text and their equivalent requirements in the applicable model codes. (MHR)

None

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

AUTOMATED DEAD-END ULTRAFILTRATION FOR ENHANCED SURVEILLANCE OF LEGIONELLA 2 PNEUMOPHILA AND LEGIONELLA SPP. IN COOLING TOWER WATERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detection of Legionella pneumophila in cooling towers and domestic hot water systems involves concentration by centrifugation or membrane filtration prior to inoculation onto growth media or analysis using techniques such as PCR or immunoassays. The Portable Multi-use Automated Concentration System (PMACS) was designed for concentrating microorganisms from large volumes of water in the field and was assessed for enhancing surveillance of L. pneumophila at the Savannah River Site, SC. PMACS samples (100 L; n = 28) were collected from six towers between August 2010 and April 2011 with grab samples (500 ml; n = 56) being collected before and after each PMACS sample. All samples were analyzed for the presence of L. pneumophila by direct fluorescence immunoassay (DFA) using FITC-labeled monoclonal antibodies targeting serogroups 1, 2, 4 and 6. QPCR was utilized for detection of Legionella spp. in the same samples. Counts of L. pneumophila from DFA and of Legionella spp. from qPCR were normalized to cells/L tower water. Concentrations were similar between grab and PMACS samples collected throughout the study by DFA analysis (P = 0.4461; repeated measures ANOVA). The same trend was observed with qPCR. However, PMACS concentration proved advantageous over membrane filtration by providing larger volume, more representative samples of the cooling tower environment, which led to reduced variability among sampling events and increasing the probability of detection of low level targets. These data highlight the utility of the PMACS for enhanced surveillance of L. pneumophila by providing improved sampling of the cooling tower environment.

Brigmon, R.; Leskinen, S.; Kearns, E.; Jones, W.; Miller, R.; Betivas, C.; Kingsley, M.; Lim, D.

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

217

Energy Use in California Wholesale Water Operations: Development and Application of a General Energy Post-Processor for California Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-i- Energy Use in California Wholesale Water Operations: Development and Application of a General Energy Post-Processor for California Water Management Models By MATTHEW EARL BATES B.S. (California State- Abstract This thesis explores the effects of future water and social conditions on energy consumption

Lund, Jay R.

218

Solution of basic operational problems of water-development works at the Votkinsk hydroproject  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Basic operational problems of water-development works at the Votkinsk HPP are examined. Measures for restoration of normal safety conditions for the water-development works at the HPP, which had been taken during service, are presented.

Deev, A. P.; Borisevich, L. A.; Fisenko, V. F. [Votkinsk Branch of the JSC 'RusGidro,' Chaikovskii (Russian Federation)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

219

Energy Consumption and Demand as Affected by Heat Pumps that Cool, Heat and Heat Domestic Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heaters. The methods presented demonstrate how integrated systems can be of value in reducing daily summertime peaks. INTRODUCTION A need for descriptors to evaluate systems that condition space and heat domestic water has been recognized for several... added to and used by the water from the desuperheated refrigerant - heat normally provided by the electric water heater's resistance elements. DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT The system considered for this study is best described by U.S. Patent No. 4...

Cawley, R.

220

Passive containment cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Robinson Township, Allegheny County, PA); Stewart, William A. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operational cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Microsoft Word - INL_EXT-10-20208 DOE-Cooling Water Issues &...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

reliability matters, assisted by industry. Much of the work on water issues facing the electricity industry is being done by the private sector. In many cases, this should...

222

E-Print Network 3.0 - argentinean water cooled Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Source: Iowa State University, Office of Biorenewables Programs Collection: Renewable Energy 82 Optimization of Water Consumption in Second Generation Bioethanol Plants Summary:...

223

EECBG Success Story: Keeping Cool, Saving Water and Money | Department of  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct,Final9: DraftPlant,Community'Into Savings |Energy Cool,

224

Thermodynamic formalism of water uptakes on solid porous adsorbents for adsorption cooling applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Letter presents a thermodynamic formulation to calculate the amount of water vapor uptakes on various adsorbents such as zeolites, metal organic frameworks, and silica gel for the development of an advanced adsorption chiller. This formalism is developed from the rigor of the partition distribution function of each water vapor adsorptive site on adsorbents and the condensation approximation of adsorptive water molecules and is validated with experimental data. An interesting and useful finding has been established that the proposed model is thermodynamically connected with the pore structures of adsorbent materials, and the water vapor uptake highly depends on the isosteric heat of adsorption at zero surface coverage and the adsorptive sites of the adsorbent materials. Employing the proposed model, the thermodynamic trends of water vapor uptakes on various adsorbents can be estimated.

Sun, Baichuan; Chakraborty, Anutosh, E-mail: AChakraborty@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

225

Considerations for understanding one`s cooling system prior to reuse water implementation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water reuse situations are growing due to the need or desire to minimize water discharge from an industrial facility. Most of these applications are retrofits or system redesigns. Many times information is required to make decisions about the reuse application. Real-time or diagnostic studies provide improved information about the water systems. Addition of very low concentrations of a chemical tracer can provide improved information about the system. Useful and unique functions of chemical tracers are that they can provide one with the following information: system volume, quantifying previously unaccounted blowdown, holding time index, water distribution, leakage, and flowrate. These are important parameters when considering water reuse and system redesign. The chemical tracers discussed in this paper represent a significant improvement over compounds previously used in reuse applications.

Chmelovski, M.J. [Nalco Chemical Co., Naperville, IL (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

AN OPERATIONAL WATER AND ENERGY BALANCE ALGORITHM FOR PUERTO RICO Eric Harmsen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN OPERATIONAL WATER AND ENERGY BALANCE ALGORITHM FOR PUERTO RICO Eric Harmsen Department.com In this study an operational water and energy balance algorithm for Puerto Rico (GOES- PRWEB) was developed. In the algorithm, an energy balance approach is used to estimate actual evapotranspiration, which

Gilbes, Fernando

227

Residential and commercial space heating and cooling with possible greenhouse operation; Baca Grande development, San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the potential of multipurpose applications of moderate-temperature geothermal waters in the vicinity of the Baca Grande community development in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. The project resource assessment, based on a thorough review of existing data, indicates that a substantial resource likely exists in the Baca Grande region capable of supporting residential and light industrial activity. Engineering designs were developed for geothermal district heating systems for space heating and domestic hot water heating for residences, including a mobile home park, an existing motel, a greenhouse complex, and other small commercial uses such as aquaculture. In addition, a thorough institutional analysis of the study area was performed to highlight factors which might pose barriers to the ultimate commercial development of the resource. Finally, an environmental evaluation of the possible impacts of the proposed action was also performed. The feasibility evaluation indicates the economics of the residential areas are dependent on the continued rate of housing construction. If essentially complete development could occur over a 30-year period, the economics are favorable as compared to existing alternatives. For the commercial area, the economics are good as compared to existing conventional energy sources. This is especially true as related to proposed greenhouse operations. The institutional and environmental analyses indicates that no significant barriers to development are apparent.

Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.E.; Fritzler, E.A.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Hydration-dependent dynamics of deeply cooled water under strong confinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have measured the hydration-level dependence of the single-particle dynamics of water confined in the ordered mesoporous silica MCM-41. The dynamic crossover observed at full hydration is absent at monolayer hydration. ...

Bertrand, C. E.

229

Apparatus and method of direct water cooling several parallel circuit cards each containing several chip packages  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cooling apparatus, system and like method for an electronic device includes a plurality of heat producing electronic devices affixed to a wiring substrate. A plurality of heat transfer assemblies each include heat spreaders and thermally communicate with the heat producing electronic devices for transferring heat from the heat producing electronic devices to the heat transfer assemblies. The plurality of heat producing electronic devices and respective heat transfer assemblies are positioned on the wiring substrate having the regions overlapping. A heat conduit thermally communicates with the heat transfer assemblies. The heat conduit circulates thermally conductive fluid therethrough in a closed loop for transferring heat to the fluid from the heat transfer assemblies via the heat spreader. A thermally conductive support structure supports the heat conduit and thermally communicates with the heat transfer assemblies via the heat spreader transferring heat to the fluid of the heat conduit from the support structure.

Cipolla, Thomas M. (Katonah, NY); Colgan, Evan George (Chestnut Ridge, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Hall, Shawn Anthony (Pleasantville, NY); Tian, Shurong (Mount Kisco, NY)

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

230

Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants: Evaluation of the combined cost of makeup water treatment and increased condenser fouling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A methodology is presented to calculate the total combined cost (TCC) of water sourcing, water treatment and condenser fouling in the recirculating cooling systems of thermoelectric power plants. The methodology is employed to evaluate the economic viability of using treated municipal wastewater (MWW) to replace the use of freshwater as makeup water to power plant cooling systems. Cost analyses are presented for a reference power plant and five different tertiary treatment scenarios to reduce the scaling tendencies of MWW. Results indicate that a 550 MW sub-critical coal fired power plant with a makeup water requirement of 29.3 ML/day has a TCC of $3.0 - 3.2 million/yr associated with the use of treated MWW for cooling. (All costs USD 2009). This translates to a freshwater conservation cost of $0.29/kL, which is considerably lower than that of dry air cooling technology, $1.5/kL, as well as the 2020 conservation cost target set by the U.S. Department of Energy, $0.74/kL. Results also show that if the available price of freshwater exceeds that of secondarytreated MWW by more than $0.13-0.14/kL, it can be economically advantageous to purchase secondary MWW and treat it for utilization in the recirculating cooling system of a thermoelectric power plant.

Walker, Michael E.; Theregowda, Ranjani B.; Safari, Iman; Abbasian, Javad; Arastoopour, Hamid; Dzombak, David A.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Miller, David C.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Improving Heating System Operations Using Water Re-Circulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to solve the imbalance problem of a heating system, brought about by consumer demand and regulation, and save the electricity energy consumed by a circulation pump, a water mixing and pressure difference control heating system is proposed...

Li, F.; Han, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Water Distribution and Wastewater Systems Operators (North Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

All public water supply and wastewater disposal systems are subject to classification and regulation by the State of North Dakota, and must obtain certification from the State Department of Health.

233

PURPOSE: This product provides simulation capabilities to allow water resource managers to meet operational and water quality objectives in a basin wide approach under the System-Wide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Manage- ment System (CWMS). ERDC TN-SWWRP-11-2 February 2011 Meeting Water Quality and Water Control operational and water quality objectives in a basin wide approach under the System-Wide Water Resources the impact of water quality in reservoir operations system decision-making. As a result, integration

US Army Corps of Engineers

234

A comparison of the heat transfer capabilities of two manufacturing methods for high heat flux water-cooled devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental program was undertaken to compare the heat transfer characteristics of water-cooled copper devices manufactured via conventional drilled passage construction and via a technique whereby molten copper is cast over a network of preformed cooling tubes. Two similar test blocks were constructed; one using the drilled passage technique, the other via casting copper over Monel pipe. Each test block was mounted in a vacuum system and heated uniformly on the top surface using a swept electron beam. From the measured absorbed powers and resultant temperatures, an overall heat transfer coefficient was calculated. The maximum heat transfer coefficient calculated for the case of the drilled passage test block was 2534 Btu/hr/ft/sup 2///sup 0/F. This corresponded to an absorbed power density of 320 w/cm/sup 2/ and resulted in a maximum recorded copper temperature of 346/sup 0/C. Corresponding figures for the cast test block were 363 Btu/hr/ft/sup 2///sup 0/F, 91 w/cm/sup 2/, and 453/sup 0/C.

McKoon, R.H.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Variable Frequency AC Drives for Cooling Tower Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

speed fan drives. Fan speed is reduced to yield specific water temperatures at thermal conditions less difficult than design. The reduced air flow is accomplished by reduced fan power consumption, resulting in optimum cooling tower operation... and economics. Automatic fan speed control by sensing cold water temperature is the economic essence of the application of adjustable frequency power to A-C fan motors. 2.2 Cell Partitions In some multi-cell mechanical-draft cooling towers, the isolation...

Corey, R. W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Metrics (and Methodologies) for Evaluating Energy and Water Impacts of Alternative Process Cooling Systems in a Typical Chemical Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, kWh/Unit = 0.0039 85.1% February 5 12PM to 1PM Annual Values 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 110.0 841 865 889 913 937 961 985 G a l / U n i t P r o d u c e d D...1Metrics (and Methodologies) for Evaluating Energy and Water Impacts of Alternative Process Cooling Systems in a Typical Chemical Plant Presentation to the: May 21, 2014 Thomas P. Carter, P.E. Sr. Program Manager, Heat Rejection Technology...

Carter, T. P.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Performance Evaluation of a 4.5 kW (1.3 Refrigeration Tons) Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide/Water Solar Powered (Hot-Water-Fired) Absorption Unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the summer months, air-conditioning (cooling) is the single largest use of electricity in both residential and commercial buildings with the major impact on peak electric demand. Improved air-conditioning technology has by far the greatest potential impact on the electric industry compared to any other technology that uses electricity. Thermally activated absorption air-conditioning (absorption chillers) can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. This innovative absorption technology is based on integrated rotating heat exchangers to enhance heat and mass transfer resulting in a potential reduction of size, cost, and weight of the "next generation" absorption units. Rotartica Absorption Chiller (RAC) is a 4.5 kW (1.3 refrigeration tons or RT) air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)/water unit powered by hot water generated using the solar energy and/or waste heat. Typically LiBr/water absorption chillers are water-cooled units which use a cooling tower to reject heat. Cooling towers require a large amount of space, increase start-up and maintenance costs. However, RAC is an air-cooled absorption chiller (no cooling tower). The purpose of this evaluation is to verify RAC performance by comparing the Coefficient of Performance (COP or ratio of cooling capacity to energy input) and the cooling capacity results with those of the manufacturer. The performance of the RAC was tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a controlled environment at various hot and chilled water flow rates, air handler flow rates, and ambient temperatures. Temperature probes, mass flow meters, rotational speed measuring device, pressure transducers, and a web camera mounted inside the unit were used to monitor the RAC via a web control-based data acquisition system using Automated Logic Controller (ALC). Results showed a COP and cooling capacity of approximately 0.58 and 3.7 kW respectively at 35 C (95 F) design condition for ambient temperature with 40 C (104 F) cooling water temperature. This is in close agreement with the manufacturer data of 0.60 for COP and 3.9 kW for cooling capacity. This study resulted in a complete performance map of RAC which will be used to evaluate the potential benefits of rotating heat exchangers in making the "next-generation" absorption chillers more compact and cost effective without any significant degradation in the performance. In addition, the feasibility of using rotating heat exchangers in other applications will be evaluated.

Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Petrov, Andrei Y [ORNL; Linkous, Randall Lee [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Cool Links  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Links Explore Science Explore Explore these Topics Activities Videos Cool Links Favorite Q&A invisible utility element Cool Links Los Alamos National Laboratory links Los...

239

Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs (water-cooled water-moderated atomic energy reactors)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document contains apprendices A through P of this report. Topics discussed are: a cronyms and technical terms, accident analyses reactivity control; Soviet safety regulations; radionuclide inventory; decay heat; operations and maintenance; steam supply system; concrete and concrete structures; seismicity; site information; neutronic parameters; loss of electric power; diesel generator reliability; Soviet codes and standards; and comparisons of PWR and VVER features. (FI)

Not Available

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of supercritical temperature and pressure light water as the coolant in a direct-cycle nuclear reactor offers potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to 46%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type recirculation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed. If a tight fuel rod lattice is adopted, it is possible to significantly reduce the neutron moderation and attain fast neutron energy spectrum conditions. In this project a supercritical water reactor concept with a simple, blanket-free, pancake-shaped core will be developed. This type of core can make use of either fertile or fertile-free fuel and retain the hard spectrum to effectively burn plutonium and minor actinides from LWR spent fuel while efficiently generating electricity.

Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Weaver, Kevan Dean

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operational cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

2012 REU Project Abstracts Identifying Fluids for Tuning and Cooling Radio Frequency Devices Operating in the X-Band  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2012 REU Project Abstracts Identifying Fluids for Tuning and Cooling Radio Frequency Devices Sapatnekar FPGAs have been used widely for many applications from defense systems to medical equip- ment. Several nanofluidic devices containing arrays of nanochannels with widths between 50 and 500 nm were

Minnesota, University of

242

Management of produced water in oil and gas operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of oil present in the sample. For example, the calibration factor obtained for samples containing kerosene is different from the calibration factor obtained for samples containing diesel. However according to EPA, if the analyzer is calibrated...) for analysis which reduces the chances of inaccuracy because the larger the amount of sample the higher the chances of good representation of the original sample. 6 In this work TOC-700 was used to analyze kerosene-water emulsions. To match TOC...

Patel, Chirag V.

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

243

Importance of Delayed Neutrons on the Coupled Neutronic-Thermohydraulic Stability of a Natural Circulation Heavy Water-Moderated Boiling Light Water-Cooled Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The coupled neutronic-thermohydraulic stability characteristics of a natural circulation heavy water-moderated boiling light water-cooled reactor was investigated analytically considering the effects of prompt and delayed neutrons. For this purpose, the reactor considered is the Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor. The analytical model considers a point kinetics model for the neutron dynamics, a homogeneous two-phase flow model for the coolant thermal hydraulics, and a lumped heat transfer model for the fuel thermal dynamics. A higher mode of oscillation having a frequency much greater than the density-wave oscillation frequency was observed if prompt neutrons alone were considered. The occurrence of a higher mode of oscillation was found to be dependent on the concentration of delayed neutrons, the void reactivity coefficient, and the fuel time constant. The core inlet subcooling is found to have different effects on the decay ratio of the fundamental and higher modes of oscillations. The influences of void reactivity coefficient and fuel time constant on the fundamental and higher modes of oscillations were also found to be opposite in nature.

Nayak, A.K. [Bhaha Atomic Research Centre (India); Aritomi, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Raj, V. Venkat [Bhaha Atomic Research Centre (India)

2001-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

244

STOCHASTIC COOLING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Stochastic Cooling i n ICE, IEEE Transaction's in Nucl. SICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling

Bisognano, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Infrared Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy of Jet-Cooled Nucleotide Base Clusters and Water Raphael N. Casaes, Joshua B. Paul, R. Patrick McLaughlin, and Richard J. Saykally*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Infrared Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy of Jet-Cooled Nucleotide Base Clusters and Water Complexes the first direct infrared absorption measurements of gas phase nucleotide base clusters and complexes. Introduction The five nucleotide bases (adenine, guanine, thymine, cy- tosine, and uracil) found in DNA and RNA

Cohen, Ronald C.

246

Operation of water supply reservoirs for flood mitigation : hydrologic and institutional considerations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Additional demands are being placed upon reservoirs to meet a variety of diverse needs. These demands require efficient management of the limited storage through reservoir operations. This efficiency is most critical with water supply reservoirs...

Craney, Patrick Wayne

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. In 1991 the IAEA Conference on ''The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future'' noted that for new plants the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate''.

Jose Reyes

2005-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

248

Best Management Practice #10: Cooling Tower Management  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Cooling towers regulate temperature by dissipating heat from recirculating water used to cool chillers, air-conditioning equipment, or other process equipment. Heat is rejected from the tower...

249

Cryo Utilities Room Cooling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many of the mechanical equipment failures at the Laboratory are due to the loss of cooling water. In order to insure the proper operating temperatures and to increase the reliability of the mechanical equipment in the D0 Cryo Utilities Room it is necessary to provide an independent liquid cooling system. To this end, an enclosed glycoVwater cooling system which transfers heat from two vane-type vacuum pumps and an air compressor to the outside air has been installed in the Cryo Utilities Room. From the appended list it can be seen that only the Thermal Precision PFC-121-D and Ingersoll-Rand WAC 16 deserve closer investigation based on price. The disadvantages of the WAC 16 are that: it runs a little warmer, it requires more valving to properly install a backup pump, inlet and outlet piping are not included, and temperature and pressure indicators are not included. Its only advantage is that it is $818 cheaper than the PFC-121-D. The advantages of the PFC-121-D are that: it has automatic pump switching during shutdown, it has a temperature regulator on one fan control, it has a switch which indicates proper operation, has a sight glass on the expansion tank, and comes with an ASME approved expansion tank and relief valve. For these reasons the Thermal Precision PFC-121-D was chosen. In the past, we have always found the pond water to be muddy and to sometimes contain rocks of greater than 1/2 inch diameter. Thus a system completely dependent on the pond water from the accelerator was deemed unacceptable. A closed system was selected based on its ability to greatly improve reliability, while remaining economical. It is charged with a 50/50 glycol/water mixture capable of withstanding outside temperatures down to -33 F. The fluid will be circulated by a totally enclosed air cooled Thermal Precision PFC-121-D pump. The system will be on emergency power and an automatically controlled backup pump, identical to the primary, is available should the main pump fail. The fan unit is used as a primary cooler and the trim cooler cools the fluid further on extremely hot days. The trim cooler has also been sized to cool the system in the event of a total shutdown provided that the pond water supply has adequate pressure. Due to a broken filter, we found it necessary to install a strainer in the pond water supply line. The expansion tank separates air bubbles, ensures a net positive suction head, protects against surges and over pressurization of the system, and allows for the filling of the system without shutting it off. All piping has been installed, flushed, charged with the glycol/water mix, and hydrostatically tested to 55 psi. The condition of all pumps and flow conditions will be recorded at the PLC. It has been decided not to include the regulator valve in the pond water return line. This valve was designated by the manufacturer to reduce the amount of water flowing through the trim cooler. This is not necessary in our application. There is some concern that the cooling fluid may cool the mechanical eqUipment too much when they are not operating or during very cold days. This issue will be addressed and the conclusion appended to this engineering note.

Ball, G.S.; /Fermilab

1989-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

250

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

Cooke, F.E.

1992-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

251

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Oxidation of Zircaloy Fuel Cladding in Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our work involved the continued development of the theory of passivity and passivity breakdown, in the form of the Point Defect Model, with emphasis on zirconium and zirconium alloys in reactor coolant environments, the measurement of critically-important parameters, and the development of a code that can be used by reactor operators to actively manage the accumulation of corrosion damage to the fuel cladding and other components in the heat transport circuits in both BWRs and PWRs. In addition, the modified boiling crevice model has been further developed to describe the accumulation of solutes in porous deposits (CRUD) on fuel under boiling (BWRs) and nucleate boiling (PWRs) conditions, in order to accurately describe the environment that is contact with the Zircaloy cladding. In the current report, we have derived expressions for the total steady-state current density and the partial anodic and cathodic current densities to establish a deterministic basis for describing Zircaloy oxidation. The models are deterministic because the relevant natural laws are satisfied explicitly, most importantly the conversation of mass and charge and the equivalence of mass and charge (Faradays law). Cathodic reactions (oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution) are also included in the models, because there is evidence that they control the rate of the overall passive film formation process. Under open circuit conditions, the cathodic reactions, which must occur at the same rate as the zirconium oxidation reaction, are instrumental in determining the corrosion potential and hence the thickness of the barrier and outer layers of the passive film. Controlled hydrodynamic methods have been used to measure important parameters in the modified Point Defect Model (PDM), which is now being used to describe the growth and breakdown of the passive film on zirconium and on Zircaloy fuel sheathing in BWRs and PWRs coolant environments. The modified PDMs recognize the existence of a thick oxide outer layer over a thin barrier layer. From thermodynamic analysis, it is postulated that a hydride barrier layer forms under PWR coolant conditions whereas an oxide barrier layer forms under BWR primary coolant conditions. Thus, the introduction of hydrogen into the solution lowers the corrosion potential of zirconium to the extent that the formation of ZrH2 is predicted to be spontaneous rather than the ZrO2. Mott-Schottky analysis shows that the passive film formed on zirconium is n-type, which is consistent with the PDM, corresponding to a preponderance of oxygen/hydrogen vacancies and/or zirconium interstitials in the barrier layer. The model parameter values were extracted from electrochemical impedance spectroscopic data for zirconium in high temperature, de-aerated and hydrogenated environments by optimization. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance of zirconium is dominated by the porosity and thickness of the outer layer for both cases. The impedance model based on the PDM provides a good account of the growth of the bi-layer passive films described above, and the extracted model parameter values might be used, for example, for predicting the accumulation of general corrosion damage to Zircaloy fuel sheath in BWR and PWR operating environments. Transients in current density and film thickness for passive film formation on zirconium in dearated and hydrogenated coolant conditions have confirmed that the rate law afforded by the Point Defect Model (PDM) adequately describes the growth and thinning of the passive film. The experimental results demonstrate that the kinetics of oxygen or hydrogen vacancy generation at the metal/film interface control the rate of film growth, when the potential is displaced in the positive direction, whereas the kinetics of dissolution of the barrier layer at the barrier layer/solution interface control the rate of passive film thinning when the potential is stepped in the negative direction. In addition, the effects of second phase particles (SPPs) on the electrochemistry of passive zirconium in the

Digby Macdonald; Mirna Urquidi-Macdonald; Yingzi Chen; Jiahe Ai; Pilyeon Park; Han-Sang Kim

2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

253

Pressure loadings of Soviet-designed VVER (Water-Cooled, Water-Moderated Energy Reactor) reactor release mitigation structures from large-break LOCAs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analyses have been carried out of the pressurization of the accident release mitigation structures of Soviet-designed VVER (Water-Cooled, Water-Moderated Energy Reactor) pressurized water reactors following large-break loss-of-coolant accidents. Specific VVER systems for which calculations were performed are the VVER-440 model V230, VVER-440 model V213, and VVER-1000 model V320. Descriptions of the designs of these and other VVER models are contained in the report DOE/NE-0084. The principal objective of the current analyses is to calculate the time dependent pressure loadings inside the accident localization or containment structures immediately following the double-ended guillotine rupture of a primary coolant pipe. In addition, the pressures are compared with the results of calculations of the response of the structures to overpressure. Primary coolant system thermal hydraulic conditions and the fluid conditions at the break location were calculated with the RETRAN-02 Mod2 computer code (Agee, 1984). Pressures and temperatures inside the building accident release mitigation structures were obtained from the PACER (Pressurization Accompanying Coolant Escape from Ruptures) multicompartment containment analysis code developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The analyses were carried out using best estimate models and conditions rather than conservative, bounding-type assumptions. In particular, condensation upon structure and equipment was calculated using correlations based upon analyses of the HDR, Marviken, and Battelle Frankfurt containment loading experiments. The intercompartment flow rates incorporate an effective discharge coefficient and liquid droplet carryover fraction given by expressions of Schwan determined from analyses of the Battelle Frankfurt and Marviken tests. 5 refs., 4 figs.

Sienicki, J.J.; Horak, W.C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

TEELINDUSTRIAL OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS & PARTS MANUAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-stage zoning applications in hydronic heating and cooling systems for residential, commercial and/or inTEELINDUSTRIAL SERIES OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS & PARTS MANUAL WATER CIRCULATING PUMPS MODELS 1P899A INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY BEFORE ATTEMPTING TO INSTALL, OPERATE, OR SERVICE TEEL PUMPS. PROTECT YOURSELF

Kleinfeld, David

255

Shippingport operations with the Light Water Breeder Reactor core. (LWBR Development Program)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the operation of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station during the LWBR (Light Water Breeder Reactor) Core lifetime. It also summarizes the plant-oriented operations during the period preceding LWBR startup, which include the defueling of The Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 (PWR-2) and the installation of the LWBR Core, and the operations associated with the defueling of LWBR. The intent of this report is to examine LWBR experience in retrospect and present pertinent and significant aspects of LWBR operations that relate primarily to the nuclear portion of the Station. The nonnuclear portion of the Station is discussed only as it relates to overall plant operation or to unusual problems which result from the use of conventional equipment in radioactive environments. 30 refs., 69 figs., 27 tabs.

Budd, W.A. (ed.)

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Apparatus and method to control atmospheric water vapor composition and concentration during dynamic cooling of biological tissues in conjunction with laser irradiations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Cryogen spray cooling of skin surface with millisecond cryogen spurts is an effective method for establishing a controlled temperature distribution in tissue and protecting the epidermis from nonspecific thermal injury during laser mediated dermatological procedures. Control of humidity level, spraying distance and cryogen boiling point is material to the resulting surface temperature. Decreasing the ambient humidity level results in less ice formation on the skin surface without altering the surface temperature during the cryogen spurt. For a particular delivery nozzle, increasing the spraying distance to 85 millimeters lowers the surface temperature. The methodology comprises establishing a controlled humidity level in the theater of operation of the irradiation site of the biological tissues before and/or during the cryogenic spray cooling of the biological tissue. At cold temperatures calibration was achieved by mounting a thermistor on a thermoelectric cooler. The thermal electric cooler was cooled from from 20.degree. C. to about -20.degree. C. while measuring its infrared emission.

Nelson, J. Stuart (Laguna Niguel, CA); Anvari, Bahman (Houston, TX); Tanenbaum, B. Samuel (Irvine, CA); Milner, Thomas E. (Austin, TX)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Water as a lubricant for Stirling air engines: design considerations and operating experience  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air is favoured as the working fluid for large, slow-running Stirling engines. Lubricating oil entering the working space could combine with compressed, heated air to form a mixture capable of spontaneous combustion. To preclude this possibility, water may be used as the lubricant in Stirling air engines. This paper reviews the lubrication requirements of Stirling air engines and the potential of water to fulfil these requirements. Some bearing and seal materials suitable for water-lubricated Stirling engines are reviewed in terms of a design case study for a 20 kW water lubricated Ringbom-Stirling air engine. Early operating experience with this engine is reported.

Fauvel, O.R.; van Benthem, J.; Walker, G.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

STOCHASTIC COOLING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the stochastic cooling technique. This work directly led tol . . Physics and Techniques o f Stochastic Cooling, PhysicsCooling o f Momentum Spread by F i l t e r Techniques, CERN-

Bisognano, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE ELECTROLYZER OPERATION WITH VARYING INLET WATER FEED CONFIGURATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolysis is a potential alternative technology to crack water in specialty applications where a dry gas stream is needed, such as isotope production. One design proposal is to feed the cathode of the electrolyzer with vapor phase water. This feed configuration would allow isotopic water to be isolated on the cathode side of the electrolyzer and the isotope recovery system could be operated in a closed loop. Tests were performed to characterize the difference in the current-voltage behavior between a PEM electrolyzer operated with a cathode water vapor feed and with an anode liquid water feed. The cathode water vapor feed cell had a maximum limiting current density of 100 mA/cm2 at 70 C compared to a current density of 800 mA/cm2 for the anode liquid feed cell at 70 C. The limiting current densities for the cathode water vapor feed cell were approximately 3 times lower than predicted by a water mass transfer model. It is estimated that a cathode water vapor feed electrolyzer system will need to be between 8-14 times larger in active area or number of cells than an anode liquid feed system.

Fox, E

2008-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

260

Annual Simulation Results for an Air-Cooled Binary Power Cycle Employing Flash Cooling Enhancement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objective is to perform detailed simulation of air cooled cycle with flash supplied cooling water using two types of evaporative enhancement, spray nozzels and evaporative media.

Buys, A.; Gladden, C.; Kutscher, C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operational cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Ground Water Cooling System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on a thorough study of products and anticipated growth, the Turbine and Generator Division of Westinghouse Canada Inc. concluded that a component feeder plant for fabrication and machining of turbine components was required. This facility now...

Greaves, K.; Chave, G. H.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Power electronics cooling apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

Sanger, Philip Albert (Monroeville, PA); Lindberg, Frank A. (Baltimore, MD); Garcen, Walter (Glen Burnie, MD)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Power electronics cooling apparatus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

Sanger, P.A.; Lindberg, F.A.; Garcen, W.

2000-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

264

Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes for the removal of hydrocarbons from produced water. The results of these experiments show that hydrocarbons from produced water can be reduced from 200 ppm to below 29 ppm level. Experiments were also done to remove the dissolved solids (salts) from the pretreated produced water using desalination membranes. Produced water with up to 45,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS) can be treated to agricultural water quality water standards having less than 500 ppm TDS. The Report also discusses the results of field testing of various process trains to measure performance of the desalination process. Economic analysis based on field testing, including capital and operational costs, was done to predict the water treatment costs. Cost of treating produced water containing 15,000 ppm total dissolved solids and 200 ppm hydrocarbons to obtain agricultural water quality with less than 200 ppm TDS and 2 ppm hydrocarbons range between $0.5-1.5 /bbl. The contribution of fresh water resource from produced water will contribute enormously to the sustainable development of the communities where oil and gas is produced and fresh water is a scarce resource. This water can be used for many beneficial purposes such as agriculture, horticulture, rangeland and ecological restorations, and other environmental and industrial application.

David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

2006-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

265

Measured Impact on Space Conditioning Energy Use in a Residence Due to Operating a Heat Pump Water Heater inside the Conditioned Space  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The impact on space conditioning energy use due to operating a heat pump water heater (HPWH) inside the conditioned space is analyzed based on 2010-2011 data from a research house with simulated occupancy and hot water use controls. The 2700 ft2 (345 m2) house is located in Oak Ridge, TN (mixed-humid climate) and is equipped with a 50 gallon (189 l) HPWH that provided approximately 55 gallons/d (208 l/d) of hot water at 120 F (46 C) to the house during the test period. The HPWH has been operated every other week from December 2010 through November 2011 in two modes; a heat pump only mode, and a standard mode that utilizes 15355 Btu/hr (4500 W) resistance heating elements. The energy consumption of the air-source heat pump (ASHP) that provides space conditioning for the house is compared for the two HPWH operating modes with weather effects taken into account. Impacts during the heating and cooling seasons are compared.

Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Knowledge and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: boiling water reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Boiling-Water Reactors (BWR) (NUREG-1123) provides the basis for the development of content-valid licensing examinations for reactor operators (ROs) and senior reactor operators (SROs). The examinations developed using the BWR Catalog and Examiners' Handbook for Developing Operator Licensing Examinations (NUREG-1121) will cover those topics listed under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55. The BWR Catalog contains approximately 7000 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for ROs and SROs at boiling water reactors. Each K/A statement has been rated for its importance to the safe operation of the plant in a manner ensuring personnel and public health and safety. The BWR K/A Catalog is organized into five major sections: Plant-wide Generic Knowledge and Ability Statements, Plant Systems grouped by Safety Function, Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions, Components, and Theory. The BWR Catalog represents a modification of the form and content of the K/A Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Pressurized Water Reactors (NUREG-1122). First, categories of knowledge and ability statements have been redefined. Second, the scope of the definition of emergency and abnormal plant evolutions has been revised in line with a symptom-based approach. Third, K/As related to the operational applications of theory have been incorporated into the delineations for both plant systems and emergency and abnormal plant evolutions, while K/As pertaining to theory fundamental to plant operation have been delineated in a separate theory section. Finally, the components section has been revised.

Not Available

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Scale formation at various locations in a geothermal operation due to injection of imported waters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The injection of waters that are not native to a geothermal formation generates various physical and chemical problems. The major chemical problem resulting from such injections is the formation of sulfate scales (particularly CaSO4, BaSO4 and SrSO4) at various locations starting from the injection well through the production well to the surface facilities of any geothermal operation. One of the ways to prevent this type of scale formation is by reducing the sulfate concentration of the injection waters. The effect of sulfate deionization on scale formation at various locations of the geothermal operations is studied. Some experimental results on the CaSO4 scale formation in porous media upon heating an injection water with and without addition of scale inhibitors are also given.

Vetter, O.J.; Kandarpa, V.

1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

268

Determining the Viability of a Hybrid Experiential and Distance Learning Educational Model for Water Treatment Plant Operators in Kentucky.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Drinking water and wastewater industries are facing a nationwide workforce shortfall of qualified treatment plant operators due to factors including the en masse retirement (more)

Fattic, Jana R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ``ground-water pathway,`` which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Comparison of advanced cooling technologies efficiency depending on outside temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In some areas, water availability is a serious problem during the summer and could disrupt the normal operation of thermal power plants which needs large amount of water to operate. Moreover, when water quantities are sufficient, there can still be problem created by the waste heat rejected into the water which is regulated in order to limit the impact of thermal pollution on the environment. All these factors can lead to a decrease of electricity production during the summer and during peak hours, when electricity is the most needed. In order to deal with these problems, advanced cooling technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce water consumption and withdrawals but with an effect in the plant efficiency. This report aims at analyzing the efficiency of several cooling technologies with a fixed power plant design and so to produce a reference to be able to compare them.

Blaise Hamanaka; Haihua Zhao; Phil Sharpe

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

TEST PLAN FOR MONITORING COOLING COILS IN A LABORATORY SETTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research project is to understand and quantify the moisture removal performance of cooling coils at part-load conditions. The project will include a comprehensive literature review, detailed measurement of cooling coil performance in a laboratory facility, monitoring cooling systems at several field test sites, and development/validation of engineering models that can be used in energy calculations and building simulations. This document contains the detailed test plan for monitoring cooling coil performance in a laboratory setting. Detailed measurements will be taken on up to 10 direct expansion (DX) and chilled water cooling coils in various configurations to understand the impact of coil geometry and operating conditions on transient moisture condensation and evaporation.

Don B. Shirey, III

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Design and Operation of Equipment to Detect and Remove Water within Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Bottles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inspection and drying equipment has been implemented in a hot cell to address the inadvertent ingress of water into used nuclear fuel storage bottles. Operated with telemanipulators, the system holds up to two fuel bottles and allows their threaded openings to be connected to pressure transducers and a vacuum pump. A prescribed pressure rebound test is used to diagnose the presence of moisture. Bottles found to contain moisture are dried by vaporization. The drying process is accelerated by the application of heat and vacuum. These techniques detect and remove virtually all free water (even water contained in a debris bed) while leaving behind most, if not all, particulates. The extracted water vapour passes through a thermoelectric cooler where it is condensed back to the liquid phase for collection. Fuel bottles are verified to be dry by passing the pressure rebound test.

C.C. Baker; T.M. Pfeiffer; J.C. Price

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in line with the specific projects and regions, which increases the productive life of wells and increases the ultimate recoverable reserves in the ground. A case study was conducted in Wyoming to validate the applicability of the GIS analysis tool for watershed evaluations under real world conditions. Results of the partnered research will continue to be shared utilizing proven methods, such as on the IGOCC Web site, preparing hard copies of the results, distribution of documented case studies, and development of reference and handbook components to accompany the interactive internet-based GIS watershed analysis tool. Additionally, there have been several technology transfer seminars and presentations. The goal is to maximize the recovery of our nation's energy reserves and to promote water conservation.

Rachel Henderson

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

274

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses the following tasks; solar heating with isothermal collector operation and advanced control strategy; solar cooling with solid desiccant; liquid desiccant cooling system development; solar house III -- development and improvement of solar heating systems employing boiling liquid collectors; generic solar domestic water heating systems; advanced residential solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems; management and coordination of Colorado State/DOE program; and field monitoring workshop.

Not Available

1991-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

275

Heat pump system with selective space cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

Pendergrass, J.C.

1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

276

Heat pump system with selective space cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

Pendergrass, Joseph C. (Gainesville, GA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Ice Thermal Storage Systems for Nuclear Power Plant Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Availability of cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. One potential solution is to use ice thermal storage (ITS) systems that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plants thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses the ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS also provides a way to shift a large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body, adding ITS can bring significant economic benefits and avoid forced derating and shutdown during extremely hot weather. For the new plants using dry cooling towers, adding the ITS systems can effectively reduce the efficiency loss during hot weather so that new plants could be considered in regions lack of cooling water. This paper will review light water reactor cooling issues and present the feasibility study results.

Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumpsand Ground Source Water Loops  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Project objectives: Improve the indoor air quality and lower the cost of cooling and heating the buildings that make up the campus of Cedarville High School and Middle School.; Provide jobs; and reduce requirements of funds for the capital budget of the School District; and thus give relief to taxpayers in this rural region during a period of economic recession.

279

Enhancement of water retention in the membrane electrode assembly for direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to achieve the neat-methanol operation is to passively transport the water produced at the cathode throughEnhancement of water retention in the membrane electrode assembly for direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol Q.X. Wu, T.S. Zhao*, R. Chen, W.W. Yang Department of Mechanical Engineering

Zhao, Tianshou

280

Evaluation of water resources for enhanced oil recovery operations, Cement Field, Caddo and Grady Counties, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is based on the results of an investigation of the water resources local to the Cement Oil Field in Caddo and Grady Counties, southwestern, Oklahoma. The intent of the report is to present at least a semi-quantitative estimate of the volume, deliverability, and chemistry of the water potentially available for enhanced oil recovery in one or more Oklahoma oil fields. Subsequent to a review of several oil fields, the Cement Field was chosen for study because of its large size (25,000 acres), its extensive subsurface control (over 1850 wells), and its long history of production (since 1952) from several producing formations, some of which are already undergoing extensive waterflood operations. A preliminary review of the available data for this study suggested a threefold categorization of water resources, since the data for each category are distinctly different in nature, and, to some extent, different in source. The three categories are: surface water, ground water, and subsurface water. Flow, volume, and chemical analyses of each source are estimated.

Preston, D.A.; Harrison, W.E.; Luza, K.V.; Prater, L.; Reddy, R.J.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operational cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Southern Illinois University Watercraft & Equipment Operating Boat Operation Eligibility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that a stream of water is flowing from the motor for engine cooling. 8. Click in gear hard, don't grind. D the Illinois Boaters Safety Exam. General Boating Safety Guidelines All boat operations must comply with state is in distress, a fire extinguisher and engine cut-off safety lanyard for all boats with internal combustion

282

Operating Water Cherenkov Detectors in high altitude sites for the Large Aperture GRB Observatory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCD) are efficient detectors for detecting GRBs in the 10 GeV - 1 TeV energy range using the single particle technique, given their sensitivity to low energy secondary photons produced by high energy photons when cascading in the atmosphere. The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) operates arrays of WCD in high altitude sites (above 4500 m a.s.l.) in Bolivia, Mexico and Venezuela, with planned extension to Peru. Details on the operation and stability of these WCD in remote sites with high background rates of particles will be detailed, and compared to simulations. Specific issues due to operation at high altitude, atmospheric effects and solar activity, as well as possible hardware enhancements will also be presented.

Allard, D; Asorey, H; Barros, H; Bertou, X; Castillo, M; Chirinos, J M; De Castro, A; Flores, S; Gonzlez, J; Berisso, M Gomez; Grajales, J; Guada, C; Day, W R Guevara; Ishitsuka, J; Lpez, J A; Martnez, O; Melfo, A; Meza, E; Loza, P Miranda; Barbosa, E Moreno; Murrugarra, C; Nez, L A; Ormachea, L J Otiniano; Prez, G; Perez, Y; Ponce, E; Quispe, J; Quintero, C; Rivera, H; Rosales, M; Rovero, A C; Saavedra, O; Salazar, H; Tello, J C; Peralda, R Ticona; Varela, E; Velarde, A; Villaseor, L; Wahl, D; Zamalloa, M A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

UVM Central Heating & Cooling Plant Annual Maintenance Shutdown 2013 Affected Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UVM Central Heating & Cooling Plant Annual Maintenance Shutdown 2013 Affected Buildings Sunday 19 heating, hot water and critical air conditioning > NO CAGE WASHING > NO AUTOCLAVES > Given Boiler Plant will be in operation to provide heating, hot water and critical air conditioning > NO CAGE WASHING > NO AUTOCLAVES

Hayden, Nancy J.

285

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performanc...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Improves Cooling System Performance Case study details Marshall Space Flight Center's innovative technologies to improve water efficiency and cooling performance for one of its...

286

One Machine for Heating Cooling & Domestic Hot Water: Multi-Function Heat Pumps to Enable Zero Net Energy Homes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

advances to commercialize stand-alone electric heat-pump storage hot water heaters. These systems offer design uses multiple systems and fuels to provide thermal services, the emerging generation of heat to experience this change as air-source heat-pump water heaters deliver obvious energy savings over electric

California at Davis, University of

287

Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Coolant Concentration on Sub-Cooled Boiling and Crud Deposition on Reactor Cladding at Prototypical PWR Operating Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasing demand for energy necessitates nuclear power units to increase power limits. This implies significant changes in the design of the core of the nuclear power units, therefore providing better performance and safety in operations. A major hindrance to the increase of nuclear reactor performance especially in Pressurized Deionized water Reactors (PWR) is Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA)--the unexpected change in the core axial power distribution during operation from the predicted distribution. This problem is thought to be occur because of precipitation and deposition of lithiated compounds like boric acid (H{sub 2}BO{sub 3}) and lithium metaborate (LiBO{sub 2}) on the fuel rod cladding. Deposited boron absorbs neutrons thereby affecting the total power distribution inside the reactor. AOA is thought to occur when there is sufficient build-up of crud deposits on the cladding during subcooled nucleate boiling. Predicting AOA is difficult as there is very little information regarding the heat and mass transfer during subcooled nucleate boiling. An experimental investigation was conducted to study the heat transfer characteristics during subcooled nucleate boiling at prototypical PWR conditions. Pool boiling tests were conducted with varying concentrations of lithium metaborate (LiBO{sub 2}) and boric acid (H{sub 2}BO{sub 3}) solutions in deionized water. The experimental data collected includes the effect of coolant concentration, subcooling, system pressure and heat flux on pool the boiling heat transfer coefficient. The analysis of particulate deposits formed on the fuel cladding surface during subcooled nucleate boiling was also performed. The results indicate that the pool boiling heat transfer coefficient degrades in the presence of boric acid and lithium metaborate compared to pure deionized water due to lesser nucleation. The pool boiling heat transfer coefficients decreased by about 24% for 5000 ppm concentrated boric acid solution and by 27% for 5000 ppm lithium metaborate solution respectively at the saturation temperature for 1000 psi (68.9 bar) coolant pressure. Boiling tests also revealed the formation of fine deposits of boron and lithium on the cladding surface which degraded the heat transfer rates. The boron and lithium metaborate precipitates after a 5 day test at 5000 ppm concentration and 1000 psi (68.9 bar) operating pressure reduced the heat transfer rate 21% and 30%, respectively for the two solutions.

Schultis, J., Kenneth; Fenton, Donald, L.

2006-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

288

Gas-cooled nuclear reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas-cooled nuclear reactor includes a central core located in the lower portion of a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Primary coolant gas flows upward through the core and into four overlying heat-exchangers wherein stream is generated. During normal operation, the return flow of coolant is between the core and the vessel sidewall to a pair of motor-driven circulators located at about the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel. The circulators repressurize the gas coolant and return it back to the core through passageways in the underlying core structure. If during emergency conditions the primary circulators are no longer functioning, the decay heat is effectively removed from the core by means of natural convection circulation. The hot gas rising through the core exits the top of the shroud of the heat-exchangers and flows radially outward to the sidewall of the concrete pressure vessel. A metal liner covers the entire inside concrete surfaces of the concrete pressure vessel, and cooling tubes are welded to the exterior or concrete side of the metal liner. The gas coolant is in direct contact with the interior surface of the metal liner and transfers its heat through the metal liner to the liquid coolant flowing through the cooling tubes. The cooler gas is more dense and creates a downward convection flow in the region between the core and the sidewall until it reaches the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel when it flows radially inward and up into the core for another pass. Water is forced to flow through the cooling tubes to absorb heat from the core at a sufficient rate to remove enough of the decay heat created in the core to prevent overheating of the core or the vessel.

Peinado, Charles O. (La Jolla, CA); Koutz, Stanley L. (San Diego, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Modification and Validation of a Universal Thermodynamic Chiller Model Used to Evaluate the Performance of Water-Cooled Centrifugal Chillers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents modifications made to the procedure used to develop a universal thermodynamic model of chillers (Gordon and Ng, 1995). The modifications were necessary to capture physical phenomena involved when water is the coolant fluid...

Figueroa, I. E.; Cathey, M.; Medina, M. A.; Nutter, D. W.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Improving the Efficiency of Your Process Cooling System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many industries require process cooling to achieve desired outcomes of specific processes. This cooling may come from cooling towers, once-through water, mechanical refrigeration, or cryogenic sources such as liquid nitrogen or dry ice. This paper...

Baker, R.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Electron CoolingElectron Cooling Sergei Nagaitsev  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electron CoolingElectron Cooling Sergei Nagaitsev FNAL - AD April 28, 2005 #12;Electron Cooling methods must "get around the theorem" e.g. by pushing phase-space around. #12;Electron Cooling - Nagaitsev 3 TodayToday''s Menus Menu What is cooling? Types of beam cooling Electron cooling Conclusions #12

Fermilab

292

A domain-specific analysis system for examining nuclear reactor simulation data for light-water and sodium-cooled fast reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Building a new generation of fission reactors in the United States presents many technical and regulatory challenges. One important challenge is the need to share and present results from new high-fidelity, high-performance simulations in an easily usable way. Since modern multiscale, multi-physics simulations can generate petabytes of data, they will require the development of new techniques and methods to reduce the data to familiar quantities of interest (e.g., pin powers, temperatures) with a more reasonable resolution and size. Furthermore, some of the results from these simulations may be new quantities for which visualization and analysis techniques are not immediately available in the community and need to be developed. This paper describes a new system for managing high-performance simulation results in a domain-specific way that naturally exposes quantities of interest for light water and sodium-cooled fast reactors. It describes requirements to build such a system and the technical challenges faced...

Billings, Jay Jay; Hull, S Forest; Lingerfelt, Eric J; Wojtowicz, Anna

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be built at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plants thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant economic benefits and avoid forced derating and shutdown during extremely hot weather. For the new plants using dry cooling towers, adding the ice thermal storage systems can effectively reduce the efficiency loss and water consumption during hot weather so that new LWRs could be considered in regions without enough cooling water. \\ This paper presents the feasibility study of using ice thermal storage systems for LWR supplemental cooling and peak power shifting. LWR cooling issues and ITS application status will be reviewed. Two ITS application case studies will be presented and compared with alternative options: one for once-through cooling without enough cooling for short time, and the other with dry cooling. Because capital cost, especially the ice storage structure/building cost, is the major cost for ITS, two different cost estimation models are developed: one based on scaling method, and the other based on a preliminary design using Building Information Modeling (BIM), an emerging technology in Architecture/Engineering/Construction, which enables design options, performance analysis and cost estimating in the early design stage.

Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Cooled railplug  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers.

Weldon, William F. (Austin, TX)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production, 3rd Quarterly Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed.

Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

The effect of water content, cooling rate, and growth temperature on the freezing temperature of 4 Tillandsia species  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the exotherm initiation temperatures (EIT) of leaf sections. The effect of 2 growth temperatures (5 and 25oC) on the absolute water content and EIT of T. recurvata and T. usneoides was also determined. All p * * pt T. mb'1 ', f o t ld temperatures at 80... used to detect ice formation in plant tissues by exotherm detection. An electronic device is used to measure the heat released (exotherm) when water freezes. From this information, the freezing and supercooling temperatures of plant tissues can...

Hagar, Christopher Flint

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

Forsberg, C.W.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Ventilative cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

Graa, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Water Requirements for Future Energy production in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sources of geothermal greater cooling which facilities isWater of geothermal with high cooling supplies appear waterof geothermal resources in this SUMMARY Cooling water for

Sathaye, J.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operational cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Cooling Towers, Energy Conservation Strategies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

system. While our engineers are pretty well convinced of the importance of their sophisticated equipment, and rightly so, they take the cooling towers and the cold water returning from them for granted. Design Conditions are specified...

Burger, R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Cooling Towers, Energy Conservation Machines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cooling towers, in all too many industrial plants, are often the neglected units of the process chain which are hidden bonanzas for energy conservation and dollar savings. By lowering the entire systems temperature by the use of colder water...

Burger, R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Pressure drop, heat transfer, critical heat flux, and flow stability of two-phase flow boiling of water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures - final report for project "Efficent cooling in engines with nucleate boiling."  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of its order-of-magnitude higher heat transfer rates, there is interest in using controllable two-phase nucleate boiling instead of conventional single-phase forced convection in vehicular cooling systems to remove ever increasing heat loads and to eliminate potential hot spots in engines. However, the fundamental understanding of flow boiling mechanisms of a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture under engineering application conditions is still limited. In addition, it is impractical to precisely maintain the volume concentration ratio of the ethylene glycol/water mixture coolant at 50/50. Therefore, any investigation into engine coolant characteristics should include a range of volume concentration ratios around the nominal 50/50 mark. In this study, the forced convective boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures with volume concentration ratios of 40/60, 50/50, and 60/40 in a 2.98-mm-inner-diameter circular tube has been investigated in both the horizontal flow and the vertical flow. The two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux of the test fluids were determined experimentally over a range of the mass flux, the vapor mass quality, and the inlet subcooling through a new boiling data reduction procedure that allowed the analytical calculation of the fluid boiling temperatures along the experimental test section by applying the ideal mixture assumption and the equilibrium assumption along with Raoult's law. Based on the experimental data, predictive methods for the two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux under engine application conditions were developed. The results summarized in this final project report provide the necessary information for designing and implementing nucleate-boiling vehicular cooling systems.

Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L. (Energy Systems)

2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

304

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2002, 4th Quarterly Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed. If no additional moderator is added to the fuel rod lattice, it is possible to attain fast neutron energy spectrum conditions in a supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). This type of core can make use of either fertile or fertile-free fuel and retain a hard spectrum to effectively burn plutonium and minor actinides from LWR spent fuel while efficiently generating electricity. One can also add moderation and design a thermal spectrum SCWR. The Generation IV Roadmap effort has identified the thermal spectrum SCWR (followed by the fast spectrum SCWR) as one of the advanced concepts that should be developed for future use. Therefore, the work in this NERI project is addressing both types of SCWRs.

Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project 2001-001, Westinghouse Electric Co. Grant Number: DE-FG07-02SF22533, Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% versus about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors [LWRs]) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus, the need for a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators, and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies: LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which are also in use around the world. The reference SCWR design for the U.S. program is a direct cycle system operating at 25.0 MPa, with core inlet and outlet temperatures of 280 and 500 C, respectively. The coolant density decreases from about 760 kg/m3 at the core inlet to about 90 kg/m3 at the core outlet. The inlet flow splits with about 10% of the inlet flow going down the space between the core barrel and the reactor pressure vessel (the downcomer) and about 90% of the inlet flow going to the plenum at the top of the rector pressure vessel, to then flow down through the core in special water rods to the inlet plenum. Here it mixes with the feedwater from the downcomer and flows upward to remove the heat in the fuel channels. This strategy is employed to provide good moderation at the top of the core. The coolant is heated to about 500 C and delivered to the turbine. The purpose of this NERI project was to assess the reference U.S. Generation IV SCWR design and explore alternatives to determine feasibility. The project was organized into three tasks: Task 1. Fuel-cycle Neutronic Analysis and Reactor Core Design Task 2. Fuel Cladding and Structural Material Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Cracking Task 3. Plant Engineering and Reactor Safety Analysis. moderator rods. materials.

Philip E. MacDonald

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Hazard Evaluation for the Saltwell Chempump and a Saltwell Centrifugal Pump Design using Service Water for Lubrication and Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents results of a preliminary hazard analysis (PHA) covering the existing Crane Chempump and the new salt well pumping design. Three hazardous conditions were identified for the Chempump and ten hazardous conditions were identified for the new salt well pump design. This report also presents the results of the control decision/allocation process. A backflow preventer and associated limiting condition for operation were assigned to one hazardous condition with the new design.

GRAMS, W.H.

2000-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

307

Direct-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the Direct-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate project is to reduce the size and weight of the heat sink for power electronics used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The concept proposed in this project was to develop an innovative power electronics mounting structure, model it, and perform both thermal and mechanical finite-element analysis (FEA). This concept involved integrating cooling channels within the direct-bonded copper (DBC) substrate and strategically locating these channels underneath the power electronic devices. This arrangement would then be directly cooled by water-ethylene glycol (WEG), essentially eliminating the conventional heat sink and associated heat flow path. The concept was evaluated to determine its manufacturability, its compatibility with WEG, and the potential to reduce size and weight while directly cooling the DBC and associated electronics with a coolant temperature of 105 C. This concept does not provide direct cooling to the electronics, only direct cooling inside the DBC substrate itself. These designs will take into account issues such as containment of the fluid (separation from the electronics) and synergy with the whole power inverter design architecture. In FY 2008, mechanical modeling of substrate and inverter core designs as well as thermal and mechanical stress FEA modeling of the substrate designs was performed, along with research into manufacturing capabilities and methods that will support the substrate designs. In FY 2009, a preferred design(s) will be fabricated and laboratory validation testing will be completed. In FY 2010, based on the previous years laboratory testing, the mechanical design will be modified and the next generation will be built and tested in an operating inverter prototype.

Wiles, R.; Ayers, C.; Wereszczak, A.

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

308

Boiling water neutronic reactor incorporating a process inherent safety design  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A boiling-water reactor core is positioned within a prestressed concrete reactor vessel of a size which will hold a supply of coolant water sufficient to submerge and cool the reactor core by boiling for a period of at least one week after shutdown. Separate volumes of hot, clean (nonborated) water for cooling during normal operation and cool highly borated water for emergency cooling and reactor shutdown are separated by an insulated wall during normal reactor operation with contact between the two water volumes being maintained at interfaces near the top and bottom ends of the reactor vessel. Means are provided for balancing the pressure of the two water volumes at the lower interface zone during normal operation to prevent entry of the cool borated water into the reactor core region, for detecting the onset of excessive power to coolant flow conditions in the reactor core and for detecting low water levels of reactor coolant. Cool borated water is permitted to flow into the reactor core when low reactor coolant levels or excessive power to coolant flow conditions are encountered.

Forsberg, C.W.

1985-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

309

Passive cooling system for top entry liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a top entry loop joined satellite assembly with a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This satellite type reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary cooling system when rendered inoperative.

Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA); Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Hui, Marvin M. (Cupertino, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Cooled railplug  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers. 10 figs.

Weldon, W.F.

1996-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

311

Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream.

Carr, Peter (Cary, NC)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream. 3 figures.

Carr, P.

1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

313

Impacts of motor vehicle operation on water quality - Clean-up Costs and Policies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contribution of heavy metals to storm water from automotiveheavy metals can make highway runoff chronically toxic to receiving waters.heavy metals (such as Pb, Zn, or Cu) or hydrocarbon loadings of surface water

Nixon, Hilary; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Reduction of Water Consumption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cooling systems using water evaporation to dissipate waste heat, will require one pound of water per 1,000 Btu. To reduce water consumption, a combination of "DRY" and "WET" cooling elements is the only practical answer. This paper reviews...

Adler, J.

315

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--92 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space heating systems, (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters, (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems, (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project, (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research, and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

Not Available

1992-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

316

Boiling water neutronic reactor incorporating a process inherent safety design  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A boiling-water reactor core is positioned within a prestressed concrete reactor vessel of a size which will hold a supply of coolant water sufficient to submerge and cool the reactor core by boiling for a period of at least one week after shutdown. Separate volumes of hot, clean (non-borated) water for cooling during normal operation and cool highly borated water for emergency cooling and reactor shutdown are separated by an insulated wall during normal reactor operation with contact between the two water volumes being maintained at interfaces near the top and bottom ends of the reactor vessel. Means are provided for balancing the pressure of the two volumes at the lower interface zone during normal operation to prevent entry of the cool borated water into the reactor core region, for detecting the onset of excessive power to coolant flow conditions in the reactor core and for detecting low water levels of reactor coolant. Cool borated water is permitted to flow into the reactor core when low reactor coolant levels or excessive power to coolant flow conditions are encountered.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Kingston, TN)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Thermal performance upgrade of the Arkansas Nuclear One cooling tower: A ``root cause`` analysis approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal performance efficiency of the natural draft cooling tower at Entergy Operations` 858 MWe Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit 2 was successfully upgraded to 101% of design performance capability in April 1994 as the end result of a unique root-cause analysis of the cooling tower`s long-standing performance deficiencies. Through application of state-of-the-art diagnostic testing methods and computer modeling techniques, Entergy was able to identify and correct air/water maldistribution problems in the 447 foot tall counterflow cooling tower at minimal cost. Entergy estimates that the savings realized, as a result of the 1.2 F reduction in cooling tower outlet water temperature, will pay for the thermal upgrade project in approximately 14 months.

Liffick, G.W. [Entergy Operations, Inc., Russellville, AR (United States); Cooper, J.W. Jr. [John Cooper and Associates, Tampa, FL (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Effect of water concentration in the anode catalyst layer on the performance of direct methanol fuel cells operating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

significantly increase the methanol-crossover rate, producing an unfavorable * Corresponding author. DepartmentEffect of water concentration in the anode catalyst layer on the performance of direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol Q.X. Wu a , S.Y. Shen a , Y.L. He b , T.S. Zhao a

Zhao, Tianshou

319

Incorporation of system operation strategies in water rights modeling and analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the state of Texas. Effective management of this stochastic resource requires that the availability of water for various uses be estimated to a high degree of confidence. The availability of water is constrained by a variety of hydrologic...

Dunn, David Douglas

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Energetic performance optimization of a capacitive deionization system operating with transient cycles and brackish water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

face economic water shortage [4], meaning that effective steps have to be taken, in terms of increasing cycles and brackish water Onur N. Demirer, Rachel M. Naylor, Carlos A. Rios Perez, Ellen Wilkes, Carlos analysis Water desalination using capacitive deionization (CDI) has been a recent topic of intense research

Hidrovo, Carlos H.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operational cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

CO$_2$ cooling experience (LHCb)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thermal control system of the LHCb VErtex LOcator (VELO) is a two-phase C0$_2$ cooling system based on the 2-Phase Accumulator Controlled Loop (2PACL) method. Liquid carbon dioxide is mechanically pumped in a closed loop, chilled by a water-cooled freon chiller and evaporated in the VELO detector. The main goal of the system is the permanent cooling of the VELO silicon sensors and of the heat producing front-end electronics inside a vacuum environment. This paper describes the design and the performance of the system. First results obtained during commissioning are also presented.

Van Lysebetten, Ann; Verlaat, Bart

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Rate of cooling and power consumption of farm milk coolers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. ;:, s. . . ical oooling is more economica1 and convenient than cooling ?ith ice. (~) Ths mechanical rsfrir. eration methods for cooling milk as developed to hate include: (1) Cooling in cans in re- frigerated aix; (8) cooling in a cold water bath...

McCardle, Arthur, Jr

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Cool Links  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to User GroupInformationE-Gov ContactsContractOffice ofConversionCool

324

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders ofthe heat capacity and transfer efficiency of liquids is

Coles, Henry

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Water Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300 South Place: Salt LakeWashtenaw County, Michigan: Energy ResourcesNCcooling

326

Cab Heating and Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

Damman, Dennis

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

327

Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various studies have attempted to consolidate published estimates of water use impacts of electricity generating technologies, resulting in a wide range of technologies and values based on different primary sources of literature. The goal of this work is to consolidate the various primary literature estimates of water use during the generation of electricity by conventional and renewable electricity generating technologies in the United States to more completely convey the variability and uncertainty associated with water use in electricity generating technologies.

Macknick, J.; Newmark, R.; Heath, G.; Hallett, K. C.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

The effect of petroleum operations on the phytoplankton ecology of the Louisiana coastal waters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

comparison of phytoplankton standing crop and pro- duction from productive neritic areas of the Gulf of Mexico. 59 INTRODUCTION The waters of the northwest Gulf of Mexico represent the major oil-producing site in the U. S. with an estimated 30-40, 000... spills (Smith, 1968; Oguri and Kanter, 1971). Smith (1968) collected phytoplankton samples from several stations in waters uncontaminated by oil, in waters with a thin oil film, and in waters near to detergent sprayed oil after the ~Torre ~Can...

Fucik, K

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with backup coolant flow path  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary system when rendered inoperable.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Knowledge and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Pressurized water reactors. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides the basis for the development of content-valid licensing examinations for reactor operators and senior reactor operators. The examinations developed using the PWR catalog will cover those topics listed under Title 10, (ode of Federal Regulations Part 55. The PWR catalog contains approximately 5100 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for reactor operators and senior reactor operators. The catalog is organized into six major sections: Catalog Organization; Generic Knowledge and Abilities; Plant Systems; Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions; Components and Theory.

NONE

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process simulation model has been developed using Aspen Plus(R) with the OLI (OLI System, Inc.) water chemistry model to predict water quality in the recirculating cooling loop utilizing secondary- and tertiary-treated municipal wastewater as the source of makeup water. Simulation results were compared with pilot-scale experimental data on makeup water alkalinity, loop pH, and ammonia evaporation. The effects of various parameters including makeup water quality, salt formation, NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} evaporation mass transfer coefficients, heat load, and operating temperatures were investigated. The results indicate that, although the simulation model can capture the general trends in the loop pH, experimental data on the rates of salt precipitation in the system are needed for more accurate prediction of the loop pH. It was also found that stripping of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the cooling tower can influence the cooling loop pH significantly. The effects of the NH{sub 3} mass transfer coefficient on cooling loop pH appear to be more significant at lower values (e.g., k{sub NH3}< 410{sup -3} m/s) when the makeup water alkalinity is low (e.g., <90 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}). The effect of the CO{sub 2} mass transfer coefficient was found to be significant only at lower alkalinity values (e.g., k{sub CO2}<410{{sup -6} m/s).

Safari, Iman; Walker, Michael E.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Dzombak, David A.; Liu, Wenshi; Vidic, Radisav D.; Miller, David C.; Abbasian, Javad

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, Vol. 125, No. 3, pp. 143-153, May/June 1999 Some Derived Operating Rules for Reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for reservoirs in series and in parallel for water supply, flood control, hydropower, water quality-time, seasonal, and long- term operations, and for understanding the workings of multi-reservoir systems-term operation for hydropower production and energy storage. For reservoirs in parallel, additional new special

Pasternack, Gregory B.

333

Performance of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system. Final report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Operation of CSU Solar House I during the heating season of 1978-1979 and during the 1979 cooling season was based on the use of systems comprising an experimental evacuated tubular solar collector, a non-freezing aqueous collection medium, heat exchange to an insulated conventional vertical cylindrical storage tank and to a built-up rectangular insulated storage tank, heating of circulating air by solar heated water and by electric auxiliary in an off-peak heat storage unit, space cooling by lithium bromide absorption chiller, and service water heating by solar exchange and electric auxiliary. Automatic system control and automatic data acquisition and computation are provided. This system is compared with others evaluated in CSU Solar Houses I, II and III, and with computer predictions based on mathematical models. Of the 69,513 MJ total energy requirement for space heating and hot water during a record cold winter, solar provided 33,281 MJ equivalent to 48 percent. Thirty percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 29 percent was delivered and used for heating and hot water. Of 33,320 MJ required for cooling and hot water during the summer, 79 percent or 26,202 MJ were supplied by solar. Thirty-five percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 26 percent was used for hot water and cooling in the summer. Although not as efficient as the Corning evacuated tube collector previously used, the Philips experimental collector provides solar heating and cooling with minimum operational problems. Improved performance, particularly for cooling, resulted from the use of a very well-insulated heat storage tank. Day time (on-peak) electric auxiliary heating was completely avoided by use of off-peak electric heat storage. A well-designed and operated solar heating and cooling system provided 56 percent of the total energy requirements for heating, cooling, and hot water.

Duff, W.S.; Loef, G.O.G.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Method and system for simulating heat and mass transfer in cooling towers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a system and method for simulating the performance of a cooling tower. More precisely, the simulator of the present invention predicts values related to the heat and mass transfer from a liquid (e.g., water) to a gas (e.g., air) when provided with input data related to a cooling tower design. In particular, the simulator accepts input data regarding: (a) cooling tower site environmental characteristics; (b) cooling tower operational characteristics; and (c) geometric characteristics of the packing used to increase the surface area within the cooling tower upon which the heat and mass transfer interactions occur. In providing such performance predictions, the simulator performs computations related to the physics of heat and mass transfer within the packing. Thus, instead of relying solely on trial and error wherein various packing geometries are tested during construction of the cooling tower, the packing geometries for a proposed cooling tower can be simulated for use in selecting a desired packing geometry for the cooling tower.

Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, A. Vahab (Golden, CO)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Improving Process Cooling Tower Eddiciency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 7 Improving Cooling Tower Efficiency ? Two Improvements in Capacity/Performance 1. Filtration for water quality control Side stream filtration Make up water quality...-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 2 Types of Cooling Towers Forced Draft Towers ESL-IE-13-05-08 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 3 Types...

Turpish, W.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Feasibility report on alternative methods for cooling cavern oils at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil caverns at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) are subjected to geothermal heating from the surrounding domal salt. This process raises the temperature of the crude oil from around 75 F upon delivery to SPR to as high as 130 F after decades of storage. While this temperature regime is adequate for long-term storage, it poses challenges for offsite delivery, with warm oil evolving gases that pose handling and safety problems. SPR installed high-capacity oil coolers in the mid-1990's to mitigate the emissions problem by lowering the oil delivery temperature. These heat exchanger units use incoming raw water as the cooling fluid, and operate only during a drawdown event where incoming water displaces the outgoing oil. The design criteria for the heat exchangers are to deliver oil at 100 F or less under all drawdown conditions. Increasing crude oil vapor pressures due in part to methane intrusion in the caverns is threatening to produce sufficient emissions at or near 100 F to cause the cooled oil to violate delivery requirements. This impending problem has initiated discussion and analysis of alternative cooling methods to bring the oil temperature even lower than the original design basis of 100 F. For the study described in this report, two alternative cooling methods were explored: (1) cooling during a limited drawdown, and (2) cooling during a degas operation. Both methods employ the heat exchangers currently in place, and do not require extra equipment. An analysis was run using two heat transfer models, HEATEX, and CaveMan, both developed at Sandia National Laboratories. For cooling during a limited drawdown, the cooling water flowrate through the coolers was varied from 1:1 water:oil to about 3:1, with an increased cooling capacity of about 3-7 F for the test cavern Bryan Mound 108 depending upon seasonal temperature effects. For cooling in conjunction with a degas operation in the winter, cavern oil temperatures for the test cavern Big Hill 102 were cooled sufficiently that the cavern required about 9 years to return to the temperature prior to degas. Upon reviewing these results, the authors recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy that a broader study of the cooling during degas be pursued in order to examine the potential benefits of cooling on all caverns in the current degasification schedule.

Levin, Bruce L.; Lord, David L.; Hadgu, Teklu

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Cooling system of an internal combustion engine having a turbo-charger  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cooling system of an internal combustion engine is described having a turbo-charger, comprising a cooling water circulation passageway filled with cooling water for cooling the engine including at least a cylinder head cooling portion, a cooling water circulation passageway for cooling the turbo-charger including a turbo-charger cooling portion, and means for supplying a part of the engine cooling water to the turbo-charger cooling water ciruclation passageway and returning it from there to the engine cooling water cirulation passageway, characterized in that the turbo-charger cooling portion is positioned at the same level or higher than the cylinder head cooling portion of the engine, the turbo-charger cooling water circulation passageway includes a water volume positioned at a level higher than the turbo-charger cooling portion. The volume is connected to a cooling water reservoir tank via a pressure relief valve which is opened when pressure in the volume exceeds a predetermined value to supply cooling water to the volume.

Hasegawa, M.; Fukuda, T.

1986-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

338

Knowledges and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: pressurized water reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document catalogs roughly 5300 knowledges and abilities of reactor operators and senior reactor operators. It results from a reanalysis of much larger job-task analysis data base compiled by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). Knowledges and abilities are cataloged for 45 major power plant systems and 38 emergency evolutions, grouped according to 11 fundamental safety functions (e.g., reactivity control and reactor coolant system inventory control). With appropriate sampling from this catalog, operator licensing examinations having content validity can be developed. A structured sampling procedure for this catalog is under development by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and will be published as a companion document, ''Examiners' Handbook for Developing Operator Licensing Examinations'' (NUREG-1121). The examinations developed by using the catalog and handbook will cover those topics listed under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55.

Not Available

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

Schroeder, Jenna N.

340

Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

Schroeder, Jenna N.

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operational cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Durability testing of medium speed diesel engine components designed for operating on coal/water slurry fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over 200 operating cylinder hours were run on critical wearing engine parts. The main components tested included cylinder liners, piston rings, and fuel injector nozzles for coal/water slurry fueled operation. The liners had no visible indication of scoring nor major wear steps found on their tungsten carbide coating. While the tungsten carbide coating on the rings showed good wear resistance, some visual evidence suggests adhesive wear mode was present. Tungsten carbide coated rings running against tungsten carbide coated liners in GE 7FDL engines exhibit wear rates which suggest an approximate 500 to 750 hour life. Injector nozzle orifice materials evaluated were diamond compacts, chemical vapor deposited diamond tubes, and thermally stabilized diamond. Based upon a total of 500 cylinder hours of engine operation (including single-cylinder combustion tests), diamond compact was determined to be the preferred orifice material.

McDowell, R.E.; Giammarise, A.W.; Johnson, R.N.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

McMillian, Michael H. (Fairmont, WV)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

An Analysis Method for Operations of Hot Water Heaters by Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Authors tried to apply an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to estimation of state of building systems. The systems used in this study were gas combustion water heaters. Empirical equations to estimate gas consumption from measureble properies...

Yamaha, M.; Takahashi, M.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Coolerado 5 Ton RTU Performance: Western Cooling Challenge Results (Revised)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Western Cooling Efficiency Center (WCEC) developed a set of criteria for test conditions, minimum energy, and water use performance for prototype cooling equipment and identified these conditions as indicative of western state climates.

Kozubal, E.; Slayzak, S.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Marketing Cool Storage Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

storage has been substantiated. bv research conducted by Electric Power Research Institute, and by numerous installations, it has become acknowledged that cool stora~e can provide substantial benefits to utilities and end-users alike. A need was reco...~ned to improve utility load factors, reduce peak electric demands, and other-wise mana~e the demand-side use of electricity. As a result of these many pro~rams, it became apparent that the storage of coolin~, in the form of chilled water, ice, or other phase...

McCannon, L.

346

Cooling and Clusters: When Is Heating Needed?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There are (at least) two unsolved problems concerning the current state of the thermal gas in clusters of galaxies. The first is identifying the source of the heating which offsets cooling in the centers of clusters with short cooling times (the ``cooling flow'' problem). The second is understanding the mechanism which boosts the entropy in cluster and group gas. Since both of these problems involve an unknown source of heating it is tempting to identify them with the same process, particular since AGN heating is observed to be operating at some level in a sample of well-observed ``cooling flow'' clusters. Here we show, using numerical simulations of cluster formation, that much of the gas ending up in clusters cools at high redshift and so the heating is also needed at high-redshift, well before the cluster forms. This indicates that the same process operating to solve the cooling flow problem may not also resolve the cluster entropy problem.

Greg L. Bryan; G. Mark Voit

2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

347

A new cylinder cooling system using oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design of engine cylinders must satisfy two conflicting requirements, good cooling performance and ease of manufacture. A cooling system was designed to permit the circulation of engine lubricating oil as a coolant at high speed through grooves provided on the external periphery of the cylinder liner. Testing in an actual operating engine confirmed that this cooling system design not only provides better heat transfer and higher cooling performance but also simplifies the manufacturing of the cylinder since external cooling fins are not required. In this paper, the authors will discuss the cylinder cooling effect of the new cylinder cooling system, referring mainly to the test results of a single-cylinder motorcycle engine with lubricating oil from the crankcase used as the coolant.

Harashina, Kenichi; Murata, Katsuhiro; Satoh, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yasuo; Hamamura, Masahiro

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

348

Experimental Study of the Circulation Air Volume of Recirculation Evaporative Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper introduces the technology of re-circulation evaporative cooling (REC), which uses a portion of supply air as secondary air to make cool water used to indirectly cool outside air through a heat exchanger. The circulation volume...

Xiong, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, C.; Chen, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Gas hydrate cool storage system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is a process for formation of a gas hydrate to be used as a cool storage medium using a refrigerant in water. Mixing of the immiscible refrigerant and water is effected by addition of a surfactant and agitation. The difficult problem of subcooling during the process is overcome by using the surfactant and agitation and performance of the process significantly improves and approaches ideal.

Ternes, Mark P. (Knoxville, TN); Kedl, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Direct Liquid Cooling for Electronic Equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a demonstration of an electronic--equipment cooling system in the engineering prototype development stage that can be applied in data centers. The technology provides cooling by bringing a water--based cooling fluid into direct contact with high--heat--generating electronic components. This direct cooling system improves overall data center energy efficiency in three ways: High--heat--generating electronic components are more efficiently cooled directly using water, capturing a large portion of the total electronic equipment heat generated. This captured heat reduces the load on the less--efficient air--based data center room cooling systems. The combination contributes to the overall savings. The power consumption of the electronic equipment internal fans is significantly reduced when equipped with this cooling system. The temperature of the cooling water supplied to the direct cooling system can be much higher than that commonly provided by facility chilled water loops, and therefore can be produced with lower cooling infrastructure energy consumption and possibly compressor-free cooling. Providing opportunities for heat reuse is an additional benefit of this technology. The cooling system can be controlled to produce high return water temperatures while providing adequate component cooling. The demonstration was conducted in a data center located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. Thirty--eight servers equipped with the liquid cooling system and instrumented for energy measurements were placed in a single rack. Two unmodified servers of the same configuration, located in an adjacent rack, were used to provide a baseline. The demonstration characterized the fraction of heat removed by the direct cooling technology, quantified the energy savings for a number of cooling infrastructure scenarios, and provided information that could be used to investigate heat reuse opportunities. Thermal measurement data were used with data center energy use modeling software to estimate overall site energy use. These estimates show that an overall data center energy savings of approximately 20 percent can be expected if a center is retrofitted as specified in the models used. Increasing the portion of heat captured by this technology is an area suggested for further development.

Coles, Henry; Greenberg, Steve

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Integrated supercritical water gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems for improved performance and reduced operating costs in existing plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A revolutionary hydrothermal heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is being developed to produce clean fuels for gas turbines from slurries and emulsions of opportunity fuels. Water can be above 80% by weight and solids below 20%, including coal fines, coal water fuels, biomass, composted municipal refuse, sewage sludge and bitumen/Orimulsion. The patented HRSG tubes use a commercial method of particle scrubbing to improve heat transfer and prevent corrosion and deposition on heat transfer surfaces. A continuous-flow pilot plant is planned to test the HRSG over a wide range of operating conditions, including the supercritical conditions of water, above 221 bar (3,205 psia) and 374 C (705 F). Bench scale data shows, that supercritical water gasification below 580 C (1,076 F) and low residence time without catalysts or an oxidizer can produce a char product that can contain carbon up to the amount of fixed carbon in the proximate analysis of the solids in the feed. This char can be burned with coal in an existing combustion system to provide the heat required for gasification. The new HRSG tubes can be retrofitted into existing power plant boilers for repowering of existing plants for improved performance and reduced costs. A special condensing turbine allows final low-temperature cleaning and maintains quality and combustibility of the fuel vapor for modern gas turbine in the new Vapor Transmission Cycle (VTC). Increased power output and efficiency can be provided for existing plants, while reducing fuel costs. A preliminary computer-based process simulation model has been prepared that includes material and energy balances that simulate commercial-scale operations of the VTC on sewage sludge and coal. Results predict over 40% HHV thermal efficiency to electric power from sewage sludge at more than 83% water by weight. The system appears to become autothermal (no supplemental fuel required) at about 35% fixed carbon in the feed. Thus, bituminous and lignite coal slurries could be gasified at less than 25% coal and more than 75% water. Preliminary life cycle cost analyses indicate that disposal fees for sewage sludge improve operating economics over fuel that must be purchased, the cost and schedule advantages of natural gas-fired combined cycle systems are preserved. Sensitivity analyses show that increasing capital costs by 50% can be offset by an increase in sewage sludge disposal fees of $10/metric ton.

Tolman, R.; Parkinson, W.J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

PROJECT REPORT WESTERN COOLING CHALLENGE LABORATORY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that reduce energy, water consumption and peak electricity demand associated with cooling in the Western-cool- er to reduce the refrigerant condensing temperature of a vapor compression system, then cycles Davis Energy Efficiency Center in 2007 through a grant from the California Clean Energy Fund

California at Davis, University of

353

Innovative Water Reuse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

? Variable Frequency Drive Air Cooled ? Geothermal ? Thermal absorption and desiccant systems Direct Expansion Air Cooling Hybrid Cooling Tower Old Chiller Replaced With Geothermal Loop Other Ways to Reduce Water Use ? Energy Conservation...Air Conditioning & Refrigeration ? Energy Meets Water H.W. (Bill)Hoffman, P.E. H.W. (Bill)Hoffman & Associates, LLC 512-294-7193 billhoffmantx@earthlink.net Cooling Towers The purpose of a cooling tower is to get rid of unwanted...

Hoffman, W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Heating and Cooling Equipment Selection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is one of a series of technology fact sheets created to help housing designers and builders adopt a whole-house design approach and energy efficient design practices. The fact sheet helps people choose the correct equipment for heating and cooling to reduce initial costs, increase homeowner comfort, increase operating efficiency, and greatly reduce utility costs.

Not Available

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Cooling Dry Cows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This publication discusses the effects of heat stress on dairy cows, methods of cooling cows, and research on the effects of cooling cows in the dry period....

Stokes, Sandra R.

2000-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

356

Hydrogen and Water: An Engineering, Economic and Environmental Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The multi-year program plan for the Department of Energy's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Program (USDOE, 2007a) calls for the development of system models to determine economic, environmental and cross-cutting impacts of the transition to a hydrogen economy. One component of the hydrogen production and delivery chain is water; water's use and disposal can incur costs and environmental consequences for almost any industrial product. It has become increasingly clear that due to factors such as competing water demands and climate change, the potential for a water-constrained world is real. Thus, any future hydrogen economy will need to be constructed so that any associated water impacts are minimized. This, in turn, requires the analysis and comparison of specific hydrogen production schemes in terms of their water use. Broadly speaking, two types of water are used in hydrogen production: process water and cooling water. In the production plant, process water is used as a direct input for the conversion processes (e.g. steam for Steam Methane Reforming {l_brace}SMR{r_brace}, water for electrolysis). Cooling water, by distinction, is used indirectly to cool related fluids or equipment, and is an important factor in making plant processes efficient and reliable. Hydrogen production further relies on water used indirectly to generate other feedstocks required by a hydrogen plant. This second order indirect water is referred to here as 'embedded' water. For example, electricity production uses significant quantities of water; this 'thermoelectric cooling' contributes significantly to the total water footprint of the hydrogen production chain. A comprehensive systems analysis of the hydrogen economy includes the aggregate of the water intensities from every step in the production chain including direct, indirect, and embedded water. Process and cooling waters have distinct technical quality requirements. Process water, which is typically high purity (limited dissolved solids) is used inside boilers, reactors or electrolyzers because as it changes phase or is consumed, it leaves very little residue behind. Pre-treatment of 'raw' source water to remove impurities not only enables efficient hydrogen production, but also reduces maintenance costs associated with component degradation due to those impurities. Cooling water has lower overall quality specifications, though it is required in larger volumes. Cooling water has distinct quality requirements aimed at preserving the cooling equipment by reducing scaling and fouling from untreated water. At least as important as the quantity, quality and cost of water inputs to a process are the quantity, quality and cost of water discharge. In many parts of the world, contamination from wastewater streams is a far greater threat to water supply than scarcity or drought (Brooks, 2002). Wastewater can be produced during the pre-treatment processes for process and cooling water, and is also sometimes generated during the hydrogen production and cooling operations themselves. Wastewater is, by definition, lower quality than supply water. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities can handle some industrial wastewaters; others must be treated on-site or recycled. Any of these options can incur additional cost and/or complexity. DOE's 'H2A' studies have developed cost and energy intensity estimates for a variety of hydrogen production pathways. These assessments, however, have not focused on the details of water use, treatment and disposal. As a result, relatively coarse consumption numbers have been used to estimate water intensities. The water intensity for hydrogen production ranges between 1.5-40 gallons per kilogram of hydrogen, including the embedded water due to electricity consumption and considering the wide variety of hydrogen production, water treatment, and cooling options. Understanding the consequences of water management choices enables stakeholders to make informed decisions regarding water use. Water is a fundamentally regional commodity. Water resources vary in quality and qu

Simon, A J; Daily, W; White, R G

2010-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

357

Energy Efficient Electronics Cooling Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Parker Precision Cooling Business Unit was awarded a Department of Energy grant (DE-EE0000412) to support the DOE-ITP goal of reducing industrial energy intensity and GHG emissions. The project proposed by Precision Cooling was to accelerate the development of a cooling technology for high heat generating electronics components. These components are specifically related to power electronics found in power drives focused on the inverter, converter and transformer modules. The proposed cooling system was expected to simultaneously remove heat from all three of the major modules listed above, while remaining dielectric under all operating conditions. Development of the cooling system to meet specific customer's requirements and constraints not only required a robust system design, but also new components to support long system functionality. Components requiring further development and testing during this project included pumps, fluid couplings, cold plates and condensers. All four of these major categories of components are required in every Precision Cooling system. Not only was design a key area of focus, but the process for manufacturing these components had to be determined and proven through the system development.

Steve O'Shaughnessey; Tim Louvar; Mike Trumbower; Jessica Hunnicutt; Neil Myers

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

358

Mode K - A Core Control Logic for Enhanced Load-Follow Operations of a Pressurized Water Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New core control logic known as Mode K has been developed to enhance the load-follow operation (LFO) capability of a pressurized water reactor. The Mode K reactor regulating system, which actuates control bank movements, consists of two closed control loops, one for the coolant average temperature control and the other for the axial power shape control. Via its peculiar logic for selecting the control banks to be driven, the Mode K controls the coolant average temperature and axial power shape simultaneously and automatically within their allowed operating limits. In this way, the Mode K significantly reduces the operator burden associated with conventional manual power shape control during LFOs. A simple and flexible soluble boron scenario complements the Mode K logic and contributes toward reducing operational burden by its simplicity. The Mode K logic has been implanted in the Korean Next-Generation Reactor, a 1300-MW(electric) class evolutionary nuclear power plant under development in Korea, and various kinds of LFOs including frequency control have been simulated using the Framatome engineering simulator SAPHIR. The simulation results show reasonable core control performance of the Mode K as well as proper behaviors of other major nuclear steam supply system components such as the pressurizer and steam generator.

Oh, Soo-Youl [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jonghwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Kyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Carrasco, Manuel [Framatome (France)

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

359

Experimental optimization of cooling-tower-fan control based on field data. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy costs continue to play an important role in the decision-making process for building design and operation. Since the chiller, cooling tower fans, and associated pumps consume the largest fraction of energy in a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, the control of these components is of major importance in determining building energy use. A significant control parameter for the chilled water system is the minimum entering condenser water set point temperature at which the cooling tower fans are cycled on and off, several studies have attempted to determine the optimum value for this minimum set point temperature, but direct measurements are not available to validate these studies. The purpose of this study was to experimentally determine the optimum minimum entering condenser water set point temperature from field data based on minimum energy consumption and to validate a chilled water system analytical model previously developed in earlier work. The total chiller system electrical consumption (chiller and cooling tower fan energy) was measured for four entering condensor water set point temperatures (70, 75, 80, and 85 deg F). The field results were compared to results obtained using an analytical model previously developed in a thesis entitled Optimized Design of a Commercial Building Chiller/Cooling Tower System, written by Joyce.

Herman, D.L.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Cooling Towers, The Neglected Energy Resource  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Loving care is paid to the compressors, condensers, and computer programs of refrigeration systems. When problems arise, operator: run around in circles with expensive "fixes", but historically ignore the poor orphan, the cooling tower perched...

Burger, R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operational cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants |  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomen Owned SmallOf The 2012NuclearBradleyBudget Water Power Program1

362

Water Use in the Development and Operation of Geothermal Power Plants  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of| Department ofDepartment of Energy Watch itEnergy Water Treatment

363

Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of| Department ofDepartment of Energy Watch itEnergy Water Treatment1

364

Dry cooling: Perspectives on future needs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The factors that can be expected to determine the future role of dry cooling in the United States electric power generation industry are identified and characterized. Focus is primarily on the issues of water availability for the electric power industry and the environmental impacts of evaporative cooling systems. The question of future water availability is addressed in terms of both limitations and opportunities facing the industry. A brief review of the status of dry cooling applications is provided. Included is a summary of an extensive survey of electric utility industry perspectives on the future requirements and role for dry cooling. Some regional assessments of the expected future requirements for this technology are also provided. Conclusions are a qualitative characterization of the expected future role of dry cooling in the electric power industry. 72 refs., 7 figs., 13 tabs.

Guyer, E.C. (Yankee Scientific, Inc., Ashland, MA (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Distributed scheduling for efficient HVAC precooling operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of supply and return fans for HVAC systems under di?erentOp- timal Scheduling of HVAC Pre-cooling Operations withScheduling for E?cient HVAC Pre-cooling Operations ? Yang

Yang, Su

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Development and testing of a photometric method to identify non-operating solar hot water systems in field settings.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of experimental tests of a concept for using infrared (IR) photos to identify non-operational systems based on their glazing temperatures; operating systems have lower glazing temperatures than those in stagnation. In recent years thousands of new solar hot water (SHW) systems have been installed in some utility districts. As these numbers increase, concern is growing about the systems dependability because installation rebates are often based on the assumption that all of the SHW systems will perform flawlessly for a 20-year period. If SHW systems routinely fail prematurely, then the utilities will have overpaid for grid-energy reduction performance that is unrealized. Moreover, utilities are responsible for replacing energy for loads that failed SHW system were supplying. Thus, utilities are seeking data to quantify the reliability of SHW systems. The work described herein is intended to help meet this need. The details of the experiment are presented, including a description of the SHW collectors that were examined, the testbed that was used to control the system and record data, the IR camera that was employed, and the conditions in which testing was completed. The details of the associated analysis are presented, including direct examination of the video records of operational and stagnant collectors, as well as the development of a model to predict glazing temperatures and an analysis of temporal intermittency of the images, both of which are critical to properly adjusting the IR camera for optimal performance. Many IR images and a video are presented to show the contrast between operating and stagnant collectors. The major conclusion is that the technique has potential to be applied by using an aircraft fitted with an IR camera that can fly over an area with installed SHW systems, thus recording the images. Subsequent analysis of the images can determine the operational condition of the fielded collectors. Specific recommendations are presented relative to the application of the technique, including ways to mitigate and manage potential sources of error.

He, Hongbo (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Vorobieff, Peter V. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Menicucci, David (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Mammoli, Andrea A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Carlson, Jeffrey J.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Overhead Cooling Systems In Data Centers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scientific and enterprise data centers, IT equipment product development, and research data center laboratories typically require continuous cooling to control inlet air temperatures within recommended operating levels for the IT equipment. The consolidation and higher density aggregation of slim computing, storage and networking hardware has resulted in higher power density than what the raised-floor system design, coupled with commonly used computer rack air conditioning (CRAC) units, was originally conceived to handle. Many existing data centers and newly constructed data centers adopt CRAC units, which inherently handle heat transfer within data centers via air as the heat transfer media. This results in energy performance of the ventilation and cooling systems being less than optimal. Understanding the current trends toward higher power density in IT computing, more and more IT equipment manufacturers are designing their equipment to operate in 'conventional' data center environments, while considering provisions of alternative cooling solutions to either their equipment or supplemental cooling in rack or row systems. Naturally, the trend toward higher power density resulting from current and future generations of servers has, in the meanwhile, created significant opportunities for precision cooling suppliers to engineer and manufacture packaged modular and scalable systems. The modular and scalable cooling systems aim at significantly improving efficiency while addressing the thermal challenges, improving reliability, and allowing for future needs and growth. Such pre-engineered and manufactured systems may be a significant improvement over current design; however, without an energy efficiency focus, their applications could also lead to even lower energy efficiencies in the overall data center infrastructure. The overall goal of the project supported by California Energy Commission was to characterize four commercially available, modular cooling systems installed in a data center. Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in a real data center, respectively, as compared to the energy efficiency of traditional legacy data center cooling systems. The technical objective of this project was to evaluate the energy performance of one of the four commercially available modular cooling systems installed in a data center in Sun Microsystems, Inc. This report is the result of a test plan that was developed with the industrial participants' input, including specific design and operating characteristics of the selected modular localized cooling solution provided by vendor 1. The technical evaluation included monitoring and measurement of selected parameters, and establishing and calculating energy efficiency metrics for the selected cooling product, which is a modular, scalable overhead cooling system. The system was tested in a hot/cold aisle environment without separation, or containment or the hot or cold aisles. The scope of this report is to quantify energy performance of the modular cooling unit in operation as it corresponds to a combination of varied server loads and inlet air temperatures. The information generated from this testing when combined with a concurrent research study to document the energy efficiency of the host data center's central chilled water cooling plant can be used to estimate potential energy savings from implementing modular cooling compared to conventional cooling in data centers.

Xu, TengFang T.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Cedarville...

369

Operational experience with and post-irradiation examinations on boiling water reactor control rods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The control rods of the KRB-I 250-MW (electric) boiling water reactor contain Vipac B/sub 4/C powder in Type 304 stainless steel tubes as a neutron-absorbing material. Because of an increase in the reactor coolant /sup 3/H activity, defective control rods were suspected. The hot cell examination of a highly exposed control rod revealed B/sub 4/C losses. The mechanism of failure was shown to be B/sub 4/C swelling and stress corrosion cracking of the absorber tubes, followed by B/sub 4/C washout. The B/sub 4/C volume swelling is given. The tube cracking starts at 30 to 35% and the B/sub 4/C washout at 50 to 55% local /sup 10/B burnup in the tubes.

Eickelpash, N.; Mullauer, J.; Seepolt, R.W.; Spalthoff, W.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

CFD Model Development and validation for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Reactor Cavity Cooling Systems (RCCS) is a passive safety system that will be incorporated in the VTHR design. The system was designed to remove the heat from the reactor cavity and maintain the temperature of structures and concrete walls under desired limits during normal operation (steady-state) and accident scenarios. A small scale (1:23) water-cooled experimental facility was scaled, designed, and constructed in order to study the complex thermohydraulic phenomena taking place in the RCCS during stead-state and transient conditions. The facility represents a portion of the reactor vessel with nine stainless steel coolant risers and utilizes water as coolant. The facility was equipped with instrumentation to measure temperatures and flow rates and a general verification was completed during the shakedown. A model of the experimental facility was prepared using RELAP5-3D and simulations were performed to validate the scaling procedure. The experimental data produced during the stead-state run were compared with the simulation results obtained using RELAP5-3D. The overall behavior of the facility met the expectations. The facility capabilities were confirmed to be very promising in performing additional experimental tests, including flow visualization, and produce data for code validation.

Hassan, Yassin; Corradini, Michael; Tokuhiro, Akira; Wei, Thomas Y.C.

2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

371

Stresses generated in cooling viscoelastic ice shells: Application to Europa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stresses generated in cooling viscoelastic ice shells: Application to Europa F. Nimmo Department to cooling and the expansion of the shell due to the ice-water volume change. The former effect generates Citation: Nimmo, F. (2004), Stresses generated in cooling viscoelastic ice shells: Application to Europa, J

Nimmo, Francis

372

Miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump is described for removing residual water molecules from an inlet sample prior to sample analysis in a mass spectroscopy system, such as ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectroscopy. The cryogenic pump is a battery operated, low power (<1.6 watts) pump with a {Delta}T=100 C characteristic. The pump operates under vacuum pressures of 5{times}10{sup {minus}4} Torr to ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions in the range of 1{times}10{sup {minus}7} to 3{times}10{sup {minus}9} Torr and will typically remove partial pressure, 2{times}10{sup {minus}7} Torr, residual water vapor. The cryogenic pump basically consists of an inlet flange piece, a copper heat sink with a square internal bore, four two tier Peltier (TEC) chips, a copper low temperature square cross sectional tubulation, an electronic receptacle, and an exit flange piece, with the low temperature tubulation being retained in the heat sink at a bias angle of 5{degree}, and with the TECs being positioned in parallel to each other with a positive potential being applied to the top tier thereof. 2 figs.

Keville, R.F.

1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

373

Miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump for removing residual water molecules from an inlet sample prior to sample analysis in a mass spectroscopy system, such as ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectroscopy. The cryogenic pump is a battery operated, low power (<1.6 watts) pump with a .DELTA.T=100.degree. C. characteristic. The pump operates under vacuum pressures of 5.times.10.sup.-4 Torr to ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions in the range of 1.times.10.sup.-7 to 3.times.10.sup.-9 Torr and will typically remove partial pressure, 2.times.10.sup.-7 Torr, residual water vapor. The cryogenic pump basically consists of an inlet flange piece, a copper heat sink with a square internal bore, four two tier Peltier (TEC) chips, a copper low temperature square cross sectional tubulation, an electronic receptacle, and an exit flange piece, with the low temperature tubulation being retained in the heat sink at a bias angle of 5.degree., and with the TECs being positioned in parallel to each other with a positive potential being applied to the top tier thereof.

Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Cooling System for the MERIT High-Power Target Experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and a remote PVSS supervision station connected via Ethernet. Operation Modes: Cooling of proximity cryogenicsCooling System for the MERIT High-Power Target Experiment Haug F., Pereira H., Silva P., Pezzetti M a free mercury jet inside a normal conducting pulsed 15 T capture solenoid magnet cooled with liquid

McDonald, Kirk

375

Renewable and Cooling Aware Workload Management for Sustainable Data Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and optimize its holistic operation. Tradition- ally, supply-side constraints such as energy or cooling avail is the incorporation of renewable on-site energy supplies and alternative cooling supplies into the design of dataRenewable and Cooling Aware Workload Management for Sustainable Data Centers Zhenhua Liu1, Yuan

Wierman, Adam

376

Emergency core cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor provided with an emergency core cooling system includes a reactor vessel which contains a reactor core comprising an array of fuel assemblies and a plurality of blanket assemblies. The reactor core is immersed in a pool of liquid metal coolant. The reactor also includes a primary coolant system comprising a pump and conduits for circulating liquid metal coolant to the reactor core and through the fuel and blanket assemblies of the core. A converging-diverging venturi nozzle with an intermediate throat section is provided in between the assemblies and the pump. The intermediate throat section of the nozzle is provided with at least one opening which is in fluid communication with the pool of liquid sodium. In normal operation, coolant flows from the pump through the nozzle to the assemblies with very little fluid flowing through the opening in the throat. However, when the pump is not running, residual heat in the core causes fluid from the pool to flow through the opening in the throat of the nozzle and outwardly through the nozzle to the assemblies, thus providing a means of removing decay heat.

Schenewerk, William E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Glasgow, Lyle E. (Westlake Village, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Operational experience with and postirradiation examinations on boiling water reactor control rods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The control rods of the KRBI-I 250-MW(electric) boiling water reactor contain Vipac B/sub 4/C powder in Type 304 stainless steel tubes as a neutron-absorbing material. Because of an increase in the reactor coolant /sup 3/H activity, defective control rods were suspected. The hot cell examination of a highly exposed control rod revealed B/sub 4/C losses. The mechanism of failure was shown to be B/sub 4/C swelling and stress corrosion cracking of the absorber tubes, followed by B/sub 4/C washout. The B/sub 4/C volume swelling is ..delta..V(%) = 0.851x + 0.0449x/sup 2/ (x = /sup 10/B decays in 10/sup 21/(n,..cap alpha..)/cm/sup 3/). The tube cracking starts at 30 to 35% and the B/sub 4/C washout at 50 to 55% local /sup 10/B burnup in the tubes.

Eickelpasch, N.; Seepolt, R.W.; Muellauer, J.; Spalthoff, W.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Local heat transfer and film effectiveness of a film cooled gas turbine blade tip  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas turbine engines due to high operating temperatures undergo severe thermal stress and fatigue during operation. Cooling of these components is a very important issue during the lifetime of the engine. Cooling is achieved through the use...

Adewusi, Adedapo Oluyomi

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Preliminary studies on the heat exchanger option for S-CO{sub 2} power conversion cycle coupled to water cooled SMR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For more than a half century, the steam Rankine cycle had been the major power conversion cycle for a nuclear power plant. However, as the interest on the next generation reactors grows, a variety of alternative power conversion systems have been studied. Among them, the S-CO{sub 2} cycle (Supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle) is considered as a promising candidate due to several benefits such as 1) Relatively high thermal efficiency at relatively low turbine inlet temperature, 2) High efficiency with simple lay-out 3) Compactness of turbo-machineries. 4) Compactness of total cycle combined with PCHE (Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger). According to the conventional classification of heat exchangers (HE), there are three kind of HE, 1) Tubular HEs, 2) Plate-type HEs, 3) Extended surface HEs. So far, the researcher has mostly assumed PCHE type HE for the S-CO{sub 2} cycle due to its compactness with reasonably low pressure drop. However, PCHE is currently one of the most expensive components in the cycle, which can have a negative effect on the economics of the cycle. Therefore, an alternative for the HE should be seriously investigated. By comparing the operating condition (pressure and temperature) there are three kind of HE in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle, 1) IHX (Intermediate Heat exchanger) 2) Recuperator and 3) Pre-cooler. In each heat exchanger, hot side and cold side coolants are different, i.e. reactor coolant to S-CO{sub 2} (IHX), S-CO{sub 2} to S-CO{sub 2}(Recuperator), S-CO{sub 2} to water (Pre-cooler). By considering all the attributes mentioned above, all existing types of heat exchangers are compared to find a possible alternative to PCHE. The comparing factors are 1) Size(volume), 2) Cost. Plate fin type HEs are considered to be the most competitive heat exchanger regarding the size and the cost after some improvements on the design limit are made. (authors)

Ahn, Y.; Lee, J. [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. I. [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa Univ. of Science, Technology and Research (KUSTAR), P.O.Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Impacts of Motor Vehicle Operation on Water Quality in the United States - Clean-up Costs and Policies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of structural storm-water best management practices. Waterbest management practices (BMPs) for removing them. Storm-water

Nixon, Hilary; Saphores, Jean-Daniel

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operational cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems. Project status report, January--February 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--92 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space heating systems, (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters, (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems, (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project, (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research, and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

Not Available

1992-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

382

Computerized operating procedures for shearing and dissolution of segments from LWBR (Light Water Breeder Reactor) fuel rods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents two detailed computerized operating procedures developed to assist and control the shearing and dissolution of irradiated fuel rods. The procedures were employed in the destructive analysis of end-of-life fuel rods from the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) that was designed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. Seventeen entire fuel rods from the end-of-life core of the LWBR were sheared into 169 precisely characterized segments, and more than 150 of these segments were dissolved during execution of the LWBR Proof-of-Breeding (LWBR-POB) Analytical Support Project at Argonne National Laboratory. The procedures illustrate our approaches to process monitoring, data reduction, and quality assurance during the LWBR-POB work.

Osudar, J.; Deeken, P.G.; Graczyk, D.G.; Fagan, J.E.; Martino, F.J.; Parks, J.E.; Levitz, N.M.; Kessie, R.W.; Leddin, J.M.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Reservoir Operation in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

management of the surface water resources of the various river basins of the state. The operation of these essential water control facilities is examined in this report. Reservoir operation is viewed here from the perspective of deciding how much water...

Wurbs, Ralph A.

384

ArizonaArizona''s Electricity Future:s Electricity Future: The Demand for WaterThe Demand for Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Groundwater Management ActAct Assured Water Supply ProgramAssured Water Supply Program #12;Arizona water 20002000 Residential & Business 16% Self-supplied 4% Irrigation 80% #12;Year 2006 Water UseYear 2006 Water/crystallizer systems Dry cooling plantsDry cooling plants Hybrid cooling systemsHybrid cooling systems Renewable

Keller, Arturo A.

385

Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges. This report is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to assess the water consumption of geothermal technologies and identify areas where water availability may present a challenge to utility-scale geothermal development. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or nongeothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. The geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as EGSs that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists, but where water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 2 describes the approach and methods for this work and identifies the four power plant scenarios evaluated: a 20-MW EGS binary plant, a 50-MW EGS binary plant, a 10-MW hydrothermal binary plant, and a 50-MW hydrothermal flash plant. The methods focus on (1) the collection of data to improve estimation of EGS stimulation volumes, aboveground operational consumption for all geothermal technologies, and belowground operational consumption for EGS; and (2) the mapping of the geothermal and water resources of the western United States to assist in the identification of potential water challenges to geothermal growth. Chapters 3 and 4 present the water requirements for the power plant life cycle. Chapter 3 presents the results of the current data collection effort, and Chapter 4 presents the normalized volume of fresh water consumed at each life cycle stage per lifetime energy output for the power plant scenarios evaluated. Over the life cycle of a geothermal power plant, from construction through 30 years of operation, the majority of water is consumed by plant operations. For the EGS binary scenarios, where dry cooling was assumed, belowground operational water loss is the greatest contributor depending upon the physical and operational conditions of the reservoir. Total life cycle water consumption requirements for air-cooled EGS binary scenarios vary between 0.22 and 1.85 gal/kWh, depending upon the extent of belowground operational water consumption. The air-cooled hydrothermal binary and flash plants experience far less fresh water consumption over the life cycle, at 0.04 gal/kWh. Fresh water requirements associated with air- cooled binary operations are primarily from aboveground water needs, including dust control, maintenance, and domestic use. Although wet-cooled hydrothermal flash systems require water for cooling, these plants generally rely upon the geofluid, fluid from the geothermal reservoir, which typically has high salinity and total dissolved solids concentration and is much warmer than normal groundwater sources, for their cooling water needs; thus,

Clark, Corrie E. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Harto, Christopher B. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Schroeder, Jenna N. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Martino, Louis E. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Horner, Robert M. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

386

Gas hydrate cool storage system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

1984-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

387

Simplified calculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the outlet side of fan coil units (FCU) served by variableunit (AHU) including a return air economizer, chilled water cooling coil, hot water heating coil and supply fan.

Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Thermosiphon Cooling of a Large Office /Laboratory Complex  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will be 716 ESL-IE-81-04-122 Proceedings from the Third Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 26-29, 1981 produced with cold cooling tower water. Refrigerant vapor (R-12) is condensed with cooling tower water between 35 and 50?F... the Third Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 26-29, 1981 ,.---Condenser Cooling Water Chilled Water --------------- -- 48/4S"F R-12 Refrigerant Compressor ----- 40/42'F Chilled Water Evaporator " FIGURE NO.6 - THERMOSIPHON...

White, T. L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Solar heating and cooling demonstration project at the Florida Solar Energy Center  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The retrofitted solar heating and cooling system installed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described. Information is provided on the system's test, operation, controls, hardware and installation, including detailed drawings. The Center's office building, approximately 5000 square feet of space, with solar air conditioning and heating as a demonstration of the technical feasibility is located just north of Port Canaveral, Florida. The system was designed to supply approximately 70% of the annual cooling and 100% of the heating load. The project provides unique high-temperature, non-imaging, non-tracking, evacuated-tube collectors. The design of the system was kept simple and employs five hydronic loops. They are energy collection, chilled water production, space cooling, space heating and energy rejection.

Hankins, J.D.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Cooling load estimation methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described. Correlations are described that permit auxiliary cooling estimates from monthly average insolation and weather data. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy required of a given building.

McFarland, R.D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Water Requirements for Future Energy production in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

this fresh water for cooling Supply-Demand Relationships now1806) represent cooling supply water statewide freshwatersupply, it is unclear if 560,000 would be required for cooling

Sathaye, J.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Evaluation of TANK water heater simulation model as embedded in HWSim  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

flue natural gas storage water heaters. Battelle developedthe water in a storage water heater is cooling off and

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Vortex-augmented cooling tower - windmill combination  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cooling tower for cooling large quantities of effluent water from a production facility by utilizing natural wind forces includes the use of a series of helically directed air inlet passages extending outwardly from the base of the tower to introduce air from any direction in a swirling vortical pattern while the force of the draft created in the tower makes it possible to place conventional power generating windmills in the air passage to provide power as a by-product.

McAllister, J.E. Jr.

1982-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

394

Refueling Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The liquid-salt-cooled very high-temperature reactor (LS-VHTR), also called the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR), is a new reactor concept that combines in a novel way four established technologies: (1) coated-particle graphite-matrix nuclear fuels, (2) Brayton power cycles, (3) passive safety systems and plant designs previously developed for liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors, and (4) low-pressure liquid-salt coolants. Depending upon goals, the peak coolant operating temperatures are between 700 and 1000 deg. C, with reactor outputs between 2400 and 4000 MW(t). Several fluoride salt coolants that are being evaluated have melting points between 350 and 500 deg. C, values that imply minimum refueling temperatures between 400 and 550 deg. C. At operating conditions, the liquid salts are transparent and have physical properties similar to those of water. A series of refueling studies have been initiated to (1) confirm the viability of refueling, (2) define methods for safe rapid refueling, and (3) aid the selection of the preferred AHTR design. Three reactor cores with different fuel element designs (prismatic, pebble bed, and pin-type fuel assembly) are being evaluated. Each is a liquid-salt-cooled variant of a graphite-moderated high-temperature reactor. The refueling studies examined applicable refueling experience from high-temperature reactors (similar fuel element designs) and sodium-cooled fast reactors (similar plant design with liquid coolant, high temperatures, and low pressures). The findings indicate that refueling is viable, and several approaches have been identified. The study results are described in this paper. (authors)

Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Peterson, Per F. [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California at Berkeley, 6124a Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cahalan, James E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Enneking, Jeffrey A. [Areva NP (United States); Phil MacDonald [Consultant, Cedar Hill, TX (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

CFD Simulation and Analysis of the Combined Evaporative Cooling and Radiant Ceiling Air-conditioning System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and the ceiling cooling system deals with the other part of sensible loads in the air-conditioned zone, so that the condensation on radiant panels and the insufficiency of cooling capacity can be avoided. The cooling water at 18? used in the cooling coils...

Xiang, H.; Yinming, L.; Junmei, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

I. IONIZATION COOLING A. Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ionization cooling techniques to reduce the 6dimensional phase space emittance. B. Cooling TheoryI. IONIZATION COOLING A. Introduction The muon beam at the end of the decay channel is very intense for beam cooling. Cooling by synchrotron radiation, conventional stochastic cooling and conventional

McDonald, Kirk

397

1992 National census for district heating, cooling and cogeneration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

District energy systems are a major part of the energy use and delivery infrastructure of the United States. With nearly 6,000 operating systems currently in place, district energy represents approximately 800 billion BTU per hour of installed thermal production capacity, and provides over 1.1 quadrillion BTU of energy annually -- about 1.3% of all energy used in the US each year. Delivered through more that 20,000 miles of pipe, this energy is used to heat and cool almost 12 billion square feet of enclosed space in buildings that serve a diverse range of office, education, health care, military, industrial and residential needs. This Census is intended to provide a better understanding of the character and extent of district heating, cooling and cogeneration in the United States. It defines a district energy system as: Any system that provides thermal energy (steam, hot water, or chilled water) for space heating, space cooling, or process uses from a central plant, and that distributes the energy to two or more buildings through a network of pipes. If electricity is produced, the system is a cogenerating facility. The Census was conducted through surveys administered to the memberships of eleven national associations and agencies that collectively represent the great majority of the nation`s district energy system operators. Responses received from these surveys account for about 11% of all district systems in the United States. Data in this report is organized and presented within six user sectors selected to illustrate the significance of district energy in institutional, community and utility settings. Projections estimate the full extent of district energy systems in each sector.

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Applications Tests of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Field application tests have been conducted on three 4 to 6-ton commercial heat pump water heater systems in a restaurant, a coin-operated laundry, and an office building cafeteria in Atlanta. The units provide space cooling while rejecting heat...

Oshinski, J. N..; Abrams, D. W.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Handbook of experiences in the design and installation of solar heating and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A large array of problems encountered are detailed, including design errors, installation mistakes, cases of inadequate durability of materials and unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in the performance and operation of different solar systems. Durability, reliability, and design problems are reviewed for solar collector subsystems, heat transfer fluids, thermal storage, passive solar components, piping/ducting, and reliability/operational problems. The following performance topics are covered: criteria for design and performance analysis, domestic hot water systems, passive space heating systems, active space heating systems, space cooling systems, analysis of systems performance, and performance evaluations. (MHR)

Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Evaluation of storing Shippingport Core II spent blanket fuel assemblies in the T Plant PWR Core II fuel pool without active cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

PWR Core II fuel pool chiller-off test was conducted because it appeared possible that acceptable pool-water temperatures could be maintained without operating the chillers, thus saving hundreds of thousands of dollars in maintenance and replacement costs. Test results showed that the water-cooling capability is no longer needed to maintain pool temperature below 38{degrees}C (100{degrees}F).

Gilbert, E.R.; Lanning, D.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Dana, C.M.; Hedengren, D.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operational cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Minimum 186 Basin levels required for operation of ECS and CWS pumps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Operation of K Reactor with a cooling tower requires that 186 Basin loss of inventory transients be considered during Design Basis Accident analyses requiring ECS injection, such as the LOCA and LOPA. Since the cooling tower systems are not considered safety systems, credit is not taken for their continued operation during a LOPA or LOCA even though they would likely continue to operate as designed. Without the continued circulation of cooling water to the 186 Basin by the cooling tower pumps, the 186 Basin will lose inventory until additional make-up can be obtained from the river water supply system. Increasing the make-up to the 186 Basin from the river water system may require the opening of manually operated valves, the starting of additional river water pumps, and adjustments of the flow to L Area. In the time required for these actions a loss of basin inventory could occur. The ECS and CWS pumps are supplied by the 186 Basin. A reduction in the basin level will result in decreased pump suction head. This reduction in suction head will result in decreased output from the pumps and, if severe enough, could lead to pump cavitation for some configurations. The subject of this report is the minimum 186 Basin level required to prevent ECS and CWS pump cavitation. The reduction in ECS flow due to a reduced 186 Basin level without cavitation is part of a separate study.

Reeves, K.K.; Barbour, K.L.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Thermal Energy Storage for Space Cooling--Federal Technology Alert  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cool storage technology can be used to significantly reduce energy costs by allowing energy-intensive, electrically driven cooling equipment to be predominantly operated during off peak hours when electricity rates are lower. This Federal Technology Alert, which is sponsored by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), describes the basic types of cool storage technologies and cooling system integration options. In addition, it defines the savings potential in the federal sector, presents application advice, and describes the performance experience of specific federal users. The results of a case study of a GSA building using cool storage technology are also provided.

Brown, Daryl R

2000-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

403

Thermal Energy for Space Cooling--Federal Technology Alert  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cool storage technology can be used to significantly reduce energy costs by allowing energy-intensive, electrically driven cooling equipment to be predominantly operated during off peak hours when electricity rates are lower. This Federal Technology Alert, which is sponsored by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), describes the basic types of cool storage technologies and cooling system integration options. In addition, it defines the savings potential in the federal sector, presents application advice, and describes the performance experience of specific federal users. The results of a case study of a GSA building using cool storage technology are also provided.

Brown, Daryl R.

2000-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

404

Gas turbine cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Researching power plant water recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A range of projects supported by NETl under the Innovations for Existing Plant Program are investigating modifications to power plant cooling systems for reducing water loss, and recovering water from the flue gas and the cooling tower. This paper discusses two technologies showing particular promise condense water that is typically lost to evaporation, SPX technologies' Air2Air{sup trademark} condenses water from a cooling tower, while Lehigh University's process condenses water and acid in flue gas. 3 figs.

NONE

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Overview of environmental control aspects for the gas-cooled fast reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Environmental control aspects relating to release of radionuclides have been analyzed for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). Information on environmental control systems was obtained for the most recent GCFR designs, and was used to evaluate the adequacy of these systems. The GCFR has been designed by the General Atomic Company as an alternative to other fast breeder reactor designs, such as the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). The GCFR design includes mixed oxide fuel and helium coolant. The environmental impact of expected radionuclide releases from normal operation of the GCFR was evaluated using estimated collective dose equivalent commitments resulting from 1 year of plant operation. The results were compared to equivalent estimates for the Light Water Reactor (LWR) and High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). A discussion of uncertainties in system performances, tritium production rates, and radiation quality factors for tritium is included.

Nolan, A.M.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric water cycle Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

cycle power plant's water demand is to meet... cooling water makeup requirements. Cooling towers reject heat from a power ... Source: California Energy Commission Collection:...

408

Energy 101: Cool Roofs  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment.

None

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

409

Abstract. Harvesting condensed atmospheric vapour as dew water can be an alternative or complementary potable water resource in specific arid or insular areas. Such radiation-cooled condensing devices use  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BUILDING - A USTAR INNOVATION CENTER Estimated New Space: USTAR - 200,000 NSF Estimated Completion Date, and coordination of site design with North Chilled Water Plant design. The 5,940 NSF Chilled Water Plant processes across all of campus. The existing distribution system is over 30 years old. Corrosion from ground

410

March 1, 2013. Campus Wide District Heating & Cooling System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(hot water) #12;14 Decentralisation Central Plant becomes Energy Plant 11 Mechanical Rooms (water heaters Units Chillers recovery Hot Water Heaters recovery Second Stage Heatpumps (HWH + DHW) 70 (tons) X 4;18 Energy Loop 18 Energy Loop Geothermal Cooling Units Chillers recovery Hot Water Heaters recovery Second

411

Control of cooling losses at high pulverized coal injection rates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the problems which is encountered by many blast furnace operators is the appropriate control of the cooling losses of the blast furnace. This problem has been aggravated by the introduction of pulverized coal injection. Even with equal burden and coke composition, both Sidmar furnaces behave differently with respect to the cooling losses. This phenomenon is possibly attributable to the different profile and cooling circuitry of the furnaces. Among other parameters the angles of bosh and stack may favor the formation of scabs or not. Some operators experience a decrease of their cooling losses, other operators have problems to limit their cooling losses to an acceptable level. As a result, different operating practices exist with respect to the burden distribution. The increase of the ore to coke ratio with pulverized coal injection suggests that the coke and sinter quality has to be monitored very carefully in order to avoid permeability problems.

Bonte, L.; Nieuwerburgh, H. Van [Sidmar N.V., Gent (Belgium)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

412

A Systems-Integration Approach to the Optimal Design and Operation of Macroscopic Water Desalination and Supply Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and its utilization was improved by minimizing the losses observed in discharged water resulting from the linkage of power plants and thermal desalination plants and the lack of integration between water production and consumption. Several case studies...

Atilhan, Selma

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

413

User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems. Volume I. Main text  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The AQUASTOR model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two principal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains the main text, including introduction, program description, input data instruction, a description of the output, and Appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Geothermal potential for heating and cooling facilities, San Bernardino Valley College, San Bernardino, California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential for converting to geothermal heating at the campus of San Bernardino Valley College is considered. Also considered is the possibility of using well water for water cooled condenser cooling of air conditioning equipment. To provide water supply a production well, water distribution system and an injection well would be installed for each system.

Gemeinhardt, M.A.; Tharaldson, L.C.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Development of passive dry cooling system for power plants in arid land  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Availability of large amounts of cooling water is essential for steam power plants. In inland arid areas, gas turbines are usually used for electric power generation at low efficiency and high operation costs. Dry cooling towers are another option but they are not effective with high ambient temperature. This work explores the use of radiative cooling for power plants and large refrigeration plants in inland arid areas. The work done consists of small scale experiments, mathematical models, a survey of the suitable materials, and a prototype experiment. This article presents the prototype experiment. The mathematical modeling was presented by the authors in Solar Energy 48(5), 279-286 (1992). A prototype experimental pond, 10m x 25m x 1m, covered with a painted white aluminum sheet was designed, constructed, and tested. The pond was divided into two layers. The experiment was carried out from January to June. Temperatures in the pond at different sections and depths, net radiation, and weather data were measured. At night the results showed an average heat rejection by radiation of 50 W/m[sup 2]. These results were comparable with the results of the mathematical model. The net result of the experiment was positive. It demonstrated the suitability of the covered pond as a heat rejection system in place where a sufficient amount of cooling water was not available.

Sabbagh, J.A.; Khalifa, A.M.A.; Olwi, I.A. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia))

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

The energy saving potential of precooling incoming outdoor air by indirect evaporative cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigates the energy saving potentials of using indirect evaporative coolers to precool incoming outdoor air as the first stage of a standard cooling system. For dry and moderately humid locations, either exhaust room air or outdoor air can be used as the secondary air to the indirect evaporative precooler with similar energy savings. Under these conditions, the use of outdoor air is recommended due to the simplicity in installing the duct system. For humid locations, the use of exhaust room air is recommended because the precooling capacity and energy savings will be greatly increased. For locations with short cooling seasons, the use of indirect evaporative coolers for precooling may not be worthwhile. The paper also gives some simplified indices for easily predicting the precooling capacity, energy savings and water consumption of an indirect evaporative precooler. These indices can be used for cooling systems with continuous operation, but further work is needed to determine whether the same indices are also suitable for cooling systems with intermittent operations.

Chen, P.; Qin, H.; Huang, Y.J.; Wu, H.; Blumstein, C.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

2WCEC ANNUAL REPORT ON COOLING IN THE WEST | 2012-2013 Demand savings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

69 71 75 79 80 81 84 Advancing HVAC energy efficiency through comprehensive research, industry plastic beads ENERGY WATER COOLING HEATING PEAK BY THE NUMBERS #12;3WCEC ANNUAL REPORT ON COOLING

California at Davis, University of

419

Preliminary Analysis of a Solar Heat Pump System with Seasonal Storage for Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and cooling were set up, which is responsible for the space heating and cooling and domestic hot water for a residential block. Through hourly simulation, the performance and the economics of such systems were analyzed, for the different tank volumes...

Yu, G.; Chen, P.; Dalenback, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operational cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Cool Earth Solar  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

422

Cool Earth Solar  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

423

Why Cool Roofs?  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

Chu, Steven

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

424

Very Cool Close Binaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present new observations of cool <6000K and low mass <1Msun binary systems that have been discovered by searching several modern stellar photometric databases. The search has led to a factor of 10 increase in the number of known cool close eclipsing binary systems.

J. Scott Shaw; Mercedes Lopez-Morales

2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

425

Hydronic radiant cooling: Overview and preliminary performance assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A significant amount of electrical energy used to cool non-residential buildings is drawn by the fans used to transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system. Hydronic systems reduce the amount of air transported through the building by separating ventilation and thermal conditioning. Due to the physical properties of water, hydronic distribution systems can transport a given amount of thermal energy using less than 5% of the otherwise necessary fan energy. This savings alone significantly reduces the energy consumption and especially the peak power requirement This survey clearly shows advantages for radiant cooling in combination with hydronic thermal distribution systems in comparison with the All-Air Systems commonly used in California. The report describes a literature survey on the system's development, thermal comfort issues, and cooling performance. The cooling power potential and the cooling power requirement are investigated for several California climates. Peak-power requirement is compared for hydronic radiant cooling and conventional All-Air-Systems.

Feustel, H.E.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

Staub, Fred Wolf (Schenectady, NY); Willett, Fred Thomas (Niskayuna, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

Staub, Fred Wolf (Schenectady, NY); Willett, Fred Thomas (Niskayuna, NY)

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

428

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

429

User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume I. Main text  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. GEOCITY simulates the complete geothermal heating and cooling system, which consists of two principal parts: the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system. The reservoir and fluid transmission submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the reservoir and fluid transmission system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. Geothermal space heating is assumed to be provided by circulating hot water through radiators, convectors, fan-coil units, or other in-house heating systems. Geothermal process heating is provided by directly using the hot water or by circulating it through a process heat exchanger. Geothermal space or process cooling is simulated by circulating hot water through lithium bromide/water absorption chillers located at each building. Retrofit costs for both heating and cooling applications can be input by the user. The life-cycle cost of thermal energy from the reservoir and fluid transmission system to the distribution system and the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) to the end-users are calculated using discounted cash flow analysis.

Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Progress of the stochastic cooling system of the Collector Ring  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An overview of the recent achievements and ongoing developments for the stochastic cooling system of the Collector Ring is given. In focus are the hardware developments as well as the progress in predicting the system performance. The system operates in the frequency band 1-2 GHz, it has to provide fast 3D cooling of antiproton, rare isotope and stable heavy ion beams. The main challenges are (i) the cooling of antiprotons by means of cryogenic movable pick-up electrodes and (ii) the fast two-stage cooling (pre-cooling by the Palmer method, followed by the notch filter method) of the hot rare isotope beams (RIBs). Recently, a novel code for simulating the cooling process in the time domain has been developed at CERN. First results for the momentum cooling for heavy ions in the CR will be shown in comparison with results obtained in the frequency domain with the Fokker-Planck approach.

Dimopoulou, C; Bohm, R; Dolinskyy, O; Franzke, B; Hettrich, R; Maier, W; Menges, R; Nolden, F; Peschke, C; Petri, P; Steck, M; Thorndahl, L

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Cooling Strategies Based on Indicators of Thermal Storage in Commercial Building Mass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Building thermal mass and multi-day regimes of hot weather are important, yet poorly understood, contributors to cooling energy requirements. This paper develops load-shifting sub-cooling and precooling equipment operating strategies to address a...

Eto, J. H.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Investigation of a radiantly heated and cooled office with an integrated desiccant ventilation unit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiant heating and cooling has a reputation of increasing the comfort level and reducing the energy consumption of buildings. The main advantages of radiant heating and cooling are low operational noise and reduced fan power cost. Radiant heating...

Gong, Xiangyang

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

433

SPL RF Coupler Cooling Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy saving is an important challenge in accelerator design. In this framework, reduction of heat loads in a cryomodule is of fundamental importance due to the small thermodynamic efficiency of cooling at low temperatures. In particular, care must be taken during the design of its critical components (e.g. RF couplers, coldwarm transitions). In this framework, the main RF coupler of the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) cryomodule at CERN will not only be used for RF powering but also as the main mechanical support of the superconducting cavities. These two functions have to be accomplished while ensuring the lowest heat in-leak to the helium bath at 2 K. In the SPL design, the RF coupler outer conductor is composed of two walls and cooled by forced convection with helium gas at 4.5 K. Analytical, semi-analytical and numerical analyses are presented in order to defend the choice of gas cooling. Temperature profiles and thermal performance have been evaluated for different operating conditions; a sensitivit...

Bonomi, R; Montesinos, E; Parma, V; Vande Craen, A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

RHIC stochastic cooling motion control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beams are subject to Intra-Beam Scattering (IBS) that causes an emittance growth in all three-phase space planes. The only way to increase integrated luminosity is to counteract IBS with cooling during RHIC stores. A stochastic cooling system for this purpose has been developed, it includes moveable pick-ups and kickers in the collider that require precise motion control mechanics, drives and controllers. Since these moving parts can limit the beam path aperture, accuracy and reliability is important. Servo, stepper, and DC motors are used to provide actuation solutions for position control. The choice of motion stage, drive motor type, and controls are based on needs defined by the variety of mechanical specifications, the unique performance requirements, and the special needs required for remote operations in an accelerator environment. In this report we will describe the remote motion control related beam line hardware, position transducers, rack electronics, and software developed for the RHIC stochastic cooling pick-ups and kickers.

Gassner, D.; DeSanto, L.; Olsen, R.H.; Fu, W.; Brennan, J.M.; Liaw, CJ; Bellavia, S.; Brodowski, J.

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

435

Annual DOE active solar heating and cooling contractors' review meeting. Premeeting proceedings and project summaries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ninety-three project summaries are presented which discuss the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology. (LEW)

None,

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Cost analysis of revisions to 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix J, leak tests for primary and secondary containments of light-water-cooled nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report examines the differences between the existing and proposed Appendix J and identifies eleven substantive areas where quantifiable impacts will likely result. The analysis indicated that there are four areas of change which tend to dominate all others in terms of cost impacts. The applicable paragraph numbers from Draft E2 of the Appendix J revision and the nature of the change follows: III.A(4) and III.A(6) - Test Pressure and Testing at Reduced Pressure No Longer Allowed; III.A(7)(b)(i) Acceptance Criteria 1.0 L/sub a/ Acceptable ''As Found'' Leakage; III.A(8)(2) Retesting Following Failure of ''As Found'' Type A Test - Corrective Action Plan, and III.A(8)(b)(ii) Option To Do More Frequent Type B and C Testing Rather Than More Type A Penalty Tests. The best estimate is that the proposed Appendix J would result in a cost savings ranging from about $100 million to $160 million, and increase routing occupational exposure on the order of 10,000 person-rem. These estimates capture the total impact to industry and the NRC over the assumed operating life of all existing and planned future power reactors. All dollar impacts projected to occur in future years have been present worthed at discount rates ranging from 5% to 10%.

Sciacca, F.; Nelson, W.; Simpkins, B.; Riordan, B.; Godfrey, P.; Cohen, S.; Beal, S.; Goldin, D.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Yahoo! Compute Coop (YCC): A Next-Generation Passive Cooling Design for Data Centers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the Yahoo! Compute Coop (YCC) project is to research, design, build and implement a greenfield "efficient data factory" and to specifically demonstrate that the YCC concept is feasible for large facilities housing tens of thousands of heat-producing computing servers. The project scope for the Yahoo! Compute Coop technology includes: - Analyzing and implementing ways in which to drastically decrease energy consumption and waste output. - Analyzing the laws of thermodynamics and implementing naturally occurring environmental effects in order to maximize the "free-cooling" for large data center facilities. "Free cooling" is the direct usage of outside air to cool the servers vs. traditional "mechanical cooling" which is supplied by chillers or other Dx units. - Redesigning and simplifying building materials and methods. - Shortening and simplifying build-to-operate schedules while at the same time reducing initial build and operating costs. Selected for its favorable climate, the greenfield project site is located in Lockport, NY. Construction on the 9.0 MW critical load data center facility began in May 2009, with the fully operational facility deployed in September 2010. The relatively low initial build cost, compatibility with current server and network models, and the efficient use of power and water are all key features that make it a highly compatible and globally implementable design innovation for the data center industry. Yahoo! Compute Coop technology is designed to achieve 99.98% uptime availability. This integrated building design allows for free cooling 99% of the year via the building?¢????s unique shape and orientation, as well as server physical configuration.

Robison, AD; Page, Christina; Lytle, Bob

2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

438

The Nexus of Energy & Water APS, Berkeley, CA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Freshwater Is A Small Part of the Total Supply Liquid Assets, Jill Boberg, RAND #12;Michael E. Webber, Ph There Are Two Main Cooling Approaches Open-Loop Cooling Closed-Loop Cooling Most water that is withdrawn and Water 16 March 5, 2011 The Thermoelectric Power Sector Uses Water for Cooling Withdrawals [gal

Kammen, Daniel M.

439

Corrosion in HVDC valve cooling systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stainless steel couplings in the main cooling water pipes of HVDC thyristor valves have been in use since 1983, with an overall satisfactory behavior. However, some water leakage due to corrosion below the sealing O-rings of the couplings was observed during 1992. An extensive investigation and follow-up worldwide showed a direct correlation between water quality and the corrosion rate of the stainless steel couplings. Recommendations are given about actions to be taken in order to maintain a long lifetime for the fine water systems.

Jackson, P.O.; Abrahamsson, B.; Gustavsson, D.; Igetoft, L.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Conductive Thermal Interaction in Evaporative Cooling Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be considered. Usually the dry-bulb depression performed by an evaporative cooler depends solely on the ambient wet-bulb temperature. The cool underground water in an evaporative cooler can cause not only adiabatic evaporation but also sensible heat transfer...

Kim, B. S.; Degelman, L. O.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "operational cooling water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Homes & Buildings Space Heating & Cooling Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings...

442

Multiphase cooling flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I discuss the multiphase nature of the intracluster medium whose neglect can lead to overestimates of the baryon fraction of clusters by up to a factor of two. The multiphase form of the cooling flow equations are derived and reduced to a simple form for a wide class of self-similar density distributions. It is shown that steady-state cooling flows are \\emph{not} consistent with all possible emissivity profiles which can therefore be used as a test of the theory. In combination, they provide strong constraints on the mass distribution within the cooling radius.

Peter A. Thomas

1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

443

Orthogonal Cooling hole in a Cross-Elton Freeman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

where incorporated, lower operating temperature, material science made the last big jump in turbine film cooling is one of the newest techniques to improve turbine combustion engine performance to the next level. With advancements in thin film cooling: A. The efficiency of the turbine engine can

Tennessee, University of

444

Sisyphus Cooling of Lithium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser cooling to sub-Doppler temperatures by optical molasses is thought to be inhibited in atoms with unresolved, near-degenerate hyperfine structure in the excited state. We demonstrate that such cooling is possible in one to three dimensions, not only near the standard D2 line for laser cooling, but over a range extending to the D1 line. Via a combination of Sisyphus cooling followed by adiabatic expansion, we reach temperatures as low as 40 \\mu K, which corresponds to atomic velocities a factor of 2.6 above the limit imposed by a single photon recoil. Our method requires modest laser power at a frequency within reach of standard frequency locking methods. It is largely insensitive to laser power, polarization and detuning, magnetic fields, and initial hyperfine populations. Our results suggest that optical molasses should be possible with all alkali species.

Paul Hamilton; Geena Kim; Trinity Joshi; Biswaroop Mukherjee; Daniel Tiarks; Holger Mller

2014-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

445

Global Cool Cities Alliance  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently supporting the Global Cool Cities Alliance (GCCA), a non-profit organization that works with cities, regions, and national governments to speed the...

446

Methods and apparatus for cooling electronics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and apparatus are provided for choosing an energy-efficient coolant temperature for electronics by considering the temperature dependence of the electronics' power dissipation. This dependence is explicitly considered in selecting the coolant temperature T.sub.0 that is sent to the equipment. To minimize power consumption P.sub.Total for the entire system, where P.sub.Total=P.sub.0+P.sub.Cool is the sum of the electronic equipment's power consumption P.sub.0 plus the cooling equipment's power consumption P.sub.Cool, P.sub.Total is obtained experimentally, by measuring P.sub.0 and P.sub.Cool, as a function of three parameters: coolant temperature T.sub.0; weather-related temperature T.sub.3 that affects the performance of free-cooling equipment; and computational state C of the electronic equipment, which affects the temperature dependence of its power consumption. This experiment provides, for each possible combination of T.sub.3 and C, the value T.sub.0* of T.sub.0 that minimizes P.sub.Total. During operation, for any combination of T.sub.3 and C that occurs, the corresponding optimal coolant temperature T.sub.0* is selected, and the cooling equipment is commanded to produce it.

Hall, Shawn Anthony; Kopcsay, Gerard Vincent

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

447

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in Data Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

performance for its partial load operation in this study.performance for its partial load operation in this study.s cooling performance for its partial load operation, which

Xu, TengFang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Laser cooling of solids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Demonstration of Rack-Mounted Computer Equipment Cooling Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the ceiling-mounted fan-coil unit return- water temperatureto supply no cooling. The fan-coil unit was controlled by atemperature) when the fan-coil unit control calls for no

Coles, Henry

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Hybrid Cooling Systems for Low-Temperature Geothermal Power Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the identification and evaluation of methods by which the net power output of an air-cooled geothermal power plant can be enhanced during hot ambient conditions with a minimal amount of water use.

Ashwood, A.; Bharathan, D.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Best Management Practice #9: Single-Pass Cooling Equipment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Single-pass or once-through cooling systems provide an opportunity for significant water savings. In these systems, water is circulated once through a piece of equipment and is then disposed down the drain. Types of equipment that typically use single-pass cooling include CAT scanners, degreasers, hydraulic equipment, condensers, air compressors, welding machines, vacuum pumps, ice machines, x-ray equipment, and air conditioners.

452

Introducing an Online Cooling Tower Performance Analysis Tool  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and variable nature of all of the factors that can influence performance; fan speed, wind speed, sump temperature, heat load, ambient temperature, relative humidity, etc. This can be overwhelming for a regular operator resulting in many cooling towers being set...

Muller, M.R.; Muller, M.B.; Rao, P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

air cooling system: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

coil unit (FCU) and 100% fresh air are used... Mohamed, E.; Abdalla, K. N. 2010-01-01 8 Cold side thermal energy storage system for improved operation of air cooled power plants...

454

air cooling systems: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

coil unit (FCU) and 100% fresh air are used... Mohamed, E.; Abdalla, K. N. 2010-01-01 8 Cold side thermal energy storage system for improved operation of air cooled power plants...

455

Cooling Towers - Energy Conservation and Money Making Mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cooling towers in operation are performing at levels as low as 50% of capability. This is energy wasteful and financially foolish. There are many reasons for this deficiency, among them the present service is greater than the original requirements...

Burger, R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z