National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for operating kv design

  1. Design and performance of a 30 KV electron gun with ten independent cathodes & a magnetic lens.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren

    2006-08-01

    Measurements on a 30 kV electron gun with ten independent cathodes, operating in a 6.5 Tesla (T) magnetic field are presented. An earlier paper covered the design of this electron gun [1]. Experimental results are compared to model predictions. Beam current is compared to theoretical space charge limited flow.

  2. Operating characteristics and modeling of the LLNL 100-kV electric gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osher, J.E.; Barnes, G.; Chau, H.H.; Lee, R.S.; Lee, C.; Speer, R.; Weingart, R.C.

    1989-06-01

    In the electric gun, the explosion of an electrically heated metal foil and the accompanying magnetic forces drive a thin flyer plate up a short barrel. Flyer velocities of up to 18 km/s make the gun useful for hypervelocity impact studies. The authors briefly review the technological evolution of the exploding-metal circuit elements that power the gun, describe the 100-kV electric gun designed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in some detail, and present the general principles of electric gun operation. They compare the experimental performance of the LLNL gun with a simple model and with predictions of a magnetohydrodynamics code.

  3. Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract for the supply, installation, commissioning and maintenance of electrical switchgear operating at 18kV and 3.3 kV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract for the supply, installation, commissioning and maintenance of electrical switchgear operating at 18kV and 3.3 kV

  4. Theoretical investigation of the design and performance of a dual energy (kV and MV) radiotherapy imager

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Langechuan; Antonuk, Larry E. El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua; Jiang, Hao

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: In modern radiotherapy treatment rooms, megavoltage (MV) portal imaging and kilovoltage (kV) cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging are performed using various active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) designs. To expand the clinical utility of MV and kV imaging, MV AMFPIs incorporating thick, segmented scintillators and, separately, kV imaging using a beam’s eye view geometry have been investigated by a number of groups. Motivated by these previous studies, it is of interest to explore to what extent it is possible to preserve the benefits of kV and MV imaging using a single AMFPI design, given the considerably different x ray energy spectra used for kV and MV imaging. In this paper, considerations for the design of such a dual energy imager are explored through examination of the performance of a variety of hypothetical AMFPIs based on x ray converters employing segmented scintillators. Methods: Contrast, noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio performances were characterized through simulation modeling of CBCT imaging, while modulation transfer function, Swank factor, and signal performance were characterized through simulation modeling of planar imaging. The simulations were based on a previously reported hybrid modeling technique (accounting for both radiation and optical effects), augmented through modeling of electronic additive noise. All designs employed BGO scintillator material with thicknesses ranging from 0.25 to 4 cm and element-to-element pitches ranging from 0.508 to 1.016 mm. A series of studies were performed under both kV and MV imaging conditions to determine the most advantageous imager configuration (involving front or rear x ray illumination and use of a mirror or black reflector), converter design (pitch and thickness), and operating mode (pitch-binning combination). Results: Under the assumptions of the present study, the most advantageous imager design was found to employ rear illumination of the converter in combination with a black reflector, incorporate a BGO converter with a 0.508 mm pitch and a 2 cm thickness, and operate at full resolution for kV imaging and 2 × 2 binning mode for MV imaging. Such a dual energy imager design should provide soft tissue visualization at low, clinically practical doses under MV conditions, while helping to preserve the high spatial resolution and high contrast offered by kV imaging. Conclusions: The authors’ theoretical investigation suggests that a dual energy imager capable of largely preserving the desirable characteristics of both kV and MV imaging is feasible. Such an imager, when coupled to a dual energy radiation source, could facilitate simplification of current treatment room imaging systems (as well as their associated quality assurance), and facilitate more precise integration of kV and MV imaging information by virtue of reduced geometric uncertainties.

  5. OPERATIONAL RESULTS OF THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE (SNS) POLYPHASE CONVERTER-MODULATOR FOR THE 140 KV KLYSTRON RF SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.A. REASS; J.D. DOSS; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    This paper describes the first operational results of the 140 kV, 1 MW average, 11 MW peak, zero-voltage-switching, 20 kHz polyphase bridge, boost converter-modulator for klystron pulse application. The DC-DC converter derives the buss voltages from a standard 13.8 kV to 2100 Y substation cast-core transformer. Energy storage and filtering is provided by self-clearing metallized hazy polypropylene traction capacitors. Three ''H-Bridge'' Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) switching networks are used to generate the polyphase 20 kHz transformer primary drive waveforms. The 20 kHz drive waveforms are chirped the appropriate duration to generate the desired klystron pulse width. Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) of the individual 20 kHz pulses is utilized to provide regulated output waveforms with adaptive feedforward and feedback techniques. The boost transformer design utilizes amorphous nanocrystalline material that provides the required low core loss at design flux levels and switching frequencies. Resonant shunt peaking is used on the transformer secondary to boost output voltage and resonate transformer leakage inductance. With the appropriate transformer leakage inductance and peaking capacitance, zero-voltage-switching of the IGBT's is attained, minimizing switching losses. Reviews of these design parameters and an examination of the first operational results will be performed.

  6. DESIGN AND PSPICE SIMULATION OF A 150KV/300A/1S COAXIAL PULSE GENERATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DESIGN AND PSPICE SIMULATION OF A 150KV/300A/1µS COAXIAL PULSE GENERATOR J.O. Rossi, M. Ueda, J-mail: rossi@plasma.inpe.br Abstract - Coaxial pulse generators are well-suited devices for high voltage pulse generation in the range of nanoseconds or microseconds. Basically these devices consist of pieces

  7. Design and Overview of 100 kV Bushing for the DNB Injector of ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Sejal; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Rotti, C.; Singh, M. J.; Roopesh, G.; Chakraborty, A. K. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar-382025, Gujarat (India); Rajesh, S. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar-382025, Gujarat (India); Microelectronics and Materials Physics Labs, P.O.Box 4500, FIN-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Nishad, S.; Srusti, B. [DesignTech Systems Ltd, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh-500034 (India); Schunke, B.; Hemsworth, R.; Chareyre, J.; Svensson, L. [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-09-26

    The 100 kV bushing is one of the most important and technologically challenging Safety Important Class (SIC) components of the Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) injector of ITER. It forms interface between gas insulated electrical transmission line and torus primary vacuum and acts as a vacuum feedthrough of ITER. Design optimization has been carried out to meet the electric and structural requirements based on its classification. Unlike HNB bushing, single stage bushing is designed to provide 100 kV isolation. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) based optimization has been carried out for electrostatic and structural analysis. Manufacturing assembly sequence is studied and presented in this paper. However validation of the same is foreseen from manufacturer.

  8. Solid-State Fault Current Limiter Development : Design and Testing Update of a 15kV SSCL Power Stack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ram Adapa; Mr. Dante Piccone

    2012-04-30

    ABSTRACT The Solid-State Fault Current Limiter (SSCL) is a promising technology that can be applied to utility power delivery systems to address the problem of increasing fault currents associated with load growth. As demand continues to grow, more power is added to utility system either by increasing generator capacity or by adding distributed generators, resulting in higher available fault currents, often beyond the capabilities of the present infrastructure. The SSCL is power-electronics based equipment designed to work with the present utility system to address this problem. The SSCL monitors the line current and dynamically inserts additional impedance into the line in the event of a fault being detected. The SSCL is based on a modular design and can be configured for 5kV through 69kV systems at nominal current ratings of 1000A to 4000A. Results and Findings This report provides the final test results on the development of 15kV class SSCL single phase power stack. The scope of work included the design of the modular standard building block sub-assemblies, the design and manufacture of the power stack and the testing of the power stack for the key functional tests of continuous current capability and fault current limiting action. Challenges and Objectives Solid-State Current Limiter technology impacts a wide spectrum of utility engineering and operating personnel. It addresses the problems associated with load growth both at Transmission and Distribution class networks. The design concept is pioneering in terms of developing the most efficient and compact power electronics equipment for utility use. The initial test results of the standard building blocks are promising. The independent laboratory tests of the power stack are promising. However the complete 3 phase system needs rigorous testing for performance and reliability. Applications, Values, and Use The SSCL is an intelligent power-electronics device which is modular in design and can provide current limiting or current interrupting capabilities. It can be applied to variety of applications from distribution class to transmission class power delivery grids and networks. It can also be applied to single major commercial and industrial loads and distributed generator supplies. The active switching of devices can be further utilized for protection of substation transformers. The stress on the system can be reduced substantially improving the life of the power system. It minimizes the voltage sag by speedy elimination of heavy fault currents and promises to be an important element of the utility power system. DOE Perspective This development effort is now focused on a 15kV system. This project will help mitigate the challenges of increasing available fault current. DOE has made a major contribution in providing a cost effective SSCL designed to integrate seamlessly into the Transmission and Distribution networks of today and the future. Approach SSCL development program for a 69kV SSCL was initiated which included the use of the Super GTO advanced semiconductor device which won the 2007 R&D100 Award. In the beginning, steps were identified to accomplish the economically viable design of a 69kV class Solid State Current Limiter that is extremely reliable, cost effective, and compact enough to be applied in urban transmission. The prime thrust in design and development was to encompass the 1000A and the 3000A ratings and provide a modular design to cover the wide range of applications. The focus of the project was then shifted to a 15kV class SSCL. The specifications for the 15kV power stack are reviewed. The design changes integrated into the 15kV power stack are discussed. In this Technical Update the complete project is summarized followed by a detailed test report. The power stack independent high voltage laboratory test requirements and results are presented. Keywords Solid State Current Limiter, SSCL, Fault Current Limiter, Fault Current Controller, Power electronics controller, Intelligent power-electronics Device, IED

  9. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the design and construction of a new 400 kV transmission feeder bay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the design and construction of a new 400 kV transmission feeder bay

  10. Operational Amplifier Design Spring 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leach Jr.,W. Marshall

    ., by Sergio Franco, and notes posted to the class web page. Material Selected parts of Chapters 1 -- 6, 9-Hill, 1973. TK7871.58.06 576 -- D. Stout and M. Kaufman, Handbook of Operational Amplifier Circuit Design Amplifiers, New York: McGraw- Hill, 1973. TK7872.F5 I65 -- D. E. Johnson, et. al., A Handbook of Active

  11. Field Demonstration of a 24-kV Superconducting Cable at Detroit Edison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, Nathan; Corsaro, Pietro

    2004-12-01

    Customer acceptance of high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable technology requires a substantial field demonstration illustrating both the system's technical capabilities and its suitability for installation and operation within the utility environment. In this project, the world's first underground installation of an HTS cable using existing ductwork, a 120 meter demonstration cable circuit was designed and installed between the 24 kV bus distribution bus and a 120 kV-24 kV transformer at Detroit Edison's Frisbie substation. The system incorporated cables, accessories, a refrigeration system, and control instrumentation. Although the system was never put in operation because of problems with leaks in the cryostat, the project significantly advanced the state-of-the-art in the design and implementation of Warm Dielectric cable systems in substation applications. Lessons learned in this project are already being incorporated in several ongoing demonstration projects.

  12. DESIGN OPERATORS TO SUPPORT ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN CATHOLIJN M. JONKER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treur, Jan

    DESIGN OPERATORS TO SUPPORT ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN CATHOLIJN M. JONKER Division Cognitive. Organizational design is an important topic in the literature on organizations. Usually the design principles are addressed informally in this literature. This paper makes a first attempt to formally introduce design

  13. EIS-0344: Grand Coulee-Bell 500 kV Transmission Line

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's proposed action for the construction and operation of the proposed Grand Coulee-Bell 500-kV Transmission Line Project.

  14. Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx...

  15. Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Coupled LNT...

  16. Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)...

  17. High Power Target Design and Operational Considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    of Energy SNS Target Systems and Status Update Target R&D Program Has Addressed Key Design and Operational-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy SNS Target Systems and Status Update Mercury target development activities.S. Department of Energy SNS Target Systems and Status Update · Peak energy deposition in Hg for a single pulse

  18. Optimizing the CEBAF Injector for Beam Operation with a Higher Voltage Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.E. Hannon, A.S. Hofler, R. Kazimi

    2011-03-01

    Recent developments in the DC gun technology used at CEBAF have allowed an increase in operational voltage from 100kV to 130kV. In the near future this will be extended further to 200kV with the purchase of a new power supply. The injector components and layout at this time have been designed specifically for 100kV operation. It is anticipated that with an increase in gun voltage and optimization of the layout and components for 200kV operation, that the electron bunch length and beam brightness can be improved upon. This paper explores some upgrade possibilities for a 200kV gun CEBAF injector through beam dynamic simulations.

  19. The design, construction, and operation of long-distance high-voltage electricity transmission technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molburg, J. C.; Kavicky, J. A.; Picel, K. C.

    2008-03-03

    This report focuses on transmission lines, which operate at voltages of 115 kV and higher. Currently, the highest voltage lines comprising the North American power grid are at 765 kV. The grid is the network of transmission lines that interconnect most large power plants on the North American continent. One transmission line at this high voltage was built near Chicago as part of the interconnection for three large nuclear power plants southwest of the city. Lines at this voltage also serve markets in New York and New England, also very high demand regions. The large power transfers along the West Coast are generally at 230 or 500 kV. Just as there are practical limits to centralization of power production, there are practical limits to increasing line voltage. As voltage increases, the height of the supporting towers, the size of the insulators, the distance between conductors on a tower, and even the width of the right-of-way (ROW) required increase. These design features safely isolate the electric power, which has an increasing tendency to arc to ground as the voltage (or electrical potential) increases. In addition, very high voltages (345 kV and above) are subject to corona losses. These losses are a result of ionization of the atmosphere, and can amount to several megawatts of wasted power. Furthermore, they are a local nuisance to radio transmission and can produce a noticeable hum. Centralized power production has advantages of economies of scale and special resource availability (for instance, hydro resources), but centralized power requires long-distance transfers of power both to reach customers and to provide interconnections for reliability. Long distances are most economically served at high voltages, which require large-scale equipment and impose a substantial footprint on the corridors through which power passes. The most visible components of the transmission system are the conductors that provide paths for the power and the towers that keep these conductors at a safe distance from each other and from the ground and the natural and built environment. Common elements that are generally less visible (or at least more easily overlooked) include the maintained ROW along the path of the towers, access roads needed for maintenance, and staging areas used for initial construction that may be restored after construction is complete. Also visible but less common elements along the corridor may include switching stations or substations, where lines of similar or different voltages meet to transfer power.

  20. Draft environmental impact statement for construction and operation of the proposed Bangor Hydro-Electric Company`s second 345-kV transmission tie line to New Brunswick

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-10-01

    This Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) was prepared by the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The proposed action is the issuance of Presidential Permit PP-89 by DOE to Bangor Hydro-Electric Company to construct and operate a new international transmission line interconnection to New Brunswick, Canada that would consist of an 83.8 mile (US portion), 345-kilovolt (kV) alternating current transmission line from the US-Canadian border at Baileyville, Maine to an existing substation at Orrington, Maine. The principal environmental impacts of the construction and operation of the transmission line would be incremental in nature and would include the conversion of forested uplands (mostly commercial timberlands) and wetlands to right-of-way (small trees, shrubs, and herbaceous vegetation). The proposed line would also result in localized minor to moderate visual impacts and would contribute a minor incremental increase in the exposure of some individuals to electromagnetic fields. This DEIS documents the purpose and need for the proposed action, describes the proposed action and alternatives considered and provides a comparison of the proposed and alternatives routes, and provides detailed information on analyses of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and alternatives, as well as mitigative measures to minimize impacts.

  1. Tevatron Electron Lenses: Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir; Bishofberger, Kip; Kamerdzhiev, Vsevolod; Kozub, Sergei; Kufer, Matthew; Kuznetsov, Gennady; Martinez, Alexander; Olson, Marvin; Pfeffer, Howard; Saewert, Greg; Scarpine, Vic; /Fermilab /SLAC /Fermilab /Serpukhov, IHEP /Novosibirsk, IYF /Serpukhov, IHEP /Fermilab

    2008-08-01

    The beam-beam effects have been the dominating sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider [1]. Electron lenses were originally proposed for compensation of electromagnetic long-range and head-on beam-beam interactions of proton and antiproton beams [2]. Results of successful employment of two electron lenses built and installed in the Tevatron are reported in [3,4,5]. In this paper we present design features of the Tevatron electron lenses (TELs), discuss the generation of electron beams, describe different modes of operation and outline the technical parameters of various subsystems.

  2. Designing and operating electrostatically driven microengines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodgers, M.S.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Miller, S.L.; LaVigne, G.F.

    1998-02-01

    Microelectromechanical engines that convert the linear outputs from dual orthogonal electrostatic actuators to rotary motion were first developed in 1993. Referred to as microengines, these early devices demonstrated the potential of microelectromechanical technology, but, as expected from any first-of-its-kind device, were not yet optimized. Yield was relatively low, and the 10 micronewtons of force generated by the actuators was not always enough to ensure reliable operation. Since initial development, these engines have undergone a continuous series of significant improvements on three separate fronts: design, fabrication, and electrical activation. Although all three areas will be discussed, emphasis will be on aspects related to mechanical design and generation of the electrical waveforms used to drive these devices. Microtransmissions that dramatically increase torque will also be discussed. Electrostatically driven microengines can be operated at hundreds of thousands of revolutions per minute making large gear reduction ratios feasible; overall ratios of 3,000,000:1 have been successfully demonstrated. Today`s microengines have evolved into high endurance (one test device has seen over 7,000,000,000 revolutions), high yield, robust devices that have become the primary actuation source for MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) at Sandia National Laboratories.

  3. EA-1679: Grand Coulee's Third Powerplant 500-kV Transmission Line Replacement Project, Grant and Okanogon Counties, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates potential environmental impacts from the construction and operation of six new 500-kV overhead transmission lines to replace six existing underground lines at Grand Coulee Dam. DOE’s Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), a cooperating agency, was asked by the U. S. Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation to design and construct the proposed new transmission lines. A Finding of No Significant Impact was issued by BPA in December 2011.

  4. Design, maintenance and operational aspects of the CNGS target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Design, maintenance and operational aspects of the CNGS target M. Calviani (CERN-EN/STI) on behalfth May 2011MC - Design, maintenance and operational aspects of the CNGS target - 4th HPTW 2 #12;General layout of the CNGS installation 2nd-6th May 2011MC - Design, maintenance and operational aspects

  5. HAWC: Design, Operation, Reconstruction and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory was completed and began full opera- tion on March 20, 2015. The detector consists of an array of 300 water tanks, each containing 200 ktons of purified water and instrumented with 4 PMTs. Located at an elevation of 4100m a.s.l. near the Sierra Negra volcano in central Mexico, HAWC has a threshold for gamma-ray detection well below 1 TeV and a sensitivity to TeV-scale gamma-ray sources an order of magnitude better than previous air-shower arrays. The detector operates 24 hours/day and observes the overhead sky (2 sr), making it an ideal survey instrument. We describe the configuration of HAWC with an emphasis on how the design was optimized, describe the data acquired, reconstructed and an- alyzed. Finally, we will demonstrate the sensitivity of the detector using the observation of the Crab. This paper serves as a detailed technical description of the foundations of the numerous analyses presented at this meeting by members of the HAWC collaboration.

  6. Machine Tool Design and Operation Strategies for Green Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    Power Demand of Precision Machine Tools, MS Thesis, Dept.Environmental Burden for Machine Tool Operation, JSME Int.of Downsized Design for Machine Tools on the Environmental

  7. The Design, Construction, and Operation of Long-Distance High...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Design, Construction, and Operation of Long-Distance High-Voltage Electricity Transmission Technologies Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  8. Quantum Operator Design for Lattice Baryon Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam Lichtl

    2007-09-06

    A previously-proposed method of constructing spatially-extended gauge-invariant three-quark operators for use in Monte Carlo lattice QCD calculations is tested, and a methodology for using these operators to extract the energies of a large number of baryon states is developed. This work is part of a long-term project undertaken by the Lattice Hadron Physics Collaboration to carry out a first-principles calculation of the low-lying spectrum of QCD. The operators are assemblages of smeared and gauge-covariantly-displaced quark fields having a definite flavor structure. The importance of using smeared fields is dramatically demonstrated. It is found that quark field smearing greatly reduces the couplings to the unwanted high-lying short-wavelength modes, while gauge field smearing drastically reduces the statistical noise in the extended operators.

  9. Optimal Design and Operation of Energy Polygeneration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is then considered for the energy polygeneration system. In real applications, product prices can fluctuateOptimal Design and Operation of Energy Polygeneration Systems by Yang Chen Submitted;Optimal Design and Operation of Energy Polygeneration Systems by Yang Chen Submitted to the Department

  10. The Design and Implementation of a Prototype Exokernel Operating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Design and Implementation of a Prototype Exokernel Operating System by Dawson R. Engler of a Prototype Exokernel Operating System by Dawson R. Engler Submitted to the Department of Electrical of Master of Science in Computer Science and Engineering Abstract Traditional operating systems abstract

  11. Low Voltage Operational Amplifier Design for Energy Harvesting Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Low Voltage Operational Amplifier Design for Energy Harvesting Applications Brisa Calderon, Dr provide low voltages, all the components in a PMS must be able to operate at low voltages. Optimizing these components to operate at low voltages in turn contributes to the optimization of the PMS as a whole. Theory

  12. Transmission Considerations for Market Operation: U.S. Design (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.

    2011-06-01

    Presented at the Utility Wind Integration Group (UWIG) Workshop on Market Design and Operation With Variable Renewables, 22 June 2011, Fredericia, Denmark. This presentation provides an overview of the present U.S. electricity market, how it operates, and some solutions for improving its operation, cost accounting, and integration of renewable power resources.

  13. Environmental Assessment of the Gering-Stegall 115-kV Transmission Line Consolidation Project, Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to consolidate segments of two transmission lines near the Gering Substation in Gering, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska, within the city of Gering. Presently, there are three parallel 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines on separate rights-of-way (ROW) that terminate at the Gering Substation. The project would include dismantling the Archer-Gering wood-pole transmission line and rebuilding the remaining two lines on single-pole steel double circuit structures. The project would consolidate the Gering-Stegall North and Gering-Stegall South 115-kV transmission lines on to one ROW for a 1.33-mile segment between the Gering Substation and a point west of the Gering Landfill. All existing wood-pole H-frame structures would be removed, and the Gering-Stegall North and South ROWs abandoned. Western is responsible for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the line. Western prepared an environmental assessment (EA) that analyzed the potential environmental impacts of the proposed construction, operation, and maintenance of the 115-kV transmission line consolidation. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  14. Operational resilience: concepts, design and analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganin, Alexander A; Gutfraind, Alexander; Steen, Nicolas; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Kott, Alexander; Mangoubi, Rami; Linkov, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Building resilience into today's complex infrastructures is critical to the daily functioning of society and its ability to withstand and recover from natural disasters, epidemics, and cyber-threats. This study proposes quantitative measures that implement the definition of engineering resilience advanced by the National Academy of Sciences. The approach is applicable across physical, information, and social domains. It evaluates the critical functionality, defined as a performance function of time set by the stakeholders. Critical functionality is a source of valuable information, such as the integrated system resilience over a time interval, and its robustness. The paper demonstrates the formulation on two classes of models: 1) multi-level directed acyclic graphs, and 2) interdependent coupled networks. For both models synthetic case studies are used to explore trends. For the first class, the approach is also applied to the Linux operating system. Results indicate that desired resilience and robustness lev...

  15. Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation ace029harold2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems...

  16. Optimization for Design and Operation of Natural Gas Transmission Networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dilaveroglu, Sebnem 1986-

    2012-08-22

    This study addresses the problem of designing a new natural gas transmission network or expanding an existing network while minimizing the total investment and operating costs. A substantial reduction in costs can be ...

  17. A 25 KV/10A PULSER FOR DRIVING A HIGH-POWER PIERCE ELECTRON GUN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A 25 KV/10A PULSER FOR DRIVING A HIGH-POWER PIERCE ELECTRON GUN J. J. Barroso, J. O. Rossi, H-tube pulser to drive a high-power electron gun. The tube includes a 2.0µF/100kV capacitor bank whose discharge is controlled by a tetrode tube connected to the gun cathode. Typical measured operating parameters are 3

  18. Landfill Instability and Its Implications Operation, Construction, and Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on geotechnical and stability analyses for the design of landfills and remedial closures. It is the mostLandfill Instability and Its Implications for Operation, Construction, and Design By: W. Douglas landfill waste slide, a 300,000 cubic yard landfill failure involving a geosynthetic clay liner, and a 100

  19. Design and operation of the LBL heavy ion RFQ linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gouch, R.A.

    1984-05-01

    LBL has designed and tested a heavy ion RFQ linac for ions in the mass range of 1 to 40. Designed as part of a preinjector package for synchrotron applications, it is a low duty factor device, operating at 200 MHz with maximum surface fields as high as 28 MV/meter. It is a loop-driven, four vane structure employing several innovative design concepts. These include an exit matcher section, to ensure efficient capture by a following Alvarez linac; advanced mechanical design features, to ensure accurate positioning of the vane pole-tips; and vane coupling rings, to ensure field stabilization and balance. This RFQ has been used on a test bench to accelerate a variety of ions as heavy as silicon, with charge to mass ratios as low as 1/7. Results of the initial operation show that the structure meets all of the design performance criteria, and that it holds promise for a long lifetime of simple and reliable service. This RFQ linac will soon be incorporated into the Bevatron operations program as part of th 200 MHz injector upgrade. A further application of this same RFQ design is in the dedicated Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator presently under study at LBL. Details of the design, construction and testing of the RFQ linac are given.

  20. Designing Automation to Reduce Operator Errors Nancy G. Leveson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leveson, Nancy

    Designing Automation to Reduce Operator Errors Nancy G. Leveson Computer Science and Engineering University of Washington Everett Palmer NASA Ames Research Center Introduction Advanced automation has been of mode­related problems [SW95]. After studying accidents and incidents in the new, highly automated

  1. High power target design and operation considerations for kaon production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    High power target design and operation considerations for kaon production Philip Pile Collider · LESBIII kaon production target/issues 24/19/2013 #12;PROTON BEAM FY96 FY97 FY98/99 FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 1012 per second during spill · Production Angle: 0 degrees · Particle Flux (per 1013, 22 Ge

  2. STUDIES ON OPTIMAL DESIGN AND OPERATION OF INTEGRATED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    on distillation as a measure of separating a feed mixture into its constituents, probably dates back at least the efficiency has been towards heat integration between columns or between the column and other parts regulations, more recent research aims at designs that offer savings in both operational (energy) and capital

  3. Focused cathode design to reduce anode heating during vircator operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, Curtis F.; Dickens, James C.; Neuber, Andreas A.

    2013-10-15

    Virtual cathode oscillators, or vircators, are a type of high power microwave device which operates based on the instability of a virtual cathode, or cloud of electrons, which forms when electron current injected into the drift tube exceeds the space charge limited current within the drift tube. Anode heating by the electron beam during vircator operation ultimately limits achievable pulse lengths, repetition rates, and the duration of burst mode operation. This article discusses a novel cathode design that focuses electrons through holes in the anode, thus significantly reducing anode heating by the electrons emitted from the cathode during the first transit through the A-K gap. Reflexing electrons continue to deposit energy on the anode; however, the discussed minimization of anode heating by main beam electrons has the potential to enable higher repetition rates as well as efficiency and longer diode lifetime. A simulation study of this type of cathode design illustrates possible advantages.

  4. KV04: Baxter Mountain This route visits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiter, Clifford A.

    11 KV04: Baxter Mountain General This route visits Baxter Mountain which is a short hike that has between Hurricane and Green Mountains. The hike is relatively short although there is a good elevation Description The trail begins on Rt9N directly across from Hurricane Mountain Road. From Keene Valley, go north

  5. Technology Solutions Case Study: Hydronic Systems: Designing for Setback Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-05-01

    For years, conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has specified two points: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads, and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step-by-step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  6. Theory, design, and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, including operational health physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, S.R.

    1985-10-01

    A comprehensive evaluation was conducted of the radiation protection practices and programs at prototype LMFBRs with long operational experience. Installations evaluated were the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Richland, Washington; Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) Dounreay, Scotland; Phenix, Marcoule, France; and Kompakte Natriumgekuhlte Kernreak Toranlange (KNK II), Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. The evaluation included external and internal exposure control, respiratory protection procedures, radiation surveillance practices, radioactive waste management, and engineering controls for confining radiation contamination. The theory, design, and operating experience at LMFBRs is described. Aspects of LMFBR health physics different from the LWR experience in the United States are identified. Suggestions are made for modifications to the NRC Standard Review Plan based on the differences.

  7. 500 kV Spare Transformer Procurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-InspiredAtmosphericdevicesPPONeApril351APPLICATION OF kV Spare Transformer

  8. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shappert, L.B.; Bowman, S.M.; Arnold, E.D.

    1998-08-01

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE`s cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials.

  9. High Temperature Electrolysis Pressurized Experiment Design, Operation, and Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G.K. Housley; K. DeWall; L. Moore-McAteer

    2012-09-01

    A new facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for pressurized testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. Pressurized operation is envisioned for large-scale hydrogen production plants, yielding higher overall efficiencies when the hydrogen product is to be delivered at elevated pressure for tank storage or pipelines. Pressurized operation also supports higher mass flow rates of the process gases with smaller components. The test stand can accommodate planar cells with dimensions up to 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm and stacks of up to 25 cells. It is also suitable for testing other cell and stack geometries including tubular cells. The pressure boundary for these tests is a water-cooled spool-piece pressure vessel designed for operation up to 5 MPa. Pressurized operation of a ten-cell internally manifolded solid oxide electrolysis stack has been successfully demonstrated up 1.5 MPa. The stack is internally manifolded and operates in cross-flow with an inverted-U flow pattern. Feed-throughs for gas inlets/outlets, power, and instrumentation are all located in the bottom flange. The entire spool piece, with the exception of the bottom flange, can be lifted to allow access to the internal furnace and test fixture. Lifting is accomplished with a motorized threaded drive mechanism attached to a rigid structural frame. Stack mechanical compression is accomplished using springs that are located inside of the pressure boundary, but outside of the hot zone. Initial stack heatup and performance characterization occurs at ambient pressure followed by lowering and sealing of the pressure vessel and subsequent pressurization. Pressure equalization between the anode and cathode sides of the cells and the stack surroundings is ensured by combining all of the process gases downstream of the stack. Steady pressure is maintained by means of a backpressure regulator and a digital pressure controller. A full description of the pressurized test apparatus is provided in this report. Results of initial testing showed the expected increase in open-cell voltage associated with elevated pressure. However, stack performance in terms of area-specific resistance was enhanced at elevated pressure due to better gas diffusion through the porous electrodes of the cells. Some issues such as cracked cells and seals were encountered during testing. Full resolution of these issues will require additional testing to identify the optimum test configurations and protocols.

  10. ALT-II armor tile design for upgraded TEXTOR operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newberry, B.L. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); McGrath, R.T.; Watson, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kohlhaas, W.; Finken, K.H. [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik; Noda, N. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)

    1994-08-01

    The upgrade of the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Juelich was recently completed. This upgrade extended the TEXTOR pulse length from 5 seconds to 10 seconds. The auxiliary heating was increased to a total of 8.0 MW through a combination of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. Originally, the inertially cooled armor tiles of the full toroidal belt Advanced Limiter Test -- II (ALT-II) were designed for a 5-second operation with total heating of 6.0 MW. The upgrade of TEXTOR will increase the energy deposited per pulse onto the ALT-II by about 300%. Consequently, the graphite armor tiles for the ALT-II had to be redesigned to avoid excessively high graphite armor surface temperatures that would lead to unacceptable contamination of the plasma. This redesign took the form of two major changes in the ALT-II armor tile geometry. The first design change was an increase of the armor tile thermal mass, primarily by increasing the radial thickness of each tile from 17 mm to 20 mm. This increase in the radial tile dimension reduces the overall pumping efficiency of the ALT-II pump limiter by about 30%. The reduction in exhaust efficiency is unfortunate, but could be avoided only by active cooling of the ALT-II armor tiles. The active cooling option was too complicated and expensive to be considered at this time. The second design change involved redefining the plasma facing surface of each armor tile in order to fully utilize the entire surface area. The incident charged particle heat flux was distributed uniformly over the armor tile surfaces by carefully matching the radial, poloidal and toroidal curvature of each tile to the plasma flow in the TEXTOR boundary layer. This geometry redefinition complicates the manufacturing of the armor tiles, but results in significant thermal performance gains. In addition to these geometry upgrades, several material options were analyzed and evaluated.

  11. 22.39 Integration of Reactor Design, Operations, and Safety, Fall 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todreas, Neil E.

    This course integrates studies of reactor physics and engineering sciences into nuclear power plant design. Topics include materials issues in plant design and operations, aspects of thermal design, fuel depletion and ...

  12. Multidisciplinary optimization of aircraft design and takeoff operations for low noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Anya Rachel

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft planform design, takeoff operations, and airfoil design are examined as a complete system in order to quantify tradeoffs that can result in a quiet aircraft. An aircraft design model was developed to generate ...

  13. Design of a Ka-band gyro-TWT amplifier for broadband operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alaria, Mukesh Kumar; Sinha, A. K. [Microwave Tubes Area, CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani 333031 (India)] [Microwave Tubes Area, CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani 333031 (India); Choyal, Y. [Department of Physics, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India)] [Department of Physics, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India)

    2013-07-15

    In this paper, the design of a Ka-band periodically ceramic loaded gyro-TWT amplifier has been carried out. The design predict that the interaction structure can produce more than 80 kW output power, 50 dB saturated gain, and 3 dB bandwidth for 65 kV and 5 A electron beam with velocity ratio (?) of 1.2. This paper describes the design and simulation of a high performance 35 GHz TE{sub 01} mode gyro-TWT that applies the same technique of employing a periodic dielectric loaded interaction structure to achieve stability and wide bandwidth. The design of input coupler with loaded interaction structure for Ka-band Gyro-TWT has been carried out using Ansoft hfss. The return loss (S{sub 11}) and transmission loss (S{sub 21}) of the Ka-band gyro-TWT input coupler have been found to be ?27.3 dB and ?0.05 dB, respectively. The design of output window for Ka-band Gyro-TWT has been carried out using cst microwave studio.

  14. Introduction Operations Management of Blood Banking Systems Blood Banking Systems Network Design Supply Chain Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Introduction Operations Management of Blood Banking Systems Blood Banking Systems Network Design Supply Chain Network Operations Management and Design of A Sustainable Blood Banking System Amir Masoumi of Massachusetts Amherst #12;Introduction Operations Management of Blood Banking Systems Blood Banking Systems

  15. Secure Retrieval of FFTF Testing, Design, and Operating Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butner, R. Scott; Wootan, David W.; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah

    2009-10-01

    One of the goals of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is to preserve the knowledge that has been gained in the United States on Liquid Metal Reactors (LMR). In addition, preserving LMR information and knowledge is part of a larger international collaborative activity conducted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). A similar program is being conducted for EBR-II at the Idaho Nuclear Laboratory (INL) and international programs are also in progress. Knowledge preservation at the FFTF is focused on the areas of design, construction, startup, and operation of the reactor. As the primary function of the FFTF was testing, the focus is also on preserving information obtained from irradiation testing of fuels and materials. This information will be invaluable when, at a later date, international decisions are made to pursue new LMRs. In the interim, this information may be of potential use for international exchanges with other LMR programs around the world. At least as important in the United States, which is emphasizing large-scale computer simulation and modeling, this information provides the basis for creating benchmarks for validating and testing these large scale computer programs. Although the preservation activity with respect to FFTF information as discussed below is still underway, the team of authors above is currently retrieving and providing experimental and design information to the LMR modeling and simulation efforts for use in validating their computer models. On the Hanford Site, the FFTF reactor plant is one of the facilities intended for decontamination and decommissioning consistent with the cleanup mission on this site. The reactor facility has been deactivated and is being maintained in a cold and dark minimal surveillance and maintenance mode until final decommissioning is pursued. In order to ensure protection of information at risk, the program to date has focused on sequestering and secure retrieval. Accomplishments include secure retrieval of: more than 400 boxes of FFTF information, several hundred microfilm reels including Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) information, and 40 boxes of information on the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). All information preserved to date is now being stored and categorized consistent with the IAEA international standardized taxonomy. Earlier information largely related to irradiation testing is likewise being categorized. The fuel test results information exists in several different formats depending upon the final stage of the test evaluation. In some cases there is information from both non-destructive and destructive examination while in other cases only non-destructive results are available. Non-destructive information would include disassembly records, dimensional profilometry, gamma spectrometry, and neutron radiography. Information from destructive examinations would include fission gas analysis, metallography, and photomicrographs. Archiving of FFTF data, including both the reactor plant and the fuel test information, is being performed in coordination with other data archiving efforts underway under the aegis of the AFCI program. In addition to the FFTF efforts, archiving of data from the EBR-II reactor is being carried out by INL. All material at risk associated with FFTF documentation has been secured in a timely manner consistent with the stated plan. This documentation is now being categorized consistent with internationally agreed upon IAEA standards. Documents are being converted to electronic format for transfer to a large searchable electronic database being developed by INL. In addition, selected FFTF information is being used to generate test cases for large-scale simulation modeling efforts and for providing Design Data Need (DDN) packages as requested by the AFCI program.

  16. Optimal operation and design of solar-thermal energy storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lizarraga-García, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The present thesis focuses on the optimal operation and design of solar-thermal energy storage systems. First, optimization of time-variable operation to maximize revenue through selling and purchasing electricity to/from ...

  17. Preliminary design capability enhancement via development of rotorcraft operating economics model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giansiracusa, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop a means of predicting direct operating cost (DOC) for new commercial rotorcraft early in the design process. This project leverages historical efforts to model operating costs in ...

  18. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages - Motor Tip Sheet #9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    Motors are designed to operate within +/- 10% of their nameplate rated voltages. When motors operate at conditions of over- or under-voltage, motor efficiency and other performance parameters are degraded.

  19. Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Operating Strategies for Coupled LNTSCR We introduce a new bench-scale engine generator testing system for different diesel fuels, fuel blends, fuel additives, and evaluate...

  20. Design and Operation of an Open, Interoperable Automated Demand Response Infrastructure for Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    response, automation, commercial, industrial buildings, peakautomation system design. Auto-DR for commercial and industrialautomation server renamed as the DRAS. This server was operated at a secure industrial

  1. Topsides equipment, operating flexibility key floating LNG design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yost, K.; Lopez, R.; Mok, J.

    1998-03-09

    Use of a large-scale floating liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant is an economical alternative to an onshore plant for producing from an offshore field. Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, has advanced a design for such a plant that is technically feasible, economical, safe, and reliable. Presented were descriptions of the general design basis, hull modeling and testing, topsides and storage layouts, and LNG offloading. But such a design also presents challenges for designing topsides equipment in an offshore environment and for including flexibility and safety. These are covered in this second article. Mobil`s floating LNG plant design calls for a square concrete barge with a moon-pool in the center. It is designed to produce 6 million tons/year of LNG with up to 55,000 b/d of condensate from 1 bcfd of raw feed gas.

  2. Operational concepts and implementation strategies for the design configuration management process.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trauth, Sharon Lee

    2007-05-01

    This report describes operational concepts and implementation strategies for the Design Configuration Management Process (DCMP). It presents a process-based systems engineering model for the successful configuration management of the products generated during the operation of the design organization as a business entity. The DCMP model focuses on Pro/E and associated activities and information. It can serve as the framework for interconnecting all essential aspects of the product design business. A design operation scenario offers a sense of how to do business at a time when DCMP is second nature within the design organization.

  3. Data Analytics Methods in Wind Turbine Design and Operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Giwhyun

    2013-05-22

    This dissertation develops sophisticated data analytic methods to analyze structural loads on, and power generation of, wind turbines. Wind turbines, which convert the kinetic energy in wind into electrical power, are operated within stochastic...

  4. Simultaneous Design, Scheduling and Operation Through Process Integration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Mutairi, Eid M.

    2009-05-15

    detailed crude oil processing schedule, process unit schedule and blending and shipping schedule. The purpose of the scheduling is to transform the production plan into a schedule useful for all operations within a time horizon of a few days...

  5. UFAD Commissioning Cart: Design Specifications and Operating Manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom; Arens, Edward; Anwar, George; Bonnell, J.; Bauman, Fred; Brown, C.

    2007-01-01

    operating states Live – Green power light On, yellow linkfor 10 minutes) – Green power light blinks slowly. Off (are good (i.e. , the green power light is on). 4. The

  6. Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sirnivas, S.; Musial, W.; Bailey, B.; Filippelli, M.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a deliverable for a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entitled National Offshore Wind Energy Resource and Design Data Campaign -- Analysis and Collaboration (contract number DE-EE0005372; prime contractor -- AWS Truepower). The project objective is to supplement, facilitate, and enhance ongoing multiagency efforts to develop an integrated national offshore wind energy data network. The results of this initiative are intended to 1) produce a comprehensive definition of relevant met-ocean resource assets and needs and design standards, and 2) provide a basis for recommendations for meeting offshore wind energy industry data and design certification requirements.

  7. Designing soft-edge flip-flop-based linear pipelines operating in multiple supply voltage regimes$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Designing soft-edge flip-flop-based linear pipelines operating in multiple supply voltage regimes-flop Pipelined circuits design Near-threshold computing Process variation a b s t r a c t Soft-edge flip-flop (SEFF) based pipelines can improve the performance and energy efficiency of circuits operating

  8. Aalborg Universitet Optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro CHP system for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Aalborg Universitet Optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro CHP system., & Brandon, N. (2014). Optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro CHP system for residential of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro-CHP system for residential applications in different climate zones in China

  9. Low energy digital circuit design using sub-threshold operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calhoun, Benton Highsmith, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    Scaling of process technologies to deep sub-micron dimensions has made power management a significant concern for circuit designers. For emerging low power applications such as distributed micro-sensor networks or medical ...

  10. A Solid breeder tokamak blanket designed for failure mode operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Franklin Fun Kun

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new concept for a Tokamak type fusion reactor blanket. The design was based on using a packed bed of lithium aluminate as the breeding material with helium gas cooling. The ...

  11. Process Integration: Designing for Energy, Capital and Operability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linnhoff, B.

    1985-01-01

    Over the last five years, significant energy savings have been achieved by several international companies using the pinch concept for heat integration. New concepts are now being added to help the designer deal with capital cost minimization...

  12. A Sustainable Focus for Laboratory Design, Engineerign, and Operation

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HVAC designs 4. Get real with plug loads: Right-size HVAC systems 5. Just say no to re-heat: Minimize simultaneous heating and cooling Annual electricity use in Louis Stokes...

  13. MEMS design rule checking: a batch approach for remote operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarberry, V.R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a design rule checking (DRC) tool developed as an aid for designing microelectromechanical structures (MEMS) using AutoCAD running on a Windows NT workstation. The application suite, MEMSdrc, consists of: a graphical user interface integrated into AutoCAD to invoke DRC, translation and interface software to communicate with a commercial IC layout design checking software package, and routines to interactively display and review the results. The user interface provides the capability to select a checking window area and specific DRC rules to be applied to the design. The MEMS structures, defined as 2D AutoCAD geometry are translated first into DXF format, then to GDSII format. A remote process transfers the files to a Unix workstation where Mentor Graphics ICverify is invoked to perform the layout design rule checks. Upon completion, the results are translated into DXF geometry and returned back to the Windows NT workstation to be overlaid onto the original design. A set of icons are provided for the user to interactively review the results inside of AutoCAD using a first/next/previous technique.

  14. A 6 kV arbitrary waveform generator for the Tevatron Electron Lens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pfeffer, H.; Saewert, G.

    2011-11-09

    This paper reports on a 6 kV modulator built and installed at Fermilab to drive the electron gun anode for the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL). The TEL was built with the intention of shifting the individual (anti)proton bunch tunes to even out the tune spread among all 36 bunches with the desire of improving Tevatron integrated luminosity. This modulator is essentially a 6 kV arbitrary waveform generator that enables the TEL to define the electron beam intensity on a bunch-by-bunch basis. A voltage waveform is constructed having a 7 ?s duration that corresponds to the tune shift requirements of amore »12-bunch (anti)proton beam pulse train. This waveform is played out for any one or all three bunch trains in the Tevatron. The programmed waveform voltages transition to different levels at time intervals corresponding to the 395 ns bunch spacing. In addition, complex voltage waveforms can be played out at a sustained rate of 143 kHz over the full 6 kV output range. This paper describes the novel design of the inductive adder topology employing five transformers. It describes the design aspects that minimize switching losses for this multi-kilovolt, high repetition rate and high duty factor application.« less

  15. A 6 kV arbitrary waveform generator for the Tevatron Electron Lens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pfeffer, H.; Saewert, G.

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports on a 6 kV modulator built and installed at Fermilab to drive the electron gun anode for the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL). The TEL was built with the intention of shifting the individual (anti)proton bunch tunes to even out the tune spread among all 36 bunches with the desire of improving Tevatron integrated luminosity. This modulator is essentially a 6 kV arbitrary waveform generator that enables the TEL to define the electron beam intensity on a bunch-by-bunch basis. A voltage waveform is constructed having a 7 {micro}s duration that corresponds to the tune shift requirements of a 12-bunch (anti)proton beam pulse train. This waveform is played out for any one or all three bunch trains in the Tevatron. The programmed waveform voltages transition to different levels at time intervals corresponding to the 395 ns bunch spacing. Thus, complex voltage waveforms can be played out at a sustained rate of 143 kHz over the full 6 kV output range. This paper describes the novel design of the inductive adder topology employing five transformers. It describes the design aspects that minimize switching losses for this multi-kilovolt, high repetition rate and high duty factor application.

  16. The HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory: Design, Calibration, and Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abeysekara, A U; Alvarez, C; Álvarez, J D; Arceo, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Solares, H A Ayala; Barber, A S; Baughman, B M; Bautista-Elivar, N; Belmont, E; BenZvi, S Y; Berley, D; Rosales, M Bonilla; Braun, J; Caballero-Lopez, R A; Caballero-Mora, K S; Carramiñana, A; Castillo, M; Cotti, U; Cotzomi, J; de la Fuente, E; De León, C; DeYoung, T; Hernandez, R Diaz; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dingus, B L; DuVernois, M A; Ellsworth, R W; Fernandez, A; Fiorino, D W; Fraija, N; Galindo, A; Garfias, F; González, L X; González, M M; Goodman, J A; Grabski, V; Gussert, M; Hampel-Arias, Z; Hui, C M; Hüntemeyer, P; Imran, A; Iriarte, A; Karn, P; Kieda, D; Kunde, G J; Lara, A; Lauer, R J; Lee, W H; Lennarz, D; Vargas, H León; Linares, E C; Linnemann, J T; Longo, M; Luna-GarcIa, R; Marinelli, A; Martinez, H; Martinez, O; Martínez-Castro, J; Matthews, J A J; Miranda-Romagnoli, P; Moreno, E; Mostafá, M; Nava, J; Nellen, L; Newbold, M; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Oceguera-Becerra, T; Patricelli, B; Pelayo, R; Pérez-Pérez, E G; Pretz, J; Rivière, C; Rosa-González, D; Salazar, H; Salesa, F; Sanchez, F E; Sandoval, A; Santos, E; Schneider, M; Silich, S; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sparks, K; Springer, R W; Taboada, I; Toale, P A; Tollefson, K; Torres, I; Ukwatta, T N; Villaseñor, L; Weisgarber, T; Westerhoff, S; Wisher, I G; Wood, J; Yodh, G B; Younk, P W; Zaborov, D; Zepeda, A; Zhou, H

    2013-01-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma Ray Observatory (HAWC) is under construction 4100 meters above sea level at Sierra Negra, Mexico. We describe the design and cabling of the detector, the characterization of the photomultipliers, and the timing calibration system. We also outline a next-generation detector based on the water Cherenkov technique.

  17. ADDRESSING “BEHIND THE SCENES” ECOLOGICAL CONCERNS ASSOCIATED WITH THE DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF AN URBAN TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM– A NEW YORK CITY TRANSIT PERSPECTIVE ON SUSTAINABILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Ajay; Ramdahin, Dennis; Topielski, Bogdan; Raman, Ramesh Raman

    2003-01-01

    DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF AN URBANprocurement and operations and maintenance activities. This

  18. Design, Operation, and Controlled-Island Operation of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2013 Microgrid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurnik, C.; Butt, R. S.; Metzger, I.; Lavrova, O.; Patibandla, S.; Wagner, V.; Frankosky, M.; Wiegand, G.

    2015-04-22

    This document reports on the design and operation of a high-capacity and high-penetration-ratio microgrid, which consists of 19 photovoltaic-powered residential houses designed by collegiate teams as part of their participation in the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2013. The microgrid was interconnected with the local utility, and resulting net-power and power-quality events were recorded in high detail (1-minute data sampling or better). Also, a controlled-island operation test was conducted to evaluate the microgrid response to additional events such as increased loads (e.g., from electric vehicles) and bypassing of voltage regulators. This temporary ground-laid microgrid was stable under nominal and island-operation conditions; adverse weather and loads did not lead to power-quality degradation.

  19. A Virtual Reality Framework to Optimize Design, Operation and Refueling of GEN-IV Reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rizwan-uddin; Nick Karancevic; Stefano Markidis; Joel Dixon; Cheng Luo; Jared Reynolds

    2008-04-23

    many GEN-IV candidate designs are currently under investigation. Technical issues related to material, safety and economics are being addressed at research laboratories, industry and in academia. After safety, economic feasibility is likely to be the most important crterion in the success of GEN-IV design(s). Lessons learned from the designers and operators of GEN-II (and GEN-III) reactors must play a vital role in achieving both safety and economic feasibility goals.

  20. Human Factors Guidance for Control Room and Digital Human-System Interface Design and Modification, Guidelines for Planning, Specification, Design, Licensing, Implementation, Training, Operation and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Fink, D. Hill, J. O'Hara

    2004-11-30

    Nuclear plant operators face a significant challenge designing and modifying control rooms. This report provides guidance on planning, designing, implementing and operating modernized control rooms and digital human-system interfaces.

  1. Advanced, Low/Zero Emission Boiler Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babcock/Wilcox; Illinois State Geological; Worley Parsons; Parsons Infrastructure/Technology Group

    2007-06-30

    In partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, B&W and Air Liquide are developing and optimizing the oxy-combustion process for retrofitting existing boilers as well as new plants. The main objectives of the project is to: (1) demonstrate the feasibility of the oxy-combustion technology with flue gas recycle in a 5-million Btu/hr coal-fired pilot boiler, (2) measure its performances in terms of emissions and boiler efficiency while selecting the right oxygen injection and flue gas recycle strategies, and (3) perform technical and economic feasibility studies for application of the technology in demonstration and commercial scale boilers. This document summarizes the work performed during the period of performance of the project (Oct 2002 to June 2007). Detailed technical results are reported in corresponding topical reports that are attached as an appendix to this report. Task 1 (Site Preparation) has been completed in 2003. The experimental pilot-scale O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} combustion tests of Task 2 (experimental test performance) has been completed in Q2 2004. Process simulation and cost assessment of Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) has been completed in Q1 2005. The topical report on Task 3 has been finalized and submitted to DOE in Q3 2005. The calculations of Task 4 (Retrofit Recommendation and Preliminary Design of a New Generation Boiler) has been completed in 2004. In Task 6 (engineering study on retrofit applications), the engineering study on 25MW{sub e} unit has been completed in Q2, 2008 along with the corresponding cost assessment. In Task 7 (evaluation of new oxy-fuel power plants concepts), based on the design basis document prepared in 2005, the design and cost estimate of the Air Separation Units, the boiler islands and the CO{sub 2} compression and trains have been completed, for both super and ultra-supercritical case study. Final report of Task-7 is published by DOE in Oct 2007.

  2. Libby (FEC)-Troy 115kV Line Rebuild

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A new runner design will eliminate the need to operate two units at low efficiency during low flow months and allow one unit to run at much higher efficiency. A modern runner...

  3. Design, Operations, and Safety Report for the MERIT Target System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, Van B [ORNL; Spampinato, Philip Thomas [ORNL

    2007-09-01

    The Mercury Intense Target Project (MERIT) is a proof-of-principal experiment to determine the feasibility of using a free-jet of Hg as a spallation target in a Neutrino Factory or a Muon Collider facility. The 1-cm-diameter, 20-m/sec jet will be generated inside a 15-Tesla magnetic field, and high-speed optical diagnostics will be used to photograph the interaction between the Hg jet and a 24-GeV proton beam.The experiment is scheduled to be conducted at CERN in 2007. ORNL is responsible for the design, fabrication, and testing of a system to deliver the Hg jet within the confines of the 15-cm magnet bore. This report documents the functional and safety requirements of the Hg system along with descriptions of its interfaces to the other experimental equipment.

  4. Delivering Tons to the Register: Energy Efficient Design and Operation of Residential Cooling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delivering Tons to the Register: Energy Efficient Design and Operation of Residential Cooling Systems Jeffrey Siegel, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Iain Walker, Lawrence Berkeley National and air conditioner performance. These parameters included placing the entire air conditioning system

  5. An approach to analyze tradeoffs for aerospace system design and operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neill, Michael Gregory

    2013-01-01

    There are important tradeoffs that need to be considered for the design and operation of aerospace systems. In addition to tradeoffs, there may also be multiple stakeholders of interest to the system and each may have ...

  6. An Approach to Analyze Tradeoffs for Aerospace System Design and Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neill, Gregory

    2012-11-01

    There are important tradeoffs that need to be considered for the design and operation of aerospace systems. In addition to tradeoffs, there may also be multiple stakeholders of interest to the system and each may have ...

  7. Assessment of LWR piping design loading based on plant operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svensson, P. O.

    1980-08-01

    The objective of this study has been to: (1) identify current Light Water Reactor (LWR) piping design load parameters, (2) identify significant actual LWR piping loads from plant operating experience, (3) perform a comparison of these two sets of data and determine the significance of any differences, and (4) make an evaluation of the load representation in current LWR piping design practice, in view of plant operating experience with respect to piping behavior and response to loading.

  8. Operation of a bushing melter system designed for actinide vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, W.G.

    1996-03-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company is developing a melter system to vitrify actinide materials. The melter system will used to vitrify the americium and curium solution which is currently stored in one of the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) processing canyons. This solution is one of the materials designated by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) to be dispositioned as part of the DNFSB recommendation 94-1. The Am/Cm solution contains an extremely large fraction (>2 kilograms of Cm and 10 kilograms of Am) of t he United States`s total inventory of both elements. They have an estimated value on the order of one billion dollars - if they are processed through the DOE Isotope Sales program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is therefore deemed highly desirable to transfer the material to Oak Ridge in a form which can allow for recovery of the material. A commercial glass composition has been demonstrated to be compatible with up to 40 weight percent of the Am/Cm solution contents. This glass is also selectively attacked by nitric acid. This allows the actinide to be recovered by common separation processes.

  9. Design And Operation Of A Wireline Pressure Core Sampler (PCS) OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Design And Operation Of A Wireline Pressure Core Sampler (PCS) OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY Technical Note 17 T. L. Pettigrew Ocean Drilling Program Texas A&M University 1000 Discovery Drive. & Drilling Operations Timothy J.G. Francis Deputy Director August 1992 #12;Material in this publication may

  10. Effects of an Advanced Reactor’s Design, Use of Automation, and Mission on Human Operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Johanna H. Oxstrand

    2014-06-01

    The roles, functions, and tasks of the human operator in existing light water nuclear power plants (NPPs) are based on sound nuclear and human factors engineering (HFE) principles, are well defined by the plant’s conduct of operations, and have been validated by years of operating experience. However, advanced NPPs whose engineering designs differ from existing light-water reactors (LWRs) will impose changes on the roles, functions, and tasks of the human operators. The plans to increase the use of automation, reduce staffing levels, and add to the mission of these advanced NPPs will also affect the operator’s roles, functions, and tasks. We assert that these factors, which do not appear to have received a lot of attention by the design engineers of advanced NPPs relative to the attention given to conceptual design of these reactors, can have significant risk implications for the operators and overall plant safety if not mitigated appropriately. This paper presents a high-level analysis of a specific advanced NPP and how its engineered design, its plan to use greater levels of automation, and its expanded mission have risk significant implications on operator performance and overall plant safety.

  11. Spanish Power Exchange Market and Information System Design concepts, and operating experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Spanish Power Exchange Market and Information System Design concepts, and operating experience Jose Abstract: Since January, 1st, 1998, the new Spanish: Since January, 1st, 1998, the new Spanish Electricity negotiate all power exchanges through the spot market. The Spanish Power Exchange Market Operator (Compañia

  12. Design and Operation of a Fast Electromagnetic Inductive Massive Gas Injection Valve for NSTX-Ua)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Design and Operation of a Fast Electromagnetic Inductive Massive Gas Injection Valve for NSTX-Ua) R the operation of an electromagnetic valve, that does not incorporate ferromagnetic materials, are presented baratron gauge. The valve injects over 200 Torr.L of nitrogen in less than 3 ms, which remains unchanged

  13. Spanish Power Exchange Market and Information System Design concepts, and operating experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Spanish Power Exchange Market and Information System Design concepts, and operating experience Jose negotiate all power exchanges through the spot market. The Spanish Power Exchange Market Operator (Compañia 1999 indicating each specific market results and aggregate statistics. Keywords: Power Exchange Market

  14. Heavy duty insulator assemblies for 500-kV bulk power transmission line with large diameter octagonalbundled conductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Hayase, I.; Hirai, J.; Inove, M.; Naito, K.; Yukino, T.

    1982-11-01

    This paper describes the design procedure and the results of field tests on mechanical performances of insulator assemblies newly developed to support octagonal-bundled conductors for 500-kV bulk power transmission. Taking account of conductor-motion-induced peak tensile load, fatigue, torsional torque and others, a successful design has been achieved in two prototype assemblies for such heavy mechanical duties as encountered during conductor galloping or swing. This has been proved throughout three years of the field tests.

  15. A Nonlinear Spring Model of Hydraulic Actuator for Passive Controller Design in Bilateral Tele-operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    this model, an energy based controller for passive bilateral tele-operation of hydraulic actuator is designedA Nonlinear Spring Model of Hydraulic Actuator for Passive Controller Design in Bilateral Tele of hydraulic medium are used to develop a nonlinear spring-like model for a hydraulic actuator. Using

  16. Design of Automation for Telerobots and the Effect on Performance, Operator Situation Awareness, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaber, David B.

    Design of Automation for Telerobots and the Effect on Performance, Operator Situation Awareness 30066 ABSTRACT In this article we review and assess human-centered level of automation (LOA), an alternate ap- proach to traditional, technology-centered design of automation in dynamic-control systems

  17. CIV498 Design Project 2016 Project Title: Business and Operations Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    CIV498 Design Project 2016 Project Title: Business and Operations Development INSTRUCTOR: Paul resolution. Design teams will choose a project and work directly with the local Holcim personnel to develop and provide construction services to many of Canada's largest infrastructure projects. Our business divisions

  18. Nuclear facilities: criteria for the design and operation of ventilation systems for nuclear installations other than nuclear reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear facilities: criteria for the design and operation of ventilation systems for nuclear installations other than nuclear reactors

  19. Integrating Safety, Operations, Security, and Safeguards (ISOSS) into the design of small modular reactors : a handbook.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Middleton, Bobby D.; Mendez, Carmen Margarita [Sociotecnia Solutions] [Sociotecnia Solutions

    2013-10-01

    The existing regulatory environment for nuclear reactors impacts both the facility design and the cost of operations once the facility is built. Delaying the consideration of regulatory requirements until late in the facility design - or worse, until after construction has begun - can result in costly retrofitting as well as increased operational costs to fulfill safety, security, safeguards, and emergency readiness requirements. Considering the scale and scope, as well as the latest design trends in the next generation of nuclear facilities, there is an opportunity to evaluate the regulatory requirements and optimize the design process for Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), as compared to current Light Water Reactors (LWRs). To this end, Sandia has embarked on an initiative to evaluate the interactions of regulations and operations as an approach to optimizing the design of SMR facilities, supporting operational efficiencies, as well as regulatory requirements. The early stages of this initiative consider two focus areas. The first focus area, reported by LaChance, et al. (2007), identifies the regulatory requirements established for the current fleet of LWR facilities regarding Safety, Security, Operations, Safeguards, and Emergency Planning, and evaluates the technical bases for these requirements. The second focus area, developed in this report, documents the foundations for an innovative approach that supports a design framework for SMR facilities that incorporates the regulatory environment, as well as the continued operation of the facility, into the early design stages, eliminating the need for costly retrofitting and additional operating personnel to fulfill regulatory requirements. The work considers a technique known as Integrated Safety, Operations, Security and Safeguards (ISOSS) (Darby, et al., 2007). In coordination with the best practices of industrial operations, the goal of this effort is to develop a design framework that outlines how ISOSS requirements can be incorporated into the pre-conceptual through early facility design stages, seeking a cost-effective design that meets both operational efficiencies and the regulatory environment. The larger scope of the project, i.e., in future stages, includes the identification of potentially conflicting requirements identified by the ISOSS framework, including an analysis of how regulatory requirements may be changed to account for the intrinsic features of SMRs.

  20. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 1: Title II design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 1 provides a comprehensive narrative description of the proposed facility and systems, the basis for each of the systems design, and the engineering assessments that were performed to support the technical basis of the Title II design. The intent of the system description presented is to provide WHC an understanding of the facilities and equipment provided and the A/E`s perspective on how these systems will operate.

  1. Fire protection considerations for the design and operation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This standard addresses the design, operation, and maintenance of LPG storage facilities from the standpoint of prevention and control of releases, fire-protection design, and fire-control measures, as well as the history of LPG storage facility failure, facility design philosophy, operating and maintenance procedures, and various fire-protection and firefighting approaches and presentations. The storage facilities covered are LPG installations (storage vessels and associated loading/unloading/transfer systems) at marine and pipeline terminals, natural gas processing plants, refineries, petrochemical plants, and tank farms.

  2. Design, operation factors can up coker liquid yields. [Delayed liquid cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, J.D. (Foster Wheeler Corp., Clinton, NJ (US))

    1991-02-04

    Among refineries with delayed cokers, there is now major incentive to maximize coker fresh feed throughput while producing maximum possible liquid yields. There are design features and operating considerations that can increase liquid yields. Maximizing coke throughput is typically a necessity in overall refinery operations because coker capacity to process the bottom of the barrel can be a bottleneck to the entire refinery crude throughput. The incentive for achieving the maximum liquid yield from a coker is: clean distillates, even cracked distillates, are valuable while fuel grade coke is not. Another way to look at a maximum liquid yield coker operation is as a minimum coke yield operation.

  3. ETM (Distribution Network Automation on 10 kV cable line stations...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ETM (Distribution Network Automation on 10 kV cable line stations) (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name ETM (Distribution Network Automation on 10 kV cable...

  4. Activity-Dependent Regulation of the Potassium Channel Subunits Kv1.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubel, Edwin

    Activity-Dependent Regulation of the Potassium Channel Subunits Kv1.1 and Kv3.1 YONG LU, PABLO, 1980; Escobar et al., 1993; Taxi and Eugene, 1995; Desai et al., 1999; Francis and Manis, 2000; Abdulla

  5. Opportunities for sustainable design and operation of cleanspaces: A case study on minienvironment system performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tengfang

    2005-05-01

    In order to identify and pursue energy efficiency opportunities associated with cleanrooms, it is necessary to understand the design and operation of cleanroom systems for specific contamination control requirements. With the industrial trend toward more stringent cleanliness class and tightening clean spaces, it is vital to understand the design of minienvironment and the operational performance of its systems. A good understanding of such system performance would help to identify opportunities in efficient energy end-use and wise allocation of resources associated with processes or productions that require minienvironments and cleanrooms. This report summarizes a case study on energy performance of a common minienvironment used in semiconductor industry, and discusses the opportunities in saving energy, in particular, the opportunities in achieving efficient operation and design that entails applications of minienvironments.

  6. Conceptual design report for tank farm restoration and safe operations, project W-314

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briggs, S.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-02

    This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) presents the conceptual level design approach that satisfies the established technical requirements for Project W-314, `Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations.` The CDR also addresses the initial cost and schedule baselines for performing the proposed Tank Farm infrastructure upgrades. The scope of this project includes capital improvements to Hanford`s existing tank farm facilities(primarily focused on Double- Shell Tank Farms) in the areas of instrumentation/control, tank ventilation, waste transfer, and electrical systems.

  7. Practitioners of operations research apply scientific methods to complex systems in order to design and operate them efficiently and effectively; across institutions and organizations their

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Practitioners of operations research apply scientific methods to complex systems in order to design science, engineering management. Cornell's Ph.D. program in Operations Research is intellectually rigorous of the highest caliber. The emphasis in the Ph.D. program is on operations research as a mathematical science

  8. Environmental assessment: Warren Air Force Base 115-kV transmission line, Cheyenne, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western), is propsoing to construct a new electrical tranmission line and substation in southeastern Wyoming. This proposed line, called the Warren Air Force Base Tranmission Line, will supply power for Western's system to Francis E.Warren Air Force Base (F.E. Warren AFB) near Cheyenne. It would allow for increased tranmission capacity to the air base. F.E. Warren AFB currently is served electrically be Western via a 13.8-kv line. It is a wood-pole, double-circuit line without an overhead ground wire, which extends from Western's Cheyenne Substation, through an urban area, and onto the air base. The Cheyenne Substation is located on the south side of the city of Cheyenne. The electrical load on the base is increasing from 4 megawatts (MW) to 11 or 12 MW, an approximate three-fold increase. Voltage problems occasionally occur at the base due to the present electrial loads and to the age and inadequacy of the 13.8-kv line, which was placed in service in 1941. The existing line has served beyond its designed service life and requires replacement. Replacement would be necessary even without an increasing load. F.E. Warren AFB has several new and expanding programs, including additional housing, shopping centers, and the Peacekeeper Missile Program. Part of this expansion already has occured; the remainder is expected by early 1988. This expansion has created the need for additional electrical service. The present 13.8-kV line is not capable of supporting the additional load. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Siphon penstock installations at hydroelectric projects: A survey of design, construction and operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgoine, D.; Rodrigue, P.; Tarbell, J.C. (Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (USA); Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (USA). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (USA))

    1989-01-01

    There can be advantages to using siphon penstocks at small hydro projects, particularly those constructed at existing dams. One problem, however, is a lack of documentation of siphon penstock installations. The design considerations, construction and operating aspects of siphon penstock installations are described here. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Design and Operation of a Drill-In-Casing System (DIC) Timothy J.G. Francis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip D Director U/r Design and Operation of a Drill-In-Casing System (DIC) Timothy J.G. Francis Deputy Director OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY Technical Note 21 T.L. Pettigrew Ocean Drilling Program Texas A&M University 1000 Discovery Drive College Station, Texas 77845-9547 Barry W

  11. The infusion of intelligence that transforms the way industries conceptualize, design and operate the manufacturing enterprise.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    The infusion of intelligence that transforms the way industries conceptualize, design and operate available to companies of all sizes #12;IndustrialGas Manufacturing Steel Energy Bio/Pharma Electronics/Institute for Digital Research and Education and Tom Edgar UT Austin SMLC (501c6) https

  12. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Design and Operation of Hall Thruster with Segmented Electrodes1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Design and Operation of Hall Thruster Copyright @ 1998 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc. All rights reserved 1 discharge between Anode Cathode B E #12;American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 2 the anode

  13. Increasing the reliability of the shutdown of 500 - 750-kV overhead lines equipped with shunt reactors in an unsuccessful three-phase automatic repeated closure cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuz'micheva, K. I.; Merzlyakov, A. S.; Fokin, G. G. [JSC 'R and D Center at Federal Grid Company of the United Power System' (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15

    The reasons for circuit-breaker failures during repeated disconnection of 500 - 750 kV overhead lines with shunt reactors in a cycle of unsuccessful three-phase automatic reconnection (TARC) are analyzed. Recommendations are made for increasing the operating reliability of power transmission lines with shunt reactors when there is unsuccessful reconnection.

  14. Big George to Carter Mountain 115-kV transmission line project, Park and Hot Springs Counties, Wyoming. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to rebuild, operate, and maintain a 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line between the Big George and Carter Mountain Substations in northwest Wyoming (Park and Hot Springs Counties). This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The existing Big George to Carter Mountain 69-kV transmission line was constructed in 1941 by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, with 1/0 copper conductor on wood-pole H-frame structures without an overhead ground wire. The line should be replaced because of the deteriorated condition of the wood-pole H-frame structures. Because the line lacks an overhead ground wire, it is subject to numerous outages caused by lightning. The line will be 54 years old in 1995, which is the target date for line replacement. The normal service life of a wood-pole line is 45 years. Under the No Action Alternative, no new transmission lines would be built in the project area. The existing 69-kV transmission line would continue to operate with routine maintenance, with no provisions made for replacement.

  15. Computer software design description for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), Project L-045H, Operator Training Station (OTS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, R.L. Jr.

    1994-11-07

    The Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Operator Training Station (OTS) is a computer-based training tool designed to aid plant operations and engineering staff in familiarizing themselves with the TEDF Central Control System (CCS).

  16. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall, the results of the reference design development and the cost analysis support the technical feasibility of the deep borehole disposal concept for high-level radioactive waste.

  17. Design of 95 GHz gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid with water cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borodin, Dmitri; Ben-Moshe, Roey; Einat, Moshe

    2014-07-15

    The design work for 2nd harmonic 95 GHz, 50 kW gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid is presented. Thermionic magnetron injection gun specifications were calculated according to the linear trade off equation, and simulated with CST program. Numerical code is used for cavity design using the non-uniform string equation as well as particle motion in the “cold” cavity field. The mode TE02 with low Ohmic losses in the cavity walls was chosen as the operating mode. The Solenoid is designed to induce magnetic field of 1.8 T over a length of 40 mm in the interaction region with homogeneity of ±0.34%. The solenoid has six concentric cylindrical segments (and two correction segments) of copper foil windings separated by water channels for cooling. The predicted temperature in continuous operation is below 93?°C. The parameters of the design together with simulation results of the electromagnetic cavity field, magnetic field, electron trajectories, and thermal analyses are presented.

  18. Structural Design Considerations for Tubular Power Tower Receivers Operating at 650 Degrees C: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neises, T. W.; Wagner, M. J.; Gray, A. K.

    2014-04-01

    Research of advanced power cycles has shown supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles may have thermal efficiency benefits relative to steam cycles at temperatures around 500 - 700 degrees C. To realize these benefits for CSP, it is necessary to increase the maximum outlet temperature of current tower designs. Research at NREL is investigating a concept that uses high-pressure supercritical carbon dioxide as the heat transfer fluid to achieve a 650 degrees C receiver outlet temperature. At these operating conditions, creep becomes an important factor in the design of a tubular receiver and contemporary design assumptions for both solar and traditional boiler applications must be revisited and revised. This paper discusses lessons learned for high-pressure, high-temperature tubular receiver design. An analysis of a simplified receiver tube is discussed, and the results show the limiting stress mechanisms in the tube and the impact on the maximum allowable flux as design parameters vary. Results of this preliminary analysis indicate an underlying trade-off between tube thickness and the maximum allowable flux on the tube. Future work will expand the scope of design variables considered and attempt to optimize the design based on cost and performance metrics.

  19. Designs for high power, single mode operation in broad stripe semiconductor lasers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Chun Por

    1988-01-01

    and its associated Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity Semiconductor bandgap diagram Schematic illustration of (a) spontaneous emission and (b) stimulated emission processes Page 10 5. Band diagram of a heterostructure laser diode Light output-current (L... educational goals. vn TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page I INTRODUCTION II BASIC OPERATION OF LASER DIODES III ANTIGUIDING INDEX PROFILE 15 A. Analysis B. Design Examples C. Truncated Index Profiles D. Comparsion of Various Wide-Stripe and Array Laser...

  20. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 3: Specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 3 is a compilation of the construction specifications that will constitute the Title II materials and performance specifications. This volume contains CSI specifications for non-equipment related construction material type items, performance type items, and facility mechanical equipment items. Data sheets are provided, as necessary, which specify the equipment overall design parameters.

  1. Solar photovoltaic applications seminar: design, installation and operation of small, stand-alone photovoltaic power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    This seminar material was developed primarily to provide solar photovoltaic (PV) applied engineering technology to the Federal community. An introduction to photoconductivity, semiconductors, and solar photovoltaic cells is included along with a demonstration of specific applications and application identification. The seminar details general systems design and incorporates most known information from industry, academia, and Government concerning small solar cell power system design engineering, presented in a practical and applied manner. Solar PV power system applications involve classical direct electrical energy conversion and electric power system analysis and synthesis. Presentations and examples involve a variety of disciplines including structural analysis, electric power and load analysis, reliability, sizing and optimization; and, installation, operation and maintenance. Four specific system designs are demonstrated: water pumping, domestic uses, navigational and aircraft aids, and telecommunications. All of the applications discussed are for small power requirement (under 2 kilowatts), stand-alone systems to be used in remote locations. Also presented are practical lessons gained from currently installed and operating systems, problems at sites and their resolution, a logical progression through each major phase of system acquisition, as well as thorough design reviews for each application.

  2. Designing and Operating for Safeguards: Lessons Learned From the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Shirley J.; Ehinger, Michael

    2010-08-07

    This paper will address the lessons learned during the implementation of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) which are relevant to the issue of ‘safeguards by design’. However, those lessons are a result of a cumulative history of international safeguards experiences starting with the West Valley reprocessing plant in 1969, continuing with the Barnwell plant, and then with the implementation of international safeguards at WAK in Germany and TRP in Japan. The design and implementation of safeguards at RRP in Japan is the latest and most challenging that the IAEA has faced. This paper will discuss the work leading up to the development of a safeguards approach, the design and operating features that were introduced to improve or aid in implementing the safeguards approach, and the resulting recommendations for future facilities. It will provide an overview of how ‘safeguardability’ was introduced into RRP.

  3. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 4: Project cost estimate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. This volume represents the total estimated costs for the W113 facility. Operating Contractor Management costs have been incorporated as received from WHC. The W113 Facility TEC is $19.7 million. This includes an overall project contingency of 14.4% and escalation of 17.4%. A January 2001 construction contract procurement start date is assumed.

  4. A Solid State 100 kV Long Pulse Generator for Klystrons Power Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martins, C A; Simonet, G

    2010-01-01

    A solid state pulsed power generator rated at 100 kV, 2 MWpeak, 0.8 ms/2 Hz suited for klystrons cathode power supply (klystron modulator) is proposed as an alternative to traditional topologies, requiring thyratrons and PFN’s, for long pulse width applications (ms range). Some technological issues and design criteria of the proposed circuit main sub-systems (solid state switch, pulse transformer, undershoot network, droop compensation bouncer) will be presented. The principle of the klystron arc detection electronics and protection strategy is described. An optimization will be developed allowing the achievement of the required pulse flat-top precision (1%) with minimum volume and costs. Finally, experimental results obtained on a resistive dummy load and on a 1.3 MW klystron will be presented and discussed.

  5. Environmental Assessment for Central Power and Light Company`s proposed Military Highway-CFE tie 138/69-kV transmission line project Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Central Power and Light Company (CPL) intends to upgrade its existing transmission line ties with the Commision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) system in Mexico. CPL currently has a single 69-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Brownsville area which connects CPL`s system with the system of CFE. This existing line runs between the Brownsville Switching Station, located on Laredo Road in Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas, and an existing CFE 69-kV line at the Rusteberg Bend of the Rio Grande in Cameron County. Under current conditions of need, the existing 69-kV line does not possess sufficient capability to engage in appropriate power exchanges. Therefore, CPL is proposing to build a new line to link up with CFE. This proposed line would be a double-circuit line, which would (1) continue (on a slightly relocated route) the existing 69-kV tie from CPL`s Brownsville Switching Station to CFE`s facilities, and (2) add a 138-kV tie from the Military Highway Substation, located on Military Highway (US Highway 281), to CFE`s facilities. The proposed 138/69-kV line, which will be constructed and operated by CPL, will be built primarily on steel single-pole structures within an average 60-foot (ft) wide right-of-way (ROW). It will be approximately 6900--9200 ft (1.3--1.7 miles) in length, depending on the alternative route constructed.

  6. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Project; Operations and Maintenance and Planning and Design, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, Roy Edward; Walker, Grant W.; Penney, Aaron K.

    2005-12-01

    This report fulfills the contract obligations based on the Statement of Work (SOW) for the project as contracted with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) Year-2002 annual report combines information from two contracts with a combined value of $3,036,014. Bonneville Power Administration identifies them as follows; (1) Part I--Operations and Maintenance--Project No. 1983-350-00, Contract No. 4504, and $2,682,635 which includes--Equipment costs of $1,807,105. (2) Part II--Planning and Design--Project No. 1983-35-04, Contract No. 4035, $352,379 for Clearwater Coho Restoration Master Plan development Based on NPPC authorization for construction and operation of NPTH, the annual contracts were negotiated for the amounts shown above under (1) and (2). Construction contracts were handled by BPA until all facilities are completed and accepted.

  7. Microwave-emitting rotor, separator apparatus including same, methods of operation and design thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H.

    2006-12-19

    An apparatus for use in separating, at least in part, a mixture, including at least one chamber and at least one microwave generation device configured for communicating microwave energy into the at least one chamber is disclosed. The rotor assembly may comprise an electric generator for generating electricity for operating the microwave generation device. At least one microwave generation device may be positioned within a tubular interior shaft extending within the rotor assembly. At least a portion of the tubular interior shaft may be substantially transparent to microwave energy. Microwave energy may be emitted in an outward radial direction or toward an anticipated boundary surface defined between a mixture and a separated constituent thereof. A method including flowing a mixture through at least one chamber and communicating microwave energy into the at least one chamber while rotating same is disclosed. Methods of operating a centrifugal separator and design thereof are disclosed.

  8. Recommendations for Advanced Design Mixer Pump Operation in Savannah River Site Tank 18F

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enderlin, Carl W.; Terrones, Guillermo; Bates, Cameron J.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Adkins, Brannen

    2003-10-30

    This report discusses technical issues and presents recommendations for operating the advanced design mixer pump (ADMP) in Tank 18 at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Also presented are the results obtained from simulated scaled pump-down tests carried out in the 1/4-scale double shell tank (DST) test facility at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The work was conducted for the DOE Tanks Focus Area (TFA) by the Retrieval Process Development and Enhancement (RPD&E) program. The ability of the Tank 18 retrieval system to mobilize the solid waste and transport it through the retrieval pump, efficiently removing the solids from the tank, are evaluated.

  9. Software Tools and Training Program: For the Efficient Design and Operation of Industrial Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soucy, E.

    2014-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-14-05-28.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 13734 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name ESL-IE-14-05-28.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 Industrial Energy... Technology Conference Software Tools & Training Program: For the Efficient Design and Operation of Industrial Processes Eric Soucy, Director, Industrial Systems Optimization Program, CanmetENERGY Wednesday, May 21, 2014 ESL-IE-14-05-28 Proceedings...

  10. GUIDELINES FOR THE DESIGN, FABRICATION, TESTING, INSTALLATION AND OPERATION OF SRF CAVITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theilacker, J.; Carter, H.; Foley, M.; Hurh, P.; Klebaner, A.; Krempetz, K.; Nicol, T.; Olis, D.; Page, T.; Peterson, T.; Pfund, P.; Pushka, D.; Schmitt, R.; Wands, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Superconducting Radio-Frequency (SRF) cavities containing cryogens under pressure pose a potential rupture hazard to equipment and personnel. Generally, pressure vessels fall within the scope of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code however, the use of niobium as a material for the SRF cavities is beyond the applicability of the Code. Fermilab developed a guideline to ensure sound engineering practices governing the design, fabrication, testing, installation and operation of SRF cavities. The objective of the guideline is to reduce hazards and to achieve an equivalent level of safety afforded by the ASME Code. The guideline addresses concerns specific to SRF cavities in the areas of materials, design and analysis, welding and brazing, pressure relieving requirements, pressure testing and quality control.

  11. Hydronic Systems: Designing for Setback Operation, Ithaca, New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    Conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has told us a couple of things consistently for several years now: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. The implication of this is that, for setback to be successfully implemented, the heating system must be oversized. This issue is exacerbated further when an outdoor reset control is used with a condensing boiler, because not only is the system matched to the load at design, the outdoor reset control matches the output to the load under varying outdoor temperatures. Under these circumstances, the home may never recover from setback. Special controls to bypass the outdoor reset sensor are then needed. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step by step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  12. Design Of JET ELM Control Coils For Operation At 350 C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zatz, I J; Brooks, A; Cole, M; Neilson, G H; Lowry, C; Mardenfeld, M; Omran, H; Thompson, V; Todd, T

    2010-09-20

    A study has confirmed the feasibility of designing, fabricating and installing resonant magnetic field perturbation (RMP) coils in JET1 with the objective of controlling edge localized modes (ELM). A system of two rows of in-vessel coils, above the machine midplane, has been chosen as it not only can investigate the physics of and achieve the empirical criteria for ELM suppression, but also permits variation of the spectra allowing for comparison with other experiments. These coils present several engineering challenges. Conditions in JET necessitate the installation of these coils via remote handling, which will impose weight, dimensional and logistical limitations. And while the encased coils are designed to be conventionally wound and bonded, they will not have the usual benefit of active cooling. Accordingly, coil temperatures are expected to reach 350 C during bakeout as well as during plasma operations. These elevated temperatures are beyond the safe operating limits of conventional OFHC copper and the epoxies that bond and insulate the turns of typical coils. This has necessitated the use of an alternative copper alloy conductor C18150 (CuCrZr). More importantly, an alternative to epoxy had to be found. An R&D program was initiated to find the best available insulating and bonding material. The search included polyimides and ceramic polymers. The scope and status of this R&D program, as well as the critical engineering issues encountered to date are reviewed and discussed.

  13. Designing and Operating Through Compromise: Architectural Analysis of CKMS for the Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duren, Mike; Aldridge, Hal; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2013-01-01

    Compromises attributable to the Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) highlight the necessity for constant vigilance. The APT provides a new perspective on security metrics (e.g., statistics based cyber security) and quantitative risk assessments. We consider design principals and models/tools that provide high assurance for energy delivery systems (EDS) operations regardless of the state of compromise. Cryptographic keys must be securely exchanged, then held and protected on either end of a communications link. This is challenging for a utility with numerous substations that must secure the intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) that may comprise complex control system of systems. For example, distribution and management of keys among the millions of intelligent meters within the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is being implemented as part of the National Smart Grid initiative. Without a means for a secure cryptographic key management system (CKMS) no cryptographic solution can be widely deployed to protect the EDS infrastructure from cyber-attack. We consider 1) how security modeling is applied to key management and cyber security concerns on a continuous basis from design through operation, 2) how trusted models and key management architectures greatly impact failure scenarios, and 3) how hardware-enabled trust is a critical element to detecting, surviving, and recovering from attack.

  14. Aalborg Universitet Full Scale Test on a 100km, 150kV AC Cable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bak, Claus Leth

    wind farm Horns Rev 2, located in Denmark west coast, to Denmark's 400 kV transmission network from the electrical measurements on a 99.7 km, 150 kV three-phase AC cable, connecting 215 MW offshore

  15. Design, Construction, Transportation, Operation and Post-Occupancy Analysis for the Texas A&M Solar Decathlon House 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhotra, M.; Ramirez, E.; Im, P.; Cho, S.; Canez, J.; Haberl, J.; Schaider, N.; Fisk, P.; Feigenbaum, L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design, construction, transportation, operation and post occupancy analysis of the 2007 Texas A&M Solar Decathlon House (TAMU SD house). The TAMU SD house was developed to be a modular house that ...

  16. Variability-Aware Design of Energy-Delay Optimal Linear Pipelines Operating in the Near-Threshold Regime and Above

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Variability-Aware Design of Energy-Delay Optimal Linear Pipelines Operating in the Near}@usc.edu ABSTRACT Soft-edge flip-flop based pipelines can improve the performance and energy efficiency of circuits-delay optimal linear pipelines that are aimed at operating in both the near-threshold and super

  17. Operator Centered Design of Ship Systems Susan F. Chipman, Ph.D., U. S. Office of Naval Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kieras, David E.

    1 Operator Centered Design of Ship Systems Susan F. Chipman, Ph.D., U. S. Office of Naval Research science research, much of it supported by the Office of Naval Research, is bringing about a scientific revolution in our understanding of the human operator. It is yielding computational theories of human

  18. JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 16, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2007 1219 Design and Operation of a MEMS-Based Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    , and operation of a novel microelectromechanical-systems (MEMS)-based material testing system used for in situ systems that possess superior resolution and accuracy. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) offerJOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 16, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2007 1219 Design and Operation

  19. Tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating cubic splines: Unfiltered x-ray spectra from 20 kV to 640 kV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez, Andrew M. [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)] [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States); Boone, John M., E-mail: john.boone@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Monte Carlo methods were used to generate lightly filtered high resolution x-ray spectra spanning from 20 kV to 640 kV. Methods: X-ray spectra were simulated for a conventional tungsten anode. The Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended radiation transport code (MCNPX 2.6.0) was used to produce 35 spectra over the tube potential range from 20 kV to 640 kV, and cubic spline interpolation procedures were used to create piecewise polynomials characterizing the photon fluence per energy bin as a function of x-ray tube potential. Using these basis spectra and the cubic spline interpolation, 621 spectra were generated at 1 kV intervals from 20 to 640 kV. The tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating cubic splines (TASMICS) produces minimally filtered (0.8 mm Be) x-ray spectra with 1 keV energy resolution. The TASMICS spectra were compared mathematically with other, previously reported spectra. Results: Using pairedt-test analyses, no statistically significant difference (i.e., p > 0.05) was observed between compared spectra over energy bins above 1% of peak bremsstrahlung fluence. For all energy bins, the correlation of determination (R{sup 2}) demonstrated good correlation for all spectral comparisons. The mean overall difference (MOD) and mean absolute difference (MAD) were computed over energy bins (above 1% of peak bremsstrahlung fluence) and over all the kV permutations compared. MOD and MAD comparisons with previously reported spectra were 2.7% and 9.7%, respectively (TASMIP), 0.1% and 12.0%, respectively [R. Birch and M. Marshall, “Computation of bremsstrahlung x-ray spectra and comparison with spectra measured with a Ge(Li) detector,” Phys. Med. Biol. 24, 505–517 (1979)], 0.4% and 8.1%, respectively (Poludniowski), and 0.4% and 8.1%, respectively (AAPM TG 195). The effective energy of TASMICS spectra with 2.5 mm of added Al filtration ranged from 17 keV (at 20 kV) to 138 keV (at 640 kV); with 0.2 mm of added Cu filtration the effective energy was 9 keV at 20 kV and 169 keV at 640 kV. Conclusions: Ranging from 20 kV to 640 kV, 621 x-ray spectra were produced and are available at 1 kV tube potential intervals. The spectra are tabulated at 1 keV intervals. TASMICS spectra were shown to be largely equivalent to published spectral models and are available in spreadsheet format for interested users by emailing the corresponding author (JMB)

  20. 130kV 130A High Voltage Switching Mode Power Supply for Neutral Injections – Control Issues and Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    130kV 130A High Voltage Switching Mode Power Supply for Neutral Injections – Control Issues and Algorithms

  1. Deuterium Retention in Beryllium Exposed to a 60kV Deuterium Beam ­ Consequences for Next Step Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deuterium Retention in Beryllium Exposed to a 60kV Deuterium Beam ­ Consequences for Next Step Devices

  2. Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989. Volume 2, Design performance data for operating FGD systems, Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M.

    1992-03-01

    The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  3. The power of simplification: Operator interface with the AP1000{sup R} during design-basis and beyond design-basis events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M. G.; Mouser, M. R.; Simon, J. B.

    2012-07-01

    The AP1000{sup R} plant is an 1100-MWe pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance, safety and cost. The passive safety features are designed to function without safety-grade support systems such as component cooling water, service water, compressed air or HVAC. The AP1000 passive safety features achieve and maintain safe shutdown in case of a design-basis accident for 72 hours without need for operator action, meeting the expectations provided in the European Utility Requirements and the Utility Requirement Document for passive plants. Limited operator actions may be required to maintain safe conditions in the spent fuel pool (SFP) via passive means. This safety approach therefore minimizes the reliance on operator action for accident mitigation, and this paper examines the operator interaction with the Human-System Interface (HSI) as the severity of an accident increases from an anticipated transient to a design basis accident and finally, to a beyond-design-basis event. The AP1000 Control Room design provides an extremely effective environment for addressing the first 72 hours of design-basis events and transients, providing ease of information dissemination and minimal reliance upon operator actions. Symptom-based procedures including Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs), Abnormal Operating Procedures (AOPs) and Alarm Response Procedures (ARPs) are used to mitigate design basis transients and accidents. Use of the Computerized Procedure System (CPS) aids the operators during mitigation of the event. The CPS provides cues and direction to the operators as the event progresses. If the event becomes progressively worse or lasts longer than 72 hours, and depending upon the nature of failures that may have occurred, minimal operator actions may be required outside of the control room in areas that have been designed to be accessible using components that have been designed to be reliable in these conditions. The primary goal of any such actions is to maintain or refill the passive inventory available to cool the core, containment and spent fuel pool in the safety-related and seismically qualified Passive Containment Cooling Water Storage Tank (PCCWST). The seismically-qualified, ground-mounted Passive Containment Cooling Ancillary Water Storage Tank (PCCAWST) is also available for this function as appropriate. The primary effect of these actions would be to increase the coping time for the AP1000 during design basis events, as well as events such as those described above, from 72 hours without operator intervention to 7 days with minimal operator actions. These Operator actions necessary to protect the health and safety of the public are addressed in the Post-72 Hour procedures, as well as some EOPs, AOPs, ARPs and the Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs). Should the event continue to become more severe and plant conditions degrade further with indications of inadequate core cooling, the SAMGs provide guidance for strategies to address these hypothetical severe accident conditions. The AP1000 SAMG diagnoses and actions are prioritized to first utilize the AP1000 features that are expected to retain a damaged core inside the reactor vessel. Only one strategy is undertaken at any time. This strategy will be followed and its effectiveness evaluated before other strategies are undertaken. This is a key feature of both the symptom-oriented AP1000 EOPs and the AP1000 SAMGs which maximizes the probability of retaining a damaged core inside the reactor vessel and containment while minimizing the chances for confusion and human errors during implementation. The AP1000 SAMGs are simple and straight-forward and have been developed with considerable input from human factors and plant operations experts. Most importantly, and different from severe accident management strategies for other plants, the AP1000 SAMGs do not require diagnosis of the location of the core (i.e., whether reactor vessel failure has occurred). This is a fun

  4. Design, qualification and operation of nuclear rockets for safe Mars missions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buden, D.; Madsen, W.W.; Olson, T.S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Redd, L.R. (USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion modules planned for use on crew missions to Mars improve mission reliability and overall safety of the mission. This, as well as all other systems, are greatly enhanced if the system specifications take into account safety from design initiation, and operational considerations are well thought through and applied. For instance, the use of multiple engines in the propulsion module can lead to very high system safety and reliability. Operational safety enhancements may include: the use of multiple perigee burns, thus allowing time to ensure that all systems are functioning properly prior to departure from Earth orbit; the ability to perform all other parts of the mission in a degraded mode with little or no degradation of the mission; and the safe disposal of the nuclear propulsion module in a heliocentric orbit out of the ecliptic plane. The standards used to qualify nuclear rockets are one of the main cost drivers of the program. Concepts and systems that minimize cost and risk will rely on use of the element and component levels to demonstrate technology readiness and validation. Subsystem or systems testing then is only needed for verification of performance. Also, these will be the safest concepts because they will be more thoroughly understood and the safety margins will be well established and confirmed by tests.

  5. Design, qualification and operation of nuclear rockets for safe Mars missions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buden, D.; Madsen, W.W.; Olson, T.S. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Redd, L.R. [USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion modules planned for use on crew missions to Mars improve mission reliability and overall safety of the mission. This, as well as all other systems, are greatly enhanced if the system specifications take into account safety from design initiation, and operational considerations are well thought through and applied. For instance, the use of multiple engines in the propulsion module can lead to very high system safety and reliability. Operational safety enhancements may include: the use of multiple perigee burns, thus allowing time to ensure that all systems are functioning properly prior to departure from Earth orbit; the ability to perform all other parts of the mission in a degraded mode with little or no degradation of the mission; and the safe disposal of the nuclear propulsion module in a heliocentric orbit out of the ecliptic plane. The standards used to qualify nuclear rockets are one of the main cost drivers of the program. Concepts and systems that minimize cost and risk will rely on use of the element and component levels to demonstrate technology readiness and validation. Subsystem or systems testing then is only needed for verification of performance. Also, these will be the safest concepts because they will be more thoroughly understood and the safety margins will be well established and confirmed by tests.

  6. Design considerations and operating experience in firing refuse derived fuel in a circulating fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piekos, S.J.; Matuny, M.

    1997-12-31

    The worldwide demand for cleaner, more efficient methods to dispose of municipal solid waste has stimulated interest in processing solid waste to produce refuse derived fuel (RDF) for use in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. The combination of waste processing and materials recovery systems and CFB boiler technology provides the greatest recovery of useful resources from trash and uses the cleanest combustion technology available today to generate power. Foster Wheeler Power Systems along with Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation and several other Foster Wheeler sister companies designed, built, and now operates a 1600 tons per day (TPD) (1450 metric tons) municipal waste-to-energy project located in Robbins, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. This project incorporates waste processing systems to recover recyclable materials and produce RDF. It is the first project in the United States to use CFB boiler technology to combust RDF. This paper will provide an overview of the Robbins, Illinois waste-to-energy project and will examine the technical and environmental reasons for selecting RDF waste processing and CFB combustion technology. Additionally, this paper will present experience with handling and combusting RDF and review the special design features incorporated into the CFB boiler and waste processing system that make it work.

  7. The ATLAS EventIndex: architecture, design choices, deployment and first operation experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barberis, Dario; The ATLAS collaboration; Cranshaw, Jack; Favareto, Andrea; Fernandez Casani, Alvaro; Gallas, Elizabeth; Glasman, Claudia; Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; Hrivnac, Julius; Malon, David; Prokoshin, Fedor; Salt, José; Sánchez, Javier; Rainer Toebbicke; Yuan, Ruijun

    2015-01-01

    The EventIndex is the complete catalogue of all ATLAS events, keeping the references to all files that contain a given event in any processing stage. It replaces the TAG database, which had been in use during LHC Run 1. For each event it contains its identifiers, the trigger pattern and the GUIDs of the files containing it. Major use cases are event picking, feeding the Event Service used on some production sites, and technical checks of the completion and consistency of processing campaigns. The system design is highly modular so that its components (data collection system, storage system based on Hadoop, query web service and interfaces to other ATLAS systems) could be developed separately and in parallel during LS1. The EventIndex is in operation for the start of LHC Run 2. This talk describes the high level system architecture, the technical design choices and the deployment process and issues. The performance of the data collection and storage systems, as well as the query services, will be reported.

  8. The ATLAS EventIndex: architecture, design choices, deployment and first operation experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barberis, Dario; The ATLAS collaboration; Cranshaw, Jack; Favareto, Andrea; Fernandez Casani, Alvaro; Gallas, Elizabeth; Glasman, Claudia; Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; Hrivnac, Julius; Malon, David; Prokoshin, Fedor; Salt, José; Sánchez, Javier; Toebbicke, Rainer; Yuan, Ruijun

    2015-01-01

    The EventIndex is the complete catalogue of all ATLAS events, keeping the references to all files that contain a given event in any processing stage. It replaces the TAG database, which had been in use during LHC Run 1. For each event it contains its identifiers, the trigger pattern and the GUIDs of the files containing it. Major use cases are event picking, feeding the Event Service used on some production sites, and technical checks of the completion and consistency of processing campaigns. The system design is highly modular so that its components (data collection system, storage system based on Hadoop, query web service and interfaces to other ATLAS systems) could be developed separately and in parallel during LS1. The EventIndex is in operation for the start of LHC Run 2. This paper describes the high-level system architecture, the technical design choices and the deployment process and issues. The performance of the data collection and storage systems, as well as the query services, are also reported.

  9. Modeling of the Reactor Core Isolation Cooling Reposnse to Beyond Design Basis Operations - Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, Kyle; Cardoni, Jeffrey N.; Wilson, Chisom Shawn; Morrow, Charles; Osborn, Douglas; Gauntt, Randall O.

    2015-12-01

    Efforts are being pursued to develop and qualify a system-level model of a reactor core isolation (RCIC) steam-turbine-driven pump. The model is being developed with the intent of employing it to inform the design of experimental configurations for full-scale RCIC testing. The model is expected to be especially valuable in sizing equipment needed in the testing. An additional intent is to use the model in understanding more fully how RCIC apparently managed to operate far removed from its design envelope in the Fukushima Daiichi Unit 2 accident. RCIC modeling is proceeding along two avenues that are expected to complement each other well. The first avenue is the continued development of the system-level RCIC model that will serve in simulating a full reactor system or full experimental configuration of which a RCIC system is part. The model reasonably represents a RCIC system today, especially given design operating conditions, but lacks specifics that are likely important in representing the off-design conditions a RCIC system might experience in an emergency situation such as a loss of all electrical power. A known specific lacking in the system model, for example, is the efficiency at which a flashing slug of water (as opposed to a concentrated jet of steam) could propel the rotating drive wheel of a RCIC turbine. To address this specific, the second avenue is being pursued wherein computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of such a jet are being carried out. The results of the CFD analyses will thus complement and inform the system modeling. The system modeling will, in turn, complement the CFD analysis by providing the system information needed to impose appropriate boundary conditions on the CFD simulations. The system model will be used to inform the selection of configurations and equipment best suitable of supporting planned RCIC experimental testing. Preliminary investigations with the RCIC model indicate that liquid water ingestion by the turbine decreases the developed turbine torque; the RCIC speed then slows, and thus the pump flow rate to the RPV decreases. Subsequently, RPV water level decreases due to continued boiling and the liquid fraction flowing to the RCIC decreases, thereby accelerating the RCIC and refilling the RPV. The feedback cycle then repeats itself and/or reaches a quasi-steady equilibrium condition. In other words, the water carry-over is limited by cyclic RCIC performance degradation, and hence the system becomes self-regulating. The indications achieved to date with the system model are more qualitative than quantitative. The avenues being pursued to increase the fidelity of the model are expected to add quantitative realism. The end product will be generic in the sense that the RCIC model will be incorporable within the larger reactor coolant system model of any nuclear power plant or experimental configuration. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work is funded through the U.S. Department of Energy - Office of Nuclear Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Clinton Smith of Phoenix Analysis & Design Technologies (PADT) is acknowledged for providing assistance on the FLUENT efforts in this report, as well as modifying the geometry model of the Terry turbine to make it more amenable for FLUENT analysis with rotating reference frames.

  10. GENERATION OF A 5A, 10kV HOLLOW ELECTRON BEAM BY A PIERCE GUN J.J. BARROSO, P.J. CASTRO, J.O. ROSSI, J.A.N. GONALVES, and H. PATIRE JR.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GENERATION OF A 5A, 10kV HOLLOW ELECTRON BEAM BY A PIERCE GUN J.J. BARROSO, P.J. CASTRO, J.O. ROSSI experienced by the electron beam propagating across the cavity. Here we describe a Pierce gun used of short-circuits. PULSE GENERATOR VIEW GUN OPERATION The gun cathode voltage is fixed at the nominal value

  11. Experimental investigations of overvoltages in 6kV station service cable networks of thermal power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vukelja, P.I.; Naumov, R.M.; Drobnjak, G.V.; Mrvic, J.D. [Nikola Tesla Inst., Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents the results of experimental investigations of overvoltages on 6kV isolated neutral station service cable networks of thermal power plants. The overvoltages were recorded with capacitive voltage measurement systems made at the Nikola Tesla Institute. Wideband capacitive voltage measurement systems recorded a flat response from below power frequencies to 10MHz. Investigations of overvoltages were performed for appearance and interruption of metal earth faults, intermittent earth faults, switching operation of HV motors switchgear, switching operation of transformers switchgear, and transfer of the network supply from one transformer to another. On the basis of these investigations, certain measures are proposed for limiting overvoltages and for the reliability of station service of thermal power plants.

  12. High-voltage switchgear and controlgear part 200 : AC metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including 52 kV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Specifies requirements for factory-assembled metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for alternating current of rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including 52 kV for indoor and outdoor installation, and for service frequencies up to and including 60 Hz. Enclosures may include fixed and removable components and may be filled with fluid (liquid or gas) to provide insulation. This standard defines several types of metal enclosed switchgear and controlgear which differ due to - the consequences on network service continuity in case of maintenance on the switchgear and controlgear; - the need and convenience of maintenance of the equipment. For metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear containing gas-filled compartments, the design pressure is limited to a maximum of 300 kPa (relative pressure). Metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for special use, for example, in flammable atmospheres, in mines or on board ships, may be subject to additional requirements. Components contained in metal-enclosed switch...

  13. Design, installation and operation of the Wainwright regional waste-to-energy authority combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cieslak, J.P. [Basic Envirotech Inc., Glen Ellyn, IL (United States); Ryan, M.T. [Trotter and Morton Environmental Services, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Brinckman, G.A. [W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., Elkton, MD (United States)

    1996-09-01

    A state-of-the-art municipal Waste-to-Energy (WTE) combustor began operation in the town of Wainwright, Alberta, Canada in 1995. The combustor design utilizes a radiant waterwall, multichamber, multi-stage combustor design, followed by a convective boiler section, a flue gas economizer and an air to air heat exchanger. The air pollution control system consists of an all dry lime injection system followed by a fabric filter collector. The system has the capability for delivering activated carbon, if needed, for the control of various pollutants. The pulse-jet fabric filter collector utilizes GORE-TEX{reg_sign} membrane/TEFLON{reg_sign} B fiberglass filter bags for highly efficient capture of the Particulate Matter (PM), which includes lime reaction and absorbent products, unreacted lime, and fly ash which is rich in trace metals and other fine particulates. Compliance testing revealed that the system is providing low outlet emission levels and would meet the proposed US EPA New Source Performance Specifications for Municipal Waste Combustor`s in the US for all categories. This includes acid gases, trace heavy metals, including Pb, Cd, Hg, and PCDD/PCDF as measured by toxic equivalency factors. PM levels were measured at 9.8 mg/Rm{sup 3}. Lead, cadmium and mercury emission levels were measured at 0.37 {micro}g/Rm{sup 3}, < 0.001 {micro}g/Rm{sup 3}, and 0.24 {micro}g/Rm{sup 3} respectively. PCDD/PCDF emissions were measured to be 0.044 {micro}g/Rm{sup 3} (TEQ). Finally, HCl and SO{sub 2} emissions were measured to be 11 mg/Rm{sup 3} and 13 mg/Rm{sup 3} respectively.

  14. IMPROVING CONTROL ROOM DESIGN AND OPERATIONS BASED ON HUMAN FACTORS ANALYSES OR HOW MUCH HUMAN FACTORS UPGRADE IS ENOUGH ?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HIGGINS,J.C.; OHARA,J.M.; ALMEIDA,P.

    2002-09-19

    THE JOSE CABRERA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IS A ONE LOOP WESTINGHOUSE PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR. IN THE CONTROL ROOM, THE DISPLAYS AND CONTROLS USED BY OPERATORS FOR THE EMERGENCY OPERATING PROCEDURES ARE DISTRIBUTED ON FRONT AND BACK PANELS. THIS CONFIGURATION CONTRIBUTED TO RISK IN THE PROBABILISTIC SAFETY ASSESSMENT WHERE IMPORTANT OPERATOR ACTIONS ARE REQUIRED. THIS STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF THE DESIGN ON CREW PERFORMANCE AND PLANT SAFETY AND TO DEVELOP DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS.FIVE POTENTIAL EFFECTS WERE IDENTIFIED. THEN NUREG-0711 [1], PROGRAMMATIC, HUMAN FACTORS, ANALYSES WERE CONDUCTED TO SYSTEMATICALLY EVALUATE THE CR-LA YOUT TO DETERMINE IF THERE WAS EVIDENCE OF THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS. THESE ANALYSES INCLUDED OPERATING EXPERIENCE REVIEW, PSA REVIEW, TASK ANALYSES, AND WALKTHROUGH SIMULATIONS. BASED ON THE RESULTS OF THESE ANALYSES, A VARIETY OF CONTROL ROOM MODIFICATIONS WERE IDENTIFIED. FROM THE ALTERNATIVES, A SELECTION WAS MADE THAT PROVIDED A REASONABLEBALANCE BE TWEEN PERFORMANCE, RISK AND ECONOMICS, AND MODIFICATIONS WERE MADE TO THE PLANT.

  15. US/German Collaboration in Salt Repository Research, Design and Operation - 13243

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steininger, Walter; Hansen, Frank; Biurrun, Enrique; Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm

    2013-07-01

    Recent developments in the US and Germany [1-3] have precipitated renewed efforts in salt repository investigations and related studies. Both the German rock salt repository activities and the US waste management programs currently face challenges that may adversely affect their respective current and future state-of-the-art core capabilities in rock salt repository science and technology. The research agenda being pursued by our respective countries leverages collective efforts for the benefit of both programs. The topics addressed by the US/German salt repository collaborations align well with the findings and recommendations summarized in the January 2012 US Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC) report [4] and are consistent with the aspirations of the key topics of the Strategic Research Agenda of the Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technology Platform (IGD-TP) [5]. Against this background, a revival of joint efforts in salt repository investigations after some years of hibernation has been undertaken to leverage collective efforts in salt repository research, design, operations, and related issues for the benefit of respective programs and to form a basis for providing an attractive, cost-effective insurance against the premature loss of virtually irreplaceable scientific expertise and institutional memory. (authors)

  16. Tesla transformer based 500 kv pulser for low emittance test stand at Paul Scherrer Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paraliev, M; Ivkovic, S

    2011-01-01

    For the Low Emittance Gun (LEG) project at Paul Scherrer Institute a stable and reliable high voltage pulsed generator was needed in order to study low emittance beams generation and transport. The system had to provide variable asymmetric voltage pulse up to -500 kV with amplitude stability better than 1.2 part per thousand (ppt). The pulse should be applied to the cathode of variable gap accelerating diode providing voltage gradients up to more than 100 MV/m. A broad bandwidth electrical connection to the cathode is necessary in order to deliver fast cathode gating signal. The design of the pulser is presented as well as the optimization and implementation of some critical components in the system. A detailed electrical model of the pulsed generator was created in order to optimize and study its electrical behavior. The measured waveforms are compared to the simulated ones and output amplitude stability is discussed. Different electrode materials and surface treatments were studied to ensure breakdown free ...

  17. Rex 2 : design, construction, and operation of an unmanned underwater vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, Dylan

    2009-01-01

    The practical usage of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) is limited by vehicle and operation cost, difficulty in accurate navigation, and communication between the vehicle and operator. The "Rex 2" UUV employs a system ...

  18. Progress on the 140 KV, 10 Megawatt Peak, 1 Megawatt Average Polyphase Quasi-Resonant Bridge, Boost Converter/Modulator for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Klystron Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reass, W A; Gribble, R F; Lynch, M T; Tallerico, P J; Reass, William A.; Doss, James D.; Gribble, Robert F.; Lynch, Michael T.; Tallerico, Paul J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes electrical design and operational characteristics of a zero-voltage-switching 20 kHz polyphase bridge, boost converter/modulator for klystron pulse application. The DC-DC converter derives the buss voltages from a standard 13.8 kV to 2300 Y substation cast-core transformer. Energy storage and filtering is provided by self-clearing metallized hazy polypropylene traction capacitors. Three "H-Bridge" IGBT switching networks are used to generate the polyphase 20 kHz transformers primary drive waveforms. The 20 kHz drive waveforms are chirped the appropriate duration to generate the desired klystron pulse width. PWM (pulse width modulation) of the individual 20 kHz pulses is utilized to provide regulated output waveforms with adaptive feedforward and feedback techniques. The boost transformer design utilizes amorphous nanocrystalline material that provides the required low core loss at design flux levels and switching frequencies. Resonant shunt peaking is used on the transformer secondary to ...

  19. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELMINARY DESIGN HAZARD AND OPERABILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CARRO CA

    2011-07-15

    This Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study addresses the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) preliminary design for retrieving sludge from underwater engineered containers located in the 105-K West (KW) Basin, transferring the sludge as a sludge-water slurry (hereafter referred to as 'slurry') to a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) located in a Modified KW Basin Annex, and preparing the STSC for transport to T Plant using the Sludge Transport System (STS). There are six, underwater engineered containers located in the KW Basin that, at the time of sludge retrieval, will contain an estimated volume of 5.2 m{sup 3} of KW Basin floor and pit sludge, 18.4 m{sup 3} of 105-K East (KE) Basin floor, pit, and canister sludge, and 3.5 m{sup 3} of settler tank sludge. The KE and KW Basin sludge consists of fuel corrosion products (including metallic uranium, and fission and activation products), small fuel fragments, iron and aluminum oxide, sand, dirt, operational debris, and biological debris. The settler tank sludge consists of sludge generated by the washing of KE and KW Basin fuel in the Primary Clean Machine. A detailed description of the origin of sludge and its chemical and physical characteristics can be found in HNF-41051, Preliminary STP Container and Settler Sludge Process System Description and Material Balance. In summary, the ECRTS retrieves sludge from the engineered containers and hydraulically transfers it as a slurry into an STSC positioned within a trailer-mounted STS cask located in a Modified KW Basin Annex. The slurry is allowed to settle within the STSC to concentrate the solids and clarify the supernate. After a prescribed settling period the supernate is decanted. The decanted supernate is filtered through a sand filter and returned to the basin. Subsequent batches of slurry are added to the STSC, settled, and excess supernate removed until the prescribed quantity of sludge is collected. The sand filter is then backwashed into the STSC. The STSC and STS cask are then inerted and transported to T Plant.

  20. Monitoring the coastal ocean surface -The poten-tial use of HF radar for the design and operational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyatt, Lucy

    device. Offshore wind farms need information on wind fields both for their design and in the subsequent opera- tions. Offshore oil and gas operators need to know current and predicted metocean conditions physics. The need for wave, current and wind data with good temporal and spatial resolution can be met

  1. JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 12, NO. 3, JUNE 2003 355 The Design and Operation of a MEMS Differential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Leslie H.

    JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 12, NO. 3, JUNE 2003 355 The Design and Operation of a MEMS Differential Scanning Nanocalorimeter for High-Speed Heat Capacity Measurements of Ultrathin Films Eric A. Olson, Mikhail Yu. Efremov, Ming Zhang, Zishu Zhang, and Leslie H. Allen Abstract--A MEMS

  2. Using existing technologies, designers and operators of large buildings could slash national energy use across a broad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Using existing technologies, designers and operators of large buildings could slash national energy of large office buildings and hospitals achieve at least a 50% energy savings using existing technology. Strategies for 50% Energy Savings in Large Office Buildings found that a 50% energy savings can be realized

  3. Design and Integrate Improved Systems for Nuclear Facility Ventilation and Exhaust Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Murray E.

    2014-04-15

    Objective: The objective of this R&D project would complete the development of three new systems and integrate them into a single experimental effort. However, each of the three systems has stand-alone applicability across the DOE complex. At US DOE nuclear facilities, indoor air is filtered and ventilated for human occupancy, and exhaust air to the outdoor environment must be regulated and monitored. At least three technical standards address these functions, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory would complete an experimental facility to answer at least three questions: (1) Can the drag coefficient of a new Los Alamos air mixer be reduced for better operation in nuclear facility exhaust stacks? (2) Is it possible to verify the accuracy of a new dilution method for HEPA filter test facilities? (3) Is there a performance-based air flow metric (volumetric flow or mass flow) for operating HEPA filters? In summary, the three new systems are: a mixer, a diluter and a performance-based metric, respectively. The results of this project would be applicable to at least four technical standards: ANSI N13.1 Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities; ASTM F1471 Standard Test Method for Air Cleaning Performance of a High-Efficiency Particulate Air Filter System, ASME N511: In-Service Testing of Nuclear Air Treatment, Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems, and ASME AG-1: Code On Nuclear Air And Gas Treatment. All of the three proposed new systems must be combined into a single experimental device (i.e. to develop a new function of the Los Alamos aerosol wind tunnel). Technical Approach: The Radiation Protection RP-SVS group at Los Alamos has an aerosol wind tunnel that was originally (2006) designed to evaluate small air samplers (cf. US EPA 40 CFR 53.42). In 2009, the tunnel was modified for exhaust stack verifications per the ANSI N13.1 standard. In 2010, modifications were started on the wind tunnel for testing HEPA filters (cf. ASTM F1471 and ASME N511). This project involves three systems that were developed for testing the 24*24*11 (inch) HEPA filters (i.e. the already mentioned mixer, diluter and metric). Prototypes of the mixer and the diluter have been built and individually tested on a preliminary basis. However, the third system (the HEPA metric method) has not been tested, since that requires complete operability of the aerosol wind tunnel device. (The experimental wind tunnel has test aerosol injection, control and measurement capabilities, and can be heated for temperature dependent measurements.) Benefits: US DOE facilities that use HEPA filters and/or require exhaust stacks from their nuclear facility buildings will benefit from access to the new hardware (mixer and diluter) and performance-based metric (for HEPA filter air flow).

  4. 21 THz quantum-cascade laser operating up to 144 K based on a scattering-assisted injection design

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khanal, Sudeep; Reno, John L.; Kumar, Sushil

    2015-07-22

    A 2.1 THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) based on a scattering-assisted injection and resonant-phonon depopulation design scheme is demonstrated. The QCL is based on a four-well period implemented in the GaAs/Al0.15Ga0.85As material system. The QCL operates up to a heat-sink temperature of 144 K in pulsed-mode, which is considerably higher than that achieved for previously reported THz QCLs operating around the frequency of 2 THz. At 46 K, the threshold current-density was measured as ~745 A/cm2 with a peak-power output of ~10 mW. Electrically stable operation in a positive differential-resistance regime is achieved by a careful choice of design parameters.more »The results validate the robustness of scattering-assisted injection schemes for development of low-frequency (? « less

  5. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Operator Performance Metrics for Control Room Modernization: A Practical Guide for Early Design Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Boring; Roger Lew; Thomas Ulrich; Jeffrey Joe

    2014-03-01

    As control rooms are modernized with new digital systems at nuclear power plants, it is necessary to evaluate the operator performance using these systems as part of a verification and validation process. There are no standard, predefined metrics available for assessing what is satisfactory operator interaction with new systems, especially during the early design stages of a new system. This report identifies the process and metrics for evaluating human system interfaces as part of control room modernization. The report includes background information on design and evaluation, a thorough discussion of human performance measures, and a practical example of how the process and metrics have been used as part of a turbine control system upgrade during the formative stages of design. The process and metrics are geared toward generalizability to other applications and serve as a template for utilities undertaking their own control room modernization activities.

  6. Advanced energy design and operation technologies research: Recommendations for a US Department of Energy multiyear program plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brambley, M.R.; Crawley, D.B.; Hostetler, D.D.; Stratton, R.C.; Addision, M.S.; Deringer, J.J.; Hall, J.D.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1988-12-01

    This document describes recommendations for a multiyear plan developed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Advanced Energy Design and Operation Technologies (AEDOT) project. The plan is an outgrowth of earlier planning activities conducted for DOE as part of design process research under the Building System Integration Program (BSIP). The proposed research will produce intelligent computer-based design and operation technologies for commercial buildings. In this document, the concept is explained, the need for these new computer-based environments is discussed, the benefits are described, and a plan for developing the AEDOT technologies is presented for the 9-year period beginning FY 1989. 45 refs., 37 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Marys Lake 69/115-kV transmission line upgrade and substation expansion projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) propose to upgrade portions of the existing electric transmission and substation system that serves the Town of Estes Park, Colorado. The existing transmission lines between the Estes Power Plant Switchyard and the Marys Lake Substation include a 115,000 volt (115-kV) line and 69,000 volt (69-kV) line. Approximately one mile is a double-circuit 115/69-kV line on steel lattice structures, and approximately two miles consists of separate single-circuit 115-kV and a 69-kV lines, constructed on wood H-Frame structures. Both lines were constructed in 1951 by the US Bureau of Reclamation. The existing transmission lines are on rights-of-way (ROW) that vary from 75 feet to 120 feet and are owned by Western. There are 48 landowners adjacent to the existing ROW. All of the houses were built adjacent to the existing ROW after the transmission lines were constructed. Upgrading the existing 69-kV transmission line between the Marys Lake Substation and the Estes Power Plant Switchyard to 115-kV and expanding the Marys Lake Substation was identified as the most effective way in which to improve electric service to Estes Park. The primary purpose and need of the proposed project is to improve the reliability of electric service to the Town of Estes Park. Lack of reliability has been a historical concern, and reliability will always be less than desired until physical improvements are made to the electrical facilities serving Estes Park.

  8. Acoustical and Noise Control Criteria and Guidelines for Building Design and Operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, J. B.; Himmel, C. N.

    2009-01-01

    , which affects building occupants, sensitive installations, and functional uses. Various noise and vibration design criteria, field measurements, design concepts and specifications can be applied in facilities to achieve noise mitigation and vibration...

  9. Design and operational considerations of United States commercial near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birk, S.M.

    1997-10-01

    In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, states are responsible for providing for disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) within their borders. LLW in the US is defined as all radioactive waste that is not classified as spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or by-product material resulting from the extraction of uranium from ore. Commercial waste includes LLW generated by hospitals, universities, industry, pharmaceutical companies, and power utilities. LLW generated by the country`s defense operations is the responsibility of the Federal government and its agency, the Department of Energy. The commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed in this report are located near: Sheffield, Illinois (closed); Maxey Flats, Kentucky (closed); Beatty, Nevada (closed); West Valley, New York (closed); Barnwell, South Carolina (operating); Richland, Washington (operating); Ward Valley, California, (proposed); Sierra Blanca, Texas (proposed); Wake County, North Carolina (proposed); and Boyd County, Nebraska (proposed). While some comparisons between the sites described in this report are appropriate, this must be done with caution. In addition to differences in climate and geology between sites, LLW facilities in the past were not designed and operated to today`s standards. This report summarizes each site`s design and operational considerations for near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The report includes: a description of waste characteristics; design and operational features; post closure measures and plans; cost and duration of site characterization, construction, and operation; recent related R and D activities for LLW treatment and disposal; and the status of the LLW system in the US.

  10. Case Study of the Failure of two 13.8kV Control & Metering Transformers that caused significant Equipment Damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreifuerst, G R; Chew, D B; Mangonon, H L; Swyers, P W

    2011-08-25

    The degradation and failure of cast-coil epoxy windings within 13.8kV control power transformers and metering potential transformers has been shown to be dangerous to both equipment and personnel, even though best industrial design practices were followed. Accident scenes will be examined for two events at a U.S. Department of Energy laboratory. Failure modes will be explained and current design practices discussed with changes suggested to prevent a recurrence and to minimize future risk. New maintenance philosophies utilizing partial discharge testing of the transformers as a prediction of end-of-life will be examined.

  11. Overview of the design, construction, and operation of interstate liquid petroleum pipelines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pharris, T. C.; Kolpa, R. L.

    2008-01-31

    The U.S. liquid petroleum pipeline industry is large, diverse, and vital to the nation's economy. Comprised of approximately 200,000 miles of pipe in all fifty states, liquid petroleum pipelines carried more than 40 million barrels per day, or 4 trillion barrel-miles, of crude oil and refined products during 2001. That represents about 17% of all freight transported in the United States, yet the cost of doing so amounted to only 2% of the nation's freight bill. Approximately 66% of domestic petroleum transport (by ton-mile) occurs by pipeline, with marine movements accounting for 28% and rail and truck transport making up the balance. In 2004, the movement of crude petroleum by domestic federally regulated pipelines amounted to 599.6 billion tonmiles, while that of petroleum products amounted to 315.9 billion ton-miles (AOPL 2006). As an illustration of the low cost of pipeline transportation, the cost to move a barrel of gasoline from Houston, Texas, to New York Harbor is only 3 cents per gallon, which is a small fraction of the cost of gasoline to consumers. Pipelines may be small or large, up to 48 inches in diameter. Nearly all of the mainline pipe is buried, but other pipeline components such as pump stations are above ground. Some lines are as short as a mile, while others may extend 1,000 miles or more. Some are very simple, connecting a single source to a single destination, while others are very complex, having many sources, destinations, and interconnections. Many pipelines cross one or more state boundaries (interstate), while some are located within a single state (intrastate), and still others operate on the Outer Continental Shelf and may or may not extend into one or more states. U.S. pipelines are located in coastal plains, deserts, Arctic tundra, mountains, and more than a mile beneath the water's surface of the Gulf of Mexico (Rabinow 2004; AOPL 2006). The network of crude oil pipelines in the United States is extensive. There are approximately 55,000 miles of crude oil trunk lines (usually 8 to 24 inches in diameter) in the United States that connect regional markets. The United States also has an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 miles of small gathering lines (usually 2 to 6 inches in diameter) located primarily in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Wyoming, with small systems in a number of other oil producing states. These small lines gather the oil from many wells, both onshore and offshore, and connect to larger trunk lines measuring 8 to 24 inches in diameter. There are approximately 95,000 miles of refined products pipelines nationwide. Refined products pipelines are found in almost every state in the United States, with the exception of some New England states. These refined product pipelines vary in size from relatively small, 8- to 12-inch-diameter lines, to up to 42 inches in diameter. The overview of pipeline design, installation, and operation provided in the following sections is only a cursory treatment. Readers interested in more detailed discussions are invited to consult the myriad engineering publications available that provide such details. The two primary publications on which the following discussions are based are: Oil and Gas Pipeline Fundamentals (Kennedy 1993) and the Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook (McAllister 2002). Both are recommended references for additional reading for those requiring additional details. Websites maintained by various pipeline operators also can provide much useful information, as well as links to other sources of information. In particular, the website maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) (http://www.eia.doe.gov) is recommended. An excellent bibliography on pipeline standards and practices, including special considerations for pipelines in Arctic climates, has been published jointly by librarians for the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company (operators of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System [TAPS]) and the Geophysical Institute/International Arctic Research Center, both located in Fairbanks (Barboza and Trebelhorn 2001)

  12. Pharmaceutical crystallization design using micromixers, multiphase flow, and controlled dynamic operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Mo

    2015-01-01

    Crystallization is a key unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry. Control of crystallization processes can be challenging when undesirable phenomena such as particle attrition and breakage occur. This thesis describes ...

  13. Incorporating operational flexibility into electric generation planning : impacts and methods for system design and policy analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmintier, Bryan S. (Bryan Stephen)

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation demonstrates how flexibility in hourly electricity operations can impact long-term planning and analysis for future power systems, particularly those with substantial variable renewables (e.g., wind) or ...

  14. CBE Portable Wireless Monitoring System (PWMS): UFAD Systems Commissioning Cart Design Specifications and Operating Manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom; Bauman, Fred; Anwar, G.

    2012-01-01

    operating states Live – Green power light On, yellow linkfor 10 minutes) – Green power light blinks slowly. Off (are good (i.e. , the green power light is on). 4. The

  15. Design and Operation of Membrane Microcalorimeters for Thermal Screening of Highly Energetic Materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carreto Vazquez, Victor 1976-

    2010-12-07

    . This is because thermopiles have the advantage of generating its own electromotive force (emf) and does not need a bias power supply as the RTD. Therefore, no self-heating or other thermoelectric effects occur when operating a thermopile [25...

  16. The new Kaiserstuhl coking plant: The heating system -- Design, construction and initial operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strunk, J.

    1996-12-31

    At the end of 1992 the new coke plant Kaiserstuhl in Dortmund/Germany with presently the largest coke ovens world-wide started its production operation in close linkage to the Krupp-Hoesch Metallurgical Works after about 35 months construction time. This plant incorporating comprehensive equipment geared to improve environmental protection is also considered as the most modern coke plant of the world. The heating-system and first results of operation will be presented.

  17. Design, Fabrication, and Operation of Innovative Microalgae Culture Experiments for the Purpose of Producing Fuels: Final Report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    A conceptual design was developed for a 1000-acre (water surface) algae culture facility for the production of fuels. The system is modeled after the shallow raceway system with mixing foils that is now being operated at the University of Hawaii. A computer economic model was created to calculate the discounted breakeven price of algae or fuels produced by the culture facility. A sensitivity analysis was done to estimate the impact of changes in important biological, engineering, and financial parameters on product price.

  18. EIS-0107: Mead-Phoenix +500-kV Direct Current Transmission Line

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) prepared this statement to analyze the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts arising from WAPA and regional project sponsors’ proposal to construct a 500 kilovolt (kV) alternating current (AC) transmission line with the capability to be upgraded later to 500kV direct current (DC), connecting the Westwing Substation, located north of Phoenix, Arizona, with a new McCullough II Substation, located approximately 14 miles west of Boulder City, Nevada. This statement modifies a previously prepared federal statement from which the participants' election to proceed had not occurred at the time this statement was prepared.

  19. Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. P. Wells

    2006-09-19

    The remedial design/remedial action for Operable Unit 6-05 (Waste Area Group 6) and Operable Unit 10-04 (Waste Area Group 10) - collectively called Operable Unit 10-04 has been divided into four phases. Phase I consists of developing and implementing institutional controls at Operable Unit 10-04 sites and developing and implementing Idaho National Laboratory-wide plans for both institutional controls and ecological monitoring. Phase II will remediate sites contaminated with trinitrotoluene and Royal Demolition Explosive. Phase III will remediate lead contamination at a gun range, and Phase IV will remediate hazards from unexploded ordnance. This Phase III remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan addresses the remediation of lead-contaminated soils found at the Security Training Facility (STF)-02 Gun Range located at the Idaho National Laboratory. Remediation of the STF-02 Gun Range will include excavating contaminated soils; physically separating copper and lead for recycling; returning separated soils below the remediation goal to the site; stabilizing contaminated soils, as required, and disposing of the separated soils that exceed the remediation goal; encapsulating and disposing of creosote-contaminated railroad ties and power poles; removing and disposing of the wooden building and asphalt pads found at the STF-02 Gun Range; sampling and analyzing soil to determine the excavation requirements; and when the remediation goals have been met, backfilling and contouring excavated areas and revegetating the affected area.

  20. Beam extraction and high stability operation of high current electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roychowdhury, P. Mishra, L.; Kewlani, H.; Mittal, K. C.; Patil, D. S.

    2014-03-15

    A high current electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source is designed and developed for the low energy high intensity proton accelerator at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The plasma discharge in the ion source is stabilized by minimizing the reflected microwave power using four stub auto tuner and magnetic field. The optimization of extraction geometry is performed using PBGUNS code by varying the aperture, shape, accelerating gap, and the potential on the electrodes. While operating the source, it was found that the two layered microwave window (6 mm quartz plate and 2 mm boron nitride plate) was damaged (a fine hole was drilled) by the back-streaming electrons after continuous operation of the source for 3 h at beam current of 20–40 mA. The microwave window was then shifted from the line of sight of the back-streaming electrons and located after the water-cooled H-plane bend. In this configuration the stable operation of the high current ion source for several hours is achieved. The ion beam is extracted from the source by biasing plasma electrode, puller electrode, and ground electrode to +10 to +50 kV, ?2 to ?4 kV, and 0 kV, respectively. The total ion beam current of 30–40 mA is recorded on Faraday cup at 40 keV of beam energy at 600–1000 W of microwave power, 800–1000 G axial magnetic field and (1.2–3.9) × 10{sup ?3} mbar of neutral hydrogen gas pressure in the plasma chamber. The dependence of beam current on extraction voltage, microwave power, and gas pressure is investigated in the range of operation of the ion source.

  1. Utilizing 3D-visualization to apply compulsory ALARA principles in nuclear power plant design and day-to-day operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, R. L.; Lake, J. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Computational Sciences and Engineering Div., Mail Stop 6085, One Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The development of an advanced visualization and simulation tool to support both design as well as day-to-day operation is presented. This tool exploits cutting edge computer graphics, physics-based effects modeling, virtual reality, and gaming technologies to establish a system that can eventually be used for the administrative planning and training of plant operators and design engineers. (authors)

  2. Analysis, Design, and Operation of a Spherical Inverted-F Antenna 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Jacob J.

    2010-07-14

    This thesis presents the analysis, design, and fabrication of a spherical inverted-F antenna (SIFA). The SIFA consists of a spherically conformal rectangular patch antenna recessed into a quarter section of a metallic ...

  3. The infusion of intelligence that transforms the way industries conceptualize, design and operate the manufacturing enterprise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wei

    Materials & Energy Mgmt. Meta 1 Integrated Workforce, Cyber, Physical System Performance Variability/Center for Advanced Technology Systems Design/manufacturing Platform Providers ­ JPL/NASA, UCLA, Rockwell, Honeywell of infrastructure Critical collaboration based elements · Reference architecture and interoperability approaches

  4. Conceptual aircraft design for environmental impact : modeling operations for emissions assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Daniel J., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01

    Decisions that guide technology investment and policy-making for the future of air transportation will be based in part on the tradeoffs between environmental performance and economics. The Environmental Design Space (EDS) ...

  5. Plutonium purification cycle in centrifugal extractors: from flowsheet design to industrial operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baron, P.; Dinh, B.; Duhamet, J.; Drain, F.; Meze, F.; Lavenu, A.

    2008-07-01

    The extension of the UP2 plant at La Hague includes a new plutonium purification cycle using multistage centrifugal extractors to replace the previous cycle that used mixer/settler banks. This type of extractor is suitable for the treatment of fuel containing a high proportion of plutonium-238, as its short residence time limits solvent degradation. This paper deals with the research done to devise its flowsheet, the centrifugal extractors in which it is operated, as well as the feedback of six years of industrial operation.

  6. Impact of environmental concerns on cooling-tower design and operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hensley, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    New and sometimes unexpected environmental concerns surface from time to time, and each has its special effect on the selection, pricing, and operation of cooling towers. This paper discusses the following concerns, which are either current or are becoming significant: water conservation, energy conservation, noise, drift, blowdown, visual impact, and construction materials that are environmentally sensitive. 3 refs.

  7. Air Transport and Operations Symposium 2011 Strategic Jet Engine System Design in Light of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    prices that result from increasingly restricted access to crude oil. Climate change will also force ETWEEN 1971 and 2009, the 12-month average oil price fluctuated between $15 and over $90 per barrel Operating Cost of U.S. airlines* as Fig. 1 on the next page proves. 2. Peak Oil & Oil Price Predictions

  8. Design, construction, and use of a coiled tubing drilling structure for onshore and offshore operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frishmuth, R.E.; Pursell, J.C.; Middleton, R.J.; Parker, C.O.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the design, construction, and initial application of a structure for supporting a coiled tubing injector head, bottom hole drilling assembly and pressurized lubricator. The paper includes a discussion of the features desired for the structure and how these were addressed during the design. The manufacturing of the support tower and its support platform are then discussed. On site assembly procedures for the movable structure are presented along with photographs of the deployed rig in service. The versatility and usefulness of the structure are discussed from the end users point of view.

  9. Design and Operation of Fan-Coil Units in Using River Water as Chilled Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, A.; Chen, H.; Ma, W.; Zhu, H.

    2006-01-01

    and the properties of indoor-air, and so on. Especially, the temperature of inlet-water can not only make a strong impact on the capacity of the energy afforded by FCUs, but also affect the economic capability of the whole air-conditioning system directly.... As a rule, the designers of A/C systems pay more attention to the design of the inlet-water temperature of FCUs, and many correlative criteria have been established. Generally, considering the economic benefit of an air-conditioning system wholly...

  10. Maintenance Free Fluidic Transfer and Mixing Devices for Highly Radioactive Applications - Design, Development, Deployment and Operational Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, C.; Richardson, J. E.; Fallows, P.

    2006-07-01

    Power Fluidics is the generic name for a range of maintenance-free fluid transfer and mixing devices, capable of handling a wide range of highly radioactive fluids, jointly developed by British Nuclear Group, its US-based subsidiary BNG America, and AEA Technology. Power Fluidic devices include Reverse Flow Diverters (RFDs), Vacuum Operated Slug Lifts (VOSLs), and Air Lifts, all of which have an excellent proven record for pumping radioactive liquids and sludges. Variants of the RFD, termed Pulse Jet Mixers (PJMs) are used to agitate and mix tank contents, where maintenance-free equipment is desirable, and where a high degree of homogenization is necessary. The equipment is designed around the common principle of using compressed air to provide the motive force to transfer liquids and sludges. These devices have no moving parts in contact with the radioactive medium and therefore require no maintenance in radioactive areas of processing plants. Once commissioned, Power Fluidic equipment has been demonstrated to operate for the life of the facility. Over 800 fluidic devices continue to operate safely and reliably in British Nuclear Group's nuclear facilities at the Sellafield site in the United Kingdom, and some of these have done so for almost 40 years. More than 400 devices are being supplied by AEA Technology and BNG America for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, USA. This paper discusses: - Principles of operation of fluidic pumps and mixers. - Selection criteria and design of fluidic pumps and mixers. - Operational experience of fluidic pumps and mixers in the United Kingdom. - Applications of fluidic pumps and mixers at the U.S. Department of Energy nuclear sites. (authors)

  11. Enhancement of Kv1.3 Potassium Conductance by Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cecchetto, Claudia; Boccaccio, Pasquale; Vassanelli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental evidences support the hypothesis that extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields can affect voltage-gated channels. Little is known, however, about their effect on potassium channels. Kv1.3, a member of the voltage-gated potassium channels family originally discovered in the brain, is a key player in important biological processes including antigen-dependent activation of T-cells during the immune response. We report that Kv1.3 expressed in CHO-K1 cells can be modulated in cell subpopulations by extremely low frequency and relatively low intensity electromagnetic fields. In particular, we observed that field exposure can cause an enhancement of Kv1.3 potassium conductance and that the effect lasts for several minutes after field removal. The results contribute to put immune and nervous system responses to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields into a new perspective, with Kv1.3 playing a pivotal molecular role. Keywords: immunotherapy, immunomodulation, potassium chann...

  12. Enhancement of Kv1.3 Potassium Conductance by Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claudia Cecchetto; Marta Maschietto; Pasquale Boccaccio; Stefano Vassanelli

    2015-08-25

    Theoretical and experimental evidences support the hypothesis that extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields can affect voltage-gated channels. Little is known, however, about their effect on potassium channels. Kv1.3, a member of the voltage-gated potassium channels family originally discovered in the brain, is a key player in important biological processes including antigen-dependent activation of T-cells during the immune response. We report that Kv1.3 expressed in CHO-K1 cells can be modulated in cell subpopulations by extremely low frequency and relatively low intensity electromagnetic fields. In particular, we observed that field exposure can cause an enhancement of Kv1.3 potassium conductance and that the effect lasts for several minutes after field removal. The results contribute to put immune and nervous system responses to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields into a new perspective, with Kv1.3 playing a pivotal molecular role. Keywords: immunotherapy, immunomodulation, potassium channels, gating, electromagnetic fields

  13. Compact 180-kV Marx generator triggered in atmospheric air by femtosecond laser filaments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arantchouk, L. Larour, J.; Point, G.; Brelet, Y.; Carbonnel, J.; André, Y.-B.; Mysyrowicz, A.; Houard, A.

    2014-03-10

    We developed a compact Marx generator triggered in atmospheric air by a single femtosecond laser beam undergoing filamentation. Voltage pulses of 180?kV could be generated with a subnanosecond jitter. The same laser beam was also used to initiate simultaneously guided discharges up to 21?cm long at the output of the generator.

  14. EA-1665: Davis-Kingman 69-kV Transmission Line Rebuild Project, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Western plans to rebuild a 26.6-mile-long portion of the existing 27.3-mile-long Davis–Kingman Tap 69-kV Transmission Line within the existing ROW in order to improve the reliability of the transmission service.

  15. Simulation Support for Optimizing the Design and Operation of a Large Open-Space Office Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lain, M.; Hensen, J.; Zemlicka, J.

    2008-01-01

    and simulation was used to predict the performance of various design alternatives with respect to reducing the required cooling capacity, in order to verify the fan-coil capacity sizing and to optimize the ventilation system and strategy of the atriums. Since...

  16. Enterprise-Wide Optimization Seminar Integration of Supply Chain Design and Operation with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Pipeline Inventory Place order Place order Inventory position Receive order Receive order Outline 0 2 4 6 8 Acetone Cumene Ethylene Carbon Monoxide Methanol Ethylbenzene Naphtha Chlorobenzene Styrene Ethanol Ethylene Glycol Acetic Acid Byproducts #12;5Enterprise-Wide Optimization Seminar ­ Supply Chain Design

  17. Note: Design and development of improved indirectly heated cathode based strip electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiti, Namita; Patil, D. S.; Dasgupta, K.; Bade, Abhijeet; Tembhare, G. U.

    2015-02-15

    An improved design of indirectly heated solid cathode based electron gun (200 kW, 45 kV, 270° bent strip type electron gun) has been presented. The solid cathode is made of thoriated tungsten, which acts as an improved source of electron at lower temperature. So, high power operation is possible without affecting structural integrity of the electron gun. The design issues are addressed based on the uniformity of temperature on the solid cathode and the single long filament based design. The design approach consists of simulation followed by extensive experimentation. In the design, the effort has been put to tailor the non-uniformity of the heat flux from the filament to the solid cathode to obtain better uniformity of temperature on the solid cathode. Trial beam experiments have been carried out and it is seen that the modified design achieves one to one correspondence of the solid cathode length and the electron beam length.

  18. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE - MANIFOLD DESIGN FOR CONTROLLING ENGINE AIR BALANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris

    2005-12-01

    This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.

  19. Design, start up, and three years operating experience of an ammonia scrubbing, distillation, and destruction plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gambert, G.

    1996-12-31

    When the rebuilt Coke Plant started operations in November of 1992, it featured a completely new closed circuit secondary cooler, ammonia scrubbing, ammonia distillation, and ammonia destruction plants. This is the second plant of this type to be built in North America. To remove the ammonia from the gas, it is scrubbed with three liquids: Approximately 185 gallons/minute of cooled stripped liquor from the ammonia stills; Light oil plant condensate; and Optionally, excess flushing liquor. These scrubbers typically reduce ammonia content in the gas from 270 Grains/100 standard cubic feet to 0.2 Grains/100 standard cubic feet.

  20. The Design, Construction, and Operation of Long-Distance High-Voltage

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |Information 5th congressionalNIESLook atDesign

  1. Open Control Networking Systems for Smarter Building Operations-Fundamentals of System Architecture and Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, M.

    2011-01-01

    Logo www.lonmark.org ICEBO Oct 18-20, 2011 LONMARK Purpose ? To?promote?interoperable?products?and?collaborative? marketing?programs ? To?provide?a?forum?to?define?application?specific?design? requirements ? To?create?market?demand?for?open,?interoperable?systems... stream_source_info ESL-IC-11-10-48.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 18007 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IC-11-10-48.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Open?Control?Networking?Systems...

  2. BaaS Project: Covering the Building Design and Operational-Phase Interoperability Gap 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valmaseda, C.; Garcia, M.; Hernandez, J.; Martin, S.

    2012-01-01

    ?modelling?and?simulation?for?energy?performance? estimation?and?control?design. SO2:?Integrated?Automation?and?Control?Services. TO1: Data?Management:?Working?on?existing?initiatives?and?ongoing projects?results,?integrating?State?of?the?Art?of?extended?BIM,?EEB? Ontologies?and?Standards. TO2:?System?Integration...?the?profit?margin?of?the? end?user?(ESCO) 3.1 Rates to estimate consumes & other variables (Energy, Economy) X X X X X X 4 Different?Building?Management? System?in?each?building?and?across? buildings 4.1 Management integration system and adjusted optimization logic...

  3. US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design and Operation.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinal design and fabrication ofWeathertestSoAtl onLaura

  4. RF Design and Operating Results for a New 201.25 MHz RF Power Amplifier for LANSCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyles, John T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baca, David M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bratton, Ray E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brennan, Nicholas W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bultman, Nathan K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Zukun [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davis, Jerry L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Naranjo, Angela C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rees, Daniel E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Gilbert M. Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Summers, Richard D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    A prototype VHF RF Final Power Amplifier (FPA) for Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The cavity amplifier has met the goals of generating 2.5 MW peak and 260 kW of average power, at an elevation of 2.1 km. It was designed to use a Thales TH628 Diacrode{sup R}, a state-of-art tetrode power tube that is double-ended, providing roughly twice the power of a conventional tetrode. The amplifier is designed with tunable input and output transmission line cavity circuits, a grid decoupling circuit, an adjustable output coupler, TE mode suppressors, blocking, bypassing and decoupling capacitors, and a cooling system. The tube is connected in a full wavelength output circuit, with the lower main tuner situated 3/4{lambda} from the central electron beam region in the tube and the upper slave tuner 1/4{lambda} from the same point. We summarize the design processes and features of the FPA along with significant test results. A pair of production amplifiers are planned to be power-combined and installed at the LANSCE DTL to return operation to full beam duty factor.

  5. Design, manufacture and initial operation of the beryllium components of the JET ITER-like wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riccardo, V; Matthews, G F; Nunes, I; Thompson, V; Villedieu, E; Contributors, JET EFDA

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the JET ITER-like Wall Project was to provide JET with the plasma facing material combination now selected for the DT phase of ITER (bulk beryllium main chamber limiters and a full tungsten divertor) and, in conjunction with the upgraded neutral beam heating system, to achieve ITER relevant conditions. The design of the bulk Be plasma facing components had to be compatible with increased heating power and pulse length, as well as to reuse the existing tile supports originally designed to cope with disruption loads from carbon based tiles and be installed by remote handling. Risk reduction measures (prototypes, jigs, etc) were implemented to maximize efficiency during the shutdown. However, a large number of clashes with existing components not fully captured by the configuration model occurred. Restarting the plasma on the ITER-like Wall proved much easier than for the carbon wall and no deconditioning by disruptions was observed. Disruptions have been more threatening than expected due to the redu...

  6. Design and Operation of Equipment to Detect and Remove Water within Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Bottles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.C. Baker; T.M. Pfeiffer; J.C. Price

    2013-09-01

    Inspection and drying equipment has been implemented in a hot cell to address the inadvertent ingress of water into used nuclear fuel storage bottles. Operated with telemanipulators, the system holds up to two fuel bottles and allows their threaded openings to be connected to pressure transducers and a vacuum pump. A prescribed pressure rebound test is used to diagnose the presence of moisture. Bottles found to contain moisture are dried by vaporization. The drying process is accelerated by the application of heat and vacuum. These techniques detect and remove virtually all free water (even water contained in a debris bed) while leaving behind most, if not all, particulates. The extracted water vapour passes through a thermoelectric cooler where it is condensed back to the liquid phase for collection. Fuel bottles are verified to be dry by passing the pressure rebound test.

  7. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael D. Durham

    2004-10-01

    PG&E NEG Salem Harbor Station Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of mercury control at Salem Harbor Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has very high native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included plant and PG&E headquarters personnel, EPRI and several of its member companies, DOE, ADA, Norit Americas, Inc., Hamon Research-Cottrell, Apogee Scientific, TRC Environmental Corporation, Reaction Engineering, as well as other laboratories. The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall the objectives of this field test program were to determine the mercury control and balance-of-plant impacts resulting from activated carbon injection into a full-scale ESP on Salem Harbor Unit 1, a low sulfur bituminous-coal-fired 86 MW unit. It was also important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury removal (>85%). One half of the gas stream was used for these tests, or 43 MWe. Activated carbon, DARCO FGD supplied by NORIT Americas, was injected upstream of the cold side ESP, just downstream of the air preheater. This allowed for approximately 1.5 seconds residence time in the duct before entering the ESP. Conditions tested in this field evaluation included the impacts of the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system on mercury capture, of unburned carbon in the fly ash, of adjusting ESP inlet flue gas temperatures, and of boiler load on mercury control. The field evaluation conducted at Salem Harbor looked at several sorbent injection concentrations at several flue gas temperatures. It was noted that at the mid temperature range of 322-327 F, the LOI (unburned carbon) lost some of its ability to capture vapor phase Hg, however activated carbon performed relatively well. At the normal operating temperatures of 298-306 F, mercury emissions from the ESP were so low that both particulate and elemental mercury were ''not detected'' at the detection limits of the Ontario Hydro method for both baseline and injection tests. The oxidized mercury however, was 95% lower at a sorbent injection concentration of 10 lbs/MMacf compared with baseline emissions. When the flue gas temperatures were increased to a range of 343-347 F, mercury removal efficiencies were limited to <25%, even at the same sorbent injection concentration. Other tests examined the impacts of fly ash LOI, operation of the SNCR system, and flue gas temperature on the native mercury capture without sorbent injection. Listed below are the main conclusions from this program: (1) SNCR on/off test showed no beneficial effect on mercury removal caused by the SNCR system. (2) At standard operating temperatures ({approx} 300 F), reducing LOI from 30-35% to 15-20% had minimal impact on Hg removal. (3) Increasing flue gas temperatures reduced Hg removal regardless of LOI concentrations at Salem Harbor (minimum LOI was 15%). Native mercury removal started to fall off at temperatures above 320 F. ACI effectiveness for mercury removal fell off at temperatures above 340 F. (4) Test method detection limits play an important role at Salem Harbor due to the low residual emissions. Examining the proposed MA rule, both the removal efficiency and the emission concentrations will be difficult to demonstrate on an ongoing basis. (5) Under tested conditions the baseline emissions met the proposed removal efficiency for 2006, but not the proposed emission concentration. ACI can meet the more-stringent 2012 emission limits, as long as measurement detection limits are lower than the Ontario Hydro method. SCEM testing was able to verify the low emissions. For ACI to perform at this level, process conditions need to match those obtained during testing.

  8. Using optimization and lean principles to design work cells and make capital purchase decisions for hole drilling operations in turbine airfoil manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neal, Thomas E. (Thomas Eugene)

    2006-01-01

    Classical manufacturing work cells have machines to perform each operation in the process, the number of each type of machine being chosen so that all machines would be equally busy. Although design of work cells for ...

  9. Development of a 33 kV, 20 A long pulse converter modulator for high average power klystron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reghu, T.; Mandloi, V.; Shrivastava, Purushottam [Pulsed High Power Microwave Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, M.P. (India)] [Pulsed High Power Microwave Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, M.P. (India)

    2014-05-15

    Research, design, and development of high average power, long pulse modulators for the proposed Indian Spallation Neutron Source are underway at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology. With this objective, a prototype of long pulse modulator capable of delivering 33 kV, 20 A at 5 Hz repetition rate has been designed and developed. Three Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) based switching modules driving high frequency, high voltage transformers have been used to generate high voltage output. The IGBT based switching modules are shifted in phase by 120° with respect to each other. The switching frequency is 25 kHz. Pulses of 1.6 ms pulse width, 80 ?s rise time, and 70 ?s fall time have been achieved at the modulator output. A droop of ±0.6% is achieved using a simple segmented digital droop correction technique. The total fault energy transferred to the load during fault has been measured by conducting wire burn tests and is found to be within 3.5 J.

  10. Design, construction and initiation of operation, of a crawfish hatchery at the Aquacultural Research Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Gary

    1986-01-01

    DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND INITIATION OF OPERATION, OF A CRAWFISH HATCHERY AT THE A(UACULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER, TEXAS AAM UNIVERSITY, COLLEGE STATION, TEXAS A PROFESSIONAL PAPER BY GARY ARNOLD Submitted to the College of Agriculture 'of Texas A..., and initial operation of such a hatchery facility was determined to be an appropriate project for a Master of Agriculture degree candidate's professional internship. Such an internship project was started on February 15, 1986, by Gary Arnold. Design...

  11. Strategic supply system design - a holistic evaluation of operational and production cost for a biorefinery supply chain: Strategic biorefinery feedstock supply system design

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lamers, Patrick; Tan, Eric C.D.; Searcy, Erin M.; Scarlata, Christopher J.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Jacobson, Jacob J.

    2015-08-20

    Pioneer cellulosic biore? neries across the United States rely on a conventional feedstock sup-ply system based on one-year contracts with local growers, who harvest, locally store, and deliver feed-stock in low-density format to the conversion facility. While the conventional system is designed for high biomass yield areas, pilot scale operations have experienced feedstock supply shortages and price volatilities due to reduced harvests and competition from other industries. Regional supply depend-ency and the inability to actively manage feedstock stability and quality, provide operational risks to the biore? nery, which translate into higher investment risk. The advanced feedstock supply system based onmore »a network of depots can mitigate many of these risks and enable wider supply system bene? ts. This paper compares the two concepts from a system-level perspective beyond mere logistic costs. It shows that while processing operations at the depot increase feedstock supply costs initially, they enable wider system bene? ts including supply risk reduction (leading to lower interest rates on loans), industry scale-up, conversion yield improvements, and reduced handling equipment and storage costs at the biore? nery. When translating these bene? ts into cost reductions per liter of gasoline equivalent (LGE), we ? nd that total cost reductions between –$0.46 to –$0.21 per LGE for biochemical and –$0.32 to –$0.12 per LGE for thermochemical conversion pathways are possible. Naturally, these system level bene? ts will differ between individual actors along the feedstock supply chain. Further research is required with respect to depot sizing, location, and ownership structures.« less

  12. Design, operation, and performance of a modern air pollution control system for a refuse derived fuel combustion facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, E.H.; Azzinnari, C.

    1997-12-01

    The Robbins, Illinois refuse derived fuel combustion facility was recently placed into service. Large and new, the facility is designed to process 1600 tons of waste per day. Twenty-five percent of the waste, or 400 tons per day, is separated out in the fuel preparation process. The remaining 1200 tons per day is burned in two circulating fluidized bed boilers. The system is designed to meet new source performance standards for municipal waste combustion facilities, including total particulate, acid gases (HCl, SO{sub 2}, HF), heavy metals (including mercury), and dioxins. The system utilizes semi-dry scrubbers with lime and activated carbon injected through dual fluid atomizers for control of acid gases. Final polishing of acid gas emissions, particulate control, heavy metals removal, and control of dioxins is accomplished with pulse jet fabric filters. This paper discusses the design of the facility`s air pollution control system, including all auxiliary systems required to make it function properly. Also discussed is the actual operation and emissions performance of the system.

  13. Design, Development and Operational Experience of Demonstration Facility for Cs-137 Source Pencil Production at Trombay - 13283

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patil, S.B.; Srivastava, P.; Mishra, S.K.; Khan, S.S.; Nair, K.N.S.

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive waste management is a vital aspect of any nuclear program. The commercial feasibility of the nuclear program largely depends on the efficiency of the waste management techniques. One of such techniques is the separation of high yield radio-nuclides from the waste and making it suitable for medical and industrial applications. This will give societal benefit in addition to revenue generation. Co-60, the isotope presently being used for medical applications, needs frequent replacement because of its short half life. Cs-137, the major constituent of the nuclear waste, is a suitable substitute for Co-60 as a radioactive source because of its longer half life (28 years). Indian nuclear waste management program has given special emphasis on utilization of Cs-137 for such applications. In view of this a demonstration facility has been designed for vitrification of Cs-137 in borosilicate glass, cast in stainless steel pencils, to be used as source pencils of 300 Ci strength for blood irradiation. An induction heated metallic melter of suitable capacity has been custom designed for the application and employed for the Cs-137 pencil fabrication facility. This article describes various systems, design features, experiments and resulting modifications, observations and remote handling features necessary for the actual operation of such facility. The layout of the facility has been planned in such a way that the same can be adopted in a hot cell for commercial production of source pencils. (authors)

  14. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael D. Durham

    2003-05-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter.

  15. High speed transfer switch with 50 kA and 50 kV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reass, W.A.; Kasik, R.J.; Wilds, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives the mechanical design and electrical parameters of a pneumatically operated transfer switch. This design is used to switch 3-second 50-kA current pulses, and is easily capable of 75 kA operation (2 {times} 10{sup 10} I{sup 2}t); with water-cooled versions capable of 20 kA continuously. Although the switch is not specifically designed to make or break 50 kA, it is provided with auxiliary Elkonite arcing contacts have proven their value in protecting the main electrodes even under repetitive (50 kA) fault conditions. Included in this presentation will be the results of extensive life testing and associated criteria. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. A 120kV IGBT modulator for driving a pierce electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earley, L. M.; Brown, R. W.; Carlson, R. L.; Ferguson, P.; Haynes, W. B.; Kirbie, H. C.; Russell, S. J.; Sigler, F. E.; Smirnova, E. I.; Wheat, R. M.

    2004-01-01

    An IGBT modulator has been developed to drive a 120 kV, 23 A Pierce electron gun. The modulator is capable of producing pulses up to 10 {mu}s in width at repetition rates up to 10Hz with no active reset. The pulse rise time on the electron gun will be approximately 2 {mu}s and the remaining 8 {mu}s of flattop is tuned to have a ripple of less than 1 percent rms. The modulator technology was developed from a previous 50 kV prototype. The modulator consists of six boards, each with one EUPEC IGBT that drives a single common step-up transformer wound on METGLAS 2605SC cores. The six transformer cores share a common bi-filar output secondary winding. The modulator uses a fiber optic trigger system and has a high voltage cable output with an epoxy receptacle on the oil end and a ceramic receptacle on the vacuum end. The 120 kV electron gun was manufactured by MDS Co. and will be used to generate sheet electron beams from the standard pencil beam produced by the Pierce electron gun.

  17. Poster — Thur Eve — 10: Partial kV CBCT, complete kV CBCT and EPID in breast treatment: a dose comparison study for skin, breasts, heart and lungs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roussin, E; Archambault, L K; Wierzbicki, W

    2014-08-15

    The advantages of kilovoltage cone beam CT (kV CBCT) imaging over electronic portal imaging device (EPID) such as accurate 3D anatomy, soft tissue visualization, fast rigid registration and enhanced precision on patient positioning has lead to its increasing use in clinics. The benefits of this imaging technique are at the cost of increasing the dose to healthy surrounding organs. Our center has moved toward the use of daily partial rotation kV CBCT to restrict the dose to healthy tissues. This study aims to better quantify radiation doses from different image-guidance techniques such as tangential EPID, complete and partial kV CBCT for breast treatments. Cross-calibrated ionization chambers and kV calibrated Gafchromic films were used to measure the dose to the heart, lungs, breasts and skin. It was found that performing partial kV CBCT decreases the heart dose by about 36%, the lungs dose by 31%, the contralateral breast dose by 41% and the ipsilateral breast dose by 43% when compared to a full rotation CBCT. The skin dose measured for a full rotation CBCT was about 0.8 cGy for the contralateral breast and about 0.3 cGy for the ipsilateral breast. The study is still ongoing and results on skin doses for partial rotation kV CBCT as well as for tangential EPID images are upcoming.

  18. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael D. Durham

    2005-03-17

    Brayton Point Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of the impacts of future mercury regulations to Brayton Point Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has variable (29-75%) native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables and activated carbon on mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included: (1) Plant and PG&E National Energy Group corporate personnel; (2) Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); (3) United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL); (4) ADA-ES, Inc.; (5) NORIT Americas, Inc.; (6) Apogee Scientific, Inc.; (7) TRC Environmental Corporation; (8) URS Corporation; (9) Quinapoxet Solutions; (10) Energy and Environmental Strategies (EES); and (11) Reaction Engineering International (REI). The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall, the objectives of this field test program were to determine the impact of activated carbon injection on mercury control and balance-of-plant processes on Brayton Point Unit 1. Brayton Point Unit 1 is a 250-MW unit that fires a low-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. Particulate control is achieved by two electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) in series. The full-scale tests were conducted on one-half of the flue gas stream (nominally 125 MW). Mercury control sorbents were injected in between the two ESPs. The residence time from the injection grid to the second ESP was approximately 0.5 seconds. In preparation for the full-scale tests, 12 different sorbents were evaluated in a slipstream of flue gas via a packed-bed field test apparatus for mercury adsorption. Results from these tests were used to determine the five carbon-based sorbents that were tested at full-scale. Conditions of interest that were varied included SO{sub 3} conditioning on/off, injection concentrations, and distribution spray patterns. The original test plan called for parametric testing of NORIT FGD carbon at 1, 3, and 10 lbs/MMacf. These injection concentrations were estimated based on results from the Pleasant Prairie tests that showed no additional mercury removal when injection concentrations were increased above 10 lbs/MMacf. The Brayton Point parametric test data indicated that higher injection concentrations would achieve higher removal efficiencies and should be tested. The test plan was altered to include testing at 20 lbs/MMacf. The first test at this higher rate showed very high removal across the second ESP (>80%). Unlike the ''ceiling'' phenomenon witnessed at Pleasant Prairie, increasing sorbent injection concentration resulted in further capture of vapor-phase mercury. The final phase of field-testing was a 10-day period of continuous injection of NORIT FGD carbon. During the first five days, the injection concentration was held at 10 lbs/MMacf, followed by nominally five days of testing at an injection concentration of 20 lbs/MMacf. The mercury removal, as measured by the semi-continuous emission monitors (S-CEM), varied between 78% and 95% during the 10 lbs/MMacf period and increased to >97% when the injection concentration was increased to 20 lbs/MMacf. During the long-term testing period, mercury measurements following EPA's draft Ontario Hydro method were conducted by TRC Environmental Corporation at both 10 and 20 lbs/MMacf test conditions. The Ontario Hydro data showed that the particulate mercury removal was similar between the two conditions of 10 or 20 lbs/MMacf and removal efficiencies were greater than 99%. Elemental mercury was not detected in any samples, so no conclusions as to its removal can be drawn. Removal of oxidized mercury, on the other hand, increased from 68% to 93% with the higher injection concentration. These removal rates agreed well with the S-CEM results.

  19. Impacts of Large Amounts of Wind Power on Design and Operation of Power Systems; Results of IEA Collaboration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsons, B. and Ela, E.; Holttinen, H.; Meibom, P.; Orths, A.; O'Malley, M.; Ummels, B.C.; Tande, J.

    2008-06-01

    There are a multitude of studies completed and ongoing related to the cost of wind integration. However, the results are not easy to compare. An international forum for exchange of knowledge of power system impacts of wind power has been formed under the IEA Implementing Agreement on Wind Energy. IEA WIND R&D Task 25 on “Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power” produced a state-of-the-art report in October 2007, where the most relevant wind-power grid integration studies were analyzed, especially regarding methodologies and input data. This paper summarizes the results from 18 case studies, with discussion on differences in methodology as well as issues that have been identified to impact the cost of wind integration.

  20. THE MECHANICAL DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A CONVECTIVELY COOLED ION ACCELERATOR FOR CONTINUOUSLY OPERATING NEUTRAL BEAM SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paterson, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    13-16, 1979 THE MECHANICAL DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF AVosen, et al. , "Mechanical Design Criteria for ContinuouslyCalifornia. LBL~10095 THE MECHANICAL DESIGN AND FABRICATION

  1. Strategic supply system design - a holistic evaluation of operational and production cost for a biorefinery supply chain

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lamers, Patrick; Tan, Eric C.D.; Searcy, Erin M.; Scarlata, Christopher J.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Jacobson, Jacob J.

    2015-08-20

    Pioneer cellulosic biorefineries across the United States rely on a conventional feedstock supply system based on one-year contracts with local growers, who harvest, locally store, and deliver feed-stock in low-density format to the conversion facility. While the conventional system is designed for high biomass yield areas, pilot scale operations have experienced feedstock supply shortages and price volatilities due to reduced harvests and competition from other industries. Regional supply dependency and the inability to actively manage feedstock stability and quality, provide operational risks to the biorefinery, which translate into higher investment risk. The advanced feedstock supply system based on a networkmore »of depots can mitigate many of these risks and enable wider supply system benefits. This paper compares the two concepts from a system-level perspective beyond mere logistic costs. It shows that while processing operations at the depot increase feedstock supply costs initially, they enable wider system benefits including supply risk reduction (leading to lower interest rates on loans), industry scale-up, conversion yield improvements, and reduced handling equipment and storage costs at the biorefinery. When translating these benefits into cost reductions per liter of gasoline equivalent (LGE), we find that total cost reductions between -$0.46 to -$0.21 per LGE for biochemical and -$0.32 to -$0.12 per LGE for thermochemical conversion pathways are possible. Naturally, these system level benefits will differ between individual actors along the feedstock supply chain. Further research is required with respect to depot sizing, location, and ownership structures.« less

  2. 2.3-MW Medium-Voltage, Three-Level Wind Energy Inverter Applying a Unique Bus Structure and 4.5-kV Si/SiC Hybrid Isolated Power Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdman, W.; Keller, J.; Grider, D.; VanBrunt, E.

    2014-11-01

    A high-efficiency, 2.3-MW, medium-voltage, three-level inverter utilizing 4.5-kV Si/SiC (silicon carbide) hybrid modules for wind energy applications is discussed. The inverter addresses recent trends in siting the inverter within the base of multimegawatt turbine towers. A simplified split, three-layer laminated bus structure that maintains low parasitic inductances is introduced along with a low-voltage, high-current test method for determining these inductances. Feed-thru bushings, edge fill methods, and other design features of the laminated bus structure provide voltage isolation that is consistent with the 10.4-kV module isolation levels. Inverter efficiency improvement is a result of the (essential) elimination of the reverse recovery charge present in 4.5-kV Si PIN diodes, which can produce a significant reduction in diode turn-off losses as well as insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) turn-on losses. The hybrid modules are supplied in industry-standard 140 mm x 130 mm and 190 mm x 130 mm packages to demonstrate direct module substitution into existing inverter designs. A focus on laminated bus/capacitor-bank/module subassembly level switching performance is presented.

  3. Design, construction, and operation of a laboratory scale reactorfor the production of high-purity, isotopically enriched bulksilicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ager III, J.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

    2004-12-20

    The design and operation of a recirculating flow reactor designed to convert isotopically enriched silane to polycrystalline Si with high efficiency and chemical purity is described. The starting material is SiF{sub 4}, which is enriched in the desired isotope by a centrifuge method and subsequently converted to silane. In the reactor, the silane is decomposed to silicon on the surface of a graphite starter rod (3 mm diameter) heated to 700-750 C. Flow and gas composition (0.3-0.5% silane in hydrogen) are chosen to minimize the generation of particles by homogeneous nucleation of silane and to attain uniform deposition along the length of the rod. Growth rates are 5 {micro}m/min, and the conversion efficiency is greater than 95%. A typical run produces 35 gm of polycrystalline Si deposited along a 150 mm length of the rod. After removal of the starter rod, dislocation-free single crystals are formed by the floating zone method. Crystals enriched in all 3 stable isotopes of Si have been made: {sup 28}Si (99.92%), {sup 29}Si (91.37%), and {sup 30}Si (88.25%). Concentrations of electrically active impurities (P and B) are as low as mid-10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. Concentrations of C and O lie below 10{sup 16} and 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, respectively.

  4. Design of the ZTH vacuum liner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prince, P.P.; Dike, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    The current status of the ZTH vacuum liner design is covered by this report. ZTH will be the first experiment to be installed in the CPRF (Confinement Physics Research Facility) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and is scheduled to be operational at the rated current of 4 MA in 1992. The vacuum vessel has a 2.4 m major radius and a 40 cm minor radius. Operating parameters which drive the vacuum vessel mechanical design include a 300 C bakeout temperature, an armour support system capable of withstanding 25 kV, a high toroidal resistance, 1250 kPa magnetic loading, a 10 minute cycle time, and high positional accuracy with respect to the conducting shell. The vacuum vessel design features which satisfy the operating parameters are defined. The liner is constructed of Inconel 625 and has a geometry which alternates sections of thin walled bellows with rigid ribs. These composite sections span between pairs of the 16 diagnostic stations to complete the torus. The thin bellows sections maximize the liner toroidal resistance and the ribs provide support and positional accuracy for the armour in relation to the conducting shell. Heat transfer from the vessel is controlled by a blanket wrap of ceramic fiber insulation and the heat flux is dissipated to a water cooling jacket in the conducting shell.

  5. Sidney-North Yuma 230-kV Transmission Line Project, Colorado and Nebraska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This report describes the need for a 230-kV overhead transmission line to supply power from Sidney, Nebraska to eastern Colorado. The alternative scenario compared to construction of the line is No Action. Rejected alternatives include underground lines and different routing paths, with a possible extension to the Sterling area. Both scenarios are evaluated for environmental effects, cost, and consequences for the eastern Colorado region. The proposed route is determined to be the environmentally preferred choice. 120 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs. (MHB)

  6. KvH Projekt GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam:onItronKanoshKetchikanKlondikeKun Renewables JumpKvH Projekt

  7. Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold, Michael; Crocker, Mark; Balakotaiah, Vemuri; Luss, Dan; Choi, Jae-Soon; Dearth, Mark; McCabe, Bob; Theis, Joe

    2013-09-30

    Oxides of nitrogen in the form of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) commonly referred to as NO{sub x}, is one of the two chemical precursors that lead to ground-level ozone, a ubiquitous air pollutant in urban areas. A major source of NO{sub x} is generated by equipment and vehicles powered by diesel engines, which have a combustion exhaust that contains NO{sub x} in the presence of excess O{sub 2}. Catalytic abatement measures that are effective for gasoline-fueled engines such as the precious metal containing three-way catalytic converter (TWC) cannot be used to treat O2-laden exhaust containing NO{sub x}. Two catalytic technologies that have emerged as effective for NO{sub x} abatement are NO{sub x} storage and reduction (NSR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). NSR is similar to TWC but requires much larger quantities of expensive precious metals and sophisticated periodic switching operation, while SCR requires an on-board source of ammonia which serves as the chemical reductant of the NO{sub x}. The fact that NSR produces ammonia as a byproduct while SCR requires ammonia to work has led to interest in combining the two together to avoid the need for the cumbersome ammonia generation system. In this project a comprehensive study was carried out of the fundamental aspects and application feasibility of combined NSR/SCR. The project team, which included university, industry, and national lab researchers, investigated the kinetics and mechanistic features of the underlying chemistry in the lean NOx trap (LNT) wherein NSR was carried out, with particular focus on identifying the operating conditions such as temperature and catalytic properties which lead to the production of ammonia in the LNT. The performance features of SCR on both model and commercial catalysts focused on the synergy between the LNT and SCR converters in terms of utilizing the upstream-generated ammonia and alternative reductants such as propylene, representing the hydrocarbon component of diesel exhaust. First-principle models of the LNT and SCR converters, which utilized the mechanistic-based kinetics and realistic treatments of the flow and transport processes, in combination with bench-scale reactor experiments helped to identify the best designs for combining the NSR and SCR catalysts over a range of operating conditions encountered in practice. This included catalysts having multiple zones and layers and additives with the focus on determining the minimal precious metal component needed to meet emission abatement targets over a wide range of operating conditions. The findings from this study provide diesel vehicle and catalyst companies valuable information to develop more cost effective diesel emissions catalysts which helps to expand the use of more fuel efficient diesel power. The fundamental modeling and experimental tools and findings from this project can be applied to catalyst technologies used in the energy and chemical industries. Finally, the project also led to training of several doctoral students who were placed in research jobs in industry and academia.

  8. Proposed Design and Operation of a Heat Pipe Reactor using the Sandia National Laboratories Annular Core Test Facility and Existing UZrH Fuel Pins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Pandya, Tara; Peters, Curtis [Sandia National Laboratories, Org 6872 MS-1146, PO Box 5800 Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2005-02-06

    Heat Pipe Reactors (HPR) for space power conversion systems offer a number of advantages not easily provided by other systems. They require no pumping, their design easily deals with freezing and thawing of the liquid metal, and they can provide substantial levels of redundancy. Nevertheless, no reactor has ever been operated and cooled with heat pipes, and the startup and other operational characteristics of these systems remain largely unknown. Signification deviations from normal reactor heat removal mechanisms exist, because the heat pipes have fundamental heat removal limits due to sonic flow issues at low temperatures. This paper proposes an early prototypic test of a Heat Pipe Reactor (using existing 20% enriched nuclear fuel pins) to determine the operational characteristics of the HPR. The proposed design is similar in design to the HOMER and SAFE-300 HPR designs (Elliot, Lipinski, and Poston, 2003; Houts, et. al, 2003). However, this reactor uses existing UZrH fuel pins that are coupled to potassium heat pipes modules. The prototype reactor would be located in the Sandia Annular Core Research Reactor Facility where the fuel pins currently reside. The proposed reactor would use the heat pipes to transport the heat from the UZrH fuel pins to a water pool above the core, and the heat transport to the water pool would be controlled by adjusting the pressure and gas type within a small annulus around each heat pipe. The reactor would operate as a self-critical assembly at power levels up to 200 kWth. Because the nuclear heated HPR test uses existing fuel and because it would be performed in an existing facility with the appropriate safety authorization basis, the test could be performed rapidly and inexpensively. This approach makes it possible to validate the operation of a HPR and also measure the feedback mechanisms for a typical HPR design. A test of this nature would be the world's first operating Heat Pipe Reactor. This reactor is therefore called 'HPR-1'.

  9. Appears in Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation, 2000 Operating System Management of MEMS-based Storage Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Operating System Management of MEMS-based Storage Devices John Linwood GriÆn, Steven W. Schlosser, Gregory R. Ganger, David F. Nagle Carnegie Mellon University Abstract MEMS-based storage devices promise signi#12 and contrasts these two storage technologies and ex- plores how the physical characteristics of MEMS- based

  10. Building Work: Allocation of Contract for the Electric Sub-Station 18 kV, NPA Building, Technological Workshop and Lab. 13

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1963-01-01

    Building Work: Allocation of Contract for the Electric Sub-Station 18 kV, NPA Building, Technological Workshop and Lab. 13

  11. Addendum to the Contract for the Supply of 18 kV Switchgear for the North Experimental Area of the 300 GeV Accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1976-01-01

    Addendum to the Contract for the Supply of 18 kV Switchgear for the North Experimental Area of the 300 GeV Accelerator

  12. Proposal to Increase the Amount of the Contract for the Supply of 18 kV Switchgear for the North Experimental Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1977-01-01

    Proposal to Increase the Amount of the Contract for the Supply of 18 kV Switchgear for the North Experimental Area

  13. Proposal to Take up an Option Provided for in the Order for the Supply of 3.6 kV Switchgear for the LEP Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1990-01-01

    Proposal to Take up an Option Provided for in the Order for the Supply of 3.6 kV Switchgear for the LEP Project

  14. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of 24 kV switchgear for the LEP electrical power distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1983-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of 24 kV switchgear for the LEP electrical power distribution

  15. Adjudication of a Contract for the Supply of 18 kV Switchgear for the North Experimental Area of the 300 GeV Accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1976-01-01

    Adjudication of a Contract for the Supply of 18 kV Switchgear for the North Experimental Area of the 300 GeV Accelerator

  16. Long-term stability and mechanical characteristics of kV digital imaging system for proton radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Mingyao, E-mail: mzhu4@mgh.harvard.edu; Botticello, Thomas; Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Winey, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate the long-term image panel positioning stability and gantry angle dependence for gantry-mounted kV imaging systems. Methods: For patient setup digital imaging systems in isocentric rotating proton beam delivery facilities, physical crosshairs are commonly inserted into the snout to define the kV x-ray beam isocenter. Utilizing an automatic detection algorithm, the authors analyzed the crosshair center positions in 2744 patient setup kV images acquired with the four imagers in two treatment rooms from January 2012 to January 2013. The crosshair position was used as a surrogate for imaging panel position, and its long-term stability at the four cardinal angles and the panel flex dependency on gantry angle was investigated. Results: The standard deviation of the panel position distributions was within 0.32 mm (with the range of variation less than ± 1.4 mm) in both the X-Z plane and Y direction. The mean panel inplane rotations were not more than 0.51° for the four panels at the cardinal angles, with standard deviations ?0.26°. The panel position variations with gantry rotation due to gravity (flex) were within ±4 mm, and were panel-specific. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that the kV image panel positions in our proton treatment system were highly reproducible at the cardinal angles over 13 months and also that the panel positions can be correlated to gantry angles. This result indicates that the kV image panel positions are stable over time; the amount of panel sag is predictable during gantry rotation and the physical crosshair for kV imaging may eventually be removed, with the imaging beam isocenter position routinely verified by adequate quality assurance procedures and measurements.

  17. 1.9 kV AlGaN/GaN Lateral Schottky Barrier Diodes on Silicon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Mingda [University of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Song, Bo [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Qi, Meng [University of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Hu, Zongyang [University of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Nomoto, Kazuki [University of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Yan, Xiaodong [University of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Cao, Yu [IQE, Westborough, MA (United States); Johnson, Wayne [IQE, Westborough, MA (United States); Kohn, Erhard [University of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Jena, Debdeep [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Xing, Grace Huili [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2015-04-01

    In this letter, we present AlGaN/GaN lateral Schottky barrier diodes on silicon with recessed anodes and dual field plates. A low specific on-resistance RON,SP (5.12 m?{center_dot}cm2), a low turn-on voltage (1.9 kV), were simultaneously achieved in devices with a 25 ?m anode/cathode separation, resulting in a power figure-of-merit (FOM) BV2/RON,SP of 727 MW{center_dot}cm2. The record high breakdown voltage of 1.9 kV is attributed to the dual field plate structure.

  18. 1.9 kV AlGaN/GaN Lateral Schottky Barrier Diodes on Silicon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Mingda; Song, Bo; Qi, Meng; Hu, Zongyang; Nomoto, Kazuki; Yan, Xiaodong; Cao, Yu; Johnson, Wayne; Kohn, Erhard; Jena, Debdeep; et al

    2015-02-16

    In this letter, we present AlGaN/GaN lateral Schottky barrier diodes on silicon with recessed anodes and dual field plates. A low specific on-resistance RON,SP (5.12 m? · cm2), a low turn-on voltage (1.9 kV), were simultaneously achieved in devices with a 25 ?m anode/cathode separation, resulting in a power figure-of-merit (FOM) BV2/RON,SP of 727 MW·cm2. The record high breakdown voltage of 1.9 kV is attributed to the dual field plate structure.

  19. Tool coupling for the design and operation of building energy and control systems based on the Functional Mock-up Interface standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nouidui, Thierry Stephane; Wetter, Michael

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes software tools developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) that can be coupled through the Functional Mock-up Interface standard in support of the design and operation of building energy and control systems. These tools have been developed to address the gaps and limitations encountered in legacy simulation tools. These tools were originally designed for the analysis of individual domains of buildings, and have been difficult to integrate with other tools for runtime data exchange. The coupling has been realized by use of the Functional Mock-up Interface for co-simulation, which standardizes an application programming interface for simulator interoperability that has been adopted in a variety of industrial domains. As a variety of coupling scenarios are possible, this paper provides users with guidance on what coupling may be best suited for their application. Furthermore, the paper illustrates how tools can be integrated into a building management system to support the operation of buildings. These tools may be a design model that is used for real-time performance monitoring, a fault detection and diagnostics algorithm, or a control sequence, each of which may be exported as a Functional Mock-up Unit and made available in a building management system as an input/output block. We anticipate that this capability can contribute to bridging the observed performance gap between design and operational energy use of buildings.

  20. EIS-0505: Vantage to Pomona Heights 230 kV Transmission Line Project; Yakima, Grant, Benton, and Kittitas Counties, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bureau of Land Management is preparing, with DOE’s Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as a cooperating agency, an EIS that evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to construct a 230-kV transmission line in Washington State. BPA’s proposed action is to interconnect the proposed transmission line to an existing BPA substation.

  1. High power operation of an X-band coaxial multi-beam relativistic klystron amplifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhenbang; Huang, Hua; Jin, Xiao; Zhao, Yucong; He, Hu; Lei, Lurong; Chen, Zhaofu [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)] [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2013-11-15

    An X-band coaxial multi-beam relativistic klystron amplifier is designed in order to increase output microwave power and operating frequency of the amplifier tube. The experiment is performed on a Tesla-type accelerator. The amplifier is driven by an electron beam of 2.8 kA at 720 kV, and a microwave power of 30 kW and frequency of 9.384 GHz is injected into an input cavity by means of an external source, then a microwave power of over 800 MW is extracted, the amplifier gain is about 44 dB, and conversion efficiency is 40%. The experiment proves that output power of nearly GWs can be generated with the X-band coaxial multi-beam relativistic klystron amplifier driven by a kW-level input power.

  2. Klystron Modulator Design for the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reass, William A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baca, David M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Partridge, Edward R. [retired; Rees, Daniel E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-22

    This paper will describe the design of the 44 modulator systems that will be installed to upgrade the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator RF system. The klystrons can operate up to 86 kV with a nominal 32 Amp beam current with a 120 Hz repetition rate and 15% duty cycle. The klystrons are a mod-anode design. The modulator is designed with analog feedback control to ensure the klystron beam current is flat-top regulated. To achieve fast switching while maintaining linear feedback control, a grid-clamp, totem-pole modulator configuration is used with an 'on' deck and an 'off' deck. The on and off deck modulators are of identical design and utilize a cascode connected planar triode, cathode driven with a high speed MOSFET. The derived feedback is connected to the planar triode grid to enable the flat-top control. Although modern design approaches suggest solid state designs may be considered, the planar triode (Eimac Y-847B) is very cost effective, is easy to integrate with the existing hardware, and provides a simplified linear feedback control mechanism. The design is very compact and fault tolerant. This paper will review the complete electrical design, operational performance, and system characterization as applied to the LANSCE installation.

  3. Innovative decision-making methods for the preliminary design and operations of air-cushion and other marine vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gougoulidis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    Ship design is a large-scale, multi-level, complex problem that requires decision-making at every stage of the design process. As such, it requires a great deal of time and resources. The evolution of the process of ship ...

  4. 7-117 The claim of a heat pump designer regarding the COP of the heat pump is to be evaluated. Assumptions The heat pump operates steadily.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-47 7-117 The claim of a heat pump designer regarding the COP of the heat pump is to be evaluated. Assumptions The heat pump operates steadily. HP Wnet,in QH QL TL TH Analysis The maximum heat pump coefficient of performance would occur if the heat pump were completely reversible, 5.7 K026K300 K300 COP maxHP, LH H TT

  5. Final Report: Mobile Surveillance and Wireless Communication Systems Field Operational Test Volume 2: FOT Objectives, Organization, System Design, Results, Conclusions and Recommendations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    and Wireless Communication Systems Field Operational Testand Wireless Communication Systems Field Operational Testand Wireless Communication Systems Field Operational Test

  6. Mechanical design aspects of the HYVAX railgun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, W.E.; Cummings, C.E.; Davidson, R.F.; Parker, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    The hypervelocity experiment (HYVAX) railgun is designed to produce projectile velocities greater than 15 km/s in a 13-m-long, round bore gun. The HYVAX gun incorporates a modular design enabling it to operate in either a distributed energy-storage mode or a single-stage mode. The gun is composed of seven 0.3-m-long power input modules and nine 1.2-m-long accelerating modules. The gun is designed for a 100-shot life. To accommodate this, the bore may be enlarged from an initial diameter of 10.8 mm to a final diameter of 12.7 mm. This will allow the bore to be refinished several times during the life of the gun. To minimize mechanical and arc damage to the gun between bore refinishing operations, the gun will incorporate a low pressure helium projectile injector. Projectiles will be injected under vacuum at 350 m/s. The gun will be operated at a peak current and voltage of 600 kA and 6 kV respectively. The gun will undergo three phases of testing. The first phase will be the characterization of the gun's performance using a 3.0-m-long section of the gun comprising two power modules and two accelerating modules. This testing will be accomplished using two of the seven capacitor bank modules. The second test phase will use a distributed power configuration and seven capacitor bank modules to demonstrate a velocity of 15 km/s with a 1-g projectile. The predicted performance of the gun for this test phase is illustrated. In the third phase of testing we will use a magnetic flux compression demonstrating a velocity of 25 km/s.

  7. EIS-0025: Miles City-New Underwood 230-kV Electrical Transmission Line, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Western Area Power Administration prepared this statement to assess the environmental and socioeconomic implications of its proposed action to construct a 3.28-mile, 230-kV transmission line between Miles City and Baker, Montana, Hettinger, North Dakota, and New Underwood, South Dakota, in Custer and Fallon Counties in Montana, Adams, Bowman, and Slope Counties in North Dakota and Meade, Pennington, and Perkins Counties in South Dakota.

  8. Simulation of a gigawatt level Ku-band overmoded Cerenkov type oscillator operated at low guiding magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hua; Shu, Ting, E-mail: mrtingshu@qq.com; Ju, Jinchuan; Wu, Dapeng [College of Optoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)] [College of Optoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2014-03-15

    We present the simulation results of a Ku-band overmoded Cerenkov type high power microwave oscillator. A guiding magnetic field as low as 0.6?T has been operated in the device. Overmoded slow wave structures with gradually tapered vanes are used in order to increase power capacity and the efficiency of beam-wave interaction. The drift cavity is adopted to enhance the beam-wave interaction of the device. After numerical optimization, the designed generator with an output microwave power of 1.2?GW, a frequency of 13.8 GHz, and a power conversion efficiency as high as 38% can be achieved, when the diode voltage and current are, respectively, 540?kV and 5.8?kA. The power compositions of TM{sub 0n} modes of the output microwave have been analyzed, the results of which show that TM{sub 01} mode takes over almost 95% of the power proportion.

  9. Operation Poorman

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruvost, N.; Tsitouras, J.

    1981-03-18

    The objectives of Operation Poorman were to design and build a portable seismic system and to set up and use this system in a cold-weather environment. The equipment design uses current technology to achieve a low-power, lightweight system that is configured into three modules. The system was deployed in Alaska during wintertime, and the results provide a basis for specifying a mission-ready seismic verification system.

  10. Novel motor design for rotating anode x-ray tubes operating in the fringe field of a magnetic resonance imaging system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lillaney, Prasheel; Pelc, Norbert [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Shin Mihye [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hinshaw, Waldo; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Bennett, N. Robert [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Qualcomm MEMS Technologies, San Jose, California 95134 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Using hybrid x-ray/MR (XMR) systems for image guidance during interventional procedures could enhance the diagnosis and treatment of neurologic, oncologic, cardiovascular, and other disorders. The authors propose a close proximity hybrid system design in which a C-arm fluoroscopy unit is placed immediately adjacent to the solenoid magnet of a MR system with a minimum distance of 1.2 m between the x-ray and MR imaging fields of view. Existing rotating anode x-ray tube designs fail within MR fringe field environments because the magnetic fields alter the electron trajectories in the x-ray tube and act as a brake on the induction motor, reducing the rotation speed of the anode. In this study the authors propose a novel motor design that avoids the anode rotation speed reduction. Methods: The proposed design replaces the permanent magnet stator found in brushed dc motors with the radial component of the MR fringe field. The x-ray tube is oriented such that the radial component of the MR fringe field is orthogonal to the cathode-anode axis. Using a feedback position sensor and the support bearings as electrical slip rings, the authors use electrical commutation to eliminate the need for mechanical brushes and commutators. A vacuum compatible prototype of the proposed motor design was assembled, and its performance was evaluated at various operating conditions. The prototype consisted of a 3.1 in. diameter anode rated at 300 kHU with a ceramic rotor that was 5.6 in. in length and had a 2.9 in. diameter. The material chosen for all ceramic components was MACOR, a machineable glass ceramic developed by Corning Inc. The approximate weight of the entire assembly was 1750 g. The maximum rotation speed, angular acceleration, and acceleration time of the motor design were investigated, as well as the dependence of these parameters on rotor angular offset, magnetic field strength, and field orientation. The resonance properties of the authors' assembly were also evaluated to determine its stability during acceleration, and a pulse width modulation algorithm was implemented to control the rotation speed of the motor. Results: At a magnetic flux density of 41 mT orthogonal to the axis of rotation (on the lower end of the expected flux density in the MR suite) the maximum speed of the motor was found to be 5150 revolutions per minute (rpm). The acceleration time necessary to reach 3000 rpm was found to be approximately 10 s at 59 mT. The resonance frequency of the assembly with the anode attached was 1310 rpm (21.8 Hz) which is far below the desired operating speeds. Pulse width modulation provides an effective method to control the speed of the motor with a resolution of 100 rpm. Conclusions: The proposed design can serve as a direct replacement to the conventional induction motor used in rotating anode x-ray tubes. It does not suffer from a reduced rotation speed when operating in a MR environment. The presence of chromic steel bearings in the prototype prevented testing at the higher field strengths, and future iterations of the design could eliminate this shortcoming. The prototype assembly demonstrates proof of concept of the authors' design and overcomes one of the major obstacles for a MR compatible rotating anode x-ray tube.

  11. EIS-0005-FS: Bonneville Power Administration Proposed FY 1979 Program, Facility Location on Supplement, Southwest Oregon Area Service, Buckley-Summer Lake 500 kV Line, Supplemental

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Bonneville Power Administration document assesses the environmental impacts of constructing transmission facilities, which will coordinate with the Midpoint-Malin 500-kV line to be constructed by the Pacific Power and Light (PP&L) Company. The proposed action includes the construction of the 1.56-mile Buckley-Summer Lake 500-kV transmission line; the proposed Buckley Substation near Maupin, Oregon; and the proposed Summer Lake Substation near Silver Lake, Oregon.

  12. MRS Action Plan Task B report: Analyses of alternative designs and operating approaches for a Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, W.D.; Jowdy, A.K.; Keehn, C.H.; Gale, R.M.; Smith, R.I.

    1988-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act (NWPAA) instituted a number of changes in the DOE commercial nuclear waste management system. After passage of the Act, the DOE initiated a number of systems studies to reevaluate the role of Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) within the federal waste management system. This report summarizes the results of a study to determine the schedules and costs of developing those MRS facilities needed under a number of scenarios, with differing functions allocated to the MRS and/or different spent fuel acceptance schedules. Nine cases were defined for the system study, seven of which included an MRS Facility. The study cases or scenarios evaluated varied relative to the specific functions to be performed at the MRS. The scenarios ranged in magnitude from storage and shipment of bare, intact spent fuel to consolidating the spent fuel into repository emplacement containers prior to storage and shipment. Each scenario required specific modifications to be made to the design developed for the MRS proposal to Congress (the Conceptual Design Report). 41 figs., 326 tabs.

  13. Optical-mechanical operation of the F2T2 Filter: a tunable filter designed to search for First Light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erin Mentuch; Alan Scott; Roberto Abraham; Elizabeth Barton; Matthew Bershady; Joss Bland-Hawthorn; David Crampton; Rene Doyon; Steve Eikenberry; Mike Gladders; Karl Glazebrook; Joe Jenson; Jeff Julian; Roger Julian; Jean-Paul Kneib; David Loop; Nick Raines; Neil Rowlands; J. D. Smith

    2008-09-03

    The Flamingos-2 Tandem Tunable filter is a tunable, narrow-band filter, consisting of two Fabry-Perot etalons in series, capable of scanning to any wavelength from 0.95 to 1.35 microns with a spectral resolution of R~800. It is an accessory mode instrument for the near-IR Flamingos-2 imaging-spectrograph designed for the Gemini South 8m Observatory and will be fed through the upcoming Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics feed. The primary science goal of the F2T2 filter is to perform a ground-based search for the first star forming regions in the universe at redshifts of 7 < z < 11. The construction of the F2T2 filter is complete and it is currently in its calibration and commissioning phases. In this proceeding, we describe the calibration and performance of the instrument.

  14. Design of a 400 kV deep underground, high detector efficiency, high target density, high beam intensity accelerator facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemut, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    at ±5 cm from the gas-jet stream. The target collimatorat the location of the gas jet stream, which itself is being

  15. Design, assembly, and testing of a high-resolution relay lens used for holography with operation at both doubled and tripled Nd:YAG laser wavelengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorenson, Danny S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pazuchanics, Peter D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Malone, Robert M [NSTEC; Cox, Brian C [NSTEC; Frogget, Brent C [NSTEC; Kaufman, Morris I [NSTEC; Capelle, Gene A [NSTEC/SB; Grover, M [NSTEC/SB; Stevens, Gerald D [NSTEC/SB; Turley, William D [NSTEC/SB

    2009-01-01

    The design and assembly of a nine-element lens that achieves >2000 1p/mm resolution at a 355-nm wavelength (ultraviolet) has been completed. By adding a doublet to this lens system, operation at a 532-nm wavelength (green) with > 1100 1p/mm resolution is achieved. This lens is used with high-power laser light to record holograms of fast-moving ejecta particles from a shocked metal surface located inside a test package. Part of the lens and the entire test package are under vacuum with a 1-cm air gap separation. Holograms have been recorded with both doubled and tripled Nd:YAG laser light. The UV operation is very sensitive to the package window's tilt. If this window is tilted by more than 0.1 degrees, the green operation performs with better resolution than that of the UV operation. The setup and alignment are performed with green light, but the dynamic recording can be done with either UV light or green light. A resolution plate can be temporarily placed inside the test package so that a television microscope located beyond the hologram position can archive images of resolution patterns that prove that the calibration wires., interference filter, holographic plate, and relay lenses are in their correct positions. Part of this lens is under vacuum, at the point where the laser illumination passes through a focus. Alignment and tolerancing of this high-resolution lens are presented. Resolution variation across the 12-mm field of view and throughout the 5-mm depth of field is discussed for both wavelengths.

  16. Conceptual Design Report Cask Loadout Sys and Cask Drop Redesign for the Immersion Pail Support Structure and Operator Interface Platform at 105 K West

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LANGEVIN, A.S.

    1999-07-12

    This conceptual design report documents the redesign of the IPSS and the OIP in the 105 KW Basin south loadout pit due to a postulated cask drop accident, as part of Project A.5/A.6, Canister Transfer Facility Modifications. Project A.5/A.6 involves facility modifications needed to transfer fuel from the basin into the cask-MCO. The function of the IPSS is to suspend, guide, and position the immersion pail. The immersion pail protects the cask-MCO from contamination by basin water and acts as a lifting device for the cask-MCO. The OIP provides operator access to the south loadout pit. Previous analyses studied the effects of a cask-MCO drop on the south loadout pit concrete structure and on the IPSS. The most recent analysis considered the resulting loads at the pit slab/wall joint (Kanjilal, 1999). This area had not been modeled previously, and the analysis results indicate that the demand capacity exceeds the allowable at the slab/wall joint. The energy induced on the south loadout pit must be limited such that the safety class function of the basin is maintained. The solution presented in this CDR redesigns the IPSS and the OIP to include impact-absorbing features that will reduce the induced energy. The impact absorbing features of the new design include: Impact-absorbing material at the IPSS base and at the upper portion of the IPSS legs. A sleeve which provides a hydraulic means of absorbing energy. Designing the OIP to act as an impact absorber. The existing IPSS structure in 105 KW will be removed. This conceptual design considers only loads resulting from drops directly over the IPSS and south loadout pit area. Drops in other areas of the basin are not considered, and will be covered as part of a future revision to this CDR.

  17. 150-kV, 80-A SOLID STATE POWER SUPPLY FOR NEUTRAL BEAM INJECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owren, H.

    2011-01-01

    and reliable energy storage systems. We have operated manyof capacitor energy storage systems. OWREN pg 4 FIGURE Ifor large energy storage systems. The use of SCR's for high

  18. Coupled optical/thermal/fluid analysis and design requirements for operation and testing of a supercritical CO2 solar receiver.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khivsara, Sagar

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have evaluated closed-loop supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) Brayton cycles to be a higher energy-density system in comparison to conventional superheated steam Rankine systems. At turbine inlet conditions of 923K and 25 MPa, high thermal efficiency (~50%) can be achieved. Achieving these high efficiencies will make concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies a competitive alternative to current power generation methods. To incorporate a s-CO2 Brayton power cycle in a solar power tower system, the development of a solar receiver capable of providing an outlet temperature of 923 K (at 25 MPa) is necessary. To satisfy the temperature requirements of a s-CO2 Brayton cycle with recuperation and recompression, it is required to heat s-CO2 by a temperature of ~200 K as it passes through the solar receiver. Our objective was to develop an optical-thermal-fluid model to design and evaluate a tubular receiver that will receive a heat input ~1 MWth from a heliostat field. We also undertook the documentation of design requirements for the development, testing and safe operation of a direct s-CO2 solar receiver. The main purpose of this document is to serve as a reference and guideline for design and testing requirements, as well as to address the technical challenges and provide initial parameters for the computational models that will be employed for the development of s-CO2 receivers.

  19. # Project Title Pre-requisites Advisor(s) Control of a DC Motor Drive: Design and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masoudi, Husain M.

    & MINERALS DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EE 411 LIST OF CAPSTONE PROJECTS 071 #12;8 The Development Design of A grid Connected Wind Farm Dr. Ibrahim El-Amin Mr. Shafique Rahman (RI) & Mr. Firoz Ahmed (RI-Zaher & Mr. Ahmad Abul-Hussain 20 On the Design of a 1000 MVA, 132 / 13.8 kV Power Substation Dr. Zakariya Al

  20. Design of a MeV, 4kA linear induction accelerator for flash radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulke, B.; Brier, R.; Chapin, W.

    1981-02-10

    For verifying the hydrodynamics of nuclear weapons design it is useful to have flash x-ray machines that can deliver a maximum dose in a minimum pulse length and with very high reliability. At LLNL, such a requirement was identified some years ago as 500 roentgens at one meter, in a 60 nsec pulse length. In response to this requirement, a linear induction accelerator was proposed to and funded by DOE in 1977. The design of this machine, called FXR, has now been completed and construction has begun. The FXR design extends the parameters of a similar machine that had been built and operated at LBL, Berkeley, some ten years ago. Using a cold cathode injector followed by 48 accelerator modules rated at 400 kV each, the FXR machine will accelerate a 4 kA electron beam pulse to 20 MeV final energy. Key design features are the generation and the stable transport of a low emittance (100 mr-cm) beam from a field emitter diode, the design of reliable, compact energy storage components such as Blumleins, feedlines and accelerator modules, and a computer-assisted control system.

  1. Designing Automated Market Makers with Adaptive Liquidity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiaolong

    2012-01-01

    8 Optimal Market Design Complete Pricefor dynamic prediction market design. Operations Research,Combinatorial information market design. Information Systems

  2. EIS-0129: New England/Hydro-Quebec 450 kV Transmission Line Interconnection- Phase II

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Economic Regulatory Administration issued this EIS to explore the impacts of amending Presidential Permit PP-76 to allow the Vermont Electrical Company to operate at power levels above those stipulated in the permit and to build additional transmission facilities to distribute the increased power. Phase I of this project is detailed in EIS-0103.

  3. EIS-0103: New England/Hydro-Quebec 450-kV Direct Current Transmission Line Interconnection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Economic Regulatory Administration prepared this statement to evaluate the environmental impacts of the construction, maintenance, and operation of a 57-mile transmission line from Monroe, New Hampshire, to the U.S./Canadian border for the purpose of economic exchange of power and increased reliability. Phase 2 of this project is detailed in EIS-0129.

  4. Design considerations of a pair of power leads for fast-cycling superconducting accelerator magnets operating at 2 Tesla and 100 kA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Yuenian; Hays, Steven; Piekarz, Henryk; de Rijk, Gijsbert; Rossi, L.; /Fermilab /CERN

    2007-08-01

    Recently proposed injector accelerator, Low Energy Ring (LER) for the LHC and fast cycling accelerators for the proton drivers (SF-SPS at CERN and DSF-MR at Fermilab) require that a new magnet technology be developed. In support of this accelerator program, a pair of power leads needs to be developed to close the loop between the power supply and accelerator system. The magnet proposed to be used will be a modified transmission line magnet technology that would allow for accelerator quality magnetic field sweep of 2 T/s. The transmission line conductor will be using HTS technology and cooled with supercritical helium at 5 K. The power leads consist of two sections; upper one is a copper and lower section will be using HTS tapes. The accelerator magnet will be ramped to 100 kA in a second and almost immediately ramped down to zero in one second. This paper outlines the design considerations for the power leads to meet the operational requirements for the accelerator system. The power leads thermal analysis during the magnet powering cycle will be included.

  5. Design, development, and acceleration trials of radio-frequency quadrupole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, S. V. L. S. Jain, Piyush; Pande, Rajni; Roy, Shweta; Mathew, Jose V.; Kumar, Rajesh; Pande, Manjiri; Krishnagopal, S.; Gupta, S. K.; Singh, P.

    2014-04-15

    A deuteron radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator has been designed, fabricated, and tested at BARC, which will be used for neutron generation. The RFQ operates at a frequency of 350 MHz and needs an inter-vane voltage of 44 kV to accelerate the deuteron beam to 400 keV within a length of 1.03 m. The error analysis shows that the offset of two opposite vanes in the same direction by 100 ?m leads to a change in resonant frequency by 1.3 MHz and a significant change of fields in the quadrants (?±40% with respect to average field). From the 3D analysis, we have observed that the unwanted dipole mode frequencies are very near to the quadrupole mode frequency which will make structure sensitive to the perturbations. In order to move the dipole modes away from the quadrupole modes, we have used the dipole stabilizer rods. The 5 wire transmission line theory was used to study the perturbative analysis of the RFQ and based on this a computer program has been written to tune the cavity to get required field distribution. Based on these studies, a 1.03 m long RFQ made of OFE copper has been fabricated and tested. Even though the RFQ was designed for deuteron (D{sup +}) beam, we tested it by accelerating both the proton (H{sup +}) and D{sup +} beams. The RFQ was operated in pulsed mode and accelerated both H{sup +} and D{sup +} beams to designed values of 200 and 400 keV, respectively. The measured parameters are in good agreement with the designed values validating our simulations and fabrication processes. In this paper, simulations, RF measurements, and beam commissioning results are presented.

  6. Type A Accident Investigation Report on the June 25, 1997, Contractor Inspector Fatality on the Satsop-Aberdeen #2 & #3 230 kV Line

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On June 27, 1997, I established a Type-A Accident Investigation Board to investigate the June 25, 1997 fatal contractor accident which occurred on BPA?s Satsop-Aberdeen #2 and #3 230-kV transmission lines right-of-way.

  7. EIS-0112: Rifle to San Juan 345-kV Transmission Line and Associated Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture - Rural Electrification Administration developed this statement to evaluate the environmental impacts of the Colorado-Ute Electric Association Inc. and the U.s. Department of Energy's Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) constructing and operating a 345-kilovolt transmission line from Rifle, Colorado, to the San Juan Generating Station near Farmington, New Mexico. WAPA served as a cooperating agency in the preparation of this statement and adopted it on 10/30/1984. WAPA assumed the lead role for project implementation after issuance of the final statement.

  8. MaDE students will learn all aspects of product realization from product design to manufacturing technologies and operations. Through hands-on experience, the program will provide students with the ability to integrate various design and manufacturing pro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    prototyping technology into mainstream manufacturing processes 3. Training a workforce to use lean designMaDE students will learn all aspects of product realization from product design to manufacturing to integrate various design and manufacturing processes into an effective system. Information Technology HOW

  9. Optimized design for PIGMI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansborough, L.; Hamm, R.; Stovall, J.; Swenson, D.

    1980-01-01

    PIGMI (Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations) is a compact linear proton accelerator design, optimized for pion production and cancer treatment use in a hospital environment. Technology developed during a four-year PIGMI Prototype experimental program allows the design of smaller, less expensive, and more reliable proton linacs. A new type of low-energy accelerating structure, the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) has been tested; it produces an exceptionally good-quality beam and allows the use of a simple 30-kV injector. Average axial electric-field gradients of over 9 MV/m have been demonstrated in a drift-tube linac (DTL) structure. Experimental work is underway to test the disk-and-washer (DAW) structure, another new type of accelerating structure for use in the high-energy coupled-cavity linac (CCL). Sufficient experimental and developmental progress has been made to closely define an actual PIGMI. It will consist of a 30-kV injector, and RFQ linac to a proton energy of 2.5 MeV, a DTL linac to 125 MeV, and a CCL linac to the final energy of 650 MeV. The total length of the accelerator is 133 meters. The RFQ and DTL will be driven by a single 440-MHz klystron; the CCL will be driven by six 1320-MHz klystrons. The peak beam current is 28 mA. The beam pulse length is 60 ..mu..s at a 60-Hz repetition rate, resulting in a 100-..mu..A average beam current. The total cost of the accelerator is estimated to be approx. $10 million.

  10. Seasonal Patterns of Melatonin, Cortisol, and Progesterone Secretion in Female Lambs Raised Beneath a 500-kV Transmission Line.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jack M.

    1992-06-01

    Although several kinds of biological effects of electric and magnetic fields have been reported from laboratory studies, few have been independently replicated. When this study was being planned, the suppression of nighttime melatonin in rodents was thought to represent one of the strongest known effects of these fields. The effect had been replicated by a single laboratory for 60-Hz electric fields, and by multiple laboratories for d-c magnetic fields. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the effect of electric and magnetic fields on melatonin would also occur in sheep exposed to a high voltage transmission line. The specific hypothesis tested by this experiment was as follows: The electrical environment produced by a 60-Hz, 500-kV transmission line causes a depression in nocturnal melatonin in chronically exposed female lambs. This may mimic effects of pinealectomy or constant long-day photoperiods, thus delaying the onset of reproductive cycles. Results of the study do not provide evidence to support the hypothesis. Melatonin concentrations in the sheep exposed to the transmission line showed the normal pattern of low daytime and high nighttime serum levels. As compared to the control group, there were no statistically significant group differences in the mean amplitude, phase, or duration of the nighttime melatonin elevation.

  11. Chapter 1: Operating System Models 1 Operating System Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melbourne, University of

    Chapter 1: Operating System Models 1 2 Operating System Models 2.1 Introduction Over the past several years, a number of trends affecting operating system design are witnessed and foremost among them is a move towards modularity. Operating systems such as Microsofts Windows, IBMs OS/2, C-DACs PARAS

  12. Design of a Universal Logic Block for Fault-Tolerant Realization of any Logic Operation in Trapped-Ion Quantum Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadi Goudarzi; Mohammad Javad Dousti; Alireza Shafaei; Massoud Pedram

    2015-01-12

    This paper presents a physical mapping tool for quantum circuits, which generates the optimal Universal Logic Block (ULB) that can perform any logical fault-tolerant (FT) quantum operations with the minimum latency. The operation scheduling, placement, and qubit routing problems tackled by the quantum physical mapper are highly dependent on one another. More precisely, the scheduling solution affects the quality of the achievable placement solution due to resource pressures that may be created as a result of operation scheduling whereas the operation placement and qubit routing solutions influence the scheduling solution due to resulting distances between predecessor and current operations, which in turn determines routing latencies. The proposed flow for the quantum physical mapper captures these dependencies by applying (i) a loose scheduling step, which transforms an initial quantum data flow graph into one that explicitly captures the no-cloning theorem of the quantum computing and then performs instruction scheduling based on a modified force-directed scheduling approach to minimize the resource contention and quantum circuit latency, (ii) a placement step, which uses timing-driven instruction placement to minimize the approximate routing latencies while making iterative calls to the aforesaid force-directed scheduler to correct scheduling levels of quantum operations as needed, and (iii) a routing step that finds dynamic values of routing latencies for the qubits. In addition to the quantum physical mapper, an approach is presented to determine the single best ULB size for a target quantum circuit by examining the latency of different FT quantum operations mapped onto different ULB sizes and using information about the occurrence frequency of operations on critical paths of the target quantum algorithm to weigh these latencies.

  13. This thesis seeks to further explore off-design point operation of gas turbines and to examine the capabilities of GasTurb 12 as a tool for off-design analysis. It is a continuation of previous thesis work which initially explored the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    This thesis seeks to further explore off-design point operation of gas turbines and to examine the program to predict performance of an LM2500+ marine gas turbine. Haglind and Elmegaard (2009) published the expected behavior demonstrated in the specification data for the same gas turbine system. It was originally

  14. DC power supply for charging of a 12 KV 200 KJ energy storage capacitor battery of a 500 KA pulse system for the magnetic horn and reflectors of the CERN neutrino beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langeseth, B

    1968-01-01

    DC power supply for charging of a 12 KV 200 KJ energy storage capacitor battery of a 500 KA pulse system for the magnetic horn and reflectors of the CERN neutrino beam

  15. Concept of Operations: Essence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hutton, William J.

    2014-04-01

    This concept of operations is designed to give the reader a brief overview of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association’s Essence project and a description of the Essence device design. The data collected by the device, how the data are used, and how the data are protected are also discussed in this document.

  16. Jefferson Lab Chief Operating Officer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COO Privacy and Security Notice Skip over navigation Search the JLab Site Chief Operating Officer Please upgrade your browser. This site's design is only visible in a graphical...

  17. Vector Analysis of Prostate Patient Setup With Image-Guided Radiation Therapy via kV Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perks, Julian, E-mail: julian.perks@ucdmc.ucdavis.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, California (United States); Turnbull, Helen; Liu Tianxiao; Purdy, James; Valicenti, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, California (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To analyze the daily setup variations in a cohort of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) prostate cancer patients who had received daily image-guided RT without the use of fiducial markers to determine if daily image guidance is necessary. Methods and Materials: 2134 Kilovoltage (kV) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were analyzed, with three shifts recorded for each image. The number of times that the vector of the combined shifts would have exceeded the planning tumor volume (PTV) margin was tallied. Then, the average scalar shift of the first five images was removed from all subsequent images for a given patient, and the number of days for which the shift vector was greater than the three-dimensional clinical tumor volume-PTV (3D CTV-PTV) margin (8 mm, created with rolling ball technique) was recorded. Additionally, the scalar shifts from every other fraction were studied to determine if the individual patient's shift vector would be adequately sampled if CBCT was not performed daily, thus reducing patient imaging dose without compromising treatment quality. Results: There were 297 cases where the vector shift was initially greater than the PTV margin. By correcting each patient's data set by the average shift of their first five images the total was 248 cases. By considering only every other image of each patient data set (after correction for the first 5 days), only 137 days in which the CTV was outside the PTV would have been seen. Conclusions: Daily imaging is recommended for prostate cancer IMRT patients in order to know the 3D (vector) position of the CTV and to ensure that it is always within the PTV margin. Correcting the data set by the average shift from the first 5 days reduces the overall number of outlier days but does not eliminate them completely.

  18. APPA Engineering and Operations Technical Conference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The 2014 APPA Engineering and Operations Technical Conference is designed for public power professionals charged with designing, developing, and maintaining the nation's electric system.

  19. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 14, NO. 2, JUNE 2004 883 Design and Cooling Characteristic Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Ho-Myung

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 14, NO. 2, JUNE 2004 883 Design and Cooling-cooled cryogenic cooling system for 1.2 kV/80 A inductive Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL was supported by a grant from the Center for Applied Superconductivity Technology of the 21st Century Frontier R

  20. ISIS Facility: Facility Design Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    ISIS Facility: Facility Design Challenges Matt Fletcher Head, Design Division ISIS Department, FNAL #12;ISIS -- neutrons Diamond -- X-rays #12;#12;· Lifetime · Reliable Operation · Flexibility

  1. Hydronic Systems: Designing for Setback Operation, Ithaca, New York (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingR Walls -Hydro-PacHydronic Systems: Designing for Setback

  2. Design of photovoltaic central power station concentrator array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using tracking concentrators has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes an advanced Martin Marietta two-axis tracking fresnel lens concentrator. The concentrators are arrayed in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic plant output is connected to the existing 115 kV switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  3. Cask fleet operations study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management the responsibility for disposing of high-level waste and spent fuel. A significant part of that responsibility involves transporting nuclear waste materials within the federal waste management system; that is, from the waste generator to the repository. The lead responsibility for transportation operations has been assigned to Oak Ridge Operations, with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing technical support through the Transportation Operations Support Task Group. One of the ORNL support activities involves assessing what facilities, equipment and services are required to assure that an acceptable, cost-effective and safe transportation operations system can be designed, operated and maintained. This study reviews, surveys and assesses the experience of Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) in operating a fleet of spent-fuel shipping casks to aid in developing the spent-fuel transportation system.

  4. TRAC analyses for CCTF and SCTF tests and UPTF design/operation. [Cylindrical Core Test Facility; Slab Core Test Facility; Upper Plenum Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spore, J.W.; Cappiello, M.W.; Dotson, P.J.; Gilbert, J.S; Martinez, V.; Stumpf, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    The analytical support in 1985 for Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF), Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF), and Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF) tests involves the posttest analysis of 16 tests that have already been run in the CCTF and the SCTF and the pretest analysis of 3 tests to be performed in the UPTF. Posttest analysis is used to provide insight into the detailed thermal-hydraulic phenomena occurring during the refill and reflood tests performed in CCTF and SCTF. Pretest analysis is used to ensure that the test facility is operated in a manner consistent with the expected behavior of an operating full-scale plant during an accident. To obtain expected behavior of a plant during an accident, two plant loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) calculations were performed: a 200% cold-leg-break LOCA calculation for a 2772 MW(t) Babcock and Wilcox plant and a 200% cold-leg-break LOCA calculation for a 3315 MW(t) Westinghouse plant. Detailed results are presented for several CCTF UPI tests and the Westinghouse plant analysis.

  5. Development of NS-TACSR with extremely suppressed aeolian noise and its application to 500 kV overhead transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Furukawa, S. (Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)); Shimojima, K.; Yamamoto, K. (Hitachi Cable, Ltd., Hitachi (JP))

    1991-10-01

    Recently in Japan, with the unprecedented advance of residential area development in the suburbs of large cities, it has become quite difficult to secure the routes of EHV transmission lines from nuclear power plants in remote places to the suburbs of large cities, urging resolution of environmental problems related to transmission lines. In Japan, aerodynamic sound produced by conductors and insulators frequently caused noise problems. Having an opportunity of constructing a 500 kV transmission line through a residential are, we made a research to resolve this noise problem. This paper describes the characteristics of aeolian noise and preventive measures against it.

  6. Design, Construction and Operation of a Low-Power, Autonomous Radio-Frequency Data-Acquisition Station for the TARA Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunwar, S; Allen, C; Belz, J; Besson, D; Byrne, M; Farhang-Boroujeny, B; Gillman, W H; Hanlon, W; Hanson, J; Myers, I; Novikov, A; Prohira, S; Ratzlaff, K; Rezazadeh, A; Sanivarapu, V; Schurig, D; Shustov, A; Smirnova, M; Takai, H; Thomson, G B; Young, R

    2015-01-01

    Employing a 40-kW radio-frequency transmitter just west of Delta, UT, and operating at 54.1 MHz, the TARA (Telescope Array RAdar) experiment seeks radar detection of extensive air showers (EAS) initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR). For UHECR with energies in excess of $10^{19}$ eV, the Doppler-shifted "chirps" resulting from EAS shower core radar reflections should be observable above background (dominantly galactic) at distances of tens of km from the TARA transmitter. In order to stereoscopically reconstruct cosmic ray chirps, two remote, autonomous self-powered receiver stations have been deployed. Each remote station (RS) combines both low power consumption as well as low cost. Triggering logic, the powering and communication systems, and some specific details of hardware components are discussed.

  7. Capital and operating cost estimates. Volume I. Preliminary design and assessment of a 12,500 BPD coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline plant. [Grace C-M-G Plant, Henderson County, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    This Deliverable No. 18b - Capital and Operating Cost Estimates includes a detailed presentation of the 12,500 BPD coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline plant from the standpoint of capital, preoperations, start-up and operations cost estimation. The base capital cost estimate in June 1982 dollars was prepared by the Ralph M. Parsons Company under the direction of Grace. The escalated capital cost estimate as well as separate estimates for preoperations, startup and operations activities were developed by Grace. The deliverable consists of four volumes. Volume I contains details of methodology used in developing the capital cost estimate, summary information on a base June 1982 capital cost, details of the escalated capital cost estimate and separate sections devoted to preoperations, start-up, and operations cost. The base estimate is supported by detailed information in Volumes II, III and IV. The degree of detail for some units was constrained due to proprietary data. Attempts have been made to exhibit the estimating methodology by including data on individual equipment pricing. Proprietary details are available for inspection upon execution of nondisclosure and/or secrecy agreements with the licensors to whom the data is proprietary. Details of factoring certain pieces of equipment and/or entire modules or units from the 50,000 BPD capital estimate are also included. In the case of the escalated capital estimate, Grace has chosen to include a sensitivity analysis which allows for ready assessment of impacts of escalation rates (inflation), contingency allowances and the construction interest financing rates on the escalated capital cost. Each of the estimates associated with bringing the plant to commercial production rates has as a basis the schedule and engineering documentation found in Deliverable No. 14b - Process Engineering and Mechanical Design Report, No. 28b - Staffing Plans, No. 31b - Construction Plan, and No. 33b - Startup and Operation Plan.

  8. EIS-0079: 300-kV International Submarine Transmission Line- Erie, Pennsylvania to Nanticoke, Ontario, Canada General Public Utilities Corporation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Emergency Operations developed this statement to assess the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of 44 miles of cable between the Erie West Substation and the Canadian border.

  9. Design and initial operation of a two-color soft x-ray camera system on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herfindal, J. L., E-mail: j.herfindal@gmail.com; Dawson, J. D.; Ennis, D. A.; Hartwell, G. J.; Loch, S. D.; Maurer, D. A. [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A multi-camera soft x-ray diagnostic has been developed to measure the equilibrium electron temperature profile and temperature fluctuations due to magnetohydrodynamic activity on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid experiment. The diagnostic consists of three separate cameras each employing two 20-channel diode arrays that view the same plasma region through different beryllium filter thicknesses of 1.8??m and 3.0??m allowing electron temperature measurements between 50 eV and 200 eV. The Compact Toroidal Hybrid is a five-field period current-carrying stellarator, in which the presence of plasma current strongly modifies the rotational transform and degree of asymmetry of the equilibrium. Details of the soft x-ray emission, effects of plasma asymmetry, and impurity line radiation on the design and measurement of the two-color diagnostic are discussed. Preliminary estimates of the temperature perturbation due to sawtooth oscillations observed in these hybrid discharges are given.

  10. Test Results of a Compact Conventional Modulator for Two-Klystron Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gold, S

    2004-05-04

    Modulator technology has not advanced greatly over the last 30 years. Today, with the advent of the High Voltage, High Power IGBT there are several approaches for a solid state ON/OFF switched modulator. Klystron and accelerator technology is forcing voltages and peak powers higher such as the demand for 500 kV and 500 amperes peak to power two X-Band klystrons. Conventional technology (line-type modulators) were never overly concerned about rise time and efficiency. A few years ago, the klystron department at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) undertook an investigation into what could be done in a conventional modulator at 500 kV. We have reported on test bed measurements and shown both conceptual and hardware pictures during design and construction. We have now completed the modulator tank.

  11. Control system design guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  12. Building Operator Certification: Improving Commercial Building Energy Efficiency Through Operator Training and Certification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Putnam, C.; Mulak, A.

    2001-01-01

    Building Operator Certification (BOC) is a competency-based certification for building operators designed to improve the energy efficiency of commercial buildings. Operators earn certification by attending training sessions and completing project...

  13. Design and Construction of a150kV/300A/1s Blumlein Pulser J.O. ROSSI, M. UEDA and J.J. BARROSO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    suited devices for high voltage pulse generation in the range of nanoseconds or microseconds carried out in our laboratory, including a PSPICE simulation of the output pulse voltage of the generator. Key-words: - Blumlein, pulse generator, transmission line, high voltage, coaxial cable, switch tube 1

  14. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-07-31

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000 to 2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter.

  15. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-10-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter.

  16. operations center

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    servers and other critical Operations Center equipment

  17. Independent air supply system filtered to protect against biological and radiological agents (99.7%).
  18. <...

  19. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Schlager; Tom Millar

    2003-01-27

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter. During the ninth reporting quarter, progress was made on the project in the following areas: PG&E NEG Salem Harbor Station -- Long term testing and equipment decommissioning has been completed, A web cast/conference call was held to review data, and Preliminary preparation and review of data and test results for the final report. Technology Transfer -- A number of technical presentations and briefings were made during the quarter. Notable among them was a Program Status Report presented to NETL. Also, one paper was presented at Power-Gen and one at the Annual Coal Marketing Strategies Conference.

  20. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Schlager; Tom Millar

    2002-10-18

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter. During the eighth reporting quarter, progress was made on the project in the following areas: (1) PG&E NEG Salem Harbor Station--Sorbent injection equipment was installed at the site during the quarter; Test plans were prepared for the field-testing phase of the project; and Baseline testing was completed during the quarter. (2) Technology Transfer--A number of technical presentations and briefings were made during the quarter. Notable among them was a paper published in the JAWMA. Also, two papers were presented at the Air Quality III Conference and one at the Pittsburgh Coal Conference.

  21. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Schlager

    2002-08-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter. During the seventh reporting quarter, progress was made on the project in the following areas: (1) PG&E NEG Brayton Point Station--Sorbent injection equipment was installed at the site during the quarter; Test plans were prepared for the field testing phase of the project; Baseline testing was completed during the quarter and parametric testing was begun; and A paper summarizing the full-scale tests was written and submitted to A&WMA for presentation at the annual meeting in June 2002. (2) Technology Transfer--A number of technical presentations and briefings were made during the quarter. Notable among them are papers published in the A&WMA EM journal and Pollution Engineering. Also, information was provided to the EPA MACT Working Group and a paper was presented at the annual A&WMA meeting.

  22. SPECTR System Operational Test Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.H. Landman Jr.

    2011-08-01

    This report overviews installation of the Small Pressure Cycling Test Rig (SPECTR) and documents the system operational testing performed to demonstrate that it meets the requirements for operations. The system operational testing involved operation of the furnace system to the design conditions and demonstration of the test article gas supply system using a simulated test article. The furnace and test article systems were demonstrated to meet the design requirements for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Therefore, the system is deemed acceptable and is ready for actual test article testing.

  1. SNS LINAC MODULATOR OPERATIONAL HISTORY AND PERFOMANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peplov, Vladimir V [ORNL; Anderson, David E [ORNL; Cutler, Roy I [ORNL; Hicks, Jim [ORNL; Saethre, Robert B [ORNL; Wezensky, Mark W [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Fourteen High Voltage Converter Modulators (HVCM) were initially installed at the Spallation Neutron Source Linear Accelerator (SNS Linac) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 2005. A fifteenth HVCM was added in 2009. Each modulator provides a pulse of up to 140 kV at a maximum width of 1.35 msec. Peak power level is 11 MW with an 8% duty factor. The HVCM system must be available for neutron production (NP) 24/7 with the exception being two, 6-week maintenance periods per year. HVCM reliability is one of the most important factors to maximize Linac availability and achieve SNS performance goals. During the last few years several modifications have been implemented to improve the overall system reliability. This paper presents operational history of the HVCM systems and examines failure mode statistical data since the modulators began operating at 60 Hz. System enhancements and upgrades aimed at providing long term reliable operation with minimal down time are also discussed in the paper.

  2. Operator Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-09-10

    structures. Such invariant rank structures were exploited therein to design fast ... invariance structures of the Hessenberg iterates of C under QR iterations. It has.

  3. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Curecanti-Lost Canyon 230-kV Transmission Line Reroute Project, Montrose County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2000-03-20

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to reroute a section of the Curecanti-Lost Canyon 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line, in Montrose County, Colorado. A portion of the transmission line, situated 11 miles southeast of Montrose, Colorado, crosses Waterdog Peak, an area of significant geologic surface activity, which is causing the transmission line's lattice steel towers to shift. This increases stress to structure hardware and conductors, and poses a threat to the integrity of the transmission system. Western proposes to relocate the lattice steel towers and line to a more geologically stable area. The existing section of transmission line and the proposed relocation route cross Bureau of Land Management and private land holdings.

  4. Design Editorial Design Innovation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    juxtaposition of innovation versus invention: "Invention is the first occurrence of an idea for a new product such as innovation strategies, product design, service inno- vation, cutting-edge designers, design awards, and green design. Much of that perspective on innovation is then tied to industrial or product design, often

  5. Operating Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter is focused on capital costs for conventional construction and environmental restoration and waste management projects and examines operating cost estimates to verify that all elements of the project have been considered and properly estimated.

  6. VOLUME 4$, NUMBER 10 PHYSICAL RKVI K%V LKTTKRS $ SEPTEMBER 1979 Low-Energy Pion Production at 0' with Heavy Ions from 125 to 400 MeV/Nucleon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertsch George F.

    VOLUME 4$, NUMBER 10 PHYSICAL RKVI K%V LKTTKRS $ SEPTEMBER 1979 Low-Energy Pion Production at 0 studies of pion production in such collisions with beam energies below 1 GeV/ nucleon are currently being meas- urements of pion-production cross sections at heavy-ion-beam energies much lower than pre

  7. Distributed naming in a factored operating system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckmann, Nathan (Nathan Zachary)

    2010-01-01

    A factored operating system (fos) is a new operating system design for manycore and cloud computers. In fos, OS services are separated from application code and run on distinct cores. Furthermore, each service is split ...

  8. Designing and implementing auxiliary operational processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Zachary R

    2008-01-01

    Amazon.com, one of the largest and most profitable online retailers, has been experiencing such dramatic growth rates that it must continually update and modify its fulfillment process in order to meet customer demand for ...

  9. Process Design and Operation for Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossiter, A. P.; Nath, R.; Yell, M. D.

    1991-01-01

    , ambient temperature) change in real time. Recent developments in computing, combined with new insights in thermo dynamics, give today's energy ~anager some powerful new methods for reduclng process energy requirements. This paper addresses three...

  10. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2013-07-15

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions.

  11. Design of the EBIS vacuum system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Weiss, D.

    2011-03-28

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) is presently being commissioned. The EBIS will be a new heavy ion pre-injector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The new preinjector has the potential for significant future intensity increases and can produce heavy ion beams of all species including uranium. The background pressure in the ionization region of the EBIS required to be low enough that it does not produce a significant number of ions from background gas. The pressure in the regions of the electron gun and electron collector can be higher than in the ionization region provided there is efficient vacuum separation between the sections. For injection the ions must be accelerated to 100KV by pulsing the EBIS platform. All associated equipment including the vacuum equipment on the platform is at a 100KV potential. The vacuum system design and the vacuum controls for the EBIS platform and transport system will be presented as well as the interface with the Booster Ring which has a pressure 10-11 Torr.

  12. Design Editorial Design Intent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    Journal of Mechanical Design Editorial Design Intent Is this paper suitable for JMD of criteria to answer the question. As editor of JMD, apart from the obvious criteria of quality and research assumed my editorial duties is the paper's design intent. It was in that spirit that I wrote the Design

  13. Operating Strategies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996Technologies /JuneOperating Oak Ridge'sOPERATING

  14. Jefferson Lab Chief Operating Officer - Stockroom

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stockroom Privacy and Security Notice Skip over navigation search Chief Operating Officer Please upgrade your browser. This site's design is only visible in a graphical browser...

  15. Jrgen Bauck Jensen Optimal Operation of Refrigera-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    and compared with the Tmin-method. Considering the large amount of work that goes into the design of LNG LNG process is used as an example for optimal design and optimal operation of LNG processes

  16. New Switches for Utility-Scale Inverters: First In-Class Demonstration of a Completely New Type of SiC Bipolar Switch (15kV-20kV) for Utility-Scale Inverters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-31

    Solar ADEPT Project: The SiCLAB is developing a new power switch for utility-scale PV inverters that would improve the performance and significantly reduce the size, weight, and energy loss of PV systems. A power switch controls the electrical energy flowing through an inverter, which takes the electrical current from a PV solar panel and converts it into the type and amount of electricity that is compatible with the electric grid. SiCLAB is using silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductors in its new power switches, which are more efficient than the silicon semiconductors used to conduct electricity in most conventional power switches today. Switches with SiC semiconductors can operate at much higher temperatures, as well as higher voltage and power levels than silicon switches. SiC-based power switches are also smaller than those made with silicon alone, so they result in much smaller and lighter electrical devices. In addition to their use in utility-scale PV inverters, SiCLAB’s new power switches can also be used in wind turbines, railways, and other smart grid applications.

  17. Design of a photovoltaic central power station: flat-plate array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using fixed flat-panel arrays has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes high-efficiency photovoltaic modules using dendritic web cells. The modules are arranged in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic output is connected to the existing 115 kV utility switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  18. SU-E-J-214: Comparative Assessment On IGRT On Partial Bladder Cancer Treatment Between CT-On-Rails (CTOR) and KV Cone Beam CT (CBCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, T; Ma, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Image-Guided radiation therapy(IGRT) depends on reliable online patient-specific anatomy information to address random and progressive anatomy changes. Large margins have been suggested to bladder cancer treatment due to large daily bladder anatomy variation. KV Cone beam CT(CBCT) has been used in IGRT localization prevalently; however, its lack of soft tissue contrast makes clinicians hesitate to perform daily soft tissue alignment with CBCT for partial bladder cancer treatment. This study compares the localization uncertainties of bladder cancer IGRT using CTon- Rails(CTOR) and CBCT. Methods: Three T2N0M0 bladder cancer patients (total of 66 Gy to partial bladder alone) were localized daily with either CTOR or CBCT for their entire treatment course. A total of 71 sets of CTOR and 22 sets of CBCT images were acquired and registered with original planning CT scans by radiation therapists and approved by radiation oncologists for the daily treatment. CTOR scanning entailed 2mm slice thickness, 0.98mm axial voxel size, 120kVp and 240mAs. CBCT used a half fan pelvis protocol from Varian OBI system with 2mm slice thickness, 0.98axial voxel size, 125kVp, and 680mAs. Daily localization distribution was compared. Accuracy of CTOR and CBCT on partial bladder alignment was also evaluated by comparing bladder PTV coverage. Results: 1cm all around PTV margins were used in every patient except target superior limit margin to 0mm due to bowel constraint. Daily shifts on CTOR averaged to 0.48, 0.24, 0.19 mms(SI,Lat,AP directions); CBCT averaged to 0.43, 0.09, 0.19 mms(SI,Lat,AP directions). The CTOR daily localization showed superior results of V100% of PTV(102% CTOR vs. 89% CBCT) and bowel(Dmax 69.5Gy vs. 78Gy CBCT). CTOR images showed much higher contrast on bladder PTV alignment. Conclusion: CTOR daily localization for IGRT is more dosimetrically beneficial for partial bladder cancer treatment than kV CBCT localization and provided better soft tissue PTV identification.

  19. Design for manufacturability Design verification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Chintan

    ITRS Design #12;Design · Design for manufacturability · Design verification #12;Design for Manufacturability · Architecture challenges · Logic and circuit challenges · Layout and physical design challenges · Expected to be the source of multiple DFM challenges · Invest in variability reduction or design

  20. Atomic and electronic structures of SrTiO3/GaAs heterointerfaces: An 80-kV atomic-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, Q.; Klie, Robert F; Ogut, Serdar; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C

    2012-01-01

    We have examined the atomic and electronic structures of epitaxially grown, ultrathin SrTiO{sub 3} (100) films on GaAs (001) using 80-kV aberration-corrected atomic-resolution Z-contrast imaging and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to develop a fundamental understanding of the interfacial structure-property relationships. We find that the interface is atomically abrupt and no surface reconstruction of the GaAs (001) surface is observed. Using atomic-column resolved EELS, we examine the oxygen vacancy and Ti concentrations in the SrTiO{sub 3} film and across the heterointerface. We show that Ti diffuses into the first few monolayers of GaAs. Using a combination of EELS and first-principles calculations, we present evidence for the formation of As oxides at the interface depending on the thin-film growth conditions. These findings are used to explain the differences in the transport behavior of the films.

  1. Impact Mitigation and Monitoring of the BPA 500-kV Garrison-Taft Transmission Line : Effects on Elk Security and Hunter Opportunity, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canfield, Jodie E.

    1988-11-01

    This study was conducted by the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks from 1984--1988 to assess the impacts of the Garrison-Taft segment of a 500-kV powerline on elk summer-fall habitat. Construction of the powerline began in 1983, and the powerline was energized in 1985. The Garrison-Taft powerline corridor crossed 251 km of mountainous terrain in western Montana; about 465 km of new roads were constructed to provide permanent access to the powerline towers. The objectives of the study were: (1) to monitor the effectiveness of mitigation measures, including timing restrictions on construction activities and road closures on newly-built access roads, and (2) to determine if opening previously-unroaded elk security habitats to hunters by powerline access roads affected elk habitat use, distribution, use of security areas, or elk harvest. In addition, both the potential for accelerated timber harvest in areas crossed by the powerline that would not have otherwise been logged because of marginal economics and lack of haul roads and the potential effect of powerline flashovers on future prescribed burning of elk winter-ranges were evaluated. 83 refs., 88 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Operations Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996Technologies /JuneOperating Oakoak ridge

  3. Operations Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996Technologies /JuneOperating Oakoak

  4. Design intent tool: User guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Evan; Abell, Daniel; Bell, Geoffrey; Faludi, Jeremy; Greenberg, Steve; Hitchcock, Rob; Piette, Mary Ann; Sartor, Dalei; Stum, Karl

    2002-08-23

    This database tool provides a structured approach to recording design decisions that impact a facility's design intent in areas such as energy efficiency.Owners and de signers alike can plan, monitor and verify that a facility's design intent is being met during each stage of the design process. Additionally, the Tool gives commissioning agents, facility operators and future owners and renovators an understanding of how the building and its subsystems are intended to operate, and thus track and benchmark performance.

  5. ILC Operating Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Barklow; J. Brau; K. Fujii; J. Gao; J. List; N. Walker; K. Yokoya

    2015-06-25

    The ILC Technical Design Report documents the design for the construction of a linear collider which can be operated at energies up to 500 GeV. This report summarizes the outcome of a study of possible running scenarios, including a realistic estimate of the real time accumulation of integrated luminosity based on ramp-up and upgrade processes. The evolution of the physics outcomes is emphasized, including running initially at 500 GeV, then at 350 GeV and 250 GeV. The running scenarios have been chosen to optimize the Higgs precision measurements and top physics while searching for evidence for signals beyond the standard model, including dark matter. In addition to the certain precision physics on the Higgs and top that is the main focus of this study, there are scientific motivations that indicate the possibility for discoveries of new particles in the upcoming operations of the LHC or the early operation of the ILC. Follow-up studies of such discoveries could alter the plan for the centre-of-mass collision energy of the ILC and expand the scientific impact of the ILC physics program. It is envisioned that a decision on a possible energy upgrade would be taken near the end of the twenty year period considered in this report.

  6. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  7. Road Design Susan Handy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handy, Susan L.

    Road Design Susan Handy TTP Orientation Seminar October 2014 #12;Lots of Pavement! #12;Level metro areas Planning Local Planning Public Works Local streets Planning Building Operating Road Design · What are the two main purposes of streets/roads/highways? · What's the main difference between streets

  8. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy in the United States: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Design and operation of power syste m s with large a mounts of windWind Energy: AEP 765 kV Overlay American Electric Power (AEP) developed a conceptual design

  9. Design, construction, system integration, and test results of the 1 MW CW RF system for the e-gun cavity in the energy recovery LINAC at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenci,S.J.; Eisen, E. L.; Dickey, D. L.; Sainz, J. E.; Utay, P. F.; Zaltsman, A.; Lambiase, R.

    2009-05-04

    Brookhaven's ERL (Energy Recovery LINAC) requires a 1 MW CW RF system for the superconducting electron gun cavity. The system consists primarily of a klystron tube, transmitter, and High-Voltage Power Supply (HVPS). The 703.75 MHz klystron made by CPl, Inc. provides RF power of 1MW CW with efficiency of 65%. It has a single output window, diode-type electron gun, and collector capable of dissipating the entire beam power. It was fully factory tested including 24-hour heat run at 1.1 MW CWo The solid state HVPS designed by Continental Electronics provides up to 100 kV at low ripple and 2.1 MW CW with over 95% efficiency. With minimal stored energy and a fast shut-down mode no crowbar circuit is needed. Continental 's transmitter includes PLC based user interface and monitoring, RF pre-amplifier, magnet and Vac-Ion pump supplies, cooling water instrumentation, and integral safety interlock system. BNL installed the klystron, HVPS, and transmitter along with other items, such as circulator, water load, and waveguide components. The collaboration of BNL, CPI, and Continental in the design, installation, and testing was essential to the successful operation of the 1MW system.

  10. Maere, P. C., Clare, A. S., Cummings, M. L., "Assessing Operator Strategies for Adjusting Replan Alerts in Controlling Multiple Unmanned Vehicles," 11th IFAC/IFIP/IFORS/IEA Symposium on Analysis, Design, and Evaluation of Human-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummings, Mary "Missy"

    Alerts in Controlling Multiple Unmanned Vehicles," 11th IFAC/IFIP/IFORS/IEA Symposium on Analysis, Design

  11. Reactor operation safety information document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The report contains a reactor facility description which includes K, P, and L reactor sites, structures, operating systems, engineered safety systems, support systems, and process and effluent monitoring systems; an accident analysis section which includes cooling system anomalies, radioactive materials releases, and anticipated transients without scram; a summary of onsite doses from design basis accidents; severe accident analysis (reactor core disruption); a description of operating contractor organization and emergency planning; and a summary of reactor safety evolution. (MB)

  12. RTL Hardware Design Chapter 3 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Pong P.

    RTL Hardware Design by P. Chu Chapter 3 1 Basic Language Constructs of VHDL #12;RTL Hardware Design. Data type and operators #12;RTL Hardware Design by P. Chu Chapter 3 3 1. Basic VHDL program #12;RTL Hardware Design by P. Chu Chapter 3 4 Design unit · Building blocks in a VHDL program · Each design unit

  13. Circuit breaker operation and potential failure modes during an earthquake: a preliminary investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, H.E.

    1984-04-09

    This study addresses the effect of a strong-motion earthquake on circuit breaker operation. It focuses on the loss of offsite power (LOSP) transient caused by a strong-motion earthquake at the Zion Nuclear Power Plant. This report also describes the operator action necessary to prevent core melt if the above circuit breaker failure modes occur simultaneously on three 4.16 KV buses. Numerous circuit breakers important to plant safety, such as circuit breakers to diesel generators and engineered safety systems, (ESS), must open and/or close during this transient while strong motion is occurring. Nearly 500 electrical drawings were examined to address the effects of earthquakes on circuit breaker operation. Due to the complexity of the problem, this study is not intended to be definitive but serves as a focusing tool for further work. 5 references, 9 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Design and Prototyping of an Ionization Profile Monitor for the SNS Accumulator Ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartkoski, Dirk A; Deibele, Craig E; Polsky, Yarom

    2014-12-01

    An ionization profile monitor (IPM) has been designed for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring. Utilizing ionized electrons produced by beam-gas ionization, the SNS IPM uses a 120 kV bias potential to overcome beam space charge and accelerate electrons towards a movable particle detector. A 300 G magnetic field is used to confine the transverse electron motion, resulting in profile errors at the estimated 7% level. With a system bandwidth of 17.5 MHz. The SNS IPM is capable of measuring turn-by-turn beam profiles for a fully accumulated beam. This paper presents a description of the system and design.

  15. Design, conditioning, and performance of a high voltage, high brightness dc photoelectron gun with variable gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxson, Jared; Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Dobbins, John; Liu, Xianghong; Smolenski, Karl

    2014-09-15

    A new high voltage photoemission gun has been constructed at Cornell University which features a segmented insulator and a movable anode, allowing the cathode-anode gap to be adjusted. In this work, we describe the gun's overall mechanical and high voltage design, the surface preparation of components, as well as the clean construction methods. We present high voltage conditioning data using a 50 mm cathode-anode gap, in which the conditioning voltage exceeds 500 kV, as well as at smaller gaps. Finally, we present simulated emittance results obtained from a genetic optimization scheme using voltage values based on the conditioning data. These results indicate that for charges up to 100 pC, a 30 mm gap at 400 kV has equal or smaller 100% emittance than a 50 mm gap at 450 kV, and also a smaller core emittance, when placed as the source for the Cornell energy recovery linac photoinjector with bunch length constrained to be <3 ps rms. For 100 pC up to 0.5 nC charges, the 50 mm gap has larger core emittance than the 30 mm gap, but conversely smaller 100% emittance.

  16. A long-pulse repetitive operation magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Yu-Wei; Zhong, Hui-Huang; Zhang, Jian-De; Shu, Ting; Liu, Jin Liang [College of Optoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2014-05-15

    The improved magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) is a gigawatt-class L-band high power microwave tube. It has allowed us to generate 3.1 GW pulse of 40 ns duration in the single-pulse operation and 500 MW pulse of 25 ns duration in the repetition rate operation. However, because of the severe impedance mismatch, the power conversion efficiency is only about 4% in the repetition rate operation. In order to eliminate the impedance mismatch and obtain repetitive long-pulse high-power microwave (HPM), a series of experiments are carried out and the recent progress is presented in this paper. In the single-pulse operation, when the diode voltage is 466 kV and current is 41.6 kA, the radiated microwave power is above 2.2 GW, the pulse duration is above 102 ns, the microwave frequency is about 1.74 GHz, and the power conversion efficiency is about 11.5%. In the repetition rate operation, under the condition of the diode voltage about 400 kV, beam current about 38 kA, the radiated microwave power is about 1.0 GW, the pulse duration is about 85 ns. Moreover, the radiated microwave power and the pulse duration decline little by little when the shot numbers increase gradually. The experimental results show that the impedance matching is a vital factor for HPM systems and one of the major technical challenges is to improve the cathode for the repetition rate operation MILO.

  17. Transportation System Concept of Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. Slater-Thompson

    2006-08-16

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, authorized the DOE to develop and manage a Federal system for the disposal of SNF and HLW. OCRWM was created to manage acceptance and disposal of SNF and HLW in a manner that protects public health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. This responsibility includes managing the transportation of SNF and HLW from origin sites to the Repository for disposal. The Transportation System Concept of Operations is the core high-level OCRWM document written to describe the Transportation System integrated design and present the vision, mission, and goals for Transportation System operations. By defining the functions, processes, and critical interfaces of this system early in the system development phase, programmatic risks are minimized, system costs are contained, and system operations are better managed, safer, and more secure. This document also facilitates discussions and understanding among parties responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Transportation System. Such understanding is important for the timely development of system requirements and identification of system interfaces. Information provided in the Transportation System Concept of Operations includes: the functions and key components of the Transportation System; system component interactions; flows of information within the system; the general operating sequences; and the internal and external factors affecting transportation operations. The Transportation System Concept of Operations reflects OCRWM's overall waste management system policies and mission objectives, and as such provides a description of the preferred state of system operation. The description of general Transportation System operating functions in the Transportation System Concept of Operations is the first step in the OCRWM systems engineering process, establishing the starting point for the lower level descriptions. of subsystems and components, and the Transportation System Requirements Document. Other program and system documents, plans, instructions, and detailed designs will be consistent with and informed by the Transportation System Concept of Operations. The Transportation System Concept of Operations is a living document, enduring throughout the OCRWM systems engineering lifecycle. It will undergo formal approval and controlled revisions as appropriate while the Transportation System matures. Revisions will take into account new policy decisions, new information available through system modeling, engineering investigations, technical analyses and tests, and the introduction of new technologies that can demonstrably improve system performance.

  18. A VIRTUAL OPERATING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Dennis E.

    2013-01-01

    Unix time-sharing operating system. D. Hall, D. Scherrer, J.Prentice~Hall, Hansen, "Operating System Principles", Inc. ,of California. A Virtual Operating System Dennis E. Hall

  19. Formal Specification of Operating System Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Paul E.

    Formal Specification of Operating System Operations Dan Zhou Department of Computer Science.black@nist.gov This paper describes the development of a formal specification for a secure operating system architecture operations. We also provide a uniform environment for system commands that change the security state

  20. program design. Final report Brown, W.H.; Gopalakrishnan, S....

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    an improved basis for the design, procurement, testing, and operation of large feed pumps with increased reliability and stability over the full range of operating conditions....

  1. OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS PIÑON RIDGE MILL Energy Fuels Resources Appendix A Tailings and Evaporation Pond Delivery and Return Piping Conceptual Plan AC..........................................................................................................1 2.0 TAILINGS CELL DESIGN

  2. Market characteristics of future oil tanker operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willemann, Simmy Dhawan

    2014-01-01

    This work analyzes the market characteristics of future oil tanker operations with a particular emphasis on those aspects which will have a potential impact on the design of future vessels. The market analysis model used ...

  3. Facilities Operations, Planning, and Engineering Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLaughlin, Richard M.

    Facilities Operations, Planning, and Design Engineering Services Energy Management & Water Reception Campus Maintenance Housing Support Life Safety Services HVAC Energy Management Controls Campus Grounds Maintenance Carolina North Forest Management Stormwater Maintenance In-house Landscape

  4. Chapter 10: Education, Training, and Operation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    can imbue its managers and users with a sense and Operation most important sustainable design goals relate to of pride that can reinforce the commitment to low- resource use and...

  5. Improvement in the statistical operation of a Blumlein pulse forming line in bipolar pulse mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pushkarev, A. I., E-mail: aipush@mail.ru; Isakova, Y. I.; Khaylov, I. P. [Laboratory of Beam and Plasma Technologies, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 2a Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634028 (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-15

    The paper presents the results of studies on shot-to-shot performance of a water Blumlein pulse forming line of 1–1.2 kJ of stored energy. The experiments were carried using the TEMP-4M pulsed ion beam accelerator during its operation in both unipolar pulse mode (150 ns, 250–300 kV) and bipolar-pulse mode with the first negative (300–600 ns, 100–150 kV) followed by a second positive (120 ns, 250–300 kV) pulse. The analysis was carried out for two cases when the Blumlein was terminated with a resistive load and with a self-magnetically insulated ion diode. It was found that in bipolar pulse mode the shot-to-shot variation in breakdown voltage of a preliminary spark gap is small, the standard deviation (1?) does not exceed 2%. At the same time, the shot-to-shot variation in the breakdown voltage of the main spark gap in both bipolar-pulse and unipolar pulse mode is 3–4 times higher than that for the preliminary spark gap. To improve the statistical performance of the main spark gap we changed the regime of its operation from a self-triggered mode to an externally triggered mode. In the new arrangement the first voltage pulse at the output of Blumlein was used to trigger the main spark gap. The new trigatron-type regime of the main spark gap operation showed a good stability of breakdown voltage and thus allowed to stabilize the duration of the first pulse. The standard deviation of the breakdown voltage and duration of the first pulse did not exceed 2% for a set of 50 pulses. The externally triggered mode of the main gap operation also allowed for a decrease in the charging voltage of the Blumlein to a 0.9–0.95 of self-breakdown voltage of the main spark gap while the energy stored in Marx generator was decreased from 4 kJ to 2.5 kJ. At the same time the energy stored in Blumlein remained the same.

  6. Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods Brady, Patrick...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L. A method of designing an injectate to be used in a waterflooding operation is disclosed....

  7. Protocol for Enhanced Evaluations of Beyond Design Basis Events...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Protocol for Enhanced Evaluations of Beyond Design Basis Events Supporting Implementation of Operating Experience Report 2013-01 Protocol for Enhanced Evaluations of Beyond Design...

  8. SAFETY MANAGEMENT MANUAL OSU SHIP OPERATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    overboarding operations on the vessel. 7.16.2 Scope This procedure covers the design, installation, maintenance's equipment - is defined as machinery such as crane, winches, capstans, blocks and rigging regularly as machinery such as winches, cranes and blocks owned by OSU groups other than Ship Operations

  9. Risk-Informed Monitoring, Verification and Accounting (RI-MVA). An NRAP White Paper Documenting Methods and a Demonstration Model for Risk-Informed MVA System Design and Operations in Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Sadovsky, Artyom; Sullivan, E. C.; Anderson, Richard M.

    2011-09-30

    This white paper accompanies a demonstration model that implements methods for the risk-informed design of monitoring, verification and accounting (RI-MVA) systems in geologic carbon sequestration projects. The intent is that this model will ultimately be integrated with, or interfaced with, the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) integrated assessment model (IAM). The RI-MVA methods described here apply optimization techniques in the analytical environment of NRAP risk profiles to allow systematic identification and comparison of the risk and cost attributes of MVA design options.

  10. Design and operation of a setup with a camera and adjustable mirror to inspect the sense-wire planes of the Time Projection Chamber inside the MicroBooNE cryostat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Carls; Glenn Horton-Smith; Catherine C. James; Robert M. Kubinski; Stephen Pordes; Anne Schukraft; Thomas Strauss

    2015-08-26

    Detectors in particle physics, particularly when including cryogenic components, are often enclosed in vessels that do not provide any physical or visual access to the detectors themselves after installation. However, it can be desirable for experiments to visually investigate the inside of the vessel. The MicroBooNE cryostat hosts a TPC with sense-wire planes, which had to be inspected for damage such as breakage or sagging. This paper describes an approach to view the inside of the MicroBooNE cryostat with a setup of a camera and a mirror through one of its cryogenic service nozzles. The paper describes the camera and mirror chosen for the operation, the illumination, and the mechanical structure of the setup. It explains how the system was operated and demonstrates its performance.

  11. Design and Operation of A Setup with A Camera and Adjustable Mirror to Inspect the Sense-Wire Planes of the Time Projection Chamber Inside the MicroBooNE Cryostat

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carls, Benjamin; Horton-Smith, Glenn; James, Catherine C.; Kubinski, Robert M.; Pordes, Stephen; Schukraft, Anne; Strauss, Thomas

    2015-08-26

    Detectors in particle physics, particularly when including cryogenic components, are often enclosed in vessels that do not provide any physical or visual access to the detectors themselves after installation. However, it can be desirable for experiments to visually investigate the inside of the vessel. The MicroBooNE cryostat hosts a TPC with sense-wire planes, which had to be inspected for damage such as breakage or sagging. This inspection was performed after the transportation of the vessel with the enclosed detector to its final location, but before filling with liquid argon. Our paper describes an approach to view the inside of themore »MicroBooNE cryostat with a setup of a camera and a mirror through one of its cryogenic service nozzles. The paper also describes the camera and mirror chosen for the operation, the illumination, and the mechanical structure of the setup. It explains how the system was operated and demonstrates its performance.« less

  12. Sources of Operational Flexibility, Greening the Grid (Fact Sheet...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    costs are system-dependent and evolving over time SYSTEM OPERATION MARKETS LOAD FLEXIBLE GENERATION NETWORKS STORAGE Grid Codes Improved Energy Market Design Increased Ancillary...

  13. Nuclear Power 2010 Program: Combined Construction and Operating...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nuclear Power 2010 (NP 2010) Construction and Operating LicenseDesign Certification (COLDC) Demonstration program together with the financial incentives provided by the Energy...

  14. AWEA Wind Project Operations and Maintenance and Safety Seminar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The AWEA Wind Project O&M and Safety Seminar is designed for owners, operators, turbine manufactures, material suppliers, wind technicians, managers, supervisors, engineers, and occupational...

  15. Evaluating Packaged Steam Generator Designs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    1997-01-01

    carefully. First cost alone should not be the basis for their selection. This paper outlines some of the important design aspects of packaged boilers and how they affect boiler performance and operating costs. Suggestions are also made for proper evaluation...

  16. Exceeding Energy Consumption Design Expectations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castleton, H. F.; Beck, S. B. M.; Hathwat, E. A.; Murphy, E.

    2013-01-01

    Operational building performance often fails to meet that predicted at the design stage by as much as two to three times. Many reasons for this difference have been identified and widely reported, however, the problem still continues to occur. A...

  17. Range Design Criteria- June 4, 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This document contains the currently-approved firearms "Range Design Criteria" referred to on DOE O 473.3, Protection Program Operations

  18. NREL Assesses National Design Standards for Offshore Wind (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    Report summarizes regulations, standards, and guidelines for the design and operation of offshore wind projects in the United States.

  19. TAPS design concepts: environmental concerns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, M.J.

    1981-05-01

    The engineering concepts used in the design, construction, and operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) were often new and in many cases in the state of the art. To accommodate environmental concerns for operating a hot oil pipeline in permafrost soil, unique features were incorporated into TAPS. Design concepts include a sophisticated leak detection and internal pipeline monitoring system. Additional features for accommodating thaw-unstable soils, earthquakes, and river systems are described. (23 references)

  20. Heat Transfer Operators Associated with Quantum Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ç. Aksak; S. Turgut

    2011-04-14

    Any quantum operation applied on a physical system is performed as a unitary transformation on a larger extended system. If the extension used is a heat bath in thermal equilibrium, the concomitant change in the state of the bath necessarily implies a heat exchange with it. The dependence of the average heat transferred to the bath on the initial state of the system can then be found from the expectation value of a hermitian operator, which is named as the heat transfer operator (HTO). The purpose of this article is the investigation of the relation between the HTOs and the associated quantum operations. Since, any given quantum operation on a system can be realized by different baths and unitaries, many different HTOs are possible for each quantum operation. On the other hand, there are also strong restrictions on the HTOs which arise from the unitarity of the transformations. The most important of these is the Landauer erasure principle. This article is concerned with the question of finding a complete set of restrictions on the HTOs that are associated with a given quantum operation. An answer to this question has been found only for a subset of quantum operations. For erasure operations, these characterizations are equivalent to the generalized Landauer erasure principle. For the case of generic quantum operations however, it appears that the HTOs obey further restrictions which cannot be obtained from the entropic restrictions of the generalized Landauer erasure principle.

  1. Twenty Years of Tevatron Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay C. Theilacker

    2004-07-15

    The superconducting Tevatron accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) has surpassed twenty years of operation. The Tevatron is still the highest energy particle accelerator in the world and will remain so until the commissioning of the LHC in Europe later this decade. The Tevatron has operated in a Fixed Target mode, accelerating a proton beam into stationary targets/detectors, as well as a Colliding Beam mode, continuously colliding counter rotating beams of protons and antiprotons. Upon completion, the Tevatron cryogenic system became the world's largest helium refrigeration system. In 1993, the Tevatron cryogenic system was given the designation of International Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The operational history, experiences and statistics of the Tevatron, with an emphasis on the cryogenic system, is presented. Improvements, upgrades and current challenges of the cryogenic system are discussed.

  2. Structural Design Criteria Irving J. Zatz, PPPL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 FIRE Structural Design Criteria Irving J. Zatz, PPPL Engineering Peer Review June 5-7, 2001 #12;2 Purpose of FIRE Design Criteria · Criteria to be utilized when conventional industrial design codes and standards do not apply ­ Operating conditions ­ Materials #12;3 The FIRE Design Criteria has evolved from

  3. Mission Operations & Data Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Mission Operations & Data Systems The LASP Mission Operations & Data Systems (MO&DS) group staffs and instruments. Operational software acts like the health systems in a body, ensuring that temperature, energy. The software monitors the health of on-board systems; anything unusual is flagged and sent to mission operators

  4. Operations Research Giorgio Gallo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallo, Giorgio

    Operations Research Giorgio Gallo Operations Research (OR) is defined, according to the International Fed- eration of Operational Research Societies, as a scientific approach to the solution are thus crucial to almost all aspects of OR, research and practice. Operations Research, the origins

  5. Novette chain design and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, J.T.; Speck, D.R.

    1980-12-11

    The design and performance of the Novette laser system, which is a two-beam, two-wavelength (1.05 ..mu.. and 0.53 ..mu..) target irradiation facility using phosphate glass laser chains, are discussed with information on the glass properties, controlling factors in the design selection, and projected performance with varying operating conditions. (LCL)

  6. Coiled tubing; Operations and services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, J.L. ); Whitlow, R.R. )

    1992-07-01

    This paper reports that pulling tubing to clean out a production liner at Prudhoe Bay Unit Western Operating Area (PBU WOA) averages $600,000 to $800,000. Coiled tubing underreaming was developed to accomplish this objective at lower costs. Beginning in 1988, these operations have been improved through several generations of procedures and tool designs. Using current technology, the underreamer, in conjunction with coiled tubing, can reduce the cost of drilling out to a liner to about $50,000 or $100,000, depending on the amount and type of material to be removed. PBU WOA, operated by BP Exploration, produces about 600,000 bopd from 395 wells. Another 61 wells are used to inject produced water, seawater and miscible fluids. Most of the remedial well servicing operations are conducted using coiled tubing (CT). Three contract coiled tubing units (CTUs) work daily, performing wellbore cleanouts, stimulations, inflatable bridge plug installations and cement squeeze operations. About 42 underreaming jobs were performed from 1990 to 1991 at PBU WOA for an average cost of between $75,000 and $100,000, a cost savings of $500,000 power well compared to pulling tubing and cleaning out the wells conventionally.

  7. Slurry reactor design studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. ); Akgerman, A. ); Smith, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  8. Building Operator Certification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lilley, D.

    2013-01-01

    Certification Energy Efficiency through Operator Training CATEE December 18, 2013 – San Antonio, TX Dennis Lilley, CEM, PMP ESL-KT-13-12-49 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Building Operator Certification... Energy Efficiency through Operator Training What is Building Operator Certification? Industry-recognized credential in energy efficient building operation practices Created with 100 industry experts Launched in 1996 9,000 building engineers...

  9. EIS-0067: 230-kV International Transmission Line San Diego County, California to Tijuana, Mexico, San Diego Gas and Electric Company

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Economic Regulatory Administration and the California Public Utilities Commission jointly prepared this EIS to evaluate the environmental impacts of the construction, maintenance and operation of a 10-mile, 230-kilovolt transmission line across the U.S./Mexico border for the purpose of economic exchange of power and increased reliability.

  10. Office of Nuclear Safety Basis and Facility Design

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Nuclear Safety Basis & Facility Design establishes safety basis and facility design requirements and expectations related to analysis and design of nuclear facilities to ensure protection of workers and the public from the hazards associated with nuclear operations.

  11. Engitectural Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gagliardi, D. R.

    1996-01-01

    to the mechanical systems of building, and in a hot and humid climate the issues are magnified. Therefore, this paper will discuss the concepts and merits of a new design process called: Engitectural Design. Engitectural Design is the concept of blending the many...

  12. XSLT and XQuery as Operator Languages A. Abram White

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and XQuery to build language-neutral Solar operators. Introduction Solar is designed to provide information dynamics. Solar is a software infrastructure designed to deliver contextual information to these applications. Solar represents context data as events, and uses small programs called operators to filter

  13. OOTW Force Design Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  14. Repository operational criteria comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hageman, J.P.; Chowdhury, A.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the ``Repository Operational Criteria (ROC) Feasibility Studies`` (or ROC task) was to conduct comprehensive and integrated analyses of repository design, construction, and operations criteria in 10 CFR Part 60 regulations considering the interfaces among the components of the regulations and impacts of any potential changes to those regulations. The ROC task addresses regulatory criteria and uncertainties related to the preclosure aspects of the geologic repository. Those parts of 10 CFR Part 60 that require routine guidance or minor changes to the rule were addressed in Hageman and Chowdhury, 1992. The ROC task shows a possible need for further regulatory clarity, by major changes to the rule, related to the design bases and siting of a geologic repository operations area and radiological emergency planning in order to assure defense-in-depth. The analyses, presented in this report, resulted in the development and refinement of regulatory concepts and their supporting rationale for recommendations for potential major changes to 10 CFR Pan 0 regulations.

  15. Conceptual Design, Implementation and Commissioning of Data Acquisition and Control System for Negative Ion Source at IPR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soni, Jignesh; Gahlaut, A.; Bansal, G.; Parmar, K. G.; Pandya, K.; Chakraborty, A.; Yadav, Ratnakar; Singh, M. J.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2011-09-26

    Negative ion Experimental facility has been setup at IPR. The facility consists of a RF based negative ion source (ROBIN)--procured under a license agreement with IPP Garching, as a replica of BATMAN, presently operating in IPP, 100 kW 1 MHz RF generators and a set of low and high voltage power supplies, vacuum system and diagnostics. 35 keV 10A H- beam is expected from this setup. Automated successful operation of the system requires an advanced, rugged, time proven and flexible control system. Further the data generated in the experimental phase needs to be acquired, monitored and analyzed to verify and judge the system performance. In the present test bed, this is done using a combination of PLC based control system and a PXI based data acquisition system. The control system consists of three different Siemens PLC systems viz. (1) S-7 400 PLC as a Master Control, (2) S-7 300 PLC for Vacuum system control and (3) C-7 PLC for RF generator control. Master control PLC directly controls all the subsystems except the Vacuum system and RF generator. The Vacuum system and RF generator have their own dedicated PLCs (S-7 300 and C-7 respectively). Further, these two PLC systems work as a slave for the Master control PLC system. Communication between PLC S-7 400, S-7 300 and central control room computer is done through Industrial Ethernet (IE). Control program and GUI are developed in Siemens Step-7 PLC programming software and Wincc SCADA software, respectively. There are approximately 150 analog and 200 digital control and monitoring signals required to perform complete closed loop control of the system. Since the source floats at high potential ({approx}35 kV); a combination of galvanic and fiber optic isolation has been implemented. PXI based Data Acquisition system (DAS) is a combination of PXI RT (Real time) system, front end signal conditioning electronics, host system and DAQ program. All the acquisition signals coming from various sub-systems are connected and acquired by the PXI RT system, through only fiber optics link for signal conditioning, electrical isolation and better noise immunity. Real time and Host application programs are developed in LabVIEW and the data shall be stored with a facility of online display of selected parameters. Mathematical calculations and report generation will take place at the end of each beam shot. The paper describes in detail about the design approach, implementation strategy, program development, commissioning and operational test result of ROBIN through a data acquisition and control system.

  16. Remote Systems Design & Deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2009-08-28

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) to provide information and lessons learned relating to the design, development and deployment of remote systems, particularly remote arm/manipulator systems. This report reflects PNNL’s experience with remote systems and lays out the most important activities that need to be completed to successfully design, build, deploy and operate remote systems in radioactive and chemically contaminated environments. It also contains lessons learned from PNNL’s work experiences, and the work of others in the national laboratory complex.

  17. A Sheet-Beam Klystron Paper Design Development of a Sheet-Beam Klystron for the NLC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caryotakis, G

    2004-03-25

    What may be the first detailed cold test and computer simulation analysis of a Double Sheet Beam Klystron (DSBK) was performed at SLAC. The device was conceptually designed mechanically, and evaluated electrically for beam formation, gain, stability and efficiency. It is believed that the DSBK can be built at a relatively low cost for a future NLC collider and can produce at least 150 MW at 11.4 GHz with PPM focusing. Voltage and current are 450 kV and 640 A, respectively.

  18. ECOSystem: Managing Energy as a First Class Operating System Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vahdat, Amin

    ECOSystem: Managing Energy as a First Class Operating System Resource £ Heng Zeng, Carla S. Ellis design. This paper explores how to support energy as a first-class operating system resource. En- ergy the limited energy resource among competing tasks. 1. INTRODUCTION Traditionally, the operating system plays

  19. Component-based General-purpose Operating System Martin Decky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Component-based General-purpose Operating System Martin Deck´y Charles University, Faculty to apply this programming and design paradigm in the domain of general-purpose operating systems. This paper analyzes several nice properties of component systems which might be beneficial in operating

  20. Climate Data Operators (CDO)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Data Operators (CDO) Climate Data Operators (CDO) Description and Overview CDO is a large tool set for working on climate data. NetCDF 34, GRIB including SZIP compression,...

  1. SWPF Crane Lift Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01

    A multiple vview shot of the SWPF crane lift operation at the Savannah River Site. Funded by the Recovery Act.

  2. Design of the fundamental power coupler and photocathode inserts for the 112MHz superconducting electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xin, T.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Belomestnykh, S.; Chang, X.; Rao, T.; Skaritka, J.; Wu, Q.; Wang, E.; Liang, X.

    2011-07-25

    A 112 MHz superconducting quarter-wave resonator electron gun will be used as the injector of the Coherent Electron Cooling (CEC) proof-of-principle experiment at BNL. Furthermore, this electron gun can be the testing cavity for various photocathodes. In this paper, we present the design of the cathode stalks and a Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC) designated to the future experiments. Two types of cathode stalks are discussed. Special shape of the stalk is applied in order to minimize the RF power loss. The location of cathode plane is also optimized to enable the extraction of low emittance beam. The coaxial waveguide structure FPC has the properties of tunable coupling factor and small interference to the electron beam output. The optimization of the coupling factor and the location of the FPC are discussed in detail. Based on the transmission line theory, we designed a half wavelength cathode stalk which significantly brings down the voltage drop between the cavity and the stalk from more than 5.6 kV to 0.1 kV. The transverse field distribution on cathode has been optimized by carefully choosing the position of cathode stalk inside the cavity. Moreover, in order to decrease the RF power loss, a variable diameter design of cathode stalk has been applied. Compared to the uniform shape of stalk, this design gives us much smaller power losses in important locations. Besides that, we also proposed a fundamental power coupler based on the designed beam parameters for the future proof-of-principle CEC experiment. This FPC should give a strong enough coupling which has the Q external range from 1.5e7 to 2.6e8.

  3. A high voltage, high current, low error operational amplifier with novel features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poitzsch, Alec Julius

    2014-01-01

    This project details the design and evaluation of an operational amplifier designed in XF40, a 40 Volt bipolar process. Initially the signal path circuitry of the amplifier is outlined. Design decisions are chiefly formed ...

  4. Risk assessment in international operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stricklin, Daniela L.

    2008-11-15

    During international peace-keeping missions, a diverse number of non-battle hazards may be encountered, which range from heavily polluted areas, endemic disease, toxic industrial materials, local violence, traffic, and even psychological factors. Hence, elevated risk levels from a variety of sources are encountered during deployments. With the emphasis within the Swedish military moving from national defense towards prioritization of international missions in atypical environments, the risk of health consequences, including long term health effects, has received greater consideration. The Swedish military is interested in designing an optimal approach for assessment of health threats during deployments. The Medical Intelligence group at FOI CBRN Security and Defence in Umea has, on request from and in collaboration with the Swedish Armed Forces, reviewed a variety of international health threat and risk assessment models for military operations. Application of risk assessment methods used in different phases of military operations will be reviewed. An overview of different international approaches used in operational risk management (ORM) will be presented as well as a discussion of the specific needs and constraints for health risk assessment in military operations. This work highlights the specific challenges of risk assessment that are unique to the deployment setting such as the assessment of exposures to a variety of diverse hazards concurrently.

  5. Coiled tubing; Operations and services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sas-Jaworsky, A. II )

    1992-03-01

    Operations involving sand or solids washing are the most common of today's coiled tubing workover services. Wellbore cleanouts require pumping fluid that will entrain solids and return them to the surface. In most cases, wash fluids and solids are captured in surface tanks of sufficient volume to allow solids to settle out. Where practical, fluids are recirculated to reduce cost. An important concern when designing sand wash programs is correct fluid system selection. Wash fluids should closely balance BHP and provide piston like displacement for solids removal. This paper is an overview of compressible and incompressible fluids commonly used for coiled tubing services.

  6. AEC and Oak Ridge Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01) (See Energy Level79AJ01) (NotAdvanced70.4B ChgOperations

  7. Some Experiences on BEPCII SRF System Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang Tong-ming; Lin Hai-ying; Sha Peng; Sun Yi; Pan Wei-min; Wang Guang-wei; Dai Jian-ping; Li Zhong-quan; Ma Qiang; Wang Qun-yao; Zhao Guang-yuan; Mi Zheng-hui

    2014-11-19

    The Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) system of the upgrade project of Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII) has been in operation for almost 8 years. The SRF system has accelerated both electron and positron at the design beam current of 910 mA successfully, and a high beam intensity colliding of 860 mA (electron)*910 mA (positron) has been achieved in April 2014. Many problems were encountered during the operation, among which some were solved and some remain unsolved. This paper will describe some experiences on BEPCII SRF system operation, including the symptoms, causes and solutions.

  8. 6 Nuclear Fuel Designs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-InspiredAtmosphericdevicesPPONeApril351APPLICATION OF kV Spare|LiMessage from

  9. SU-E-T-537: Comparison of Intra-Operative Soft X-Rays to Low Energy Electron Beams for Treatment of Superficial Lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chinsky, B; Diak, A; Gros, S; Sethi

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Superficial soft x-ray applicators have recently been designed for use with existing intra-operative radiotherapy systems. These applicators may be used in treating superficial lesions which are conventionally treated with electron beams. The purpose of this abstract is to compare dose distributions of an intra-operative 50kV x-ray unit with low energy electrons for the treatment of superficial lesions. Methods: Dosimetric parameters for 1 and 3-cm diameter Intrabeam superficial x-ray applicators were measured with EBT3 Gafchromic film in a solid water phantom. Depth dose distributions and profiles (d=2, 5, 10 and 15mm) were obtained by prescribing a dose of 400cGy at 5mm depth below the phantom surface. Corresponding dose profiles for 6-MeV electrons were acquired from a Varian Clinac 21EX at 100 SSD. H and D calibration curves were generated for each modality for 0-800cGy. Results: Dose coverage, penumbra, dose uniformity, surface dose, and dose fall-off were examined. Compared to electrons, Intrabeam lateral dose coverage at 5mm depth was 70% larger with a much sharper (1/4) penumbra. Electron isodose levels bulged with depth, whereas Intrabeam isodose levels exhibited a convex cone shape. The Intrabeam dose profiles demonstrated horns in the dose distribution up to a 5mm depth and an exponential dose fall-off. Relative surface dose was higher for the Intrabeam applicators. Treatment times were comparable for both modalities. Conclusions: The very small penumbra of Intrabeam at shallow depths could be useful in treating superficial lesions adjacent to critical structures. The exponential dose fall-off of Intrabeam makes it appealing in the sparing of structures beyond the lesion. However, for lesions past a depth of 5mm, electrons would be desirable as they penetrate farther and provide skin sparing. Intrabeam may be preferable for sites that are difficult to treat with electrons due to mechanical and physical limitations.

  10. Mechanizing Exploratory Game Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Adam Marshall

    2012-01-01

    Game Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.4.1 Designlevel Design Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  11. Design Construction and Operation of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (sCO2) Loop for Investigation of Dry Cooling and Natural Circulation Potential for Use in Advanced Small Modular Reactors Utilizing sCO2 Power Conversion Cycles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Middleton, Bobby D.; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Carlson, Matthew David

    2015-11-01

    This report outlines the work completed for a Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at Sandia National Laboratories from October 2012 through September 2015. An experimental supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO 2 ) loop was designed, built, and o perated. The experimental work demonstrated that sCO 2 can be uti lized as the working fluid in an air - cooled, natural circulation configuration to transfer heat from a source to the ultimate heat sink, which is the surrounding ambient environment in most ca ses. The loop was also operated in an induction - heated, water - cooled configuration that allows for measurements of physical parameters that are difficult to isolate in the air - cooled configuration. Analysis included the development of two computational flu id dynamics models. Future work is anticipated to answer questions that were not covered in this project.

  12. Spectral Operators of Matrices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-10

    Jan 10, 2014 ... a thorough study on a new class of matrix valued functions, coined as spectral operators of ..... not self-adjoint. ...... 9 (1981) 1135–1151.

  13. Transmission and Storage Operations

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transmission and Storage Operations Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Mitigation Workshop Mary Savalle, PMP, LSSGB Compression Reliability Engineer November 12, 2014...

  14. Operations Research Analyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in Power Services of the Bonneville Power Administration. The purpose of this position is to serve as a developmental operations research analyst responsible for...

  15. Operations Committee Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to the Commission to Review Effectiveness of National Energy Laboratories Jeff Smith Deputy for Operations Oak Ridge National Laboratory February 24, 2015 The Importance...

  16. Bevalac Operations, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the following aspects of the Bevalac: Accelerator Technology and Operations Summary; Support for Space Exploration; Nuclear Science Research; and Biomedical Research.

  17. Bevalac Operations, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses the following topics in relation to the Bevalac accelerator: accelerator technology operations summary; nuclear science; biomedical research; and publications and presentations.

  18. LASP Mission Operations! January 5, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Questions ·Planetary ·Atmospheric ·Solar ·Space Physics · Design, build, test space system hardware · In to every planet in the solar system and beyond (Voyager) Data as of April 2013 #12;Mission Operations Satellites: QuikSCAT, ICESat, SORCE, AIM, Kepler ­ SORCE: Mission to study solar irradiance ­ QuikSCAT: Study

  19. Tank waste remediation system operational scenario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, M.E.

    1995-05-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium and cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner (DOE 1993). This operational scenario is a description of the facilities that are necessary to remediate the Hanford Site tank wastes. The TWRS Program is developing technologies, conducting engineering analyses, and preparing for design and construction of facilities necessary to remediate the Hanford Site tank wastes. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being prepared to evaluate proposed actions of the TWRS. This operational scenario is only one of many plausible scenarios that would result from the completion of TWRS technology development, engineering analyses, design and construction activities and the TWRS EIS. This operational scenario will be updated as the development of the TWRS proceeds and will be used as a benchmark by which to evaluate alternative scenarios.

  20. human spaceflight and operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anand, Mahesh

    1 human spaceflight and operations Lunar Lander human spaceflight and operations #12;2 human cooperation in exploration prim ary objective opportunity for investigations #12;3 human spaceflight No RHUs LANDING SITE South Polar Reliant on Solar Power generation + conventional thermal control LAUNCHER

  1. Emergency Evacuation Operations Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eberhard, Marc O.

    Emergency Evacuation Operations Plan Civil and Environmental Engineering More Hall 2015 #12;1 Introduction Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) developed this model Emergency Evacuation and Operations Plan (EEOP) to assist departments in preparing for building emergencies as expected and required

  2. Semantics for algebraic operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plotkin, Gordon; Power, John

    2003-01-01

    Given a category C with finite products and a strong monad T on C, we investigate axioms under which an ObC-indexed family of operations of the form ?_x : (Tx)n ! Tx provides a definitive semantics for algebraic operations ...

  3. EDS operator and control software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ott, L.L.

    1985-04-01

    The Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to acquire, display and analyze large quantities of transient data for a real-time Advanced Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) experiment. Major topics discussed in this paper are the EDS operator interface (SHELL) program, the data acquisition and analysis scheduling software, and the graphics software. The workstation concept used in EDS, the software used to configure a user's workstation, and the ownership and management of a diagnostic are described. An EDS diagnostic is a combination of hardware and software designed to study specific aspects of the process. Overall system performance is discussed from the standpoint of scheduling techniques, evaluation tools, optimization techniques, and program-to-program communication methods. EDS is based on a data driven design which keeps the need to modify software to a minimum. This design requires a fast and reliable data base management system. A third party data base management product, Berkeley Software System Database, written explicitly for HP1000's, is used for all EDS data bases. All graphics is done with an in-house graphics product, Device Independent Graphics Library (DIGLIB). Examples of devices supported by DIGLIB are: Versatec printer/plotters, Raster Technologies Graphic Display Controllers, and HP terminals (HP264x and HP262x). The benefits derived by using HP hardware and software as well as obstacles imposed by the HP environment are presented in relation to EDS development and implementation.

  4. Design of robust service operations using cybernetic principles and simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wynn, David C.; Cassidy, Stephen; Clarkson, P. John

    magnitudes; and ramps in mean demand of different slopes. 2. Network capacity extension (“Capex”). Capacity is required to handle the number of services that are installed in total, and their bandwidth requirements. It is thus ‘used up’ as each new order... . The Capex process self-adjusts and occurs more frequently as shown in the 4th– from-top timeseries. Similar behaviour was shown to occur for various step sizes, amounts of noise, and control parameter combinations tried. Figure 4. Simulated process...

  5. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-07-01

    This is one in a series of tip sheets to help manufacturers optimize their industrial motor and motor-driven systems.

  6. Improving Building Design and Operation of a Thai Buddhist Temple 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sreshthaputra, A.; Haberl, J.S.; Andrews, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    -building calculations. Prior to calculating the airflow with CFD, a network airflow model was used in conjunction with ESP-r to calculate the inlet air velocity and temperature, includ- ing the surface heat flux. CFD then used these boundary conditions to calculate... the results are passed on to CFD. This is why the network airflow model was added into the thermal simulation pro- cess. However, it is not necessary for this study because the case-study temple only has one ventilated zone and there is no HVAC system...

  7. Optimal design and operation of energy polygeneration systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yang, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Chemical Engineering

    2013-01-01

    Polygeneration is a concept where multiple energy products are generated in a single plant by tightly integrating multiple processes into one system. Compared to conventional single-product systems, polygeneration systems ...

  8. Design, Stress Analysis and Operating Experience in Feedwater Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, K. P.; Libs, T.

    1980-01-01

    is not subcooled. Pressure drop due to flow in this zone causes the water to reach the saturation temperature and flash. Most of the time however, flashing occurs in the outlet piping. This flashing is highly detrimental to heate~ integrity. Tube cavitation...

  9. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enginners (IEEE) Standard 141-1993. Manufacturing converts a wide range of raw materials, components, and parts into finished goods that meet market expectations. The...

  10. Human Behavior, Standards and Tools to Improve Design & Operation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This project makes significant technical contribution to International Energy Agency (IEA) Annex 66: "Definition and Simulation of Occupant Behavior in Buildings" under the...

  11. Design and operational characteristics of a cast steel mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blantocas, Gene Q.; Ramos, Henry J.; Wada, Motoi

    2004-09-01

    A cast steel magnetic sector mass analyzer is developed for studies of hydrogen and helium ion beams generated by a gas discharge compact ion source. The optimum induced magnetic flux density of 3500 G made it possible to scan the whole spectrum of hydrogen and helium ion species. Analysis of beam characteristics shows that the mass spectrometer sensitivity, and resolving power are approximately inversely proportional. The resolution is enhanced at higher pressures and lower current discharges. In contrast, the instrument sensitivity increased at higher current discharges and decreased at higher pressures. Calculations of the ultimate resolving power with reference to analyzer dimensions yield a numerical value of 30. System anomaly in the form of spherical aberrations was also analyzed using the paraxial beam envelope equation. Beam divergence is most significant at high discharge conditions where angular spread reaches an upper limit of 8.6 deg.

  12. On the Design and Analysis of Operator-Splitting Schemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Damek

    2015-01-01

    N C 1 (x); Bx := N C 2 (x); Cx := ? x d 2 (Lx, C 3 ) = L ? (x ? H such that 0 ? Ax + Bx + Cx for three maximal monotoneAx = ?f (x), Bx = ?g(x), and Cx = ?h(x), where ?f, ?g are

  13. Design and operation of microchemical systems for multistep chemical syntheses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahoo, Hemantkumar

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focused on advancing the microchemical field from single device based demonstrations to systems that can perform multi-step series and parallel synthesis. Few examples of micro-separators and micro-pumps suited ...

  14. Houston LDAR II network: design, operation, and performance analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ely, Brandon Lee

    2008-10-10

    antenna’s minimum detectable signal in dBm. ……………….……... 46 5.9 Example showing the method of integration used to estimate network detection efficiency. ………………………...……………………….. 49 6.1 Histograms of c2 values for 6, 7 & 8 sensor solutions fitted...-to-ground and intracloud) structure of thunderstorms and evolution in time. In addition, the Houston LDAR network’s location opens researchers to the opportunity to study the lightning structure of a wide variety of storm types from mesoscale convective systems (MCSs...

  15. A study of freeway off-ramp design and operation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvell, James Demus

    1966-01-01

    . Affected Through Versus Non-Affected Through Ve hie les. Raft Versus Non-Affected Through Vehicles . gait Versus Affected Through Vehicles . Qeneral Observations. Acceleration Noise ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 26 30 32 34 36 37 IVo ANALTSIS QF QPP...?ey Pilning Locatioes. 5. Reit 4 (Telephone Off-Reap) . S. Rxit 7 (Myrtle Off Reap) Saainary Of f-Rasp S. Acceleration Noise Locations. 9. Woodridge Of f-gasp. 10. Typical Pr~s Proc yiha Study. 11. Speed Recorder . . ~ . ~ . . ~ . . ~ 12. Vehicle...

  16. On the Design and Analysis of Operator-Splitting Schemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Damek

    2015-01-01

    inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  17. Utility & Regulatory Factors Affecting Cogeneration & Independent Power Plant Design & Operation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felak, R. P.

    1986-01-01

    , TX, June 17-19, 1986 Table 1 (Cont'd) Situation Utility has a temp orary oversupply of its own baseload power sources and thus at certain times prefers dis patching the inde pendent power source Requirement If the producer does not comply... factor range, as as intended output range as a functi time, and rate of change) Delivery (and purchase) voltage leve preferred Auxiliary power requirements Start-up/Standby/Emergency power requirements Sendout characteristics (e.g., net v surplus...

  18. Autonomous Robots in SWAT Applications: Research, Design, and Operations Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Company to bridge the gap between the perception of potential uses of autonomous robots in police SWAT challenges that should influence future work. First, the considerable difficulty in building a consistent available for tactical planning was observed to be one of two extremes: nearly infinite or infinitesimally

  19. Design and Operation Strategies for Green Machine Tool Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diaz, Nancy; Helu, Moneer; Dornfeld, David

    2010-01-01

    2010, Environmental Analysis of Milling Machine Tool Use inof four types of milling machines varying in automation asof downsizing a CNC milling machine tool on its energy and

  20. Machine Tool Design and Operation Strategies for Green Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    2010, Environmental Analysis of Milling Machine Tool Use inconsumption analysis of milling machine tools are firstof four types of milling machines Proceedings of 4th CIRP

  1. UFAD Commissioning Cart: Design Specifications and Operating Manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom; Arens, Edward; Anwar, George; Bonnell, J.; Bauman, Fred; Brown, C.

    2007-01-01

    respectively. WiFi wireless 4 port router DustBox PC LanyardFigure 15: Wireless mesh network Data Manager Router The2. Wireless data manager – Dust Networks, D1100 3. Router –

  2. Machine Tool Design and Operation Strategies for Green Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    machine tool during its manufacture and use, respectively.calculator” related to part manufacture which allowed thecycle, such as its manufacture, are neglected. Furthermore,

  3. Multicylinder Diesel Engine Design for HCCI Operation | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR...

  4. AUVs: designing and operating next generation vehicles Gwyn Griffiths*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffiths, Gwyn

    Centre, UK Ian Edwards, Subsea7 Ltd., UK Abstract Over the last decade Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, commercial seafloor survey, subsea mineral exploration and defence communities, it is timely to review

  5. Impact of CFC Regulations on Environmental System Design and Operation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lechtanski, J. B.

    1989-01-01

    will not be compatible with R-123 and you would either have to convert to an open drive type compressor-motor assembly or, if available, replace the hermetic motor stator with one that has a compatible motor insulation. Finally, R-123 is more toxic than R.... They are created by substituting fluorine. chlorine and/or bromine atoms for the hydrogen atom in hydrocarbons. The term "fully halogenated" means that all of the hydrogen atoms in the molecule have been replaced. This is an important distinction CARRIER...

  6. Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ace029harold2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Lean...

  7. Multicylinder Diesel Engine Design for HCCI operation | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006deerdeojeda.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  8. Machine Tool Design and Operation Strategies for Green Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    E. , 2007, Precision Manufacturing, Springer, New York, pp.Environment, CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, Vol.Environment, CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, Vol.

  9. Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacts in the United States: Four Regional Scenarios Characterization of U.S. Wave Energy Converter Test Sites: A Catalogue of Met-Ocean Data Wind Program Home About...

  10. Property:Designed to Operate with Shore Connection? | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975)EnergyFloorAreaOfficesCollaborators JumpDataDescription

  11. A Sustainable Focus for Laboratory Design, Engineering, and Operation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOffice | DepartmentVery1, in:QuarterlyA Solar WinDepartment of

  12. Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Research atDepartment of EnergyOF THEJulyEnergy Assessment

  13. Training on PV Systems: Design, Construction, Operation and Maintenance |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin Film SolarTown of Skiatook,1993) JumpInformationMyTraerOpen

  14. Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8,Department of Energy 1EnergyTroughBatteries withNOx

  15. Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8,Department of Energy 1EnergyTroughBatteries

  16. Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8,Department of Energy 1EnergyTroughBatteriesNOx

  17. Human Behavior, Standards and Tools to Improve Design & Operation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingR Walls - BuildingofDepartment ofHowdo YouofHow

  18. Human Behavior, Standards and Tools to Improve Design & Operation |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy HeadquartersFuelB IMSofNewsletterGuidingUpdate Webinar Slidess g nHow doHow toDepartment

  19. Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12Power, Inc | DepartmentPeer Review | Department ofTechnical Report|

  20. Mechanical Design Engineering, MDE, Accelerator Operations and Technology,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on dark matter By SarahMODELING CLOUD1MechanicalAOT: LANL

  1. Stirling machine operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, B.; Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

  2. Approved Module Information for BN2216, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Operations Management Module Code: BN2216

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    strategies for the design, planning and control of manufacturing and service operations. ? Transferable decisions, the Hill framework. Week 3 Design of Operations Systems: Process Types in Manufacturing, Group Management: The management of operations across organisations within the supply chain. Week 8 Lean Operations

  3. Design Rational

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent BondingMeeting |Design Competitions Design Competitions National9

  4. Naval Waste Package Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.M. Lewis

    2004-03-15

    A design methodology for the waste packages and ancillary components, viz., the emplacement pallets and drip shields, has been developed to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the Yucca Mountain Project. This methodology is described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' Mecham 2004 [DIRS 166168]. To demonstrate the practicability of this design methodology, four waste package design configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology. These four design configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor (PWR) Absorber Plate waste package, the 44-boiling water reactor (BWR) waste package, the 5-defense high-level waste (DHLW)/United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Co-disposal Short waste package, and the Naval Canistered SNF Long waste package. Also included in this demonstration is the emplacement pallet and continuous drip shield. The purpose of this report is to document how that design methodology has been applied to the waste package design configurations intended to accommodate naval canistered SNF. This demonstrates that the design methodology can be applied successfully to this waste package design configuration and support the License Application for construction of the repository.

  5. Development of an OCS Cementing Operational Guidelines Database 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Matthew G.

    2014-08-20

    the goals of the database, identifying its users, and selecting an appropriate database management system. The main goal of the database is to present specific design, testing, and operational procedures to ensure optimized cement seal effectiveness...

  6. UFO (UnFold Operator) computer program abstract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kissel, L.; Biggs, F.

    1982-11-01

    UFO (UnFold Operator) is an interactive user-oriented computer program designed to solve a wide range of problems commonly encountered in physical measurements. This document provides a summary of the capabilities of version 3A of UFO.

  7. Managing Abnormal Operation through Process Integration and Cogeneration Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamrava, Serveh

    2014-08-05

    flaring while gaining economic and environmental benefits. It is based on simultaneous design and operational optimization where key flaring sources, causes and consequences of process upsets are identified then included in the energy profile...

  8. 10.450 Process Dynamics, Operations, and Control, Spring 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Barry Scott, 1952-

    Introduction to dynamic processes and the engineering tasks of process operations and control. Subject covers modeling the static and dynamic behavior of processes; control strategies; design of feedback, feedforward, and ...

  9. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-06-13

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the CH Packaging Drum payload assembly, Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly, Abnormal Operations and ICV and OCV Preshipment Leakage Rate Tests on the packaging seals, using a nondestructive Helium (He) Leak Test.

  10. Nuclear material operations manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

  11. Protection Program Operations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-10-14

    This Order establishes requirements for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Protective Forces (FPF), Contractor Protective Forces (CPF), and the Physical Security of property and personnel under the cognizance of DOE.

  12. Reservoir Operation in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurbs, Ralph A.

    1985-01-01

    to store and to release or withdraw for flood control and various conservation purposes. The report is intended to provide a comprehensive, indepth description of how reservoirs are operated in Texas...

  13. Continuity of Operations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-01-14

    The notice defines requirements and responsibilities for continuity of operations planning within the DOE to ensure the capability to continue essential Departmental functions across a wide range of all hazard emergencies. Does not cancel other directives.

  14. Operation Research Society 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    vehicles made in going through the arterial and the total stops at each intersection, were also used. Two operational regions were identified in this research. It was found that none of the strategies provided significant improvement over the others...

  15. Operations Security Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1992-04-30

    To establish policies, responsibilities and authorities for implementing and sustaining the Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Security (OPSEC) Program. Cancels DOE O 5632.3B. Canceled by DOE O 471.2 of 9-28-1995.

  16. Supervisory Operations Research Analyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in Power Services Short-Term Planning(PGSP), Bonneville Power Administration. Short Term Planning provides hydraulic operations strategies to achieve power and non-power...

  17. Conduct of Operations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-06-29

    This Order defines the requirements for establishing and implementing Conduct of Operations Programs at Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), facilities and projects. Cancels DOE O 5480.19. Admin Chg 1, 6-25-13

  18. Conduct of Operations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-06-29

    This Order defines the requirements for establishing and implementing Conduct of Operations Programs at Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), facilities and projects. Admin Chg 2, dated 12-3-14, supersedes Admin Chg 1.

  19. The Dell operating model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxton, Blaine Kermit

    2004-01-01

    Dell, Inc. is well known for its dramatic and continually improving operational performance in terms of unit cost, inventory level, production capacity, and labor efficiency. However, in late 2002, several members of Dell's ...

  20. Operating plan FY 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This document is the first edition of Argonne`s new Operating Plan. The Operating Plan complements the strategic planning in the Laboratory`s Institutional Plan by focusing on activities that are being pursued in the immediate fiscal year, FY 1998. It reflects planning that has been done to date, and it will serve in the future as a resource and a benchmark for understanding the Laboratory`s performance. The heart of the Institutional Plan is the set of major research initiatives that the Laboratory is proposing to implement in future years. In contrast, this Operating Plan focuses on Argonne`s ongoing R&D programs, along with cost-saving measures and other improvements being implemented in Laboratory support operations.

  1. Cogeneration Operational Issues 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, M.

    1985-01-01

    important, however, are the operational Issues which impact the utility and the cogenerator. This paper addresses the utility perspective in regard to possible impact of cogeneration systems on utility service to other customer, safety and substation...

  2. Advanced medical accelerator design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alonso, J.R.; Elioff, T.; Garren, A.

    1982-11-01

    This report describes the design of an advanced medical facility dedicated to charged particle radiotherapy and other biomedical applications of relativistic heavy ions. Project status is reviewed and some technical aspects discussed. Clinical standards of reliability are regarded as essential features of this facility. Particular emphasis is therefore placed on the control system and on the use of technology which will maximize operational efficiency. The accelerator will produce a variety of heavy ion beams from helium to argon with intensities sufficient to provide delivered dose rates of several hundred rad/minute over large, uniform fields. The technical components consist of a linac injector with multiple PIG ion sources, a synchrotron and a versatile beam delivery system. An overview is given of both design philosophy and selected accelerator subsystems. Finally, a plan of the facility is described.

  3. Design Editorial Design Analysis and Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    Journal of Mechanical Design Editorial Design Analysis and Synthesis What is design? Why is design to call it simply design analysis. If a design exists, I can analyze its behavior. Based on the results of the analysis, I may have to modify the design to make it fit better to my purpose. The implication of analysis

  4. Meta-Design--Design for Designers Gerhard Fischer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Gerhard

    1 Meta-Design--Design for Designers Gerhard Fischer Center for LifeLong Learning and Design (L3 D-0430 USA gerhard@cs.colorado.edu Eric Scharff Center for LifeLong Learning and Design (L3 D) Department scharffe@cs.colorado.edu ABSTRACT One fundamental challenge for the design of the interactive systems

  5. Matrix product operator representations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Murg; J. I. Cirac; B. Pirvu; F. Verstraete

    2008-04-24

    We show how to construct relevant families of matrix product operators in one and higher dimensions. Those form the building blocks for the numerical simulation methods based on matrix product states and projected entangled pair states. In particular, we construct translational invariant matrix product operators suitable for time evolution, and show how such descriptions are possible for Hamiltonians with long-range interactions. We illustrate how those tools can be exploited for constructing new algorithms for simulating quantum spin systems.

  6. Operational Waste Volume Projection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STRODE, J.N.

    2000-08-28

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June. 2000.

  7. Operational Waste Volume Projection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STRODE, J.N.

    1999-08-24

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2018 are projected based on assumption as of July 1999. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement.

  8. System Design Description PFP Thermal Stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-04-25

    The purpose of this document is to provide a system design description (SDD) and design basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Thermal Stabilization project. The chief objective of the SDD is to document the Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) that establish and maintain the facility Safety Envelope necessary for normal safe operation of the facility; as identified in the FSAR, the OSRs, and Safety Assessment Documents (SADs). This safety equipment documentation should satisfy guidelines for the SDD given in WHC-SD-CP-TI-18 1, Criteria for Identification and Control of Equipment Necessary for Preservation of the Safety Envelope and Safe Operation of PFP. The basis for operational, alarm response, maintenance, and surveillance procedures are also identified and justified in this document. This document and its appendices address the following elements of the PFP Thermal Stabilization project: Functional and design requirements; Design description; Safety Envelope Analysis; Safety Equipment Class; and Operational, maintenance and surveillance procedures.

  9. Landscape Design, Construction and Management Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaacs, Rufus

    plant production, landscape design, construction and maintenance, marketing, management: HRT 213 (2) Landscape Maintenance HRT 213L(1) Landscape Maintenance Field Lab HRT 214 (2) Landscape and Turfgrass Business Operations HRT 219 (2) Landscape CAD HRT 220 (3) Annual

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A SOFTWARE DESIGN TOOL FOR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project focuses on the development of a stand-alone software tool for the design and economic analysis of hybrid geothermal heat pump systems for heating-and cooling dominated buildings using solar collectors in both operating modes.

  11. YOUR DESIGN PROBABLY NEEDS MORE VDUs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OHARA, J.; BROWN, W.; LEWIS, P.; PERSENSKY, J.

    2001-10-08

    The most frequent complaint of operators in modern computer-based control rooms is that there just are not enough video display units (VDUs). In this paper we examine the basis for this concern and try to understand the technical and historical reasons for this complaint, and its implications for the design of complex human-machine systems, including the number of VDUs in the control room. The overall aim of our work is to develop human factors guidance for the review of computer-based and modernized control rooms in nuclear power plants. As part of these efforts we have conducted literature reviews and studies using both simulators and actual systems in a broad range of industries, including process control, aerospace, medical, and others. Our findings reflect the general complaint of operators across all these industries: there just are not enough VDUs in the control room. We conclude that there are three primary reasons for this complaint. First, as part of a workload management strategy, operators frequently avoid interface management tasks and do not access all the information available, preferring instead to use a fixed set of familiar displays that provide much (but not all) of the information needed. Performance thereby becomes data limited and operators complain that they do not have a sufficient number of VDUs to set up in the early phases of a high-workload period so they can get all the information they need. Second, display designs are typically not designed with operator tasks in mind. The most common method of representing information is by functions and systems. Since tasks typically cut across many systems, operators need many displays. Thus, to make task performance easier operators need additional VDUs. Finally, there is a differing ''concept of operations'' between designers and operators. Modern computer-based control rooms are designed with vast amounts of data, available through hundreds of displays, viewed by the operator through a limited number of display devices. Designers expect that operators will use the flexibility of the computer-based interfaces to configure them in such a way that they are ideally tailored to the unique demands of the current situation. However, operators usually do not do that and instead configure the interfaces in a spatially dedicated way. Thus, while the number of VDUs may seem reasonable to the designer, it is not to the operator who is attempting to minimize the interface management aspects of workload. The implications of these findings for design are discussed in terms of the need for a method for determining the number of displays, task-relevant displays, data-dense displays, and enhanced interface management design and training.

  12. Operating an induction melter apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, Jay A.; Richardson, John G.; Raivo, Brian D.; Soelberg, Nicholas R.

    2006-01-31

    Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

  13. Burner Designs and Controls for Variable Air Preheat Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lied, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper will deal with various ways of reducing fuel costs for direct fired furnaces. Burner design relating to existing furnaces, new furnaces designed to operate initially on cold air with the ability to add preheated air in the future...

  14. International Solar Centre, Berlin - A Comprehensive Energy Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisch, M. N.; Himmler, R.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the design, construction, and operation of a 100% solar-powered house from an engineering perspective. This includes energy simulation results, selection of systems, design of systems, assembly of ...

  15. Miniature electrically operated diaphragm valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Wong, Chungnin C. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM); Hesketh, Peter J. (Atlanta, GA)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a miniature electrically operated valve that can stand off significant pressures, that can be inexpensively produced, and that can be made to operate without continuous electrical power. A valve according to the present invention comprises a housing and a beam mounted with the housing. A diaphragm mounted with the housing forms a sealed fluid volume. An electromagnetic energy source, such as an electromagnetic coil, mounts with the housing and when energized urges the beam in one direction. The beam can be urged in the opposing direction by passive means or by reversing the polarity of the electromagnetic energy source or by a second electromagnetic energy source. Two fluid ports mount with the housing. A first fluid port mounts so that, as the beam is urged in one direction or the opposite, the beam urges the diaphragm to move between engaging and substantially sealing the fluid port and disengaging and not substantially sealing the fluid port. A seat can be mounted with the diaphragm to aid in sealing the fluid port. Latching mechanisms such as permanent magnets can be mounted so that the valve remains in the open or closed positions without continuous electrical power input. Fluid can flow through the housing between the two fluid ports when the diaphragm does not seal the first fluid port, but can be prevented from flowing by urging the beam so that the diaphragm seals the first fluid port. Various embodiments accommodate various latching mechanisms, electromagnetic energy sources, number of fluid ports, and diaphragm design considerations.

  16. Integrating Seeing Measurements into the Operations of Solar Telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    years, experimental solar physics has seen renewed efforts to design, build and operate the nextIntegrating Seeing Measurements into the Operations of Solar Telescopes C. Denker and A. P. Verdoni New Jersey Institute of Technology, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research 323 Martin Luther King Blvd

  17. The Case for a Factored Operating System (fos)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Anant

    2008-10-08

    The next decade will afford us computer chips with 1,000 - 10,000 cores on a single piece of silicon. Contemporary operating systems have been designed to operate on a single core or small number of cores and hence are not ...

  18. Qubit-Programmable Operations on Quantum Light Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Barbieri; Nicolò Spagnolo; Franck Ferreyrol; Rémi Blandino; Brian J. Smith; Rosa Tualle-Brouri

    2014-12-01

    Engineering quantum operations is one of the main abilities we need for developing quantum technologies and designing new fundamental tests. Here we propose a scheme for realising a controlled operation acting on a travelling quantum field, whose functioning is determined by an input qubit. This study introduces new concepts and methods in the interface of continuous- and discrete-variable quantum optical systems.

  19. Interface Between Engineering and Market Operations in Restructured Electricity Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    Interface Between Engineering and Market Operations in Restructured Electricity Systems HUNG began in 1998 in the United States Keywords--Electricity restructuring, market design, market op, IEEE, AND ROBERT WILSON Invited Paper We examine the impact of wholesale markets on operations

  20. An Adaptive Mutation Operator for Particle Swarm Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Shengxiang

    .le.ac.uk Abstract Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is an efficient tool for optimization and search problems- search works have shown that mutation operators can help PSO prevent prema- ture convergence and compared for PSO. An adaptive muta- tion operator is designed. Experimental results show

  1. Sensitivity of Optimal Operation of an Activated Sludge Process Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Sensitivity of Optimal Operation of an Activated Sludge Process Model Antonio Araujo, Simone sensitivity analysis of optimal operation conducted on an activated sludge process model based on the test.[7] applied a systematic procedure for control structure design of an activated sludge process

  2. Simulation and Optimization on Power Plant Operation Using SEGA's EOP Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, J.; Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Liu, M.

    2000-01-01

    The operation of a cogeneration power plant is complicated. The Energy Optimization Program (EOP, software made by SEGA, Inc.) was designed to simulate and optimize the operation of TAMU power plant. All major plant components were represented...

  3. Simulation and Optimization on Power Plant Operation Using Sega's EOP Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, J.; Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Liu, M.

    2000-01-01

    The operation of a cogeneration power plant is complicated. The Energy Optimization Program (EOP, software made by SEGA, Inc.) was designed to simulate and optimize the operation of TAMU power plant. All major plant components were represented...

  4. Design and Operation of Fluid Beds for Heating, Cooling and Quenching Operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemp, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    A commercial foundry has been established which makes extensive use of fluid beds in the production of heat treated alloy steel castings. The castings are cooled immediately after solidification by fluidizing the mold sand in which they were cast...

  5. Communicating Design Research Effectively

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roschuni, Celeste Nicole

    2012-01-01

    5.3 Persuasion in Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Design Process andCommunication 2.1 Design Process Models . . . . . . . . .

  6. Design package for vacuum wand for fuel retrieval system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROACH, H.L.

    1999-07-28

    This is a design package that contains the details for the design, fabrication, and testing of a vacuum wand that will pick up sludge and corrosion products generated during fuel assembly handling operations at K-Basin. This document contains requirements, development design information, design calculations, tests, and test reports.

  7. Surviving Operation Desert Storm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vice, J. (Booz, Allen and Hamilton, Inc., Dayton, OH (United States))

    1992-08-01

    The importance of aircraft survivability during the invasion of Iraq is examined detailing anecdotal evidence of susceptibility and vulnerability reduction. Among the aircraft used that were designed to be more survivable than their predecessors were the F-117, A-10, F/A-18, and the AH-64. Reduced vulnerability is incorporated into the aircraft designs in the form of damage tolerant components, redundancy, self-sealing fluid systems, and miniaturization.

  8. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  9. Chapter 10: FTU Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angelini, B.M.; Apicella, M.L.; Buceti, G.; Centioli, C.; Crisanti, F.; Iannone, F.; Mazza, G.; Mazzitelli, G.; Panella, M.; Vitale, V.

    2004-05-15

    Some specific points of the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) operation are presented for plasma performance as well as for the machine availability and the development of new tools needed to operate in a complex scenario needed for tokamak research. The different techniques adopted for wall conditioning of the FTU are reviewed. Plasmas with low Z{sub eff} have been achieved including those at low density and high additional heating power. The obtained experimental results are discussed in terms of better operation and plasma performance achieved. As with any other large - and thus long-lasting - experiments, a mixture of old and new technological solutions inserted in an open source framework characterizes the FTU data control and acquisition systems. We give some information on the original architecture and try to detail its current state. The high level of reliability presently achieved is discussed.

  10. RHIC Operation and Plans for Upgrades Wolfram Fischer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ã? design 10Ã? achieved #12;Wolfram Fischer 7 Achieved parameters Mode No of bunches Ions/bunch [ 1 0 9] enhanced luminosity 60e9 Au intensity design luminosity Beamexperiments #12;Wolfram Fischer 10 RHIC Run-41 RHIC Operation and Plans for Upgrades Wolfram Fischer C-AD Machine Advisory Committee Meeting 10

  11. Operational profiling and statistical analysis of Arleigh Burke-class destroyers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Travis J. (Travis John)

    2013-01-01

    Ship operational profiles are a valuable tool for ship designers and engineers when analyzing potential designs and ship system selections. The most common is the speed-time profile, normally depicted as a histogram showing ...

  12. Naturalistic Decision Making For Power System Operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin; Robinson, Marck; Ey, Pamela

    2009-06-23

    Abstract: Motivation -- As indicated by the Blackout of 2003, the North American interconnected electric system is vulnerable to cascading outages and widespread blackouts. Investigations of large scale outages often attribute the causes to the three T’s: Trees, Training and Tools. A systematic approach has been developed to document and understand the mental processes that an expert power system operator uses when making critical decisions. The approach has been developed and refined as part of a capability demonstration of a high-fidelity real-time power system simulator under normal and emergency conditions. To examine naturalistic decision making (NDM) processes, transcripts of operator-to-operator conversations are analyzed to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. Findings/Design -- The results of the study indicate that we can map the Situation Awareness Level of the operators at each point in the scenario. We can also identify clearly what mental models and mental simulations are being performed at different points in the scenario. As a result of this research we expect that we can identify improved training methods and improved analytical and visualization tools for power system operators. Originality/Value -- The research applies for the first time, the concepts of Recognition Primed Decision Making, Situation Awareness Levels and Cognitive Task Analysis to training of electric power system operators. Take away message -- The NDM approach provides an ideal framework for systematic training management and mitigation to accelerate learning in team-based training scenarios with high-fidelity power grid simulators.

  13. Optical Design of a Red Sensitive Spectrograph 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Emily 1988-

    2012-04-22

    We present a preliminary design for a red-sensitive spectrograph. The spectrograph is optimized to operate over the 600-1000nm spectral range at a resolution of ~2000 and is designed specifically for the 2.7-m Harlan J. Smith Telescope at Mc...

  14. General Operational Procedure for Pedestrian Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belooussov, Andrei V.

    2012-08-08

    This document outlines the basic conduct of operation (CONOPS) for a pedestrian radiation portal monitor (RPM), provided that the CONOPS is not facility or RPM specific and that it is based on a general understanding of a pedestrian RPM operation. The described CONOPS for a pedestrian RPM is defined by: (1) RPM design and operational characteristics, (2) type of pedestrian traffic, and (3) goal for RPM installation. Pedestrian RPMs normally are deployed for the continuous monitoring of individuals passing through point of control to detect the unauthorized traffic of radioactive/nuclear materials. RPMs generally are designed to detect gamma- and neutron-emitting materials.

  15. Interconnected High-Voltage Pulsed-Power Converters System Design for H? Ion Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguglia, D

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and experimental validations of a system of three new high-voltage (HV) pulsedpower converters for the H? sources. The system requires three pulsed voltages (50, 40, and 25 kV to ground) at 2-Hz repetition rate, for 700 ?s of usable flat-top. The solution presents ripplefree output voltages and minimal stored energy to protect the ion source from the consequences of arc events. Experimental results on the final full-scale prototype are presented. In case of short-circuit events, the maximal energy delivered to the source is in the Joule range. HV flat-top stability of 1% is experimentally achieved with a simple Proportional-Integral- Derivative regulation and preliminary tuned H? source (e.g., radio frequency control, gas injection, and so forth). The system is running since more than a year with no power converter failures and damage to the source.

  16. OPERATIONAL RISK RODNEY COLEMAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coleman, Rodney

    the business environment. These include terrorism, civil unrest, systems fail- ings including hacking RISKS ARISING FROM BUSINESS ACTIVITY You lose business opportunities while your computer systems a business beyond those from its money-making activities. This is operational risk, often shortened to oprisk

  17. NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demazière, Christophe

    NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND CONTROL KEYWORDS: moderator temper ature coefficient, reactivity co reactor Unit 4 of the Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant (Sweden) during fuel cycle 16 is analyzed of Reactor Physics SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden GABOR PÓR Budapest University of Technology and Economics H

  18. NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND CONTROL KEYWORDS: neutron flux, cur- rent noise, vibration diagnostics, localization algorithm LOCALIZATION OF A VIBRATING CONTROL ROD PIN IN PRESSURIZED WATER REACTORS USING. The possibility of the localization of a vibrating control rod pin in a pressurized water reactor control assembly

  19. NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND CONTROL KEYWORDS: moderator temper- ature coefficient, reactivity co reactor Unit 4 of the Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant (Sweden) during fuel cycle 16 is analyzed of Reactor Physics SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden GABOR PÓR Budapest University of Technology and Economics H

  20. Conduct of Operations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-06-29

    This Order defines the requirements for establishing and implementing Conduct of Operations Programs at Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), facilities and projects. Cancels DOE O 5480.19. Admin Chg 1, dated 6-25-13, cancels DOE O 422.1. Certified 12-3-14.