National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for operating heat rate

  1. ARM - Measurement - Radiative heating rate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Radiative heating rate The heating rate due to the divergence of long and shortwave radiative flux. Categories Atmospheric State, Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a

  2. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    2013-02-22

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  3. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  4. Operating and Maintaining Your Heat Pump | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool Heat Pump Systems Operating and Maintaining Your Heat Pump Operating and Maintaining Your Heat Pump Changing filters regularly is an important part of maintaining ...

  5. Focused cathode design to reduce anode heating during vircator operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, Curtis F.; Dickens, James C.; Neuber, Andreas A.

    2013-10-15

    Virtual cathode oscillators, or vircators, are a type of high power microwave device which operates based on the instability of a virtual cathode, or cloud of electrons, which forms when electron current injected into the drift tube exceeds the space charge limited current within the drift tube. Anode heating by the electron beam during vircator operation ultimately limits achievable pulse lengths, repetition rates, and the duration of burst mode operation. This article discusses a novel cathode design that focuses electrons through holes in the anode, thus significantly reducing anode heating by the electrons emitted from the cathode during the first transit through the A-K gap. Reflexing electrons continue to deposit energy on the anode; however, the discussed minimization of anode heating by main beam electrons has the potential to enable higher repetition rates as well as efficiency and longer diode lifetime. A simulation study of this type of cathode design illustrates possible advantages.

  6. The Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP E. J. Mlawer, J. S. Delamere, and S. A. Clough Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts M. A. Miller and K. L. Johnson Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York T. R. Shippert and C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington R. G. Ellingson Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida M. H. Zhang State University of New York at Albany Albany, New York Stony Brook R. A. Ferrare National

  7. Standby Rates for Combined Heat and Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedano, Richard; Selecky, James; Iverson, Kathryn; Al-Jabir, Ali

    2014-02-01

    Improvements in technology, low natural gas prices, and more flexible and positive attitudes in government and utilities are making distributed generation more viable. With more distributed generation, notably combined heat and power, comes an increase in the importance of standby rates, the cost of services utilities provide when customer generation is not operating or is insufficient to meet full load. This work looks at existing utility standby tariffs in five states. It uses these existing rates and terms to showcase practices that demonstrate a sound application of regulatory principles and ones that do not. The paper also addresses areas for improvement in standby rates.

  8. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates (Dataset) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Data Explorer Search Results Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates Title: Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval. Authors: Feng, Zhe Publication Date: 2013-02-22 OSTI Identifier: 1169498 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)

  9. Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Rates for TWP (Dataset...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    irradiance; Liquid water content; Liquid water path; Ozone Concentration; Precipitation; Radar reflectivity; Radiative heating rate; Surface albedo Dataset File size NAView ...

  10. Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates to Cloud Microphysic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates to Cloud Microphysics S. F. Iacobellis and R. C. J. Somerville Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San...

  11. Diagnosis system to improve heat rate in fossil power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arroyo-Figueroa, G.; Villavicencio R., A.

    1996-05-01

    Today fossil fuel power plants is showing a trend toward full automation. This increases the difficulty for human operators to follow in detail the progress of power plants, and also limit the contribution of human operators to diagnostic task. Therefore, automated and intelligent fault diagnostic systems have been intensively investigated. Despite several successful examples of diagnostic systems, often called expert systems, the development task of a diagnostic system still remains empiric and is unique for each system. This paper discusses the design of a Diagnostic System to improve Heat Rate for fossil fuel power plant. The approach is characterized as an fault tree diagnostic system. The prototype of this system has showed the benefits and the feasibility of using this system to diagnose equipment in power plants.

  12. Spatially resolved heat release rate measurements in turbulent premixed flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayoola, B.O.; Kaminski, C.F.; Balachandran, R.; Mastorakos, E.; Frank, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Heat release rate is a fundamental property of great importance for the theoretical and experimental elucidation of unsteady flame behaviors such as combustion noise, combustion instabilities, and pulsed combustion. Investigations of such thermoacoustic interactions require a reliable indicator of heat release rate capable of resolving spatial structures in turbulent flames. Traditionally, heat release rate has been estimated via OH or CH radical chemiluminescence; however, chemiluminescence suffers from being a line-of-sight technique with limited capability for resolving small-scale structures. In this paper, we report spatially resolved two-dimensional measurements of a quantity closely related to heat release rate. The diagnostic technique uses simultaneous OH and CH{sub 2}O planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), and the pixel-by-pixel product of the OH and CH{sub 2}O PLIF signals has previously been shown to correlate well with local heat release rates. Results from this diagnostic technique, which we refer to as heat release rate imaging (HR imaging), are compared with traditional OH chemiluminescence measurements in several flames. Studies were performed in lean premixed ethylene flames stabilized between opposed jets and with a bluff body. Correlations between bulk strain rates and local heat release rates were obtained and the effects of curvature on heat release rate were investigated. The results show that the heat release rate tends to increase with increasing negative curvature for the flames investigated for which Lewis numbers are greater than unity. This correlation becomes more pronounced as the flame gets closer to global extinction.

  13. ARM - PI Product - Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Rates...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Rates for TWP A cloud properties and...

  14. Assessment of Uncertainty in Cloud Radiative Effects and Heating Rates

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    through Retrieval Algorithm Differences: Analysis using 3-years of ARM data at Darwin, Australia (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Assessment of Uncertainty in Cloud Radiative Effects and Heating Rates through Retrieval Algorithm Differences: Analysis using 3-years of ARM data at Darwin, Australia Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Assessment of Uncertainty in Cloud Radiative Effects and Heating Rates through Retrieval Algorithm Differences: Analysis using 3-years of ARM data at

  15. Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP ripbe1mcfarlane

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Dataset) | Data Explorer SGP ripbe1mcfarlane Title: Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP ripbe1mcfarlane The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties.

  16. Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP ripbe370mcfarlane

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Dataset) | Data Explorer ripbe370mcfarlane Title: Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP ripbe370mcfarlane The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties.

  17. California Federal Facilities: Rate-Responsive Buidling Operating for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deeper Cost and Energy Savings | Department of Energy Federal Facilities: Rate-Responsive Buidling Operating for Deeper Cost and Energy Savings California Federal Facilities: Rate-Responsive Buidling Operating for Deeper Cost and Energy Savings Fact sheet from the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) describes rate-responsive building operations for cost and energy savings in California federal facilities. PDF icon ca_incentives_rate_response.pdf More Documents & Publications

  18. Project Profile: High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), along with partners at the University of California, Berkeley, and Yale University, under the 2012 Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI): High Operating Temperature (HOT) Fluids funding opportunity, is investigating the use of metal alloys as a heat transfer fluid (HTF) in concentrating solar power (CSP) systems operating at temperatures in excess of 800°C. By allowing higher temperature operation, CSP systems can achieve greater efficiencies and thereby reduce the overall cost of electricity production.

  19. California Federal Facilities: Rate-Responsive Buidling Operating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact sheet from the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) describes rate-responsive building operations for cost and energy savings in California federal facilities. PDF icon ...

  20. TRANSIENT HEAT TRANSFER MODEL FOR SRS WASTE TANK OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-03-27

    A transient heat balance model was developed to assess the impact of a Submersible Mixer Pump (SMP) on waste temperature during the process of waste mixing and removal for the Type-I Savannah River Site (SRS) tanks. The model results will be mainly used to determine the SMP design impacts on the waste tank temperature during operations and to develop a specification for a new SMP design to replace existing long-shaft mixer pumps used during waste removal. The model will also be used to provide input to the operation planning. This planning will be used as input to pump run duration in order to maintain temperature requirements within the tank during SMP operation. The analysis model took a parametric approach. A series of the modeling analyses was performed to examine how submersible mixer pumps affect tank temperature during waste removal operation in the Type-I tank. The model domain included radioactive decay heat load, two SMP's, and one Submersible Transfer Pump (STP) as heat source terms. The present model was benchmarked against the test data obtained by the tank measurement to examine the quantitative thermal response of the tank and to establish the reference conditions of the operating variables under no SMP operation. The results showed that the model predictions agreed with the test data of the waste temperatures within about 10%. Transient modeling calculations for two potential scenarios of sludge mixing and removal operations have been made to estimate transient waste temperatures within a Type-I waste tank. When two 200-HP submersible mixers and 12 active cooling coils are continuously operated in 100-in tank level and 40 C initial temperature for 40 days since the initiation of mixing operation, waste temperature rises about 9 C in 48 hours at a maximum. Sensitivity studies for the key operating variables were performed. The sensitivity results showed that the chromate cooling coil system provided the primary cooling mechanism to remove process heat from the tank during operation.

  1. High heating rate thermal desorption for molecular surface sampling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2016-03-29

    A method for analyzing a sample having at least one analyte includes the step of heating the sample at a rate of at least 10.sup.6 K/s to thermally desorb at least one analyte from the sample. The desorbed analyte is collected. The analyte can then be analyzed.

  2. Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface Controls Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Josh A. Salmond

    2009-08-07

    The modernization of the Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface (MHC PP OI) consisted of upgrading the antiquated single board computer with a proprietary operating system to off-the-shelf hardware and off-the-shelf software with customizable software options. The pump package is the machine interface between a central heating and cooling system that pumps heat transfer fluid through an injection or compression mold base on a local plastic molding machine. The operator interface provides the intelligent means of controlling this pumping process. Strict temperature control of a mold allows the production of high quality parts with tight tolerances and low residual stresses. The products fabricated are used on multiple programs.

  3. Selection, Evaluation, And Rating of Compact Heat exchangers

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-10-07

    SEARCH determines and optimizes the design of a compact heat exchanger for specified process conditions. The user specifies process boundary conditions including the fluid state and flow rate and SEARCH will determine the optimum flow arrangement, channel geometry, and mechanical design for the unit. Fluids are modeled using NUST Refprop or tabulated values. A variety of thermal-hydraulic correlations are available including user-defined equations to accurately capture the heat transfer and pressure drop behavior of themore » process flows.« less

  4. An analysis of representative heating load lines for residential HSPF ratings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C. Keith; Shen, Bo; Shrestha, Som S.

    2015-07-01

    This report describes an analysis to investigate representative heating loads for single-family detached homes using current EnergyPlus simulations (DOE 2014a). Hourly delivered load results are used to determine binned load lines using US Department of Energy (DOE) residential prototype building models (DOE 2014b) developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The selected residential single-family prototype buildings are based on the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC 2006) in the DOE climate regions. The resulting load lines are compared with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Standard 210/240 (AHRI 2008) minimum and maximum design heating requirement (DHR) load lines of the heating seasonal performance factor (HSPF) ratings procedure for each region. The results indicate that a heating load line closer to the maximum DHR load line, and with a lower zero load ambient temperature, is more representative of heating loads predicted for EnergyPlus prototype residential buildings than the minimum DHR load line presently used to determine HSPF ratings. An alternative heating load line equation was developed and compared to binned load lines obtained from the EnergyPlus simulation results. The effect on HSPF of the alternative heating load line was evaluated for single-speed and two-capacity heat pumps, and an average HSPF reduction of 16% was found. The alternative heating load line relationship is tied to the rated cooling capacity of the heat pump based on EnergyPlus autosizing, which is more representative of the house load characteristics than the rated heating capacity. The alternative heating load line equation was found to be independent of climate for the six DOE climate regions investigated, provided an adjustable zero load ambient temperature is used. For Region IV, the default DOE climate region used for HSPF ratings, the higher load line results in an ~28% increase in delivered heating load and an ~52% increase in the estimated heating operating cost over that given in the AHRI directory (AHRI 2014).

  5. Entirely passive heat pipe apparatus capable of operating against gravity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koenig, Daniel R. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an entirely passive heat pipe apparatus capable of operating against gravity for vertical distances in the order of 3 to 7 meters and more. A return conduit into which an inert gas is introduced is used to lower the specific density of the working fluid so that it may be returned a greater vertical distance from condenser to evaporator.

  6. Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Rates for TWP

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Comstock, Jennifer

    2013-11-07

    A cloud properties and radiative heating rates dataset is presented where cloud properties retrieved using lidar and radar observations are input into a radiative transfer model to compute radiative fluxes and heating rates at three ARM sites located in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region. The cloud properties retrieval is a conditional retrieval that applies various retrieval techniques depending on the available data, that is if lidar, radar or both instruments detect cloud. This Combined Remote Sensor Retrieval Algorithm (CombRet) produces vertical profiles of liquid or ice water content (LWC or IWC), droplet effective radius (re), ice crystal generalized effective size (Dge), cloud phase, and cloud boundaries. The algorithm was compared with 3 other independent algorithms to help estimate the uncertainty in the cloud properties, fluxes, and heating rates (Comstock et al. 2013). The dataset is provided at 2 min temporal and 90 m vertical resolution. The current dataset is applied to time periods when the MMCR (Millimeter Cloud Radar) version of the ARSCL (Active Remotely-Sensed Cloud Locations) Value Added Product (VAP) is available. The MERGESONDE VAP is utilized where temperature and humidity profiles are required. Future additions to this dataset will utilize the new KAZR instrument and its associated VAPs.

  7. Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Rates for TWP

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Comstock, Jennifer

    A cloud properties and radiative heating rates dataset is presented where cloud properties retrieved using lidar and radar observations are input into a radiative transfer model to compute radiative fluxes and heating rates at three ARM sites located in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region. The cloud properties retrieval is a conditional retrieval that applies various retrieval techniques depending on the available data, that is if lidar, radar or both instruments detect cloud. This Combined Remote Sensor Retrieval Algorithm (CombRet) produces vertical profiles of liquid or ice water content (LWC or IWC), droplet effective radius (re), ice crystal generalized effective size (Dge), cloud phase, and cloud boundaries. The algorithm was compared with 3 other independent algorithms to help estimate the uncertainty in the cloud properties, fluxes, and heating rates (Comstock et al. 2013). The dataset is provided at 2 min temporal and 90 m vertical resolution. The current dataset is applied to time periods when the MMCR (Millimeter Cloud Radar) version of the ARSCL (Active Remotely-Sensed Cloud Locations) Value Added Product (VAP) is available. The MERGESONDE VAP is utilized where temperature and humidity profiles are required. Future additions to this dataset will utilize the new KAZR instrument and its associated VAPs.

  8. Induction heating apparatus and methods of operation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richardson, John G.

    2006-08-01

    Methods of operation of an induction melter include providing material within a cooled crucible proximate an inductor. A desired electromagnetic flux skin depth for heating the material within the crucible may be selected, and a frequency of an alternating current for energizing the inductor and for producing the desired skin depth may be selected. The alternating current frequency may be adjusted after energizing the inductor to maintain the desired electromagnetic flux skin depth. The desired skin depth may be substantially maintained as the temperature of the material varies. An induction heating apparatus includes a sensor configured to detect changes in at least one physical characteristic of a material to be heated in a crucible, and a controller configured for selectively varying a frequency of an alternating current for energizing an inductor at least partially in response to changes in the physical characteristic to be detected by the sensor.

  9. Memory alloy heat engine and method of operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Alfred Davis

    1977-01-01

    A heat engine and method of operation employing an alloy having a shape memory effect. A memory alloy element such as one or more wire loops are cyclically moved through a heat source, along a path toward a heat sink, through the heat sink and then along another path in counter-flow heat exchange relationship with the wire in the first path. The portion of the wire along the first path is caused to elongate to its trained length under minimum tension as it is cooled. The portion of the wire along the second path is caused to contract under maximum tension as it is heated. The resultant tension differential between the wires in the two paths is applied as a force through a distance to produce mechanical work. In one embodiment a first set of endless memory alloy wires are reeved in non-slip engagement between a pair of pulleys which are mounted for conjoint rotation within respective hot and cold reservoirs. Another set of endless memory alloy wires are reeved in non-slip engagement about another pair of pulleys which are mounted in the respective hot and cold reservoirs. The pulleys in the cold reservoir are of a larger diameter than those in the hot reservoir and the opposite reaches of the wires between the two sets of pulleys extend in closely spaced-apart relationship in counter-flow heat regenerator zones. The pulleys are turned to move the two sets of wires in opposite directions. The wires are stretched as they are cooled upon movement through the heat regenerator toward the cold reservoirs, and the wires contract as they are heated upon movement through the regenerator zones toward the hot reservoir. This contraction of wires exerts a larger torque on the greater diameter pulleys for turning the pulleys and supplying mechanical power. Means is provided for applying a variable tension to the wires. Phase change means is provided for controlling the angular phase of the pulleys of each set for purposes of start up procedure as well as for optimizing engine operation under varying conditions of load, speed and temperatures.

  10. High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a UCLA-led solar project to investigate high operating temperature liquid metal heat transfer fluids, funded by the SunShot initiative. The project team is using a combination of modeling along with a variety of property measurement and validation studies to demonstrate that the metal alloys identified can meet all the needs of a concentrating solar power plant. A successful candidate fluid would allow for the reduction of the levelized cost of energy by increasing the operating temperature for the CSP plant power cycle, which would increase thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency.

  11. Heat exchanger efficiently operable alternatively as evaporator or condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1981-01-01

    A heat exchanger adapted for efficient operation alternatively as evaporator or condenser and characterized by flexible outer tube having a plurality of inner conduits and check valves sealingly disposed within the outer tube and connected with respective inlet and outlet master flow conduits and configured so as to define a parallel flow path for a first fluid such as a refrigerant when flowed in one direction and to define a serpentine and series flow path for the first fluid when flowed in the opposite direction. The flexible outer tube has a heat exchange fluid, such as water, flowed therethrough by way of suitable inlet and outlet connections. The inner conduits and check valves form a package that is twistable so as to define a spiral annular flow path within the flexible outer tube for the heat exchange fluid. The inner conduits have thin walls of highly efficient heat transfer material for transferring heat between the first and second fluids. Also disclosed are specific materials and configurations.

  12. Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP ripbe1mcfarlane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riihimaki, Laura; Shippert, Timothy

    2014-11-05

    The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties. In the past year, the Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to combine all of the input properties needed for BBHRP into a single gridded input file. Additionally, an interface between the RIPBE input file and the RRTM was developed using the new ARM integrated software development environment (ISDE) and effort was put into developing quality control (qc) flags and provenance information on the BBHRP output files so that analysis of the output would be more straightforward. This new version of BBHRP, sgp1bbhrpripbeC1.c1, uses the RIPBE files as input to RRTM, and calculates broadband SW and LW fluxes and heating rates at 1-min resolution using the independent column approximation. The vertical resolution is 45 m in the lower and middle troposphere to match the input cloud properties, but is at coarser resolution in the upper atmosphere. Unlike previous versions, the vertical grid is the same for both clear-sky and cloudy-sky calculations.

  13. Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP ripbe370mcfarlane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riihimaki, Laura; Shippert, Timothy

    2014-11-05

    The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties. In the past year, the Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to combine all of the input properties needed for BBHRP into a single gridded input file. Additionally, an interface between the RIPBE input file and the RRTM was developed using the new ARM integrated software development environment (ISDE) and effort was put into developing quality control (qc) flags and provenance information on the BBHRP output files so that analysis of the output would be more straightforward. This new version of BBHRP, sgp1bbhrpripbeC1.c1, uses the RIPBE files as input to RRTM, and calculates broadband SW and LW fluxes and heating rates at 1-min resolution using the independent column approximation. The vertical resolution is 45 m in the lower and middle troposphere to match the input cloud properties, but is at coarser resolution in the upper atmosphere. Unlike previous versions, the vertical grid is the same for both clear-sky and cloudy-sky calculations.

  14. TRANSIENT HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS FOR SRS RADIOACTIVE TANK OPERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2013-06-27

    The primary objective of the present work is to perform a heat balance study for type-I waste tank to assess the impact of using submersible mixer pumps during waste removal. The temperature results calculated by the model will be used to evaluate the temperatures of the slurry waste under various tank operating conditions. A parametric approach was taken to develop a transient model for the heat balance study for type-I waste tanks such as Tank 11, during waste removal by SMP. The tank domain used in the present model consists of two SMP?s for sludge mixing, one STP for the waste removal, cooling coil system with 36 coils, and purge gas system. The sludge waste contained in Tank 11 also has a decay heat load of about 43 W/m{sup 3} mainly due to the emission of radioactive gamma rays. All governing equations were established by an overall energy balance for the tank domain, and they were numerically solved. A transient heat balance model used single waste temperature model, which represents one temperature for the entire waste liquid domain contained in the tank at each transient time.

  15. Control system for, and a method of, heating an operator station of a work machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Thomas M.; Hoff, Brian D.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2005-04-05

    There are situations in which an operator remains in an operator station of a work machine when an engine of the work machine is inactive. The present invention includes a control system for, and a method of, heating the operator station when the engine is inactive. A heating system of the work machine includes an electrically-powered coolant pump, a power source, and at least one piece of warmed machinery. An operator heat controller is moveable between a first and a second position, and is operable to connect the electrically-powered coolant pump to the power source when the engine is inactive and the operator heat controller is in the first position. Thus, by deactivating the engine and then moving the operator heat controller to the first position, the operator may supply electrical energy to the electrically-powered coolant pump, which is operably coupled to heat the operator station.

  16. Parametric Sensivity Study of Operating and Design Variables in Wellbore Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Michael Shook; Gopi Nalla; Gregory L. Mines; K. Kit Bloomfield

    2004-05-01

    This report documents the results of an extensive sensitivity study conducted by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This study investigated the effects of various operating and design parameters on wellbore heat exchanger performance to determine conditions for optimal thermal energy extraction and evaluate the potential for using a wellbore heat exchanger model for power generation. Variables studied included operational parameters such as circulation rates, wellbore geometries and working fluid properties, and regional properties including basal heat flux and formation rock type. Energy extraction is strongly affected by fluid residence time, heat transfer contact area, and formation thermal properties. Water appears to be the most appropriate working fluid. Aside from minimal tubing insulation, tubing properties are second order effects. On the basis of the sensitivity study, a best case model was simulated and the results compared against existing low-temperature power generation plants. Even assuming ideal work conversion to electric power, a wellbore heat exchange model cannot generate 200 kW (682.4e+3 BTU/h) at the onset of pseudosteady state. Using realistic conversion efficiency, the method is unlikely to generate 50 kW (170.6e+3 BTU/h).

  17. Parametric Sensitivity Study of Operating and Design Variables in Wellbore Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalla, G.; Shook, G.M.; Mines, G.L.; Bloomfield, K.K.

    2004-05-01

    This report documents the results of an extensive sensitivity study conducted by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This study investigated the effects of various operating and design parameters on wellbore heat exchanger performance to determine conditions for optimal thermal energy extraction and evaluate the potential for using a wellbore heat exchanger model for power generation. Variables studied included operational parameters such as circulation rates, wellbore geometries and working fluid properties, and regional properties including basal heat flux and formation rock type. Energy extraction is strongly affected by fluid residence time, heat transfer contact area, and formation thermal properties. Water appears to be the most appropriate working fluid. Aside from minimal tubing insulation, tubing properties are second order effects. On the basis of the sensitivity study, a best case model was simulated and the results compared against existing low-temperature power generation plants. Even assuming ideal work conversion to electric power, a wellbore heat exchange model cannot generate 200 kW (682.4e+3 BTU/h) at the onset of pseudosteady state. Using realistic conversion efficiency, the method is unlikely to generate 50 kW (170.6e+3 BTU/h).

  18. Analysis of Heat Rate Improvement Potential at Coal-Fired Power Plants -

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Energy Information Administration Analysis of Heat Rate Improvement Potential at Coal-Fired Power Plants Release date: May 19, 2015 Introduction The thermal efficiency of electricity production is represented by the heat rate, which measures the amount of energy used to generate one kilowatthour of electricity.1 A generating unit with a lower, or more efficient, heat rate can generate the same quantity of electricity while consuming less fuel, compared with a unit with a higher heat

  19. ITER Generic Diagnostic Upper Port Plug Nuclear Heating and Personnel Dose Rate Assesment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell E. Feder and Mahmoud Z. Youssef

    2009-01-28

    Neutronics analysis to find nuclear heating rates and personnel dose rates were conducted in support of the integration of diagnostics in to the ITER Upper Port Plugs. Simplified shielding models of the Visible-Infrared diagnostic and of a large aperture diagnostic were incorporated in to the ITER global CAD model. Results for these systems are representative of typical designs with maximum shielding and a small aperture (Vis-IR) and minimal shielding with a large aperture. The neutronics discrete-ordinates code ATTILA and SEVERIAN (the ATTILA parallel processing version) was used. Material properties and the 500 MW D-T volume source were taken from the ITER Brand Model MCNP benchmark model. A biased quadrature set equivelant to Sn=32 and a scattering degree of Pn=3 were used along with a 46-neutron and 21-gamma FENDL energy subgrouping. Total nuclear heating (neutron plug gamma heating) in the upper port plugs ranged between 380 and 350 kW for the Vis-IR and Large Aperture cases. The Large Aperture model exhibited lower total heating but much higher peak volumetric heating on the upper port plug structure. Personnel dose rates are calculated in a three step process involving a neutron-only transport calculation, the generation of activation volume sources at pre-defined time steps and finally gamma transport analyses are run for selected time steps. ANSI-ANS 6.1.1 1977 Flux-to-Dose conversion factors were used. Dose rates were evaluated for 1 full year of 500 MW DT operation which is comprised of 3000 1800-second pulses. After one year the machine is shut down for maintenance and personnel are permitted to access the diagnostic interspace after 2-weeks if dose rates are below 100 ?Sv/hr. Dose rates in the Visible-IR diagnostic model after one day of shutdown were 130 ?Sv/hr but fell below the limit to 90 ?Sv/hr 2-weeks later. The Large Aperture style shielding model exhibited higher and more persistent dose rates. After 1-day the dose rate was 230 ?Sv/hr but was still at 120 ?Sv/hr 4-weeks later.

  20. Operating and Maintaining Your Heat Pump | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Changing filters regularly is an important part of maintaining a heat pump system. | Photo courtesy of iStockphotoBanksPhotos Changing filters regularly is an important part...

  1. Operating and Maintaining Your Heat Pump | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    heat pump performance unless your system uses a high-efficiency, variable-speed fan motor. ... Lubricate motors, and inspect belts for tightness and wear Verify correct electric control...

  2. High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albrecht, Georg; George, E. Victor; Krupke, William F.; Sooy, Walter; Sutton, Steven B.

    1996-01-01

    High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes.

  3. High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albrecht, G.; George, E.V.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.; Sutton, S.B.

    1996-06-11

    High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes. 5 figs.

  4. High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A successful candidate fluid would allow for the reduction of the levelized cost of energy by increasing the operating temperature for the CSP plant power cycle, which would ...

  5. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    July 2004 | Department of Energy Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators, July 2004 Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators, July 2004 Many owners and operators of industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boiler systems need to use energy more efficiently. This 2004 guide is organized into topics that address many of the fundamental issues encountered in planning a CHP project and focuses on technical subjects

  6. In-Cylinder Mechanisms of PCI Heat-Release Rate Control by Fuel Reactivity Stratification

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Explores in-cylinder mechanisms by which fuel reactivity stratification via a two fuel system affects premixed charge compression ignition heat release rate to achieve diesel-like efficiency

  7. Heat-Rate Improvement Obtained by Retubing Power-Plant Condenser Enhanced Tubes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-01-21

    A utility will only retube a condenser with enhanced tubes if the incremental cost of the enhanced tubes can be offset with reduced fuel costs. The reduced fuel cost is obtained for some units because of the higher heat-transfer coefficient of enhanced tubes. They lead to improved condenser performance measured by a lower condenser pressure and therefore a more efficient power plant. However, the higher haet-transfer coefficients do not always guarantee that enhanced tubes willmore » be more cost effective. Other issues must be considered such as the cooling-water flow reduction due to the increased pressure drop, the low-pressure turbine heat-rate variation with backpressure, and the cooling-water pump and system characteristics. These and other parameters must be considered to calculate the efficiency improvement of the power plant as commonly measured by the quantity known as the heat rate. Knowing the heat-rate improvement, the fuel cost, and the incremental increase of the enhanced tubes from the supplier, the payback time can be determined. This program calculates the heat-rate improvement that can be obtained by retubing a power plant condenser with enhanced tubes of a particular type called Korodense LPD made by Wolverine Tube, Inc. The fuel savings are easily established knowing the heat-rate improvement. All electrical utilities are potential users because a condenser is used as the heat sink for every power plant.« less

  8. Analysis of Heat Rate Improvement Potential at Coal-Fired Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Rate Improvement Potential at Coal- Fired Power Plants May 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Analysis of Heat Rate Improvement Potential at Coal-Fired Power Plants i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of

  9. High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-12-01

    The University of California, Los Angeles, the University of California, Berkeley, and Yale University is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI): High Operating Temperature (HOT) Fluids. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

  10. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: sizing, installation and operation of systems. 1980 edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared as a text for a training course on solar heating and cooling of residential buildings. The course and text are directed toward sizing, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar systems for space heating and hot water supply, and solar cooling is treated only briefly. (MHR)

  11. A heat & mass integration approach to reduce capital and operating costs of a distillation configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madenoor Ramapriya, Gautham; Jiang, Zheyu; Tawarmalani, Mohit; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2015-11-11

    We propose a general method to consolidate distillation columns of a distillation configuration using heat and mass integration. The proposed method encompasses all heat and mass integrations known till date, and includes many more. Each heat and mass integration eliminates a distillation column, a condenser, a reboiler and the heat duty associated with a reboiler. Thus, heat and mass integration can potentially offer significant capital and operating cost benefits. In this talk, we will study the various possible heat and mass integrations in detail, and demonstrate their benefits using case studies. This work will lay out a framework to synthesize an entire new class of useful configurations based on heat and mass integration of distillation columns.

  12. The Effect of Heat Treatments and Coatings on the Outgassing Rate of Stainless Steel Chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamum, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A,; Stutzman, Marcy L.; Adderley, Philip A.; Poelker, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    The outgassing rates of four nominally identical 304L stainless steel vacuum chambers were measured to determine the effect of chamber coatings and heat treatments. One chamber was coated with titanium nitride (TiN) and one with amorphous silicon (a-Si) immediately following fabrication. One chamber remained uncoated throughout, and the last chamber was first tested without any coating, and then coated with a-Si following a series of heat treatments. The outgassing rate of each chamber was measured at room temperatures between 15 and 30 deg C following bakes at temperatures between 90 and 400 deg C. Measurements for bare steel showed a significant reduction in the outgassing rate by more than a factor of 20 after a 400 deg C heat treatment (3.5 x 10{sup 12} TorrL s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} prior to heat treatment, reduced to 1.7 x 10{ sup -13} TorrL s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} following heat treatment). The chambers that were coated with a-Si showed minimal change in outgassing rates with heat treatment, though an outgassing rate reduced by heat treatments prior to a-Si coating was successfully preserved throughout a series of bakes. The TiN coated chamber exhibited remarkably low outgassing rates, up to four orders of magnitude lower than the uncoated stainless steel. An evaluation of coating composition suggests the presence of elemental titanium which could provide pumping and lead to an artificially low outgassing rate. The outgassing results are discussed in terms of diffusion-limited versus recombination-limited processes.

  13. A magnetically coupled Stirling engine driven heat pump: Design optimization and operating cost analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent, R.J.; Waldron, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design for a 2nd generation, gas-fired free-piston Stirling engine driven heat pump has been developed which incorporates a linear magnetic coupling to drive the refrigerant compressor piston. The Mark 2 machine is intended for the residential heat pump market and has 3 Ton cooling capacity. The new heat pump is an evolutionary design based on the Mark 1 free-piston machine which was successfully developed and independently tested by a major heat pump/air conditioning manufacturer. This paper briefly describes test results that were obtained with the Mark 1 machine and then presents the design and operating cost analysis for the Mark 2 heat pump. Operating costs by month are given for both Chicago and Atlanta. A summary of the manufacturing cost estimates obtained from Pioneer Engineering and Manufacturing Company (PEM) are also given. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Microbase Cloud Products and Associated Heating Rates in the Tropical Western Pacific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microbase Cloud Products and Associated Heating Rates in the Tropical Western Pacific J. H. Mather and S. A. McFarlane Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction The microbase value added product (Miller et al. 2003) provides a standardized framework for calculating and storing continuous retrievals of cloud microphysical properties including liquid water content (LWC), ice water content (IWC), and cloud droplet size. Microbase is part of the larger broadband heating

  15. Optimization of the operation of a drying heat pump using superheated steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moraitis, C.S.; Akritidis, C.B.

    1997-05-01

    A numerical solution of a model which describes the optimal operation of a novel concept of heat pump for drying applications based on the theory of minimum energy cycles is presented. The thermodynamic cycle of the drying heat pump involves vapor condensation in a Laval nozzle, removal of the liquid phase in a separator as well as compression of the working medium, which is superheated vapor.

  16. Economic analysis of solar industrial process heat systems: a methodology to determine annual required revenue and internal rate of return

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickinson, W.C.; Brown, K.C.

    1981-08-11

    To permit an economic evaluation of solar industrial process heat systems, a methodology was developed to determine the annual required revenue and the internal rate of return. First, a format is provided to estimate the solar system's installed cost, annual operating and maintenance expenses, and net annual solar energy delivered to the industrial process. Then an expression is presented that gives the annual required revenue and the price of solar energy. The economic attractiveness of the potential solar investment can be determined by comparing the price of solar energy with the price of fossil fuel, both expressed in levelized terms. This requires calculation of the internal rate of return on the solar investment or, in certain cases, the growth rate of return.

  17. Kinetics of silicide formation over a wide range of heating rates spanning six orders of magnitude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molina-Ruiz, Manel; Lopeanda, Aitor F.; Gonzalez-Silveira, Marta; Garcia, Gemma; Clavaguera-Mora, Maria T. [Grup de Nanomaterials i Microsistemes, Departament de Fsica, Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Peral, Inma [ALBA Synchrotron Light Facility, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valls (Spain); Rodrguez-Viejo, Javier, E-mail: javier.rodriguez@uab.cat [Grup de Nanomaterials i Microsistemes, Departament de Fsica, Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); MATGAS Research Centre, UAB Campus, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2014-07-07

    Kinetic processes involving intermediate phase formation are often assumed to follow an Arrhenius temperature dependence. This behavior is usually inferred from limited data over narrow temperature intervals, where the exponential dependence is generally fully satisfied. However, direct evidence over wide temperature intervals is experimentally challenging and data are scarce. Here, we report a study of silicide formation between a 12?nm film of palladium and 15?nm of amorphous silicon in a wide range of heating rates, spanning six orders of magnitude, from 0.1 to 10{sup 5?}K/s, or equivalently more than 300?K of variation in reaction temperature. The calorimetric traces exhibit several distinct exothermic events related to interdiffusion, nucleation of Pd{sub 2}Si, crystallization of amorphous silicon, and vertical growth of Pd{sub 2}Si. Interestingly, the thickness of the initial nucleation layer depends on the heating rate revealing enhanced mass diffusion at the fastest heating rates during the initial stages of the reaction. In spite of this, the formation of the silicide strictly follows an Arrhenius temperature dependence over the whole temperature interval explored. A kinetic model is used to fit the calorimetric data over the complete heating rate range. Calorimetry is complemented by structural analysis through transmission electron microscopy and both standard and in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction.

  18. The new Kaiserstuhl coking plant: The heating system -- Design, construction and initial operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strunk, J.

    1996-12-31

    At the end of 1992 the new coke plant Kaiserstuhl in Dortmund/Germany with presently the largest coke ovens world-wide started its production operation in close linkage to the Krupp-Hoesch Metallurgical Works after about 35 months construction time. This plant incorporating comprehensive equipment geared to improve environmental protection is also considered as the most modern coke plant of the world. The heating-system and first results of operation will be presented.

  19. Automatic coke oven heating control system at Burns Harbor for normal and repair operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battle, E.T.; Chen, K.L.

    1997-12-31

    An automatic heating control system for coke oven batteries was developed in 1985 for the Burns Harbor No. 1 battery and reported in the 1989 Ironmaking Conference Proceedings. The original system was designed to maintain a target coke temperature at a given production level under normal operating conditions. Since 1989, enhancements have been made to this control system so that it can also control the battery heating when the battery is under repair. The new control system has improved heating control capability because it adjusts the heat input to the battery in response to anticipated changes in the production schedule. During a recent repair of this 82 oven battery, the pushing schedule changed from 102 ovens/day to 88 ovens/day, then back to 102 ovens/day, then to 107 ovens/day. During this repair, the control system was able to maintain the coke temperature average standard deviation at 44 F, with a maximum 75 F.

  20. Entirely passive heat-pipe apparatus capable of operating against gravity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koenig, D.R.

    1981-02-11

    The disclosure is directed to an entirely passive heat pipe apparatus capable of operating against gravity for vertical distances in the order of 3 to 7 and more. A return conduit into which an inert gas is introduced is used to lower the specific density of the working fluid so that it may be returned a greater vertical distance from condenser to evaporator.

  1. Low-coke rate operation under high PCI at Kobe No. 3 BF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuo, Tadasu; Kanazuka, Yasuo; Hoshino, Koichi; Yoshida, Yasuo; Kitayama, Syuji; Ishiwaki, Shiro

    1997-12-31

    Kobe No. 3 blast furnace (BF) suffered tremendous damage when the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake rocked the area on January 17, 1995. However, working as quickly as possible to dig out of the burden and rehabilitate various facilities, the company managed to restart the No. 3 BF on April 2. After the restart, which went smoothly, production was shifted into the low coke rate operation which was being promoted before the disaster. In October, 1995, only seven months after the restart, the nation record of 296 kg/t low coke rate could be achieved. Subsequently, in January, 1996, coke rate reached 290 kg/t and the low coke rate operation was renewed. Since that time the same level of coke rate has been maintained. The paper discusses how low coke rate operation was achieved.

  2. Expert Meeting Report: Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems M. Hoeschele and E. Weitzel Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) May 2013 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, subcontractors, or affiliated partners makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or

  3. Recent Developments on the Broadband Heating Rate Profile Value-Added Product

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recent Developments on the Broadband Heating Rate Profile Value-Added Product E. J. Mlawer, J. S. Delamere, and S. A. Clough Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts M. A. Miller and K. L. Johnson Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York T. R. Shippert and C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington R. G. Ellingson Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida M. H. Zhang State University of New York - Stony Brook Albany, New York R.

  4. Operational results for high pulverized coal injection rate at Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Hiromitsu; Matsunaga, Shin`ichi; Kakuichi, Kazumoto; Amano, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi

    1995-12-01

    In order to further develop the technology for high-rate pulverized coal injection (PCI), namely over 200 kg/t-pig, Nippon Steel performed a high injection rate test at the Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace in November, 1993. The paper describes PCI equipment; the operational design of the test, including blast conditions, reducibility of sinter, coke strength and burden distribution; and test results. These results include a discussion of the transition of operation, burden distribution control, replacement ratio of coke, permeability at upper and lower parts of the furnace, reducibility at lower part of the furnace, accumulation of fines in the deadman, and generation and accumulation of unburnt char. Stable operation was achieved at a PCI rate of 190 kg/t-pig. With injection rates between 200--300 kg/t-pig, the problem becomes how to improve the reduction-meltdown behavior in the lower part of the furnace.

  5. Residential and commercial space heating and cooling with possible greenhouse operation; Baca Grande development, San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.E.; Fritzler, E.A.

    1980-05-01

    A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the potential of multipurpose applications of moderate-temperature geothermal waters in the vicinity of the Baca Grande community development in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. The project resource assessment, based on a thorough review of existing data, indicates that a substantial resource likely exists in the Baca Grande region capable of supporting residential and light industrial activity. Engineering designs were developed for geothermal district heating systems for space heating and domestic hot water heating for residences, including a mobile home park, an existing motel, a greenhouse complex, and other small commercial uses such as aquaculture. In addition, a thorough institutional analysis of the study area was performed to highlight factors which might pose barriers to the ultimate commercial development of the resource. Finally, an environmental evaluation of the possible impacts of the proposed action was also performed. The feasibility evaluation indicates the economics of the residential areas are dependent on the continued rate of housing construction. If essentially complete development could occur over a 30-year period, the economics are favorable as compared to existing alternatives. For the commercial area, the economics are good as compared to existing conventional energy sources. This is especially true as related to proposed greenhouse operations. The institutional and environmental analyses indicates that no significant barriers to development are apparent.

  6. Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP 1bbhrpripbe1mcfarlane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riihimaki, Laura; Shippert, Timothy

    2014-11-05

    The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties. In the past year, the Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to combine all of the input properties needed for BBHRP into a single gridded input file. Additionally, an interface between the RIPBE input file and the RRTM was developed using the new ARM integrated software development environment (ISDE) and effort was put into developing quality control (qc) flags and provenance information on the BBHRP output files so that analysis of the output would be more straightforward. This new version of BBHRP, sgp1bbhrpripbeC1.c1, uses the RIPBE files as input to RRTM, and calculates broadband SW and LW fluxes and heating rates at 1-min resolution using the independent column approximation. The vertical resolution is 45 m in the lower and middle troposphere to match the input cloud properties, but is at coarser resolution in the upper atmosphere. Unlike previous versions, the vertical grid is the same for both clear-sky and cloudy-sky calculations.

  7. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oland, CB

    2004-08-19

    Combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration is the sequential production of two forms of useful energy from a single fuel source. In most CHP applications, chemical energy in fuel is converted to both mechanical and thermal energy. The mechanical energy is generally used to generate electricity, while the thermal energy or heat is used to produce steam, hot water, or hot air. Depending on the application, CHP is referred to by various names including Building Cooling, Heating, and Power (BCHP); Cooling, Heating, and Power for Buildings (CHPB); Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power (CCHP); Integrated Energy Systems (IES), or Distributed Energy Resources (DER). The principal technical advantage of a CHP system is its ability to extract more useful energy from fuel compared to traditional energy systems such as conventional power plants that only generate electricity and industrial boiler systems that only produce steam or hot water for process applications. By using fuel energy for both power and heat production, CHP systems can be very energy efficient and have the potential to produce electricity below the price charged by the local power provider. Another important incentive for applying cogeneration technology is to reduce or eliminate dependency on the electrical grid. For some industrial processes, the consequences of losing power for even a short period of time are unacceptable. The primary objective of the guide is to present information needed to evaluate the viability of cogeneration for new or existing industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boiler installations and to make informed CHP equipment selection decisions. Information presented is meant to help boiler owners and operators understand the potential benefits derived from implementing a CHP project and recognize opportunities for successful application of cogeneration technology. Topics covered in the guide follow: (1) an overview of cogeneration technology with discussions about benefits of applying cogeneration technology and barriers to implementing cogeneration technology; (2) applicable federal regulations and permitting issues; (3) descriptions of prime movers commonly used in CHP applications, including discussions about design characteristics, heat-recovery options and equipment, fuels and emissions, efficiency, maintenance, availability, and capital cost; (4) electrical generators and electrical interconnection equipment; (5) cooling and dehumidification equipment; (6) thermodynamic cycle options and configurations; (7) steps for evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of applying cogeneration technology; and (8) information sources.

  8. Hanford Site Contractor Receives Overall ‘Very Good’ Rating for Tank Operations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – EM recently gave its Office of River Protection (ORP) tank operations contractor Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) an overall “very good” rating for fiscal year 2015, allowing the company at the Hanford Site to earn a $13,728,000 award fee.

  9. Thermophysical properties of the Zr-0.01 Nb alloy at various heating rates and repeated cycles of heating-cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrova, I.I.; Peletsky, V.E.; Samsonov, B.N.

    1999-07-01

    The results of an experimental study of the heat capacity, enthalpy, electrical resistivity, and spectral emissivity (for the wavelength of 0.65 {micro}m) of the Zr-0.01 Nb alloy in the temperature range from 900 to 2,000 K are presented. The study was carried out using subsecond pulse heating of the samples by passing electrical current through them. Experiments were conducted at different heating rates (10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} K {center{underscore}dot} s {sup minus}{sup 1}) and a series of experiments consisted of several cycles of pulse heating and subsequent cooling. The effect of these parameters on the temperature dependence of thermophysical properties in the region of the {alpha}-{beta} transition was studied. With an increase in the heating rate, the temperature of the {alpha}-{beta} transition, and the maximum in the heat capacity shifted to higher temperatures. There are significant differences in properties over the temperature range of the {alpha}-{beta} transition for the various heating cycles.

  10. California Federal Facilities: Rate-Responsive Building Operation for Deeper Cost and Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-05-01

    Dynamic pricing electricity tariffs, now the default for large customers in California (peak demand of 200 kW and higher for PG&E and SCE, and 20 kW and higher for SDG&E), are providing Federal facilities new opportunities to cut their electricity bills and help them meet their energy savings mandates. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) has created this fact sheet to help California federal facilities take advantage of these opportunities through “rate-responsive building operation.” Rate-responsive building operation involves designing your load management strategies around your facility’s variable electric rate, using measures that require little or no financial investment.

  11. EIS-0302: Transfer of the Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Assembly and Test Operations From the Mound Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's proposed transfer of the Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (HS/RTG) operations at the Mound Site near Miamisburg, Ohio, to an alternative DOE site.

  12. Evaluation of the heating operation and transmission district: Feasibility of cogeneration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cable, J.H.; Gilday, L.T.; Moss, M.E.

    1995-11-01

    The General Services Administration, through its National Capital Region, operates a district heating system - called the Heating Operation and Transmission District - that provides steam to approximately 100 government buildings in Washington, D.C. HOTD is examining a host of options that will improve its ability to provide reliable, environmentally sound, and cost-effective service to its customers. This report evaluates one of those options - cogeneration, a technology that would enable HOTD to produce steam and electricity simultaneously. The study concluded that, under current regulations, cogeneration is not attractive economically because the payback period (15 years) exceeds Federal return-on-investment guidelines. However, if the regulatory environment changes to allow wheeling (transmission of power by a non-utility power producer to another user), cogeneration would be attractive; HOTD would save anywhere from $38 million to $118 million and the investment would pay back in 7 to 10 years. Although incorporating cogeneration into the HOTD system has no strong benefit at this time, the report recommends that GSA reevaluate cogeneration in one or two years because Federal regulations regarding wheeling are under review. It also recommends that GSA work with the District of Columbia government to develop standards for cogeneration.

  13. Real-Time Combined Heat and Power Operational Strategy Using a Hierarchical Optimization Algorithm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Kyung Tae; Cho, Heejin; Luck, Rogelio; Mago, Pedro J.

    2011-06-01

    Existing attempts to optimize the operation of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems for building applications have two major limitations: the electrical and thermal loads are obtained from historical weather profiles; and the CHP system models ignore transient responses by using constant equipment efficiencies. This paper considers the transient response of a building combined with a hierarchical CHP optimal control algorithm to obtain a real-time integrated system that uses the most recent weather and electric load information. This is accomplished by running concurrent simulations of two transient building models. The first transient building model uses current as well as forecast input information to obtain short term predictions of the thermal and electric building loads. The predictions are then used by an optimization algorithm, i.e., a hierarchical controller, that decides the amount of fuel and of electrical energy to be allocated at the current time step. In a simulation, the actual physical building is not available and, hence, to simulate a real-time environment, a second, building model with similar but not identical input loads are used to represent the actual building. A state-variable feedback loop is completed at the beginning of each time step by copying, i.e., measuring, the state variable from the actual building and restarting the predictive model using these ?measured? values as initial conditions. The simulation environment presented in this paper features nonlinear effects such as the dependence of the heat exchanger effectiveness on their operating conditions. The results indicate that the CHP engine operation dictated by the proposed hierarchical controller with uncertain weather conditions have the potential to yield significant savings when compared to conventional systems using current values of electricity and fuel prices.

  14. ITER Generic Diagnostic Upper Port Plug Nuclear Heating and Personnel Dose Rate Assesment Neutronics Analysis using the ATTILA Discrete Ordinates Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell Feder and Mahmoud Z. Yousef

    2009-05-29

    Neutronics analysis to find nuclear heating rates and personnel dose rates were conducted in support of the integration of diagnostics in to the ITER Upper Port Plugs. Simplified shielding models of the Visible-Infrared diagnostic and of the ECH heating system were incorporated in to the ITER global CAD model. Results for these systems are representative of typical designs with maximum shielding and a small aperture (Vis-IR) and minimal shielding with a large aperture (ECH). The neutronics discrete-ordinates code ATTILA and SEVERIAN (the ATTILA parallel processing version) was used. Material properties and the 500 MW D-T volume source were taken from the ITER Brand Model MCNP benchmark model. A biased quadrature set equivelant to Sn=32 and a scattering degree of Pn=3 were used along with a 46-neutron and 21-gamma FENDL energy subgrouping. Total nuclear heating (neutron plug gamma heating) in the upper port plugs ranged between 380 and 350 kW for the Vis-IR and ECH cases. The ECH or Large Aperture model exhibited lower total heating but much higher peak volumetric heating on the upper port plug structure. Personnel dose rates are calculated in a three step process involving a neutron-only transport calculation, the generation of activation volume sources at pre-defined time steps and finally gamma transport analyses are run for selected time steps. ANSI-ANS 6.1.1 1977 Flux-to-Dose conversion factors were used. Dose rates were evaluated for 1 full year of 500 MW DT operation which is comprised of 3000 1800-second pulses. After one year the machine is shut down for maintenance and personnel are permitted to access the diagnostic interspace after 2-weeks if dose rates are below 100 ?Sv/hr. Dose rates in the Visible-IR diagnostic model after one day of shutdown were 130 ?Sv/hr but fell below the limit to 90 ?Sv/hr 2-weeks later. The Large Aperture or ECH style shielding model exhibited higher and more persistent dose rates. After 1-day the dose rate was 230 ?Sv/hr but was still at 120 ?Sv/hr 4-weeks later. __________________________________________________

  15. Heating from free-free absorption and the mass-loss rate of the progenitor stars to supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Björnsson, C.-I.; Lundqvist, P. E-mail: peter@astro.su.se

    2014-06-01

    An accurate determination of the mass-loss rate of the progenitor stars to core-collapse supernovae is often limited by uncertainties pertaining to various model assumptions. It is shown that under conditions when the temperature of the circumstellar medium is set by heating due to free-free absorption, observations of the accompanying free-free optical depth allow a direct determination of the mass-loss rate from observed quantities in a rather model-independent way. The temperature is determined self-consistently, which results in a characteristic time dependence of the free-free optical depth. This can be used to distinguish free-free heating from other heating mechanisms. Since the importance of free-free heating is quite model dependent, this also makes possible several consistency checks of the deduced mass-loss rate. It is argued that the free-free absorption observed in SN 1993J is consistent with heating from free-free absorption. The deduced mass-loss rate of the progenitor star is, approximately, 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for a wind velocity of 10 km s{sup –1}.

  16. Method and apparatus for active control of combustion rate through modulation of heat transfer from the combustion chamber wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, Jr., Charles E.; Chadwell, Christopher J.

    2004-09-21

    The flame propagation rate resulting from a combustion event in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is controlled by modulation of the heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls. In one embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is mechanically modulated by a movable member that is inserted into, or withdrawn from, the combustion chamber thereby changing the shape of the combustion chamber and the combustion chamber wall surface area. In another embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is modulated by cooling the surface of a portion of the combustion chamber wall that is in close proximity to the area of the combustion chamber where flame speed control is desired.

  17. Measured Performance and Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps for Space Conditioning and for Water Heating in a Low-Energy Test House Operated under Simulated Occupancy Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present measured performance and efficiency metrics of Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and for water heating connected to a horizontal ground heat exchanger (GHX) loop. The units were installed in a 345m2 (3700ft2) high-efficiency test house built with structural insulated panels (SIPs), operated under simulated occupancy conditions, and located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA) in US Climate Zone 4 . The paper describes distinctive features of the building envelope, ground loop, and equipment, and provides detailed monthly performance of the GSHP system. Space conditioning needs of the house were completely satisfied by a nominal 2-ton (7.0 kW) water-to-air GSHP (WA-GSHP) unit with almost no auxiliary heat usage. Recommendations for further improvement through engineering design changes are identified. The comprehensive set of data and analyses demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of GSHPs in residential applications and their potential to help achieve source energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets set under the IECC 2012 Standard.

  18. Electrochemical Potential (ECP) of Clean Heated Fuel Cladding Material and Structural SS under BWR Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pop, Mike G.; Bell, Merl; Kilian, Renate; Dorsch, Thomas; Christian, Mueller

    2007-07-01

    To preliminarily monitor the relative effect of advanced water chemistry measures on SS structural material and fuel cladding in BWR environments a number of experiments were performed using laboratory equipment (recirculation loop, autoclave with heated electrodes, reference electrodes, etc.). The simulation of the plant condition was done without impurities or crud deposit contribution (clean surfaces). Subsequent testing, performed during 2007 and not yet cleared for release, is considering the effect of combined complex BWR chemistries and crud deposition. The heated Zircaloy fuel cladding tubing was prepared to simulate heat transfer by internal heating at levels existing in BWR (70 W/cm{sup 2}). For comparison purposes additional type SS347 electrode and unheated zirconium was used. A platinum electrode was used to measure the redox potential of the electrolyte. A high temperature Ag/AgCl electrode was used as a reference electrode. The assembly was installed in a recirculation 1 liter autoclave. Present report presents corrosion potential measurements performed under the following BWR water chemistry conditions (at 288 deg. C fluid exit temperature, 86 bar with surface temperature of Zirconium hot finger at 296 deg. C) - normal (inert) water conditions, - hydrogen injection in three steps from 0.68 ppm to 1.6 ppm, - oxygen injection in three steps from 2.4 ppm to 10 ppm - -methanol 2 ppm and oxygen 2 ppm in a close loop (without methanol refreshing) (authors)

  19. Rapid heating tensile tests of hydrogen-charged high-energy-rate-forged 316L stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosley, W.C.

    1989-05-19

    316L stainless steel is a candidate material for construction of equipment that will be exposed to tritium. Proper design of the equipment will require an understanding of how tritium and its decay product helium affect mechanical properties. This memorandum describes results of rapid heating tensile testing of hydrogen-charged specimens of high-energy-rate-forged (HERF) 316L stainless steel. These results provide a data base for comparison with uncharged and tritium-charged-and-aged specimens to distinguish the effects of hydrogen and helium. Details of the experimental equipment and procedures and results for uncharged specimens were reported previously. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Method and apparatus for operating a self-starting air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heinrich, Charles E.

    1983-12-06

    A self-starting, fuel fired, air heating system including a fuel burner fired vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser and heating the air. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with a method and apparatus which on start-up prevents the vapor generator's vapor output from being conducted to the turbine until a predetermined pressure differential has been achieved. However, after the vapor flow is once permitted, it cannot again be prevented until after the fuel burner has been shut off and restarted.

  1. Thermionic converter with differentially heated cesium-oxygen source and method of operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rasor, Ned S.; Riley, David R.; Murray, Christopher S.; Geller, Clint B.

    2000-01-01

    A thermionic converter having an emitter, a collector, and a source of cesium vapor is provided wherein the source of cesium vapor is differentially heated so that said source has a hotter end and a cooler end, with cesium vapor evaporating from said hotter end into the space between the emitter and the collector and with cesium vapor condensing at said cooler end. The condensed cesium vapor migrates through a porous element from the cooler end to the hotter end.

  2. Airflow reduction during cold weather operation of residential heat recovery ventilators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGugan, C.A.; Edwards, P.F.; Riley, M.A.

    1987-06-01

    Laboratory measurements of the performance of residential heat recovery ventilators have been carried out for the R-2000 Energy Efficient Home Program. This work was based on a preliminary test procedure developed by the Canadian Standards Association, part of which calls for testing the HRV under cold weather conditions. An environmental chamber was used to simulate outdoor conditions. Initial tests were carried out with an outdoor temperature of -20/sup 0/C; subsequent tests were carried out at a temperature of -25/sup 0/C. During the tests, airflows, temperatures, and relative humidities of airstreams entering and leaving the HRV, along with electric power inputs, were monitored. Frost buildup in the heat exchangers and defrost mechanisms, such as fan shutoff or recirculation, led to reductions in airflows. The magnitude of the reductions is dependent on the design of the heat exchanger and the defrost mechanism used. This paper presents the results of tests performed on a number of HRVs commercially available in Canada at the time of the testing. The flow reductions for the various defrost mechanisms are discussed.

  3. Fact #659: January 24, 2011 Fuel Economy Ratings for Vehicles Operating on Electricity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Environmental Protection Agency has developed a new methodology for determining how fuel economy information will be displayed on the window sticker of a vehicle that operates on electricity....

  4. The Stress Corrosion Crack Growth Rate of Alloy 600 Heat Affected Zones Exposed to High Purity Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George A. Young; Nathan Lewis

    2003-04-05

    Grain boundary chromium carbides improve the resistance of nickel based alloys to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). However, in weld heat affected zones (HAZ's), thermal cycles from fusion welding can solutionize beneficial grain boundary carbides, produce locally high residual stresses and strains, and promote PWSCC. The present research investigates the crack growth rate of an A600 HAZ as a function of test temperature. The A600 HAZ was fabricated by building up a gas-tungsten-arc-weld deposit of EN82H filler metal onto a mill-annealed A600 plate. Fracture mechanics based, stress corrosion crack growth rate testing was performed in high purity water between 600 F and 680 F at an initial stress intensity factor of 40 ksi {radical}in and at a constant electrochemical potential. The HAZ samples exhibited significant SCC, entirely within the HAZ at all temperatures tested. While the HAZ samples showed the same temperature dependence for SCC as the base material (HAZ: 29.8 {+-} 11.2{sub 95%} kcal/mol vs A600 Base: 35.3 {+-} 2.58{sub 95%} kcal/mol), the crack growth rates were {approx} 30X faster than the A600 base material tested at the same conditions. The increased crack growth rates of the HAZ is attributed to fewer intergranular chromium rich carbides and to increased plastic strain in the HAZ as compared to the unaffected base material.

  5. Centerra Earns High Performance Rating for Savannah River Site Security Operations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AIKEN, S.C. – The Savannah River Site (SRS) security contractor Centerra received high performance ratings from DOE in fiscal year 2015, earning $5,280,546 of the available $5,739,724 fee.

  6. Comparison of Different Arc Detection Methods during Plasma Operations with ICRF Heating on ASDEX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Inca, R.; Assas, S.; Bobkov, V.; Braun, F.; Eckert, B.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.

    2007-09-28

    The Sub-Harmonic Arc Detection (SHAD) system used on ASDEX-Upgrade has been designed with the double objective to detect arcs on the ICRF system and to discriminate them from plasma transients like ELMs. This preliminary study focuses on the achievement of these requirements by analyzing and comparing the behavior of the SHAD with existing arc detectors in operation on AUG.

  7. Simulation of the loss of RHR during midloop operations and the role of steam generators in decay heat removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raja, L.L.; Banerjee, S.; Hassan, Y.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Loss of residual heat removal (RHR) during midloop operations was simulated using the RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic code for a typical four-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) under reduced inventory level. Two cases are considered here: one for an intact reactor coolant system with no vents and the other for an open system with a vent in the pressurizer. The effect of air on the transients was studied, unlike the RETRAN analysis of core boiling during midloop operations performed by Fujita and Rice, which did not analyze the presence of air in the system. The steam generators have water in the secondary covering the U-tubes. The system gets pressurized once water starts boiling in the core with higher system pressures for the vent-closed case. Reflux condensation occurs in the U-tubes aiding decay heat removal and preventing complete uncovery of the core. Sudden pressurization of the hot leg and vessel upper head causes the reactor vessel to act as a manometer reducing the core level and raising the downcomer level. Fuel centerline and clad temperatures are below safety limits throughout the transients.

  8. Coal flow aids reduce coke plant operating costs and improve production rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedard, R.A.; Bradacs, D.J.; Kluck, R.W.; Roe, D.C.; Ventresca, B.P.

    2005-06-01

    Chemical coal flow aids can provide many benefits to coke plants, including improved production rates, reduced maintenance and lower cleaning costs. This article discusses the mechanisms by which coal flow aids function and analyzes several successful case histories. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Operation and performance of a 350 kW (100 RT) single-effect/double-lift absorption chiller in a district heating network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweigler, C.J.; Preissner, M.; Demmel, S.; Hellmann, H.M.; Ziegler, F.F.

    1998-10-01

    The efficiency of combined heat, power, and cold production in total energy systems could be improved significantly if absorption chillers were available that could be driven with limited mass flows of low-temperature hot water. In the case of district heat-driven air conditioning, for example, currently available standard absorption chillers are often not applied because they cannot provide the low hot water return temperature and the specific cooling capacity per unit hot water mass flow that are required by many district heating networks. Above all, a drastic increase in the size of the machine (total heat exchanger area) due to low driving temperature differences if of concern in low-temperature applications. A new type of multistage lithium bromide/water absorption chiller has been developed for the summertime operating conditions of district heating networks. It provides large cooling of the district heating water (some 30 K) and large cooling capacity per unit hot water mass flow. Two pilot plants of this novel absorption chiller were designed within the framework of a joint project sponsored by the German Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology (BMBF), a consortium of 15 district heating utilities, and two manufacturers. The plants have been operated since summer 1996 in the district heating networks of Berlin and Duesseldorf. This paper describes the concept, installation, and control strategy of the two pilot plants, and it surveys the performance and operating experience of the plants under varying practical conditions.

  10. Evaluating temperature and fuel stratification for heat-release rate control in a reactivity-controlled compression-ignition engine using optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musculus, Mark P. B.; Kokjohn, Sage L.; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-23

    We investigated the combustion process in a dual-fuel, reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engine using a combination of optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling to explain the role of equivalence ratio, temperature, and fuel reactivity stratification for heat-release rate control. An optically accessible engine is operated in the RCCI combustion mode using gasoline primary reference fuels (PRF). A well-mixed charge of iso-octane (PRF = 100) is created by injecting fuel into the engine cylinder during the intake stroke using a gasoline-type direct injector. Later in the cycle, n-heptane (PRF = 0) is delivered through a centrally mounted diesel-type common-rail injector. This injection strategy generates stratification in equivalence ratio, fuel blend, and temperature. The first part of this study uses a high-speed camera to image the injection events and record high-temperature combustion chemiluminescence. Moreover, the chemiluminescence imaging showed that, at the operating condition studied in the present work, mixtures in the squish region ignite first, and the reaction zone proceeds inward toward the center of the combustion chamber. The second part of this study investigates the charge preparation of the RCCI strategy using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of a fuel tracer under non-reacting conditions to quantify fuel concentration distributions prior to ignition. The fuel-tracer PLIF data show that the combustion event proceeds down gradients in the n-heptane distribution. The third part of the study uses chemical kinetics modeling over a range of mixtures spanning the distributions observed from the fuel-tracer fluorescence imaging to isolate the roles of temperature, equivalence ratio, and PRF number stratification. The simulations predict that PRF number stratification is the dominant factor controlling the ignition location and growth rate of the reaction zone. Equivalence ratio has a smaller, but still significant, influence. Lastly, temperature stratification had a negligible influence due to the NTC behavior of the PRF mixtures.

  11. Heat Release Rates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Supporting Technical Document for the Radiological Release Accident Investigation Report (Phase II Report)

  12. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1980-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  13. Evaluating temperature and fuel stratification for heat-release rate control in a reactivity-controlled compression-ignition engine using optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Musculus, Mark P. B.; Kokjohn, Sage L.; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-23

    We investigated the combustion process in a dual-fuel, reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engine using a combination of optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling to explain the role of equivalence ratio, temperature, and fuel reactivity stratification for heat-release rate control. An optically accessible engine is operated in the RCCI combustion mode using gasoline primary reference fuels (PRF). A well-mixed charge of iso-octane (PRF = 100) is created by injecting fuel into the engine cylinder during the intake stroke using a gasoline-type direct injector. Later in the cycle, n-heptane (PRF = 0) is delivered through a centrally mounted diesel-type common-rail injector. This injectionmore » strategy generates stratification in equivalence ratio, fuel blend, and temperature. The first part of this study uses a high-speed camera to image the injection events and record high-temperature combustion chemiluminescence. Moreover, the chemiluminescence imaging showed that, at the operating condition studied in the present work, mixtures in the squish region ignite first, and the reaction zone proceeds inward toward the center of the combustion chamber. The second part of this study investigates the charge preparation of the RCCI strategy using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of a fuel tracer under non-reacting conditions to quantify fuel concentration distributions prior to ignition. The fuel-tracer PLIF data show that the combustion event proceeds down gradients in the n-heptane distribution. The third part of the study uses chemical kinetics modeling over a range of mixtures spanning the distributions observed from the fuel-tracer fluorescence imaging to isolate the roles of temperature, equivalence ratio, and PRF number stratification. The simulations predict that PRF number stratification is the dominant factor controlling the ignition location and growth rate of the reaction zone. Equivalence ratio has a smaller, but still significant, influence. Lastly, temperature stratification had a negligible influence due to the NTC behavior of the PRF mixtures.« less

  14. Heat transfer and heat exchangers reference handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-15

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with an understanding of the basic concepts of heat transfer and the operation of heat exchangers.

  15. Optimal operation of a concurrent-flow corn dryer with a drying heat pump using superheated steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moraitis, C.S. [Systelligence Consultants and Research Associates, Volos (Greece); Akritidis, C.B. [Dept. of Hydraulics and Agricultural Engineering, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1998-07-01

    A numerical model of a concurrent-flow dryer of corn using superheated steam as drying medium is solved applying a shooting technique, so as to satisfy boundary conditions imposed by the optimal design of a drying heat pump. The drying heat pump is based on the theory of minimum energy cycles. The solution of the model proves the applicability of the heat pump to a concurrent-flow dryer, achieving a Specific Energy Consumption as low as 1080 kJ/kg.

  16. Heat Flux Calculation and Problem of Flaking of Boron Carbide Coatings on the Faraday Screen of the ICRH Antennas During Tore Supra High Power, Long Pulse Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corre, Y.; Lipa, M.; Agarici, G.; Basiuk, V.; Colas, L.; Courtois, X.; Dumont, R. J.; Ekedahl, A.; Gardarein, J. L.; Klepper, C Christopher; Martin, V.; Moncada, V.; Portafaix, C.; Rigollet, F.; Tawizgant, R.; Travere, J. M.; Valliez, K.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable and repetitive high power and long pulse tokamak operation is strongly dependant of the ability to secure the Plasma Facing Components (PFCs). In Tore Supra, a network of 7 infrared (IR) video cameras is routinely used to prevent PFCs overheating and damage in selected regions. Real time feedback control and offline analysis are essential for basic protection and understanding of abnormal thermal events. One important limitation detected by the IR real time feed-back loop during high power RF operation (injected power of 9.5 MW over 26 s and 12 MW over 10 s have been achieved respectively in 2006 and 2008) is due to the interaction between fast ions which increase the power flux density and flaking of the boron carbide coatings on the Faraday screen box of the ICRH antennas. An IR-based experimental procedure is proposed in order to detect new flakes during plasma operation. The thermal response of the B4C coating is studied with and without flaking during plasma operation. The experimental heat flux deposited by fast ion losses on the Faraday screen is calculated for high (3.8 T) and low magnetic field (2 T) during high RF power operation (with fundamental hydrogen minority and second harmonic ICRH heating schemes respectively). The paper addresses both thermal science issues applied to machine protection and limitation due to fast ions issues during high RF power, long pulse operation. Safety margin to critical heat flux and number of fatigue cycles under heat load are presented in the paper.

  17. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PDF icon PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) More Documents & Publications PIA - WEB Physical Security Major Application PIA - GovTrip (DOE data) PIA - WEB Unclassified Business Operations General Support

  18. Doubly Fed Induction Generator in an Offshore Wind Power Plant Operated at Rated V/Hz: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2012-06-01

    This paper introduces the concept of constant Volt/Hz operation of offshore wind power plants. The deployment of offshore WPPs requires power transmission from the plant to the load center inland. Since this power transmission requires submarine cables, there is a need to use High-Voltage Direct Current transmission, which is economical for transmission distances longer than 50 kilometers. In the concept presented here, the onshore substation is operated at 60 Hz synced with the grid, and the offshore substation is operated at variable frequency and voltage, thus allowing the WPP to be operated at constant Volt/Hz.

  19. Simulation of loss of RHR during midloop operations and the role of steam generators in decay heat removal using the RELAP5/MOD3 code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, Y.A.; Raja, L.L. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1993-09-01

    Loss of residual heat removal during midloop operations was simulated for a typical four-loop pressurized water reactor operated under reduced inventory level using the RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic code. Two cases are considered here: one for an intact reactor coolant system with no vents and the other for an open system with a vent in the pressurizer. The presence of air in the reactor coolant system is modeled, and its effect on the transients is calculated. The steam generators are considered under wet lay up with water in the secondary covering the U-tubes. The system is pressurized once the water starts boiling in the core. Higher system pressures are seen for the closed-vent case when compared with the open-vent case. Reflux condensation occurs in the steam generator U-tubes preventing complete uncovery of the core and aiding in decay heat removal. The total heat removed by the steam generators is one-third of that produced by the core. The hot leg and vessel upper head pressurization cause the reactor vessel to act as a manometer where the core level drops and the downcomer level rises. This phenomenon is seen at different transient times for the two cases. Since it occurs only for a brief period, the rest of the transient is unaffected. Fuel centerline and clad temperatures are observed to be below the accepted safety limits throughout both transients.

  20. Dual source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  1. Vapor pressure and evaporation rate of certain heat-resistant compounds in a vacuum at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolgar, A.S.; Verkhoglyadova, T.S.; Samsonov, G.V.

    1985-02-01

    The vapor pressure and evaporation rate of borides of titanium, zirconium, and chrome and of strontium and carbides of titanium, zirconium, and chrome, molybdenum silicide and nitrides of titanium, niobium, and tantalum in a vacuum were studied. It is concluded that all subject compounds evaporate by molecular structures except AlB sub 12' which dissociates, losing the aluminum.

  2. Project Title: Small Scale Electrical Power Generation from Heat Co-Produced in Geothermal Fluids: Mining Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Thomas M; Erlach, Celeste

    2014-12-30

    Demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small scale power generation from low temperature co-produced fluids. Phase I is to Develop, Design and Test an economically feasible low temperature ORC solution to generate power from lower temperature co-produced geothermal fluids. Phase II &III are to fabricate, test and site a fully operational demonstrator unit on a gold mine working site and operate, remotely monitor and collect data per the DOE recommended data package for one year.

  3. Multiple source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  4. Operations & Administration - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat & Cool » Heat Pump Systems » Operating and Maintaining Your Heat Pump Operating and Maintaining Your Heat Pump Changing filters regularly is an important part of maintaining a heat pump system. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/BanksPhotos Changing filters regularly is an important part of maintaining a heat pump system. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/BanksPhotos Proper operation of your heat pump will save energy. Do not set back the heat pump's thermostat if it causes the

  5. Bayonet heat exchangers in heat-assisted Stirling heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yagyu, S.; Fukuyama, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Isshiki, N.; Satoh, I.; Corey, J.; Fellows, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Multi-Temperature Heat Supply System is a research project creating a city energy system with lower environmental load. This system consists of a gas-fueled internal combustion engine and a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump utilizing shaft power and thermal power in a combination of several cylinders. The heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power from engine exhaust heat source. Since this heat pump is operated by proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the system is expected to produce cooling and heating water at high COP. This paper describes heat exchanger development in the project to develop a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump. The heat pump employs the Bayonet type heat exchangers (BHX Type I) for supplying cold and hot water and (BHX Type II) for absorbing exhaust heat from the driving engine. The heat exchanger design concepts are presented and their heat transfer and flow loss characteristics in oscillating gas flow are investigated. The main concern in the BHX Type I is an improvement of gas side heat transfer and the spirally finned tubes were applied to gas side of the heat exchanger. For the BHX Type II, internal heat transfer characteristics are the main concern. Shell-and-tube type heat exchangers are widely used in Stirling machines. However, since brazing is applied to the many tubes for their manufacturing processes, it is very difficult to change flow passages to optimize heat transfer and loss characteristics once they have been made. The challenge was to enhance heat transfer on the gas side to make a highly efficient heat exchanger with fewer parts. It is shown that the Bayonet type heat exchanger can have good performance comparable to conventional heat exchangers.

  6. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  7. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  8. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, Walter A.; Gorski, Alan; Jaehnig, Leo J.; Moskal, Clifford J.; Naylor, Joseph D.; Parimi, Krishnia; Ward, John V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

  9. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  10. Heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolowodiuk, Walter

    1976-01-06

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration.

  11. A laser gyro with a four-mirror square resonator: formulas for simulating the dynamics of the synchronisation zone parameters of the frequencies of counterpropagating waves during the device operation in the self-heating regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bondarenko, E A

    2014-04-28

    For a laser gyro with a four-mirror square resonator we have developed a mathematical model, which allows one to simulate the temporal behaviour of the synchronisation zone parameters of the frequencies of counterpropagating waves in a situation when the device operates in the self-heating regime and is switched-on at different initial temperatures. (laser gyroscopes)

  12. IMPACT OF A REVISED {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup 26}Al REACTION RATE ON THE OPERATION OF THE Mg-Al CYCLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straniero, O.; Cristallo, S.; Imbriani, G.; DiLeva, A.; Limata, B.; Strieder, F.; Bemmerer, D.; Broggini, C.; Caciolli, A.; Corvisiero, P.; Costantini, H.; Lemut, A.; Formicola, A.; Gustavino, C.; Junker, M.; Elekes, Z.; Fueloep, Zs.; Gyuerky, Gy.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; and others

    2013-02-15

    Proton captures on Mg isotopes play an important role in the Mg-Al cycle active in stellar H-burning regions. In particular, low-energy nuclear resonances in the {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup 26}Al reaction affect the production of radioactive {sup 26}Al{sup gs} as well as the resulting Mg/Al abundance ratio. Reliable estimations of these quantities require precise measurements of the strengths of low-energy resonances. Based on a new experimental study performed at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics, we provide revised rates of the {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup 26}Al{sup gs} and the {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup 26}Al {sup m} reactions with corresponding uncertainties. In the temperature range 50-150 MK, the new recommended rate of {sup 26}Al {sup m} production is up to five times higher than previously assumed. In addition, at T = 100 MK, the revised total reaction rate is a factor of two higher. Note that this is the range of temperature at which the Mg-Al cycle operates in a H-burning zone. The effects of this revision are discussed. Due to the significantly larger {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup 26}Al {sup m} rate, the estimated production of {sup 26}Al{sup gs} in H-burning regions is less efficient than previously obtained. As a result, the new rates should imply a smaller contribution from Wolf-Rayet stars to the galactic {sup 26}Al budget. Similarly, we show that the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) extra-mixing scenario does not appear able to explain the most extreme values of {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al, i.e., >10{sup -2}, found in some O-rich presolar grains. Finally, the substantial increase of the total reaction rate makes the hypothesis of self-pollution by massive AGBs a more robust explanation for the Mg-Al anticorrelation observed in globular-cluster stars.

  13. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  14. Heat Treating Apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Saro, Robert; Bateman, Willis

    2002-09-10

    Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

  15. Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Number of companies expecting to introduce new geothermal heat pump products in 2010 ARI-320 Water-Source Heat Pumps 10 ARI-325 Ground Water-Source Heat Pumps 13 ARI-330 Ground Source Closed-Loop Heat Pumps 11 ARI-870 Direct Geoexhange Heat Pumps 2 Other Non-ARI Rated 4 Non-Geothermal Heat Pump System Components - ARI-320 = Water-Source Heat Pumps. ARI-325 = Ground Water-Source Heat Pumps. ARI-330 = Ground Source Closed-Loop Heat Pumps. ARI-870 = Direct Geoexchange Heat Pumps. - = No data

  16. Advanced Heat Transfer and Thermal Storage Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moens, L.; Blake, D.

    2005-01-01

    The design of the next generation solar parabolic trough systems for power production will require the development of new thermal energy storage options with improved economics or operational characteristics. Current heat-transfer fluids such as VP-1?, which consists of a eutectic mixture of biphenyl and diphenyl oxide, allow a maximum operating temperature of ca. 300 C, a limit above which the vapor pressure would become too high and would require pressure-rated tanks. The use of VP-1? also suffers from a freezing point around 13 C that requires heating during cold periods. One of the goals for future trough systems is the use of heat-transfer fluids that can act as thermal storage media and that allow operating temperatures around 425 C combined with lower limits around 0 C. This paper presents an outline of our latest approach toward the development of such thermal storage fluids.

  17. Heat transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  18. Heat transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1982-01-01

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  19. Method of measuring heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Niemann, Ralph C.; Zelipsky, Steven A.; Rezmer, Ronald R.; Smelser, Peter

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for measuring the heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. A gaseous phase of the cryogen used during normal operation of the system is passed through the system. The gaseous cryogen at the inlet to the system is tempered to duplicate the normal operating temperature of the system inlet. The temperature and mass flow rate of the gaseous cryogen is measured at the outlet of the system, and the heat capacity of the cryogen is determined. The heat influx of the system is then determined from known thermodynamic relationships.

  20. Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Environmental Assessment for the Future Location of Heat Source/Radioisotope Power System Assembly and Testing and Operations Currently Located at the Mound Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2002-08-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (the Department) has completed an Environmental Assessment for the Future Location of the Heat Source/Radioisotope Power System Assembly and Test. Operations Currently Located at the Mound Site. Based on the analysis in the environmental assessment, the Department has determined that the proposed action, the relocation of the Department's heat source and radioisotope power system operations, does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the ''National Environmental Policy Act'' of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  1. Cab Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damman, Dennis

    2005-10-31

    Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

  2. Heat pump having improved defrost system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, F.C.; Mei, V.C.; Murphy, R.W.

    1998-12-08

    A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger. 2 figs.

  3. Heat pump having improved defrost system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Fang C.; Mei, Viung C.; Murphy, Richard W.

    1998-01-01

    A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger.

  4. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  5. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data, the synthetic fuel contained slightly less heat energy and fewer emissions. Test results obtained from adding different levels of a small amount of hydrogen into the intake manifold of a diesel-operated engine showed no effect on exhaust heat content. In other words, both synthetic fuel and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen may not have a significant enough effect on the amount of recoverable heat and its feasibility. An economic analysis computer program was developed on Visual Basic for Application in Microsoft Excel. The program was developed to be user friendly, to accept different levels of input data, and to expand for other heat recovery applications (i.e., power, desalination, etc.) by adding into the program the simulation subroutines of the desired applications. The developed program has been validated using experimental data.

  6. Geothermal District Heating Economics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-07-12

    GEOCITY is a large-scale simulation model which combines both engineering and economic submodels to systematically calculate the cost of geothermal district heating systems for space heating, hot-water heating, and process heating based upon hydrothermal geothermal resources. The GEOCITY program simulates the entire production, distribution, and waste disposal process for geothermal district heating systems, but does not include the cost of radiators, convectors, or other in-house heating systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating basedmore » on the climate, population, and heat demand of the district; characteristics of the geothermal resource and distance from the distribution center; well-drilling costs; design of the distribution system; tax rates; and financial conditions.« less

  7. Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Operating and Maintaining Your Heat Pump Changing filters regularly is an important part of maintaining a heat pump system. | Photo courtesy of iStockphotoBanksPhotos Want to ...

  8. Microsoft PowerPoint - mather_twpice_heating_newyork.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manus Clear-Sky Heating Rates (Kday) Shortwave Longwave Net Ice Water Content + Liquid Water Content Radiative Heating Radiative heating profiles for the period January 26 -...

  9. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittereder, N.; Poerschke, A.

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season. Upon completion of the monitoring phase, measurements revealed that the initial TRNSYS simulated horizontal sub-slab ground loop heat exchanger fluid temperatures and heat transfer rates differed from the measured values. To determine the cause of this discrepancy, an updated model was developed utilizing a new TRNSYS subroutine for simulating sub-slab heat exchangers. Measurements of fluid temperature, soil temperature, and heat transfer were used to validate the updated model.

  10. Heat pump apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A.; Horowitz, Jeffrey S.

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  11. Heat pump with freeze-up prevention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1981-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid prevents freeze up of the second heat exchanger by keeping the temperature above the dew point; and, optionally, provides heat for efficient operation.

  12. Operation Schedule

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operation Schedule Daily Hours of Operation

  13. Cold Climate Heat Pumps Using Tandem Compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo; Abdelaziz, Omar; Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D

    2016-01-01

    In cold climate zones, e.g. ASHRAE climate regions IV and V, conventional electric air-source heat pumps (ASHP) do not work well, due to high compressor discharge temperatures, large pressure ratios and inadequate heating capacities at low ambient temperatures. Consequently, significant use of auxiliary strip heating is required to meet the building heating load. We introduce innovative ASHP technologies as part of continuing efforts to eliminate auxiliary strip heat use and maximize heating COP with acceptable cost-effectiveness and reliability. These innovative ASHP were developed using tandem compressors, which are capable of augmenting heating capacity at low temperatures and maintain superior part-load operation efficiency at moderate temperatures. Two options of tandem compressors were studied; the first employs two identical, single-speed compressors, and the second employs two identical, vapor-injection compressors. The investigations were based on system modeling and laboratory evaluation. Both designs have successfully met the performance criteria. Laboratory evaluation showed that the tandem, single-speed compressor ASHP system is able to achieve heating COP = 4.2 at 47 F (8.3 C), COP = 2.9 at 17 F (-8.3 C), and 76% rated capacity and COP = 1.9 at -13 F (-25 C). This yields a HSPF = 11.0 (per AHRI 210/240). The tandem, vapor-injection ASHP is able to reach heating COP = 4.4 at 47 F, COP = 3.1 at 17 F, and 88% rated capacity and COP = 2.0 at -13 F. This yields a HSPF = 12.0. The system modeling and further laboratory evaluation are presented in the paper.

  14. Heat Transfer and Latent Heat Storage in Inorganic Molten Salts for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathur, Anoop

    2013-08-14

    A key technological issue facing the success of future Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants is creating an economical Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system. Current TES systems use either sensible heat in fluids such as oil, or molten salts, or use thermal stratification in a dual-media consisting of a solid and a heat-transfer fluid. However, utilizing the heat of fusion in inorganic molten salt mixtures in addition to sensible heat , as in a Phase change material (PCM)-based TES, can significantly increase the energy density of storage requiring less salt and smaller containers. A major issue that is preventing the commercial use of PCM-based TES is that it is difficult to discharge the latent heat stored in the PCM melt. This is because when heat is extracted, the melt solidifies onto the heat exchanger surface decreasing the heat transfer. Even a few millimeters of thickness of solid material on heat transfer surface results in a large drop in heat transfer due to the low thermal conductivity of solid PCM. Thus, to maintain the desired heat rate, the heat exchange area must be large which increases cost. This project demonstrated that the heat transfer coefficient can be increase ten-fold by using forced convection by pumping a hyper-eutectic salt mixture over specially coated heat exchanger tubes. However,only 15% of the latent heat is used against a goal of 40% resulting in a projected cost savings of only 17% against a goal of 30%. Based on the failure mode effect analysis and experience with pumping salt at near freezing point significant care must be used during operation which can increase the operating costs. Therefore, we conclude the savings are marginal to justify using this concept for PCM-TES over a two-tank TES. The report documents the specialty coatings, the composition and morphology of hypereutectic salt mixtures and the results from the experiment conducted with the active heat exchanger along with the lessons learnt during experimentation.

  15. Heat pipes for industrial waste heat recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Development work on the high temperature ceramic recuperator at Los Alamos National Laboratory is described and involved material investigations, fabrication methods development, compatibility tests, heat pipe operation, and the modeling of application conditions based on current industrial usage. Solid ceramic heat pipes, ceramic coated refractory pipes, and high-temperature oxide protected metallic pipes have been investigated. Economic studies of the use of heat-pipe based recuperators in industrial furnaces have been conducted and payback periods determined as a function of material, fabrication, and installation cost.

  16. THERMAL STUDY OF THE DIII-D MACHINE HEAT REMOVAL CAPACITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    YIP,H; ADERSON,P.M; HOLTROP,K.L; HARRISON,S

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 With each plasma shot, the DIII-D tokamak dissipates 0.5 to 1.0 GJ of energy. Plasma shots may occur as frequently as every ten minutes, and the energy is removed in the form of heat by a cooling water system. to remove heat from the machine, cooling water circulates through each major heat source. These sources include the power supplies, motor/generator, rf current drives, neutral beam power supplies, magnetic field coils, and vacuum vessel. The cooling water system consists of isolated primary and secondary cooling loops separated by intermediate heat exchangers. As future DIII-D plans include operation during summer months and longer pulse duration, the cooling system's overall heat removal capability and performance efficiency must be assessed. Temperature and flow data from around the DIII-D facility are collected by a programmable logic controller (PLC); the data are used to analyze the heat generating sources, the heat transfer rate to intermediate heat exchangers, and the ultimate heat rejection to the environment via the cooling towers. A comparison of the original DIII-D machine design versus the actual performance determines the margin of heat removal capacity. projections of the heat removal rate for various longer plasma shots are made. Improvements in design and/or operational procedure will be necessary to attain the desired pulse duration.

  17. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

    2007-09-18

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  18. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc J.; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Tonon, Thomas

    2011-06-28

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  19. Geothermal Heat Pumps- Heating Mode

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In winter, fluid passing through this vertical, closed loop system is warmed by the heat of the earth; this heat is then transferred to the building.

  20. Review of Test Procedure for Determining HSPFs of Residential Variable-Speed Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C. Keith; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Shrestha, Som S.

    2015-08-01

    This report reviews the suitability of the existing Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF) ratings and testing requirements for the current generation of variable-speed (VS) air-source heat pumps. Recent field test results indicate larger discrepancies between rated HSPF and field-observed HSPF for VS models than for single-speed models in the same houses. These findings suggest that the heating season test and ratings procedure should be revisited for VS heat pumps. The ratings and testing procedures are described in ANSI/AHRI 210/240 (2008) for single-speed, two-capacity, and variable-speed units. Analysis of manufacturer and independent test performance data on VS units reveals why the current VS testing/ratings procedure results in overly optimistic HSPF ratings for some VS units relative to other types of heat pumps. This is due to a combination of extrapolation of low speed test data beyond the originally anticipated ambient temperature operating range and the constraints of unit controls, which prevent low speed operation over the range of ambient temperatures assumed in the procedure for low speed. As a result, the HSPFs of such units are being overpredicted relative to those for single- and two-capacity designs. This overprediction has been found to be significantly reduced by use in the HSPF ratings procedure of an alternative higher-load heating load line, described in a companion report (Rice et al., 2015).

  1. Axial flow heat exchanger devices and methods for heat transfer using axial flow devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2016-02-16

    Systems and methods described herein are directed to rotary heat exchangers configured to transfer heat to a heat transfer medium flowing in substantially axial direction within the heat exchangers. Exemplary heat exchangers include a heat conducting structure which is configured to be in thermal contact with a thermal load or a thermal sink, and a heat transfer structure rotatably coupled to the heat conducting structure to form a gap region between the heat conducting structure and the heat transfer structure, the heat transfer structure being configured to rotate during operation of the device. In example devices heat may be transferred across the gap region from a heated axial flow of the heat transfer medium to a cool stationary heat conducting structure, or from a heated stationary conducting structure to a cool axial flow of the heat transfer medium.

  2. Passive heat transfer means for nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burelbach, James P.

    1984-01-01

    An improved passive cooling arrangement is disclosed for maintaining adjacent or related components of a nuclear reactor within specified temperature differences. Specifically, heat pipes are operatively interposed between the components, with the vaporizing section of the heat pipe proximate the hot component operable to cool it and the primary condensing section of the heat pipe proximate the other and cooler component operable to heat it. Each heat pipe further has a secondary condensing section that is located outwardly beyond the reactor confinement and in a secondary heat sink, such as air ambient the containment, that is cooler than the other reactor component. Means such as shrouding normally isolated the secondary condensing section from effective heat transfer with the heat sink, but a sensor responds to overheat conditions of the reactor to open the shrouding, which thereby increases the cooling capacity of the heat pipe. By having many such heat pipes, an emergency passive cooling system is defined that is operative without electrical power.

  3. NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

    2008-09-01

    One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change heat exchanger with Na as the heat exchanger coolant. In order to design a very efficient and effective heat exchanger one must optimize the design such that we have a high heat transfer and a lower pressure drop, but there is always a trade-off between them. Based on NGNP operational parameters, a heat exchanger analysis with the sodium phase change will be presented to show that the heat exchanger has the potential for highly effective heat transfer, within a small volume at reasonable cost.

  4. Method of measuring heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Niemann, R.C.; Zelipsky, S.A.; Rezmer, R.R.; Smelser, P.

    1980-10-29

    A method is provided for measuring the heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. A gaseous phase of the cryogen used during normal operation of the system is passed through the system. The gaseous cryogen at the inlet to the system is tempered to duplicate the normal operating temperature of the system inlet. The temperature and mass flow rate of the gaseous cryogen is measured at the outlet of the system, and the heat capacity of the cryogen is determined. The heat influx of the system is then determined from known thermodynamic relationships.

  5. Field Performance of Inverter-Driven Heat Pumps in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, James; Aldrich, Robb

    2015-08-01

    CARB observed a wide range of operating efficiencies and outputs from site to site. Maximum capacities were found to be generally in line with manufacturer's claims as outdoor temperatures fell to -10°F. The reasons for the wide range in heating performance likely include: low indoor air flow rates, poor placement of outdoor units, relatively high return air temperatures, thermostat set back, integration with existing heating systems, and occupants limiting indoor fan speed. Even with lower efficiencies than published in other studies, most of the heat pumps here still provide heat at lower cost than oil, propane, or certainly electric resistance systems.

  6. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  7. Low Cost Polymer heat Exchangers for Condensing Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, Thomas; Trojanowski, Rebecca; Wei, George; Worek, Michael

    2015-09-30

    Work in this project sought to develop a suitable design for a low cost, corrosion resistant heat exchanger as part of a high efficiency condensing boiler. Based upon the design parameters and cost analysis several geometries and material options were explored. The project also quantified and demonstrated the durability of the selected polymer/filler composite under expected operating conditions. The core material idea included a polymer matrix with fillers for thermal conductivity improvement. While the work focused on conventional heating oil, this concept could also be applicable to natural gas, low sulfur heating oil, and biodiesel- although these are considered to be less challenging environments. An extruded polymer composite heat exchanger was designed, built, and tested during this project, demonstrating technical feasibility of this corrosion-resistant material approach. In such flue gas-to-air heat exchangers, the controlling resistance to heat transfer is in the gas-side convective layer and not in the tube material. For this reason, the lower thermal conductivity polymer composite heat exchanger can achieve overall heat transfer performance comparable to a metal heat exchanger. However, with the polymer composite, the surface temperature on the gas side will be higher, leading to a lower water vapor condensation rate.

  8. Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Average heating efficiency for geothermal heat pump shipments, 2008 and 2009 (average coefficient of performance) ARI-320 ARI-325/330 ARI-870 Other Non-ARI Rated 2008 4.4 4.0 4.2 3.6 2009 3.9 4.1 4.3 3.8 ARI-320 = Water-Source Heat Pumps. ARI-325 = Ground Water-Source Heat Pumps. ARI-330 = Ground Source Closed-Loop Heat Pumps. ARI-870 = Direct Geoexchange Heat Pumps. Year Model Type Notes: One ton of capacity is equal to 12,000 Btus per hour. Efficiency is expressed as btus of output per

  9. Systematic Method for Evaluating Extraction and Injection Flow Rates for 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit Pump-and-Treat Interim Actions for Hydraulic Containment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spiliotopoulos, Alexandros A.

    2013-03-20

    This document describes a systematic method to develop flow rate recommendations for Pump-and-Treat (P&T) extraction and injection wells in 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Units (OU) of the Hanford Site. Flow rate recommendations are developed as part of ongoing performance monitoring and remedy optimization of the P&T interim actions to develop hydraulic contairnnent of the dissolved chromium plume in groundwater and protect the Columbia River from further discharges of groundwater from inland. This document details the methodology and data required to infer the influence of individual wells near the shoreline on hydraulic containment and river protection and develop flow rate recommendations to improve system performance and mitigate potential shortcomings of the system configuration in place.

  10. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (BER) Country of Publication: United States Availability: ORNL Language: English Subject: 54 Environmental Sciences Cloud optical depth; Cloud base height; Cloud top height; Ice ...

  11. Property:HeatRate | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Landfi Biomass Facility + 12,916.67 + Atlantic County Util Biomass Facility + 13,648 + Avon Energy Partners LLC Biomass Facility + 10,366.7 + B BJ Gas Recovery Biomass Facility +...

  12. HEAT TRANSFER METHOD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gambill, W.R.; Greene, N.D.

    1960-08-30

    A method is given for increasing burn-out heat fluxes under nucleate boiling conditions in heat exchanger tubes without incurring an increase in pumping power requirements. This increase is achieved by utilizing a spinning flow having a rotational velocity sufficient to produce a centrifugal acceleration of at least 10,000 g at the tube wall. At this acceleration the heat-transfer rate at burn out is nearly twice the rate which can be achieved in a similar tube utilizing axial flow at the same pumping power. At higher accelerations the improvement over axial flow is greater, and heat fluxes in excess of 50 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr/sq ft can be achieved.

  13. Rate Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  14. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plant fact sheet | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plant fact sheet Argonne National Laboratory's Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant, expected to be operational in June 2016, will provide electricity...

  15. Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to operate at peak efficiency. | ...

  16. Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to operate at peak efficiency. |...

  17. Microchannel heat sink assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonde, W.L.; Contolini, R.J.

    1992-03-24

    The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watertight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures. 13 figs.

  18. Microchannel heat sink assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonde, Wayne L.; Contolini, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watetight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures.

  19. Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

  20. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing...

  1. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  2. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  3. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  4. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  5. Absorption-heat-pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  6. Waste heat: Utilization and management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, S.; Lee, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    This book is a presentation on waste heat management and utilization. Topics covered include cogeneration, recovery technology, low grade heat recovery, heat dispersion models, and ecological effects. The book focuses on the significant fraction of fuel energy that is rejected and expelled into the environment either as industrial waste or as a byproduct of installation/equipment operation. The feasibility of retrieving this heat and energy is covered, including technical aspects and potential applications. Illustrations demonstrate that recovery methods have become economical due to recent refinements. The book includes theory and practice concerning waste heat management and utilization.

  7. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with heat pipes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.; Prenger, F.C. Jr.

    1985-10-25

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 4 to 20 K range utilizes heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the magnetic material at the appropriate points during the material's movement. In one embodiment circular disks of magnetic material can be interleaved with the ends of the heat pipes. In another embodiment a mass of magnetic material reciprocatingly moves between the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the object of cooling to the magnetic material and the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the magnetic material to a heat sink.

  8. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with heat pipes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A.; Prenger, Jr., F. Coyne

    1987-01-01

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 4 to 20 K range utilizes heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the magnetic material at the appropriate points during the material's movement. In one embodiment circular disks of magnetic material can be interleaved with the ends of the heat pipes. In another embodiment a mass of magnetic material reciprocatingly moves between the end of the heat pipe of pipes that transmits heat from the object of cooling to the magnetic material and the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the magnetic material to a heat sink.

  9. An improved absorption generator for solar-thermal powered heat pumps. Part 2: Energy and economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fineblum, S.

    1997-12-31

    Solar heated absorption chiller installations have been very expensive for their rating. To enhance collector thermal efficiency the liquid flowing within the collectors must be kept as cool as possible. However, there is also a need to operate the absorption reported earlier. The compromise usually results in poor collector efficiency as well as a relatively poor specific chiller effect. The proposed vortex generator permits a heat pump to operate efficiently with relatively low temperature solar heated fluid (70--80 C). As a result, the collectors are cooler and more efficient. As noted in Part 1, the specific heat pumping capacity is about 27% greater than conventional systems operating at the same reduced generator temperatures. Therefore, a smaller, less expensive chiller is required. The reduced investment in solar arrays and absorption chillers is estimated along with a range of paybacks.

  10. An improved absorption generator for solar-thermal powered heat pumps. Part 1: Feasibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fineblum, S.

    1997-12-31

    Solar heated absorption chiller installations have been, typically, very expensive for their rating. The need to keep the liquid flowing within the collectors as cool as possible to enhance collector thermal efficiency, conflicts with the need to operate the absorption chiller at a higher temperature. The compromise usually results in poor collector efficiency as well as a relatively poor specific chiller effect. The proposed vortex generator permits a heat pump to operate efficiently with relatively low temperature solar heated fluid (70--80 C). As a result, the collectors are cooler and much more efficient. In addition, the specific heat pumping capacity is about 27% greater than conventional systems operating at the same reduced generator temperatures and, therefore, a smaller chiller is required. The economic consequences of these benefits will be presented in Part 2.

  11. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-12-25

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat. 11 figs.

  12. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-01-01

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  13. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1984-01-01

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. the second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  14. Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Average cooling efficiency for geothermal heat pump shipments, 2008 and 2009 (average energy efficiency ratio) ARI-320 ARI-325/330 ARI-870 Other Non-ARI Rated 2008 13.1 19.5 17.5 13.5 2009 14.6 20.4 18.2 14.3 ARI-320 = Water-Source Heat Pumps. ARI-325 = Ground Water-Source Heat Pumps. ARI-330 = Ground Source Closed-Loop Heat Pumps. ARI-870 = Direct Geoexchange Heat Pumps. Year Model Type Notes: One ton of capacity is equal to 12,000 Btus per hour. Efficiency is expressed as btus of output per

  15. Frostless heat pump having thermal expansion valves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Fang C.; Mei, Viung C.

    2002-10-22

    A heat pump system having an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant and further having a compressor, an interior heat exchanger, an exterior heat exchanger, a heat pump reversing valve, an accumulator, a thermal expansion valve having a remote sensing bulb disposed in heat transferable contact with the refrigerant piping section between said accumulator and said reversing valve, an outdoor temperature sensor, and a first means for heating said remote sensing bulb in response to said outdoor temperature sensor thereby opening said thermal expansion valve to raise suction pressure in order to mitigate defrosting of said exterior heat exchanger wherein said heat pump continues to operate in a heating mode.

  16. Experimental investigation of piston heat transfer under conventional diesel and reactivity-controlled compression ignition combustion regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A; Hendricks, Terry Lee; Ghandhi, Jaal B

    2014-01-01

    The piston of a heavy-duty single-cylinder research engine was instrumented with 11 fast-response surface thermocouples, and a commercial wireless telemetry system was used to transmit the signals from the moving piston. The raw thermocouple data were processed using an inverse heat conduction method that included Tikhonov regularization to recover transient heat flux. By applying symmetry, the data were compiled to provide time-resolved spatial maps of the piston heat flux and surface temperature. A detailed comparison was made between conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition combustion operations at matched conditions of load, speed, boost pressure, and combustion phasing. The integrated piston heat transfer was found to be 24% lower, and the mean surface temperature was 25 C lower for reactivity-controlled compression ignition operation as compared to conventional diesel combustion, in spite of the higher peak heat release rate. Lower integrated piston heat transfer for reactivity-controlled compression ignition was found over all the operating conditions tested. The results showed that increasing speed decreased the integrated heat transfer for conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition. The effect of the start of injection timing was found to strongly influence conventional diesel combustion heat flux, but had a negligible effect on reactivity-controlled compression ignition heat flux, even in the limit of near top dead center high-reactivity fuel injection timings. These results suggest that the role of the high-reactivity fuel injection does not significantly affect the thermal environment even though it is important for controlling the ignition timing and heat release rate shape. The integrated heat transfer and the dynamic surface heat flux were found to be insensitive to changes in boost pressure for both conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition. However, for reactivity-controlled compression ignition, the mean surface temperature increased with changes in boost suggesting that equivalence ratio affects steady-state heat transfer.

  17. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.K. Johnson

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor “boosted heat pump” technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pump system operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops.

  18. Solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  19. DESIGN OF A COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGER FOR HEAT RECUPERATION FROM A HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. K. Housley; J.E. O'Brien; G.L. Hawkes

    2008-11-01

    Design details of a compact heat exchanger and supporting hardware for heat recuperation in a high-temperature electrolysis application are presented. The recuperative heat exchanger uses a vacuum-brazed plate-fin design and operates between 300 and 800C. It includes corrugated inserts for enhancement of heat transfer coefficients and extended heat transfer surface area. Two recuperative heat exchangers are required per each four-stack electrolysis module. The heat exchangers are mated to a base manifold unit that distributes the inlet and outlet flows to and from the four electrolysis stacks. Results of heat exchanger design calculations and assembly details are also presented.

  20. HEAT EXCHANGER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, T.H. III; Richey, T. Jr.; Winders, G.R.

    1962-10-23

    A heat exchanger is designed for use in the transfer of heat between a radioactive fiuid and a non-radioactive fiuid. The exchanger employs a removable section containing the non-hazardous fluid extending into the section designed to contain the radioactive fluid. The removable section is provided with a construction to cancel out thermal stresses. The stationary section is pressurized to prevent leakage of the radioactive fiuid and to maintain a safe, desirable level for this fiuid. (AEC)

  1. Increasing Confidence In Geothermal Heat Pump Design Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick

    1998-03-01

    Sizing the ground heat exchanger is one of the most important tasks in the design of a geothermal heat pump (GHP) system. Undersizing the heat exchanger can result in poor operating efficiency, reduced comfort, and nuisance heat pump lockouts on safety controls, while an oversized heat exchanger increases the installation cost of the system. The cost of ground loop installation may mean the difference between a feasible and an unfeasible project. Thus there are strong incentives to select heat exchanger lengths which allow satisfactory performance under all operating conditions within a feasible project budget. Sizing a ground heat exchanger is not a simple calculation. In the first place, there is usually some uncertainty in the peak block and annual space conditioning loads for the building to be served by the GHPs. The thermal properties of the soil formation may be unknown as well. Drilling logs and core samples can identify the soil type, but handbook values for the thermal properties of soils vary widely. Properly-done short-term on-site tests and data analysis to obtain thermal properties provide more accurate information, but since these tests are expensive they are usually only feasible in large projects. Given the uncertainties inherent in the process, if designers were truly working 'close to the edge' - selecting the absolute minimum heat exchanger length required to meet the predicted loads - one would expect to see more examples of undersized heat exchangers. Indeed there have been a few. However, over the past twenty years GHPs have been installed and successfully operated at thousands of locations all over the world. Conversations with customers and facility managers reveal a high degree of satisfaction with the technology, but studies of projects reveal far more cases of generously sized ground heat exchangers than undersized ones. This indicates that the uncertainties in space conditioning loads and soil properties are covered by a factor of safety. These conservative designs increase the installed cost of GHP systems, limiting their use and applicability. Moreover, as ground heat exchanger sizing methods have improved, they have suggested (and field tests are beginning to verify) that standard bore backfill practices lead to unnecessarily large ground heat exchangers. Growing evidence suggests that in many applications use of sand backfill with a grout plug at the surface, or use of bottom-to-top thermally enhanced grout, may provide groundwater protection equal to current practice at far less cost. Site tests of thermal properties provides more accurate information, but since these tests are expensive they are usually only performed in large projects. Even so, because soil properties can vary over a distance as small as a few feet, the value of these tests is limited. One objective of ongoing research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is to increase designers confidence in available ground heat exchanger sizing methods that lead to reliable yet cost-effective designs. To this end we have developed research-grade models that address the interactions between buildings, geothermal heat pump systems and ground heat exchangers The first application of these models was at Fort Polk, Louisiana, where the space conditioning systems of over 4,000 homes were replaced with geothermal heat pumps (Shonder and Hughes, 1997; Hughes et. al., 1997). At Fort Polk, the models were calibrated to detailed data from one of the residences. Data on the energy use of the heat pump, combined with inlet and outlet water temperature and flow rate in the ground heat exchangers, allowed us to determine the thermal properties of the soil formation being experienced by the operating GHP system. Outputs from the models provide all the data required by the various commercially-available ground loop sizing programs. Accurate knowledge of both the building loads and the soil properties eliminated the uncertainty normally associated with the design process, and allowed us to compare the predictions of the commercially-available

  2. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, Scott L.

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  3. Rate Schedules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

  4. A novel radio frequency assisted heat pump dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, M.G.; Metaxas, A.C.

    1999-09-01

    This paper compares an experimental heat pump batch dryer with the implementation of volumetric Radio Frequency (RF) heating, in the combination drying of crushed brick particulate. Results are presented showing overall improvements in drying. A simplified mathematical drying model including the RF energy source has been developed using mass and energy conservation, confirming the experimental results. Drying is a widespread, energy intensive industrial unit operation. The economics of a drying process operation largely depend upon the dryers performance and ultimately the cost of energy consumption. To enhance the performance of a drying system, the damp air stream that exits the drying chamber can be recycled to reclaim the enthalpy of evaporation that it carries, by using a heat pump (Hodgett, 1976). However, because the medium that dries is still warm air, this system also suffers from heat transfer limitations, particularly towards the falling drying rate period. Such limitations in drying performance can be overcome with the use of Radio Frequency (RF) energy which generates heat volumetrically within the wet material by the combined mechanisms of dipole rotation and conduction effects which speeds up the drying process (Metaxas et al, 1983). Despite the clear advantages that heat pumps and high frequency heating offer for drying, the combination of these two techniques until recently has not been studied (Kolly et al, 1990; Marshall et al, 1995).A series of experiments carried out comprising a motor driven heat pump which was retro-fitted with the ability of imparting RF energy into a material at various stages of the drying cycle are described and compared with a mathematical model.

  5. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.

    2011-08-01

    Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

  6. Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Shipments o fcomplete geothermal heating/cooling systems, 2008 and 2009 Shipments Information 2008 2009 Complete Systems Shipped 3,891 5,924 Rated Capacity (Tons) 19,043 19,598 Percent of Total Shipments 5 5 Number of Companies 5 3 Revenue of Systems (Thousand Dollars) 17,647 30,908 Note: Complete geothermal heating/cooling system is defined as geothermal heat pump unit with all the necessary functional components, except for installation materials. These include geothermal heat pump, air

  7. Modular heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Culver, Donald W.

    1978-01-01

    A heat exchanger for use in nuclear reactors includes a heat exchange tube bundle formed from similar modules each having a hexagonal shroud containing a large number of thermally conductive tubes which are connected with inlet and outlet headers at opposite ends of each module, the respective headers being adapted for interconnection with suitable inlet and outlet manifold means. In order to adapt the heat exchanger for operation in a high temperature and high pressure environment and to provide access to all tube ports at opposite ends of the tube bundle, a spherical tube sheet is arranged in sealed relation across the chamber with an elongated duct extending outwardly therefrom to provide manifold means for interconnection with the opposite end of the tube bundle.

  8. Heat transport system, method and material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musinski, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A heat transport system, method and composite material in which a plurality of hollow spherical shells or microspheres having an outside diameter of less than or equal to 500 microns are encapsulated or embedded within a bulk material. Each shell has captured therein a volatile working fluid, such that each shell operates as a microsized heat pipe for conducting heat through the composite structure.

  9. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metz, P.D.

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  10. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metz, Philip D.

    1982-01-01

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  11. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 634 578 46 1 Q 116.4 106.3...

  12. Heat transport system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierce, Bill L.

    1978-01-01

    A heat transport system of small size which can be operated in any orientation consists of a coolant loop containing a vaporizable liquid as working fluid and includes in series a vaporizer, a condenser and two one-way valves and a pressurizer connected to the loop between the two valves. The pressurizer may be divided into two chambers by a flexible diaphragm, an inert gas in one chamber acting as a pneumatic spring for the system.

  13. Hanford production reactor heat releases 1951--1971

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to document and detail the thermal releases from the Hanford nuclear production reactors during the period 1951 through 1971, and to put these releases in historical perspective with respect to changing Columbia River flows and temperatures. This information can also be used as a foundation for further ecological evaluations. When examining Hanford production reactor thermal releases to the Columbia River all related factors affecting the releases and the characteristics of the river should be considered. The major considerations in the present study were the characteristics of the releases themselves (primarily coolant flow rate, temperatures, discharge facilities, period of operation, and level of operation) and the characteristics of the river in that reach (primarily flow rate, temperature and mixing characteristics; the effects of dam construction were also taken into account). In addition, this study addressed ecological effects of thermal releases on aquatic species. Accordingly, this report includes discussion of the reactor cooling system, historical heat releases, thermal mixing and transport studies, hydroelectric power development, and ecologic effects of Hanford production reactor heat releases on salmon and trout. Appendix A contains reactor operating statistics, and Appendix B provide computations of heat added to the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and Richland, Washington.

  14. Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative: High Operating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In August 2012, DOE announced two awards under the Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) to develop high-operating temperature heat-transfer fluids for ...

  15. Water Heating Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC, Water Heating, & Appliances » Water Heating Projects Water Heating Projects Figure 1: The system model for the combined Water heater, dehumidifier and cooler (WHDC). A Combined Water Heater, Dehumidifier, and Cooler (WHDC) Lead Performer: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida Partners: -- Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN -- Stony Brook University - Stony Brook, NY Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC) technology to operate a heat pump cycle using

  16. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil)...

  17. Waste Heat to Power Market Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elson, Amelia; Tidball, Rick; Hampson, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Waste heat to power (WHP) is the process of capturing heat discarded by an existing process and using that heat to generate electricity. In the industrial sector, waste heat streams are generated by kilns, furnaces, ovens, turbines, engines, and other equipment. In addition to processes at industrial plants, waste heat streams suitable for WHP are generated at field locations, including landfills, compressor stations, and mining sites. Waste heat streams are also produced in the residential and commercial sectors, but compared to industrial sites these waste heat streams typically have lower temperatures and much lower volumetric flow rates. The economic feasibility for WHP declines as the temperature and flow rate decline, and most WHP technologies are therefore applied in industrial markets where waste heat stream characteristics are more favorable. This report provides an assessment of the potential market for WHP in the industrial sector in the United States.

  18. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-06-13

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the CH Packaging Drum payload assembly, Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly, Abnormal Operations and ICV and OCV Preshipment Leakage Rate Tests on the packaging seals, using a nondestructive Helium (He) Leak Test.

  19. Heat exchanger for power generation equipment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nirmalan, Nirm Velumylm; Bowman, Michael John

    2005-06-14

    A heat exchanger for a turbine is provided wherein the heat exchanger comprises a heat transfer cell comprising a sheet of material having two opposed ends and two opposed sides. In addition, a plurality of concavities are disposed on a surface portion of the sheet of material so as to cause hydrodynamic interactions and affect a heat transfer rate of the turbine between a fluid and the concavities when the fluid is disposed over the concavities.

  20. Intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheatley, J.; Hofler, T.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-07-01

    Certain thermoacoustic effects are described which form the basis for a heat engine that is intrinsically irreversible in the sense that it requires thermal lags for its operation. After discussing several acoustical heating and cooling effects, including the behavior of a new structure called a ''thermoacoustic couple,'' we discuss structures that can be placed in acoustically resonant tubes to produce both substantial heat pumping effects and, for restricted heat inputs, large temperature differences. The results are analyzed quantitatively using a second-order thermoacoustic theory based on the work of Rott. The qualities of the acoustic engine are generalized to describe a class of intrinsically irreversible heat engines of which the present acoustic engine is a special case. Finally the results of analysis of several idealized intrinsically irreversible engines are presented. These suggest that the efficiency of such engines may be determined primarily by geometry or configuration rather than by temperature.

  1. Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief | Department of Energy Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief This technical brief is a guide to help plant operators reduce waste heat

  2. Heat exchanger with ceramic elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A.

    1986-01-01

    An annular heat exchanger assembly includes a plurality of low thermal growth ceramic heat exchange members with inlet and exit flow ports on distinct faces. A mounting member locates each ceramic member in a near-annular array and seals the flow ports on the distinct faces into the separate flow paths of the heat exchanger. The mounting member adjusts for the temperature gradient in the assembly and the different coefficients of thermal expansion of the members of the assembly during all operating temperatures.

  3. Liquid metal heat exchanger for efficient heating of soils and geologic formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C. [Knoxville, TN; Wesolowski, David J. [Kingston, TN

    2010-02-23

    Apparatus for efficient heating of subterranean earth includes a well-casing that has an inner wall and an outer wall. A heater is disposed within the inner wall and is operable within a preselected operating temperature range. A heat transfer metal is disposed within the outer wall and without the inner wall, and is characterized by a melting point temperature lower than the preselected operating temperature range and a boiling point temperature higher than the preselected operating temperature range.

  4. Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 Geothermal heat pump domestic shipments by sector and model type, 2009 (rated capacity in tons) ARI-320 ARI-325/330 ARI-870 Other Non-ARI Rated Total Residential 8,348 152,107 2,524 9,580 172,559 Commercial 1 42,051 94,917 18 19,547 156,533 Industrial 3,274 1,448 - 4,875 9,597 Electric Power - - - - - Transportation - - - - - U.S. Total 53,673 248,472 2,542 34,002 338,689 ARI-320 = Water-Source Heat Pumps. ARI-325 = Ground Water-Source Heat Pumps. ARI-330 = Ground Source Closed-Loop Heat

  5. Heat pipes for use in a magnetic field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werner, Richard W.; Hoffman, Myron A.

    1983-01-01

    A heat pipe configuration for use in a magnetic field environment of a fusion reactor. Heat pipes for operation in a magnetic field when liquid metal working fluids are used are optimized by flattening of the heat pipes having an unobstructed annulus which significantly reduces the adverse side region effect of the prior known cylindrically configured heat pipes. The flattened heat pipes operating in a magnetic field can remove 2--3 times the heat as a cylindrical heat pipe of the same cross sectional area.

  6. Heat pipes for use in a magnetic field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werner, R.W.; Hoffman, M.A.

    1983-07-19

    A heat pipe configuration for use in a magnetic field environment of a fusion reactor is disclosed. Heat pipes for operation in a magnetic field when liquid metal working fluids are used are optimized by flattening of the heat pipes having an unobstructed annulus which significantly reduces the adverse side region effect of the prior known cylindrically configured heat pipes. The flattened heat pipes operating in a magnetic field can remove 2--3 times the heat as a cylindrical heat pipe of the same cross sectional area. 4 figs.

  7. Finance & Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    all of its costs in the rates it charges customers for wholesale electricity and transmission services. The agency is committed to careful cost management consistent with its...

  8. Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Geothermal heat pump domestic shipments by customer type, 2008 and 2009 (rated capacity in tons) Customer 2008 2009 Exporter - - Wholesale Distributor 184,869 173,065 Retail Distributor 1,256 10,463 Installer 160,084 154,321 End-User 413 840 U.S. Total 346,622 338,689 - = No data reported. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturers Survey

  9. Laboratory Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Operations /newsroom/_assets/images/operations-icon.png Laboratory Operations Latest announcements from the Lab on its operations. Community, Events Laboratory Operations Environmental Stewardship Melissa Blueflower-Sanchez and Robert Sanchez, owners of R and M Construction, LLC, of Santa Clara Pueblo. Four regional businesses receive Native American Venture Acceleration Fund grants The grants are designed to help the recipients create jobs, increase their revenue base and help

  10. Refrigeration Playbook. Heat Reclaim; Optimizing Heat Rejection and Refrigeration Heat Reclaim for Supermarket Energy Conservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reis, Chuck; Nelson, Eric; Armer, James; Johnson, Tim; Hirsch, Adam; Doebber, Ian

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this playbook and accompanying spreadsheets is to generalize the detailed CBP analysis and to put tools in the hands of experienced refrigeration designers to evaluate multiple applications of refrigeration waste heat reclaim across the United States. Supermarkets with large portfolios of similar buildings can use these tools to assess the impact of large-scale implementation of heat reclaim systems. In addition, the playbook provides best practices for implementing heat reclaim systems to achieve the best long-term performance possible. It includes guidance on operations and maintenance as well as measurement and verification.

  11. Centerra Earns High Performance Rating for Savannah River Site...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Centerra Earns High Performance Rating for Savannah River Site Security Operations Centerra Earns High Performance Rating for Savannah River Site Security Operations January 27, ...

  12. Fact #659: January 24, 2011 Fuel Economy Ratings for Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: January 24, 2011 Fuel Economy Ratings for Vehicles Operating on Electricity Fact 659: January 24, 2011 Fuel Economy Ratings for Vehicles Operating on Electricity The ...

  13. Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, David Gordon

    2001-04-17

    Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices.

  14. Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, David G.

    1993-01-01

    Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices.

  15. Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, D.G.

    1993-11-09

    Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices. 11 figures.

  16. Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, David Gordon

    2002-01-01

    Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices.

  17. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1979-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchangers and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  18. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  19. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  20. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.

  1. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pendergrass, Joseph C.

    1997-01-01

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

  2. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pendergrass, J.C.

    1997-05-13

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

  3. Heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brackenbury, P.J.

    1983-12-08

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  4. Heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brackenbury, Phillip J.

    1986-01-01

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  5. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  6. DWPF Macrobatch 2 Melt Rate Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, M.E.

    2001-01-03

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister production rate must be increased to meet canister production goals. Although a number of factors exist that could potentially increase melt rate, this study focused on two: (1) changes in frit composition and (2) changes to the feed preparation process to alter the redox of the melter feed. These two factors were investigated for Macrobatch 2 (sludge batch 1B) utilizing crucible studies and a specially designed ''melt rate'' furnace. Other potential factors that could increase melt rate include: mechanical mixing via stirring or the use of bubblers, changing the power skewing to redistribute the power input to the melter, and elimination of heat loss (e.g. air in leakage). The melt rate testing in FY00 demonstrated that melt rate can be improved by adding a different frit or producing a much more reducing glass by the addition of sugar as a reductant. The frit that melted the fastest in the melt rate testing was Frit 165. A paper stud y was performed using the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to determine the impact on predicted glass viscosity, liquidus, durability, and operating window if the frit was changed from Frit 200 to Frit 165. PCCS indicated that the window was very similar for both frits. In addition, the predicted viscosity of the frit 165 glass was 46 poise versus 84 poise for the Frit 200 glass. As a result, a change from Frit 200 to Frit 165 is expected to increase the melt rate in DWPF without decreasing waste loading.

  7. Building America Expert Meeting: Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Field Performance of Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems Building America Expert Meeting: Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems The expert meeting, "Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Distribution Systems" was conducted by Building America team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI),

  8. A fundamentally new approach to air-cooled heat exchangers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    We describe breakthrough results obtained in a feasibility study of a fundamentally new architecture for air-cooled heat exchangers. A longstanding but largely unrealized opportunity in energy efficiency concerns the performance of air-cooled heat exchangers used in air conditioners, heat pumps, and refrigeration equipment. In the case of residential air conditioners, for example, the typical performance of the air cooled heat exchangers used for condensers and evaporators is at best marginal from the standpoint the of achieving maximum the possible coefficient of performance (COP). If by some means it were possible to reduce the thermal resistance of these heat exchangers to a negligible level, a typical energy savings of order 30% could be immediately realized. It has long been known that a several-fold increase in heat exchanger size, in conjunction with the use of much higher volumetric flow rates, provides a straight-forward path to this goal but is not practical from the standpoint of real world applications. The tension in the market place between the need for energy efficiency and logistical considerations such as equipment size, cost and operating noise has resulted in a compromise that is far from ideal. This is the reason that a typical residential air conditioner exhibits significant sensitivity to reductions in fan speed and/or fouling of the heat exchanger surface. The prevailing wisdom is that little can be done to improve this situation; the 'fan-plus-finned-heat-sink' heat exchanger architecture used throughout the energy sector represents an extremely mature technology for which there is little opportunity for further optimization. But the fact remains that conventional fan-plus-finned-heat-sink technology simply doesn't work that well. Their primary physical limitation to performance (i.e. low thermal resistance) is the boundary layer of motionless air that adheres to and envelops all surfaces of the heat exchanger. Within this boundary layer region, diffusive transport is the dominant mechanism for heat transfer. The resulting thermal bottleneck largely determines the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger. No one has yet devised a practical solution to the boundary layer problem. Another longstanding problem is inevitable fouling of the heat exchanger surface over time by particulate matter and other airborne contaminants. This problem is especially important in residential air conditioner systems where often little or no preventative maintenance is practiced. The heat sink fouling problem also remains unsolved. The third major problem (alluded to earlier) concerns inadequate airflow to heat exchanger resulting from restrictions on fan noise. The air-cooled heat exchanger described here solves all of the above three problems simultaneously. The 'Air Bearing Heat Exchanger' provides a several-fold reduction in boundary layer thickness, intrinsic immunity to heat sink fouling, and drastic reductions in noise. It is also very practical from the standpoint of cost, complexity, ruggedness, etc. Successful development of this technology is also expected to have far reaching impact in the IT sector from the standpointpoint of solving the 'Thermal Brick Wall' problem (which currently limits CPU clocks speeds to {approx}3 GHz), and increasing concern about the the electrical power consumption of our nation's information technology infrastructure.

  9. Operating temperatures for a convectively cooled recessed incandescent light fixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarbrough, D.W.; Toor, I.

    1980-12-01

    Test results are given for the operation of a recessed incandescent light fixture intended for residential use. The fixture is labeled for use in direct contact with attic thermal insulation. Temperature control of the powered fixture is provided by convective heat transfer from the ceiling side of the fixture. The fixture was operated at power levels up to two times the rated power of 75 watts and under thermal insulations up to R-40. In all operating configurations tested the fixture surface in contact with attic insulation was found to be less than 175/sup 0/C. The observed surface temperatures are judged to be safe for operation in contact with loose-fill or batt-type insulations. It was observed that the power leads inside one fixture configuration are exposed to temperatures as high as 168/sup 0/C. The electrical insulation could, therefore, have a limited life. The properties of the internal fixture wiring were not, however, studied in detail.

  10. Convective heat transfer in the laminar-turbulent transition region with molten salt in a circular tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu-ting, Wu; Bin, Liu; Chong-fang, Ma; Hang, Guo [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation, Ministry of Education and Key Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Energy Conversion, Beijing municipality, College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China)

    2009-10-15

    In order to understand the heat transfer characteristics of molten salt and testify the validity of the well-known empirical convective heat transfer correlations, experimental study on transition convective heat transfer with molten salt in a circular tube was conducted. Molten salt circulations were realized and operated in a specially designed system over 1000 h. The average forced convective heat transfer coefficients of molten salt were determined by least-squares method based on the measured data of flow rates and temperatures. Finally, a heat transfer correlation of transition flow with molten salt in a circular tube was obtained and good agreement was observed between the experimental data of molten salt and the well-known correlations presented by Hausen and Gnielinski, respectively. (author)

  11. Heat pipe methanator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ranken, William A.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1976-07-27

    A heat pipe methanator for converting coal gas to methane. Gravity return heat pipes are employed to remove the heat of reaction from the methanation promoting catalyst, transmitting a portion of this heat to an incoming gas pre-heat section and delivering the remainder to a steam generating heat exchanger.

  12. Test results of a Stirling engine utilizing heat exchanger modules with an integral heat pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skupinski, R.C.; Tower, L.K.; Madi, F.J.; Brusk, K.D.

    1993-04-01

    The Heat Pipe Stirling Engine (HP-1000), a free-piston Stirling engine incorporating three heat exchanger modules, each having a sodium filled heat pipe, has been tested at the NASA-Lewis Research Center as part of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The heat exchanger modules were designed to reduce the number of potential flow leak paths in the heat exchanger assembly and incorporate a heat pipe as the link between the heat source and the engine. An existing RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine was modified to operate using the heat exchanger modules. This paper describes heat exchanger module and engine performance during baseline testing. Condenser temperature profiles, brake power, and efficiency are presented and discussed.

  13. Initial Operation of the High Temperature Electrolysis Integrated Laboratory Scale Experiment at INL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. M. Stoots; J. E. O'Brien; K. G. Condie; J. S. Herring; J. J. Hartvigsen

    2008-06-01

    An integrated laboratory scale, 15 kW high-temperature electrolysis facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory under the U.S. Department of Energy Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. Initial operation of this facility resulted in over 400 hours of operation with an average hydrogen production rate of approximately 0.9 Nm3/hr. The integrated laboratory scale facility is designed to address larger-scale issues such as thermal management (feed-stock heating, high-temperature gas handling), multiple-stack hot-zone design, multiple-stack electrical configurations, and other “integral” issues. This paper documents the initial operation of the ILS, with experimental details about heat-up, initial stack performance, as well as long-term operation and stack degradation.

  14. Segmented heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  15. Light weight and economical exhaust heat exchanger for waste heat recovery using mixed radiant and convective heat transfer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A hybrid heat exchanger is designed to keep highly stressed materials around the working fluid at a moderate temperature so that it can operate at higher working fluid pressure.

  16. Heat transport system, method and material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musinski, D.L.

    1987-04-28

    A heat transport system, method and composite material are disclosed in which a plurality of hollow spherical shells or microspheres having an outside diameter of less than or equal to 500 microns are encapsulated or embedded within a bulk material. Each shell has captured therein a volatile working fluid, such that each shell operates as a microsized heat pipe for conducting heat through the composite structure. 1 fig.

  17. Vehicle Component Heat Dissipation Improvements - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Vehicle Component Heat Dissipation Improvements Improvements to efficiently, safely, and inexpensively dispel heat from power modules, circuitry, and various devices National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Heat exchanger with conventional fins Heat exchanger with conventional fins Technology Marketing SummaryVehicle engines, power modules, and electronic circuitry need to be cooled while operating. In order to do this, heat

  18. Operational Excellence

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operational Excellence /about/_assets/images/icon-70th.jpg Operational Excellence The Lab's mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear deterrent; reduce global threats; and solve other emerging national security and energy challenges. aeiral shot of los alamos, new mexico What Los Alamos gets done as a premier national security science laboratory depends on how we do it The Laboratory's operations and business

  19. Operations Videos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operations Research Analysts The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) within the Department of Energy has forged a world-class information program that stresses quality, teamwork, and employee growth. In support of our program, we offer a variety of profes- sional positions, including the Operations Research Analyst, whose work is associated with the development and main- tenance of energy modeling systems. Responsibilities: Operations Research Analysts perform or participate in one or

  20. Comparison of Alternatives to the 2004 Vacuum Vessel Heat Transfer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    as well as including a small safety-rated pump and HX in parallel to the main circulation pump and HX. The Vacuum Vessel (VV) Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) removes heat...

  1. Cover Heated, Open Vessels, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... function of both wind velocity and ambient air humidity. A wind velocity of 3 miles per hour will more than double the rate of heat loss from a tank. * Radiation heat transfer ...

  2. SPEAR Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interface 1113 N. Kurita J. Langton Vacuum TSP's 1120 J. Corbett A. Terebilo MATLAB Applications - Basics 1121 F. Rafael Booster Kicker Upgrade, Operation Manual 1121...

  3. operations center

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    servers and other critical Operations Center equipment

  4. Independent air supply system filtered to protect against biological and radiological agents (99.7%).
  5. <...

  6. Ultra high vacuum heating and rotating specimen stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coombs, A.W. III

    1995-05-02

    A heating and rotating specimen stage provides for simultaneous specimen heating and rotating. The stage is ideally suited for operation in ultrahigh vacuum (1{times}10{sup {minus}9} torr or less), but is useful at atmosphere and in pressurized systems as well. A specimen is placed on a specimen holder that is attached to a heater that, in turn, is attached to a top housing. The top housing is rotated relative to a bottom housing and electrically connected thereto by electrically conductive brushes. This stage is made of materials that are compatible with UHV, able to withstand high temperatures, possess low outgassing rates, are gall and seize resistant, and are able to carry substantial electrical loading without overheating. 5 figs.

  7. Therml & Gravitational Stress in Si Wafers; Lim. on Process Htg & Cool. Rates

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-01-14

    The MacWafer code determines maximum allowable processing temperatures and maximum heating and cooling rates for thermal processing of silicon semiconductor wafers in single and multiple wafer furnaces. The program runs interactively on Macintosh, PC, and workstation computers. Execution time is typically 20 seconds on a Macintosh 68040 processor operating at 33 MHz. Gravitational stresses and displacements are first calculated based on the user''s input of a support system consisting of a ring beneath the wafermore » and/or arbitrarily placed point supports. The maximum operating temperature is then deduced by comparing the calculated gravitational stresses with the temperature-dependent wafer strength. At lower temperatures, the difference between wafer strength and gravitational stress is used to determine the allowable thermal stress, and hence the allowable radial temperature difference across the wafer. Finally, an analytical model of radial heat transfer in a batch furnace yields the maximum heating or cooling rate as a function of the allowable temperature difference based on the user''s inputs of wafer spacing and furnace power. Outputs to the screen include plots of stress components and vertical displacement, as well as tables of maximum stresses and maximum heating and cooling rates as a function of temperature. All inputs and outputs may be directed to user-named files for further processing or graphical display.« less

  8. Therml & Gravitational Stress in Si Wafers; Lim. on Process Htg & Cool. Rates

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-01-14

    The MacWafer code determines maximum allowable processing temperatures and maximum heating and cooling rates for thermal processing of silicon semiconductor wafers in single and multiple wafer furnaces. The program runs interactively on Macintosh, PC, and workstation computers. Execution time is typically 20 seconds on a Macintosh 68040 processor operating at 33 MHz. Gravitational stresses and displacements are first calculated based on the user''s input of a support system consisting of a ring beneath the wafermoreand/or arbitrarily placed point supports. The maximum operating temperature is then deduced by comparing the calculated gravitational stresses with the temperature-dependent wafer strength. At lower temperatures, the difference between wafer strength and gravitational stress is used to determine the allowable thermal stress, and hence the allowable radial temperature difference across the wafer. Finally, an analytical model of radial heat transfer in a batch furnace yields the maximum heating or cooling rate as a function of the allowable temperature difference based on the user''s inputs of wafer spacing and furnace power. Outputs to the screen include plots of stress components and vertical displacement, as well as tables of maximum stresses and maximum heating and cooling rates as a function of temperature. All inputs and outputs may be directed to user-named files for further processing or graphical display.less

  9. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages Motors are designed to operate within 10% of their nameplate rated voltages. When motors operate at conditions of over and ...

  10. Chapter 10: FTU Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angelini, B.M.; Apicella, M.L.; Buceti, G.; Centioli, C.; Crisanti, F.; Iannone, F.; Mazza, G.; Mazzitelli, G.; Panella, M.; Vitale, V.

    2004-05-15

    Some specific points of the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) operation are presented for plasma performance as well as for the machine availability and the development of new tools needed to operate in a complex scenario needed for tokamak research. The different techniques adopted for wall conditioning of the FTU are reviewed. Plasmas with low Z{sub eff} have been achieved including those at low density and high additional heating power. The obtained experimental results are discussed in terms of better operation and plasma performance achieved. As with any other large - and thus long-lasting - experiments, a mixture of old and new technological solutions inserted in an open source framework characterizes the FTU data control and acquisition systems. We give some information on the original architecture and try to detail its current state. The high level of reliability presently achieved is discussed.

  11. Electrochemical cell operation and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maru, Hansraj C.

    1980-03-11

    Thermal control in fuel cell operation is affected through sensible heat of process gas by providing common input manifolding of the cell gas flow passage in communication with the cell electrolyte and an additional gas flow passage which is isolated from the cell electrolyte and in thermal communication with a heat-generating surface of the cell. Flow level in the cell gas flow passage is selected based on desired output electrical energy and flow level in the additional gas flow passage is selected in accordance with desired cell operating temperature.

  12. The Natural gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer ... for increased feedback * Tested in ambient air Next steps: * Testing in operational ...

  13. Heating 7. 2 user's manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, K.W.

    1993-02-01

    HEATING is a general-purpose conduction heat transfer program written in Fortran 77. HEATING can solve steady-state and/or transient heat conduction problems in one-, two-, or three-dimensional Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical coordinates. A model may include multiple materials, and the thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat of each material may be both time- and temperature-dependent. The thermal conductivity may also be anisotropic. Materials may undergo change of phase. Thermal properties of materials may be input or may be extracted from a material properties library. Heat-generation rates may be dependent on time, temperature, and position, and boundary temperatures may be time- and position-dependent. The boundary conditions, which may be surface-to-environment or surface-to-surface, may be specified temperatures or any combination of prescribed heat flux, forced convection, natural convection, and radiation. The boundary condition parameters may be time- and/or temperature-dependent. General gray-body radiation problems may be modeled with user-defined factors for radiant exchange. The mesh spacing may be variable along each axis. HEATING uses a runtime memory allocation scheme to avoid having to recompile to match memory requirements for each specific problem. HEATING utilizes free-form input. Three steady-state solution techniques are available: point-successive-overrelaxation iterative method with extrapolation, direct-solution, and conjugate gradient. Transient problems may be solved using any one of several finite-difference schemes: Crank-Nicolson implicit, Classical Implicit Procedure (CIP), Classical Explicit Procedure (CEP), or Levy explicit method. The solution of the system of equations arising from the implicit techniques is accomplished by point-successive-overrelaxation iteration and includes procedures to estimate the optimum acceleration parameter.

  14. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators, July 2004 Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators, July 2004 Many owners ...

  15. Passive heat-transfer means for nuclear reactors. [LMFBR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burelbach, J.P.

    1982-06-10

    An improved passive cooling arrangement is disclosed for maintaining adjacent or related components of a nuclear reactor within specified temperature differences. Specifically, heat pipes are operatively interposed between the components, with the vaporizing section of the heat pipe proximate the hot component operable to cool it and the primary condensing section of the heat pipe proximate the other and cooler component operable to heat it. Each heat pipe further has a secondary condensing section that is located outwardly beyond the reactor confinement and in a secondary heat sink, such as air ambient the containment, that is cooler than the other reactor component. By having many such heat pipes, an emergency passive cooling system is defined that is operative without electrical power.

  16. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. |...

  17. Determining window solar heat gain coefficient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, S.J.; Wonderen, S.J. van . Solar Calorimetry Lab.)

    1994-08-01

    The solar heat gain characteristics of fenestration systems impact daytime building energy performance, occupant comfort and utility load demands. A measure of the fraction of available solar energy entering a building interior per unit window area is defined as the solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC). Together with a window's thermal transmittance (U-value), the SHGC is used to compare fenestration products, and it allows for the calculation of energy rating number and annual energy performance. The need to measure and compared advances in window technology has led to the development of experimental and analytical methods for the determination of SHGC performance. Several test facilities currently or previously capable of performing SHGC measurements exist worldwide. Results experimentally determined using these facilities have provided design data for handbook tables, and have been instrumental in the development and validation of predictive analytical methods and computer simulation tools. However, these facilities have operated without a standard test procedure for SHGC performance. Consequently, recent efforts have been focused on developing consensus test procedures for the evaluation of window energy performance.

  18. High specific heat superconducting composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1979-01-01

    A composite superconductor formed from a high specific heat ceramic such as gadolinium oxide or gadolinium-aluminum oxide and a conventional metal conductor such as copper or aluminum which are insolubly mixed together to provide adiabatic stability in a superconducting mode of operation. The addition of a few percent of insoluble gadolinium-aluminum oxide powder or gadolinium oxide powder to copper, increases the measured specific heat of the composite by one to two orders of magnitude below the 5.degree. K. level while maintaining the high thermal and electrical conductivity of the conventional metal conductor.

  19. Rates Meetings and Workshops (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rate Case Workshops Other Power Rates-Related Workshops July 1, 2004 - Rates and Finances Workshop (updated June 25, 2004) (financial and rate forecasts and scenarios for FY...

  20. Concentrating solar heat collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fattor, A.P.

    1980-09-23

    A heat storage unit is integrated with a collection unit providing a heat supply in off-sun times, and includes movable insulation means arranged to provide insulation during off-sun times for the heat storage unit.

  21. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  22. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  1. Assessing the Thermal Environmental Impacts of an Groundwater Heat Pump in Southeastern Washington State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Waichler, Scott R.; Mackley, Rob D.; Horner, Jacob A.

    2012-04-01

    A thermal analysis of a large-scale (e.g., 1900 gpm), open-loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) installed on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in southeastern Washington State has been performed using a numerical modeling approach. Water temperature increases at the upgradient extraction wells in the system and at the downgradient Columbia River are potential concerns, especially since heat rejection to the subsurface will occur year-round. Hence, thermal impacts of the open-loop GSHP were investigated to identify operational scenarios that minimized downgradient environmental impacts at the river, and upgradient temperature drift at the production wells. Simulations examined the sensitivity of the system to variations in pumping rates and injected water temperatures, as well as to hydraulic conductivity estimates of the aquifer. Results demonstrated that both downgradient and upgradient thermal impacts were more sensitive to injection flow rates than estimates of hydraulic conductivity. Higher injection rates at lower temperatures resulted in higher temperature increases at the extraction wells but lower increases at the river. Conversely, lower pumping rates and higher injected water temperatures resulted in a smaller temperature increase at the extraction wells, but higher increases at the river. The scenario with lower pumping rates is operationally more efficient, but does increase the likelihood of a thermal plume discharging into the Columbia River. However, this impact would be mitigated by mixing within the hyporheic zone and the Columbia River. The impact under current operational conditions is negligible, but future increases in heat rejection could require a compromise between maximizing operational efficiency and minimizing temperature increases at the shoreline.

  2. Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  3. Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  4. Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low...

  5. Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  6. Project Profile: Heat Transfer and Latent Heat Storage in Inorganic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Transfer and Latent Heat Storage in Inorganic Molten Salts for CSP Plants Project Profile: Heat Transfer and Latent Heat Storage in Inorganic Molten Salts for CSP Plants ...

  7. Operating Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter is focused on capital costs for conventional construction and environmental restoration and waste management projects and examines operating cost estimates to verify that all elements of the project have been considered and properly estimated.

  8. Guide to Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Heat Pumps Work Using a heat exchanger, a geothermal heat pump can move heat from one space to another. In summer, the geothermal heat pump extracts heat from a building ...

  9. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1984-07-16

    This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  10. Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9 Distribution of U.S. geothermal heat pump imports by country of origin, 2008 and 2009 (rated capacity in tons) Asia China 86 250 100.00 Total 86 250 100.00 U.S. Total 86 250 100.00 Region/Country 2008 2009 Percent of U.S. Imports 2009 Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-902, "Annual Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturers Survey

  11. Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Geothermal heat pumps are expensive to install but pay for themselves over time in reduced heating and cooling costs. Find out if one is right for your home.

  12. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  13. Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DRAFT - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 ... 2 4 1.1. Introduction to Waste Heat Recovery ......

  14. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  15. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings*...

  16. Heat Source Lire,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    power systems to provide electricity and heat to spacecraft and their science instruments. ... (RTG) - essentially a nuclear battery that reliably converts heat into electricity. ...

  17. ARM - Atmospheric Heat Budget

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ListAtmospheric Heat Budget Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge ... Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Atmospheric Heat Budget The average temperature of the ...

  18. VARIABLE FIRING RATE OIL BURNER USING PULSE FUEL FLOW CONTROL.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.A.; KAMATH,B.R.

    2004-10-01

    The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized retention head burner, which has an excellent reputation for reliability and efficiency. In this burner, oil is delivered to a fuel nozzle at pressures from 100 to 150 psi. In addition, to atomizing the fuel, the small, carefully controlled size of the nozzle exit orifice serves to control the burner firing rate. Burners of this type are currently available at firing rates of more than 0.5 gallons-per-hour (70,000 Btu/hr). Nozzles have been made for lower firing rates, but experience has shown that such nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the necessarily small passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. Also, traditionally burners and the nozzles are oversized to exceed the maximum demand. Typically, this is figured as follows. The heating load of the house on the coldest day for the location is considered to define the maximum heat load. The contractor or installer adds to this to provide a safety margin and for future expansion of the house. If the unit is a boiler that provides domestic hot water through the use of a tankless heating coil, the burner capacity is further increased. On the contrary, for a majority of the time, the heating system is satisfying a much smaller load, as only rarely do all these demands add up. Consequently, the average output of the heating system has to be much less than the design capacity and this is accomplished by start and stop cycling operation of the system so that the time-averaged output equals the demand. However, this has been demonstrated to lead to overall efficiencies lower than the steady-state efficiency. Therefore, the two main reasons for the current practice of using oil burners much larger than necessary for space heating are the unavailability of reliable low firing rate oil burners and the desire to assure adequate input rate for short duration, high draw domestic hot water loads. One approach to solve this problem is to develop a burner, which can operate at two firing rates, with the lower rate being significantly lower than 0.5 gallons per hour. This paper describes the initial results of adopting this approach through a pulsed flow nozzle. It has been shown that the concept of flow modulation with a small solenoid valve is feasible. Especially in the second configuration tested, where the Lee valve was integrated with the nozzle, reasonable modulation in flow of the order of 1.7 could be achieved. For this first prototype, the combustion performance is still not quite satisfactory. Improvements in operation, for example by providing a sharp and positive shut-off so that there is no flow under low pressures with consequent poor atomization could lead to better combustion performance. This could be achieved by using nozzles that have shut off or check valves for example. It is recommended that more work in cooperation with the valve manufacturer could produce a technically viable system. Marketability is of course a far more complex problem to be addressed once a technically viable product is available.

  19. Assessment of Uncertainty in Cloud Radiative Effects and Heating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    functions of effective radius (Re), ice water content (IWC), extinction, ice number ... quantities on the cloud radiative effect and radiative heating rates are presented. ...

  20. Illustrative Calculation of Economics for Heat Pump and "Grid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Expert Meeting: Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems Steffes Corporation Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical ...

  1. Grid-Interactive Renewable Water Heating Economic and Environmental...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1 Grid-Interactive Renewable Water Heating Economic and Environmental Value Grid-interactive renewable water heaters have smart controls that quickly change their charge rate and ...

  2. Boise geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  3. Heat flux solarimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sartarelli, A.; Vera, S.; Cyrulies, E.; Echarri, R.; Samson, I.

    2010-12-15

    The solarimeter presented in this work is easy to assemble. It is calibrated and its performance is validated by means of Hottel's method. Finally, the curves obtained with this solarimeter are compared to the ones obtained with a commercial solarimeter. This device is based on the evaluation of the heat flow in a metal rod. In consequence, measurements are not affected by ambient temperature variations. On the other hand, there is a linear relationship between the temperatures measured at the rod ends and the incident radiation, as can be concluded both from the theory of its operation and the calibration lines obtained. The results obtained from the global irradiance measurements in the area of Los Polvorines (Buenos Aires Province), together with a preliminary evaluation of the solarimeter's response time, are presented in this work. (author)

  4. Improving computer simulations of heat transfer for projecting fenestration products: Using radiation view-factor models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, B.; Tuerler, D.; Arasteh, D.K.; Curcija, D.

    1998-10-01

    The window well formed by the concave surface on the warm side of skylights and garden windows can cause surface heat-flow rates to be different for these projecting types of fenestration products than for normal planar windows. Current methods of simulating fenestration thermal conductance (U-factor) use constant boundary condition values for overall surface heat transfer. Simulations that account for local variations in surface heat transfer rates (radiation and convection) may be more accurate for rating and labeling window products whose surfaces project outside a building envelope. This paper, which presents simulation and experimental results for one projecting geometry, is the first step in documenting the importance of these local effects. A generic specimen, called the foam garden window, was used in simulations and experiments to investigate heat transfer of projecting surfaces. Experiments focused on a vertical cross section (measurement plane) located at the middle of the window well on the warm side of the specimen. The specimen was placed between laboratory thermal chambers that were operated at American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) winter heating design conditions. Infrared thermography was used to map surface temperatures. Air temperature and velocity were mapped throughout the measurement plane using a mechanical traversing system. Finite-element computer simulations that directly modeled element-to-element radiation were better able to match experimental data than simulations that used fixed coefficients for total surface heat transfer. Air conditions observed in the window well suggest that localized convective effects were the reason for the difference between actual and modeled surface temperatures. U-value simulation results were 5% to 10% lower when radiation was modeled directly.

  5. Materials, Turbomachinery and Heat Exchangers for Supercritical CO2 Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Mark; Nellis, Greg; Corradini, Michael

    2012-10-19

    The objective of this project is to produce the necessary data to evaluate the performance of the supercritical carbon dioxide cycle. The activities include a study of materials compatibility of various alloys at high temperatures, the heat transfer and pressure drop in compact heat exchanger units, and turbomachinery issues, primarily leakage rates through dynamic seals. This experimental work will serve as a test bed for model development and design calculations, and will help define further tests necessary to develop high-efficiency power conversion cycles for use on a variety of reactor designs, including the sodium fast reactor (SFR) and very high-temperature gas reactor (VHTR). The research will be broken into three separate tasks. The first task deals with the analysis of materials related to the high-temperature S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle. The most taxing materials issues with regard to the cycle are associated with the high temperatures in the reactor side heat exchanger and in the high-temperature turbine. The system could experience pressures as high as 20MPa and temperatures as high as 650°C. The second task deals with optimization of the heat exchangers required by the S-CO{sub 2} cycle; the S-CO{sub 2} flow passages in these heat exchangers are required whether the cycle is coupled with a VHTR or an SFR. At least three heat exchangers will be required: the pre-cooler before compression, the recuperator, and the heat exchanger that interfaces with the reactor coolant. Each of these heat exchangers is unique and must be optimized separately. The most challenging heat exchanger is likely the pre-cooler, as there is only about a 40°C temperature change but it operates close to the CO{sub 2} critical point, therefore inducing substantial changes in properties. The proposed research will focus on this most challenging component. The third task examines seal leakage through various dynamic seal designs under the conditions expected in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle, including supercritical, choked, and two-phase flow conditions.

  6. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2015-09-22

    A waste heat recovery (WHR) system connects a working fluid to fluid passages formed in an engine block and/or a cylinder head of an internal combustion engine, forming an engine heat exchanger. The fluid passages are formed near high temperature areas of the engine, subjecting the working fluid to sufficient heat energy to vaporize the working fluid while the working fluid advantageously cools the engine block and/or cylinder head, improving fuel efficiency. The location of the engine heat exchanger downstream from an EGR boiler and upstream from an exhaust heat exchanger provides an optimal position of the engine heat exchanger with respect to the thermodynamic cycle of the WHR system, giving priority to cooling of EGR gas. The configuration of valves in the WHR system provides the ability to select a plurality of parallel flow paths for optimal operation.

  7. Apparatus for microwave heat treatment of manufactured components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B.

    2008-04-15

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases. The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

  8. Methods for microwave heat treatment of manufactured components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B.

    2010-08-03

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases. The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

  9. System for controlling the operating temperature of a fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fabis, Thomas R.; Makiel, Joseph M.; Veyo, Stephen E.

    2006-06-06

    A method and system are provided for improved control of the operating temperature of a fuel cell (32) utilizing an improved temperature control system (30) that varies the flow rate of inlet air entering the fuel cell (32) in response to changes in the operating temperature of the fuel cell (32). Consistent with the invention an improved temperature control system (30) is provided that includes a controller (37) that receives an indication of the temperature of the inlet air from a temperature sensor (39) and varies the heat output by at least one heat source (34, 36) to maintain the temperature of the inlet air at a set-point T.sub.inset. The controller (37) also receives an indication of the operating temperature of the fuel cell (32) and varies the flow output by an adjustable air mover (33), within a predetermined range around a set-point F.sub.set, in order to maintain the operating temperature of the fuel cell (32) at a set-point T.sub.opset.

  10. Advanced heat exchanger development for molten salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Clark, Denis; Glazoff, Michael; Zheng, Guiqiu; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark

    2014-12-01

    This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, which show corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700°C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet material in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in?58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF4 at 650, 700, and 850°C for 200, 500, and 1,000 hours. Corrosion rates found were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically <10 mils per year. For materials of construction, nickel and alloys with dense nickel coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides, but not so in chlorides. Hence, additional testing of selected alloys for resistance to intergranular corrosion is needed, as is a determination of corrosion rate as a function of contaminant type and alloy composition with respect to chromium and carbon to better define the optimal chromium and carbon composition, independent of galvanic or differential solubility effects. Also presented is the division of the nuclear reactor and high temperature components per ASME standards, along with design requirements for a subcritical Rankine power cycle heat exchanger that has to overcome pressure difference of about 17 MPa.

  11. Advanced heat exchanger development for molten salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Clark, Denis; Glazoff, Michael; Zheng, Guiqiu; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark

    2014-12-01

    This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, which show corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet material in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in?58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF4 at 650, 700, and 850C for 200, 500, and 1,000 hours. Corrosion rates found were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically <10 mils per year. For materials of construction, nickel and alloys with dense nickel coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides, but not so in chlorides. Hence, additional testing of selected alloys for resistance to intergranular corrosion is needed, as is a determination of corrosion rate as a function of contaminant type and alloy composition with respect to chromium and carbon to better define the optimal chromium and carbon composition, independent of galvanic or differential solubility effects. Also presented is the division of the nuclear reactor and high temperature components per ASME standards, along with design requirements for a subcritical Rankine power cycle heat exchanger that has to overcome pressure difference of about 17 MPa.

  12. Advanced heat exchanger development for molten salts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Clark, Denis; Glazoff, Michael; Zheng, Guiqiu; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark

    2014-12-01

    This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, which show corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700°C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet materialmore » in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in?58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF4 at 650, 700, and 850°C for 200, 500, and 1,000 hours. Corrosion rates found were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically <10 mils per year. For materials of construction, nickel and alloys with dense nickel coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides, but not so in chlorides. Hence, additional testing of selected alloys for resistance to intergranular corrosion is needed, as is a determination of corrosion rate as a function of contaminant type and alloy composition with respect to chromium and carbon to better define the optimal chromium and carbon composition, independent of galvanic or differential solubility effects. Also presented is the division of the nuclear reactor and high temperature components per ASME standards, along with design requirements for a subcritical Rankine power cycle heat exchanger that has to overcome pressure difference of about 17 MPa.« less

  13. Examination of frit vent from Sixty-Watt Heat Source simulant fueled clad vent set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulrich, G.B.

    1995-11-01

    The flow rate and the metallurgical condition of a frit vent from a simulant-fueled clad vent set (CVS) that had been hot isostatically pressed (HIP) for the Sixty-Watt Heat Source program were evaluated. The flow rate form the defueled vent cup subassembly was reduced approximately 25% from the original flow rate. No obstructions were found to account for the reduced flow rate. Measurements indicate that the frit vent powder thickness was reduced about 30%. Most likely, the powder was compressed during the HIP operation, which increased the density of the powder layer and thus reduced the flow rate of the assembly. All other observed manufacturing attributes appeared to be normal, but the vent hole activation technique needs further refinement before it is used in applications requiring maximum CVS integrity.

  14. THERMALLY OPERATED VAPOR VALVE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dorward, J.G. Jr.

    1959-02-10

    A valve is presented for use in a calutron to supply and control the vapor to be ionized. The invention provides a means readily operable from the exterior of the vacuum tank of the apparatuss without mechanical transmission of forces for the quick and accurate control of the ionizing arc by a corresponding control of gas flow theretos thereby producing an effective way of carefully regulating the operation of the calutron. The invention consists essentially of a tube member extending into the charge bottle of a calutron devices having a poppet type valve closing the lower end of the tube. An electrical heating means is provided in the valve stem to thermally vary the length of the stem to regulate the valve opening to control the flow of material from the charge bottle.

  15. Heat pipe heat transport system for the Stirling Space Power Converter (SSPC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alger, D.L.

    1992-08-01

    Life issues relating to a sodium heat pipe heat transport system are described. The heat pipe system provides heat, at a temperature of 1050 K, to a 50 kWe Stirling engine/linear alternator power converter called the Stirling Space Power Converter (SSPC). The converter is being developed under a National Aeronautics and Space Administration program. Since corrosion of heat pipe materials in contact with sodium can impact the life of the heat pipe, a literature review of sodium corrosion processes was performed. It was found that the impurity reactions, primarily oxygen, and dissolution of alloy elements were the two corrosion process likely to be operative in the heat pipe. Approaches that are being taken to minimize these corrosion processes are discussed.

  16. A simplified model for heat transfer in heat exchangers and stack plates for thermoacoustic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.; Herman, C.

    1999-07-01

    A simplified model of heat transfer in heat exchangers and stack plates of thermoacoustic devices was developed. The model took advantage of previous results regarding the thermal behavior of the thermoacoustic core for investigations of the performance of heat exchangers attached to the core. Geometrical and operational parameters as well as thermophysical properties of the heat exchangers, the plate, and the working medium were organized into dimensionless groups that allowed to account for their impact on the performance of the heat exchangers. Numerical simulations with the model were carried out. Nonlinear temperature distributions and heat fluxes near the edge of the stack plate were observed. Effects of different parameters on the thermal performance of the heat exchangers were investigated.

  17. Direct fired heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

    1986-01-01

    A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

  18. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, Roger R.

    1987-01-01

    In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  19. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  20. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, Lance D.

    1988-01-01

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  1. Heat recovery and the economizer for HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anantapantula, V.S. . Alco Controls Div.); Sauer, H.J. Jr. )

    1994-11-01

    This articles examines why a combined heat reclaim/economizer system with priority to heat reclaim operation is most likely to result in the least annual total HVAC energy. PC-based, hour-by-hour simulation programs evaluate annual HVAC energy requirements when using combined operation of heat reclaim and economizer cycle, while giving priority to operation of either one. These simulation programs also enable the design engineer to select the most viable heat reclaim and/or economizer system for any given type of HVAC system serving the building internal load level, building geographical location and other building/system variables.

  2. NREL Documents Efficiency of Mini-Split Heat Pumps (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    A new report delivers mini-split heat pump (MSHP) performance data for use in whole-building simulation tools. Mini-split heat pumps (MSHPs) are highly efficient refrigerant-based air conditioning and heating systems that permit room-by-room conditioning and control in homes. Because of their size, efficiency, and price, MSHPs are very popular overseas and are gaining market share in energy-efficient home upgrades in the United States. They are a good option for retrofitting older homes that lack ductwork. To evaluate MSHP cost effectiveness and performance in U.S. homes, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers are studying these systems in the laboratory, simulated buildings, and field test settings. A new NREL report describes an innovative laboratory approach to testing MSHPs and includes experimental performance maps for use in whole-building simulation tools. Most public information on MSHP performance is provided by equipment manufacturers, and is typically limited to performance at a single operating speed for heating and cooling. Mini-split heat pumps use variable speed components that spin up and down to continuously meet the heating or cooling need, significantly improving a system's operating efficiency. Measuring that efficiency in a laboratory is challenging and required new approaches to performance testing. NREL researchers worked with colleagues at Purdue University's Herrick Labs and Ecotope, Inc. to refine and apply this new approach to a suite of MSHP products. Researchers measured the performance of two MSHPs across a variety of operating conditions, which allowed, for the first time, development of accurate building simulation MSHP models. In the laboratory tests, researchers found that both MSHPs achieved manufacturer-reported performance at rating conditions. However, at other temperature and humidity conditions, the heat pumps capacity ranged from 40% above to 54% below the manufacturer-reported values. Knowing how performance varies is critical in order to reasonably estimate annual energy consumption of a MSHP, and to compare MSHPs to other heating and cooling options. Mini-split heat pump efficiency (COP) was seen to significantly exceed rated efficiency at low compressor speeds-a very important effect.

  3. The effect of additives on lime dissolution rates. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Wang, J.

    1995-02-01

    In spray dryer flue gas desulfurization, lime slurry is injected into a spray dryer where it contacts with the hot flue gas and desulfurization occurs. This process is complex owing to the heat and mass transfer which must take place. One of the most important fundamental steps in the scrubbing process is the rate at which lime dissolves from the solid particle in the slurry drop and becomes available for reaction with the absorbed sulfur dioxide. This dissolution rate to a large extent controls the degree of reactivity and is the rate controlling step for this process. However, studies on this dissolution rate have been very few and its magnitude under a variety of operating conditions is not well known. This research has as its objective, the study and understanding of the lime dissolution rate. This understanding should lead to a better method of predicting and optimizing spray dryer performance for flue gas desulfurization.

  4. THERMOCHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PROJECT STAFF

    2011-10-31

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is an integral part of a concentrated solar power (CSP) system. It enables plant operators to generate electricity beyond on sun hours and supply power to the grid to meet peak demand. Current CSP sensible heat storage systems employ molten salts as both the heat transfer fluid and the heat storage media. These systems have an upper operating temperature limit of around 400 C. Future TES systems are expected to operate at temperatures between 600 C to 1000 C for higher thermal efficiencies which should result in lower electricity cost. To meet future operating temperature and electricity cost requirements, a TES concept utilizing thermochemical cycles (TCs) based on multivalent solid oxides was proposed. The system employs a pair of reduction and oxidation (REDOX) reactions to store and release heat. In the storage step, hot air from the solar receiver is used to reduce the oxidation state of an oxide cation, e.g. Fe3+ to Fe2+. Heat energy is thus stored as chemical bonds and the oxide is charged. To discharge the stored energy, the reduced oxide is re-oxidized in air and heat is released. Air is used as both the heat transfer fluid and reactant and no storage of fluid is needed. This project investigated the engineering and economic feasibility of this proposed TES concept. The DOE storage cost and LCOE targets are $15/kWh and $0.09/kWh respectively. Sixteen pure oxide cycles were identified through thermodynamic calculations and literature information. Data showed the kinetics of re-oxidation of the various oxides to be a key barrier to implementing the proposed concept. A down selection was carried out based on operating temperature, materials costs and preliminary laboratory measurements. Cobalt oxide, manganese oxide and barium oxide were selected for developmental studies to improve their REDOX reaction kinetics. A novel approach utilizing mixed oxides to improve the REDOX kinetics of the selected oxides was proposed. It partially replaces some of the primary oxide cations with selected secondary cations. This causes a lattice charge imbalance and increases the anion vacancy density. Such vacancies enhance the ionic mass transport and lead to faster re-oxidation. Reoxidation fractions of Mn3O4 to Mn2O3 and CoO to Co3O4 were improved by up to 16 fold through the addition of a secondary oxide. However, no improvement was obtained in barium based mixed oxides. In addition to enhancing the short term re-oxidation kinetics, it was found that the use of mixed oxides also help to stabilize or even improve the TES properties after long term thermal cycling. Part of this improvement could be attributed to a reduced grain size in the mixed oxides. Based on the measurement results, manganese-iron, cobalt-aluminum and cobalt iron mixed oxides have been proposed for future engineering scale demonstration. Using the cobalt and manganese mixed oxides, we were able to demonstrate charge and discharge of the TES media in both a bench top fixed bed and a rotary kiln-moving bed reactor. Operations of the fixed bed configuration are straight forward but require a large mass flow rate and higher fluid temperature for charging. The rotary kiln makes direct solar irradiation possible and provides significantly better heat transfer, but designs to transport the TES oxide in and out of the reactor will need to be defined. The final reactor and system design will have to be based on the economics of the CSP plant. A materials compatibility study was also conducted and it identified Inconel 625 as a suitable high temperature engineering material to construct a reactor holding either cobalt or manganese mixed oxides. To assess the economics of such a CSP plant, a packed bed reactor model was established as a baseline. Measured cobalt-aluminum oxide reaction kinetics were applied to the model and the influences of bed properties and process parameters on the overall system design were investigated. The optimal TES system design was found to be a network of eight fixed bed reactors at 18.75 MWth each with charge and discharge temperatures between 1200 C and 600 C, which provides a constant output temperature of 900 C. The charge and discharge time are 8 hours each respectively. This design was integrated into a process flowsheet of a CSP plant and the system's economics were determined using AspenPlus and NREL's Solar Advisory Model. Storage cost is very sensitive to materials cost and was calculated to be based around $40/kWh for cobalt based mixed oxide. It can potentially decrease to $10/kWh based on reduced materials cost on a bulk scale. The corresponding calculated LCOE was between $0.22 and 0.30/kW-h. The high LCOE is a result of the high charging temperature required in this first design and the cost of cobalt oxide. It is expected that a moving bed reactor using manganese oxide will significantly improve the economics of the proposed concept.

  5. Thulium-170 heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Carl E.; Van Konynenburg, Richard; VanSant, James H.

    1992-01-01

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  6. Thermoelectric heat exchange element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callas, James J. (Peoria, IL); Taher, Mahmoud A. (Peoria, IL)

    2007-08-14

    A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

  7. Rate dependence of swelling in lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, KY; Siegel, JB; Secondo, L; Kim, SU; Samad, NA; Qin, JW; Anderson, D; Garikipati, K; Knobloch, A; Epureanu, BI; Monroe, CW; Stefanopoulou, A

    2014-12-01

    Swelling of a commercial 5 Ah lithium-ion cell with a nickel/manganese/cobalt-oxide cathode is investigated as a function of the charge state and the charge/discharge rate. In combination with sensitive displacement measurements, knowledge of the electrode configuration within this prismatic cell's interior allows macroscopic deformations of the casing to be correlated to electrochemical and mechanical transformations in individual anode/separator/cathode layers. Thermal expansion and interior charge state are both found to cause significant swelling. At low rates, where thermal expansion is negligible, the electrode sandwich dilates by as much as 1.5% as the charge state swings from 0% to 100% because of lithium-ion intercalation. At high rates a comparably large residual swelling was observed at the end of discharge. Thermal expansion caused by joule heating at high discharge rate results in battery swelling. The changes in displacement with respect to capacity at low rate correlate well with the potential changes known to accompany phase transitions in the electrode materials. Although the potential response changes minimally with the C-rate, the extent of swelling varies significantly, suggesting that measurements of swelling may provide a sensitive gauge for characterizing dynamic operating states. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Renewable energy technologies for federal facilities: Geothermal heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    This sheet summarizes information on geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), which extracts heat from the ground in the winter and transfers heat to the ground in the summer. More than 200,000 GHPs are operating in US; they can reduce energy consumption and related emissions by 23 to 44% compared to air-source heat pumps. Opportunities for use of GHPs, requirements, and cost are described. Important terms are defined.

  9. Pressurized reactor system and a method of operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.M.

    1996-06-18

    A method and apparatus are provided for operating a pressurized reactor system in order to precisely control the temperature within a pressure vessel in order to minimize condensation of corrosive materials from gases on the surfaces of the pressure vessel or contained circulating fluidized bed reactor, and to prevent the temperature of the components from reaching a detrimentally high level, while at the same time allowing quick heating of the pressure vessel interior volume during start-up. Super-atmospheric pressure gas is introduced from the first conduit into the fluidized bed reactor and heat derived reactions such as combustion and gasification are maintained in the reactor. Gas is exhausted from the reactor and pressure vessel through a second conduit. Gas is circulated from one part of the inside volume to another to control the temperature of the inside volume, such as by passing the gas through an exterior conduit which has a heat exchanger, control valve, blower and compressor associated therewith, or by causing natural convection flow of circulating gas within one or more generally vertically extending gas passages entirely within the pressure vessel (and containing heat exchangers, flow rate control valves, or the like therein). Preferably, inert gas is provided as a circulating gas, and the inert gas may also be used in emergency shut-down situations. In emergency shut-down reaction gas being supplied to the reactor is cut off, while inert gas from the interior gas volume of the pressure vessel is introduced into the reactor. 2 figs.

  10. Pressurized reactor system and a method of operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani M. (Karhula, FI)

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for operating a pressurized reactor system in order to precisely control the temperature within a pressure vessel in order to minimize condensation of corrosive materials from gases on the surfaces of the pressure vessel or contained circulating fluidized bed reactor, and to prevent the temperature of the components from reaching a detrimentally high level, while at the same time allowing quick heating of the pressure vessel interior volume during start-up. Superatmospheric pressure gas is introduced from the first conduit into the fluidized bed reactor and heat derived reactions such as combustion and gassification are maintained in the reactor. Gas is exhausted from the reactor and pressure vessel through a second conduit. Gas is circulated from one part of the inside volume to another to control the temperature of the inside volume, such as by passing the gas through an exterior conduit which has a heat exchanger, control valve, blower and compressor associated therewith, or by causing natural convection flow of circulating gas within one or more generally vertically extending gas passages entirely within the pressure vessel (and containing heat exchangers, flow rate control valves, or the like therein). Preferably, inert gas is provided as a circulating gas, and the inert gas may also be used in emergency shut-down situations. In emergency shut-down reaction gas being supplied to the reactor is cut off, while inert gas from the interior gas volume of the pressure vessel is introduced into the reactor.

  11. Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems | Department of Energy Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems This presentation covers typical sources of waste heat from process heating equipment, characteristics of waste heat streams, and options for recovery including Combined Heat and Power. PDF icon Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems (August 20, 2009) More Documents

  12. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar collectors to the liquid or air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper,

  13. Data mining of space heating system performance in affordable housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Xiaoxin; Yan, Da; Hong, Tianzhen

    2015-02-16

    The space heating in residential buildings accounts for a considerable amount of the primary energy use. Therefore, understanding the operation and performance of space heating systems becomes crucial in improving occupant comfort while reducing energy use. This study investigated the behavior of occupants adjusting their thermostat settings and heating system operations in a 62-unit affordable housing complex in Revere, Massachusetts, USA. The data mining methods, including clustering approach and decision trees, were used to ascertain occupant behavior patterns. Data tabulating ON/OFF space heating states was assessed, to provide a better understanding of the intermittent operation of space heating systems in terms of system cycling frequency and the duration of each operation. The decision tree was used to verify the link between room temperature settings, house and heating system characteristics and the heating energy use. The results suggest that the majority of apartments show fairly constant room temperature profiles with limited variations during a day or between weekday and weekend. Data clustering results revealed six typical patterns of room temperature profiles during the heating season. Space heating systems cycled more frequently than anticipated due to a tight range of room thermostat settings and potentially oversized heating capacities. In conclusion, from this study affirm data mining techniques are an effective method to analyze large datasets and extract hidden patterns to inform design and improve operations.

  14. Data mining of space heating system performance in affordable housing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ren, Xiaoxin; Yan, Da; Hong, Tianzhen

    2015-02-16

    The space heating in residential buildings accounts for a considerable amount of the primary energy use. Therefore, understanding the operation and performance of space heating systems becomes crucial in improving occupant comfort while reducing energy use. This study investigated the behavior of occupants adjusting their thermostat settings and heating system operations in a 62-unit affordable housing complex in Revere, Massachusetts, USA. The data mining methods, including clustering approach and decision trees, were used to ascertain occupant behavior patterns. Data tabulating ON/OFF space heating states was assessed, to provide a better understanding of the intermittent operation of space heating systems inmore » terms of system cycling frequency and the duration of each operation. The decision tree was used to verify the link between room temperature settings, house and heating system characteristics and the heating energy use. The results suggest that the majority of apartments show fairly constant room temperature profiles with limited variations during a day or between weekday and weekend. Data clustering results revealed six typical patterns of room temperature profiles during the heating season. Space heating systems cycled more frequently than anticipated due to a tight range of room thermostat settings and potentially oversized heating capacities. In conclusion, from this study affirm data mining techniques are an effective method to analyze large datasets and extract hidden patterns to inform design and improve operations.« less

  15. Operating Strategies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operating Strategies and Design Recommendations for Mitigating Local Damage Effects in Offshore Turbine Blades Phillip W. Richards phillip@gatech.edu Graduate Research Assistant Daniel Guggenheim School of Aerospace Engineering Atlanta, Georgia, USA D. Todd Griffith dgriffi@sandia.gov Principal Member of the Technical Staff Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA Dewey H. Hodges dhodges@gatech.edu Professor Daniel Guggenheim School of Aerospace Engineering Atlanta, Georgia, USA

  16. Comparison of natural convection heat exchangers for solar water heating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, J.; Liu, W.

    1998-09-15

    Thermosyphon heat exchangers are used in indirect solar water heating systems to avoid using a pump to circulate water from the storage tank to the heat exchanger. In this study, the authors consider the effect of heat exchanger design on system performance. They also compare performance of a system with thermosyphon flow to the same system with a 40W pump in the water loop. In the first part of the study, the authors consider the impact of heat exchanger design on the thermal performance of both one- and two-collector solar water heaters. The comparison is based on Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) OG300 simulations. The thermosyphon heat exchangers considered are (1) a one-pass, double wall, 0.22 m{sup 2}, four tube-in-shell heat exchanger manufactured by AAA Service and Supply, Inc., (the Quad-Rod); (2) a two-pass, double wall, 0.2 m{sup 2}, tube-in-shell made by Heliodyne, Inc., but not intended for commercial development; (3) a one-pass, single wall, 0.28 m{sup 2}, 31 tube-in-shell heat exchanger from Young Radiator Company, and (4) a one-pass single-wall, 0.61 m{sup 2}, four coil-in-shell heat exchanger made by ThermoDynamics Ltd. The authors compare performance of the systems with thermosyphon heat exchangers to a system with a 40 W pump used with the Quad-Rod heat exchanger. In the second part of the study, the effects of reducing frictional losses through the heat exchanger and/or the pipes connecting the heat exchanger to the storage tank, and increasing heat transfer area are evaluated in terms of OG300 ratings.

  17. Current BPA Power Rates (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Workshops WP-10 Rate Case WP-07 Rate Case WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial...

  18. Power Rates Announcements (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WP-10 Rate Case WP-07 Rate Case WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial Choices (2003-06) Power...

  19. Wound tube heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

  20. Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials.

  1. Operations Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (~ii~,Richland Operations Office ~Z4TESO~Richland, Washington 99352 SEP 2 2009 CERTIFIED MAIL Ms. Sarah Washburn Heart of America Northwest 1314 N.E. 5 6 th Street Suite 100 Seattle, Washington 98105 Dear Ms. Washburn: FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REQUEST (FOI 2009-0067) You requested, pursuant to the Freedom of Information Act (FOJA), the following documents relating to: 1 . "The authorization, decision to use, and actual use of any and all pesticides and herbicides anywhere within the

  2. Transparent heat-spreader for optoelectronic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minano, Juan Carlos; Benitez, Pablo

    2014-11-04

    An optoelectronic cooling system is equally applicable to an LED collimator or a photovoltaic solar concentrator. A transparent fluid conveys heat from the optoelectronic chip to a hollow cover over the system aperture. The cooling system can keep a solar concentrator chip at the same temperature as found for a one-sun flat-plate solar cell. Natural convection or forced circulation can operate to convey heat from the chip to the cover.

  3. Solar Heat-Pipe Receiver Wick Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andraka, C.E.

    1998-12-21

    Stirling-cycle engines have been identified as a promising technology for the conversion of concentrated solar energy into usable electrical power. In previous experimented work, we have demonstrated that a heat pipe receiver can significantly improve system performance-over a directly-illuminated heater head. The design and operating conditions of a heat pipe receiver differ significantly from typical laboratory heat pipes. New wick structures have been developed to exploit the characteristics of the solar generation system. Typically, these wick structures allow vapor generation within the wick. Conventional heat pipe models do not handle this enhancement yet it can more than double the performance of the wick. In this study, I develop a steady-state model of a boiling-enhanced wick for a solar heat pipe receiver. The model is used for design-point calculations and is written in FORTRAN90. Some limited comparisons have been made with actual test data.

  4. Status of the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Miller, Mark Brookhaven National Laboratory Johnson, Karen Brookhaven National Laboratory Troyan, David Brookhaven National Laboratory...

  5. ARM - Evaluation Product - Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    information on the BBHRP output files so that analysis of the output would be more straightforward. This new version of BBHRP, sgp1bbhrpripbeC1.c1, uses the RIPBE files as input to...

  6. Property:Heat Recovery Rating | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    + 2,000 + Distributed Generation StudyPatterson Farms CHP System Using Renewable Biogas + 1,366,072 + Distributed Generation StudySUNY Buffalo + 600,000 + Distributed...

  7. Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP ripbe1mcfarlane...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    files so that analysis of the output would be more straightforward. This new version of BBHRP, sgp1bbhrpripbeC1.c1, uses the RIPBE files as input to RRTM, and calculates ...

  8. Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP ripbe370mcfarlane...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    files so that analysis of the output would be more straightforward. This new version of BBHRP, sgp1bbhrpripbeC1.c1, uses the RIPBE files as input to RRTM, and calculates ...

  9. Drag reducing effects of polymer additives in a plate heat exchanger for the OTEC system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, N.; Yoon, S.; Kim, C.; Seo, T.

    1999-07-01

    Experiments were undertaken for a 15kW Alfa-Laval plate heat exchanger utilizing polyethylene oxide as a polymer additive. Concentrations of polymer additives were 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 200 and 400 wppm at 25 C and mass flow rates were 0.6kg/s, 0.7kg/s, 0.8kg/s and 0.9kg/s in normal operating ranges of the plate heat exchanger. The maximum effects of drag reductions were found at 20 wppm polymer concentration and at approximately 0.7kg/s of mass flow rate. The results show that there exist optimum polymer concentration and at approximately 0.7kg/s of mass flow rate. The results show that there exist optimum polymer concentration and mass flow rate for the plate heat exchanger for maximum drag reduction effects. In most cases, drag reduction of approximately 20% has been obtained. It means considerable savings in pumping power for a large size OTEC plant.

  10. Fusion heating technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, A.J.

    1982-06-01

    John Lawson established the criterion that in order to produce more energy from fusion than is necessary to heat the plasma and replenish the radiation losses, a minimum value for both the product of plasma density and confinement time t, and the temperature must be achieved. There are two types of plasma heating: neutral beam and electromagnetic wave heating. A neutral beam system is shown. Main development work on negative ion beamlines has focused on the difficult problem of the production of high current sources. The development of a 30 keV-1 ampere multisecond source module is close to being accomplished. In electromagnetic heating, the launcher, which provides the means of coupling the power to the plasma, is most important. The status of heating development is reviewed. Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), lower hybrid heating (HHH), and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) are reviewed.

  11. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to 2.84 per gallon, down 5.4 cents from last week

  12. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.5 cents from a week ago to 2.84 per gallon. That's down 1.22 from a year ago, based on the ...

  13. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.6 cents from a week ago to 2.97 per gallon. That's down 1.05 from a year ago, based on the ...

  14. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.6 cents from a week ago to 3.04 per gallon. That's down 99.4 cents from a year ago, based on the ...

  15. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 6.3 cents from a week ago to 2.91 per gallon. That's down 1.10 from a year ago, based on the ...

  16. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

  17. ARM - Heat Index Calculations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Heat Index Calculations Heat Index is an index that ...

  18. Electron Heat Transport Measured

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Transport Measured in a Stochastic Magnetic Field T. M. Biewer, * C. B. Forest, ... limit of s &29; 1, RR assumed the electron heat flux to be diffusive, obeying Fourier's ...

  19. HEATING 7. 1 user's manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, K.W.

    1991-07-01

    HEATING is a FORTRAN program designed to solve steady-state and/or transient heat conduction problems in one-, two-, or three- dimensional Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical coordinates. A model may include multiple materials, and the thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat of each material may be both time- and temperature-dependent. The thermal conductivity may be anisotropic. Materials may undergo change of phase. Thermal properties of materials may be input or may be extracted from a material properties library. Heating generation rates may be dependent on time, temperature, and position, and boundary temperatures may be time- and position-dependent. The boundary conditions, which may be surface-to-boundary or surface-to-surface, may be specified temperatures or any combination of prescribed heat flux, forced convection, natural convection, and radiation. The boundary condition parameters may be time- and/or temperature-dependent. General graybody radiation problems may be modeled with user-defined factors for radiant exchange. The mesh spacing may be variable along each axis. HEATING is variably dimensioned and utilizes free-form input. Three steady-state solution techniques are available: point-successive-overrelaxation iterative method with extrapolation, direct-solution (for one-dimensional or two-dimensional problems), and conjugate gradient. Transient problems may be solved using one of several finite-difference schemes: Crank-Nicolson implicit, Classical Implicit Procedure (CIP), Classical Explicit Procedure (CEP), or Levy explicit method (which for some circumstances allows a time step greater than the CEP stability criterion). The solution of the system of equations arising from the implicit techniques is accomplished by point-successive-overrelaxation iteration and includes procedures to estimate the optimum acceleration parameter.

  20. Microwave heating apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Andrew J. (Boulder, CO); Petersen, Robert D. (Thornton, CO); Swanson, Stephen D. (Brighton, CO)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for heating and melting materials using microwave energy, and for permitting them to solidify. The apparatus includes a microwave energy source, a resonant cavity having an opening in its floor, a microwave energy choke encompassing the opening in the floor of the cavity, a metal container to hold the materials to be heated and melted, a turntable, and a lift-table. During operation, the combined action of the turntable and the lift-table position the metal container so that the top of the container is level with the floor of the cavity, is in substantial registration with the floor opening, and is encompassed by the microwave energy choke; thus, during operation, the interior of the container defines part of the resonant cavity. Additionally, a screw feeder, extending into the cavity and sheltered from microwave energy by a conveyor choke, may convey the materials to be heated to the container. Also, preferably, the floor of the resonant cavity may include perforatins, so that the offgases and dust generated in the apparatus may be removed from the resonant cavity by pulling outside air between the container choke and the exterior wall of the container into the resonant cavity and out from the cavity through the perforations.

  1. Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

  2. Evaluation of Heat Checking and Washout of Heat Resistant Superalloys...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evaluation of Heat Checking and Washout of Heat Resistant Superalloys and Coatings for Die inserts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of Heat Checking and ...

  3. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA); Hansen, Leif J. (Berkeley, CA); Evans, David B. (Orinda, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  4. MA HEAT Loan Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents information on the success of Massachusetts's HEAT loan offerings and how the financing tool is funded.

  5. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA)

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  6. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, D.M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  7. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

    1982-09-29

    A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  8. Monitoring and evaluating ground-source heat pump. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoltz, S.V.; Cade, D.; Mason, G.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the measured performance of four advanced residential ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems. The GSHP systems were developed by WaterFurnace International to minimize the need for electric resistance backup heating and featured multiple speed compressors, supplemental water heating, and at most sites, multiple-speed fans. Detailed data collected for a complete year starting in June 1994 shows that the advanced design is capable of maintaining comfort without the use of electric resistance backup heating. In comparison with a conventional air-source heat pump, the advanced-design GSHP reduced peak heating demand by more than 12 kilowatts (kW) per residence and provided energy savings. The report describes the cooling and heating season operation of the systems, including estimated seasonal efficiency, hours of operation, and load profiles for average days and peak days. The electrical energy input, cooling output, and efficiency are presented as a function of return air temperature and ground loop temperature.

  9. Operation of thoriated tungsten cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, J.E. )

    1993-01-20

    The operating temperature of thoriated tungsten cathodes used in electric thrusters depends on the surface coverage of thorium, which is determined by a balance of rate processes which supply and deplete the surface layer. The fundamental processes and rates are first reviewed in detail, then a phenomenological model based on these rate processes is described. The model indicates that the thermionic emission capabilities of thoriated tungsten cathodes decay rapidly because of thorium depletion at temperatures encountered in electric thrusters.

  10. Current Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  11. Current Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  12. Previous Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  13. Previous Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  14. Pioneering Heat Pump Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: To install and monitor an innovative WaterFurnace geothermal system that is technologically advanced and evolving; To generate hot water heating from a heat pump that uses non-ozone depleting refrigerant CO2. To demonstrate the energy efficiency of this system ground source heat pump system.

  15. HEAT TRANSFER MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraas, A.P.; Wislicenus, G.F.

    1961-07-11

    A heat exchanger is adapted to unifomly cool a spherical surface. Equations for the design of a spherical heat exchanger hav~g tubes with a uniform center-to-center spining are given. The heat exchanger is illustrated in connection with a liquid-fueled reactor.

  16. Waste Heat Recovery

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DRAFT - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 2 4 1.1. Introduction to Waste Heat Recovery .......................................................................................... 2 5 1.2. Challenges and Barriers for Waste Heat Recovery ..................................................................... 13 6 1.3.

  17. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  18. Heat pipe effect in porous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, M.

    1992-12-01

    In this thesis a parametric study of the thermal and hydrologic characteristics of the fractured porous tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada was conducted. The effects of different fracture and matrix properties including permeability, thermal conductivity, specific heat, porosity, and tortuosity on heat pipe performance in the vicinity of the waste package were observed. Computer simulations were carried out using TOUGH code on a Cray YMP-2 supercomputer. None of the fracture parameters affected the heat pipe performance except the mobility of the liquid in the fracture. Matrix permeability and thermal conductivity were found to have significant effect on the heat pipe performance. The effect of mass injection was studied for liquid water and air injected at the fracture boundary. A high rate of mass injection was required to produce any effect on the heat pipe. The fracture-matrix equilibrium is influenced by the matrix permeability and the matrix thermal conductivity.

  19. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

  20. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Zbigniew; Falkowski, Paul

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between Successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz.

  1. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boland, James F.; Koenig, John F.

    1985-01-01

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  2. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.

    1984-05-29

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  3. Home Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating Home Heating Energy Saver 101 Infographic: Home Heating Energy Saver 101 Infographic: Home Heating Everything you need to know about home heating, including how heating systems work, the different types on the market and proper maintenance. Read more Thermostats Thermostats Save money on heating by automatically setting back your thermostat when you are asleep or away. Read more Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and pellets are renewable fuel sources, and modern wood

  4. Savannah River reactor process water heat exchanger tube structural integrity margin Task Number 92-005-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertz, G.E.; Barnes, D.M.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1992-02-01

    Twelve process water heat exchangers are designed to remove heat generated in the reactor tank. Each heat exchanger has approximately 9000, 1/2 inch diameter {times} 0.049 inches thick tubes. Minimum structural tubing requirements and the leak rate through postulated tubing defects are developed in this report A comparison of the structural requirements and the defect size calculated to produce leak rates of 0.5 lbs./day demonstrate adequate structural margins against gross tube rupture. Commercial nuclear experience with pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator plugging criteria are used for guidance in performing this analysis. It is important to note that the SRS reactors are low energy systems with normal operating pressures of 203 psig at 130{degree}F while the PWR is a high energy system with operating pressures near 2200 psig at 600{degree}F. Clearly the PVM steam generator has loadings which are more severe than the SRS heat exchangers. Consistent with the Regulatory Guide 1.121 criteria both wastage (wall thinning) and cracking are addressed. Structural limits on wall thinning and crack size are developed to preclude gross rupture. ASME Section XI criteria, with the factors of safety recommended by Regulatory Guide 1.121 are used to develop the allowable crack size criteria. Normal operating conditions (pressure, dead weight, and hydraulic drag) are considered with seismic and water hammer accident conditions. Both the wall thinning and crack size criteria are developed for the end-of-evaluation period. Allowances for corrosion, wear, or crack growth have not been included in this analysis Structurally, the tubing is over designed and can tolerate large defects with adequate margins against gross rupture. The structural margins of heat exchanger tubing are evident by contrasting the tubing`s structural capacity, per the ASME Code, with its operating conditions/configuration.

  5. Savannah River reactor process water heat exchanger tube structural integrity margin Task Number 92-005-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertz, G.E.; Barnes, D.M.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1992-02-01

    Twelve process water heat exchangers are designed to remove heat generated in the reactor tank. Each heat exchanger has approximately 9000, 1/2 inch diameter {times} 0.049 inches thick tubes. Minimum structural tubing requirements and the leak rate through postulated tubing defects are developed in this report A comparison of the structural requirements and the defect size calculated to produce leak rates of 0.5 lbs./day demonstrate adequate structural margins against gross tube rupture. Commercial nuclear experience with pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator plugging criteria are used for guidance in performing this analysis. It is important to note that the SRS reactors are low energy systems with normal operating pressures of 203 psig at 130{degree}F while the PWR is a high energy system with operating pressures near 2200 psig at 600{degree}F. Clearly the PVM steam generator has loadings which are more severe than the SRS heat exchangers. Consistent with the Regulatory Guide 1.121 criteria both wastage (wall thinning) and cracking are addressed. Structural limits on wall thinning and crack size are developed to preclude gross rupture. ASME Section XI criteria, with the factors of safety recommended by Regulatory Guide 1.121 are used to develop the allowable crack size criteria. Normal operating conditions (pressure, dead weight, and hydraulic drag) are considered with seismic and water hammer accident conditions. Both the wall thinning and crack size criteria are developed for the end-of-evaluation period. Allowances for corrosion, wear, or crack growth have not been included in this analysis Structurally, the tubing is over designed and can tolerate large defects with adequate margins against gross rupture. The structural margins of heat exchanger tubing are evident by contrasting the tubing's structural capacity, per the ASME Code, with its operating conditions/configuration.

  6. State Heating Oil & Propane Program. Final report 1997/98 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunton, G.

    1998-06-01

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1997/98 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program is funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used for water heating and cooking in areas of the state where natural gas is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity, and its perception as a clean heating fuel have all worked to increase the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  7. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, Don W.; Lauf, Robert J.; Johnson, Arvid C.; Thigpen, Larry T.

    1999-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  8. Helically coiled tube heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, A.M.

    1981-08-18

    In a heat exchanger such as a steam generator for a nuclear reactor, two or more bundles of helically coiled tubes are arranged in series with the tubes in each bundle integrally continuing through the tube bundles arranged in series therewith. Pitch values for the tubing in any pair of tube bundles, taken transverse to the path of the reactor coolant flow about the tubes, are selected as a ratio of two unequal integers to permit efficient operation of each tube bundle while maintaining the various tube bundles of the heat exchanger within a compact envelope. Preferably, the helix angle and tube pitch parallel to the path of coolant flow are constant for all tubes in a single bundle so that the tubes are of approximately the same length within each bundle.

  9. Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD ... tested in early April An absorption heat pump transfers heat to the water from fuel and ...

  10. A corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, S.L.

    1987-08-10

    A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Rosenberry, Harris Companies

    2012-05-04

    A large centralized geothermal heat pump system was installed to provide ice making, space cooling, space heating, process water heating, and domestic hot water heating for an ice arena in Eagan Minnesota. This paper provides information related to the design and construction of the project. Additionally, operating conditions for 12 months after start-up are provided.

  12. HEAT OF HYDRATION OF SALTSTONE MIXES-MEASUREMENT BY ISOTHERMAL CALORIMETRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V; Tommy Edwards, T

    2007-07-02

    This report provides initial results on the measurement of heat of hydration of Saltstone mixes using isothermal calorimetry. The results were obtained using a recently purchased TAM Air Model 3116 Isothermal Conduction Calorimeter. Heat of hydration is an important property of Saltstone mixes. Greater amounts of heat will increase the temperature of the curing mix in the vaults and limit the processing rate. The heat of hydration also reflects the extent of the hydraulic reactions that turn the fluid mixture into a ''stone like'' solid and consequently impacts performance properties such as permeability. Determining which factors control these reactions, as monitored by the heat of hydration, is an important goal of the variability study. Experiments with mixes of portland cement in water demonstrated that the heats measured by this technique over a seven day period match very well with the literature values of (1) seven day heats of hydration using the standard test method for heat of hydration of hydraulic cement, ASTM C 186-05 and (2) heats of hydration measured using isothermal calorimetry. The heats of hydration of portland cement or blast furnace slag in a Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) simulant revealed that if the cure temperature is maintained at 25 C, the amount of heat released over a seven day period is roughly 62% less than the heat released by portland cement in water. Furthermore, both the blast furnace slag and the portland cement were found to be equivalent in heat production over the seven day period in MCU. This equivalency is due to the activation of the slag by the greater than 1 Molar free hydroxide ion concentration in the simulant. Results using premix (a blend of 10% cement, 45% blast furnace slag, and 45% fly ash) in MCU, Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment (DDA) and Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) simulants reveal that the fly ash had not significantly reacted (undergone hydration reactions) after seven days (most likely less than 5%). There were clear differences in the amount of heat released and the peak times of heat release for the three different simulants. It turns out that SWPF simulant mixes give off greater heat than does MCU and DDA simulant mixes. The temperature dependence of the heat of hydration was measured by carrying out these measurements at 25, 40 and 55 C. In general, the peak times shifted to shorter times as the isothermal temperature increased and the amount of heat released was independent of temperature for DDA and MCU but slightly higher at higher temperatures for SWPF. The goal of this study is to apply this technique to the measurement of the heat of hydration of mixes that will be made as part of the variability study. It is important to understand which variables will impact (and to what extent) the amount of heat generated and the peak times for the heat release. Those variables that can be controlled can then be tuned to adjust the heat of hydration as long as the other properties are still acceptable. The first application of heat of hydration measurements to the variability study was completed and the results presented in this report. These measurements were made using Phase VI mixes (SWPF simulants) following a statistical design that included variation in the compositional and operational variables. Variation in both the amount of heat released and the peak times for the heat release were observed. The measured ranges were 23 Joules per gram of premix for the heat release and 23 hours for the peak time of heat release at 25 C. Linear models with high R{sup 2} values and no statistical evidence for lack of fit were developed that relate the amount of heat release and the peak time for heat release for the Phase VI mixes to certain variables. The amount of heat released was a function of the aluminate and portland cement concentrations as well as the temperature of mixing. The peak time for heat release was a function of aluminate, portland cement and total nitrate plus nitrite concentrations. A comparison was made of the measured values of heat release by isothermal calorimetry to a previous study of the measurement of the heat of hydration using adiabatic calorimetry by Steimke and Fowler. After 80 hours of reaction time, the two techniques provided heat release results that were roughly in the same range. However, additional experiments at higher isothermal temperatures will be required to see how well the two measurements agree for longer times. This is due to the higher temperatures that are experienced in adiabatic calorimetry ({approx}105 C).

  13. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  14. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems. Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olsen, R.; Hewett, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  15. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2006-05-31

    This project has documented and demonstrated the feasibility of technologies and operational choices for companies who operate the large installed fleet of integral engine compressors in pipeline service. Continued operations of this fleet is required to meet the projected growth of the U.S. gas market. Applying project results will meet the goals of the DOE-NETL Natural Gas Infrastructure program to enhance integrity, extend life, improve efficiency, and increase capacity, while managing NOx emissions. These benefits will translate into lower cost, more reliable gas transmission, and options for increasing deliverability from the existing infrastructure on high demand days. The power cylinders on large bore slow-speed integral engine/compressors do not in general combust equally. Variations in cylinder pressure between power cylinders occur cycle-to-cycle. These variations affect both individual cylinder performance and unit average performance. The magnitude of the variations in power cylinder combustion is dependent on a variety of parameters, including air/fuel ratio. Large variations in cylinder performance and peak firing pressure can lead to detonation and misfires, both of which can be damaging to the unit. Reducing the variation in combustion pressure, and moving the high and low performing cylinders closer to the mean is the goal of engine balancing. The benefit of improving the state of the engine ''balance'' is a small reduction in heat rate and a significant reduction in both crankshaft strain and emissions. A new method invented during the course of this project is combustion pressure ratio (CPR) balancing. This method is more effective than current methods because it naturally accounts for differences in compression pressure, which results from cylinder-to-cylinder differences in the amount of air flowing through the inlet ports and trapped at port closure. It also helps avoid compensation for low compression pressure by the addition of excess fuel to achieve equalizing peak firing pressure, even if some of the compression pressure differences are attributed to differences in cylinder and piston geometry, clearance, and kinematics. The combination of high-pressure fuel injection and turbocharging should produce better mixing of fuel and air in lean mixtures. Test results documented modest improvements in heat rate and efficiency and significant improvements in emissions. The feasibility of a closed-loop control of waste-gate setting, which will maintain an equivalence ratio set point, has been demonstrated. This capability allows more direct tuning to enhance combustion stability, heat rate, or emissions. The project has documented the strong dependence of heat rate on load. The feasibility of directly measuring power and torque using the GMRC Rod Load Monitor (RLM) has been demonstrated. This capability helps to optimize heat rate while avoiding overload. The crankshaft Strain Data Capture Module (SDCM) has shown the sensitivity to changes in operating conditions and how they influence crankshaft bending strain. The results indicate that: balancing reduces the frequency of high-strain excursions, advanced timing directly increases crankshaft dynamic strain, reduced speed directly reduces strain, and high-pressure fuel injection reduces crankshaft strain slightly. The project demonstrated that when the timing is advanced, the heat rate is reduced, and when the timing is retarded, the heat rate is increased. One reason why timing is not advanced as much as it might be is the potential for detonation on hot days. A low-cost knock detector was demonstrated that allowed active control to use timing to allow the heat rate benefit to be realized safely. High flow resistance losses in the pulsation control systems installed on some compressors have been shown to hurt efficiency of both compressor and engine/compressor system. Improved pulsation control systems have the potential to recover almost 10% of available engine power. Integrity enhancements and reduced component failure probability will enhance aggregate

  16. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L. [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J. [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S. [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  17. Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-12-10

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

  18. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks...

  19. PNCA-02 Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proposed Adjustment to the Rate for Interchange Energy Imbalances Under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA-02 Rate Case) (updated on April 26, 2002) BPA has issued...

  20. Calutron Operations | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operations Calutron Operations

  1. Demonstration of a 30-kW Microturbine with Heat Recovery in a 500-Soldier Barracks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Michele; Armstrong, Peter R.; Smith, David L.; Rowley, Steven

    2005-12-31

    A combined heat and power-configured microturbine system was evaluated as an alternative to grid-supplied electric power. While off-grid, the system provides auxiliary power for gas-fired boilers and a portion of the domestic hot water for a 500-man barracks and kitchen. One-time tests were made of sound levels, stack emissions and power quality. Steady-state generating capacity dropped faster than the ratings as the inlet air temperature approached 15°C, while generating efficiency, based on fuel higher heating value, did not drop as rapidly and was still almost 21% at 33°C. The microturbine must boost the fuel (natural gas) delivery pressure to 55 psig. During the one year of operation, four fuel compressors failed and there were repeated failures of the microturbine and heat recovery heat exchanger controls. Energy savings based on the measured performance and CY2003 utility rates were $2670 per year. This paper, which will be presented at the ASHRAE Annual Meeting in Orlando, Florida, Feb. 5-9, describes the results of this evaluation.

  2. Examination of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L

    2014-01-01

    The need for high efficiency power conversion and energy transport systems is increasing as world energy use continues to increase, petroleum supplies decrease, and global warming concerns become more prevalent. There are few heat transport fluids capable of operating above about 600oC that do not require operation at extremely high pressures. Liquid fluoride salts are an exception to that limitation. Fluoride salts have very high boiling points, can operate at high temperatures and low pressures and have very good heat transfer properties. They have been proposed as coolants for next generation fission reactor systems, as coolants for fusion reactor blankets, and as thermal storage media for solar power systems. In each case, these salts are used to either extract or deliver heat through heat exchange equipment, and in order to design this equipment, liquid salt heat transfer must be predicted. This paper discusses the heat transfer characteristics of liquid fluoride salts. Historically, heat transfer in fluoride salts has been assumed to be consistent with that of conventional fluids (air, water, etc.), and correlations used for predicting heat transfer performance of all fluoride salts have been the same or similar to those used for water conventional fluids an, water, etc). A review of existing liquid salt heat transfer data is presented, summarized, and evaluated on a consistent basis. Less than 10 experimental data sets have been found in the literature, with varying degrees of experimental detail and measured parameters provided. The data has been digitized and a limited database has been assembled and compared to existing heat transfer correlations. Results vary as well, with some data sets following traditional correlations; in others the comparisons are less conclusive. This is especially the case for less common salt/materials combinations, and suggests that additional heat transfer data may be needed when using specific salt eutectics in heat transfer equipment designs. All of the data discussed above were taken under forced convective conditions (both laminar and turbulent). Some recent data taken at ORNL under free convection conditions are also presented and results discussed. This data was taken using a simple crucible experiment with an instrumented nickel heater inserted in the salt to induce natural circulation within the crucible. The data was taken over a temperature range of 550oC to 650oC in FLiNaK salt. This data covers both laminar and turbulent natural convection conditions, and is compared to existing forms of natural circulation correlations.

  3. Nonlinear heat-release/acoustic model for thermoacoustic instability in lean premixed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peracchio, A.A.; Proscia, W.M.

    1999-07-01

    Lean premixed combustors, such as those used in industrial gas turbines to achieve low emissions, are often susceptible to thermoacoustic combustion instabilities, which manifest themselves as pressure and heat release oscillations in the combustor. These oscillations can result in increased noise and decreased durability due to vibration and flame motion. A physically based nonlinear parametric model has been developed that captures this instability. It describes the coupling of combustor acoustics with the rate of heat release. The model represents this coupling by accounting for the effect of acoustic pressure fluctuations on the varying fuel/air ratio being delivered to the flame, causing a fluctuating heat release due to both fuel air ratio variations and flame front oscillations. If the phasing of the fluctuating heat release and pressure are proper, an instability results that grows into a limit cycle. The nonlinear nature of the model predicts the onset of the instability and additionally captures the resulting limit cycle. Tests of a lean premixed nozzle at engine scale and engine operating conditions in the UTRC single nozzle rig, conducted under DARPA contract, exhibited instabilities. Parameters from the model were adjusted so that analytical results were consistent with relevant experimental data from this test. The parametric model captures the limit cycle behavior over a range of mean fuel air ratios, showing the instability amplitude (pressure and heat release) to increase and limit cycle frequency to decrease as mean fuel air ratio is reduced.

  4. Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Geothermal heat pump shipments by model type, 2000 - 2009 (number of units) ARI-320 ARI-325/330 ARI-870 Other Non-ARI Rated Total 2000 7,808 26,219 - 1,554 35,581 2001 NA NA NA NA NA 2002 6,445 26,802 - 3,892 37,139 2003 10,306 25,211 - 922 36,439 2004 9,130 31,855 - 2,821 43,806 2005 9,411 34,861 - 3,558 47,830 2006 10,968 47,440 - 5,274 63,682 2007 8,112 66,863 809 10,612 86,396 2008 23,204 91,402 783 5,854 121,243 2009 22,009 87,717 759 4,957 115,442 ARI-320 = Water-Source Heat Pumps. ARI-325

  5. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1983-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  6. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1977-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  7. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1983-06-21

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  8. DOE MURI: Hig-Operating Temperature Heat Transfer Fluids for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon cspreviewmeeting042513...

  9. Project Profile: High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Innovation The superior transport properties of liquid metals, including low vapor pressure, high thermal conductivity, and relatively low viscosity, make them a natural candidate ...

  10. Ground-source Heat Pumps Applied to Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Steven A.; Hadley, Donald L.

    2009-07-14

    Ground-source heat pumps can provide an energy-efficient, cost-effective way to heat and cool commercial facilities. While ground-source heat pumps are well established in the residential sector, their application in larger, commercial-style, facilities is lagging, in part because of a lack of experience with the technology by those in decision-making positions. Through the use of a ground-coupling system, a conventional water-source heat pump design is transformed to a unique means of utilizing thermodynamic properties of earth and groundwater for efficient operation throughout the year in most climates. In essence, the ground (or groundwater) serves as a heat source during winter operation and a heat sink for summer cooling. Many varieties in design are available, so the technology can be adapted to almost any site. Ground-source heat pump systems can be used widely in commercial-building applications and, with proper installation, offer great potential for the commercial sector, where increased efficiency and reduced heating and cooling costs are important. Ground-source heat pump systems require less refrigerant than conventional air-source heat pumps or air-conditioning systems, with the exception of direct-expansion-type ground-source heat pump systems. This chapter provides information and procedures that an energy manager can use to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. Ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits are explained. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application and installation. Two case studies are presented to give the reader a sense of the actual costs and energy savings. A list of manufacturers and references for further reading are included for prospective users who have specific or highly technical questions not fully addressed in this chapter. Sample case spreadsheets are provided in Appendix A. Additional appendixes provide other information on the ground-source heat pump technology.

  11. Triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    A triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The triple loop heat exchanger comprises portions of a strong solution line for conducting relatively hot, strong solution from a generator to a solution heat exchanger of the absorption refrigeration system, conduit means for conducting relatively cool, weak solution from the solution heat exchanger to the generator, and a bypass system for conducting strong solution from the generator around the strong solution line and around the solution heat exchanger to an absorber of the refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator to an undesirable level. The strong solution line and the conduit means are in heat exchange relationship with each other in the triple loop heat exchanger so that, during normal operation of the refrigeration system, heat is exchanged between the relatively hot, strong solution flowing through the strong solution line and the relatively cool, weak solution flowing through the conduit means. Also, the strong solution line and the bypass system are in heat exchange relationship in the triple loop heat exchanger so that if the normal flow path of relatively hot, strong solution flowing from the generator to an absorber is blocked, then this relatively, hot strong solution which will then be flowing through the bypass system in the triple loop heat exchanger, is brought into heat exchange relationship with any strong solution which may have solidified in the strong solution line in the triple loop heat exchanger to thereby aid in desolidifying any such solidified strong solution.

  12. A new absorption chiller to establish combined cold, heat, and power generation utilizing low-temperature heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweigler, C.J.; Riesch, P.; Demmel, S.; Alefeld, G.

    1996-11-01

    Presently available absorption machines for air conditioning are driven with heat of a minimum of 80 C (176 F). A combination of the standard single-effect and a double-lift process has been identified as a new cycle that can use driving heat down to return temperatures of about 55 C (131 F) and permits temperature glides in generation of more than 30 K (54 F). Thus a larger cooling capacity can be produced from the same heat source compared to a single-effect chiller run with the same heat carrier supply temperature and mass flow. According to the estimated heat exchanger area, competitive machine costs for this new chiller can be expected. This single-effect/double-lift absorption chiller can be operated with waste heat from industrial processes, as well as with low-temperature heat (e.g., heat from solar collectors) as driving heat for air conditioning. The large temperature glide and the low return temperature especially fit the operating conditions in district heating networks during the summer. The cycle will be presented, followed by a discussion of suitable operating conditions.

  13. Hybrid Pressure Retarded Osmosis-Membrane Distillation System for Power Generation from Low-Grade Heat: Thermodynamic Analysis and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, SH; Yip, NY; Cath, TY; Osuji, CO; Elimelech, M

    2014-05-06

    We present a novel hybrid membrane system that operates as a heat engine capable of utilizing low-grade thermal energy, which is not readily recoverable with existing technologies. The closed-loop system combines membrane distillation (MD), which generates concentrated and pure water streams by thermal separation, and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), which converts the energy of mixing to electricity by a hydro-turbine. The PRO-MD system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages for heat source temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 degrees C and working concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mol/kg NaCl. The factors controlling the energy efficiency of the heat engine were evaluated for both limited and unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics in the thermal separation stage. In both cases, the relative flow rate between the MD permeate (distillate) and feed streams is identified as an important operation parameter. There is an optimal relative flow rate that maximizes the overall energy efficiency of the PRO-MD system for given working temperatures and concentration. In the case of unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics, the energy efficiency of the system can be analytically determined based on thermodynamics. Our assessment indicates that the hybrid PRO-MD system can theoretically achieve an energy efficiency of 9.8% (81.6% of the Carnot efficiency) with hot and cold working temperatures of 60 and 20 degrees C, respectively, and a working solution of 1.0 M NaCl. When mass and heat transfer kinetics are limited, conditions that more closely represent actual operations, the practical energy efficiency will be lower than the theoretically achievable efficiency. In such practical operations, utilizing a higher working concentration will yield greater energy efficiency. Overall, our study demonstrates the theoretical viability of the PRO-MD system and identifies the key factors for performance optimization.

  14. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J.

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  15. Heat exchanger selection and design analyses for metal hydride heat pump systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Voskuilen, Tyler G.; Waters, Essene L.; Pourpoint, Timothee L.; Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a design analysis for the development of highly efficient heat exchangers within stationary metal hydride heat pumps. The design constraints and selected performance criteria are applied to three representative heat exchangers. The proposed thermal model can be applied to select the most efficient heat exchanger design and provides outcomes generally valid in a pre-design stage. Heat transfer effectiveness is the principal performance parameter guiding the selection analysis, the results of which appear to be mildly (up to 13%) affected by the specific Nusselt correlation used. The thermo-physical properties of the heat transfer medium and geometrical parameters aremore » varied in the sensitivity analysis, suggesting that the length of independent tubes is the physical parameter that influences the performance of the heat exchangers the most. The practical operative regions for each heat exchanger are identified by finding the conditions over which the heat removal from the solid bed enables a complete and continuous hydriding reaction. The most efficient solution is a design example that achieves the target effectiveness of 95%.« less

  16. Heat exchanger selection and design analyses for metal hydride heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Voskuilen, Tyler G.; Waters, Essene L.; Pourpoint, Timothee L.; Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a design analysis for the development of highly efficient heat exchangers within stationary metal hydride heat pumps. The design constraints and selected performance criteria are applied to three representative heat exchangers. The proposed thermal model can be applied to select the most efficient heat exchanger design and provides outcomes generally valid in a pre-design stage. Heat transfer effectiveness is the principal performance parameter guiding the selection analysis, the results of which appear to be mildly (up to 13%) affected by the specific Nusselt correlation used. The thermo-physical properties of the heat transfer medium and geometrical parameters are varied in the sensitivity analysis, suggesting that the length of independent tubes is the physical parameter that influences the performance of the heat exchangers the most. The practical operative regions for each heat exchanger are identified by finding the conditions over which the heat removal from the solid bed enables a complete and continuous hydriding reaction. The most efficient solution is a design example that achieves the target effectiveness of 95%.

  17. California Federal Facilities: Rate-Responsive Buidling Operating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rouggly, energy manager at SSA's Frank Hagel Federal Building in Richmond California, reports that the facility garnered 35,000 in credits in 2011 on PG&E's Peak Day Pricing (PDP) ...

  18. Heat storage duration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Both the amount and duration of heat storage in massive elements of a passive building are investigated. Data taken for one full winter in the Balcomb solar home are analyzed with the aid of sub-system simulation models. Heat storage duration is tallied into one-day intervals. Heat storage location is discussed and related to overall energy flows. The results are interpreted and conclusions drawn.

  19. Hydride heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cottingham, James G.

    1977-01-01

    Method and apparatus for the use of hydrides to exhaust heat from one temperature source and deliver the thermal energy extracted for use at a higher temperature, thereby acting as a heat pump. For this purpose there are employed a pair of hydridable metal compounds having different characteristics working together in a closed pressure system employing a high temperature source to upgrade the heat supplied from a low temperature source.

  20. Contaminant and heat removal effectiveness and air-to-air heat/energy recovery for a contaminated air space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irwin, D.R.; Simonson, C.J.; Saw, K.Y.; Besant, R.W.

    1998-12-31

    Measured contaminant and heat removal effectiveness data are presented and compared for a 3:1 scale model room, which represents a smoking room, lounge, or bar with a two-dimensional airflow pattern. In the experiments, heat and tracer gases were introduced simultaneously from a source to simulate a prototype smoking room. High-side-wall and displacement ventilation schemes were investigated, and the latter employed two different types of ceiling diffuser,low-velocity slot and low-velocity grille. Results show that thermal energy removal effectiveness closely follows contaminant removal effectiveness for each of the ventilation schemes throughout a wide range of operating conditions. The average mean thermal and contaminant removal effectiveness agreed within {+-}20%. Local contaminant removal effectiveness ranged from a low of 80% for a high-wall slot diffuser to more than 200% for a low-velocity ceiling diffuser with displacement ventilation. Temperature differences between the supply and the indoor air were between 0.2 C (0.36 F) and 41.0 C (73.8 V) and ventilation airflow rates ranged from 9.2 to 36.8 air changes per hour at inlet conditions. For small temperature differences between supply and exhaust air, all three ventilation schemes showed increased contaminant removal effectiveness near the supply diffuser inlet with decreasing values toward the exhaust outlet. For the high-side-wall slot diffuser, effectiveness was up to 140% near the inlet and 100% near the exhaust, but for the second displacement scheme (low-velocity grille) the effectiveness was more than 200% near the inlet and 110% near the exhaust. This paper also shows a potential significant reduction in cooling load for a 50-person-capacity smoking lounge that utilizes an air-to-air heat/energy exchanger to recover heat/energy from the exhaust air.

  1. Fluidized bed heat treating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B; Pfennigwerth, Glenn L

    2014-05-06

    Systems for heat treating materials are presented. The systems typically involve a fluidized bed that contains granulated heat treating material. In some embodiments a fluid, such as an inert gas, is flowed through the granulated heat treating medium, which homogenizes the temperature of the heat treating medium. In some embodiments the fluid may be heated in a heating vessel and flowed into the process chamber where the fluid is then flowed through the granulated heat treating medium. In some embodiments the heat treating material may be liquid or granulated heat treating material and the heat treating material may be circulated through a heating vessel into a process chamber where the heat treating material contacts the material to be heat treated. Microwave energy may be used to provide the source of heat for heat treating systems.

  2. Passive solar space heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of passive solar space heating is presented indicating trends in design, new developments, performance measures, analytical design aids, and monitored building results.

  3. Combined Heat and Power

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... Energy and Water from Waste for the Food and Beverage ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion 223 Engine System for ... System for Combined Heat and Power 225 - Low-NOx ...

  4. Ductless Heat Pumps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  5. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  6. Heat rejection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Gregory C.; Tokarz, Richard D.; Parry, Jr., Harvey L.; Braun, Daniel J.

    1980-01-01

    A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.

  7. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    12 1 18 (*) 2 1 Q 6 Buildings without Cooling ... 30 1 (*) 4 (*) 14 (*) 4 (*) 1 6 Water-Heating Energy Source Electricity ... 402 21 57 42...

  8. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-Es HEATS program, short for High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage, seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  9. Rate Case Elements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proceeding Rate Information Residential Exchange Program Surplus Power Sales Reports Rate Case Elements BPA's rate cases are decided "on the record." That is, in making a decision...

  10. Method and apparatus for obtaining enhanced production rate of thermal chemical reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y.; Wang, Yong; Wegeng, Robert S.; Gao, Yufei

    2003-09-09

    Reactors and processes are disclosed that can utilize high heat fluxes to obtain fast, steady-state reaction rates. Porous catalysts used in conjunction with microchannel reactors to obtain high rates of heat transfer are also disclosed. Reactors and processes that utilize short contact times, high heat flux and low pressure drop are described. Improved methods of steam reforming are also provided.

  11. Method and apparatus for obtaining enhanced production rate of thermal chemical reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y.; Wang, Yong; Wegeng, Robert S.; Gao, Yufei

    2006-05-16

    Reactors and processes are disclosed that can utilize high heat fluxes to obtain fast, steady-state reaction rates. Porous catalysts used in conjunction with microchannel reactors to obtain high rates of heat transfer are also disclosed. Reactors and processes that utilize short contact times, high heat flux and low pressure drop are described. Improved methods of steam reforming are also provided.

  12. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittereder, Nick; Poerschke, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season.

  13. Defense waste processing facility radioactive operations. Part 1 - operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Little, D.B.; Gee, J.T.; Barnes, W.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation`s first and the world`s largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction program and a 3 year non-radioactive test program, DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. This paper presents the results of the first 9 months of radioactive operations. Topics include: operations of the remote processing equipment reliability, and decontamination facilities for the remote processing equipment. Key equipment discussed includes process pumps, telerobotic manipulators, infrared camera, Holledge{trademark} level gauges and in-cell (remote) cranes. Information is presented regarding equipment at the conclusion of the DWPF test program it also discussed, with special emphasis on agitator blades and cooling/heating coil wear. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Thermoeconomic analysis method for optimization of combined heat and power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silveira, J.L.; Tuna, C.E.

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, a thermoeconomic analysis method based on the second Law of Thermodynamics and applied to analyze four cogeneration system is presented. The objective of the developed technique is to minimize the operating costs of the cogeneration plant, namely Exergetic Manufacturing Cost (EMC), assuming a fixed rate of electricity production and process steam in exergy base. In this study a comparison is made between four configurations. The cogeneration system consisted of a gas turbine with a heat recovery steam generator, without supplementary firing, has the lowest EMC.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF ELEVATED TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES OF HEAT EXCHANGER AND STEAM GENERATOR ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.K. Wright; L.J. Carroll; C.J. Cabet; T. Lillo; J.K. Benz; J.A. Simpson; A. Chapman; R.N. Wright

    2012-10-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant project is considering Alloy 800H and Alloy 617 for steam generator and intermediate heat exchangers. It is envisioned that a steam generator would operate with reactor outlet temperatures from 750 to 800 C, while an intermediate heat exchanger for primary to secondary helium would operate up to an outlet temperature of 950 C. Although both alloys are of interest due in part to their technical maturity, a number of specific properties require further characterization for design of nuclear components. Strain rate sensitivity of both alloys has been characterized and is found to be significant above 600 C. Both alloys also exhibit dynamic strain aging, characterized by serrated flow, over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates. High temperature tensile testing of Alloy 617 has been conducted over a range of temperatures. Dynamic strain aging is a concern for these materials since it is observed to result in reduced ductility for many solid solution alloys. Creep, fatigue, and creep-fatigue properties of Alloy 617 have been measured as well, with the goal of determining the influence of the temperature, strain rate and atmosphere on the creep fatigue life of Alloy 617. Elevated temperature properties and implications for codification of the alloys will be described.

  16. NREL Ignites New Renewable Fuels Heating Plant - News Releases | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ignites New Renewable Fuels Heating Plant Innovative DOE Contract Helps Lab Reduce Fuel Use, Carbon Emissions November 20, 2008 Golden, Colo. - With the spark from a high intensity road flare, engineers at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory lit its new, smoke-free Renewable Fuels Heating Plant today. The $3.3 million project is the Laboratory's latest step toward operating as a net-zero energy facility. The RFHP will heat NREL's South Table Mountain Campus

  17. Heat recirculating cooler for fluid stream pollutant removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, George A.; Berry, David A.

    2008-10-28

    A process by which heat is removed from a reactant fluid to reach the operating temperature of a known pollutant removal method and said heat is recirculated to raise the temperature of the product fluid. The process can be utilized whenever an intermediate step reaction requires a lower reaction temperature than the prior and next steps. The benefits of a heat-recirculating cooler include the ability to use known pollutant removal methods and increased thermal efficiency of the system.

  18. Molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2010-11-16

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a conduit located in an opening in the subsurface formation. An insulated conductor is located in the conduit. A material is in the conduit between a portion of the insulated conductor and a portion of the conduit. The material may be a salt. The material is a fluid at operating temperature of the heating system. Heat transfers from the insulated conductor to the fluid, from the fluid to the conduit, and from the conduit to the subsurface formation.

  19. Compressor Selection and Equipment Sizing for Cold Climate Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo; Abdelaziz, Omar; Rice, C Keith

    2014-01-01

    In order to limit heating capacity degradation at -25 C (-13 F) ambient to 25%, compared to the nominal rating point capacity at 8.3 C (47 F), an extensive array of design and sizing options were investigated, based on fundamental equipment system modeling and building energy simulation. Sixteen equipment design options were evaluated in one commercial building and one residential building, respectively in seven cities. The energy simulation results were compared to three baseline cases: 100% electric resistance heating, a 9.6 HSPF single-speed heat pump unit, and 90% AFUE gas heating system. The general recommendation is that variable-speed compressors and tandem compressors, sized such that their rated heating capacity at a low speed matching the building design cooling load, are able to achieve the capacity goal at low ambient temperatures by over-speeding, for example, a home with a 3.0 ton design cooling load, a tandem heat pump could meet this cooling load running a single compressor, while running both compressors to meet heating load at low ambient temperatures in a cold climate. Energy savings and electric resistance heat reductions vary with building types, energy codes and climate zones. Oversizing a heat pump can result in larger energy saving in a less energy efficient building and colder regions due to reducing electric resistance heating. However, in a more energy-efficient building or for buildings in warmer climates, one has to consider balance between reduction of resistance heat and addition of cyclic loss.

  20. Indirect evaporative coolers with enhanced heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, Eric; Woods, Jason; Judkoff, Ron

    2015-09-22

    A separator plate assembly for use in an indirect evaporative cooler (IEC) with an air-to-air heat exchanger. The assembly includes a separator plate with a first surface defining a dry channel and a second surface defining a wet channel. The assembly includes heat transfer enhancements provided on the first surface for increasing heat transfer rates. The heat transfer enhancements may include slit fins with bodies extending outward from the first surface of separator plate or may take other forms including vortex generators, offset strip fins, and wavy fins. In slit fin implementations, the separator plate has holes proximate to each of the slit fins, and the separator plate assembly may include a sealing layer applied to the second surface of the separator plate to block air flow through the holes. The sealing layer can be a thickness of adhesive, and a layer of wicking material is applied to the adhesive.

  1. Power Rate Cases (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Choices (2003-06) Power Function Review (PFR) Firstgov Power Rate Cases BPA's wholesale power rates are set to recover its costs and repay the U.S. Treasury for the Federal...

  2. Thermosyphon coil arrangement for heat pump outdoor unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.

    1984-05-22

    For a heat pump, the outdoor unit is provided with a coil and a refrigerant flow arrangement there for which is such that in the heating mode of operation of the heat pump they operate in a thermosyphon fashion. The coil has a feed portion and an exit portion leading to a separator drum from which liquid refrigerant is returned through downcomer line for recirculation to the feed portion. The coil is tilted upwardly from entry to exit by the angle alpha to enhance the clearance of the two phases of refrigerant from each other in the heating mode of operation. There is no thermosyphon function in the cooling mode of operation. 9 figs.

  3. Heat Integrated Distillation through Use of Microchannel Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a breakthrough distillation process using Microchannel Process Technology to integrate heat transfer and separation into a single unit operation.

  4. Thermosyphon coil arrangement for heat pump outdoor unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert

    1984-01-01

    For a heat pump, the outdoor unit is provided with a coil and a refrigerant flow arrangement therefor which is such that in the heating mode of operation of the heat pump they operate in a thermosyphon fashion. The coil 32 has a feed portion 30 and an exit portion 34 leading to a separator drum 36 from which liquid refrigerant is returned through downcomer line 42 for recirculation to the feed portion. The coil is tilted upwardly from entry to exit by the angle alpha to enhance the clearance of the two phases of refrigerant from each other in the heating mode of operation. There is no thermosyphon function in the cooling mode of operation.

  5. Combined Heat and Power System Achieves Millions in Cost Savings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The system can operate as a baseload system to serve 75% of Texas A&M's peak power needs, 65% of total electrical energy needs, and 80% of the heating loads (steam for cooling ...

  6. Heat-Pipe Wick Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JONES II,JERRY LEE

    2000-08-15

    The development of liquid metal heat-pipes for use in solar powered Stirling engines has led to an in-depth analysis of heat-pipe wick properties. To model the flow of liquid sodium through the wick its two-phase permeability measurement is of interest. The permeability will be measured by constructing a test cell made up of a wick sample sintered to a manifold. Measuring the volumetric flow rate through the wick will allow for a determination of the wick's permeability as a function of pressure. Currently, simple estimates of permeability as a function of vapor fraction of a porous media are being used as a model to calculate the two-phase permeability. The above mentioned experiment will be used to test the existing formulas validity. The plan is to make use of a known procedure for testing permeability and apply those techniques to a felt-metal wick. The results will be used to verify and/or modify the two-phase permeability estimates. With the increasing desire to replace directly illuminated engines with the much more efficient heat-pipe apparatus it is inherently clear that the usefulness of known wick properties will make wick permeability design a simpler process.

  7. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  8. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-07-01

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  9. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages Motors are designed to operate within 10% of their nameplate rated voltages. When motors ...

  10. Radioisotopic heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, G.J.; Selle, J.E.; Teaney, P.E.

    1975-09-30

    Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 1570$sup 0$F to about 1720$sup 0$F for about one h. (auth)

  11. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  12. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1981-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  13. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  14. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  15. Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Rated capacity of geothermal heat pump shipments by model type, 2000 - 2009 (tons) ARI-320 ARI-325/330 ARI-870 Other Non-ARI Rated Total 2000 26,469 130,132 - 7,590 164,191 2001 NA NA NA NA NA 2002 16,756 96,541 - 12,000 125,297 2003 29,238 89,731 - 5,469 124,438 2004 23,764 100,317 - 20,220 144,301 2005 28,064 110,291 - 22,047 160,402 2006 31,198 155,736 - 58,669 245,603 2007 15,667 212,739 3,412 59,482 291,300 2008 59,360 306,650 3,114 46,981 416,105 2009 56,181 298,209 3,103 49,600 407,093

  16. Program listing for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM). [CNHSPM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The computer program CNHSPM is listed which predicts heat pump seasonal energy consumption (including defrost, cyclic degradation, and supplementary heat) using steady state rating point performance and binned weather data. (LEW)

  17. Process for operating equilibrium controlled reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nataraj, Shankar; Carvill, Brian Thomas; Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond; Mayorga, Steven Gerard; Gaffney, Thomas Richard; Brzozowski, Jeffrey Richard

    2001-01-01

    A cyclic process for operating an equilibrium controlled reaction in a plurality of reactors containing an admixture of an adsorbent and a reaction catalyst suitable for performing the desired reaction which is operated in a predetermined timed sequence wherein the heating and cooling requirements in a moving reaction mass transfer zone within each reactor are provided by indirect heat exchange with a fluid capable of phase change at temperatures maintained in each reactor during sorpreaction, depressurization, purging and pressurization steps during each process cycle.

  18. Heat Balance Study for Submersible Mixer Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.Y.

    2003-07-21

    A transient heat balance model was developed to assess the impact of a Submersible Mixer Pump (SMP) on waste temperature during the process of waste mixing and removal for the Type-I SRS tanks. The model results will be mainly used to determine the SMP design impacts on the waste tank temperature during operations and to develop a specification for a new SMP design to replace existing long-shaft mixer pumps used during waste removal. The model will also be used to provide input to the operation planning. This planning will be used as input to pump run duration in order to maintain temperature requirements within the tank during SMP operation.

  19. Solar heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreyer, James M.; Dorsey, George F.

    1982-01-01

    An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

  20. Improved solar heating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  1. Knudsen heat capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babac, Gulru; Reese, Jason M.

    2014-05-15

    We present a Knudsen heat capacity as a more appropriate and useful fluid property in micro/nanoscale gas systems than the constant pressure heat capacity. At these scales, different fluid processes come to the fore that are not normally observed at the macroscale. For thermodynamic analyses that include these Knudsen processes, using the Knudsen heat capacity can be more effective and physical. We calculate this heat capacity theoretically for non-ideal monatomic and diatomic gases, in particular, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The quantum modification for para and ortho hydrogen is also considered. We numerically model the Knudsen heat capacity using molecular dynamics simulations for the considered gases, and compare these results with the theoretical ones.

  2. Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

    2013-06-11

    A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

  3. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  4. Heat pipe radiation cooling evaluation: Task 2 concept studies report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverstein, C.C.

    1991-10-01

    This report presents the result of Task 2, Concept Studies for Heat Pipe Radiation Cooling (HPRC), which was performed for Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract 9-XT1-U9567. Studies under a prior contract defined a reference HPRC conceptual design for hypersonic aircraft engines operating at Mach 5 and an altitude of 80,000 ft. Task 2 involves the further investigation of heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC) systems for additional design and operating conditions.

  5. District heating strategy model: community manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrabak, R. A.; Kron, Jr., N. F.; Pferdehirt, W. P.

    1981-10-01

    The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) cosponsor a program aimed at increasing the number of district heating and cooling systems. Twenty-eight communities have received HUD cooperative agreements to aid in a national feasibility assessment of district heating and cooling systems. The HUD/DOE program includes technical assistance provided by Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Part of this assistance is a computer program, called the district heating strategy model, that performs preliminary calculations to analyze potential district heating and cooling systems. The model uses information about a community's physical characteristics, current electricity-supply systems, and local economic conditions to calculate heat demands, heat supplies from existing power plants and a new boiler, system construction costs, basic financial forecasts, and changes in air-pollutant emissions resulting from installation of a district heating and cooling system. This report explains the operation of the district heating strategy model, provides simplified forms for organizing the input data required, and describes and illustrates the model's output data. The report is written for three groups of people: (1) those in the HUD/DOE-sponsored communities who will be collecting input data, and studying output data, to assess the potential for district heating and cooling applications in their communiites; (2) those in any other communities who may wish to use the model for the same purpose; and (3) technical-support people assigned by the national laboratories to explain to community personnel how the model is used.

  6. Phenylnaphthalene Derivatives as Heat Transfer Fluids for Concentrating Solar Power: Loop Experiments and Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Joanna; Bell, Jason R; Felde, David K; Joseph III, Robert Anthony; Qualls, A L; Weaver, Samuel P

    2013-02-01

    ORNL and subcontractor Cool Energy completed an investigation of higher-temperature, organic thermal fluids for solar thermal applications. Although static thermal tests showed promising results for 1-phenylnaphthalene, loop testing at temperatures to 450 C showed that the material isomerized at a slow rate. In a loop with a temperature high enough to drive the isomerization, the higher melting point byproducts tended to condense onto cooler surfaces. So, as experienced in loop operation, eventually the internal channels of cooler components such as the waste heat rejection exchanger may become coated or clogged and loop performance will decrease. Thus, pure 1-phenylnaphthalene does not appear to be a fluid that would have a sufficiently long lifetime (years to decades) to be used in a loop at the increased temperatures of interest. Hence a decision was made not to test the ORNL fluid in the loop at Cool Energy Inc. Instead, Cool Energy tested and modeled power conversion from a moderate-temperature solar loop using coupled Stirling engines. Cool Energy analyzed data collected on third and fourth generation SolarHeart Stirling engines operating on a rooftop solar field with a lower temperature (Marlotherm) heat transfer fluid. The operating efficiencies of the Stirling engines were determined at multiple, typical solar conditions, based on data from actual cycle operation. Results highlighted the advantages of inherent thermal energy storage in the power conversion system.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH PERFORMANCE COLD CLIMATE HEAT PUMP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, W. Travis; Groll, Eckhard A.; Braun, James E.

    2014-06-01

    The primary goals of the proposed project were to develop, test, and evaluate a high performance and cost-effective vapor compression air-source heat pump for use in cold climate regions. Vapor compression heat pumps are a proven technology, and have been used for many years to meet heating requirements for buildings in residential, commercial, and industrial applications. However, in climate regions that experience very low outdoor ambient temperatures both the heating capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) of traditional air-source vapor compression heat pumps drops dramatically with a decrease in the outdoor air temperature. The efficiency of heat pumping equipment has improved substantially over the past 20 years; however, the efficiencies of the highest rated equipment on the market are approaching practical limits that cannot be surpassed without modifications to the basic cycle and possibly the use of additional hardware. In this report, three technologies to improve the efficiency of vapor compression systems are described. These are a) vapor injected compression, b) oil flooded compression and c) hybrid flow control of the evaporator. Compressor prototypes for both, oil flooded and vapor injected compression were developed by Emerson Climate Technologies. For the oil flooded compressor, the oil injection port location was optimized and an internal oil separator was added using several design iterations. After initial testing at Emerson Climate Technologies, further testing was done at Purdue University, and compressor models were developed. These models were then integrated into a system model to determine the achievable improvement of seasonal energy efficiency (SEER) for Minneapolis (Minnesota) climate. For the oil flooded compression, a 34% improvement in seasonal energy efficiency was found while a 21% improvement in seasonal energy efficiency ratio was found for the vapor injected compression. It was found that one benefit of both tested compression technologies is a lower discharge temperature, which allows for continued operation at lower ambient temperatures. A bin analysis of the vapor injected prototype cold climate heat pump predicts a 6% improvement in HSPF for Minneapolis. This improvement is mainly a result of the increased capacity of the system for active vapor injection. For the oil flooded system, a slightly larger performance improvement is predicted, in this case mostly caused by an increase in heating COP. Based on an economic analysis of these results, the maximum additional cost of the system changes, for the Minneapolis location, are $430 for the vapor injected system and $391 for the oil flooded system. These estimates assume that a 3-year simple payback period is accepted by the customer. For the hybrid flow control of evaporators, a new type of balancing valve was developed together with Emerson Climate technologies to reduce the cost of the control scheme. In contrast to conventional stepper motor valves, this valve requires less cables and can be driven by a cheaper output circuit on the control board. The correct valve size was determined in a dedicated test stand in several design iterations. The performance benefits of the hybrid control of the evaporator coil were determined for clean coil conditions as well as with partial blockage of the air inlet grille and under frosting conditions. For clean coil conditions, the benefits in terms of COP and capacity are negligible. However, significant benefits were noted for severely air-maldistributed operating conditions. For the H2-test, the maximum COP improvement of 17% along with a capacity improvement of nearly 40% was observed. Overall, the hybrid control scheme leads to a significant amount of performance improvement, if the air inlet conditions to the evaporator are maldistributed.

  8. Bypass valve and coolant flow controls for optimum temperatures in waste heat recovery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meisner, Gregory P

    2013-10-08

    Implementing an optimized waste heat recovery system includes calculating a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a heat exchanger of a waste heat recovery system, and predicting a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a material flowing through a channel of the waste heat recovery system. Upon determining the rate of change in the temperature of the material is predicted to be higher than the rate of change in the temperature of the heat exchanger, the optimized waste heat recovery system calculates a valve position and timing for the channel that is configurable for achieving a rate of material flow that is determined to produce and maintain a defined threshold temperature of the heat exchanger, and actuates the valve according to the calculated valve position and calculated timing.

  9. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with CO2as Heat Transmission Fluid

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The overall objective of the research is to explore the feasibility of operating enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2as heat transmission fluid.

  10. ARM - AMF2 Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Contacts Management and Operations Operations Overview ARM Links BCR | ECR ECO, EWO Extraview PIF, CAR, DQR & DQPR Operations Status System i.arm.gov AMF2 Deployment...

  11. Integrating preconcentrator heat controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bouchier, Francis A.; Arakaki, Lester H.; Varley, Eric S.

    2007-10-16

    A method and apparatus for controlling the electric resistance heating of a metallic chemical preconcentrator screen, for example, used in portable trace explosives detectors. The length of the heating time-period is automatically adjusted to compensate for any changes in the voltage driving the heating current across the screen, for example, due to gradual discharge or aging of a battery. The total deposited energy in the screen is proportional to the integral over time of the square of the voltage drop across the screen. Since the net temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, of the screen, from beginning to end of the heating pulse, is proportional to the total amount of heat energy deposited in the screen during the heating pulse, then this integral can be calculated in real-time and used to terminate the heating current when a pre-set target value has been reached; thereby providing a consistent and reliable screen temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, from pulse-to-pulse.

  12. Micro heat barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Albert C.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    2003-08-12

    A highly effective, micron-scale micro heat barrier structure and process for manufacturing a micro heat barrier based on semiconductor and/or MEMS fabrication techniques. The micro heat barrier has an array of non-metallic, freestanding microsupports with a height less than 100 microns, attached to a substrate. An infrared reflective membrane (e.g., 1 micron gold) can be supported by the array of microsupports to provide radiation shielding. The micro heat barrier can be evacuated to eliminate gas phase heat conduction and convection. Semi-isotropic, reactive ion plasma etching can be used to create a microspike having a cusp-like shape with a sharp, pointed tip (<0.1 micron), to minimize the tip's contact area. A heat source can be placed directly on the microspikes. The micro heat barrier can have an apparent thermal conductivity in the range of 10.sup.-6 to 10.sup.-7 W/m-K. Multiple layers of reflective membranes can be used to increase thermal resistance.

  13. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar...

  14. Waste Heat Management Options: Industrial Process Heating Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Management Options Industrial Process Heating Systems By Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi E-mail: athekdi@e3minc.com E3M, Inc. August 20, 2009 2 Source of Waste Heat in Industries * Steam ...

  15. Fossil fuel-fired peak heating for geothermal greenhouses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafferty, K.

    1997-01-01

    Greenhouses are a major application of low-temperature geothermal resources. In virtually all operating systems, the geothermal fluid is used in a hot water heating system to meet 100% of both the peak and annual heating requirements of the structure. This strategy is a result of the relatively low costs associated with the development of most US geothermal direct-use resources and past tax credit programs which penalized systems using any conventional fuel sources. Increasingly, greenhouse operations will encounter limitations in available geothermal resource flow due either to production or disposal considerations. As a result, it will be necessary to operate additions at reduced water temperatures reflective of the effluent from the existing operations. Water temperature has a strong influence on heating system design. Greenhouse operators tend to have unequivocal preferences regarding heating system equipment. Many growers, particularly cut flower and bedding plant operators, prefer the {open_quotes}bare tube{close_quotes} type heating system. This system places small diameter plastic tubes under the benches or adjacent to the plants. Hot water is circulated through the tubes providing heat to the plants and the air in the greenhouse. Advantages include the ability to provide the heat directly to the plants, low cost, simple installation and the lack of a requirement for fans to circulate air. The major disadvantage of the system is poor performance at low (<140{degrees}F) water temperatures, particularly in cold climates. Under these conditions, the quantity of tubing required to meet the peak heating load is substantial. In fact, under some conditions, it is simply impractical to install sufficient tubing in the greenhouse to meet the peak heating load.

  16. Stirling engine heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, L.N.; Houtman, W.H.; Percival, W.H.

    1988-06-28

    A hot gas engine is described wherein a working gas flows back and forth in a closed path between a relatively cooler compression cylinder side of the engine and a relatively hotter expansion cylinder side of the engine and the path contains means including a heat source and a heat sink acting upon the gas in cooperation with the compression and expansion cylinders to cause the gas to execute a thermodynamic cycle wherein useful mechanical output power is developed by the engine, the improvement in the heat source which comprises a plurality of individual tubes each forming a portion of the closed path for the working gas.

  17. Heat treatment furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  18. Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems, Lawrence, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    The conversion of an older Massachusetts building into condominiums illustrates a safe, durable, and cost-effective solution for heating and ventilation systems that can potentially benefit millions of multifamily buildings. Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) partnered with U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Building Science Corporation (BSC) to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing mass masonry building (a former convent). The original ventilation design for the project was provided by a local engineer and consisted of a single large heat recovery ventilator (HRV) located in a mechanical room in the basement with a centralized duct system providing supply air to the main living space and exhausting stale air from the single bathroom in each apartment. This design was deemed to be far too costly to install and operate for several reasons: the large central HRV was oversized and the specified flows to each apartment were much higher than the ASHRAE 62.2 rate; an extensive system of ductwork, smoke and fire dampers, and duct chases were specified; ductwork required a significant area of dropped ceilings; and the system lacked individual ventilation control in the apartments

  19. Computational model of miniature pulsating heat pipes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, Mario J.; Givler, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    The modeling work described herein represents Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) portion of a collaborative three-year project with Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems (NGES) and the University of Missouri to develop an advanced, thermal ground-plane (TGP), which is a device, of planar configuration, that delivers heat from a source to an ambient environment with high efficiency. Work at all three institutions was funded by DARPA/MTO; Sandia was funded under DARPA/MTO project number 015070924. This is the final report on this project for SNL. This report presents a numerical model of a pulsating heat pipe, a device employing a two phase (liquid and its vapor) working fluid confined in a closed loop channel etched/milled into a serpentine configuration in a solid metal plate. The device delivers heat from an evaporator (hot zone) to a condenser (cold zone). This new model includes key physical processes important to the operation of flat plate pulsating heat pipes (e.g. dynamic bubble nucleation, evaporation and condensation), together with conjugate heat transfer with the solid portion of the device. The model qualitatively and quantitatively predicts performance characteristics and metrics, which was demonstrated by favorable comparisons with experimental results on similar configurations. Application of the model also corroborated many previous performance observations with respect to key parameters such as heat load, fill ratio and orientation.

  20. Experimental validation of advanced regulations for superconducting magnet cooling undergoing periodic heat loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagier, B.; Rousset, B.; Hoa, C.; Bonnay, P.

    2014-01-29

    Superconducting magnets used in tokamaks undergo periodic heat load caused by cycling plasma operations inducing AC losses, neutrons fluxes and eddy currents in magnet structures. In the cryogenic system of JT60-SA tokamak, the Auxiliary Cold Box (ACB) distributes helium from the refrigerator to the cryogenic users and in particular to the superconducting magnets. ACB comprises a saturated helium bath with immersed heat exchangers, extracting heat from independent cooling loops. The supercritical helium flow in each cooling loop is driven by a cold circulator. In order to safely operate the refrigerator during plasma pulses, the interface between the ACB and the refrigerator shall be as stable as possible, with well-balanced bath inlet and outlet mass flows during cycling operation. The solution presented in this paper relies on a combination of regulations to smooth pulsed heat loads and to keep a constant refrigeration power during all the cycle. Two smoothing strategies are presented, both regulating the outlet mass flow of the bath: the first one using the bath as a thermal buffer and the second one storing energy in the loop by varying the cold circulator speed. The bath outlet mass flow is also controlled by an immersed resistive heater which enables a constant evaporation rate in the bath when power coming from the loops is decreasing. The refrigeration power is controlled so that the compensating power remains within an acceptable margin. Experimental validation is achieved using the HELIOS facility. This facility running at CEA Grenoble since 2010 is a scaled down model of the ACB bath and Central Solenoid magnet cooling loop of the JT60-SA tokamak. Test results show performances and robustness of the regulations.

  1. Design and operation of small biogas plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdel-Dayem, A.M.; Hamad, M.A.

    1980-12-01

    This paper concentrates on the experience gained from the adaptation of the Chinese biogas technology to rural areas of Egypt. Three different prototype digesters have been constructed. The first is a 10 M/sup 3/ rectangular digester of the water pressure type, the second is a 6 M/sup 3/ circular and shallow digester with domed roof and dished bottom. The third prototype unit with a capacity of 7 M/sup 3/ has been recently constructed. It combines the features of both plug flow and the Indian movable cap types. Provisions for solar heating of feed water, composting of effluent and attachments to both latrine and animal shed were incorporated in the unit. The structural theory, design criteria, construction technique and cost estimation of the circular digester are described. Some operation and performance data of the circular digester are presented. This covers the effects of variation of ambient temperature on internal temperature, effects of temperature and pressure on the gas production rate and composition.

  2. Union Power Cooperative- Residential Energy Efficient Heat Pump Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Union Power Cooperative offers low interest loans to help its qualifying residential customers finance new, energy-efficient heat pumps. Interest rates, currently at 9%, will be fixed for the term...

  3. Haywood EMC- Residential Heat Pump and Weatherization Loan Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Haywood EMC offers a low interest loan to residential customers to finance the purchase of an energy efficient heat pump and certain weatherization measures. The current interest rate is 5% and the...

  4. Reduce Radiation Losses from Heating Equipment; Industrial Technologie...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    line of sight, and the rate of heat transfer increases with the fourth power of the ... Radiation losses are a function of three factors: * The temperature of the internal ...

  5. Oscillating side-branch enhancements of thermoacoustic heat exchangers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W.

    2003-05-13

    A regenerator-based engine or refrigerator has a regenerator with two ends at two different temperatures, through which a gas oscillates at a first oscillating volumetric flow rate in the direction between the two ends and in which the pressure of the gas oscillates, and first and second heat exchangers, each of which is at one of the two different temperatures. A dead-end side branch into which the gas oscillates has compliance and is connected adjacent to one of the ends of the regenerator to form a second oscillating gas flow rate additive with the first oscillating volumetric flow rate, the compliance having a volume effective to provide a selected total oscillating gas volumetric flow rate through the first heat exchanger. This configuration enables the first heat exchanger to be configured and located to better enhance the performance of the heat exchanger rather than being confined to the location and configuration of the regenerator.

  6. Studies of Deteriorated Heat Transfer in Prismatic Cores Stemming from Irradiation-Induced Geometry Distortion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Brian G.; Schultz, Richard R.; McEligot, Don M.; McCreery, Glenn

    2015-08-31

    A reference design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) is to use General Atomics Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (MHTGR). For such a configuration in normal operation, the helium coolant flow proceeds from the upper plenum to the lower plenum principally through the core coolant channels and the interstitial gaps (bypass flow) that separate the prismatic blocks from one another. Only the core prismatic blocks have coolant channels. The interstitial gaps are present throughout the core, the inner reflector region, and the out reflector region. The bypass flows in a prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) are of potential concern because they reduce the desired flow rates in the coolant channels and, thereby, can increase outlet gas temperatures and maximum fuel temperatures. Consequently, it is appropriate to account for bypass flows in reactor thermal gas dynamic analyses. The objectives of this project include the following: fundamentally understand bypass flow and heat transfer at scaled, undistorted conditions and with geometry distortions; develop improved estimates of associated loss coefficients, surface friction and heat transfer for systems and network codes; and obtain related data for validation of CFD (computational fluid dynamic) or system (e.g., RELAP5) codes which can be employed in predictions for a GCR for normal power, reduced power, and residual heat removal operations.

  7. Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location: Washington Gas Light Appliance Training Facility 6801 Industrial Road Springfield, VA Date: October 9, 2014 Time: ...

  8. Workshop on Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop on Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Thursday, October 9, 2014 List of Attendees OrganizationAttendees DOE - John Cymbalsky - Ashley Armstrong - Johanna ...

  9. Table 1. Updated estimates of power plant capital and operating costs

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Updated estimates of power plant capital and operating costs" ,"Plant Characteristics",,,"Plant Costs (2012$)" ,"Nominal Capacity (MW)","Heat Rate (Btu/kWh)",,"Overnight Capital Cost ($/kW)","Fixed O&M Cost ($/kW-yr)","Variable O&M Cost ($/MWh)" ,,,,,,,"NEMS Input" " Coal" "Single Unit Advanced PC",650,8800,,3246,37.8,4.47,"N" "Dual Unit Advanced

  10. Fuel mixture stratification as a method for improving homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dec, John E.; Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G.

    2006-10-31

    A method for slowing the heat-release rate in homogeneous charge compression ignition ("HCCI") engines that allows operation without excessive knock at higher engine loads than are possible with conventional HCCI. This method comprises injecting a fuel charge in a manner that creates a stratified fuel charge in the engine cylinder to provide a range of fuel concentrations in the in-cylinder gases (typically with enough oxygen for complete combustion) using a fuel with two-stage ignition fuel having appropriate cool-flame chemistry so that regions of different fuel concentrations autoignite sequentially.

  11. Effect on Non-Uniform Heat Generation on Thermionic Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    2012-01-19

    The penalty resulting from non-uniform heat generation in a thermionic reactor is examined. Operation at sub-optimum cesium pressure is shown to reduce this penalty, but at the risk of a condition analogous to burnout. For high pressure diodes, a simple empirical correlation between current, voltage and heat flux is developed and used to analyze the performance penalty associated with two different heat flux profiles, for series-and parallel-connected converters. The results demonstrate that series-connected converters require much finer power flattening than parallel converters. For example, a 10% variation in heat generation across a series array can result in a 25 to 50% power penalty.

  12. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating Water Heating September 2, 2015 - 11:07am Addthis Low-flow fixtures will help you reduce your hot water use and save money on your water heating bills. | Photo...

  13. Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves heat from the ground to a building (or from a building to the ground) through a series of flexible pipe ...

  14. Heating Oil Reserve History

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Creation of an emergency reserve of heating oil was directed by President Clinton on July 10, 2000, when he directed then-Energy Secretary Bill Richardson to establish a two million barrel home...

  15. Passive solar heating analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Jones, R.W.; Mc Farland, R.D.; Wray, W.O.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses about the design of solar heating systems. The terms and symbols are clearly defined. Step-by-step procedures are indicated. Worked examples are given with tables, graphs, appendixes.

  16. Renewable Heat NY

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: On August 2015, NYSERDA increased the incentive levels for technologies offered under the Renewable Heat NY program. In general, new incentives fund up to 45% of the total project cost, which...

  17. Heat pump/refrigerator using liquid working fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C.; Paulson, Douglas N.; Allen, Paul C.; Knight, William R.; Warkentin, Paul A.

    1982-01-01

    A heat transfer device is described that can be operated as a heat pump or refrigerator, which utilizes a working fluid that is continuously in a liquid state and which has a high temperature-coefficient of expansion near room temperature, to provide a compact and high efficiency heat transfer device for relatively small temperature differences as are encountered in heating or cooling rooms or the like. The heat transfer device includes a pair of heat exchangers that may be coupled respectively to the outdoor and indoor environments, a regenerator connecting the two heat exchangers, a displacer that can move the liquid working fluid through the heat exchangers via the regenerator, and a means for alternately increasing and decreasing the pressure of the working fluid. The liquid working fluid enables efficient heat transfer in a compact unit, and leads to an explosion-proof smooth and quiet machine characteristic of hydraulics. The device enables efficient heat transfer as the indoor-outdoor temperature difference approaches zero, and enables simple conversion from heat pumping to refrigeration as by merely reversing the direction of a motor that powers the device.

  18. Operating Experience Committee Charter

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Operating Experience Committee (OEC) charter provides a description of the OEC's purpose, background, membership, functions, and operations.

  19. High-pressure three-phase fluidization: Hydrodynamics and heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, X.; Jiang, P.; Fan, L.S.

    1997-10-01

    High-pressure operations are common in industrial applications of gas-liquid-solid fluidized-bed reactors for resid hydrotreating, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, coal methanation, methanol synthesis, polymerization, and other reactions. The phase holdups and the heat-transfer behavior were studied experimentally in three-phase fluidized beds over a pressure range of 0.1--15.6 MPa. Bubble characteristics in the bed are examined by direct flow visualization. Pressure effects on the bubble coalescence and breakup are analyzed mechanistically. The study indicates that the pressure affects the hydrodynamics and heat-transfer properties of a three-phase fluidized bed significantly. The average bubble size decreases and the bubble-size distribution becomes narrower with an increase in pressure. The bubble-size reduction leads to an increase in the transition gas velocity from the dispersed bubble regime to the coalesced bubble regime, an increase in the gas holdup, and a decrease in the liquid and solids holdups. The pressure effect is insignificant above 6 MPa. The heat-transfer coefficient between an immersed surface and the bed increases to a maximum at pressure 6--8 MPa and then decreases with an increase in pressure at a given gas and liquid flow rate. This variation is attributed to the pressure effects on phase holdups and physical properties of the gas and liquid phases. A mechanistic analysis revealed that the major heat-transfer resistance in high-pressure three-phase fluidized beds resides in a liquid film surrounding the heat-0transfer surface. An empirical correlation is proposed to predict the heat-transfer coefficient under high-pressure conditions.

  20. Heat flux limiting sleeves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, William G. (Tampa, FL)

    1985-01-01

    A heat limiting tubular sleeve extending over only a portion of a tube having a generally uniform outside diameter, the sleeve being open on both ends, having one end thereof larger in diameter than the other end thereof and having a wall thickness which decreases in the same direction as the diameter of the sleeve decreases so that the heat transfer through the sleeve and tube is less adjacent the large diameter end of the sleeve than adjacent the other end thereof.

  1. Freezable heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Donald M.; Sanzi, James L.

    1981-02-03

    A heat pipe whose fluid can be repeatedly frozen and thawed without damage to the casing. An additional part is added to a conventional heat pipe. This addition is a simple porous structure, such as a cylinder, self-supporting and free standing, which is dimensioned with its diameter not spanning the inside transverse dimension of the casing, and with its length surpassing the depth of maximum liquid.

  2. Heat exchange apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2003-08-12

    A heat exchange apparatus comprising a coolant conduit or heat sink having attached to its surface a first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles and a second radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles thermally coupled to a body to be cooled and meshed with, but not contacting the first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles.

  3. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Heat & Cool Water Heating Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. Most homeowners who...

  4. Chemical heat pump and chemical energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Edward C.; Huxtable, Douglas D.

    1985-08-06

    A chemical heat pump and storage system employs sulfuric acid and water. In one form, the system includes a generator and condenser, an evaporator and absorber, aqueous acid solution storage and water storage. During a charging cycle, heat is provided to the generator from a heat source to concentrate the acid solution while heat is removed from the condenser to condense the water vapor produced in the generator. Water is then stored in the storage tank. Heat is thus stored in the form of chemical energy in the concentrated acid. The heat removed from the water vapor can be supplied to a heat load of proper temperature or can be rejected. During a discharge cycle, water in the evaporator is supplied with heat to generate water vapor, which is transmitted to the absorber where it is condensed and absorbed into the concentrated acid. Both heats of dilution and condensation of water are removed from the thus diluted acid. During the discharge cycle the system functions as a heat pump in which heat is added to the system at a low temperature and removed from the system at a high temperature. The diluted acid is stored in an acid storage tank or is routed directly to the generator for reconcentration. The generator, condenser, evaporator, and absorber all are operated under pressure conditions specified by the desired temperature levels for a given application. The storage tanks, however, can be maintained at or near ambient pressure conditions. In another form, the heat pump system is employed to provide usable heat from waste process heat by upgrading the temperature of the waste heat.

  5. Energy Performance Ratings for Windows, Doors, and Skylights...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The NFRC label can be found on all ENERGY STAR qualified window, door, and skylight ... U-factor is the rate at which a window, door, or skylight conducts non-solar heat flow. ...

  6. Convective heat flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  7. Convective heat flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

    1984-01-09

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  8. Radial flow heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valenzuela, Javier

    2001-01-01

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  9. Building America Case Study: Field Performance of Inverter-Driven Heat Pumps in Cold Climates - Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    New inverter-driven ASHPs are gaining ground in colder climates. These systems operate at sub-zero temperatures without the use of electric resistance backup. There are still uncertainties, however, about cold-climate capacity and efficiency in cold weather and questions such as measuring: power consumption, supply, return, and outdoor air temperatures, and air flow through the indoor fan coil. CARB observed a wide range of operating efficiencies and outputs from site to site. Maximum capacities were found to be generally in line with manufacturer's claims as outdoor temperatures fell to -10 degrees F. The reasons for the wide range in heating performance likely include: low indoor air flow rates, poor placement of outdoor units, relatively high return air temperatures, thermostat set back, integration with existing heating systems, and occupants limiting indoor fan speed. Even with lower efficiencies than published in other studies, most of the heat pumps here still provide heat at lower cost than oil, propane, or certainly electric resistance systems.

  10. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Holiday Release Schedule The Heating Oil and Propane Update is produced during the winter heating season, which extends from October through March of each year. The standard ...

  11. Radiant Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the following sections discuss radiant floor heat and radiant panels separately. ... pumping air through the floors at night outweighs the benefits of using solar heat during the day. ...

  12. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Public Services Homes Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water...

  13. Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rechargeable Heat Battery Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed Solar energy capture in chemical form makes it storable and transportable January 11, 2011 Contact: John ...

  14. Before a Rate Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings and Workshops Customer...

  15. Rating Agency Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liabilities Financial Plan Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Residential Exchange Program Surplus Power Sales...

  16. BP-18 Rate Proceeding

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  17. BP-12 Rate Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  18. BP-16 Rate Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  19. 2012 Transmission Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2014 Transmission, Ancillary, and Control Area Service Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (FY 2014-2015) October 2013 United States Department of Energy...

  20. Cold weather hydrogen generation system and method of operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dreier, Ken Wayne; Kowalski, Michael Thomas; Porter, Stephen Charles; Chow, Oscar Ken; Borland, Nicholas Paul; Goyette, Stephen Arthur

    2010-12-14

    A system for providing hydrogen gas is provided. The system includes a hydrogen generator that produces gas from water. One or more heat generation devices are arranged to provide heating of the enclosure during different modes of operation to prevent freezing of components. A plurality of temperature sensors are arranged and coupled to a controller to selectively activate a heat source if the temperature of the component is less than a predetermined temperature.