National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for operated vapor lamp

  1. Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

    1988-01-01

    The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled.

  2. Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1988-05-24

    The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled. 2 figs.

  3. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps in steady-state conditions (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen). The goal of this investigation was to examine the long-term performance of complete LED lamps relative to benchmark halogen and CFL lamps—in this case, A lamps emitting approximately 800 lumens operated continuously at a relatively high ambient temperature of 45°C.

  4. Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 38 different lamps (32 LED, 2 CFL, 1 ceramic metal halide [CMH], 3 halogen) were monitored in a specially developed automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA2) for nearly 14,000 hours. Five samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at a target ambient temperature between 44°C and 45°C.

  5. After More Than 20 Years Operating, Hanford's Soil Vapor Extraction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    After More Than 20 Years Operating, Hanford's Soil Vapor Extraction Project Nears Completion After More Than 20 Years Operating, Hanford's Soil Vapor Extraction Project Nears...

  6. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study RRL3.2 Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Tucker, Joseph C.

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen) was monitored in the automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA) for more than 7,500 hours. Ten samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at an ambient temperature of 45°C (-1°C). Importantly, the steady-state test conditions were not optimized for inducing catastrophic failure for any of the lamp technologies—to which thermal cycling is a strong contributor— and are not typical of normal use patterns—which usually include off periods where the lamp cools down. Further, the test conditions differ from those used in standardized long-term test methods (i.e., IES LM-80, IES LM-84), so the results should not be directly compared. On the other hand, the test conditions are similar to those used by ENERGY STAR (when elevated temperature testing is called for). Likewise, the conditions and assumptions used by manufacturers to generated lifetime claims may vary; the CALiPER long-term data is informative, but cannot necessarily be used to discredit manufacturer claims. The test method used for this investigation should be interpreted as one more focused on the long-term effects of elevated temperature operation, at an ambient temperature that is not uncommon in luminaires. On average, the lumen maintenance of the LED lamps monitored in the ALTA was better than benchmark lamps, but there was considerable variation from lamp model to lamp model. While three lamp models had average lumen maintenance above 99% at the end of the study period, two products had average lumen maintenance below 65%, constituting a parametric failure. These two products, along with a third, also exhibited substantial color shift, another form of parametric failure. While none of the LED lamps exhibited catastrophic failure—and all of the benchmarks did—the early degradation of performance is concerning, especially with a new technology trying to build a reputation with consumers. Beyond the observed parametric failures nearly half of the products failed to meet early-life thresholds for lumen maintenance, which were borrowed from ENERGY STAR specifications. That is, the lumen maintenance was sufficiently low at 6,000 hours that seven of the products are unlikely to have lumen maintenance above 70% at their rated lifetime (which was usually 25,000 hours). Given the methods used for this investigation—most notably continuous operation—the results should not be interpreted as indicative of a lamp’s performance in a typical environment. Likewise, these results are not directly relatable to manufacturer lifetime claims. This report is best used to understand the variation in LED product performance, compare the robustness of LED lamps and benchmark conventional lamps, and understand the characteristics of lumen and chromaticity change. A key takeaway is that the long-term performance of LED lamps can vary greatly from model to model (i.e., the technology is not homogenous), although the lamp-to-lamp consistency within a given model is relatively good. Further, operation of LED lamps in an enclosed luminaire (or otherwise in high ambient temperatures), can induce parametric failure of LEDs much earlier than their rated lifetime; manufacturer warnings about such conditions should be followed if performance degradation is unacceptable.

  7. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg[sup 196] enrichment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.

    1993-02-16

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg[sup 196] isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

  8. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg.sup.196 enrichment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg.sup.196 isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

  9. Inductive tuners for microwave driven discharge lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, James E. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    1999-01-01

    An RF powered electrodeless lamp utilizing an inductive tuner in the waveguide which couples the RF power to the lamp cavity, for reducing reflected RF power and causing the lamp to operate efficiently.

  10. Integrated starting and running amalgam assembly for an electrodeless fluorescent lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borowiec, Joseph Christopher (Schenectady, NY); Cocoma, John Paul (Clifton Park, NY); Roberts, Victor David (Burnt Hills, NY)

    1998-01-01

    An integrated starting and running amalgam assembly for an electrodeless SEF fluorescent lamp includes a wire mesh amalgam support constructed to jointly optimize positions of a starting amalgam and a running amalgam in the lamp, thereby optimizing mercury vapor pressure in the lamp during both starting and steady-state operation in order to rapidly achieve and maintain high light output. The wire mesh amalgam support is constructed to support the starting amalgam toward one end thereof and the running amalgam toward the other end thereof, and the wire mesh is rolled for friction-fitting within the exhaust tube of the lamp. The positions of the starting and running amalgams on the wire mesh are jointly optimized such that high light output is achieved quickly and maintained, while avoiding any significant reduction in light output between starting and running operation.

  11. Effect of furnace operating conditions on alkali vaporization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on alkali vaporization, batch carryover, and the formation of SO2 and NO in an oxy-fuel fired container glass furnace. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of...

  12. Aperture lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

    2003-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes means for containing a light emitting fill, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill; means for exciting the fill to cause the fill to emit light; and means for reflecting some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length. Another discharge lamp includes an envelope; a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope; a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light; and a reflective ceramic structure disposed around the envelope and defining an light emitting opening, wherein the structure comprises a sintered body built up directly on the envelope and made from a combination of alumina and silica.

  13. LED lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galvez, Miguel; Grossman, Kenneth; Betts, David

    2013-11-12

    There is herein described a lamp for providing white light comprising a plurality of light sources positioned on a substrate. Each of said light sources comprises a blue light emitting diode (LED) and a dome that substantially covers said LED. A first portion of said blue light from said LEDs is transmitted through said domes and a second portion of said blue light is converted into a red light by a first phosphor contained in said domes. A cover is disposed over all of said light sources that transmits at least a portion of said red and blue light emitted by said light sources. The cover contains a second phosphor that emits a yellow light in response to said blue light. The red, blue and yellow light combining to form the white light and the white light having a color rendering index (CRI) of at least about 80.

  14. Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A...

  15. Continuous Operation of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactors Treating Toluene Vapors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/bit.20619 Abstract: Continuous operation of a new bioreactor for air pollution control biofilters and biotrickling filters for the treatment of air pollutants such as toluene. ß 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Keywords: VOC control; biofilter; air pollution control; toluene; biologically activated

  16. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, M.

    1998-02-10

    A novel design is described for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment. 9 figs.

  17. CALiPER Report 20.4: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-12-30

    This CALiPER report focuses on lumen maintenance, chromaticity maintenance, and catastrophic failure in 32 of the Series 20 LED PAR38 lamps and 8 benchmark lamps, which were monitored for nearly 14,000 hours at ambient temperatures between 44°C and 45°C.

  18. Studies on Temperature Dependence of Rubidium Lamp for Atomic Frequency Standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosal, Bikash; Banik, Alak; Vats, Vaibhav; Pal, Sukamal; Bahl, R. K [Space Applications Centre, ISRO, Ahmedabad-380015 (India)

    2011-10-20

    Rb lamp is a very critical component of the Rb atomic clock's Physics Package. The Rb lamp's performance is very sensitive to temperature and its stability. In this paper we discuss the behaviors of Rb Lamp with temperature. The Rb lamp exciter power and temperature of Rb bulb are very important parameters in controlling the performance of the Rb Lamp. It is observed that at temperatures beyond 110 deg. C, the lamp mode changes from the ring to red mode resulting in abnormal broadening of emission lines and self reversal. The results of our studies on spectral analysis of Rb lamp under various operating conditions are reported in the paper.

  19. Fluorescent Tube Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP temporarily suspended its energy efficiency requirements for fluorescent tube lamps as it evaluates the market impact of the pending 2012 minimum efficiency standards for fluorescent lamps. The program will issue updated energy efficiency requirements when the market distribution of this product category stabilizes and when doing so has the potential to result in significant Federal energy savings.

  20. Jacketed lamp bulb envelope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Gitsevich, Aleksandr (Gaithersburg, MD); Bass, Gary K. (Mt. Airy, MD); Dolan, James T. (Frederick, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD); Kirkpatrick, Douglas A. (Great Falls, VA); Leng, Yongzhang (Damascus, MD); Levin, Izrail (Silver Spring, MD); Roy, Robert J. (Frederick, MD); Shanks, Bruce (Gaithersburg, MD); Smith, Malcolm (Alexandria, VA); Trimble, William C. (Columbia, MD); Tsai, Peter (Olney, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a partially closed end, the partially closed end defining an aperture, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material at least partially covering a portion of the bulb not abutting the aperture. The reflective ceramic material may substantially fill an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. The ceramic cup may include a structural feature for aiding in alignment of the jacketed lamp bulb envelope in a lamp. The ceramic cup may include an external flange about a periphery thereof. One example of a jacketed lamp bulb envelope includes a ceramic cup having an open end and a closed end, a ceramic washer covering the open end of the ceramic cup, the washer defining an aperture therethrough, a lamp bulb positioned inside the ceramic cup abutting the aperture, and a reflective ceramic material filling an interior volume of the ceramic cup not occupied by the bulb. A method of packing a jacketed lamp bulb envelope of the type comprising a ceramic cup with a lamp bulb disposed therein includes the steps of filling the ceramic cup with a flowable slurry of reflective material, and applying centrifugal force to the cup to pack the reflective material therein.

  1. Turning on LAMP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostedt, Christoph

    2014-06-30

    Christoph Bostedt, a senior staff scientist at SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray laser, provides a sneak peek of a powerful new instrument, called LAMP, that is now available for experiments that probe the atomic and molecular realm. LAMP replaces and updates the first instrument at LCLS, dubbed CAMP, which will be installed at an X-ray laser in Germany.

  2. Turning on LAMP

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Bostedt, Christoph

    2014-07-16

    Christoph Bostedt, a senior staff scientist at SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray laser, provides a sneak peek of a powerful new instrument, called LAMP, that is now available for experiments that probe the atomic and molecular realm. LAMP replaces and updates the first instrument at LCLS, dubbed CAMP, which will be installed at an X-ray laser in Germany.

  3. LED lamp power management system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A. M.

    2013-03-19

    An LED lamp power management system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 reduces power loss in one of the channel switch 62 and the shunt switch 68 when LED lamp electronics power loss (P.sub.loss) exceeds an LED lamp electronics power loss limit (P.sub.lim); and each of the channel switches 62 receives a channel switch control signal 63 from the LED controller 58 and each of the shunt switches 68 receives a shunt switch control signal 69 from the LED controller 58.

  4. Rapid flash lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gavenonis, Thomas L. (544 Sand Hill Rd., R.D. #3, Montoursville, Lycoming County, PA 17754); Hewitt, William H. (24 G Acres Dr., Essex County, Bradford, MA 01830)

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing low peak time and pulse width actinic energy from a lamp by varying the input energy of a capacitive ignition circuit having relatively high voltage to the lamp. The lamp comprises a pair of electrodes disposed within a light transparent envelope in which a combustible and an oxidizing gas reaction combination is located. The combustible is preferably shredded zirconium which is in contact with and provides an electrical discharge path between the electrodes. The gas is preferably pressurized oxygen.

  5. LED Directional Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-11-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet that provides an overview of the current performance of LED PAR-, BR-, R-, and AR-shaped lamps, which were all investigated by CALiPER in 2012.

  6. Magnetic fluorescent lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, S.M.; Richardson R.W.

    1983-12-29

    The radiant emission of a mercury-argon discharge in a fluorescent lamp assembly is enhanced by providing means for establishing a magnetic field with lines of force along the path of electron flow through the bulb of the lamp assembly, to provide Zeeman splitting of the ultraviolet spectral line. Optimum results are obtained when the magnetic field strength causes a Zeeman splitting of approximately 1.7 times the thermal line width.

  7. Fluorescent lamp with static magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moskowitz, Philip E. (Peabody, MA); Maya, Jakob (Brookline, MA)

    1987-01-01

    A fluorescent lamp wherein magnetic field generating means (e.g., permanent magnets) are utilized to generate a static magnetic field across the respective electrode structures of the lamp such that maximum field strength is located at the electrode's filament. An increase in efficacy during operation has been observed.

  8. Fluorescent lamp with static magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moskowitz, P.E.; Maya, J.

    1987-09-08

    A fluorescent lamp wherein magnetic field generating means (e.g., permanent magnets) are utilized to generate a static magnetic field across the respective electrode structures of the lamp such that maximum field strength is located at the electrode's filament. An increase in efficacy during operation has been observed. 2 figs.

  9. The effect of the operation modes of a gas discharge low-pressure amalgam lamp on the intensity of generation of 185 nm UV vacuum radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasilyak, L. M., E-mail: vasilyak@ihed.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute of High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Drozdov, L. A., E-mail: lit@npo.lit.ru; Kostyuchenko, S. V.; Sokolov, D. V. [ZAO LIT (Russian Federation); Kudryavtsev, N. N.; Sobur, D. A., E-mail: soburda@gmail.com [Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    The effect of the discharge current, mercury vapor pressure, and the inert gas pressure on the intensity and efficiency of the 185 nm line generation are considered. The spectra of the UV radiation (vacuum ultraviolet) transmission by protective coatings from the oxides of rare earth metals and aluminum are investigated.

  10. High brightness microwave lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Dolan, James T.; MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Simpson, James E.

    2003-09-09

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes a source of microwave energy, a microwave cavity, a structure configured to transmit the microwave energy from the source to the microwave cavity, a bulb disposed within the microwave cavity, the bulb including a discharge forming fill which emits light when excited by the microwave energy, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity, wherein the reflector defines a reflective cavity which encompasses the bulb within its volume and has an inside surface area which is sufficiently less than an inside surface area of the microwave cavity. A portion of the reflector may define a light emitting aperture which extends from a position closely spaced to the bulb to a light transmissive end of the microwave cavity. Preferably, at least a portion of the reflector is spaced from a wall of the microwave cavity. The lamp may be substantially sealed from environmental contamination. The cavity may include a dielectric material is a sufficient amount to require a reduction in the size of the cavity to support the desired resonant mode.

  11. LED lamp color control system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A.M.

    2013-02-05

    An LED lamp color control system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; and a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 determines whether the LED source 80 is in a feedback controllable range, stores measured optical flux for the LED source 80 when the LED source 80 is in the feedback controllable range, and bypasses storing the measured optical flux when the LED source 80 is not in the feedback controllable range.

  12. Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1987-10-06

    A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25 C. 3 figs.

  13. High output lamp with high brightness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A. (Great Falls, VA); Bass, Gary K. (Mt. Airy, MD); Copsey, Jesse F. (Germantown, MD); Garber, Jr., William E. (Poolesville, MD); Kwong, Vincent H. (Vancouver, CA); Levin, Izrail (Silver Spring, MD); MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Roy, Robert J. (Frederick, MD); Steiner, Paul E. (Olney, MD); Tsai, Peter (Olney, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

    2002-01-01

    An ultra bright, low wattage inductively coupled electrodeless aperture lamp is powered by a solid state RF source in the range of several tens to several hundreds of watts at various frequencies in the range of 400 to 900 MHz. Numerous novel lamp circuits and components are disclosed including a wedding ring shaped coil having one axial and one radial lead, a high accuracy capacitor stack, a high thermal conductivity aperture cup and various other aperture bulb configurations, a coaxial capacitor arrangement, and an integrated coil and capacitor assembly. Numerous novel RF circuits are also disclosed including a high power oscillator circuit with reduced complexity resonant pole configuration, parallel RF power FET transistors with soft gate switching, a continuously variable frequency tuning circuit, a six port directional coupler, an impedance switching RF source, and an RF source with controlled frequency-load characteristics. Numerous novel RF control methods are disclosed including controlled adjustment of the operating frequency to find a resonant frequency and reduce reflected RF power, controlled switching of an impedance switched lamp system, active power control and active gate bias control.

  14. Performance of T12 and T8 Fluorescent Lamps and Troffers and LED Linear Replacement Lamps CALiPER Benchmark Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myer, Michael; Paget, Maria L.; Lingard, Robert D.

    2009-01-16

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Commercially Available LED Product Evaluation and Reporting (CALiPER) Program was established in 2006 to investigate the performance of light-emitting diode (LED) based luminaires and replacement lamps. To help users better compare LED products with conventional lighting technologies, CALiPER has also performed benchmark research and testing of traditional (i.e., non-LED) lamps and fixtures. This benchmark report addresses standard 4-foot fluorescent lamps (i.e., T12 and T8) and the 2-foot by 4-foot recessed troffers in which they are commonly used. This report also examines available LED replacements for T12 and T8 fluorescent lamps, and their application in fluorescent troffers. The construction and operation of linear fluorescent lamps and troffers are discussed, as well as fluorescent lamp and fixture performance, based on manufacturer data and CALiPER benchmark testing. In addition, the report describes LED replacements for linear fluorescent lamps, and compares their bare lamp and in situ performance with fluorescent benchmarks on a range of standard lighting measures, including power usage, light output and distribution, efficacy, correlated color temperature, and the color rendering index. Potential performance and application issues indicated by CALiPER testing results are also examined.

  15. Capacitive sensing with a fluorescent lamp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooley, John Jacob

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a modified fluorescent lamp that can be used as a capacitive sensing system. The lamp sensor measures changes in the electric fields emitted from the fluorescent bulbs in order to deduce the presence and ...

  16. Max Tech and Beyond: Fluorescent Lamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-01-01

    T5 HE ES High Efficiency Energy Saver”; and General Electricfilled with argon gas. Energy-saver lamps incorporate argon

  17. Comparison lamps automation CTIO 60 inches CHIRON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokovinin, Andrei A.

    Comparison lamps automation CTIO 60 inches CHIRON CHI60HF5.2 La Serena, March 16, 2011 #12;Table)...............................................................................12 CTIO 60 inches Chiron / Comparison lamps automation, CHI60HF5.2 2 #12;Introduction The present document is just a brief summary of the work done automating the 60 inches chiron comparison lamps

  18. Comparison lamps automation CTIO 60 inches Echelle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokovinin, Andrei A.

    Comparison lamps automation CTIO 60 inches Echelle ECH60S5.1 La Serena, December 09, 2009 #12)...............................................................................12 CTIO 60 inches Echelle / Comparison lamps automation, ECH60S5.1 2 #12;Introduction The present document is just a brief summary of the work done automating the 60 inches echelle comparison lamps

  19. LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The CALiPER program performed a series of investigations on linear LED lamps. Each report in the series covers the performance of up to 31 linear LED lamps, which were purchased in late 2012 or 2013. The first report focuses on bare lamp performance of LED T8 replacement lamps and subsequent reports examine performance in various troffers, as well as cost-effectiveness. There is also a concise guidance document that describes the findings of the Series 21 studies and provides practical advice to manufacturers, specifiers, and consumers (Report 21.4: Summary of Linear (T8) LED Lamp Testing , 5 pages, June 2014).

  20. CALiPER Report 21.3. Cost Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-05-01

    Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15 minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.

  1. CALiPER Report 21.3: Cost-Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Perrin, Tess E.; Royer, Michael P.

    2014-05-27

    Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15 minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.

  2. A SPICE Compatible Model of High Intensity Discharge Lamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    from the arc's * Corresponding author behavior of HID lamps. This model are derived from the arc-linear resistance of the lamp, is the global specific conductance of the plasma, V is the volume of the plasma, L is the length of plasma and S is the cross section. ~ Vin G1 Lamp Model Ballast v(lamp) i(lamp) Analytical

  3. Lamp with a truncated reflector cup

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ming; Allen, Steven C.; Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel

    2013-10-15

    A lamp assembly, and method for making same. The lamp assembly includes first and second truncated reflector cups. The lamp assembly also includes at least one base plate disposed between the first and second truncated reflector cups, and a light engine disposed on a top surface of the at least one base plate. The light engine is configured to emit light to be reflected by one of the first and second truncated reflector cups.

  4. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: A modular vacuum ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sloan Roberts, F.; Anderson, Scott L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 S. 1400 E., Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 S. 1400 E., Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a “soft” photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry.

  5. LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps Webcast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this June 20, 2011 webcast on LED products marketed as replacements for linear fluorescent lamps, Jason Tuenge of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) discussed current Lighting...

  6. Lamp bulb with integral reflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levin, Izrail (Silver Spring, MD); Shanks, Bruce (Gaithersburg, MD); Sumner, Thomas L. (Wheaton, MD)

    2001-01-01

    An improved electrodeless discharge lamp bulb includes an integral ceramic reflector as a portion of the bulb envelope. The bulb envelope further includes two pieces, a reflector portion or segment is cast quartz ceramic and a light transmissive portion is a clear fused silica. In one embodiment, the cast quartz ceramic segment includes heat sink fins or stubs providing an increased outside surface area to dissipate internal heat. In another embodiment, the quartz ceramic segment includes an outside surface fused to eliminate gas permeation by polishing.

  7. Solid-state lamp with integral occupancy sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooley, John J.

    Previous work demonstrated a retrofit proximity detector for fluorescent lamps using the lamp's own stray electric fields. This paper extends the retrofit sensor system to a solid-state (LED) lamp. The design and implementation ...

  8. DuraLamp USA: Order (2010-CE-0912)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered DuraLamp USA, Inc. to pay a $2,500 civil penalty after finding DuraLamp USA had failed to certify that model PAR 30, an incandescent reflector lamp, complies with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  9. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  10. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Pressure Sodium Light Emitting Diode Lamp Lumen Depreciationit is expected that light emitting diode (LED) lamps willLED Technology Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are an emerging

  11. Portable lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael J. (Pinole, CA); Page, Erik R. (Berkeley, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) arranged vertically with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum insures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

  12. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma.

  13. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, P.

    1998-06-02

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma. 5 figs.

  14. Lamp system for uniform semiconductor wafer heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

  15. Dispersion of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosol and HF vapor in the operating floor during winter ventilation at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.H.; Chen, N.C.J.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Keith, K.D.; Schmidt, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carter, J.C. [J.C. Carter Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-12-30

    The gaseous diffusion process is currently employed at two plants in the US: the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. As part of a facility-wide safety evaluation, a postulated design basis accident involving large line-rupture induced releases of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) into the process building of a gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) is evaluated. When UF{sub 6} is released into the atmosphere, it undergoes an exothermic chemical reaction with moisture (H{sub 2}O) in the air to form vaporized hydrogen fluoride (HF) and aerosolized uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}). These reactants disperse in the process building and transport through the building ventilation system. The ventilation system draws outside air into the process building, distributes it evenly throughout the building, and discharges it to the atmosphere at an elevated temperature. Since air is recirculated from the cell floor area to the operating floor, issues concerning in-building worker safety and evacuation need to be addressed. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the transport of HF vapor and UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols throughout the operating floor area following B-line break accident in the cell floor area.

  16. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; Beeson, Tracy A.

    2014-02-01

    The CALiPER program first began investigating LED lamps sold at retail stores in 2010, purchasing 33 products from eight retailers and covering six product categories. The findings revealed a fragmented marketplace, with large disparities in performance of different products, accuracy of manufacturer claims, and offerings from different retail outlets. Although there were some good products, looking back many would not be considered viable competitors to other available options, with too little lumen output, not high enough efficacy, or poor color quality. CALiPER took another look in late 2011purchasing 38 products of five different types from nine retailers and the improvement was marked. Performance was up; retailer claims were more accurate; and the price per lumen and price per unit efficacy were down, although the price per product had not changed much. Nonetheless, there was still plenty of room for improvement, with the performance of LED lamps not yet reaching that of well-established classes of conventional lamps (e.g., 75 W incandescent A19 lamps). Since the second retail lamp study was published in early 2012, there has been substantial progress in all aspects of LED lamps available from retailers. To document this progress, CALiPER again purchased a sample of lamps from retail stores 46 products in total, focusing on A19, PAR30, and MR16 lamps but instead of a random sample, sought to select products to answer specific hypotheses about performance. These hypotheses focused on expanding ranges of LED equivalency, the accuracy of lifetime claims, efficacy and price trends, as well as changes to product designs. Among other results, key findings include: There are now very good LED options to compete with 60 W, 75 W, and 100 W incandescent A19 lamps, and 75 W halogen PAR30 lamps. MR16 lamps have shown less progress, but there are now acceptable alternatives to 35 W, 12 V halogen MR16 lamps and 50 W, 120 V halogen MR16 lamps for some applications. Other uses, such as in enclosed luminaires, may require more development. At the same price point, lamps purchased in 2013 tended to have higher output and slightly higher efficacy than in 2011 or 2010. Over 30% of the products purchased in 2013 exceeded the maximum efficacy measured in 2011 (71 lm/W), with the most efficacious product measured at 105 lm/W. There appears to be increasing consistency in color quality, with a vast majority of products having a CCT of 2700 K or 3000 K and a CRI between 80 and 85. There were also fewer poor performing products tested and more high-performing products available in 2013 than in previous years. The accuracy of equivalency and performance claims was better than in 2011, but remains a concern, with 43% of tested products failing to completely meet their equivalency claim and 20% of products failing to match the manufacturer’s performance data. Although progress has been substantial, on average LED lamps remain more expensive than other energy efficiency lighting technologies -- although some aspects can be superior. Although not universal to all product lines or all product types, the issue of insufficient lumen output from LED lamps is waning. Thus, manufacturers can focus on other issues, such as reducing cost, improving electrical/dimmer compatibility, eliminating flicker, or improving color quality. While these issues are not inherent to all products, they remain a concern for the broader market.

  17. Energy-efficient incandescent lamp: Final report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verderber, R.

    2010-01-01

    have doubled luminous efficacy, corresponding to 50% energyluminous than the clear lamp. The value of visible wattage 1n the energyluminous efficacy without l i f e reduction. Such efficacy Increase corresponds to an energy

  18. Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescent Lamp Ballasts Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts The

  19. High frequency inductive lamp and power oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Dolan, James T. (Frederick, MD); Kirkpatrick, Douglas A. (Great Falls, VA); Leng, Yongzhang (Damascus, MD)

    2000-01-01

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and/or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.

  20. Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E.; Brown, Charles C.

    2014-12-14

    To date, all three reports in the retail lamps series have focused on basic performance parameters, such as lumen output, efficacy, and color quality. This report goes a step further, examining the photoelectric characteristics (i.e., dimming and flicker) of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retails Lamps Study 3. Specifically, this report focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers. The results demonstrate notable variation across the various lamps, but little variation between the four dimmers. Overall, the LED lamps: ~tended to have higher relative light output compared to the incandescent and halogen benchmark at the same dimmer output signal (RMS voltage). The lamps’ dimming curves (i.e., the relationship between control signal and relative light output) ranged from linear to very similar to the square-law curve typical of an incandescent lamp. ~generally exhibited symmetrical behavior—the same dimming curve—when measured proceeding from maximum to minimum or minimum to maximum control signal. ~mostly dimmed below 10% of full light output, with some exceptions for specific lamp and dimmer combinations ~exhibited a range of flicker characteristics, with many comparing favorably to the level typical of a magnetically-ballasted fluorescent lamp through at least a majority of the dimming range. ~ always exceeded the relative (normalized) efficacy over the dimming range of the benchmark lamps, which rapidly decline in efficacy when they are dimmed. This report generally does not attempt to rank the performance of one product compared to another, but instead focuses on the collective performance of the group versus conventional incandescent or halogen lamps, the performance of which is likely to be the baseline for a majority of consumers. Undoubtedly, some LED lamps perform better—or more similar to conventional lamps—than others. Some perform desirably for one characteristic, but not others. Consumers (and specifiers) may have a hard time distinguishing better-performing lamps from one another; at this time, physical experimentation is likely the best evaluation tool.

  1. Backcoupling of acoustic streaming on the temperature field inside high-intensity discharge lamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwieger, Joerg; Wolff, Marcus; Manders, Freddy; Suijker, Jos

    2015-01-01

    Operating high-intensity discharge lamps in the high frequency range (20-300 kHz) provides energy-saving and cost reduction potentials. However, commercially available lamp drivers do not make use of this operating strategy because light intensity fluctuations and even lamp destruction are possible. The reason for the fluctuating discharge arc are acoustic resonances in this frequency range that are excited in the arc tube. The acoustic resonances in turn generate a fluid flow that is caused by the acoustic streaming effect. Here, we present a 3D multiphysics model to determine the influence of acoustic streaming on the temperature field in the vicinity of an acoustic eigenfrequency. In that case a transition from stable to instable behavior occurs. The model is able to predict when light flicker can be expected. The results are in very good accordance with accompanying experiments.

  2. High frequency inductive lamp and power oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Dymond, Jr., Lauren E. (North Potomac, MD); Gitsevich, Aleksandr (Montgomery Village, MD); Grimm, William G. (Silver Spring, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD); Kirkpatrick, Douglas A. (Great Falls, VA); Ola, Samuel A. (Silver Spring, MD); Simpson, James E. (Gaithersburg, MD); Trimble, William C. (Columbia, MD); Tsai, Peter (Olney, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and I or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to adjust the driving frequency of the oscillator.

  3. Stratified vapor generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, Vahab (Golden, CO)

    2008-05-20

    A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).

  4. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures to Save on Energy Bills and Reduce Carbon Pollution New Energy Efficiency Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures to Save on Energy Bills and Reduce...

  5. Laboratory Evaluation of LED T8 Replacement Lamp Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richman, Eric E.; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-05-23

    A report on a lab setting analysis involving LED lamps intended to directly replace T8 fluorescent lamps (4') showing light output, power, and economic comparisons with other fluorescent options.

  6. DuraLamp USA: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-0912)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that DuraLamp USA, Inc. failed to certify a variety of general service fluorescent lamps as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  7. Text-Alternative Version: LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the "LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps" webcast, held June 20, 2011.

  8. Demonstration of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Retrofit Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.

    2011-09-01

    GATEWAY program report on a demonstration of LED retrofit lamps at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of art in Eugene, OR

  9. Electronic screw-in ballast and improved circline lamp phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, T.P.

    1980-09-01

    A solid state ballast has been designed for the efficient operation of a 10 in circline fluorescent lamp. The circuit can be manufactured using power hybrid technology. Eight discrete component versions of the ballasts have been delivered to LBL for testing. The results show the solid state fluorescent ballast system is more efficient than the core-coil ballasted systems on the market.

  10. An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy A. Berkoff; Paul L. Kebabian; Robert A. McClatchy; Charles E. Kolb; Andrew Freedman

    1998-12-01

    The water vapor sensor developed by Aerodyne Research, based on the optical absorption of light at {approximately}935 nm, has been successfully demonstrated on board the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Gulfstream-1 research aircraft during the Department of Energy's ARM Intensive Operations Period in August 1998. Data taken during this field campaign show excellent agreement with a chilled mirror and Lyman-alpha hygrometers and measurements confirm the ability to measure rapid, absolute water vapor fluctuations with a high degree of instrument stability and accuracy, with a noise level as low 10 ppmv (1 Hz measurement bandwidth). The construction of this small, lightweight sensor contains several unique elements which result in several significant advantages when compared to other techniques. First, the low power consumption Argon discharge lamp provides an optical beam at a fixed wavelength without a need for temperature or precision current control. The multi-pass absorption cell developed for this instrument provides a compact, low cost method that can survive deployment in the field. Fiber-optic cables, which are used to convey to light between the absorption cell, light source, and detection modules enable remote placement of the absorption cell from the opto-electronics module. Finally, the sensor does not use any moving parts which removes a significant source of potential malfunction. The result is an instrument which maintained its calibration throughout the field measurement campaign, and was not affected by high vibration and large uncontrolled temperature excursions. We believe that the development of an accurate, fast response water vapor monitor described in this report will open up new avenues of aerial-vehicle-based atmospheric research which have been relatively unexplored due to the lack of suitable low-cost, light-weight instrumentation.

  11. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines the characteristics of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3 in more detail. Specifically, it focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers.

  12. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Butler, PA); Turner, Brian (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

    1999-01-01

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture.

  13. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, D.A.; Turner, B.; Kipling, K.

    1999-05-11

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible is disclosed. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture. 20 figs.

  14. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This is a special CALiPER report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. It follows similar reports published in 2011 and 2012 (products purchased in 2010 and 2011), and is intended as a continuation that identifies long-term trends. For this report, products were selected to investigate specific hypotheses, rather than represent a sample of the increasingly large retail LED market.

  15. Optical pumping in a microfabricated Rb vapor cell using a microfabricated Rb discharge light source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatraman, V.; Kang, S.; Affolderbach, C.; Mileti, G., E-mail: gaetano.mileti@unine.ch [Laboratoire Temps-Fréquence, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel 2000 (Switzerland); Shea, H. [Microsystems for Space Technologies Laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Neuchâtel 2002 (Switzerland)

    2014-02-03

    Miniature (vapor-cell based devices using optical pumping of alkali atoms, such as atomic clocks and magnetometers, today mostly employ vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers as pump light sources. Here, we report on the demonstration of optical pumping in a microfabricated alkali vapor resonance cell using (1) a microfabricated Rb discharge lamp light source, as well as (2) a conventional glass-blown Rb discharge lamp. The microfabricated Rb lamp cell is a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) light source, having the same inner cell volume of around 40?mm{sup 3} as that of the resonance cell, both filled with suitable buffer gases. A miniature (?2?cm{sup 3} volume) test setup based on the M{sub z} magnetometer interrogation technique was used for observation of optical-radiofrequency double-resonance signals, proving the suitability of the microfabricated discharge lamp to introduce efficient optical pumping. The pumping ability of this light source was found to be comparable to or even better than that of a conventional glass-blown lamp. The reported results indicate that the micro-fabricated DBD discharge lamp has a high potential for the development of a new class of miniature atomic clocks, magnetometers, and quantum sensors.

  16. DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on Linear (T8) LED Lamps in a 2x4...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    overcome broader differences in lamp efficacy, however. Thus, in choosing a lamp for energy savings, lamp efficacy should be the primary consideration. Luminous intensity...

  17. Heat transfer assembly for a fluorescent lamp and fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, M.J.; Rubenstein, F.M.; Whitman, R.E.

    1992-12-29

    In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, a heat transfer structure is disclosed for reducing the minimum lamp wall temperature of a fluorescent light bulb. The heat transfer structure, constructed of thermally conductive material, extends from inside the housing to outside the housing, transferring heat energy generated from a fluorescent light bulb to outside the housing where the heat energy is dissipated to the ambient air outside the housing. Also disclosed is a method for reducing minimum lamp wall temperatures. Further disclosed is an improved lighting fixture including a lamp, a housing and the aforementioned heat transfer structure. 11 figs.

  18. Heat transfer assembly for a fluorescent lamp and fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael J. (Richmond, CA); Rubenstein, Francis M. (Berkeley, CA); Whitman, Richard E. (Richmond, CA)

    1992-01-01

    In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, a heat transfer structure is disclosed for reducing the minimum lamp wall temperature of a fluorescent light bulb. The heat transfer structure, constructed of thermally conductive material, extends from inside the housing to outside the housing, transferring heat energy generated from a fluorescent light bulb to outside the housing where the heat energy is dissipated to the ambient air outside the housing. Also disclosed is a method for reducing minimum lamp wall temperatures. Further disclosed is an improved lighting fixture including a lamp, a housing and the aforementioned heat transfer structure.

  19. Fluorescent lamp unit with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1989-08-08

    A fluorescent lamp unit having a magnetic field generating means for improving the performance of the fluorescent lamp is disclosed. In a preferred embodiment the fluorescent lamp comprises four longitudinally extending leg portions disposed in substantially quadrangular columnar array and joined by three generally U-shaped portions disposed in different planes. In another embodiment of the invention the magnetic field generating means comprises a plurality of permanent magnets secured together to form a single columnar structure disposed within a centrally located region defined by the shape of lamp envelope. 4 figs.

  20. iLamp: A Sensor-Enhanced Lamp with Surface-Tracking Capability Based on Light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tseng, Yu-Chee

    , a ZigBee module, a light sensor, and a user-friendly interface. The ZigBee module will periodically interface. This lamp is composed of a ZigBee module, a microprocessor, and a robot arm holding four sets. The microprocessor can communicate with the bookmark via its ZigBee module, track the bookmark's current location

  1. Compact microwave lamp having a tuning block and a dielectric located in a lamp cavity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, James E. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2000-01-01

    A microwave lamp having a compact structure utilizing a coupling slot which has a dielectric member extending therethrough and a tuning block adjoining the coupling slot. A non-conventional waveguide is used which has about the width of a WR-284 waveguide and about the length of a WR-340 waveguide.

  2. RF driven sulfur lamp having driving electrodes arranged to cool the lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gabor, George (820 Skywood Rd., Lafayette, CA 94549); Orr, Thomas Robert (2285 Vestal, Castro Valley, CA 94546); Greene, Charles Maurice (6450 Regent St., Oakland, CA 94618); Crawford, Douglas Gordon (33 Longridge Rd., Orinda, CA 94563); Berman, Samuel Maurice (2832 Union St., San Francisco, CA 94123)

    1998-01-01

    A high intensity discharge lamp without mercury is disclosed radiating a selected spectrum of which can be almost entirely in the visible range from an envelope that contains a sulfur containing substance. The lamp utilizes a signal source that generates an excitation signal that is externally coupled to the exterior surface of the envelope to excite the enclosed sulfur containing substance. Various embodiments of the lamp use electrodes adjacent the envelope to couple the excitation signal thereto with the face of the electrodes shaped to complement the shape of the exterior surface of the envelope. Two shapes discussed are spherical and cylindrical. To minimize filamentary discharges each envelope may include an elongated stem affixed to the exterior thereof whereby a rotational subsystem spins the envelope. In yet another embodiment the envelope has a Dewar configuration with two electrodes, one positioned near the external curved side surface of the body, and a second to the inner surface of the hole through the envelope. Further, the envelope may contain a backfill of a selected inert gas to assist in the excitation of lamp with that backfill at a pressure of less than 1 atmosphere, wherein the backfill pressure is directly related to the increase or decrease of peak output and inversely related to the increase and decrease of the emitted spectrum from the envelope. The emitting fill can be less than 6 mg/cc, or at least 2 mg/cc of the envelope of a sulfur containing substance.

  3. RF driven sulfur lamp having driving electrodes arranged to cool the lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gabor, G.; Orr, T.R.; Greene, C.M.; Crawford, D.G.; Berman, S.M.

    1998-10-20

    A high intensity discharge lamp without mercury is disclosed radiating a selected spectrum of which can be almost entirely in the visible range from an envelope that contains a sulfur containing substance. The lamp utilizes a signal source that generates an excitation signal that is externally coupled to the exterior surface of the envelope to excite the enclosed sulfur containing substance. Various embodiments of the lamp use electrodes adjacent the envelope to couple the excitation signal thereto with the face of the electrodes shaped to complement the shape of the exterior surface of the envelope. Two shapes discussed are spherical and cylindrical. To minimize filamentary discharges each envelope may include an elongated stem affixed to the exterior thereof whereby a rotational subsystem spins the envelope. In yet another embodiment the envelope has a Dewar configuration with two electrodes, one positioned near the external curved side surface of the body, and a second to the inner surface of the hole through the envelope. Further, the envelope may contain a backfill of a selected inert gas to assist in the excitation of lamp with that backfill at a pressure of less than 1 atmosphere, wherein the backfill pressure is directly related to the increase or decrease of peak output and inversely related to the increase and decrease of the emitted spectrum from the envelope. The emitting fill can be less than 6 mg/cc, or at least 2 mg/cc of the envelope of a sulfur containing substance. 17 figs.

  4. Coupling apparatus for a metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, D.G.; Miller, J.L.

    1993-02-23

    Coupling apparatus for a large bore metal vapor laser is disclosed. The coupling apparatus provides for coupling high voltage pulses (approximately 40 KV) to a metal vapor laser with a high repetition rate (approximately 5 KHz). The coupling apparatus utilizes existing thyratron circuits and provides suitable power input to a large bore metal vapor laser while maintaining satisfactory operating lifetimes for the existing thyratron circuits.

  5. Means and method for vapor generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A liquid, in heat transfer contact with a surface heated to a temperature well above the vaporization temperature of the liquid, will undergo a multiphase (liquid-vapor) transformation from 0% vapor to 100% vapor. During this transition, the temperature driving force or heat flux and the coefficients of heat transfer across the fluid-solid interface, and the vapor percentage influence the type of heating of the fluid--starting as "feedwater" heating where no vapors are present, progressing to "nucleate" heating where vaporization begins and some vapors are present, and concluding with "film" heating where only vapors are present. Unstable heating between nucleate and film heating can occur, accompanied by possibly large and rapid temperature shifts in the structures. This invention provides for injecting into the region of potential unstable heating and proximate the heated surface superheated vapors in sufficient quantities operable to rapidly increase the vapor percentage of the multiphase mixture by perhaps 10-30% and thereby effectively shift the multiphase mixture beyond the unstable heating region and up to the stable film heating region.

  6. Stress Testing of the Philips 60W Replacement Lamp L Prize Entry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poplawski, Michael E.; Ledbetter, Marc R.; Smith, Mark

    2012-04-24

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy, worked with Intertek to develop a procedure for stress testing medium screw-base light sources. This procedure, composed of alternating stress cycles and performance evaluation, was used to qualitatively compare and contrast the durability and reliability of the Philips 60W replacement lamp L Prize entry with market-proven compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) with comparable light output and functionality. The stress cycles applied simultaneous combinations of electrical, thermal, vibration, and humidity stresses of increasing magnitude. Performance evaluations measured relative illuminance, x chromaticity and y chromaticity shifts after each stress cycle. The Philips L Prize entry lamps appear to be appreciably more durable than the incumbent energy-efficient technology, as represented by the evaluated CFLs, and with respect to the applied stresses. Through the course of testing, all 15 CFL samples permanently ceased to function as a result of the applied stresses, while only 1 Philips L Prize entry lamp exhibited a failure, the nature of which was minor, non-destructive, and a consequence of a known (and resolved) subcontractor issue. Given that current CFL technology appears to be moderately mature and no Philips L Prize entry failures could be produced within the stress envelope causing 100 percent failure of the benchmark CFLs, it seems that, in this particular implementation, light-emitting diode (LED) technology would be much more durable in the field than current CFL technology. However, the Philips L Prize entry lamps used for testing were carefully designed and built for the competition, while the benchmark CFLs were mass produced for retail sale—a distinction that should be taken into consideration. Further reliability testing on final production samples would be necessary to judge the extent to which the results of this analysis apply to production versions of the Philips L Prize entry.

  7. Spatiotemporal study of the local thermodynamic equilibrium deviations in high-intensity discharge lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helali, H.; Bchir, T.; Araoud, Z.; Charrada, K.

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this work is to study the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) deviations in arc discharges plasma generated in high-intensity discharge lamps operating under an ac (50 Hz) power supply. To achieve this goal, we elaborate a two-temperature, two-dimensional, and time-depending model. We have found numerical results almost reproducing the experimental data, which allows us to validate this model. After validation, we have discussed different energy term effects on the LTE deviations.

  8. Laser desorption lamp ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Laser desorption lamp ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry Qinghao Wu and Richard N. Zare* A two-step laser desorption lamp ionization source coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (LDLI-ITMS) has been constructed and characterized. The pulsed infrared (IR) output of an Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm

  9. Convection venting lensed reflector-type compact fluorescent lamp system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pelton, B.A.; Siminovitch, M.

    1997-07-29

    Disclosed herein is a fluorescent lamp housing assembly capable of providing convection cooling to the lamp and the ballast. The lens of the present invention includes two distinct portions, a central portion and an apertured portion. The housing assembly further includes apertures so that air mass is able to freely move up through the assembly and out ventilation apertures. 12 figs.

  10. CALiPER Benchmark Report: Performance of Incandescent A Type and Decorative Lamps and LED Replacements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2008-11-01

    This benchmark report addresses common omnidirectional incandescent lamps - A-type and small decorative, candelabra-type lamps - and their commercially available light-emitting diode (LED) replacements.

  11. Application Summary Report 22: LED MR16 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2014-07-23

    This report analyzes the independently tested photometric performance of 27 LED MR16 lamps. It describes initial performance based on light output, efficacy, distribution, color quality, electrical characteristics, and form factor, with comparisons to a selection of benchmark halogen MR16s and ENERGY STAR qualification thresholds. Three types of products were targeted. First, CALiPER sought 3000 K lamps with the highest rated lumen output (i.e., at least 500 lm) or a claim of equivalency to a 50 W halogen MR16 or higher. The test results indicate that while the initial performance of LED MR16s has improved across the board, market-available products still do not produce the lumen output and center beam intensity of typical 50 W halogen MR16 lamps. In fact, most of the 18 lamps in this category had lower lumen output and center beam intensity than a typical 35 W halogen MR16 lamp. Second, CALiPER sought lamps with a CRI of 90 or greater. Only four manufacturers were identified with a product in this category. CALiPER testing confirmed the performance of these lamps, which are a good option for applications where high color fidelity is needed. A vast majority of the LED MR16 lamps have a CRI in the low 80s; this is generally acceptable for ambient lighting, but may not always be acceptable for focal lighting. For typical LED packages, there is a fundamental tradeoff between CRI and efficacy, but the lamps in the high-CRI group in this report still offer comparable performance to the rest of the Series 22 products in other performance areas. Finally, CALiPER sought lamps with a narrow distribution, denoted as a beam angle less than 15°. Five such lamps were purchased. Notably, no lamp was identified as having high lumen output (500 lumens or greater), high CRI (90 or greater), a narrow distribution (15° or less), and an efficacy greater than 60 lm/W. This would be an important achievement for LED MR16s especially if output could reach approximately 700 800 lumens, or the approximate equivalent of a 50 W halogen MR16 lamp. Many factors beyond photometric performance should be considered during specification. For example, performance over time, transformer and dimmer compatibility, and total system performance are all critical to a successful installation. Subsequent CALiPER reports will investigate more complex issues.

  12. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  13. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Larson, Ronald A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goodrich, Lorenzo D. (Shelley, ID); Hall, Harold J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stoddard, Billy D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davis, Sean G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  14. One piece microwave container screens for electrodeless lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Brian (Myersville, MD); Ury, Michael (Bethesda, MD)

    1998-01-01

    A microwave powered electrodeless lamp includes an improved screen unit having mesh and solid sections with an internal reflector to reflect light into a light-transmitting chamber defined in the lamp microwave cavity by the reflector and the mesh section. A discharge envelope of a bulb is disposed in the light-transmitting chamber. Light emitted from the envelope is prevented by the reflector from entering the cavity portion bounded by the solid section of the screen. Replacing mesh material by solid metal material as part of the screen unit significantly reduces leakage of microwave energy from the lamp. The solid section has multiple compliant fingers defined therein for engaging the periphery of a flange on the waveguide unit so that a hose clamp can easily secure the screen to the assembly. Screen units of this type having different mesh section configurations can be interchanged in the lamp assembly to produce different respective illumination patterns.

  15. 1995-2011 | LS-LAMP IMPACT REPORT Louis stokes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulp, Mark

    1 1995-2011 | LS-LAMP IMPACT REPORT Louis stokes Louisiana aLLiance for Minority ParticiPation IMPACT REPORT 1 9 9 5 - 2 0 1 1 ouis stokes ouisiana alliance for MiNoritY PArtiCiPAtioN Awarded 1995 L Orleans Xavier University of Louisiana #12;2 LS-LAMP IMPACT REPORT | 1995-2011 Louis stokes ALLi

  16. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

    2001-01-01

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes an envelope with a discharge forming fill disposed therein which emits light, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the absorbed light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill, a source of microwave energy coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity and configured to reflect at least some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length.

  17. Electrical and chemical properties of XeCl*(308 nm) exciplex lamp created by a dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baadj, S.; Harrache, Z., E-mail: zharrache@yahoo.com; Belasri, A. [Université des Sciences et de la Technologie d’Oran, USTO-MB, Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Matériaux Conducteurs et leurs Application (LPPMCA) (Algeria)

    2013-12-15

    The aim of this work is to highlight, through numerical modeling, the chemical and the electrical characteristics of xenon chloride mixture in XeCl* (308 nm) excimer lamp created by a dielectric barrier discharge. A temporal model, based on the Xe/Cl{sub 2} mixture chemistry, the circuit and the Boltzmann equations, is constructed. The effects of operating voltage, Cl{sub 2} percentage in the Xe/Cl{sub 2} gas mixture, dielectric capacitance, as well as gas pressure on the 308-nm photon generation, under typical experimental operating conditions, have been investigated and discussed. The importance of charged and excited species, including the major electronic and ionic processes, is also demonstrated. The present calculations show clearly that the model predicts the optimal operating conditions and describes the electrical and chemical properties of the XeCl* exciplex lamp.

  18. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  19. Red phosphors for use in high CRI fluorescent lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Alok; Comanzo, Holly; Manivannan, Vankatesan; Setlur, Anant Achyut

    2005-11-15

    Novel red emitting phosphors for use in fluorescent lamps resulting in superior color rendering index values compared to conventional red phosphors. Also disclosed is a fluorescent lamp including a phosphor layer comprising blends of one or more of a blue phosphor, a blue-green phosphor, a green phosphor and a red a phosphor selected from the group consisting of SrY.sub.2 O.sub.4 :Eu.sup.3+, (Y,Gd)Al.sub.3 B.sub.4 O.sub.12 :Eu.sup.3+, and [(Y.sub.1-x-y-m La.sub.y)Gd.sub.x ]BO.sub.3 :Eu.sub.m wherein y<0.50 and m=0.001-0.3. The phosphor layer can optionally include an additional deep red phosphor and a yellow emitting phosphor. The resulting lamp will exhibit a white light having a color rendering index of 90 or higher with a correlated color temperature of from 2500 to 10000 Kelvin. The use of the disclosed red phosphors in phosphor blends of lamps results in high CRI light sources with increased stability and acceptable lumen maintenance over the course of the lamp life.

  20. VAPORIZATION THERMODYNAMICS OF KCl. COMBINING VAPOR PRESSURE AND GRAVIMETRIC DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudnyi, Evgenii B.

    1 VAPORIZATION THERMODYNAMICS OF KCl. COMBINING VAPOR PRESSURE AND GRAVIMETRIC DATA Rudnyi E of thermodynamic properties of the vapor and the vaporization process, coupling pressure measurements. INTRODUCTION The vapor pressure of a substance is an important system property in many applications. Its value

  1. Vapor spill monitoring method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianchini, Gregory M. (Livermore, CA); McRae, Thomas G. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

  2. Very high efficacy electrodeless high intensity discharge lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Peter D. (Schenectady, NY)

    1987-01-01

    An electrodeless arc lamp comprises an outer jacket hermetically sealing and thermally protecting an arc tube inside which has an upwardly convex bottom center section. The absence of chemically reactive electrode material makes it possible to use metal halides other than iodides. The tube contains chlorides, bromides or a mixture thereof of scandium and sodium in a nearly equimolar relationship in addition to mercury and an inert gas. Good color balance can be obtained at reduced reservoir temperature and with less power loss. Reduction in wall temperature makes it possible to attain longer lamp life.

  3. Very high efficacy electrodeless high intensity discharge lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, P.D.

    1985-10-03

    An electrodeless arc lamp comprises an outer jacket hermetically sealing and thermally protecting an arc tube inside which has an upwardly convex bottom center section. The absence of chemically reactive electrode material makes it possible to use metal halides other than iodides. The tube contains chlorides, bromides or a mixture thereof of scandium and sodium in a nearly equimolar relationship in addition to mercury and an inert gas. Good color balance can be obtained at reduced reservoir temperature and with less power loss. Reduction in wall temperature makes it possible to attain longer lamp life.

  4. Durable alloy foils are needed for gas turbine recuperators operating at 650-700C. It has been established that water vapor in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    ABSTRACT Durable alloy foils are needed for gas turbine recuperators operating at 650°-700°C-cost alternatives to currently available candidate materials. INTRODUCTION Improving gas turbine engine efficiency or heat exchangers used to improve the efficiency of microturbines and small gas turbines[1]. Over

  5. Caliper Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    & Publications Report 22.1: Photoelectric Performance of LED MR16 Lamps Report 20.3: Stress Testing of LED PAR38 Lamps DOE Booth Presentations from LIGHTFAIR International 2015...

  6. LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR®

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This May 19, 2009 webcast summarized CALiPER's recent benchmark testing of common omnidirectional incandescent lamps (e.g., A-lamps), and provided an update on ENERGY STAR criteria for LED integral...

  7. Study of high frequency & low frequency electronic ballasts for HID lamps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Hua

    1997-01-01

    known to avoid acoustic resonances. This thesis focuses on real-time detection of acoustic resonance occurrence by measuring lamp electrical parameters. Theoretical analysis and experiment results pronounce that the variation of the lamp impedance ([]R...

  8. CALiPER Benchmark Report: Performance of Halogen Incandescent MR16 Lamps and LED Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2008-11-01

    This benchmark report addresses the halogen MR16 lamp and its commercially available light-emitting diode (LED) replacements.

  9. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Smithsonian Art Museum, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N. J.; Rosenfeld, S. M.

    2012-06-01

    GATEWAY program report on a demonstration of LED retrofit lamps at the Smithsonian American Art Museum in Washington, DC.

  10. Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    vapor retarders: Class I vapor retarders (0.1 perms or less): Glass Sheet metal Polyethylene sheet Rubber membrane Class II vapor retarders (greater than 0.1 perms and less...

  11. Low Frequency Architecture for Multi-Lamp CCFL Systemswith Capacitive Ignition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low Frequency Architecture for Multi-Lamp CCFL Systemswith Capacitive Ignition Monm Doshi (I-0425 regan.zane@colorado.edu Absfruci-This paper presents a low frequency architecture for driving parallel lamp ignition, and individual lamp current reguration in such designs. In this paper, we present a low

  12. Thermal element for maintaining minimum lamp wall temperature in fluorescent fixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, M.J.

    1992-11-10

    In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, an improvement is disclosed for maintaining a lamp envelope area at a cooler, reduced temperature relative to the enclosed housing ambient. The improvement comprises a thermal element in thermal communication with the housing extending to and springably urging thermal communication with a predetermined area of the lamp envelope surface. 12 figs.

  13. Thermal element for maintaining minimum lamp wall temperature in fluorescent fixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael J. (Richmond, CA)

    1992-01-01

    In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, an improvement is disclosed for maintaining a lamp envelope area at a cooler, reduced temperature relative to the enclosed housing ambient. The improvement comprises a thermal element in thermal communication with the housing extending to and springably urging thermal communication with a predetermined area of the lamp envelope surface.

  14. Retail Replacement Lamps | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-A Wholesale PowerNaturalEnergyResuming OperationsOperated

  15. CALiPER Special Summary Report: Retail Replacement Lamp Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-04-01

    CALiPER testing has evaluated many products for commercial lighting markets and found some excellent performers. However, many of these are not available on the retail market. This special testing was undertaken to identify and test solid-state lighting (SSL) replacement lamp products that are available to the general public through retail stores and websites.

  16. The Potential of RFID for Moveable Asset Management Matthias Lampe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Potential of RFID for Moveable Asset Management Matthias Lampe Institute for Pervasive +41 71 228 24 68 martin.strassner@unisg.ch ABSTRACT Moveable asset management is still data directly with the physical assets. Assets become able to manage themselves, which eliminates many

  17. NEWS & VIEWS synchrotron or helium-lamp studies. But

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    NEWS & VIEWS synchrotron or helium-lamp studies. But the low energy of the laser photons raises, which should be stronger the lower the kinetic energy of the outgoing electron? Further studies is equivalent to a `pole singularity' in the Green's function. Phil Anderson argues that in the strange metal

  18. CALiPER Exploratory Study Retail Replacement Lamps – 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-02

    In 2010, CALiPER conducted a study on LED replacement lamps found in retail stores. The results were less than satisfactory, and many products were classified as being unlikely to meet consumer expectations. In November 2011, CALiPER purchased a new sample of products for a follow-up study, with the intent of characterizing the progress of this essential market segment.

  19. Enthalpies of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures of Some Deuterated Hydrocarbons. Liquid-Vapor Pressure Isotope Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Enthalpies of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures of Some Deuterated Hydrocarbons. Liquid-Vapor pressures as a function of temperature and enthalpies of vaporization of a series of both liquid and solid. The applicability of this technique is first demonstrated by reproducing the vapor pressure isotope effect

  20. Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    retarders. Materials such as rigid foam insulation, reinforced plastics, aluminum, and stainless steel are relatively resistant to water vapor diffusion. These types of vapor...

  1. ISSUANCE 2015-12-02: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps, Final Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps, Final Determination

  2. ISSUANCE 2014-12-29: Energy Conservation Program: Clarification for Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Clarification for Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

  3. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1986-08-15

    The atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process for the enrichment of uranium is evaluated. (AIP)

  4. 2014-04-11 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for General Service Fluorescent Lamps and Incandescent Reflector Lamps; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding energy conservation standards for general service fluorescent lamps and incandescent reflectors lamps, as issued by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy on April 11, 2014.

  5. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2006-07-26

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  6. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2007-10-23

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  7. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sederquist, Richard A. (Newington, CT); Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Sawyer, Richard D. (Canton, CT)

    1983-01-01

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.

  8. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

    1983-02-08

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

  9. LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting: CALiPER Report Series 21

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Beeson, Tracy; Miller, Naomi

    2014-06-23

    Video about CALiPER Report Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting, featuring interviews with Tracy Beeson and Naomi Miller of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  10. The Electrodeless Discharge Lamps Coated with the Titania Thin Film for Photocatalysis in a Microwave Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    The Electrodeless Discharge Lamps Coated with the Titania Thin Film for Photocatalysis assisted photocatalysis using TiO2 thin films has been examined. Several factors influencing

  11. LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting: CALiPER Report Series 21

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beeson, Tracy; Miller, Naomi

    2014-06-17

    Video about CALiPER Report Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting, featuring interviews with Tracy Beeson and Naomi Miller of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  12. EA-1881: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to amend energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including fluorescent lamp ballasts.

  13. Text-Alternative Version: LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR®

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Below is the text-alternative version of the LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® webcast.

  14. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Rosenfeld, Scott M.

    2012-06-22

    This report documents observations and results obtained from a lighting demonstration project conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Technology Demonstration Program at the Smithsonain American Art Museum in Washington, DC. LED Lamp samples were tested in the museum workshop, temporarily installed in a gallery for feedback, and ultimately replaced all traditional incandescent lamps in one gallery of modernist art at the American Art Museum and partially replacing lamps in two galleries at the Musesum's Renwick Gallery. This report describes the selection and testing process, technology challenges, perceptions, economics, energy use, and mixed results of usign LED replacement lamps in art galleries housing national treasures.

  15. Text-Alternative Version: CALiPER Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Following is a text version of a video about CALiPER Application Report Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting.

  16. Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-A Wholesale PowerNaturalEnergyResuming OperationsOperated in

  17. Conservation potential of compact fluorescent lamps in India and Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gadgil, A.; Martino Jannuzzi, G. de (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia)

    1989-07-01

    We evaluate the conservation potential of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) for managing the rapidly increasing electrical energy and peak demand in India and Brazil. Using very conservative assumptions, we find that the cost of conserved energy using 16 W CFLs is 4 and 6 times less than the long range marginal cost of electricity for the two countries. The cost of avoided peak installed capacity is 6 and 9.5 times less than the cost of new installed capacity for India and Brazil. The analysis is undertaken from the three separate perspectives of the national economies, the consumers, and the utilities. We find that because residential electricity is subsidized, the consumers have little or no incentive to purchase and install the CFLs, unless they too are subsidized. However, the benefits of CFL installation to the utility are so large that subsidizing them is a paying proposition for the utility are so large that subsidizing them is a paying proposition for the utility in almost all cases. As an illustration of a gradual introduction strategy for CFLs, we calculate a scenario where national savings of the order of US $1.2 million per day for India and US $2.5 million per day for Brazil are reached in 10 years by a small and gradual transfer of subsidy from residential electricity to CFLs. We then explore the barriers to immediate large scale introduction of these lamps in the two countries. Specific technical and marketing problems are identified and discussed, which would require solution before such an introduction can be attempted. Lastly, we discuss the range of policy instruments, in addition to a subsidy scheme, that can be used for promoting the diffusion of these lamps in the domestic and commercial sector. 47 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ury, M.G.; Turner, B.; Wooten, R.D.

    1999-02-02

    In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to (a) rotate the bulb and (b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooler for providing cooling gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement. 8 figs.

  19. Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ury, Michael G. (Bethesda, MD); Turner, Brian (Myersville, MD); Wooten, Robert D. (Rockville, MD)

    1999-01-01

    In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to a) rotate the bulb and b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooling for providing cooler gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement.

  20. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2012-10-23

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  1. Apparatus for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Gloucester, MA); Marcucci, Rudolph V. (Danvers, MA)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for enriching the isotopic Hg content of mercury is provided. The apparatus includes a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill including mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. In a preferred embodiment, constant mercury pressure is maintained in the filter by means of a water-cooled tube that depends from it, the tube having a drop of mercury disposed in it. The reactor is arranged around the filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of a material which is transparent to ultraviolet light.

  2. High Efficiency LED Lamp for Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Ibbetson

    2006-12-31

    This report contains a summary of technical achievements during a three-year project to demonstrate high efficiency, solid-state lamps based on gallium nitride/silicon carbide light-emitting diodes. Novel chip designs and fabrication processes are described for a new type of nitride light-emitting diode with the potential for very high efficiency. This work resulted in the demonstration of blue light-emitting diodes in the one watt class that achieved up to 495 mW of light output at 350 mA drive current, corresponding to quantum and wall plug efficiencies of 51% and 45%, respectively. When combined with a phosphor in Cree's 7090 XLamp package, these advanced blue-emitting devices resulted in white light-emitting diodes whose efficacy exceeded 85 lumens per watt. In addition, up to 1040 lumens at greater than 85 lumens per watt was achieved by combining multiple devices to make a compact white lamp module with high optical efficiency.

  3. Laboratory test plan in-well vapor stripping system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koegler, K.J

    1994-07-01

    This test plan describes the activities that will be conducted as a part of the laboratory testing of a full-scale mockup of the Stanford in-well vapor stripping system. These tests will be conducted to delineate design parameters for the in-well vapor stripping unit and to identify and quantify variables that are sensitive to the dynamic hydraulic effects induced by operation of the system. No radioactive materials are involved in this test. In-well vapor stripping has been used successfully as an alternative to conventional pump-and-treat technology for remediation of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminated groundwater in Europe and more recently in the United States. In-well vapor stripping permits in situ remediation of VOC-contaminated groundwater by combining an in-well vapor stripping system with a treatment well is used to extract and discharge groundwater simultaneously, resulting in the establishment of a vertical circulation groundwater flow cell in the aquifer. Groundwater extracted from the aquifer via the lower screened interval is treated for VOCs by in-well vapor stripping within the treatment well. This stripping causes aqueous phase VOCs to partition preferentially into a vapor phase. Treated groundwater is discharged back to the aquifer via the upper screened interval of the treatment well, while the vapor phase VOCs are simultaneously removed from the well bore and contained at the surface with a vacuum extraction system. Groundwater entrained into the vertical circulation flow cell becomes sequentially cleaned of VOC contamination in an efficient manner without the need for surface treatment and handling of contaminated groundwater. An added benefit of in-well vapor stripping is the ability to perform vadose zone vapor extraction concurrently with groundwater remediation. This uses the vacuum extraction capabilities of the in-well vapor stripping configured with the upper screened interval placed into the vadose zone above the water table.

  4. The evolving price of household LED lamps: Recent trends and historical comparisons for the US market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerke, Brian F.; Ngo, Allison T.; Alstone, Andrea L.; Fisseha, Kibret S.

    2014-10-14

    In recent years, household LED light bulbs (LED A lamps) have undergone a dramatic price decline. Since late 2011, we have been collecting data, on a weekly basis, for retail offerings of LED A lamps on the Internet. The resulting data set allows us to track the recent price decline in detail. LED A lamp prices declined roughly exponentially with time in 2011-2014, with decline rates of 28percent to 44percent per year depending on lumen output, and with higher-lumen lamps exhibiting more rapid price declines. By combining the Internet price data with publicly available lamp shipments indices for the US market, it is also possible to correlate LED A lamp prices against cumulative production, yielding an experience curve for LED A lamps. In 2012-2013, LED A lamp prices declined by 20-25percent for each doubling in cumulative shipments. Similar analysis of historical data for other lighting technologies reveals that LED prices have fallen significantly more rapidly with cumulative production than did their technological predecessors, which exhibited a historical decline of 14-15percent per doubling of production.

  5. Table lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution and uniformly illuminated luminous shade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael J. (Pinole, CA); Page, Erik R. (Berkeley, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) or other lamps arranged vertically, i.e. one lamp above the other, with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum ensures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. In a particular configuration, the reflective septum is bowl shaped, with the upper CFL sitting in the bowl, and a luminous shade hanging down from the bowl. The lower CFL provides both task lighting and uniform shade luminance. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. However, other types of lamps, including incandescent, halogen, and LEDs can also be used in the fixture. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

  6. Spectral irradiance model for tungsten halogen lamps in 340-850 nm wavelength range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojanen, Maija; Kaerhae, Petri; Ikonen, Erkki

    2010-02-10

    We have developed a physical model for the spectral irradiance of 1 kW tungsten halogen incandescent lamps for the wavelength range 340-850 nm. The model consists of the Planck's radiation law, published values for the emissivity of tungsten, and a residual spectral correction function taking into account unknown factors of the lamp. The correction function was determined by measuring the spectra of a 1000 W, quartz-halogen, tungsten coiled filament (FEL) lamp at different temperatures. The new model was tested with lamps of types FEL and 1000 W, 120 V quartz halogen (DXW). Comparisons with measurements of two national standards laboratories indicate that the model can account for the spectral irradiance values of lamps with an agreement better than 1% throughout the spectral region studied. We further demonstrate that the spectral irradiance of a lamp can be predicted with an expanded uncertainty of 2.6% if the color temperature and illuminance values for the lamp are known with expanded uncertainties of 20 K and 2%, respectively. In addition, it is suggested that the spectral irradiance may be derived from resistance measurements of the filament with lamp on and off.

  7. CALiPER Report 20.3: Robustness of LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poplawski, Michael E.; Royer, Michael P.; Brown, Charles C.

    2014-12-31

    Three samples of 40 of the Series 20 PAR38 lamps underwent multi-stress testing, whereby samples were subjected to increasing levels of simultaneous thermal, humidity, electrical, and vibrational stress. The results do not explicitly predict expected lifetime or reliability, but they can be compared with one another, as well as with benchmark conventional products, to assess the relative robustness of the product designs. On average, the 32 LED lamp models tested were substantially more robust than the conventional benchmark lamps. As with other performance attributes, however, there was great variability in the robustness and design maturity of the LED lamps. Several LED lamp samples failed within the first one or two levels of the ten-level stress plan, while all three samples of some lamp models completed all ten levels. One potential area of improvement is design maturity, given that more than 25% of the lamp models demonstrated a difference in failure level for the three samples that was greater than or equal to the maximum for the benchmarks. At the same time, the fact that nearly 75% of the lamp models exhibited better design maturity than the benchmarks is noteworthy, given the relative stage of development for the technology.

  8. HF Multiresonant Electronic Ballast for Fluorescent Lamps with Constant Filament Preheat Voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HF Multiresonant Electronic Ballast for Fluorescent Lamps with Constant Filament Preheat Voltage resonance arrangement that acts as a current source. During warm up the filaments are driven by a secondary the filament and shorts out the voltage across the lamp. Simulation and experimental results suggest

  9. The vapor pressures of explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 °C.

  10. A light diet for a giant appetite: An assessment of China's proposed fluorescent lamp standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jiang

    2002-04-11

    Lighting has been one of the fastest growing electric end-uses in China over the last twenty years, with an average annual growth rate of 14%. Fluorescent lighting provides a significant portion of China's lighting need. In 1998, China produced 680 million fluorescent lamps, of which 420 million were linear fluorescent lamps of various diameters (T8 to T12). There are substantial variations both in energy efficiency and lighting performance among locally produced fluorescent lamps. Such variations present a perfect opportunity for policy intervention through efficiency standards to promote the adoption of more efficient fluorescent lamps in China. This paper analyzes China's proposed minimum efficiency standard for fluorescent lamps and presents an assessment of its likely impacts on China's lighting energy consumption and GHG emissions.

  11. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Castro Valley, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

  12. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.W.; Ault, E.R.; Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment. 2 figs.

  13. Energy Conservation Program: Data Collection and Comparison with Forecasted Unit Sales for Five Lamp Types, Notice of Data Availability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Data Collection and Comparison with Forecasted Unit Sales for Five Lamp Types, Notice of Data Availability

  14. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  15. LOT-G3: Plasma Lamp, Ozonator and CW transmitter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gobato, Ricardo; Gobato, Alekssander

    2015-01-01

    The LOT-G3 is designed to be a versatile equipment that perform several simple experiments for use in helping the physics classes for high school. Easy construction, low cost, using easily accessible materials. Its construction involves simple practices and knowledge of electromagnetism. It has the function of a plasma globe to demonstrate the ionization of a low pressure gas, as well as the formation of magnetic field. Can be used as sanitizer closed environments such as automotive vehicles in ozonator function, demonstrating the ionization of oxygen in the atmosphere, producing ozone, essential to life on earth. And as a sparks transmitter, low power, low frequency modulated continuous wave in (CW), for signals in Morse code. Therefore the equipment here called LOT-G3, has three functions: a plasma lamp, ozonator and CW transmitter.

  16. Vaporization of zinc from scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The rate of zinc vaporization from galvanized scrap was measured using a thermogravimetric apparatus along with chemical analysis. It is found that the rate of zinc vaporization is very fast in nitrogen and carbon monoxide atmospheres at temperatures higher than 950 C. At lower temperature rate decreases with decreasing temperature and is controlled by the gas phase mass transport. The simultaneous oxidation and vaporization of zinc occurs when the samples were heated in carbon dioxide and air. The current experimental results indicate that almost all of the zinc from scrap vaporizes during the heating process in a very short period of time after the temperature reaches above 850 C.

  17. Vapor Transport in Dry Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-16

    Water-vapor movement in soils is a complex process, controlled by both diffusion and advection and influenced by pressure and thermal gradients acting across tortuous flow paths. Wide-ranging interest in water-vapor transport includes both theoretical and practical aspects. Just how pressure and thermal gradients enhance water-vapor flow is still not completely understood and subject to ongoing research. Practical aspects include dryland farming (surface mulching), water harvesting (aerial wells), fertilizer placement, and migration of contaminants at waste-sites. The following article describes the processes and practical applications of water-vapor transport, with emphasis on unsaturated (dry) soil systems.

  18. Lamp system with conditioned water coolant and diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene(PTFE)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

  19. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

    1983-06-23

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

  20. Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of a Series of Dialkyl Phthalates by Correlation Gas Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of a Series of Dialkyl Phthalates by Correlation Gas: Experimental vapor pressures, vaporization, fusion and sublimation enthalpies of a number of dialkyl, dibutyl phthalate, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. New vaporization enthalpies and liquid vapor pressure

  1. The Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Some Primary Amines of Pharmaceutical Importance by Correlation Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    The Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Some Primary Amines of Pharmaceutical Importance Information ABSTRACT: Vapor pressures, vaporization, and sublimation enthalpies of several pharmaceuticals.5 ± 2.1); p(cr)/Pa = 0.12 ± 0.04]. Vapor pressure equations also derived from vapor pressureretention

  2. Text-Alternative Version: CALiPER Report Series 20 on LED PAR38 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Michael Royer, Lighting Engineer, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: The CALiPER program looks at typical LED lamp performance attributes. As we've gone through the progression of reports, we...

  3. LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting: CALiPER Report Series 21

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View the video about CALiPER Report Series 21 on LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting, featuring interviews with Tracy Beeson and Naomi Miller of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  4. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-09-01

    The Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art in Eugene, Oregon, houses a remarkable permanent collection of Asian art and antiquities, modern art, and sculpture, and also hosts traveling exhibitions. In the winter and spring of 2011, a series of digital photographs by artist Chris Jordan, titled "Running the Numbers," was exhibited in the Coeta and Donald Barker Special Exhibitions Gallery. These works graphically illustrate waste (energy, money, health, consumer objects, etc.) in contemporary culture. The Bonneville Power Administration and the Eugene Water and Electricity Board provided a set of Cree 12W light-emitting diode (LED) PAR38 replacement lamps (Cree LRP38) for the museum to test for accent lighting in lieu of their standard Sylvania 90W PAR38 130V Narrow Flood lamps (which draw 78.9W at 120V). At the same time, the museum tested LED replacement lamps from three other manufacturers, and chose the Cree lamp as the most versatile and most appropriate color product for this exhibit. The lamps were installed for the opening of the show in January 2011. This report describes the process for the demonstration, the energy and economic results, and results of a survey of the museum staff and gallery visitors on four similar clusters of art lighted separately by four PAR38 lamps.

  5. Combined rankine and vapor compression cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D.; Biederman, Bruce P.; Brasz, Joost J.

    2005-04-19

    An organic rankine cycle system is combined with a vapor compression cycle system with the turbine generator of the organic rankine cycle generating the power necessary to operate the motor of the refrigerant compressor. The vapor compression cycle is applied with its evaporator cooling the inlet air into a gas turbine, and the organic rankine cycle is applied to receive heat from a gas turbine exhaust to heat its boiler within one embodiment, a common condenser is used for the organic rankine cycle and the vapor compression cycle, with a common refrigerant, R-245a being circulated within both systems. In another embodiment, the turbine driven generator has a common shaft connected to the compressor to thereby eliminate the need for a separate motor to drive the compressor. In another embodiment, an organic rankine cycle system is applied to an internal combustion engine to cool the fluids thereof, and the turbo charged air is cooled first by the organic rankine cycle system and then by an air conditioner prior to passing into the intake of the engine.

  6. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  7. Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-04

    HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

  8. Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties. Subcooled Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Polyaromatic Heterocycles and Related Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties. Subcooled Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures The vaporization enthalpies and vapor pressures of the liqiud phase from T ) 298.15 K to T ) 500 K of a series in the literature was measured on a hydrated form. Vapor pressures and normal boiling temperatures for the liquid

  9. Vaporization Enthalpy and Vapor Pressure of Valproic Acid by Correlation Gas Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Vaporization Enthalpy and Vapor Pressure of Valproic Acid by Correlation Gas Chromatography Joe A-propylpentanoic acid) is reported, and the vapor pressures of a series on aliphatic carboxylic acids are used to evaluate its vapor pressure as a function of temperature. The vaporization enthalpy was derived

  10. Energy-Efficient, High-Color-Rendering LED Lamps Using Oxyfluoride and Fluoride Phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setlur, A.; Radkov, E; Henderson, C; Her, J; Srivastava, A; Karkada, N; Kishore, M; Kumar, N; Aesram, D; et al.

    2010-01-01

    LED lamps using phosphor downconversion can be designed to replace incandescent or halogen sources with a 'warm-white' correlated color temperature (CCT) of 2700-3200 K and a color rendering index (CRI) greater than 90. However, these lamps have efficacies of {approx}70% of standard 'cool-white' LED packages (CCT = 4500-6000 K; CRI = 75-80). In this report, we describe structural and luminescence properties of fluoride and oxyfluoride phosphors, specifically a (Sr,Ca){sub 3}(Al,Si)O{sub 4}(F,O):Ce{sup 3+} yellow-green phosphor and a K{sub 2}TiF{sub 6}:Mn{sup 4+} red phosphor, that can reduce this gap and therefore meet the spectral and efficiency requirements for high-efficacy LED lighting. LED lamps with a warm-white color temperature (3088 K), high CRI (90), and an efficacy of {approx}82 lm/W are demonstrated using these phosphors. This efficacy is {approx}85% of comparable cool-white lamps using typical Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+}-based phosphors, significantly reducing the efficacy gap between warm-white and cool-white LED lamps that use phosphor downconversion.

  11. Study of the Effects of Obstacles in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vapor Dispersion using CFD Modeling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruiz Vasquez, Roberto

    2012-10-19

    The evaluation of the potential hazards related with the operation of an LNG terminal includes possible release scenarios with the consequent flammable vapor dispersion within the facility; therefore, it is important to know the behavior...

  12. Electric lamp, base for use therewith and method of assembling same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Harold L. (Beverly, MA); English, George J. (Reading, MA); Chakrabarti, Kirti B. (Danvers, MA)

    1989-02-14

    An electric lamp including a reflector, at least one conductive ferrule located within a surface of the reflector and a lead-in conductor electrically connected to the ferrule and extending within the reflector. The lamp includes a base having an insulative (e.g., ceramic) cap located substantially about the ferrule, barrier means (e.g., ceramic fiber) located within the cap to define an open chamber substantially about the ferrule, an electrical conductor (e.g., wire) extending within the cap and electrically connected (e.g., silver soldered) to the ferrule, and sealing means (e.g., high temperature cement) located within the cap to provide a seal therefore. The barrier means serves to separate the sealing means from the open chamber about the ferrule such that the heat generated by the ferrule can be vented through spaced apertures located within the cap's side wall. A method of assembling a base on an electric lamp is also provided.

  13. Magical Mystery Devices or Not: How do LED Lamps and Luminaires Really Measure-Up?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paget, Maria L.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Steward, Heidi E.

    2008-08-15

    Solid-state lighting products for general lighting applications are now gaining a market presence, and more and more people are asking, “Which of these are ‘good’ products? Do they perform as claimed? How do they compare? Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) differ from other light sources enough to require new procedures for measuring their performance and comparing to other lighting options, so both manufacturers and buyers are facing a learning curve. The energy-efficiency community has traditionally compared light sources based on system efficacy: rated lamp lumens divided by power into the system. This doesn’t work for LEDs because there are no standard LED “lamp” packages and no lamp ratings, and because LED performance depends heavily on thermal, electrical, and optical design of complete lighting unit or ‘luminaire’. Luminaire efficacy is the preferred metric for LEDs because it measures the net light output from the luminaire divided by power into the system.

  14. Observed Minimum Illuminance Threshold for Night Market Vendors in Kenya who use LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan; Radecsky, Kristen

    2009-03-21

    Creation of light for work, socializing, and general illumination is a fundamental application of technology around the world. For those who lack access to electricity, an emerging and diverse range of LED based lighting products hold promise for replacing and/or augmenting their current fuel-based lighting sources that are costly and dirty. Along with analysis of environmental factors, economic models for total cost-ofownership of LED lighting products are an important tool for studying the impacts of these products as they emerge in markets of developing countries. One important metric in those models is the minimum illuminance demanded by end-users for a given task before recharging the lamp or replacing batteries. It impacts the lighting service cost per unit time if charging is done with purchased electricity, batteries, or charging services. The concept is illustrated in figure 1: LED lighting products are generally brightest immediately after the battery is charged or replaced and the illuminance degrades as the battery is discharged. When a minimum threshold level of illuminance is reached, the operational time for the battery charge cycle is over. The cost to recharge depends on the method utilized; these include charging at a shop at a fixed price per charge, charging on personal grid connections, using solar chargers, and purchasing dry cell batteries. This Research Note reports on the observed"charge-triggering" illuminance level threshold for night market vendors who use LED lighting products to provide general and task oriented illumination. All the study participants charged with AC power, either at a fixed-price charge shop or with electricity at their home.

  15. Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Two Insecticide Components, Muscalure and Empenthrin, by Correlation Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Two Insecticide Components, Muscalure and Empenthrin: The vaporization enthalpies at T/K = 298.15 and vapor pressures from T/K = (298.15 to Tnb (normal boiling. Vaporization enthalpies of [(114.4 ± 1.0) and (114.5 ± 1.0)] kJ·mol-1 and vapor pressures, p/Pa = [(1.2 ± 0

  16. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  17. Image Storage in Hot Vapors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Zhao; T. Wang; Y. Xiao; S. F. Yelin

    2007-10-22

    We theoretically investigate image propagation and storage in hot atomic vapor. A $4f$ system is adopted for imaging and an atomic vapor cell is placed over the transform plane. The Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of an object in the object plane can thus be transformed into atomic Raman coherence according to the idea of ``light storage''. We investigate how the stored diffraction pattern evolves under diffusion. Our result indicates, under appropriate conditions, that an image can be reconstructed with high fidelity. The main reason for this procedure to work is the fact that diffusion of opposite-phase components of the diffraction pattern interfere destructively.

  18. Vapor deposition of thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.C.; Pattillo, S.G.; Laia, J.R. Jr.; Sattelberger, A.P.

    1990-10-05

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl){sub 3}, iridium(allyl){sub 3}, molybdenum(allyl){sub 4}, tungsten(allyl){sub 4}, rhenium (allyl){sub 4}, platinum(allyl){sub 2}, or palladium(allyl){sub 2} are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  19. ISSUANCE 2015-06-17: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts, Notice of Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts, Notice of Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document

  20. ISSUANCE 2015-08-14: Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts, Reopening of the Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts, Reopening of the Comment Period

  1. ISSUANCE 2015-06-25: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Integrated Light-Emitting Diode Lamps, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Integrated Light-Emitting Diode Lamps, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  2. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Retrofit Lamps at an Exhibit of 19th Century Photography at the Getty Museum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N. J.; Druzik, J. R.

    2012-03-01

    GATEWAY program report on a demonstration of LED retrofit lamps at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Malibu, CA.

  3. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  4. The Model 5000-16C 1000 WATT FEL Lamp Standard pro-vides absolute calibration of spectral irradiance from 250 nm to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Model 5000-16C 1000 WATT FEL Lamp Standard pro- vides absolute calibration of spectral irradiance from 250 nm to 2.5 microns.This Tungsten-Halogen Lamp Standard bears the ANSI designation of FEL might be discernible at the crossover point of the two referenced NIST Scales. 5000 FEL 1000Watt Lamp

  5. Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, Joseph D. (Boulder, CO)

    1985-01-01

    A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  6. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyeth, R.W.; Paisner, J.A.; Story, T.

    1990-08-21

    A laser spectroscopy system is utilized in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. The system determines spectral components of an atomic vapor utilizing a laser heterodyne technique. 23 figs.

  7. CALiPER Report 20.3: Robustness of LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-12-30

    A small sample of each of the CALiPER Application Summary Report 20 PAR38 lamp types underwent stress testing that included substantial temperature and humidity changes, electrical variation, and vibration. The results do not directly address expected lifetime, but can be compared with one another, as well as with benchmark conventional products, to assess the relative robustness of the product designs.

  8. Method and apparatus for powering an electrodeless lamp with reduced radio frequency interference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, James E. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    1999-01-01

    An electrodeless lamp waveguide structure includes tuned absorbers for spurious RF signals. A lamp waveguide with an integral frequency selective attenuation includes resonant absorbers positioned within the waveguide to absorb spurious out-of-band RF energy. The absorbers have a negligible effect on energy at the selected frequency used to excite plasma in the lamp. In a first embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are affixed to the sidewalls of the waveguide at approximately one quarter wavelength of the spurious signal from an end wall of the waveguide. The positioning of the lossy material optimizes absorption of power from the spurious signal. In a second embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are used in conjunction with band rejection waveguide filter elements. In a third embodiment, one or more microstrip filter elements are tuned to the frequency of the spurious signal and positioned within the waveguide to couple and absorb the spurious signal's energy. All three embodiments absorb negligible energy at the selected frequency and so do not significantly diminish the energy efficiency of the lamp.

  9. RF driven sulfur lamp having driving electrodes which face each other

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gabor, George (Lafayette, CA); Orr, Thomas Robert (Castro Valley, CA); Greene, Charles Maurice (Oakland, CA); Crawford, Douglas Gordon (Orinda, CA); Berman, Samuel Maurice (San Francisco, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A high intensity discharge lamp without mercury is disclosed radiating a selected spectrum of which can be almost entirely in the visible range from an envelope that contains a sulfur containing substance. The lamp utilizes a signal source that generates an excitation signal that is externally coupled to the exterior surface of the envelope to excite the enclosed sulfur containing substance. Various embodiments of the lamp use electrodes adjacent the envelope to couple the excitation signal thereto with the face of the electrodes shaped to complement the shape of the exterior surface of the envelope. Two shapes discussed are spherical and cylindrical. To minimize filamentary discharges each envelope may include an elongated stem affixed to the exterior thereof whereby a rotational subsystem spins the envelope. In yet another embodiment the envelope has a Dewar configuration with two electrodes, one positioned near the external curved side surface of the body, and a second to the inner surface of the hole through the envelope. Further, the envelope may contain a backfill of a selected inert gas to assist in the excitation of lamp with that backfill at a pressure of less than 1 atmosphere, wherein the backfill pressure is directly related to the increase or decrease of peak output and inversely related to the increase and decrease of the emitted spectrum from the envelope. The emitting fill can be less than 6 mg/cc, or at least 2 mg/cc of the envelope of a sulfur containing substance.

  10. Method and apparatus for powering an electrodeless lamp with reduced radio frequency interference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, J.E.

    1999-06-08

    An electrodeless lamp waveguide structure includes tuned absorbers for spurious RF signals. A lamp waveguide with an integral frequency selective attenuation includes resonant absorbers positioned within the waveguide to absorb spurious out-of-band RF energy. The absorbers have a negligible effect on energy at the selected frequency used to excite plasma in the lamp. In a first embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are affixed to the sidewalls of the waveguide at approximately one quarter wavelength of the spurious signal from an end wall of the waveguide. The positioning of the lossy material optimizes absorption of power from the spurious signal. In a second embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are used in conjunction with band rejection waveguide filter elements. In a third embodiment, one or more microstrip filter elements are tuned to the frequency of the spurious signal and positioned within the waveguide to couple and absorb the spurious signal's energy. All three embodiments absorb negligible energy at the selected frequency and so do not significantly diminish the energy efficiency of the lamp. 18 figs.

  11. THIN NANOPOROUS TITANIA FILMS ON THE ELECTRODELESS DISCHARGE LAMPS FOR PHOTOCATALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    THIN NANOPOROUS TITANIA FILMS ON THE ELECTRODELESS DISCHARGE LAMPS FOR PHOTOCATALYSIS Vladimír: cirkva@icpf.cas.cz, http://home.icpf.cas.cz/cirkva Keywords: Microwave assisted photocatalysis. Introduction Photocatalysis is an efficient, attractive and clean technology for pollution abatement in water

  12. Turning Down the LAMP: Software Specialisation for the Cloud Anil Madhavapeddy1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAuley, Derek

    within the cloud is not well supported by tra- ditional software stacks, e.g., LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP). These are very "thick," containing ex- tensive support for legacy systems and code built up over securely. Some of these concerns are being tackled via prepack- aged binary images, bolt-on "accelerators

  13. RF driven sulfur lamp having driving electrodes which face each other

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gabor, G.; Orr, T.R.; Greene, C.M.; Crawford, D.G.; Berman, S.M.

    1999-06-22

    A high intensity discharge lamp without mercury is disclosed radiating a selected spectrum of which can be almost entirely in the visible range from an envelope that contains a sulfur containing substance. The lamp utilizes a signal source that generates an excitation signal that is externally coupled to the exterior surface of the envelope to excite the enclosed sulfur containing substance. Various embodiments of the lamp use electrodes adjacent the envelope to couple the excitation signal thereto with the face of the electrodes shaped to complement the shape of the exterior surface of the envelope. Two shapes discussed are spherical and cylindrical. To minimize filamentary discharges each envelope may include an elongated stem affixed to the exterior thereof whereby a rotational subsystem spins the envelope. In yet another embodiment the envelope has a Dewar configuration with two electrodes, one positioned near the external curved side surface of the body, and a second to the inner surface of the hole through the envelope. Further, the envelope may contain a backfill of a selected inert gas to assist in the excitation of lamp with that backfill at a pressure of less than 1 atmosphere, wherein the backfill pressure is directly related to the increase or decrease of peak output and inversely related to the increase and decrease of the emitted spectrum from the envelope. The emitting fill can be less than 6 mg/cc, or at least 2 mg/cc of the envelope of a sulfur containing substance. 17 figs.

  14. Design of Resonant Inverters for Optimal Efficiency over Lamp Life in Electronic Ballast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for zero voltage switching (ZVS) with fixed frequency and power control [8,9]. II. STEADYSTATE ANALYSISDesign of Resonant Inverters for Optimal Efficiency over Lamp Life in Electronic Ballast with Phase, Spain azcondof@unican.es,branasc@unican.es Absrracr - The paper presents the design guidelinesof phase

  15. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

    1991-01-01

    Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  16. Vapor Pressures and Vaporization, Sublimation, and Fusion Enthalpies of Some Fatty Acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Vapor Pressures and Vaporization, Sublimation, and Fusion Enthalpies of Some Fatty Acids Joe A vapor pressures of both the subcooled liquid and solid state for those materials that are solids at T/K = 298.15. Equations for the prediction of vapor pressure from T/K = 298.15 to the boiling temperature

  17. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels| Department ofBusiness Opportunity SessionJune 19,

  18. Structurally Integrated Coatings for Wear and Corrosion (SICWC): Arc Lamp, InfraRed (IR) Thermal Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Sebright, J.

    2007-12-15

    The primary goal of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) betwe1311 UT-Battelle (Contractor) and Caterpillar Inc. (Participant) was to develop the plasma arc lamp (PAL), infrared (IR) thermal processing technology 1.) to enhance surface coating performance by improving the interfacial bond strength between selected coatings and substrates; and 2.) to extend this technology base for transitioning of the arc lamp processing to the industrial Participant. Completion of the following three key technical tasks (described below) was necessary in order to accomplish this goal. First, thermophysical property data sets were successfully determined for composite coatings applied to 1010 steel substrates, with a more limited data set successfully measured for free-standing coatings. These data are necessary for the computer modeling simulations and parametric studies to; A.) simulate PAL IR processing, facilitating the development of the initial processing parameters; and B.) help develop a better understanding of the basic PAL IR fusing process fundamentals, including predicting the influence of melt pool stirring and heat tnmsfar characteristics introduced during plasma arc lamp infrared (IR) processing; Second, a methodology and a set of procedures were successfully developed and the plasma arc lamp (PAL) power profiles were successfully mapped as a function of PAL power level for the ORNL PAL. The latter data also are necessary input for the computer model to accurately simulate PAL processing during process modeling simulations, and to facilitate a better understand of the fusing process fundamentals. Third, several computer modeling codes have been evaluated as to their capabilities and accuracy in being able to capture and simulate convective mixing that may occur during PAL thermal processing. The results from these evaluation efforts are summarized in this report. The intention of this project was to extend the technology base and provide for transitioning of the arc lamp processing to the industrial Participant.

  19. Liquid-phase compositions from vapor-phase analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, W. Jr. ); Cochran, H.D. )

    1990-02-01

    Arsenic normally is not considered to be a contaminant. However, because arsenic was found in many cylinders of UF{sub 6}, including in corrosion products, a study was performed of the distribution of the two arsenic fluorides, AsF{sub 3} and AsF{sub 5}, between liquid and vapor phases. The results of the study pertain to condensation or vaporization of liquid UF{sub 6}. This study includes use of various experimental data plus many extrapolations necessitated by the meagerness of the experimental data. The results of this study provide additional support for the vapor-liquid equilibrium model of J.M. Prausnitz and his coworkers as a means of describing the distribution of various impurities between vapor and liquid phases of UF{sub 6}. Thus, it is concluded that AsF{sub 3} will tend to concentrate in the liquid phase but that the concentration of AsF{sub 5} in the vapor phase will exceed its liquid-phase concentration by a factor of about 7.5, which is in agreement with experimental data. Because the weight of the liquid phase in a condensation operation may be in the range of thousands of times that of the vapor phase, most of any AsF{sub 5} will be in the liquid phase in spite of this separation factor of 7.5. It may also be concluded that any arsenic fluorides fed into a uranium isotope separation plant will either travel with other low-molecular-weight gases or react with materials present in the plant. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Transport and equilibrium in molecular plasmas: the sulfur lamp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    Foundation, STW, as project ETN.3892 CIP-DATA LIBRARY TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITEIT EINDHOVEN Johnston, Colin 2.2 Origin and operational trends in the spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.2.1 Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.2.3 Spectral trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.3 State

  1. MEMS Lubrication by In-Situ Tribochemical Reactions From the Vapor Phase.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, Michael T.; Asay, David B.; Kim, Seong H.

    2008-01-01

    Vapor Phase Lubrication (VPL) of silicon surfaces with pentanol has been demonstrated. Two potential show stoppers with respect to application of this approach to real MEMS devices have been investigated. Water vapor was found to reduce the effectiveness of VPL with alcohol for a given alcohol concentration, but the basic reaction mechanism observed in water-free environments is still active, and devices operated much longer in mixed alcohol and water vapor environments than with chemisorbed monolayer lubricants alone. Complex MEMS gear trains were successfully lubricated with alcohol vapors, resulting in a factor of 104 improvement in operating life without failure. Complex devices could be made to fail if operated at much higher frequencies than previously used, and there is some evidence that the observed failure is due to accumulation of reaction products at deeply buried interfaces. However, if hypothetical reaction mechanisms involving heated surfaces are valid, then the failures observed at high frequency may not be relevant to operation at normal frequencies. Therefore, this work demonstrates that VPL is a viable approach for complex MEMS devices in conventional packages. Further study of the VPL reaction mechanisms are recommended so that the vapor composition may be optimized for low friction and for different substrate materials with potential application to conventionally fabricated, metal alloy parts in weapons systems. Reaction kinetics should be studied to define effective lubrication regimes as a function of the partial pressure of the vapor phase constituent, interfacial shear rate, substrate composition, and temperature.

  2. Energy Savings and NOx Emissions Reduction Potential from the 2012 Federal Legislation to Phase Out Incandescent Lamps in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Zi; Baltazar, Juan Carlos; Haberl, Jeff; Soman, Rohit

    2010-01-01

    Lamps in Texas Description Value Reference Total Housing Units in Texas in 2013: 10,204,056 Real Estate Center, Texas A&M University3, U.S. Census Bureau4 5 Average Lighting Electricity Usage per House: 1,946 kWh/yr NREL Building America Program6... % of Lamps That can be Retrofitted with a CFL: 70% NREL Building America Program6 and ESL Assumption % of Savings From Replacing Incandescent to CFL Lamps: 75% ESL Assumption CFL Lighting Electricity Savings per House: 1,022 kWh/yr Total Annual CFL...

  3. System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weidner, Jerry R. (Iona, ID); Downs, Wayne C. (Sugar City, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Ammon, ID); Hall, H. James (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources.

  4. System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weidner, J.R.; Downs, W.C.; Kaser, T.G.; Hall, H.J.

    1997-12-16

    A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources. 4 figs.

  5. Partial Acceptance for Beneficial Use (ABU) for the Type 4 In Situ Vapor Sampler (ISVS) Carts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-05-19

    This document provides the Acceptance for Beneficial Use (ABU) for the Type 4 in-situ vapor sampler (ISVS) system. This document is generated to support the completion of equipment modifications and engineering documentation for the ISVS system that is used for sampling gaseous vapors in the Hanford single shell radioactive waste storage tanks. This ABU documents items for transferring the ISVS system to operations for field use. This document is generated following Characterization Engineering Desk Instruction DI-CE-004-001.

  6. Study of the electrodeless discharge lamps for photochemical applications and temperature dependence of photostationary state in cis-trans photoisomerization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    (EDL) placed into the reactor vessel of a commercial microwave oven. The UV light in the lamp-897. [2] Home page: http://home.icpf.cas.cz/cirkva [3] P. Klán, M. Hájek, V. Církva, J. Photochem

  7. CALiPER Report 20.1: Quality of Beam, Shadow, and Color in LED PAR38 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View the video about CALiPER Report 20.1 which focuses on human-evaluated characteristics, including beam quality, shadow quality, and color quality in LED PAR38 lamps.

  8. CENTRIFUGAL LABTUBE FOR FULLY AUTOMATED DNA EXTRACTION & LAMP AMPLIFICATION BASED ON AN INTEGRATED, LOW-COST HEATING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoehl, Melanie Margarete

    In this paper, we introduce a disposable battery-driven heating system for loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP) inside a centrifugally-driven DNA-extraction platform (LabTube). We demonstrate fully automated, ...

  9. Zero energy-storage ballast for compact fluorescent lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, W.N.; Thomas, R.J.

    1999-08-31

    A CFL ballast includes complementary-type switching devices connected in series with their gates connected together at a control node. The switching devices supply a resonant tank circuit which is tuned to a frequency near, but slightly lower than, the resonant frequency of a resonant control circuit. As a result, the tank circuit restarts oscillations immediately following each zero crossing of the bus voltage. Such rapid restarts avoid undesirable flickering while maintaining the operational advantages and high efficacy of the CFL ballast. 4 figs.

  10. Process for recovering organic vapors from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Mountain View, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A process for recovering and concentrating organic vapor from a feed stream of air having an organic vapor content of no more than 20,000 ppm by volume. A thin semipermeable membrane is provided which has a feed side and a permeate side, a selectivity for organic vapor over air of at least 50, as measured by the ratio of organic vapor permeability to nitrogen permeability, and a permeability of organic vapor of at least 3.times.10.sup.-7 cm.sup.3 (STP) cm/cm.sup.2 sec.cm Hg. The feed stream is passed across the feed side of the thin semipermeable membrane while providing a pressure on the permeate side which is lower than the feed side by creating a partial vacuum on the permeate side so that organic vapor passes preferentially through the membrane to form an organic vapor depleted air stream on the feed side and an organic vapor enriched stream on the permeate side. The organic vapor which has passed through the membrane is compressed and condensed to recover the vapor as a liquid.

  11. Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment of EnergyResearchers at theAugust 1, 2013theEnergyThe1984 StartVapor

  12. LED lamp or bulb with remote phosphor and diffuser configuration with enhanced scattering properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tong, Tao; Le Toquin, Ronan; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Youmans, Mark; Lowes, Theodore; Medendorp, Jr., Nicholas W; Van De Ven, Antony; Negley, Gerald

    2014-11-11

    An LED lamp or bulb is disclosed that comprises a light source, a heat sink structure and an optical cavity. The optical cavity comprises a phosphor carrier having a conversions material and arranged over an opening to the cavity. The phosphor carrier comprises a thermally conductive transparent material and is thermally coupled to the heat sink structure. An LED based light source is mounted in the optical cavity remote to the phosphor carrier with light from the light source passing through the phosphor carrier. A diffuser dome is included that is mounted over the optical cavity, with light from the optical cavity passing through the diffuser dome. The properties of the diffuser, such as geometry, scattering properties of the scattering layer, surface roughness or smoothness, and spatial distribution of the scattering layer properties may be used to control various lamp properties such as color uniformity and light intensity distribution as a function of viewing angle.

  13. 2015-01-28 Issuance: Test Procedure for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts; Final Rule Correction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule correction regarding test procedures for fluorescent lamp ballasts, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on January 28, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  14. Analysis of crude oil vapor pressures at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudeen, David Keith (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Lord, David L.

    2005-08-01

    Crude oil storage caverns at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) are solution-mined from subsurface salt domes along the U.S. Gulf Coast. While these salt domes exhibit many attractive characteristics for large-volume, long-term storage of oil such as low cost for construction, low permeability for effective fluids containment, and secure location deep underground, they also present unique technical challenges for maintaining oil quality within delivery standards. The vapor pressures of the crude oils stored at SPR tend to increase with storage time due to the combined effects of geothermal heating and gas intrusion from the surrounding salt. This presents a problem for oil delivery offsite because high vapor-pressure oil may lead to excessive atmospheric emissions of hydrocarbon gases that present explosion hazards, health hazards, and handling problems at atmospheric pressure. Recognizing this potential hazard, the U.S. Department of Energy, owner and operator of the SPR, implemented a crude oil vapor pressure monitoring program that collects vapor pressure data for all the storage caverns. From these data, DOE evaluates the rate of change in vapor pressures of its oils in the SPR. Moreover, DOE implemented a vapor pressure mitigation program in which the oils are degassed periodically and will be cooled immediately prior to delivery in order to reduce the vapor pressure to safe handling levels. The work described in this report evaluates the entire database since its origin in 1993, and determines the current levels of vapor pressure around the SPR, as well as the rate of change for purposes of optimizing both the mitigation program and meeting safe delivery standards. Generally, the rate of vapor pressure increase appears to be lower in this analysis than reported in the past and, problematic gas intrusion seems to be limited to just a few caverns. This being said, much of the current SPR inventory exceeds vapor pressure delivery guidelines and must be degassed and cooled in order to meet current delivery standards.

  15. Facility for high heat flux testing of irradiated fusion materials and components using infrared plasma arc lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Ohriner, Evan Keith; Kiggans, Jim; Harper, David C; Snead, Lance Lewis; Schaich, Charles Ross

    2014-01-01

    A new high-heat flux testing facility using water-wall stabilized high-power high-pressure argon Plasma Arc Lamps (PALs) has been developed for fusion applications. It can handle irradiated plasma facing component materials and mock-up divertor components. Two PALs currently available at ORNL can provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW/m2 over a heated area of 9x12 and 1x10 cm2, respectively, which are fusion-prototypical steady state heat flux conditions. The facility will be described and the main differences between the photon-based high-heat flux testing facilities, such as PALs, and the e-beam and particle beam facilities more commonly used for fusion HHF testing are discussed. The components of the test chamber were designed to accommodate radiation safety and materials compatibility requirements posed by high-temperature exposure of low levels irradiated tungsten articles. Issues related to the operation and temperature measurements during testing are presented and discussed.

  16. Effect of higher water vapor content on TBC performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pint, Bruce A; Haynes, James A

    2012-01-01

    Coal gasification, or IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle), is one pathway toward cleaner use of coal for power generation with lower emissions. However, when coal-derived synthesis gas (i.e., syngas) is burned in turbines designed for natural gas, turbine manufacturers recommend 'derating,' or lowering the maximum temperature, which lowers the efficiency of the turbine, making electricity from IGCC more expensive. One possible reason for the derating is the higher water vapor contents in the exhaust gas. Water vapor has a detrimental effect on many oxidation-resistant high-temperature materials. In a turbine hot section, Ni-base superalloys are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) allowing the gas temperature to be higher than the superalloy solidus temperature. TBCs have a low thermal conductivity ceramic top coating (typically Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, or YSZ) and an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coating. For land-based gas turbines, the industry standard is air plasma sprayed (APS) YSZ and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCoCrAlY bond coatings. To investigate the role of higher water vapor content on TBC performance and possible mitigation strategies, furnace cycling experiments were conducted in dry O{sub 2} and air with 10% (typical with natural gas or jet fuel) or 50 vol% water vapor. Cycle frequency and temperature were accelerated to one hour at 1100 C (with 10 minute cooling to {approx}30 C between each thermal cycle) to induce early failures in coatings that are expected to operate for several years with a metal temperature of {approx}900 C. Coupons (16 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) of commercial second-generation single crystal superalloy CMSX4 were HVOF coated on both sides with {approx}125 {micro}m of Ni-22wt%Co-17Cr-12Al either with 0.7Y or 0.7Y-0.3Hf-0.4Si. One side was then coated with 190-240 {micro}m of APS YSZ. Coatings were cycled until the YSZ top coating spalled. Figure 2 shows the results of the initial phase of experiments. Compared to dry O{sub 2}, the addition of 10% water vapor decreased the lifetime of MCrAlY by {approx}30% for the conventional CMSX4 substrates. Higher average lifetimes were observed with Hf in the bond coating, but a similar decrease in lifetime was observed when water vapor was added. The addition of Y and La to the superalloy substrate did not change the YSZ lifetime with 10% water vapor. However, increasing water vapor content from 10 to 50% did not further decrease the lifetime of either bond coating with the doped superalloy substrate. Thus, these results suggest that higher water vapor contents cannot explain the derating of syngas-fired turbines, and other factors such as sulfur and ash from imperfect syngas cleanup (or upset conditions) need to be explored. Researchers continue to study effects of water vapor on thermally grown alumina scale adhesion and growth rate, and are looking for bond coating compositions more resistant to oxidation in the presence of water vapor.

  17. Control of flow through a vapor generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D.

    2005-11-08

    In a Rankine cycle system wherein a vapor generator receives heat from exhaust gases, provision is made to avoid overheating of the refrigerant during ORC system shut down while at the same time preventing condensation of those gases within the vapor generator when its temperature drops below a threshold temperature by diverting the flow of hot gases to ambient and to thereby draw ambient air through the vapor generator in the process. In one embodiment, a bistable ejector is adjustable between one position, in which the hot gases flow through the vapor generator, to another position wherein the gases are diverted away from the vapor generator. Another embodiment provides for a fixed valve ejector with a bias towards discharging to ambient, but with a fan on the downstream side of said vapor generator for overcoming this bias.

  18. Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenariosMarysville MtMedical Area Total Egy PltMercuriusVapor Jump to:

  19. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, B.K.

    1991-12-17

    Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  20. FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    give a higher lower limit value than the completely vaporized sample. Conversely, the heavy fractions or residue give a smaller lower limit value. For this reason, there is...

  1. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1999-08-03

    A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

  2. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koontz, A; Cadeddu, M

    2012-12-05

    The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) value-added product (VAP) computes precipitable water vapor using neural network techniques from data measured by the GVR. The GVR reports time-series measurements of brightness temperatures for four channels located at 183.3 ± 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz.

  3. Effect of furnace operating conditions on alkali vaporization, batch

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) | SciTech ConnectExperimentsGAMMA-RAYNp, Pu, and Am):carryover,

  4. After More Than 20 Years Operating, Hanford's Soil Vapor Extraction

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A sCOLONY PROJECTRecord4 The newtopics inProject Nears

  5. Evaluation of Cooling Conditions for a High Heat Flux Testing Facility Based on Plasma-Arc Lamps

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Charry, Carlos H.; Abdel-khalik, Said I.; Yoda, Minami; Sabau, Adrian S.; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-07-31

    The new Irradiated Material Target Station (IMTS) facility for fusion materials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses an infrared plasma-arc lamp (PAL) to deliver incident heat fluxes as high as 27 MW/m2. The facility is being used to test irradiated plasma-facing component materials as part of the joint US-Japan PHENIX program. The irradiated samples are to be mounted on molybdenum sample holders attached to a water-cooled copper rod. Depending on the size and geometry of samples, several sample holders and copper rod configurations have been fabricated and tested. As a part of the effort to design sample holders compatiblemore »with the high heat flux (HHF) testing to be conducted at the IMTS facility, numerical simulations have been performed for two different water-cooled sample holder designs using the ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. The primary objective of this work is to evaluate the cooling capability of different sample holder designs, i.e. to estimate their maximum allowable incident heat flux values. 2D axisymmetric numerical simulations are performed using the realizable k-? turbulence model and the RPI nucleate boiling model within ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. The results of the numerical model were compared against the experimental data for two sample holder designs tested in the IMTS facility. The model has been used to parametrically evaluate the effect of various operational parameters on the predicted temperature distributions. The results were used to identify the limiting parameter for safe operation of the two sample holders and the associated peak heat flux limits. The results of this investigation will help guide the development of new sample holder designs.« less

  6. Evaluation of Cooling Conditions for a High Heat Flux Testing Facility Based on Plasma-Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charry, Carlos H.; Abdel-khalik, Said I.; Yoda, Minami; Sabau, Adrian S.; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-07-31

    The new Irradiated Material Target Station (IMTS) facility for fusion materials at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses an infrared plasma-arc lamp (PAL) to deliver incident heat fluxes as high as 27 MW/m2. The facility is being used to test irradiated plasma-facing component materials as part of the joint US-Japan PHENIX program. The irradiated samples are to be mounted on molybdenum sample holders attached to a water-cooled copper rod. Depending on the size and geometry of samples, several sample holders and copper rod configurations have been fabricated and tested. As a part of the effort to design sample holders compatible with the high heat flux (HHF) testing to be conducted at the IMTS facility, numerical simulations have been performed for two different water-cooled sample holder designs using the ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. The primary objective of this work is to evaluate the cooling capability of different sample holder designs, i.e. to estimate their maximum allowable incident heat flux values. 2D axisymmetric numerical simulations are performed using the realizable k-? turbulence model and the RPI nucleate boiling model within ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. The results of the numerical model were compared against the experimental data for two sample holder designs tested in the IMTS facility. The model has been used to parametrically evaluate the effect of various operational parameters on the predicted temperature distributions. The results were used to identify the limiting parameter for safe operation of the two sample holders and the associated peak heat flux limits. The results of this investigation will help guide the development of new sample holder designs.

  7. Reductive Dehalogenation of Trichloroethene Vapors in an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to treat trichloroethene (TCE) from waste gases generated by soil vapor extraction or dual-phase extraction and groundwater include soil vapor extraction (SVE) in combination with air sparging and dual-phase extraction methods such as incineration, catalytic oxidation, and adsorption onto activated carbon are currently

  8. Environmental Chemistry at Vapor/Water Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environmental Chemistry at Vapor/Water Interfaces: Insights from Vibrational Sum Frequency for manyyearsowingtoitscomplexityandimportanceindescribingawiderange of physical phenomena. The vapor/water interface is particularly interesting from an environmental for these systems is highlighted. A future perspective toward the application of VSFG to the study of environmental

  9. Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundel, Lara (Berkeley, CA); Daisey, Joan M. (Walnut Creek, CA); Stevens, Robert K. (Cary, NC)

    1998-01-01

    A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

  10. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-11-08

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements.

  11. Hydrogen isotope recovery using a cathode water vapor feed PEM electrolyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, E. B.; Greenway, S. D.; Ekechukwu, A. A. [Savannah River National Laboratory: 999-2W, Aiken, SC 29208 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    A critical component of tritium glovebox operations is the recovery of high value tritium from the water vapor in the glove box atmosphere. One proposed method to improve existing tritium recovery systems is to replace the disposable hot magnesium beds used to separate the hydrogen and oxygen in water with continuous use Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzers (PEMEs). This study examines radiation exposure to the membrane of a PEME and examines the sizing difference that would be needed if the electrolyzer were operated with a cathode water vapor feed instead of an anode liquid water feed. (authors)

  12. Optimization of Xenon Difluoride Vapor Delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, Joseph; Marganski, Paul; Kaim, Robert; Wodjenski, Mike; Gregg, John; Yedave, Sharad; Sergi, Steve; Bishop, Steve; Eldridge, David; Zou Peng [ATMI, Inc., Danbury, Connecticut 06810 (United States)

    2008-11-03

    Xenon difluoride (XeF{sub 2}) has been shown to provide many process benefits when used as a daily maintenance recipe for ion implant. Regularly flowing XeF{sub 2} into the ion source cleans the deposits generated by ion source operation. As a result, significant increases in productivity have been demonstrated. However, XeF{sub 2} is a toxic oxidizer that must be handled appropriately. Furthermore, it is a low vapor pressure solid under standard conditions ({approx}4.5 torr at 25 deg. C). These aspects present unique challenges for designing a package for delivering the chemistry to an ion implanter. To address these challenges, ATMI designed a high-performance, re-usable cylinder for dispensing XeF{sub 2} in an efficient and reliable manner. Data are presented showing specific attributes of the cylinder, such as the importance of internal heat transfer media and the cylinder valve size. The impact of mass flow controller (MFC) selection and ion source tube design on the flow rate of XeF{sub 2} are also discussed. Finally, cylinder release rate data are provided.

  13. Super-radiance in the sodium resonance lines from sodium iodide arc lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karabourniotis, D.; Drakakis, E.

    2010-08-09

    Super-radiance observed within the centers of the sodium resonance D lines emitted by arc lamps containing sodium iodide as additive in a high-pressure mercury plasma environment was studied by high-resolution emission spectroscopy. The spectral radiance of these self-reversed lines including super-radiance was simulated by considering a local enhancement of the source function due to the presence of an additional source of radiation near the arc wall. Causes of this hitherto unrecognized source of radiation are given.

  14. Max Tech and Beyond: Fluorescent Lamps (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport) | SciTech Connect Mathematical andFluorescent Lamps

  15. Glenwood Springs Vapor Caves Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vapor Caves Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Glenwood Springs Vapor Caves Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  16. VAPOR PRESSURES OF THE RUBIDIUM FLUORIDE-ZIRCONIUM FLUORIDE AND...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    VAPOR PRESSURES OF THE RUBIDIUM FLUORIDE-ZIRCONIUM FLUORIDE AND LITHIUM FLUORIDE-ZIRCONIUM FLUORIDE SYSTEMS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: VAPOR PRESSURES OF THE...

  17. The role of polymer formation during vapor phase lubrication...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The role of polymer formation during vapor phase lubrication of silicon. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The role of polymer formation during vapor phase lubrication of...

  18. Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

    2010-03-15

    Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE flowchart provides a structured process to determine if the technology is, or is not, reasonable and defensible for a particular site. The central basis for that decision is the expected performance of PSVE under the site specific conditions. Will PSVE have sufficient mass removal rates to reduce the release, or flux, of contamination into the underlying groundwater so that the site can meet it overall remedial objectives? The summary technical information, case study experiences, and structured decision process provided in this 'user guide' should assist environmental decision-makers, regulators, and engineers in selecting and successfully implementing PSVE at appropriate sites.

  19. Specific Mass Estimates for A Vapor Core Reactor With MHD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, Travis; Smith, Blair; Anghaie, Samim [Innovative Nuclear Space Power and Propulsion Institute (INSPI), PO Box 116502, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6502 (United States)

    2002-07-01

    This study investigated the development of a system concept for space power generation and nuclear electric propulsion based on a vapor core reactor (VCR) with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power conversion system, coupled to a magnetoplasma-dynamic (MPD) thruster. The VCR is a liquid-vapor core reactor concept operating with metallic uranium or uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4}) vapor as the fissioning fuel and alkali metals or their fluorides as working fluid in a closed Rankine cycle with MHD energy conversion. Gaseous and liquid-vapor core reactors can potentially provide the highest reactor and cycle temperature among all existing or proposed fission reactor designs. This unique feature makes this reactor concept a very natural and attractive candidate for very high power (10 to 1000 MWe) and low specific mass (0.4 to 5 kg/kWe) nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) applications since the MHD output could be coupled with minimal power conditioning to MPD thrusters or other types of thruster for producing thrust at very high specific impulse (I{sub sp} 1500 to 10,000 s). The exceptional specific mass performance of an optimized VCRMHD- NEP system could lead to a dramatic reduction in the cost and duration of manned or robotic interplanetary as well as interstellar missions. The VCR-MHD-NEP system could enable very efficient Mars cargo transfers or short (<8 month) Mars round trips with less initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO). The system could also enable highly efficient lunar cargo transfer and rapid missions to other destinations throughout the solar system. (authors)

  20. Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirza, Zia I. (La Verne, CA); Knell, Everett W. (Los Alamitos, CA); Winter, Bruce L. (Danville, CA)

    1980-09-30

    Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

  1. Lamp Divisions

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and MyersHr. Anthony V. Andolina:I 1 '\ LI g.3LTSI9

  2. IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, PESC-97, 39-45, St. Louis, 1997. A MHz Electronic Ballast for Automotive-Type HID Lamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ballast for Automotive-Type HID Lamps Michael Gulko and Sam Ben-Yaakov* Power Electronics Laboratory lamps designated for automotive headlight applications was investigated theoretically, by simulation and experimentally. The study reveals that a based ballast (CS-PPRI) complies with the automotive requirement of very

  3. Chemical vapor deposition of antimicrobial polymer coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Tyler Philip, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    There is large and growing interest in making a wide variety of materials and surfaces antimicrobial. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD), a solventless low-temperature process, is used to form thin films of polymers ...

  4. Chemical vapor infiltration using microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devlin, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Currier, Robert P. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A method for producing reinforced ceramic composite articles by means of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition in which an inverted temperature gradient is utilized. Microwave energy is the source of heat for the process.

  5. Modeling of LNG Pool Spreading and Vaporization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basha, Omar 1988-

    2012-11-20

    In this work, a source term model for estimating the rate of spreading and vaporization of LNG on land and sea is introduced. The model takes into account the composition changes of the boiling mixture, the varying thermodynamic properties due...

  6. An advanced vapor-compression desalination system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lara Ruiz, Jorge Horacio Juan

    2006-04-12

    Currently, the two dominant desalination methods are reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash (MSF). RO requires large capital investment and maintenance, whereas MSF is too energy intensive. An innovative vapor-compression desalination system...

  7. Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    vapor retarder classification. Air-tight and well-insulated homes have little or no tolerance for drying if they get wet; moisture control is critical. This Top Innovation profile...

  8. Chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsson, Ylva Kristina

    2007-01-01

    This thesis develops a platform for deposition of polymer thin films that can be further tailored by chemical surface modification. First, we explore chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran films using ...

  9. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Fujun; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-09-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work, we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Ly? photons, since the Ly? line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more extended distribution of warm water vapor, while dust growth and settling tends to reduce the amount of warm water vapor. Based on typical assumptions regarding the elemental oxygen abundance and the water chemistry, the column density of warm water vapor can be as high as 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. A small amount of hot water vapor with temperature higher than ?300 K exists in a more extended region in the upper atmosphere of the disk. Cold water vapor with temperature lower than 100 K is distributed over the entire disk, produced by photodesorption of the water ice.

  10. Device for rapid sample insertion and extraction in thermal chemical vapor deposition tube furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Device for rapid sample insertion and extraction in thermal chemical vapor deposition tube furnace a tube furnace is described. The device operates in an atmosphere that is separate from ambient actuation through the walls of a quartz tube furnace is entirely general to any procedure using a tube

  11. High-temperature alkali vapor cells with antirelaxation surface coatings S. J. Seltzera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romalis, Mike

    High-temperature alkali vapor cells with antirelaxation surface coatings S. J. Seltzera and M. V 2009; accepted 31 August 2009; published online 2 December 2009 Antirelaxation surface coatings allow coatings were previously unavailable for operation at temperatures above 80 °C. We demonstrate

  12. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Gas Vapor Mixtures and HVAC 1 Gas Vapor Mixtures and HVAC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    to the vapor pressure: Tdp = Tsat@ Pv Sling Psychrometer: a rotating set of thermometers one of which measuresM. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Gas Vapor Mixtures and HVAC 1 Gas Vapor Mixtures and HVAC Atmospheric air normally contains some water vapor (moisture). The dry-air contains no water. Although the amount

  13. Visible Light Digital Camera --Up to 2.3MP resolution with LED lamps provides sharp images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    · Visible Light Digital Camera -- Up to 2.3MP resolution with LED lamps provides sharp images regardless of lighting conditions · Fusion Picture in Picture (PIP) -- Displays thermal image super case FLIR i40 Additional Features · 0.6MP Visible Light Camera resolution · Picture in Picture (PIP

  14. 190 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 30, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2002 Gap Closure in a Cold Metal Halide Lamp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    190 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 30, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2002 Gap Closure in a Cold Metal lamp has been investigated using a two-dimensional, plasma transport model. Im- ages are presented are found to be important during gap closure. Index Terms--Arc discharges, avalanche breakdown, glow dis

  15. Potential Environmental Impacts from the Metals in Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL), and Light-Emitting Diode (LED)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    Potential Environmental Impacts from the Metals in Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL, previous studies have investigated various environmental impacts from incandescent, CFL, and LED bulbs. There is uncertainty about the potential environmental impacts of these components and whether special provisions must

  16. AFM pictures of the surfaces of glass RPC electrodes damaged by water vapor contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Kubo; E. Nakano; Y. Teramoto

    2002-11-08

    We present surface pictures of the damaged electrodes from the Glass Resistive Plate Chambers (GRPCs) taken by an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). For the test, a set of chambers were operated with freon mixed gas (damaged) and freonless gas (not damaged), contaminated with 1000 to 2000 ppm of water vapor. In the AFM pictures, clear differences in damage are seen between the electrodes in the chambers with the freon mixed gas and the freonless gas; a combination of freon and water vapor caused the damage.

  17. Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties. Subcooled Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    of a thermochemical cycle, and agreement is within the combined experimental uncertainties. Vapor pressures pressures. Vaporization enthalpies of crystalline materials are also quite useful. Combined with fusion combined with fusion enthalpies have been used to provide independent confirmation of the magnitude

  18. Temporal Variability of Lunar Exospheric Helium During January 2012 from LRO/LAMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, Paul D; Retherford, Kurt D; Gladstone, G Randall; Stern, S Alan; Pryor, Wayne; Parker, Joel Wm; Kaufmann, David E; Davis, Michael W; Versteeg, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    We report observations of the lunar helium exosphere made between December 29, 2011, and January 26, 2012, with the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) ultraviolet spectrograph on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission (LRO). The observations were made of resonantly scattered He I 584 from illuminated atmosphere against the dark lunar surface on the dawn side of the terminator. We find no or little variation of the derived surface He density with latitude but day-to-day variations that likely reflect variations in the solar wind alpha flux. The 5-day passage of the Moon through the Earth's magnetotail results in a factor of two decrease in surface density, which is well explained by model simulations.

  19. THERMAL ANNEALING OF ZNO FILMS USING HIGH-DENSITY PLASMA ARC LAMPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Xu, Jun; Angelini, Joseph Attilio; Harper, David C

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured materials are rarely synthesized with appropriate phase and/or morphology. In this study, critical additional of as-synthesized nanostructured materials, such as annealing and/or activation of dopants, are addressed using infrared plasma arc lamps (PAL) over areas as large as 1,000 cm2. The broad spectral range of the PAL and the spectral variation of light absorption in nanostructured materials make the selection of processing parameters extremely difficult, posing a major technological barrier. In this study, the measurement of the surface temperature using various techniques for ZnO films on crystalline silicon wafers is discussed. An energy transport model for the simulation of rapid thermal processing using PAL is presented. The experimental and computational results show that the surface temperature cannot be measured directly and that computer simulation results are an effective tool for obtaining accurate data on processing temperatures.

  20. A Radiative Transport Model for Heating Paints using High Density Plasma Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Duty, Chad E; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Nichols, Mark; Blue, Craig A; Ott, Ronald D

    2009-01-01

    The energy distribution and ensuing temperature evolution within paint-like systems under the influence of infrared radiation was studied. Thermal radiation effects as well as those due to heat conduction were considered. A complete set of material properties was derived and discussed. Infrared measurements were conducted to obtain experimental data for the temperature in the paint film. The heat flux of the incident radiation from the plasma arc lamp was measured using a heat flux sensor with a very short response time. The comparison between the computed and experimental results for temperature show that the models that are based on spectral four-flux RTE and accurate optical properties yield accurate results for the black paint systems.

  1. DOE CALiPER Program, Report 21.2: Linear (T8) LED Lamp Performance in Five Types of Recessed Troffers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Perrin, Tess E.; Royer, Michael P.; Wilkerson, Andrea M.; Beeson, Tracy A.

    2014-05-20

    Although lensed troffers are numerous, there are many other types of optical systems as well. This report looked at the performance of three linear (T8) LED lamps chosen primarily based on their luminous intensity distributions (narrow, medium, and wide beam angles) as well as a benchmark fluorescent lamp in five different troffer types. Also included are the results of a subjective evaluation. Results show that linear (T8) LED lamps can improve luminaire efficiency in K12-lensed and parabolic-louvered troffers, effect little change in volumetric and high-performance diffuse-lensed type luminaires, but reduce efficiency in recessed indirect troffers. These changes can be accompanied by visual appearance and visual comfort consequences, especially when LED lamps with clear lenses and narrow distributions are installed. Linear (T8) LED lamps with diffuse apertures exhibited wider beam angles, performed more similarly to fluorescent lamps, and received better ratings from observers. Guidance is provided on which luminaires are the best candidates for retrofitting with linear (T8) LED lamps.

  2. Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties: Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of the Even n-Alkanes from C40 to C76 at T ) 298.15 K by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties: Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of the Even n in combination with earlier work to evaluate the vaporization enthalpies and vapor pressures of these n-alkanes from T ) (298.15 to 540) K. The vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy results obtained are compared

  3. Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of the n-Alkanes from C31 to C38 at T ) 298.15 K by Correlation Gas Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of the n-Alkanes from C31 to C38 at T ) 298.15 K with other literature values to evaluate the vaporization enthalpies and vapor pressures of these n-alkanes from T ) 298.15 to 575 K. The vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy results obtained are compared

  4. Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of the n-Alkanes from C21 to C30 at T ) 298.15 K by Correlation Gas Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of the n-Alkanes from C21 to C30 at T ) 298.15 K pressures of these n-alkanes from T ) 298.15 to 575 K. The vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy results-alkanes exhibit very low vapor pressures at ambient temperatures, vapor pressure measurement for most

  5. Performance assessment of the In-Well Vapor-Stripping System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilmore, T.J.; White, M.D.; Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    In-well vapor stripping is a remediation technology designed to preferentially extract volatile organic compounds dissolved in groundwater by converting them to a vapor phase and then treating the vapor. This vapor-stripping system is distinctly different from the more traditional in situ air-sparging concept. In situ sparging takes place in the aquifer formation; in-well vapor stripping takes place within the well casing. The system was field demonstrated at Edwards Air Force Base, California; the first-time demonstration of this technology in the United States. Installation and testing of the system were completed in late 1995, and the demonstration was operated nearly continuously for 6 months (191 days) between January 16 and July 25, 1996. Postdemonstration hydrochemical sampling continued until September 1996. The demonstration was conducted by collaborating researchers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (a) and Stanford University as part of an interim cleanup action at the base. Edwards Air Force Base and its environmental subcontractor, Earth Technology Corporation, as well as EG&G Environmental, holders of the commercial rights to the technology, were also significant contributors to the demonstration.

  6. The role of polymer formation during vapor phase lubrication of silicon.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, Michael Thomas; Dirk, Shawn M.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony

    2010-10-01

    The lubrication of silicon surfaces with alcohol vapors has recently been demonstrated. With a sufficient concentration of pentanol vapor present, sliding of a silica ball on an oxidized silicon wafer can proceed with no measurable wear. The initial results of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) analysis of wear surfaces revealed a reaction product having thickness on the order of a monolayer, and with an ion spectrum that included fragments having molecular weights of 200 or more that occurred only inside the wear tracks. The parent alcohol molecule pentanol, has molecular weight of 88amu, suggesting that reactions of adsorbed alcohols on the wearing surfaces allowed polymerization of the alcohols to form higher molecular weight species. In addition to pin-on-disk studies, lubrication of silicon surfaces with pentanol vapors has also been demonstrated using MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) devices. Recent investigations of the reaction mechanisms of the alcohol molecules with the oxidized silicon surfaces have shown that wearless sliding requires a concentration of the alcohol vapor that is dependent upon the contact stress during sliding, with higher stress requiring a greater concentration of alcohol. Different vapor precursors including those with acid functionality, olefins, and methyl termination also produce polymeric reaction products, and can lubricate the silica surfaces. Doping the operating environment with oxygen was found to quench the formation of the polymeric reaction product, and demonstrates that polymer formation is not necessary for wearless sliding.

  7. The use of laser diodes for control of uranium vaporization rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagans, K.; Galkowski, J.

    1993-09-01

    Within the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program we have successfully used the laser absorption spectroscopy technique (LAS) to diagnose process physics performance and control vaporization rate. In the LAS technique, a narrow line-width laser is tuned to an absorption line of the species to be measured. The laser light that is propagated through the sample is and, from this data, the density of the species can be calculated. These laser systems have exclusively consisted of expensive, cumbersome, and difficult to maintain argon-ion-pumped ring dye lasers. While the wavelength flexibility of dye lasers is very useful in a laboratory environment, these laser systems are not well suited for the industrial process control system under development for an AVLIS plant. Diode-lasers offer lower system costs, reduced man power requirements, reduced space requirements, higher system availability, and improved operator safety. We report the. successful deployment and test of a prototype laser diode based uranium vapor rate control system. Diode-laser generated LAS data was used to control the uranium vaporization rate in a hands-off mode for greater than 50 hours. With one minor adjustment the system successfully controlled the vaporization rate for greater than 147 hours. We report excellent agreement with ring dye laser diagnostics and uranium weigh-back measurements.

  8. Method and Apparatus for Concentrating Vapors for Analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

    2008-10-07

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for pre-concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the apparatus can be thermally desorbed achieving at least partial separation of vapor mixtures. The apparatus is suitable, e.g., for preconcentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than for direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications.

  9. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.

    1988-03-15

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

  10. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    pressure and entropy, pressure and vapor quality, andfluid at the high pressure vapor turbine exit. In the nexthigh pressure and low pressure vapor turbines. The increase

  11. THE KINETICS OF LASER PULSE VAPORIZATION OF URANIUM DIOXIDE BY MASS SPECTROMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Chuen-horng

    2012-01-01

    resulting low vapor pressure and low heat of vaporizationresulting low vapor pressure and low heat of vaporizationyields the partial vapor pressure and the composition in the

  12. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkinson, David

    2012-10-15

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  13. Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, Vinod (Lexington, MA); Mulpuri, Rao (Boston, MA)

    1998-01-01

    This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

  14. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Atkinson, David

    2014-07-24

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  15. The Effect of vapor subcooling on film condensation of metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedorovich, Eugene D.

    1968-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of the interfacial "vapor-condensate" temperature distribution, which includes the effect of subcooling (supersaturation) in the vapor. Experimental data from previous investigators for ...

  16. Vapor intrusion modeling : limitations, improvements, and value of information analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friscia, Jessica M. (Jessica Marie)

    2014-01-01

    Vapor intrusion is the migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a subsurface source into the indoor air of an overlying building. Vapor intrusion models, including the Johnson and Ettinger (J&E) model, can be ...

  17. Type B Accident Investigation of the Acid Vapor Inhalation on...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of the Acid Vapor Inhalation on June 7, 2005, in TA-48, Building RC-1 Room 402 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Type B Accident Investigation of the Acid Vapor Inhalation on...

  18. Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

  19. MULTIPLY STRIPPED ION GENERATION IN THE METAL VAPOR VACUUM ARC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, I.G.

    2010-01-01

    the metal vapor vacuum arc plasma discharge. A new kind offrom a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma has been used to obtaindrives the vacuum arc plasma is created. The fundamental

  20. A Multiscale Simulator for Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Multiscale Simulator for Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Matthias K. Gobbert Institute-6206 ABSTRACT An integrated simulator for chemical vapor deposition is introduced. In addition to a reactor

  1. OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS CONSIDERING ADSORPTION governing the behavior of vapor- dominated geothermal reservoirs. These mechanisms affect both was to determine the most effective injection strategy once these two effects are considered. Geothermal reservoir

  2. CALiPER Report 20.1: Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality, and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This December 3, 2013 webinar explored the findings of CALiPER 20.1: Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality, and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps and discussed what attributes to...

  3. Results from the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) and availability of the data on the Earth System Grid (ESG)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    and Extensible Earth System Model for Climate Change Scienceincluded in the new Earth System Models (ESMs) participatingof the C-LAMP model output via the Earth System Grid (ESG).

  4. Centrifugal LabTube platform for fully automated DNA purification and LAMP amplification based on an integrated, low-cost heating system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoehl, Melanie M.

    This paper introduces a disposable battery-driven heating system for loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP) inside a centrifugally-driven DNA purification platform (LabTube). We demonstrate LabTube-based fully ...

  5. Method and apparatus for mounting a dichroic mirror in a microwave powered lamp assembly using deformable tabs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ury, M.; Sowers, F.; Harper, C.; Love, W.

    1998-11-24

    A microwave powered electrodeless lamp includes an improved screen unit having mesh and solid sections with an internal reflector secured at the juncture of the two sections to reflect light into a light-transmitting chamber defined in the lamp microwave cavity by the reflector and the mesh section. A discharge envelope of a bulb is disposed in the light-transmitting chamber. Light emitted from the envelope is prevented by the reflector from entering the cavity portion bounded by the solid section of the screen. The reflector is mounted in the cavity by tabs formed in the screen unit and bendable into the cavity to define support planes abutting respective surfaces of the reflector. The mesh section and tabs are preferably formed by etching a thin metal sheet. 7 figs.

  6. Method and apparatus for mounting a dichroic mirror in a microwave powered lamp assembly using deformable tabs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ury, Michael (Bethesda, MD); Sowers, Frank (Frederick, MD); Harper, Curt (Wheaton, MD); Love, Wayne (Olney, MD)

    1998-01-01

    A microwave powered electrodeless lamp includes an improved screen unit having mesh and solid sections with an internal reflector secured at the juncture of the two sections to reflect light into a light-transmitting chamber defined in the lamp microwave cavity by the reflector and the mesh section. A discharge envelope of a bulb is disposed in the light-transmitting chamber. Light emitted from the envelope is prevented by the reflector from entering the cavity portion bounded by the solid section of the screen. The reflector is mounted in the cavity by tabs formed in the screen unit and bendable into the cavity to define support planes abutting respective surfaces of the reflector. The mesh section and tabs are preferably formed by etching a thin metal sheet.

  7. Optical emission spectroscopy of metal-halide lamps: Radially resolved atomic state distribution functions of Dy and Hg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimalasuriya, T.; Flikweert, A.J.; Stoffels, W.W.; Haverlag, M.; Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der; Pupat, N.B.M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2006-03-01

    Absolute line intensity measurements are performed on a metal-halide lamp. Several transitions of atomic and ionic Dy and atomic Hg are measured at different radial positions from which we obtain absolute atomic and ionic Dy intensity profiles. From these profiles we construct the radially resolved atomic state distribution function (ASDF) of the atomic and ionic Dy and the atomic Hg. From these ASDFs several quantities are determined as functions of radial position, such as the (excitation) temperature, the ion ratio Hg{sup +}/Dy{sup +}, the electron density, the ground state, and the total density of Dy atoms and ions. Moreover, these ASDFs give us insight about the departure from equilibrium. The measurements show a hollow density profile for the atoms and the ionization of atoms in the center. In the outer parts of the lamp molecules dominate.

  8. Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

    1986-01-01

    IN DISTILLATION BY MECHANICAL VAPOR RECOMPRESSION Frederick E. Becker and Alexandra I. Zakak Tecogen, Inc., A Subsidiary of Thermo Electron Corporation Waltham, Massachusetts ABSTRACT A significant reduction in distillation tower energy requirements can..., and then recompressing the low-pressure bottom vapors and injecting them directly into the column bottom. The choice of either scheme is a function of the physical properties of the vapors; i.e., the specific volume of the top or bottom vapors may dictate the most...

  9. MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF LIQUID-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faccanoni, Gloria

    . (,) P pressure law. G. Faccanoni DNS OF LIQUIDE-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION 6 / 23 #12;Model Numerical Method. (,) P pressure law. G. Faccanoni DNS OF LIQUIDE-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION 6 / 23 #12;Model Numerical Method Vapor = 0 x = 0 = 1Fictive fluid 0 pressure law

  10. Technology alternatives to CFC/HCFC vapor compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.

    1996-08-01

    Phaseouts of CFCs and HCFCs to protect the stratospheric ozone layer have caused many developments in replacement or alternative technologies for heat pumping. Some of this effort has been of an ``evolutionary`` nature where the designs of conventional vapor compression systems were adapted to use chlorine-free refrigerants. Other alternatives are more radical departures from conventional practice such as operating above the critical point of an alternative refrigerant. Revolutionary changes in technology based on cycles sor principles not commonly associated with refrigeration have also attracted interest. Many of these technologies are being touted because they are ``ozone-safe`` or because they do not use greenhouse gases as refrigerants. Basic principles and some advantages and disadvantages of each technology are discussed in this paper.

  11. Modeling engine oil vaporization and transport of the oil vapor in the piston ring pack on internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Yeunwoo, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    A model was developed to study engine oil vaporization and oil vapor transport in the piston ring pack of internal combustion engines. With the assumption that the multi-grade oil can be modeled as a compound of several ...

  12. Study of the effects of noisy data on the determination of the enthalpy of vaporization from a vapor pressure equation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casserly, Thomas Bryan

    2013-02-22

    Chemical engineers use software tools everyday to aid them in solving complex problems. Software packages simulate virtually every aspect of a chemical process, including the use of source vapor pressure data to fit empirical constants of a vapor...

  13. THE KINETICS OF LASER PULSE VAPORIZATION OF URANIUM DIOXIDE BY MASS SPECTROMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, C-h.

    2010-01-01

    The results of the vapor pressure and the vapor compositionyielded the partial vapor pressure of each species and therecommer.ded limits of total vapor pressure This work fitted

  14. Measurements of atomic state distribution functions of the Philips QL-lamp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonkers, J.; Bakker, M.; Mullen, J.A.M. van der [Eindhoven Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Applied Physics

    1996-12-31

    In 1992 Philips Lighting introduced the QL-lamp, an inductively coupled low pressure RF discharge containing a mixture of argon and mercury. Its main advantage is the absence of electrodes, which benefits the life-time. In order to improve the knowledge of this kind of plasmas a model has been developed and measurements have been performed. In every plasma the free electrons are an important species: they control the energy transfer from the electromagnetic field to the heavy particles. Therefore, it is important to know the spatial distribution of the electron temperature and of the electron density. These parameters can be obtained from the Atomic State Distribution Function (ASDF), since the levels close the ionization limit are in partial Local Saha Equilibrium (pLSE). The densities of the excited states are obtained from absolute line intensity measurements. However, it appears that the highly excited, measurable, states are not in pLSE, indicating that the QL plasma is far from Saha equilibrium. In order to obtain the electron densities and temperatures the ASDF has to be combined with either measurements of continuum radiation or a Collisional Radiative Model (CRM). The results of both methods will be presented and compared with a third technique to obtain the electron density and temperature: Thomson scattering.

  15. Color stable phosphors for LED lamps and methods for preparing them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, James Edward; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Camardello, Samuel Joseph

    2013-11-26

    An LED lamp includes a light source configured to emit radiation with a peak intensity at a wavelength between about 250 nm and about 550 nm; and a phosphor composition configured to be radiationally coupled to the light source. The phosphor composition includes particles of a phosphor of formula I, said particles having a coating composition disposed on surfaces thereof; ((Sr.sub.1-zM.sub.z).sub.1-(x+w)A.sub.wCe.sub.x).sub.3(Al.sub.1-ySi.sub.y-)O.sub.4+y+3(x-w)F.sub.1-y-3(x-w) I wherein the coating composition comprises a material selected from aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, calcium oxide, barium oxide, strontium oxide, zinc oxide, aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, barium hydroxide, strontium hydroxide, zinc hydroxide, aluminum phosphate, magnesium phosphate, calcium phosphate, barium phosphate, strontium phosphate, and combinations thereof; and A is Li, NA, K, or Rb, or a combination thereof; M is Ca, Ba, Mg, Zn, or a combination thereof; and 0

  16. Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous Fuel Vapors at the Gasoline Tank

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Case study covering Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. and its membrane vapor processor that recovers fuel vapors from gasoline refueling.

  17. Retrofit device to improve vapor compression cooling system performance by dynamic blower speed modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roth, Robert Paul; Hahn, David C.; Scaringe, Robert P.

    2015-12-08

    A device and method are provided to improve performance of a vapor compression system using a retrofittable control board to start up the vapor compression system with the evaporator blower initially set to a high speed. A baseline evaporator operating temperature with the evaporator blower operating at the high speed is recorded, and then the device detects if a predetermined acceptable change in evaporator temperature has occurred. The evaporator blower speed is reduced from the initially set high speed as long as there is only a negligible change in the measured evaporator temperature and therefore a negligible difference in the compressor's power consumption so as to obtain a net increase in the Coefficient of Performance.

  18. Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties: Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of the Even n-Alkanes from C78 to C92 at T ) 298.15 K by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties: Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of the Even n and vapor pressures of the n-alkanes from T ) (298.15 to 540) K for heneicosane to dononacontane. The vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy results obtained are compared with estimated data from Morgan's "PERT2

  19. Apparatus and method for photochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Scott C. (Wilmington, DE); Rocheleau, Richard E. (Wilmington, DE)

    1987-03-31

    A photochemical vapor deposition apparatus includes a reactor housing having a window in one wall above a reaction chamber in the housing. A transparent curtain divides the reaction chamber into a reaction zone and a flush zone. At least one substrate is mounted in the reaction zone in light communication with the window so that ultraviolet radiation may penetrate through the window into the reaction zone. The window is kept clear by a gas flowing through the flush zone.

  20. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, Fujun

    2014-01-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Lyman alpha photons, since the Lyman alpha line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more ...

  1. High volume fuel vapor release valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gimby, D.R.

    1991-09-03

    This patent describes a fuel vapor release valve for use in a vehicle fuel system. It comprises a valve housing 10 placed in a specific longitudinal orientation, the valve housing 10 defining an interior cavity 22 having an inlet 20 for admitting fuel vapor and an outlet 14 for discharging such fuel vapor; a valve member 24 positioned in the cavity 22 for movement between an outlet 14 opening position and an outlet 14 closing position, the valve member 24 including a cap member 34 having a seat surface 36 for mating with the outlet 14 and an orifice 42 extending through the cap member 34 providing a passageway from the outlet 14 to the cavity 22, the orifice 42 extending through the cap member 34 providing a passageway from the outlet 14 to the cavity 22, the orifice 42 having a lesser radius than the outlet 14; the valve member 24 further including a plug member 30 engaged with the cap member 34 for movement between an orifice 42 opening position and an orifice 42 closing position; and, a valve housing tilt responsive means for moving the valve member 24 to an outlet 14 and orifice 42 closing position in response to tilting of the valve 10 about its longitudinal axis whereby, upon the return of the valve 10 to its specified longitudinal orientation, the plug member 30 first moves to an orifice 42 opening position and the cap member 34 subsequently moves to an outlet 14 opening position.

  2. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, A.P.

    2003-07-24

    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  3. GLASS AND GLASS-DERIVATIVE SEALS FOR USE IN ENERGY-EFFICIENT FUEL CELLS AND LAMPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Misture; Arun Varshneya; Matthew Hall; Sylvia DeCarr; Steve Bancheri

    2004-08-15

    As the project approaches the end of the first year, the materials screening components of the work are ahead of schedule, while all other tasks are on schedule. For solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), a series of 16 sealing glasses have been prepared and characterized. Traditional melting was used to prepare all of the glasses, and the sol-gel approach has been used to prepare some of the glasses as well as other compositions that might be viable because of the low processing temperatures afforded by the sol-gel method. The glass characterization included measurements of the viscosity and thermal expansion of the glasses, as well as the thermal expansion of the partly crystalline glass ceramics. In addition, the wetting and sintering behavior of all glasses has been measured, as well as the crystallization behavior. The time and temperature at which crystalline phases form from the glasses has been determined for all of the glasses. Each glass ceramic contains at least two crystalline phases, and most of the crystalline phases have been positively identified. Room temperature leak testing has been completed for all sealants, and experiments are in progress to determine the DC electrochemical degradation and degradation in wet hydrogen. The second component of the work, focused on seals for higher-temperature discharge lighting, has focused on determining the phase relations in the yttria--alumina--silica system at various silica levels. Again, traditional melting and sol-gel synthesis have been employed, and the sol-gel method was successful for preparing new phases that were discovered during the work. High temperature diffraction and annealing studies have clarified the phase relations for the samples studies, although additional work remains. Four new phases have been identified and synthesized in pure form, from which full structure solutions were obtained as well as the anisotropic thermal expansion for each phase. Functional testing of lamps are on on-going and will be analyzed during year 2 of the contract.

  4. EFFECT OF FILTER TEMPERATURE ON TRAPPING ZINC VAPOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2011-03-25

    To address the {sup 65}Zn contamination issue in the TEF, a multi-task experimental program was initiated. The first experimental task was completed and is reported in Ref. 1. The results of the second experimental task are reported here. This task examined the effect of filter temperature on trapping efficiency and deposit morphology. Based on the first experimental tasks that examined filter pore size and trapping efficiency, stainless steel filter media with a 20 {micro}m pore size was selected. A series of experiments using these filters was conducted during this second task to determine the effect of filter temperature on zinc vapor trapping efficiency, adhesion and morphology. The tests were conducted with the filters heated to 60, 120, and 200 C; the zinc source material was heated to 400 C for all the experiments to provide a consistent zinc source. The samples were evaluated for mass change, deposit adhesion and morphology. As expected from the physical vapor deposition literature, a difference in deposit morphology and appearance was observed between the three filter temperatures. The filter held at 60 C had the largest average mass gain while the 120 and 200 C filters exhibited similar but lower weight gains. The standard deviations were large and suggest that all three temperatures exhibited comparable gains. No zinc was detected on the backside surface of the filters indicating high efficiency for front and internal trapping. A zinc rich deposit was formed on the surface of the 60 C filter. Based on a simple tape adhesion test, the surface zinc was readily removed from the 60 C filter while less zinc deposit was removed from the 120 and 200 C filter samples. It is surmised that the higher temperatures enable the zinc to deposit within the filter media rather than on the surface. Based on the findings that all three statistically trapped the same quantity of zinc vapor and that the higher temperatures resulted in a more adherent/better trapped product, operating the filters at 120 to 200 C is recommended.

  5. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of this contract, we participated in another ARM-sponsored experiment at the NSA during February-March 2007. This experiment is called the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) and the GSR was operated successfully for the duration of the campaign. One of the principal goals of the experiment was to provide retrievals of water vapor during PWV amounts less than 2 mm and to compare GSR data with ARM radiometers and radiosondes. A secondary goal was to compare the radiometric response of the microwave and millimeter wavelength radiometers to water and ice clouds. In this final report, we will include the separate progress reports for each of the three years of the project and follow with a section on major accomplishments of the project.

  6. The Spectrum of the Th-Ar Hollow-Cathode Lamp Used with the 2dcoude Spectrograph

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Allende Prieto

    2001-11-08

    We have produced an atlas of the Th-Ar hollow-cathode lamp used with the 2dcoude spectrograph at McDonald Observatory. The atlas covers from 3611.9 to 10596.4 A at a resolving power of 52,000. We have determined the wavelenghts of 1483 emission lines in the spectrum with a median precision of 0.00023 A. A web-based interface is offered for interactive visualization of segments of the atlas or spectral orders.

  7. 2014-06-18 Issuance: Test Procedure for Integrated Light-Emitting Diode Lamps; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking regarding Test Procedures for Integrated Light-Emitting Diode Lamps, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on June 18, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  8. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caddeau, MP

    2010-06-23

    The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from 15 channels between 170 and 183.310 GHz. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some influence from liquid water. Channels between 170.0 and 176.0 GHz are particularly sensitive to the presence of liquid water. The sensitivity to water vapor of the 183.31-GHz line is approximately 30 times higher than at the frequencies of the two-channel microwave radiometer (MWR) for a precipitable water vapor (PWV) amount of less than 2.5 mm. Measurements from the GVRP instrument are therefore especially useful during low-humidity conditions (PWV < 5 mm). In addition to integrated water vapor and liquid water, the GVRP can provide low-resolution vertical profiles of water vapor in very dry conditions.

  9. Method and apparatus for concentrating vapors for analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

    2012-06-05

    A pre-concentration device and a method are disclosed for concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the pre-concentration device are thermally desorbed, achieving at least partial separation of the vapor mixtures. The pre-concentration device is suitable, e.g., for pre-concentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable.

  10. Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berkman, Samuel (Florham Park, NJ)

    1984-01-01

    A single chamber continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor is described for depositing continuously on flat substrates, for example, epitaxial layers of semiconductor materials. The single chamber reactor is formed into three separate zones by baffles or tubes carrying chemical source material and a carrier gas in one gas stream and hydrogen gas in the other stream without interaction while the wafers are heated to deposition temperature. Diffusion of the two gas streams on heated wafers effects the epitaxial deposition in the intermediate zone and the wafers are cooled in the final zone by coolant gases. A CVD reactor for batch processing is also described embodying the deposition principles of the continuous reactor.

  11. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

    1996-01-09

    A method and apparatus have been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing. 10 figs.

  12. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wylie, Allan H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

  13. Copper vapor laser acoustic thermometry system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galkowski, Joseph J. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A copper vapor laser (CVL) acoustic thermometry system is disclosed. The invention couples an acoustic pulse a predetermined distance into a laser tube by means of a transducer and an alumina rod such that an echo pulse is returned along the alumina rod to the point of entry. The time differential between the point of entry of the acoustic pulse into the laser tube and the exit of the echo pulse is related to the temperature at the predetermined distance within the laser tube. This information is processed and can provide an accurate indication of the average temperature within the laser tube.

  14. Category:Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to: navigation,Ground GravityListsMercury Vapor Jump to:

  15. Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

  16. Advanced Chemical Heat Pumps Using Liquid-Vapor Reactions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.

    1987-01-01

    HEAT PUMPS USING LIQUID-VAPOR REACTIONS LANCE KIROL Senior Program Specialist Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Idaho Falls, Idaho . ABSTRACT Chemical heat pumps utilizing liquid-vapor reactions can be configured in forms analogous... to electric drive vapor-compression heat pumps and heat activated absorption heat pumps. Basic thermodynamic considerations eliminate some heat pumps and place restrictive working fluid requirements on others, but two thermodynam ically feasible systems...

  17. Review of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.

    1998-08-01

    Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid has often been treated similar to gas diffusion. The gas diffusion rate in porous media is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. Existing data and models for enhanced vapor diffusion, including those in TOUGH2, are reviewed in this paper.

  18. Spatial and time-dependent distribution of plasma parameters in the metal-halide arc lamp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khakhaev, A; Ekimov, K; Soloviev, A; Khakhaev, Anatoly; Luizova, Lidia; Ekimov, Konstantin; Soloviev, Alexey

    2004-01-01

    It was shown by several authors that closed high pressure arc a.c. discharge in mercury vapors with addition of metal halide cannot be described in frames of the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model. However some plasma parameters (electron and high lying excited states densities as well as Hg metastable levels densities) are assumed to be in equilibrium with electron temperature and these assumptions are applied in plasma diagnostics. To verify these supposition the method of local plasma spectroscopy based on spatial and temporal distribution of spectral line profiles was developed. The experimental set up is based on diffraction spectrometer with large aperture, spatial scanning device and photodetector, which allows to carry out the measurements in chosen phases of current period. The software for data acquisition and processing is based on LabVIEW system. The original method of joint data processing was applied to data arrays containing spatial, spectral and temporal distribution of a source surfa...

  19. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Vapor Power Cycles 1 Vapor Power Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    is not a suitable model for steam power cycle since: The turbine has to handle steam with low quality which will cause erosion and wear in turbine blades. It is impractical to design a compressor that handles two vapor expands isentropically in turbine and produces work. 4-1: Const P heat rejection High quality

  20. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: EFFECTIVENESS OF THE UV LAMP TO DECOMPOSE OXALATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketusky, E.; Huff, T.; Sudduth, C.

    2010-01-19

    Enhanced Chemical Cleaning is a new process scheduled to begin cleaning Savannah River Site High Level Waste Tanks in 2012. It is an improvement over the current chemical cleaning method, in that it minimizes downstream impacts on the High Level Waste System. It is based on a state of the art scale removal process used on the secondary side of nuclear power plants, with modifications to accommodate the unique constraints created by the tanks. Both Enhanced Chemical Cleaning and the scale removal process are founded on dissolving metal oxides/hydroxides using oxalic acid, with subsequent oxalate decomposition via hydroxylation using ozone or peroxide, and UV light as a catalyst. A divergence Enhanced Chemical Cleaning has from nuclear power scale removal is the significantly increased solids concentration during oxalate decomposition. These solids can limit the ability of the UV light to create hydroxyl radicals, either by limiting the ability of the light to penetrate through the solution, or by increasing the fouling rate on the UV light. Both will decrease the overall catalytic effectiveness, thereby decreasing the concentration of formed hydroxyl radicals. The hydroxyl radicals are the driving force behind the oxalate decomposition. To understand the impact of increased solids, testing was performed using a medium pressure UV light inside an ozone supplied Oxalate Decomposition Reactor. Using a dissolved metal sludge simulant with an initial oxalate concentration greater than 12,000 ppm, and an initial pH of about 2.0, the spent acid solution was recirculated through the reactor, while the UV light was allowed to foul. For the first few hours, the oxalate decomposition rate was about 1,300 ppm/hour. After about 3 hours, enough time for the UV lamp to foul, the oxalate decomposition rate decreased to about 500 ppm/hour. The decomposition rate then remained roughly constant for the next 16 hours. Overall, testing showed that the oxalate destruction rate decreased by about 2.8. Results from very similartests with similar chemistry suggest that the impact should be about 10. Based on the limited reaction pathwayfor the creation of hydroxyl radicals with iron, ozone, and no UV, the discrepancy suggests that initially, at 'time zero' the UV light failed to perform up to expectations. It is therefore concluded that regardless of the fouling rate, either the increased solids concentration is impacting the initial penetrability (i.e. to many solids), or the light is not adequately sized/configured to have the appropriate flux.

  1. Oxide vapor distribution from a high-frequency sweep e-beam system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R.; Tassano, P.L.; Tsujimoto, N.

    1995-03-01

    Oxide vapor distributions have been determined as a function of operating parameters of a high frequency sweep e-beam source combined with a programmable sweep controller. We will show which parameters are significant, the parameters that yield the broadest oxide deposition distribution, and the procedure used to arrive at these conclusions. A design-of-experimental strategy was used with five operating parameters: evaporation rate, sweep speed, sweep pattern (pre-programmed), phase speed (azimuthal rotation of the pattern), profile (dwell time as a function of radial position). A design was chosen that would show which of the parameters and parameter pairs have a statistically significant effect on the vapor distribution. Witness flats were placed symmetrically across a 25 inches diameter platen. The stationary platen was centered 24 inches above the e-gun crucible. An oxide material was evaporated under 27 different conditions. Thickness measurements were made with a stylus profilometer. The information will enable users of the high frequency e-gun systems to optimally locate the source in a vacuum system and understand which parameters have a major effect on the vapor distribution.

  2. Micromechanical Resonators with Nanoporous Materials for Enhanced Vapor Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Yong Ha

    2012-01-01

    organic compounds," Analytical Chemistry, vol. 74, pp. 3084-Gas Sensor Array," Analytical Chemistry, vol. 81, pp. 595-Chemical Vapors," Analytical Chemistry, vol. 83, pp. 3448-

  3. Thermodynamic and transport properties of sodium liquid and vapor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    sodium liquid and vapor. Recently published Russian recommendations and results of equation of state calculations on thermophysical properties of sodium have been included in...

  4. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  5. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002)...

  6. A NORMETEX MODEL 15 M3/HR WATER VAPOR PUMPING TEST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.; Fowley, M.; Steeper, T.

    2010-12-20

    Tests were performed using a Model 15 m{sup 3}/hr Normetex vacuum pump to determine if pump performance degraded after pumping a humid gas stream. An air feed stream containing 30% water vapor was introduced into the pump for 365 hours with the outlet pressure of the pump near the condensation conditions of the water. Performance of the pump was tested before and after the water vapor pumping test and indicated no loss in performance of the pump. The pump also appeared to tolerate small amounts of condensed water of short duration without increased noise, vibration, or other adverse indications. The Normetex pump was backed by a dual-head diaphragm pump which was affected by the condensation of water and produced some drift in operating conditions during the test.

  7. Molecular-Flow Properties of RIB Type Vapor-Transport Systems Using a Fast-Valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alton, Gerald D [ORNL] [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhang, Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Liu, Yuan [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The advent of the fast-valve device, described previously, permits measurement of molecular-flow times of chemically active or inactive gaseous species through radioactive ion beam (RIB) target ion source systems, independent of size, geometry and materials of construction. Thus, decay losses of short-half-life RIBs can be determined for a given target/vapor-transport system in advance of on-line operation, thereby ascertaining the feasibility of the system design for successful processing of a given isotope. In this article, molecular-flow-time theory and experimentally measured molecular-flow time data are given for serial- and parallel-coupled Ta metal RIB vapor-transport systems similar to those used at ISOL based RIB facilities. In addition, the effect of source type on the molecular-flow time properties of a given system is addressed, and a chemical passivation method for negating surface adsorption enthalpies for chemically active gaseous species on Ta surfaces is demonstrated.

  8. Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rainer Wallny

    2012-10-15

    Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2010, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2015, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed and operational in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

  9. Vapor and gas sampling of Single-Shell Tank 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caprio, G.S.

    1995-11-01

    This document presents sampling data resulting from the June 8, 1995, sampling of SST 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System.

  10. UNCORRECTEDPROOF Please cite this article in press as: D. Lipkind et al., The vaporization enthalpies and vapor pressures of a series of unsaturated fatty acids methyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    enthalpies and vapor pressures of a series of unsaturated fatty acids methyl esters by correlation gas­8 Thermochimica Acta xxx (2007) xxx­xxx The vaporization enthalpies and vapor pressures of a series of unsaturated- vonate (methyl Z 15-tetracosenoate) are evaluated at T = 298.15 and vapor pressures are evaluated over

  11. 1-Dimensional Numerical Model of Thermal Conduction and Vapor Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schörghofer, Norbert

    developed by Samar Khatiwala, 2001 extended to variable thermal properties and irregular grid by Norbert Sch for c. Upper boundary condition: a) Radiation Q + k T z z=0 = T4 z=0 Q is the incoming solar flux of Water Vapor with Phase Transitions developed by Norbert Sch¨orghofer, 2003­2004 3 phases: vapor, free

  12. Chemical vapor detection with a multispectral thermal imager

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Chein-I

    Chemical vapor detection with a multispectral thermal imager Mark 1. G. Aithouse, MEMBER SPIE U.S. Army Chemical Research Development and Engineering Center SMCCR-DDT Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland algorithm 7. Conclusions 8. Acknowledgments 9. References 1. INTRODUCTION Detection of chemical vapor clouds

  13. Recuperative Vapor Recompression Heat Pumps for Cryogenic Air Separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahrendt, Wolfgang

    Air N2 CW MAC MHE LP HP CW N2 O2 Recuperative Vapor Recompression Heat Pumps for Cryogenic Air · The compression of O2 in the air feed is avoided by applying recuperative vapor recompression heat pumps) heat pump The compression of B can be avoided 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 -5000 5000 15000 25000 35000

  14. ADHESION FORCES BETWEEN MICA SURFACES IN UNDERSATURATED VAPORS OF HYDROCARBONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsuoka, Hiroshige

    ADHESION FORCES BETWEEN MICA SURFACES IN UNDERSATURATED VAPORS OF HYDROCARBONS H. MATSUOKA1 , T] or meniscus force [3], which have been neglected in the conventional and relatively large mechani- cal systems forces between mica surfaces in under- saturated vapors of several kind of hydrocarbon liquids are mea

  15. RESONANT FARADAY ROTATION IN A HOT LITHIUM VAPOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Alex D.

    RESONANT FARADAY ROTATION IN A HOT LITHIUM VAPOR By SCOTT RUSSELL WAITUKAITIS A Thesis Submitted: #12;Abstract I describe a study of Faraday rotation in a hot lithium vapor. I begin by dis- cussing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 The Lithium Oven and Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 Theoretical Framework

  16. Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

  17. Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erbil, A.

    1989-11-21

    Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula given in the patent where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula 1 is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula 1 and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

  18. Monitoring of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.

    2004-06-01

    An apparatus for monitoring vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a high-temperature environment has an excitation source producing electromagnetic radiation, an optical path having an optical probe optically communicating the electromagnetic radiation received at a proximal end to a distal end, a spectrometer or polychromator, a detector, and a positioner coupled to the first optical path. The positioner can slidably move the distal end of the optical probe to maintain the distal end position with respect to an area of a material undergoing combustion. The emitted wavelength can be directed to a detector in a single optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration, in a dual optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration or in a dual optical probe 90.degree. side scattered configuration. The apparatus can be used to monitor an emitted wavelength of energy from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as it fluoresces in a high temperature environment.

  19. Controlled VLS Growth of Indium, Gallium and Tin Oxide Nanowires via Chemical Vapor Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, M.C.; Aloni, S.; McCready, D.E.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    2006-01-01

    6 Growth Rate (um/hr) Vapor Pressure (Torr) In2O3 Ga2O3 SnO2Rate (µm/hr) Metal Vapor Pressure (Torr) Crystalline phaseto the source metal vapor pressure. Initial experiments show

  20. Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    s equation, which expresses vapor pressure as a function ofT+ 273.15 ) ( is the vapor pressure lowering (VPL) factor.P sat is the saturated vapor pressure of bulk aqueous phase,

  1. Gas Separation Using Organic-Vapor-Resistent Membranes In Conjunctin With Organic-Vapor-Selective Membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Da Costa, Andre R. (Menlo Park, CA); Daniels, Ramin (San Jose, CA); Amo, Karl D. (Mountain View, CA); Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2003-06-03

    A process for treating a gas mixture containing at least an organic compound gas or vapor and a second gas, such as natural gas, refinery off-gas or air. The process uses two sequential membrane separation steps, one using membrane selective for the organic compound over the second gas, the other selective for the second gas over the organic vapor. The second-gas-selective membranes use a selective layer made from a polymer having repeating units of a fluorinated polymer, and demonstrate good resistance to plasticization by the organic components in the gas mixture under treatment, and good recovery after exposure to liquid aromatic hydrocarbons. The membrane steps can be combined in either order.

  2. Chemical vapor deposition coating for micromachines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MANI,SEETHAMBAL S.; FLEMING,JAMES G.; SNIEGOWSKI,JEFFRY J.; DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; IRWIN,LAWRENCE W.; WALRAVEN,JEREMY A.; TANNER,DANELLE M.; DUGGER,MICHAEL T.

    2000-04-21

    Two major problems associated with Si-based MEMS devices are stiction and wear. Surface modifications are needed to reduce both adhesion and friction in micromechanical structures to solve these problems. In this paper, the authors will present a process used to selectively coat MEMS devices with tungsten using a CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) process. The selective W deposition process results in a very conformal coating and can potentially solve both stiction and wear problems confronting MEMS processing. The selective deposition of tungsten is accomplished through silicon reduction of WF{sub 6}, which results in a self-limiting reaction. The selective deposition of W only on polysilicon surfaces prevents electrical shorts. Further, the self-limiting nature of this selective W deposition process ensures the consistency necessary for process control. Selective tungsten is deposited after the removal of the sacrificial oxides to minimize process integration problems. This tungsten coating adheres well and is hard and conducting, requirements for device performance. Furthermore, since the deposited tungsten infiltrates under adhered silicon parts and the volume of W deposited is less than the amount of Si consumed, it appears to be possible to release stuck parts that are contacted over small areas such as dimples. Results from tungsten deposition on MEMS structures with dimples will be presented. The effect of wet and vapor phase cleanings prior to the deposition will be discussed along with other process details. The W coating improved wear by orders of magnitude compared to uncoated parts. Tungsten CVD is used in the integrated-circuit industry, which makes this approach manufacturable.

  3. Soil Vapor Extraction System Optimization, Transition, and Closure Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Becker, Dave; Simon, Michelle A.; Oostrom, Martinus; Rice, Amy K.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2013-02-08

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a prevalent remediation approach for volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. A diminishing rate of contaminant extraction over time is typically observed due to 1) diminishing contaminant mass, and/or 2) slow rates of removal for contamination in low-permeability zones. After a SVE system begins to show indications of diminishing contaminant removal rate, SVE performance needs to be evaluated to determine whether the system should be optimized, terminated, or transitioned to another technology to replace or augment SVE. This guidance specifically addresses the elements of this type of performance assessment. While not specifically presented, the approach and analyses in this guidance could also be applied at the onset of remediation selection for a site as a way to evaluate current or future impacts to groundwater from vadose zone contamination. The guidance presented here builds from existing guidance for SVE design, operation, optimization, and closure from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment. The purpose of the material herein is to clarify and focus on the specific actions and decisions related to SVE optimization, transition, and/or closure.

  4. The Vapor Plume at Material Disposal Are C in Relation to Pajarito Corridor Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masse, William B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-02

    A vapor plume made up of volatile organic compounds is present beneath Material Disposal Area C (MDA C) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The location and concentrations within the vapor plume are discussed in relation to existing and planned facilities and construction activities along Pajarito Road (the 'Pajarito Corridor') and in terms of worker health and safety. This document provides information that indicates that the vapor plume does not pose a threat to the health of LANL workers nor will it pose a threat to workers during construction of proposed facilities along Pajarito Road. The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) monitors emissions, effluents, and environmental media to meet environmental compliance requirements, determine actions to protect the environment, and monitor the long-term health of the local environment. LANL also studies and characterizes 'legacy' waste from past Laboratory operations to make informed decisions regarding eventual corrective actions and the disposition of that waste. Starting in 1969, these activities have been annually reported in the LANL Environmental Report (formerly Environmental Surveillance Report), and are detailed in publicly accessible technical reports meeting environmental compliance requirements. Included among the legacy sites being investigated are several formerly used material disposal areas (MDAs) set aside by the Laboratory for the general on-site disposal of waste from mission-related activities. One such area is MDA C located in Technical Area 50 (TA-50), which was used for waste disposal between 1948 and 1974. The location of TA-50 is depicted in Figure 1. The present paper uses a series of maps and cross sections to address the public concerns raised about the vapor plume at MDA C. As illustrated here, extensive sampling and data interpretation indicate that the vapor plume at MDA C does not pose a threat to the health of LANL workers nor will it pose a threat to workers during construction of the proposed facilities and utility trenches. The public cannot be directly exposed to the vapor plume beneath MDA C because Pajarito Road is closed to the public.

  5. Monitoring PVD metal vapors using laser absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, D.G.; Anklam, T.M.; Berzins, L.V.; Hagans, K.G.

    1994-04-01

    Laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) has been used by the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program for over 10 years to monitor the co-vaporization of uranium and iron in its separators. During that time, LAS has proven to be an accurate and reliable method to monitor both the density and composition of the vapor. It has distinct advantages over other rate monitors, in that it is completely non-obtrusive to the vaporization process and its accuracy is unaffected by the duration of the run. Additionally, the LAS diagnostic has been incorporated into a very successful process control system. LAS requires only a line of sight through the vacuum chamber, as all hardware is external to the vessel. The laser is swept in frequency through an absorption line of interest. In the process a baseline is established, and the line integrated density is determined from the absorption profile. The measurement requires no hardware calibration. Through a proper choice of the atomic transition, a wide range of elements and densities have been monitored (e.g. nickel, iron, cerium and gadolinium). A great deal of information about the vapor plume can be obtained from the measured absorption profiles. By monitoring different species at the same location, the composition of the vapor is measured in real time. By measuring the same density at different locations, the spatial profile of the vapor plume is determined. The shape of the absorption profile is used to obtain the flow speed of the vapor. Finally, all of the above information is used evaluate the total vaporization rate.

  6. Field investigation of effectiveness of soil vapor extraction technology (September 1994). Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    A research project was undertaken to study the effectiveness of soil vapor extraction (SVE), an emerging technology for remediation of soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). As part of the project, two soil vapor extraction systems, Site D and Site G at the Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant, New Brighton, Minnesota were selected for evaluation. The approach of the project was to gather and compare site information regarding residual soil concentrations before and after treatment, and obtain operational data to evaluate the performance of the systems. The residual levels of volatile organics before and after treatment are compared for magnitude and distribution. Operational data are analyzed to present the performance of the systems and the progression of treatment with time. Capital, operating and maintenance costs are presented. Results of the evaluation indicate that SVE has been effective in reducing the residual concentrations, generally by several orders of magnitude. In most cases, residual concentrations were nondetectable. Samples taken in silty clays and waste materials showed the hightest residual concentrations.

  7. III-nitride quantum cascade detector grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Yu, E-mail: yusong@princeton.edu; Huang, Tzu-Yung; Badami, Pranav; Gmachl, Claire [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Bhat, Rajaram; Zah, Chung-En [Corning Incorporated, Corning, New York 14831 (United States)

    2014-11-03

    Quantum cascade (QC) detectors in the GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N material system grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition are designed, fabricated, and characterized. Only two material compositions, i.e., GaN as wells and Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N as barriers are used in the active layers. The QC detectors operates around 4??m, with a peak responsivity of up to ?100??A/W and a detectivity of up to 10{sup 8} Jones at the background limited infrared performance temperature around 140?K.

  8. Note: Design principles of a linear array multi-channel effusive metal-vapor atom source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana, B.; Majumder, A.; Thakur, K. B.; Das, A. K.

    2013-10-15

    Atomic beams can easily be produced by allowing atoms to effuse through a channel. In an earlier investigation [A. Majumder et al., Vacuum 83, 989 (2009)], we had designed, fabricated, and characterized an effusive metal-vapor source using collinear-array of multi-channel. In this note, we describe the theoretical basis of designing the source. Atom density in atomic beam has been estimated using a set of analytical expressions for long-channel operated in transparent mode. Parametric studies on aspect ratio of channel, inter-channel separation, beam width, and vertical distance from the source are carried out. They are useful in providing physical picture and optimizing design parameters.

  9. Chemical vapor deposition techniques and related methods for manufacturing microminiature thermionic converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Donald B. (Albuquerque, NM); Sadwick, Laurence P. (Salt Lake City, UT); Wernsman, Bernard R. (Clairton, PA)

    2002-06-25

    Methods of manufacturing microminiature thermionic converters (MTCs) having high energy-conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures using MEMS manufacturing techniques including chemical vapor deposition. The MTCs made using the methods of the invention incorporate cathode to anode spacing of about 1 micron or less and use cathode and anode materials having work functions ranging from about 1 eV to about 3 eV. The MTCs also exhibit maximum efficiencies of just under 30%, and thousands of the devices can be fabricated at modest costs.

  10. In-well vapor stripping drilling and characterization work plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koegler, K.J.

    1994-03-13

    This work plan provides the information necessary for drilling, sampling, and hydrologic testing of wells to be completed in support of a demonstration of the in-well vapor stripping system. The in-well vapor stripping system is a remediation technology designed to preferentially extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater by converting them to a vapor phase. Air-lift pumping is used to lift and aerate groundwater within the well. The volatiles escaping the aerated water are drawn off by a slight vacuum and treated at the surface while the water is allowed to infiltrate the vadose zone back to the watertable.

  11. Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helfritch, Dennis J. (Baltimore, MD)

    1998-07-28

    A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

  12. Water Vapor around Sgr B2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Cernicharo; J. R. Goicoechea; J. R. Pardo; A. Asensio Ramos

    2006-01-16

    We have conducted a study combining H2O lines in two spectral regions. First, Infrared Space Observatory observations of several H2O thermal lines seen in absorption toward Sgr B2(M) at a spectral resolution of 35 kms^-1 have been analyzed. Second, an IRAM-30m telescope map of the para-H2O 3_13-2_20 line at 183.31 GHz, seen in emission, has also been obtained and analyzed. The H2O lines seen in absorption are optically thick and are formed in the outermost gas of the condensations in front of the far-IR continuum sources. They probe a maximum visual extinction of ~5 to 10 mag. Radiative transfer models indicate that these lines are quite insensitive to temperature and gas density, and that IR photons from the dust play a dominant role in the excitation of the involved H2O rotational levels. The water vapor abundance in the region is (1-2)x10^-5. The relatively low H2O/OH abundance ratio in the region, 2-4, is a signature of UV photon dominated surface layers traced by far-IR observations.

  13. The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-09

    This report provides the finding and recommendations on the audit of the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program. The status of the program was assessed to determine whether the Department was achieving objectives stated in its January 1990 Plan for the Demonstration, Transition and Deployment of AVLIS Technology. Through Fiscal Year 1991, the Department had spent about $1.1 billion to develop AVLIS technology. The January 1990 plan provided for AVLIS to be far enough along by September to enable the Department to make a determination of the technical and economic feasibility of deployment. However, the milestones needed to support that determination were not met. An estimated $550 million would be needed to complete AVLIS engineering development and related testing prior to deployment. The earliest possible deployment date has slipped to beyond the year 2000. It is recommended that the Department reassess the requirement for AVLIS in light of program delays and changes that have taken place in the enrichment market since January 1990. Following the reassessment, a decision should be made to either fully support and promote the actions needed to complete AVLIS development or discontinue support for the program entirely. Management`s position is that the Department will successfully complete the AVLIS technology demonstration and that the program should continue until it can be transferred to a Government corporation. Although the auditors recognize that AVLIS may be transferred, there are enough technical and financial uncertainties that a thorough assessment is warranted.

  14. Vapor Extraction Well Performance and Recommendations for Transitioning to Passive Extraction at the Former DUS-II Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Noonkester, Jay V.; Looney, Brian B.

    2013-04-03

    This investigation evaluated mass extraction rate from individual wells associated with the Western Sector Treatment System (formerly known as the DUS-II project). This was critical since each individual well can have a radius of influence in excess of 100-ft when operating using an active extraction system. Future soil vapor extraction should use the existing active extraction system, supplemented with deployment of passive extraction where appropriate.

  15. University of Oregon: GPS-based Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Vignola, F.; Andreas, A.

    2013-08-22

    A partnership with the University of Oregon and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) data to compliment existing resource assessment data collection by the university.

  16. Enabling integration of vapor-deposited polymer thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petruczok, Christy D. (Christy Danielle)

    2014-01-01

    Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) is a versatile, one-step process for synthesizing conformal and functional polymer thin films on a variety of substrates. This thesis emphasizes the development of tools to further ...

  17. Heat transfer during film condensation of potassium vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroger, Detlev Gustav

    1966-01-01

    The object of this work is to investigate theoretically and experimentally the following two phases of heat transfer during condensation of potassium vapore, a. Heat transfer during film condensation of pure saturated ...

  18. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of functional polyacrylic thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mao, Yu, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) was explored as a novel method for synthesis of functional polyacrylic thin films. The process introduces a peroxide initiator, which can be decomposed at low temperatures (<200?C) ...

  19. Chemical vapor deposition of organosilicon and sacrificial polymer thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casserly, Thomas Bryan

    2005-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) produced films for a wide array of applications from a variety of organosilicon and organic precursors. The structure and properties of thin films were controlled by varying processing ...

  20. Photoinitiated chemical vapor depostion [sic] : mechanism and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baxamusa, Salmaan Husain

    2009-01-01

    Photoinitiated chemical vapor deposition (piCVD) is developed as a simple, solventless, and rapid method for the deposition of swellable hydrogels and functional hydrogel copolymers. Mechanistic experiments show that piCVD ...

  1. Systems and methods for generation of hydrogen peroxide vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Love, Adam H; Eckels, Joel Del; Vu, Alexander K; Alcaraz, Armando; Reynolds, John G

    2014-12-02

    A system according to one embodiment includes a moisture trap for drying air; at least one of a first container and a second container; and a mechanism for at least one of: bubbling dried air from the moisture trap through a hydrogen peroxide solution in the first container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above a hydrogen peroxide solution in the second container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor. A method according one embodiment includes at least one of bubbling dried air through a hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a first hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above the hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a second hydrogen peroxide vapor. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  2. Water vapor and the dynamics of climate changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Tapio

    Water vapor is not only Earth's dominant greenhouse gas. Through the release of latent heat when it condenses, it also plays an active role in dynamic processes that shape the global circulation of the atmosphere and thus ...

  3. Fatigue Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures Affected by Water Vapor Movement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tong, Yunwei

    2013-11-08

    This dissertation has two key objectives: the first objective is to develop a method of predicting and quantifying the amount of water that can enter into a pavement system by vapor transport; the second objective is to ...

  4. All graphene electromechanical switch fabricated by chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milaninia, Kaveh M.

    We demonstrate an electromechanical switch comprising two polycrystalline graphene films; each deposited using ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition. The top film is pulled into electrical contact with the bottom film ...

  5. Low Level Heat Recovery Through Heat Pumps and Vapor Recompression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J.

    1980-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to examine the methods and economics of recovering low level heat through heat pumps and vapor recompression. Actual commercially available equipment is considered to determine the near-term and future economic viability...

  6. University of Oregon: GPS-based Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Vignola, F.; Andreas, A.

    A partnership with the University of Oregon and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) data to compliment existing resource assessment data collection by the university.

  7. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    that it can be reused. Vapor recompression relies upon a mechanical compressor or steam jet ejector to increase the temperature of the latent heat in steam to render it usable for...

  8. Numerical analysis of vapor flow in a micro heat pipe 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xiaoqin

    1996-01-01

    The vapor flow in a flat plate micro heat pipe with both uniform and linear heat flux boundary conditions has been numerically analyzed. For both types of boundary conditions, the Navier-Stokes equations with steady incompressible two...

  9. Screw Type Steam Compressors for Mechanical Vapor Recompression (MVR) Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawamura, K.; Apaloo, Thomas-L.

    1986-01-01

    hand, is not affected by such problem. No special mist separator is required and, at the same time, the wet or saturated vapor compression is possible, and does not affect the efficiency of the SSHP. (3) Stability of performance for a wide... COMPRESSORS FOR MECHANICAL VAPOR RECOMPRESSION (MVR) SYSTEMS K. KAWAMURA AND THOMAS-L. APALOO MYCOM CORPORATION, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA MATSUDA, MAYEKAWA MFG. CO., TOKYO, JAPAN ABSTRACT In processes of evaporation, distillation or drying, steam...

  10. Injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers is disclosed. The invention includes the combination of a seeding oscillator with an injection locked oscillator (ILO) for improving the quality, particularly the intensity, of an output laser beam pulse. The present invention includes means for matching the first seeder laser pulses from the seeding oscillator to second laser pulses of a metal vapor laser to improve the quality, and particularly the intensity, of the output laser beam pulse.

  11. PROJECT PROFILE: Stable Perovskite Solar Cells via Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project is focused on novel approaches to remove risk related to the development of hybrid perovskite solar cells (HPSCs). Researchers will synthesize a new and chemically stable hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite that eliminates decomposition of the absorber layer upon exposure to water vapor, which is a chief obstacle to widespread use of HPSC technology. They will also demonstrate a unique and industrially-scalable chemical vapor deposition method without halides or iodine, which are the main contributors to perovskite degradation.

  12. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    2004-02-19

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  13. Fluid Phase Equilibria 243 (2006) 198205 Comment on "prediction of vapor pressures of solid organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    2006-01-01

    of vapor pressures of solid organic compounds with a group contribution method" William E. Acree Jr gave satisfactory vapor pressure predictions for many organic compounds having vapor pressures well only for substituting into their predictive vapor pressure expression. The intent of this short

  14. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  15. Gas phase reaction of sulfur trioxide with water vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, C.E.; Molina, M.J.; Jayne, J.T.; Meads, R.F.; Worsnop, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Sulfur trioxide (SO3) has long been known to react with water to produce sulfuric acid (H2S04). It has been commonly assumed that the gas phase reaction in the Earth`s atmosphere between SO3 and water vapor to produce sulfuric acid vapor is an important step in the production of sulfuric acid aerosol particles. The kinetics of the gas phase reaction of SO3 with water vapor have previously been studied by Castleman and co-workers, Wang et al and Reiner and Arnold. Each of these studies was carried out in a flow reactor, with the first two studies performed at low pressure (1-10 Torr) and the latter from approx. 30 to 260 Torr. Each of these studies measured SO3 decays over a range of H2O vapor levels, obtaining data consistent with interpreting the reaction of gaseous SO3 and H2O as a bimolecular process. It is not clear why previous experimental studies failed to observe a nonlinear dependence of SO3 consumption on water vapor concentration. It is probable that sufficient water dimer exists in much of the Earth`s atmosphere to allow dimer reactions to participate in sulfuric acid vapor formation.

  16. Development of a Water Based, Critical Flow, Non-Vapor Compression cooling Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosni, Mohammad H.

    2014-03-30

    Expansion of a high-pressure liquid refrigerant through the use of a thermostatic expansion valve or other device is commonplace in vapor-compression cycles to regulate the quality and flow rate of the refrigerant entering the evaporator. In vapor-compression systems, as the condensed refrigerant undergoes this expansion, its pressure and temperature drop, and part of the liquid evaporates. We (researchers at Kansas State University) are developing a cooling cycle that instead pumps a high-pressure refrigerant through a supersonic converging-diverging nozzle. As the liquid refrigerant passes through the nozzle, its velocity reaches supersonic (or critical-flow) conditions, substantially decreasing the refrigerant’s pressure. This sharp pressure change vaporizes some of the refrigerant and absorbs heat from the surrounding conditions during this phase change. Due to the design of the nozzle, a shockwave trips the supersonic two-phase refrigerant back to the starting conditions, condensing the remaining vapor. The critical-flow refrigeration cycle would provide space cooling, similar to a chiller, by running a secondary fluid such as water or glycol over one or more nozzles. Rather than utilizing a compressor to raise the pressure of the refrigerant, as in a vapor-cycle system, the critical-flow cycle utilizes a high-pressure pump to drive refrigerant liquid through the cooling cycle. Additionally, the design of the nozzle can be tailored for a given refrigerant, such that environmentally benign substances can act as the working fluid. This refrigeration cycle is still in early-stage development with prototype development several years away. The complex multi-phase flow at supersonic conditions presents numerous challenges to fully understanding and modeling the cycle. With the support of DOE and venture-capital investors, initial research was conducted at PAX Streamline, and later, at Caitin. We (researchers at Kansas State University) have continued development of the cycle and have gained an in-depth understanding of the governing fundamental knowledge, based on the laws of physics and thermodynamics and verified with our testing results. Through this research, we are identifying optimal working fluid and operating conditions to eventually demonstrate the core technology for space cooling or other applications.

  17. Lumen Maintenance Testing of the Philips 60-Watt Replacement Lamp L Prize Entry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, Kelly L.; Hafen, Ryan P.; Hathaway, John E.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes testing conducted to evaluate the Philips' L Prize award winning 60-watt LED replacement product's ability to meet the lifetime/lumen maintenance requirement of the competition, which was: "having 70 percent of the lumen value under subparagraph (A) [producing a luminous flux greater than 900 lumens] exceeding 25,000 hours under typical conditions expected in residential use." A custom test apparatus was designed and constructed for this testing and a statistical approach was developed for use in evaluating the test results. This will be the only publicly available, third-party data set of long-term LED product operation.

  18. operations center

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    servers and other critical Operations Center equipment

  19. Independent air supply system filtered to protect against biological and radiological agents (99.7%).
  20. <...

  21. DOE CALiPER Program, Report 20.1 Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality, and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E.; Miller, Naomi J.

    2013-10-01

    This report focuses on human-evaluated characteristics, including beam quality, shadow quality, and color quality. Using a questionnaire that included rank ordering, opinions on 27 of the Report 20 PAR38 lamps were gathered during a demonstration event for members of the local Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) chapter. This was not a rigorous scientific experiment, and the data should not be extrapolated beyond the scope of the demonstration. The results suggest that many of the LED products compared favorably to halogen PAR38 benchmarks in all attributes considered. LED lamps using a single-emitter design were generally preferred for their beam quality and shadow quality, and the IES members ranking of color quality did not always match the rank according to the color rendering index (CRI).

  22. Evaluation of the Vaporization, Fusion, and Sublimation Enthalpies of the 1-Alkanols: The Vaporization Enthalpy of 1-, 6-, 7-, and 9-Heptadecanol,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    thermochemical cycles involving sublimation, fusion, and vaporization enthalpies.5 The technique is also capableEvaluation of the Vaporization, Fusion, and Sublimation Enthalpies of the 1-Alkanols: The Vaporization Enthalpy of 1-, 6-, 7-, and 9-Heptadecanol, 1-Octadecanol, 1-Eicosanol, 1-Docosanol, 1-Hexacosanol

  1. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at an Exhibit of 19th Century Photography at the Getty Museum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Druzik, Jim

    2012-03-02

    This document is a report of observations and results obtained from a lighting demonstration project conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) GATEWAY Demonstration Program. The program supports demonstrations of high-performance solid-state lighting (SSL) products in order to develop empirical data and experience with in-the-field applications of this advanced lighting technology. The DOE GATEWAY Demonstration Program focuses on providing a source of independent, third-party data for use in decision-making by lighting users and professionals; this data should be considered in combination with other information relevant to the particular site and application under examination. Each GATEWAY Demonstration compares SSL products against the incumbent technologies used in that location. Depending on available information and circumstances, the SSL product may also be compared to alternate lighting technologies. Though products demonstrated in the GATEWAY program may have been prescreened for performance, DOE does not endorse any commercial product or in any way guarantee that users will achieve the same results through use of these products. This report reviews the installation and use of LED PAR38 lamps to light a collection of toned albument photographic prints at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Malibu, California. Research results provided by the Getty Conservation Institute are incorporated and discussed.

  2. Drying of pulverized material with heated condensible vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus for drying pulverized material utilizes a high enthalpy condensable vapor such as steam for removing moisture from the individual particles of the pulverized material. The initially wet particulate material is tangentially delivered by a carrier vapor flow to an upper portion of a generally vertical cylindrical separation drum. The lateral wall of the separation drum is provided with a plurality of flow guides for directing the vapor tangentially therein in the direction of particulate material flow. Positioned concentrically within the separation drum and along the longitudinal axis thereof is a water-cooled condensation cylinder which is provided with a plurality of collection plates, or fins, on the outer lateral surface thereof. The cooled collection fins are aligned counter to the flow of the pulverized material and high enthalpy vapor mixture to maximize water vapor condensation thereon. The condensed liquid which includes moisture removed from the pulverized material then flows downward along the outer surface of the coolant cylinder and is collected and removed. The particles travel in a shallow helix due to respective centrifugal and vertical acceleration forces applied thereto. The individual particles of the pulverized material are directed outwardly by the vortex flow where they contact the inner cylindrical surface of the separation drum and are then deposited at the bottom thereof for easy collection and removal. The pulverized material drying apparatus is particularly adapted for drying coal fines and facilitates the recovery of the pulverized coal.

  3. Drying of pulverized material with heated condensible vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    1984-08-16

    Apparatus for drying pulverized material utilizes a high enthalpy condensable vapor such as steam for removing moisture from the individual particles of the pulverized material. The initially wet particulate material is tangentially delivered by a carrier vapor flow to an upper portion of a generally vertical cylindrical separation drum. The lateral wall of the separation drum is provided with a plurality of flow guides for directing the vapor tangentially therein in the direction of particulate material flow. Positioned concentrically within the separation drum and along the longitudinal axis thereof is a water-cooled condensation cylinder which is provided with a plurality of collection plates, or fines, on the outer lateral surface thereof. The cooled collection fines are aligned counter to the flow of the pulverized material and high enthalpy vapor mixture to maximize water vapor condensation thereon. The condensed liquid which includes moisture removed from the pulverized materials then flows downward along the outer surface of the coolant cylinder and is collected and removed. The particles travel in a shallow helix due to respective centrifugal and vertical acceleration forces applied thereto. The individual particles of the pulverized material are directed outwardly by the vortex flow where they contact the inner cylindrical surface of the separation drum and are then deposited at the bottom thereof for easy collection and removal. The pulverized material drying apparatus is particularly adapted for drying coal fines and facilitates the recovery of the pulverized coal. 2 figs.

  4. Direct Real-Time Detection of Vapors from Explosive Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Clowers, Brian H.; Atkinson, David A.

    2013-10-03

    The real-time detection of vapors from low volatility explosives including PETN, tetryl, RDX and nitroglycerine along with various compositions containing these substances is demonstrated. This was accomplished with an atmospheric flow tube (AFT) using a non-radioactive ionization source and coupled to a mass spectrometer. Direct vapor detection was demonstrated in less than 5 seconds at ambient temperature without sample pre-concentration. The several seconds of residence time of analytes in the AFT provides a significant opportunity for reactant ions to interact with analyte vapors to achieve ionization. This extended reaction time, combined with the selective ionization using the nitrate reactant ions (NO3- and NO3-•HNO3), enables highly sensitive explosives detection. Observed signals from diluted explosive vapors indicate detection limits below 10 ppqv using selected ion monitoring (SIM) of the explosive-nitrate adduct at m/z 349, 378, 284 and 289 for tetryl, PETN, RDX and NG respectively. Also provided is a demonstration of the vapor detection from 10 different energetic formulations, including double base propellants, plastic explosives and commercial blasting explosives using SIM for the NG, PETN and RDX product ions.

  5. Adsorption of radon and water vapor on commercial activated carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, N.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Ghosh, T.K.; Hines, A.L.; Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Equilibrium adsorption isotherms are reported for radon and water vapor on two commercial activated carbons: coconut shell Type PCB and hardwood Type BD. The isotherms of the water vapor were measured gravimetrically at 298 K. The isotherms of radon from dry nitrogen were obtained at 293, 298, and 308 K while the data for the mixture of radon and water vapor were measured at 298 K. The concentrations of radon in the gas and solid phases were measured simultaneously, once the adsorption equilibrium and the radioactive equilibrium between the radon and its daughter products were established. The shape of the isotherms was of Type III for the radon and Type V for the water vapor, according to Brunauer`s classification. The adsorption mechanism was similar for both the radon and the water vapor, being physical adsorption on the macropore surface area in the low pressure region and micropore filling near saturation pressure. The uptake capacity of radon decreased both with increasing temperature and relative humidity. The heat of adsorption data indicated that the PCB- and the BD-activated carbons provided a heterogeneous surface for radon adsorption. The equilibrium data for radon were correlated with a modified Freundlich equation.

  6. Vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musket, Ronald G. (Danville, CA); Porter, John D. (Berkeley, CA); Yoshiyama, James M. (Fremont, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR)

    2000-01-01

    A process involving vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials for creating high aspect ratio (i.e., length much greater than diameter), isolated cylindrical holes in dielectric materials that have been exposed to high-energy atomic particles. The process includes cleaning the surface of the tracked material and exposing the cleaned surface to a vapor of a suitable etchant. Independent control of the temperatures of the vapor and the tracked materials provide the means to vary separately the etch rates for the latent track region and the non-tracked material. As a rule, the tracked regions etch at a greater rate than the non-tracked regions. In addition, the vapor-etched holes can be enlarged and smoothed by subsequent dipping in a liquid etchant. The 20-1000 nm diameter holes resulting from the vapor etching process can be useful as molds for electroplating nanometer-sized filaments, etching gate cavities for deposition of nano-cones, developing high-aspect ratio holes in trackable resists, and as filters for a variety of molecular-sized particles in virtually any liquid or gas by selecting the dielectric material that is compatible with the liquid or gas of interest.

  7. Laser absorption spectroscopy system for vaporization process characterization and control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galkowski, J.; Hagans, K.

    1993-09-07

    In support of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) Program, a laser atomic absorption spectroscopy (LAS) system has been developed. This multi-laser system is capable of simultaneously measuring the line densities of {sup 238}U ground and metastable states, {sup 235}U ground and metastable states, iron, and ions at up to nine locations within the separator vessel. Supporting enrichment experiments that last over one hundred hours, this laser spectroscopy system is employed to diagnose and optimize separator system performance, control the electron beam vaporizer and metal feed systems, and provide physics data for the validation of computer models. As a tool for spectroscopic research, vapor plume characterization, vapor deposition monitoring, and vaporizer development, LLNL`s LAS laboratory with its six argon-ion-pumped ring dye lasers and recently added Ti:Sapphire and external-cavity diode-lasers has capabilities far beyond the requirements of its primary mission.

  8. Low temperature photochemical vapor deposition of alloy and mixed metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for formation of an alloy thin film, or a mixed metal oxide thin film, on a substrate at relatively low temperatures. Precursor vapor(s) containing the desired thin film constituents is positioned adjacent to the substrate and irradiated by light having wavelengths in a selected wavelength range, to dissociate the gas(es) and provide atoms or molecules containing only the desired constituents. These gases then deposit at relatively low temperatures as a thin film on the substrate. The precursor vapor(s) is formed by vaporization of one or more precursor materials, where the vaporization temperature(s) is selected to control the ratio of concentration of metals present in the precursor vapor(s) and/or the total precursor vapor pressure.

  9. Using radiative transfer models to study the atmospheric water vapor content and to eliminate telluric lines from high-resolution optical spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardini, A; Pérez, E; Quesada, J A; Funke, B

    2012-01-01

    The Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) and the retrieval algorithm, incorporated in the SCIATRAN 2.2 software package developed at the Institute of Remote Sensing/Institute of Enviromental Physics of Bremen University (Germany), allows to simulate, among other things, radiance/irradiance spectra in the 2400-24 000 {\\AA} range. In this work we present applications of RTM to two case studies. In the first case the RTM was used to simulate direct solar irradiance spectra, with different water vapor amounts, for the study of the water vapor content in the atmosphere above Sierra Nevada Observatory. Simulated spectra were compared with those measured with a spectrometer operating in the 8000-10 000 {\\AA} range. In the second case the RTM was used to generate telluric model spectra to subtract the atmospheric contribution and correct high-resolution stellar spectra from atmospheric water vapor and oxygen lines. The results of both studies are discussed.

  10. Removal of Sarin Aerosol and Vapor by Water Sprays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockmann, John E.

    1998-09-01

    Falling water drops can collect particles and soluble or reactive vapor from the gas through which they fall. Rain is known to remove particles and vapors by the process of rainout. Water sprays can be used to remove radioactive aerosol from the atmosphere of a nuclear reactor containment building. There is a potential for water sprays to be used as a mitigation technique to remove chemical or bio- logical agents from the air. This paper is a quick-look at water spray removal. It is not definitive but rather provides a reasonable basic model for particle and gas removal and presents an example calcu- lation of sarin removal from a BART station. This work ~ a starting point and the results indicate that further modeling and exploration of additional mechanisms for particle and vapor removal may prove beneficial.

  11. CHEMICALLY VAPOR DEPOSITED YTTRIA-STABILIZED ZIRCONIA (YSZ) FOR THERMAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL BARRIER COATING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varanasi, V.G.; Besmann, T.M.; Lothian, J.L.; Xu, W.; Starr, T.L.

    2003-04-22

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is used as a thermal barrier coating (TBC) to protect super-alloy blades such as Mar-M247 or Rene-N5 during engine operation. The current method for YSZ fabrication for TBC applications is by air-plasma spraying (APS) or electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) (Haynes 1997). APS gives reasonable deposition rates, but has a limited life and aging effects due to its porous and lamellar structure. The EB-PVD coatings are more stable and can accommodate thermomechanical stresses due to their characteristic strain-tolerant, columnar microstructure. EB-PVD, however, is primarily line-of-sight, which often leaves ''hidden areas'' uncoated, has low throughput, and has high capital cost. The process of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is investigated here as an economical alternative to EB-PVD and APS, with the potential for better overall coverage as well as the ability to produce thick (100-250 {micro}m), strain-tolerant, columnar coatings. MOCVD of YSZ involves the use of zirconium and yttrium organometallic precursors reacting with an oxygen source. Previous researchers have used diketonate or chloride precursors and oxygen (Wahl et al. 2001a, Wahl et al. 2001b, Yamane and Harai 1989). These precursors have low transport rates due to their low carrier solvent solubility (Varanasi et al. 2003). Solvated zirconium and yttrium butoxide precursors were investigated here due to their higher vapor pressures and high solvent solubility. This work uses predictive equilibrium modeling and experiments involving butoxide precursors for tetragonal YSZ fabrication.

  12. Operating Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter is focused on capital costs for conventional construction and environmental restoration and waste management projects and examines operating cost estimates to verify that all elements of the project have been considered and properly estimated.

  13. Optimization of the operation of a drying heat pump using superheated steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moraitis, C.S.; Akritidis, C.B.

    1997-05-01

    A numerical solution of a model which describes the optimal operation of a novel concept of heat pump for drying applications based on the theory of minimum energy cycles is presented. The thermodynamic cycle of the drying heat pump involves vapor condensation in a Laval nozzle, removal of the liquid phase in a separator as well as compression of the working medium, which is superheated vapor.

  14. The effects of heat conduction on the vaporization of liquid invading superheated permeable rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, Andrew, W.; Fitzgerald, Shaun D.

    1996-01-24

    We examine the role of conductive and convective heat transfer in the vaporization of liquid as it slowly invades a superheated permeable rock. For very slow migration, virtually all of the liquid vaporizes. As the liquid supply rate increases beyond the rate of heat transfer by thermal conduction, a decreasing fraction of the liquid can vaporize. Indeed, for sufficiently high flow rates, the fraction vaporizing depends solely on the superheat of the rock, and any heat transfer from the superheated region is negligible. These results complement earlier studies of vaporization under very high injection rates, in which case the dynamic vapour pressure reduces the mass fraction vaporizing to very small values.

  15. CALiPER Report 20.4: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l DeInsulation at04-86) (All Previous Editions ArePROFESSIONAL4:

  16. A combined droplet train and ambient pressure photoemission spectrometer for the investigation of liquid/vapor interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Starr, David E.

    2008-01-01

    ambient conditions the vapor pressure of water or aqueousrange (e.g. , the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at itsUHV conditions due to the vapor pressure of the liquids, but

  17. The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program. [Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-09

    This report provides the finding and recommendations on the audit of the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program. The status of the program was assessed to determine whether the Department was achieving objectives stated in its January 1990 Plan for the Demonstration, Transition and Deployment of AVLIS Technology. Through Fiscal Year 1991, the Department had spent about $1.1 billion to develop AVLIS technology. The January 1990 plan provided for AVLIS to be far enough along by September to enable the Department to make a determination of the technical and economic feasibility of deployment. However, the milestones needed to support that determination were not met. An estimated $550 million would be needed to complete AVLIS engineering development and related testing prior to deployment. The earliest possible deployment date has slipped to beyond the year 2000. It is recommended that the Department reassess the requirement for AVLIS in light of program delays and changes that have taken place in the enrichment market since January 1990. Following the reassessment, a decision should be made to either fully support and promote the actions needed to complete AVLIS development or discontinue support for the program entirely. Management's position is that the Department will successfully complete the AVLIS technology demonstration and that the program should continue until it can be transferred to a Government corporation. Although the auditors recognize that AVLIS may be transferred, there are enough technical and financial uncertainties that a thorough assessment is warranted.

  18. Posters Toward an Operational Water Vapor Remote Sensing System Using the Global Positioning System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document outlines the majorL.Posters955 Posters373

  19. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 17, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2002 1049 Generic Operational Characteristics of Piezoelectric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for fluorescent lamps, battery chargers for mobile phones, ac adapters for mobile computers, gate drives

  20. Slow light in paraffin-coated Rb vapor cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Klein; I. Novikova; D. F. Phillips; R. L. Walsworth

    2006-02-15

    We present preliminary results from an experimental study of slow light in anti-relaxation-coated Rb vapor cells, and describe the construction and testing of such cells. The slow ground state decoherence rate allowed by coated cell walls leads to a dual-structured electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) spectrum with a very narrow (cell systems.

  1. Compositional Variations in Vapor Deposited Samarium Zirconate Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Compositional Variations in Vapor Deposited Samarium Zirconate Coatings A Thesis Presented temperatures instead have relied on the development of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. The thermal barrier coating systems applied to superalloys consist of three layers: (i) an aluminum rich metallic bond

  2. Method for removing metal vapor from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

    1996-04-02

    A process for cleaning an inert gas contaminated with a metallic vapor, such as cadmium, involves withdrawing gas containing the metallic contaminant from a gas atmosphere of high purity argon; passing the gas containing the metallic contaminant to a mass transfer unit having a plurality of hot gas channels separated by a plurality of coolant gas channels; cooling the contaminated gas as it flows upward through the mass transfer unit to cause contaminated gas vapor to condense on the gas channel walls; regenerating the gas channels of the mass transfer unit; and, returning the cleaned gas to the gas atmosphere of high purity argon. The condensing of the contaminant-containing vapor occurs while suppressing contaminant particulate formation, and is promoted by providing a sufficient amount of surface area in the mass transfer unit to cause the vapor to condense and relieve supersaturation buildup such that contaminant particulates are not formed. Condensation of the contaminant is prevented on supply and return lines in which the contaminant containing gas is withdrawn and returned from and to the electrorefiner and mass transfer unit by heating and insulating the supply and return lines. 13 figs.

  3. Chemical vapor deposition of fluorine-doped zinc oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy G. (Cambridge, MA); Kramer, Keith (Avon Lake, OH); Liang, Haifan (Santa Clara, CA)

    2000-06-06

    Fims of fluorine-doped zinc oxide are deposited from vaporized precursor compounds comprising a chelate of a dialkylzinc, such as an amine chelate, an oxygen source, and a fluorine source. The coatings are highly electrically conductive, transparent to visible light, reflective to infrared radiation, absorbing to ultraviolet light, and free of carbon impurity.

  4. AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR TRANSFERRING GRAPHENE GROWN BY CHEMICAL VAPOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR TRANSFERRING GRAPHENE GROWN BY CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION YUJIE REN Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials and Applications Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, P. R In this paper, we report an improved transfer of graphene by directly picking up the graphene with target

  5. Vapor Phase Synthesis and Characterization of -FeSi Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    Vapor Phase Synthesis and Characterization of - FeSi Nanowires Lian Ouyang, Elizabeth S. Thrall, Mandar M. Deshmukh, and Hongkun Park Over the past decade, one-dimensional inorganic nanostructures have emerged as promising materials for fundamental studies and possible technological applications.[1

  6. Vapor deposited samarium zirconate thermal barrier coatings Hengbei Zhao a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    by Elsevier B.V. 1. Introduction Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems have become an enabling materials technology for the gas turbine engines used for propulsion and power generation [1]. Through their abilityVapor deposited samarium zirconate thermal barrier coatings Hengbei Zhao a, , Carlos G. Levi b

  7. On the physical adsorption of vapors by microporous carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R.H. (Univ. of Technology, Loughborough (United Kingdom). Inst. of Surface Science and Technology); Rand, B. (Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). Division of Ceramics)

    1995-01-01

    The physical adsorption of nonpolar and polar vapors by active carbons is discussed in relation to pore structure and pore wall chemistry. For nonpolar vapors the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation is used to derive micropore volumes (W[sub 0]), average adsorption energies (E[sub 0]), and micropore widths (L) for a number of systems. These parameters are used to interpret the adsorption behavior of nitrogen which, because it is a relatively small molecule, is frequently used at 77 K to probe porosity and surface area. Results are presented for three carbons from differing precursors, namely, coal, coconut shells, and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) to illustrate the applicability of the technique. For the latter carbon increases in micropore size, induced by activation in carbon dioxide, and reductions in accessible pore volume caused by heat treatment in argon are also characterized and related to structural changes. The approach is then extended to the adsorption of larger hydrogen vapors, where the resulting W[sub 0] values may require correction for molecular packing effects which occur in the lower relative pressure regions of the isotherms, i.e., during the filling of ultramicropores. These packing effects are shown to limit the use of the Polanyi characteristic curve for correlating isotherm data for several vapors, of differing molecular size, by one adsorbent. Data for the adsorption of water, which is a strongly polar liquid, have been interpreted using the Dubinin-Serpinsky equation.

  8. Sorption and Diffusion of Organic Vapors in Two Fluoroelastomers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ping

    ; fluoroelastomers; self-diffusion coefficient; in- teraction parameters; barrier properties INTRODUCTION FluorelSorption and Diffusion of Organic Vapors in Two Fluoroelastomers PING WANG,* NATHANIEL S. SCHNEIDER and Aflas are two fluoroelastomers designed to provide superior solvent resistance and, in the case

  9. Experimental Study of Water Vapor Adsorption on Geothermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    SGP-TR-148 Experimental Study of Water Vapor Adsorption on Geothermal Reservoir Rocks Shubo Shang Geothermal Program under Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG07-90IDI2934,and by the Department of Petroleum Engineering, Stanford University Stanford Geothermal Program Interdisciplinary Research in Engineering

  10. Amine functionalization by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) for interfacial adhesion and film cohesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jingjing, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Amine functional polymer thin films provide a versatile platform for subsequent functionalization because of their diverse reactivity. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a polymer chemical vapor deposition ...

  11. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Assignment 8 1 Assignment #8 (Vapor Power Cycles)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Assignment 8 1 ENSC 461 Assignment #8 (Vapor Power Cycles) Assignment date: Due date: Consider a reheat-regenerative vapor power cycle with two feedwater heaters, a closed

  12. Simulation and Validation of Vapor Compression System Faults and Start-up/Shut-down Transients 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayyagari, Balakrishna

    2012-10-19

    as vapor compression system faults. This thesis addresses these concerns and enhances the existing modeling library to capture the transients related to the above mentioned conditions. In this thesis, the various faults occurring in a vapor compressor...

  13. Technology Solutions Case Study: Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

  14. Water Vapor Variability Across Spatial Scales: Insights for Theory, Parameterization, and Model Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pressel, Kyle Gregory

    2012-01-01

    11 2 Scaling of Water Vapor Structure Functions as 2.1cloud model. q is the total water mixing-ratio and q ? isAIRS Exponents from AIRS Data Water Vapor Time Series from a

  15. Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Biblarz, Oscar (Swampscott, MA)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process.

  16. Operating Strategies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996Technologies /JuneOperating Oak Ridge'sOPERATING

  17. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP): A Model-Data Comparison System for Evaluation of Coupled Biosphere-Atmosphere Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Forrest M; Randerson, Jim; Thornton, Peter E; Mahowald, Natalie; Bonan, Gordon; Running, Steven; Fung, Inez

    2009-01-01

    The need to capture important climate feebacks in general circulation models (GCMs) has resulted in new efforts to include atmospheric chemistry and land and ocean biogeochemistry into the next generation of production climate models, now often referred to as Earth System Models (ESMs). While many terrestrial and ocean carbon models have been coupled to GCMs, recent work has shown that such models can yield a wide range of results, suggesting that a more rigorous set of offline and partially coupled experiments, along with detailed analyses of processes and comparisons with measurements, are warranted. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) provides a simulation protocol and model performance metrics based upon comparisons against best-available satellite- and ground-based measurements (Hoffman et al., 2007). C-LAMP provides feedback to the modeling community regarding model improvements and to the measurement community by suggesting new observational campaigns. C-LAMP Experiment 1 consists of a set of uncoupled simulations of terrestrial carbon models specifically designed to examine the ability of the models to reproduce surface carbon and energy fluxes at multiple sites and to exhibit the influence of climate variability, prescribed atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen (N) deposition, and land cover change on projections of terrestrial carbon fluxes during the 20th century. Experiment 2 consists of partially coupled simulations of the terrestrial carbon model with an active atmosphere model exchanging energy and moisture fluxes. In all experiments, atmospheric CO{sub 2} follows the prescribed historical trajectory from C{sup 4}MIP. In Experiment 2, the atmosphere model is forced with prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and corresponding sea ice concentrations from the Hadley Centre; prescribed CO{sub 2} is radiatively active; and land, fossil fuel, and ocean CO{sub 2} fluxes are advected by the model. Both sets of experiments have been performed using two different terrestrial biogeochemistry modules coupled to the Community Land Model version 3 (CLM3) in the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3): The CASA model of Fung, et al., and the carbon-nitrogen (CN) model of Thornton. Comparisons against Ameriflus site measurements, MODIS satellite observations, NOAA flask records, TRANSCOM inversions, and Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) site measurements, and other datasets have been performed and are described in Randerson et al. (2009). The C-LAMP diagnostics package was used to validate improvements to CASA and CN for use in the next generation model, CLM4. It is hoped that this effort will serve as a prototype for an international carbon-cycle model benchmarking activity for models being used for the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report. More information about C-LAMP, the experimental protocol, performance metrics, output standards, and model-data comparisons from the CLM3-CASA and CLM3-CN models are available at http://www.climatemodeling.org/c-lamp.

  18. Influence of process variables on electron beam chemical vapor deposition of platinum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Influence of process variables on electron beam chemical vapor deposition of platinum D. Beaulieu; accepted 8 August 2005; published 22 September 2005 Electron beam chemical vapor deposition was performed. DOI: 10.1116/1.2050672 I. INTRODUCTION Electron beam chemical vapor deposition EBCVD is a technology

  19. Optical characterization of InN layers grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietz, Nikolaus

    Optical characterization of InN layers grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition M. Alevli properties of InN layers grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition have been studied. Raman, infrared at elevated temperatures, a high-pressure chemical vapor deposition HPCVD system has been established at GSU.6

  20. Correlation Between Opacity and Surface Water Vapor Pressure Measurements at Rio Frio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groppi, Christopher

    Correlation Between Opacity and Surface Water Vapor Pressure Measurements at Rio Frio M.A. Holdaway 1, 1996 Abstract We use the surface water vapor pressure measured by weather stations at 4060 m opacity. The surface water vapor pressure is inverted some 20% of the time at night and some 35

  1. Surface structure, composition, and polarity of indium nitride grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietz, Nikolaus

    grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition have been studied. Atomic hydrogen cleaning produced and heterostructures--which can be accomplished by low- pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition MOCVD --the- rium vapor pressure of nitrogen during growth. This requires different approaches in growing structures

  2. A HOMOGENIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR THE BOLTZMANN EQUATION FOR LOW PRESSURE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markowich, Peter A.

    A HOMOGENIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR THE BOLTZMANN EQUATION FOR LOW PRESSURE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION 1 the approach. The setup models low pressure chemical vapor deposition processes in the manufacturing. Low pressure chemical vapor deposition is used in the manufactur- ing of integrated circuits

  3. Effect of Substrate Roughness on D Spacing Supports Theoretical Resolution of Vapor Pressure Paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagle, John F.

    Effect of Substrate Roughness on D Spacing Supports Theoretical Resolution of Vapor Pressure with and provides experimental support for a recently proposed theoretical resolution of the vapor pressure paradox has been called the vapor pressure paradox (Rand and Parsegian, 1989). Resolving this paradox

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRANSPIRATION AND NITROGEN UPTAKE BY PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM) AS MEDIATED BY VAPOR PRESSURE DEFICIT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teskey, Robert O.

    BY VAPOR PRESSURE DEFICIT by KATHERINE E. BOWER (Under the Direction of Robert O. Teskey) ABSTRACT) were grown in growth chambers with differing vapor pressure deficits (VPD, 1.20 kPa and 1.98 k and growth even under low nutrient conditions. INDEX WORDS: nitrogen, pepper, transpiration, vapor pressure

  5. Measurements of the Vapor Pressure of Supercooled Water Using Infrared Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostinski, Alex

    Measurements of the Vapor Pressure of Supercooled Water Using Infrared Spectroscopy WILL CANTRELL 14 May 2007, in final form 6 December 2007) ABSTRACT Measurements are presented of the vapor pressure' data correspond to the vapor pressure of liquid water, not a mixture of liquid water and ice. Values

  6. Wavelength-modulation laser hygrometer for ultrasensitive detection of water vapor in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wavelength-modulation laser hygrometer for ultrasensitive detection of water vapor in semiconductor.5 mol mol of water vapor in air. The pressure- broadening coefficients for water broadened by helium 0- eter WMLH for the ultrasensitive detection of water vapor.11 For detecting H2O this instrument com

  7. Vaporization and Sublimation Enthalpies of Acetanilide and Several Derivatives by Correlation Gas Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    of their sublimation enthalpies by completing thermochemical cycles as summarized by eq 1. The vaporization enthalpiesVaporization and Sublimation Enthalpies of Acetanilide and Several Derivatives by Correlation Gas: The vaporization and fusion enthalpies of acetanilide and several of its derivatives have been measured

  8. Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of 5 mm Hexagonal Single-Crystal Graphene from Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of 5 mm Hexagonal Single-Crystal Graphene from Ethanol Xiao Chen1 as large as 5 mm can be synthesized from ethanol via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Key conditions for the successful reduction in nucleation density are extremely low partial pressure of ethanol vapor and pre

  9. Ultralow-light-level all-optical transistor in rubidium vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing, Jietai, E-mail: jtjing@phy.ecnu.edu.cn; Zhou, Zhifan; Liu, Cunjin; Qin, Zhongzhong; Fang, Yami; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Weiping [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Department of Physics, Quantum Institute for Light and Atoms, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2014-04-14

    An all-optical transistor (AOT) is a device in which one light beam can efficiently manipulate another. It is the foundational component of an all-optical communication network. An AOT that can operate at ultralow light levels is especially attractive for its potential application in the quantum information field. Here, we demonstrate an AOT driven by a weak light beam with an energy density of 2.5?×?10{sup ?5} photons/(?{sup 2}/2?) (corresponding to 6??yJ/(?{sup 2}/2?) and about 800 total photons) using the double-? four-wave mixing process in hot rubidium vapor. This makes it a promising candidate for ultralow-light-level optical communication and quantum information science.

  10. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production from Biomass via Hot-Vapor-Filtered Fast Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Bio-oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; French, Richard; Deutch, Steve; Iisa, Kristiina

    2014-08-14

    Hot-vapor filtered bio-oils were produced from two different biomass feedstocks, oak and switchgrass, and the oils were evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. Hot-vapor filtering reduced bio-oil yields and increased gas yields. The yields of fuel carbon as bio-oil were reduced by ten percentage points by hot-vapor filtering for both feedstocks. The unfiltered bio-oils were evaluated alongside the filtered bio-oils using a fixed bed catalytic hydrotreating test. These tests showed good processing results using a two-stage catalytic hydroprocessing strategy. Equal-sized catalyst beds, a sulfided Ru on carbon catalyst bed operated at 220°C and a sulfided CoMo on alumina catalyst bed operated at 400°C were used with the entire reactor at 100 atm operating pressure. The products from the four tests were similar. The light oil phase product was fully hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection, while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.3 to 2.0%. The density of the products varied from 0.80 g/ml up to 0.86 g/ml over the period of the test with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 1.79 down to 1.57, suggesting some loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the suite of liquid fuel products from the process and the activity of the catalyst in relationship to the existing catalyst lifetime barrier for the technology.

  11. Operation Poorman

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruvost, N.; Tsitouras, J.

    1981-03-18

    The objectives of Operation Poorman were to design and build a portable seismic system and to set up and use this system in a cold-weather environment. The equipment design uses current technology to achieve a low-power, lightweight system that is configured into three modules. The system was deployed in Alaska during wintertime, and the results provide a basis for specifying a mission-ready seismic verification system.

  12. High-Heat Flux Testing of Irradiated Tungsten based Materials for Fusion Applications using Infrared Plasma Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Ohriner, Evan Keith; Kiggans Jr, James O; Schaich, Charles Ross; Ueda, Yoshio; Harper, David C; Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance Lewis; Byun, Thak Sang

    2014-01-01

    Testing of advanced materials and component mock-ups under prototypical fusion high-heat flux conditions, while historically a mainstay of fusion research has proved challenging, especially for irradiated materials. A new high-heat flux testing facility based on water-wall Plasma Arc Lamps (PALs) is now being used for materials and small component testing. Two PAL systems, utilizing a 12,000 C plasma arc contained in a quartz tube cooled by a spiral water flow over the inside tube surface, are currently in use. The first PAL system provides a maximum incident heat flux of 4.2 MW/m2 over an area of 9x12 cm2. The second PAL available at ORNL provides a maximum incident heat flux of 27 MW/m2 over an area of 1x10 cm2. The absorbed heat fluxes into a tungsten target for the two PALs are approximately 1.97 and 12.7 MW/m2, respectively. This paper will present the overall design of the new PAL facilities as well as the design and implementation of the Irradiated Material Target Station (IMTS). The IMTS is primarily designed for testing the effects of heat flux or thermal cycling on material coupons of interested, such as those for plasma facing components. Moreover, IMTS designs are underway to extend the testing of small mock-ups for assessing the combined heating and thermomechanical effects of cooled, irradiated components. For the testing of material coupons , the specimens are placed in a shallow recess within the molybdenum holder that is attached to a water-cooled copper alloy rod. As the measurement of the specimen temperature for PAL is historically challenging since traditional approaches of temperature measurement cannot be employed due to the infrared heating and proximity of the PAL reflector to the specimen that does not allow a direct line of site, experiments for temperature calibration are presented. Finally, results for the high-heat flux testing of tungsten-based materials using the PAL are presented. As a demonstration of the system, results will be shown of thermal fatigue and high-heat flux testing of tungsten coupon specimens that were neutron irradiated in the HFIR reactor to neutron dose consistent to ITER lifetime.

  13. TANK VAPOR CHEMICALS OF POTENTIAL CONCERN & EXISTING DIRECT READING INSTRUMENTION & PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CONSIDERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BUTLER, N.K.

    2004-11-01

    This document takes the newly released Industrial Hygiene Chemical Vapor Technical Basis (RPP-22491) and evaluates the chemicals of potential concern (COPC) identified for selected implementation actions by the industrial hygiene organization. This document is not intended as a hazard analysis with recommended controls for all tank farm activities. Not all of the chemicals listed are present in all tanks; therefore, hazard analyses can and should be tailored as appropriate. Detection of each chemical by current industrial hygiene non-specific instrumentation in use at the tank farms is evaluated. Information gaps are identified and recommendations are made to resolve these needs. Of the 52 COPC, 34 can be detected with existing instrumentation. Three additional chemicals could be detected with a photoionization detector (PID) equipped with a different lamp. Discussion with specific instrument manufacturers is warranted. Consideration should be given to having the SapphIRe XL customized for tank farm applications. Other instruments, sampling or modeling techniques should be evaluated to estimate concentrations of chemicals not detected by direct reading instruments. In addition, relative instrument response needs to be factored in to action levels used for direct reading instruments. These action levels should be correlated to exposures to the COPC and corresponding occupational exposure limits (OELs). The minimum respiratory protection for each of the COPC is evaluated against current options. Recommendations are made for respiratory protection based on each chemical. Until exposures are sufficiently quantified and analyzed, the current use of supplied air respiratory protection is appropriate and protective for the COPC. Use of supplied air respiratory protection should be evaluated once a detailed exposure assessment for the COPC is completed. The established tank farm OELs should be documented in the TFC-PLN-34. For chemicals without an established tank farm OEL, consideration should be given to adopting protective limits from NIOSH, AIHA, or developing OELs. Protective gloves and suits are evaluated for each chemical for which information is available. Information gaps are identified for some of the compounds and materials. Recommendations are made for resolving these needs. Based on available information, Silver Shield{reg_sign} gloves are promising for tank farm applications. However, permeation testing documentation is needed for the COPC and mixtures for Silver Shield{reg_sign} gloves to evaluate their protectiveness. North Safety Products is expected to provide the requested documentation. Multiple Tychem{reg_sign} products are available. There is overlap between chemicals and effective materials. Further hazard evaluation to determine actual hazards and permeation testing documentation is required to assess the efficacy of a single Tychem{reg_sign} product for tank farm applications. All of this chemical specific data is combined into a spreadsheet that will assist the industrial hygienist in the selection of monitoring instruments, respiratory protection selection and protective clothing for performing work at a specific tank(s).

  14. General Service LED Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A U.S. DOE SSL technology fact sheet that compares general service LED light bulbs with incandescent and CFL bulbs.

  15. Phosphors for LED lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, James Edward; Manepalli, Satya Kishore; Kumar, Prasanth Nammalwar

    2013-08-13

    A phosphor, a phosphor blend including the phosphor, a phosphor prepared by a process, and a lighting apparatus including the phosphor blend are disclosed. The phosphor has the formula (Ca.sub.1-p-qCe.sub.pK.sub.q).sub.xSc.sub.y(Si.sub.1-rGa.sub.r).sub.zO.su- b.12+.delta. or derived from a process followed using disclosed amounts of reactants. In the formula, (0

  16. Electromagnetically induced transparency in paraffin-coated vapor cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, M.; Hohensee, M.; Walsworth, R. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Phillips, D. F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Antirelaxation coatings in atomic vapor cells allow ground-state coherent spin states to survive many collisions with the cell walls. This reduction in the ground-state decoherence rate gives rise to ultranarrow-bandwidth features in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) spectra, which can form the basis of, for example, long-time scale slow and stored light, sensitive magnetometers, and precise frequency standards. Here we study, both experimentally and theoretically, how Zeeman EIT contrast and width in paraffin-coated rubidium vapor cells are determined by cell and laser-beam geometry, laser intensity, and atomic density. Using a picture of Ramsey pulse sequences, where atoms alternately spend ''bright'' and ''dark'' time intervals inside and outside the laser beam, we explain the behavior of EIT features in coated cells, highlighting their unique characteristics and potential applications.

  17. Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakestraw, L.D.

    1994-11-15

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks.

  18. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

    1989-01-01

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  19. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

    1988-04-26

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  20. Evaporation monitoring and composition control of alloy systems with widely differing vapor pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T.M.; Berzins, L.V.; Braun, D.G.; Haynam, C.; McClelland, M.A.; Meier, T.

    1994-10-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing sensors and controls to improve and extend electron beam materials processing technology to alloy systems with constituents of widely varying vapor pressure. The approach under development involves using tunable lasers to measure the density and composition of the vapor plume. A laser based vaporizer control system for vaporization of a uranium-iron alloy has been previously demonstrated in multi-hundred hour, high rate vaporization experiments at LLNL. This paper reviews the design and performance of the uranium vaporization sensor and control system and discusses the extension of the technology to monitoring of uranium vaporization. Data is presented from an experiment in which titanium wire was fed into a molten niobium pool. Laser data is compared to deposited film composition and film cross sections. Finally, the potential for using this technique for composition control in melting applications is discussed.

  1. WHAT TO BRING RIT Housing Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    Extension cords and multi-plug adapters Portable space heaters Halogen lamps and halogen bulbs 300 watts, or laundry basket (Ones that fold are best) Towels and washcloths Iron and small portable ironing board

  2. Narrowband fluorescent nanodiamonds produced from chemical vapor deposition films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neu, Elke; Gross, Elke; Hepp, Christian; Steinmetz, David; Zscherpel, Elisabeth; Ghodbane, Slimane; Sternschulte, Hadwig; Steinmueller-Nethl, Doris; Liang, Yuejiang; Krueger, Anke; Becher, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    We report on the production of nanodiamonds (NDs) with 70-80 nm size via bead assisted sonic disintegration (BASD) of a polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) film. The NDs display high crystalline quality as well as intense narrowband (7 nm) room temperature luminescence at 738 nm due to in situ incorporated silicon vacancy (SiV) centers. The fluorescence properties at room and cryogenic temperatures indicate that the NDs are, depending on preparation, applicable as single photon sources or as fluorescence labels.

  3. Narrowband fluorescent nanodiamonds produced from chemical vapor deposition films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elke Neu; Carsten Arend; Felix Guldner; Elke Gross; Christian Hepp; David Steinmetz; Elisabeth Zscherpel; Slimane Ghodbane; Hadwig Sternschulte; Doris Steinmueller-Nethl; Yuejiang Liang; Anke Krueger; Christoph Becher

    2011-05-24

    We report on the production of nanodiamonds (NDs) with 70-80 nm size via bead assisted sonic disintegration (BASD) of a polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) film. The NDs display high crystalline quality as well as intense narrowband (7 nm) room temperature luminescence at 738 nm due to in situ incorporated silicon vacancy (SiV) centers. The fluorescence properties at room and cryogenic temperatures indicate that the NDs are, depending on preparation, applicable as single photon sources or as fluorescence labels.

  4. Fixation of nitrogen in the presence of water vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harteck, Paul (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A process for the fixation of nitrogen is disclosed which comprises combining a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, metal oxide and water vapor, initially heating the combination to initiate a reaction which forms nitrate, but at a temperature and pressure range below the dissociation pressure of the nitrate. With or without the water component, the yield of fixed nitrogen is increased by the use of a Linde Molecular Sieve Catalyst.

  5. Nonlinear magneto-optic effects in optically dense Rb vapor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novikova, Irina Borisovna

    2004-09-30

    D1 line . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 3. Self-rotation on the Rb D2 line . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 4. Self-rotation in cells with buffer gas . . . . . . . . . . 152 D. Application of self-rotation to generation of squeezed vacuum154 1. Squeezing... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 1. Factors limiting the sensitivity of the magnetic field detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 2. Estimation of the sensitivity for Rb vapor . . . . . . . 167 3. Experiments with buffered cells...

  6. Jan 26, 2005 MAE 4263 Vapor Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan 26, 2005 MAE 4263 Vapor Power Systems Problem 1-4: Draw a symbolic turbine and indicate the integral Equation 1-18 Wout = m Z T2 T1 cpdT where cp for air is obtained from Equation 1-19 Wout = m Z T2 at the correct temperature (neglecting compressibility of liquid water) from page 779 wideal = 0:0010171 m3 kg (1

  7. Operations Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996Technologies /JuneOperating Oakoak ridge

  8. Operations Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996Technologies /JuneOperating Oakoak

  9. Nonlinear optical properties of atomic vapor and semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    This thesis contains the study of highly forbidden resonant second harmonic generation (SHG) in atomic potassium vapor using tunable picosecond pulses. Various output characteristics of vapor SHG have been investigated including the input intensity dependence, potassium vapor density dependence, buffer gas pressure dependence, and spatial profile. Recently, the discovery of new nonlinear optical crystals such as barium borate ({beta}-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, BBO) and lithium borate (LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5}, LBO) has greatly improved the performance of a tunable coherent optical devices based on optical parametric generation and amplification. In the second part of this thesis, a homebuilt picosecond optical parametric generator/amplifier (OPG/OPA) system is described in detail, including its construction details and output characteristics. This laser device has found many useful applications in spectroscopic studies including surface nonlinear optical spectroscopy via sum-frequency generation (SFG). The last part of this thesis reports studies on multiphoton-excited photoluminescence from porous silicon and GaN. Multiphoton excitation and photoluminescence can give numerous complementary information about semiconductors not obtainable with one-photon, above-bandgap excitation.

  10. Program plan for the resolution of tank vapor issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborne, J.W.; Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Since 1987, workers at the Hanford Site waste tank farms in Richland, Washington, have reported strong odors emanating from the large, underground high-level radioactive waste storage tanks. Some of these workers have complained of symptoms (e.g., headaches, nausea) related to the odors. In 1992, the U.S. Department of Energy, which manages the Hanford Site, and Westinghouse Hanford Company determined that the vapor emissions coming from the tanks had not been adequately characterized and represented a potential health risk to workers in the immediate vicinity of the tanks. At that time, workers in certain areas of the tank farms were required to use full-face, supplied-breathing-air masks to reduce their exposure to the fugitive emissions. While use of supplied breathing air reduced the health risks associated with the fugitive emissions, it introduced other health and safety risks (e.g., reduced field of vision, air-line tripping hazards, and heat stress). In 1992, an aggressive program was established to assure proper worker protection while reducing the use of supplied breathing air. This program focuses on characterization of vapors inside the tanks and industrial hygiene monitoring in the tank farms. If chemical filtration systems for mitigation of fugitive emissions are deemed necessary, the program will also oversee their design and installation. This document presents the plans for and approach to resolving the Hanford Site high-level waste tank vapor concerns. It is sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management.

  11. Method of and apparatus for measuring vapor density

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, L.D.; Cerni, T.A.

    1989-10-17

    Apparatus and method are disclosed which determine the concentration of an individual component, such as water vapor, of a multi-component mixture, such as a gaseous mixture for cooling a nuclear reactor. A hygrometer apparatus includes an infrared source for producing a broadband infrared energy beam that includes a strong water vapor absorption band and a weak water vapor absorption region. The beam is chopped to select infrared pulses. A temporally first pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region, a temporally second pulse has a wavelength in the strong band and a temporally third pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region. A fourth reference pulse representing background radiation is interposed in such chopped pulses. An indium arsenide infrared sensor is responsive to the pulses for generating an output signal in proportion to an equation given in the patent where N1 is proportional to the transmission through the sample of the first signal, N4 is related to the background radiation, and [K2 (N2-N4) + K3 (N3-N4)] is the time-weighted average of the transmission through the sample of the second and third pulses applicable at the time of the second pulse, with the reference pulse N4 being subtracted in each case to render the ratio independent of variations in the background radiation. 11 figs.

  12. Method of and apparatus for measuring vapor density

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Loren D. (Morrison, CO); Cerni, Todd A. (Littleton, CO)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method determine the concentration of an individual component, such as water vapor, of a multi-component mixture, such as a gaseous mixture for cooling a nuclear reactor. A hygrometer apparatus includes an infrared source for producing a broadband infrared energy beam that includes a strong water vapor absorption band and a weak water vapor absorption region. The beam is chopped to select infrared pulses. A temporally first pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region, a temporally second pulse has a wavelength in the strong band and a temporally third pulse has a wavlength in the weakly absorbing region. A fourth reference pulse representing background radiation is interposed in such chopped pulses. An indium arsenide infrared sensor is responsive to the pulses for generating an output signal in proportion to: ##EQU1## where N1 is proportional to the transmission through the sample of the first signal, N4 is related to the background radiation, and [K2 (N2-N4)+K3 (N3-N4)] is the time-weighted average of the transmission through the sample of the second and third pulses applicable at the time of the second pulse, with the reference pulse N4 being subtracted in each case to render the ratio independent of variations in the background radiation.

  13. Non-canonical mass laws in equilibrium isotopic fractionations: Evidence from the vapor pressure isotope effect of SF6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cartigny, Pierre

    Non-canonical mass laws in equilibrium isotopic fractionations: Evidence from the vapor pressure report experimental observations of the vapor pressure isotope effect, including 33 S/32 S and 34 S/32. That equilibrium involves a reversed vapor pressure isotope effect; i.e., vapor is between 2& and 3& higher in 34 S

  14. Ductless fume hoods are designed to remove hazardous fumes and vapors from the work area by passing the exhaust air through a filter and/or adsorbent, such as an activated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    I. Policy Ductless fume hoods are designed to remove hazardous fumes and vapors from the work area to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories); 5154.1 (Ventilation Requirements for Laboratory-Type Hood Operations require use of fume hoods to control exposure to hazardous or odorous chemicals. IV. Definitions Activated

  15. Potential energy of atmospheric water vapor and the air motions induced by water vapor condensation on different spatial scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anastassia M. Makarieva; Victor G. Gorshkov

    2010-03-29

    Basic physical principles are considered that are responsible for the origin of dynamic air flow upon condensation of water vapor, the partial pressure of which represents a store of potential energy in the atmosphere of Earth. Quantitative characteristics of such flow are presented for several spatial scales. It is shown that maximum condensation-induced velocities reach 160 m/s and are realized in compact circulation patterns like tornadoes.

  16. Final Scientific/Technical Report. A closed path methane and water vapor gas analyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liukang, Xu; Dayle, McDermitt; Tyler, Anderson; Brad, Riensche; Anatoly, Komissarov; Julie, Howe

    2012-05-01

    Robust, economical, low-power and reliable closed-path methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) analyzers suitable for long-term measurements are not readily available commercially. Such analyzers are essential for quantifying the amount of CH4 and CO2 released from various ecosystems (wetlands, rice paddies, forests, etc.) and other surface contexts (e.g. landfills, animal husbandry lots, etc.), and for understanding the dynamics of the atmospheric CH4 and CO2 budget and their impact on climate change and global warming. The purpose of this project is to develop a closed-path methane, carbon dioxide gas and water vapor analyzer capable of long-term measurements in remote areas for global climate change and environmental research. The analyzer will be capable of being deployed over a wide range of ecosystems to understand methane and carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and the surface. Measurements of methane and carbon dioxide exchange need to be made all year-round with limited maintenance requirements. During this Phase II effort, we successfully completed the design of the electronics, optical bench, trace gas detection method and mechanical infrastructure. We are using the technologies of two vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, a multiple-pass Herriott optical cell, wavelength modulation spectroscopy and direct absorption to measure methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. We also have designed the instrument application software, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), along with partial completion of the embedded software. The optical bench has been tested in a lab setting with very good results. Major sources of optical noise have been identified and through design, the optical noise floor is approaching -60dB. Both laser modules can be temperature controlled to help maximize the stability of the analyzer. Additionally, a piezo electric transducer has been utilized to randomize the noise introduced from potential etalons. It is expected that all original specifications contained within the initial proposal will be met. We are currently in the beginning stages of assembling the first generation prototypes and finalizing the remaining design elements. The first prototypes will initially be tested in our environmental calibration chamber in which specific gas concentrations, temperature and humidity levels can be controlled. Once operation in this controlled setting is verified, the prototypes will be deployed at LI-COR�¢����s Experimental Research Station (LERS). Deployment at the LERS site will test the instrument�¢����s robustness in a real-world situation.

  17. HOx radical chemistry in oxidation flow reactors with low-pressure mercury lamps systematically examined by modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Z.; Day, D. A.; Stark, H.; Li, R.; Palm, B. B.; Brune, W. H.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-04-20

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) using OH produced from low-pressure Hg lamps at 254 nm (OFR254) or both 185 and 254 nm (OFR185) are commonly used in atmospheric chemistry and other fields. OFR254 requires the addition of externally formed O3 since OH is formed from O3 photolysis, while OFR185 does not since O2 can be photolyzed to produce O3 and OH can also be formed from H2O photolysis. In this study, we use a plug-flow kinetic model to investigate OFR properties under a very wide range of conditions applicable to both field and laboratory studies. We show that the radical chemistrymore »in OFRs can be characterized as a function of UV light intensity, H2O concentration, and total external OH reactivity (OHRext, e.g., from VOCs, NOx, and SO2). OH exposure is decreased by added external OH reactivity. OFR185 is especially sensitive to this effect at low UV intensity due to low primary OH production. OFR254 can be more resilient against OH suppression at high injected O3 (e.g., 70 ppm), as a larger primary OH source from O3, as well as enhanced recycling of HO2 to OH, make external perturbations to the radical chemistry less significant. However if the external OH reactivity in OFR254 is much larger than OH reactivity from injected O3, OH suppression can reach two orders of magnitude. For a typical input of 7 ppm O3 (OHRO3 = 10 s?1) ten-fold OH suppression is observed at OHRext ? 100 s?1, which is similar or lower than used in many laboratory studies. This finding may have important implications for the interpretation of past laboratory studies, as applying OHexp measurements acquired under different conditions could lead to over an order-of-magnitude error in the estimated OHexp. The uncertainties of key model outputs due to uncertainty in all rate constants and absorption cross-sections in the model are within ± 25% for OH exposure and within ± 60% for other parameters. These uncertainties are small relative to the dynamic range of outputs. Uncertainty analysis shows that most of the uncertainty is contributed by photolysis rates of O3, O2, and H2O and reactions of OH and HO2 with themselves or with some abundant species, i.e., O3 and H2O2. Using HOx-recycling vs. destructive external OH reactivity only leads to small changes in OHexp under most conditions. Changing the identity (rate constant) of external OH reactants can result in substantial changes in OHexp due to different reductions in OH suppression as the reactant is consumed. We also report two equations for estimating OH exposure in OFR254. We find that the equation estimating OHexp from measured O3 consumption performs better than an alternative equation that does not use it, and thus recommend measuring both input and output O3 concentrations in OFR254 experiments. This study contributes to establishing a firm and systematic understanding of the gas-phase HOx and Ox chemistry in these reactors, and enables better experiment planning and interpretation as well as improved design of future reactors.« less

  18. Recirculating wedges for metal-vapor plasma tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, J.P.; Sawvel, R.M.; Draggoo, V.G.

    1994-06-28

    A metal vapor laser is disclosed that recycles condensed metal located at the terminal ends of a plasma tube back toward the center of the tube. A pair of arcuate wedges are incorporated on the bottom of the plasma tube near the terminal ends. The wedges slope downward toward the center so that condensed metal may be transported under the force of gravity away from the terminal ends. The wedges are curved to fit the plasma tube to thereby avoid forming any gaps within the tube interior. 8 figures.

  19. Recirculating wedges for metal-vapor plasma tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Jerome P. (Livermore, CA); Sawvel, Robert M. (Modesto, CA); Draggoo, Vaughn G. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A metal vapor laser is disclosed that recycles condensed metal located at the terminal ends of a plasma tube back toward the center of the tube. A pair of arcuate wedges are incorporated on the bottom of the plasma tube near the terminal ends. The wedges slope downward toward the center so that condensed metal may be transported under the force of gravity away from the terminal ends. The wedges are curved to fit the plasma tube to thereby avoid forming any gaps within the tube interior.

  20. Nonlinear transmission through a tapered fiber in rubidium vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. M. Hendrickson; T. B. Pittman; J. D. Franson

    2008-12-01

    Sub-wavelength diameter tapered optical fibers surrounded by rubidium vapor can undergo a substantial decrease in transmission at high atomic densities due to the accumulation of rubidium atoms on the surface of the fiber. Here we demonstrate the ability to control these changes in transmission using light guided within the taper. We observe transmission through a tapered fiber that is a nonlinear function of the incident power. This effect can also allow a strong control beam to change the transmission of a weak probe beam.

  1. Applications of Mechanical Vapor Recompression to Evaporation and Crystallization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Outland, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    is accomplished using centrifugal, axial-flow, or positive displacement compressors and these compressors can be powered by electricity, steam turbine or a gas turbine. The use of an MVR Evapo rator/Crystallizer provides a comparatively low cost means... Process Equipment Harvey,IL Here it can be seen that the economy or the pounds of water evaporated per pound of heating element is slightly less than 1.0. The vapors leaving the evapo rator flow to a condenser when their latent heat is absorbed...

  2. Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1987-07-14

    A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique. 7 figs.

  3. Multi-cathode metal vapor arc ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); MacGill, Robert A. (645 Kern St., Richmond, CA 94805)

    1988-01-01

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. One embodiment of the appaatus utilizes a multi-cathode arrangement for interaction with the anode.

  4. Unusual thermopower of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, Youngwoo, E-mail: youngwoo.nam@chalmers.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sun, Jie; Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Jae Yang, Seung; Rae Park, Chong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Woo Park, Yung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-13

    We report on thermopower (TEP) and resistance measurements of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Unlike the conventional resistance of pristine graphene, the gate-dependent TEP shows a large electron-hole asymmetry. This can be accounted for by inhomogeneity of the CVD-graphene where individual graphene regions contribute with different TEPs. At the high magnetic field and low temperature, the TEP has large fluctuations near the Dirac point associated with the disorder in the CVD-graphene. TEP measurements reveal additional characteristics of CVD-graphene, which are difficult to obtain from the measurement of resistance alone.

  5. Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan (625 Gulfwood Rd., Knoxville, TN 37923)

    1987-01-01

    A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique.

  6. Simple and Compact Nozzle Design for Laser Vaporization Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kokish, M G; Odom, B C

    2015-01-01

    We have developed and implemented a compact transparent nozzle for use in laser vaporization sources. This nozzle eliminates the need for an ablation aperture, allowing for a more intense molecular beam. We use this nozzle to prepare a molecular beam of aluminum monohydride (AlH) suitable for ion trap loading of AlH$^+$ via photoionization in ultra-high vacuum. We demonstrate stable AlH production over hour time scales using a liquid ablation target. The long-term stability, low heat load and fast ion production rate of this source are well-suited to molecular ion experiments employing destructive state readout schemes requiring frequent trap reloading.

  7. The effect of composition on equilibrium vaporization ratios 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiesepape, Cordell Floyd

    1964-01-01

    F and 350 F and at pressures ranging from 1662 to 3715 psia. The experimental K-values were compared with the K-values of the Natural Gasoline Association of America and at pressures below 100 psia wi, th K-values calculated using the vapor... and found that his data at low pressures com- pared satisfactorily with work done by Katz and Hackmuth 2 but that at b. igh pressures the agreement was poor. Roland, Smith and Kaveler presented data from a gas distillate 3 system which disagreed widely...

  8. Intermediate Vapor Expansion Distillation and Nested Enrichment Cascade Distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    shaft power is being substituted for heat which in many cases may be extremely low valued. Th~ next section describes how to avoid that problem, and even turn it to advantage. 136 ESL-IE-86-06-25 Proceedings from the Eighth Annual Industrial... will improve column efficiency by 15 to 100%, there has been little use of this technique to date." Intermediate vapor compression heat pumping was recently introduced as one practical means of achieving this benefit. Introduced in this paper are two new...

  9. The development of a passive dosimeter for airborne aniline vapors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, James Evan

    1977-01-01

    and Gunnison applied the laws of passive diffusion in 3 the development of a quantitative personal monitoring device for SO and stated that this principle should be applicable to other gases and vapors in the industrial as well as the community environment... The purpose of this investigation was to determine the most effective tube length of a passive diffusion dosimeter for aniline, similar to that developed by Palmes for SO 3 In order to calibrate any air sampling device a reliable and known concentration...

  10. Uranium atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVL1S)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beeler, R.G.; Heestand, G.M.

    1992-12-01

    The high cost associated with gaseous diffusion technology has fostered world-wide competition in the uranium enrichment market. Enrichment costs based on AVLIS technology are projected to be a factor of about three to five times lower. Full scale AVLIS equipment has been built and its performance is being demonstrated now at LLNL. An overview of the AVLIS process will be discussed and key process paramenters will be identified. Application of AVLIS technologies to non-uranium systems will also be highlighted. Finally, the vaporization process along with some key parameters will be discussed.

  11. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation using resonance ionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comaskey, B.; Crane, J.; Erbert, G.; Haynam, C.; Johnson, M.; Morris, J.; Paisner, J.; Solarz, R.; Worden, E.

    1986-09-01

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power-reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985, the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for enriched uranium. Resonance photoionization is the heart of the AVLIS process. We discuss those fundamental atomic parameters that are necessary for describing isotope-selective resonant multistep photoionization along with the measurement techniques that we use. We illustrate the methodology adopted with examples of other elements that are under study in our program.

  12. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM-FIRE Water Vapor Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01) (See22, 2012III ARM DatagovCampaignsARM-FIRE Water Vapor

  13. ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01)govCampaignsFIRE-Arctic CloudShortwave IOP ARM DataWater Vapor

  14. COMPOSITION OF VAPORS FROM BOILING NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS B A

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report: Achievements ofCOMPOSITION OF VAPORS FROM BOILING NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS B A

  15. Non-Vapor Compression HVAC Technologies Report | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties -DepartmentAvailable forSite |n t e g r i t y - S e r v iNon-Vapor

  16. Economic and Technical Tradeoffs Between Open and Closed Cycle Vapor Compression Evaporators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timm, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    AND TECHNICAL TRADEOFFS BETWEEN OPEN AND CLOSED CYCLE VAPOR COM~RESSION EVAPORATORS Martin L. Timm, P.E. Bassett Inc. Appleton, WI ABSTRACT Evaporators are used extensively in the chemical, pulp Bnd paper, food and beverage, and related industries.... Mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) evaporators are a type using an open heat pump cycle with steam as the working fluid. The tech nology is widely used and time-proven. Closed cycle vapor compression is an emerging technology. A secondary working fluid...

  17. The Prospects of Alternatives to Vapor Compression Technology for Space Cooling and Food Refrigeration Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Stout, Tyson E.

    2010-03-31

    Five alternatives to vapor compression technology were qualitatively evaluated to determine their prospects for being better than vapor compression for space cooling and food refrigeration applications. The results of the assessment are summarized in the report. Overall, thermoacoustic and magnetic technologies were judged to have the best prospects for competing with vapor compression technology, with thermotunneling, thermoelectric, and thermionic technologies trailing behind in that order.

  18. Vapor pressure dependence of spectral width of EIT in Lambda-level cesium molecular system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hui Chen; Hebin Li; Yuri V. Rostovtsev; Mikhail A. Gubin; Vladimir A. Sautenkov; Marlan O. Scully

    2009-02-16

    We have studied electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in diatomic cesium molecules in a vapor cell by using tunable diode lasers. We have observed a sub-natural Lambda-resonance in an absorption molecular band at different cesium vapor pressures. The width of the EIT resonance shows a linear dependence on cesium vapor pressure. Narrow Lambda-resonances in molecules can be used as frequency references for femtosecond laser frequency combs.

  19. A MICROSCALE VAPOR-FED FORMIC ACID FUEL CELL , R. S. Jayashree[2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    A MICROSCALE VAPOR-FED FORMIC ACID FUEL CELL J. Yeom[1] , R. S. Jayashree[2] , G. Z. Mozsgai[1] , A-based microfabricated fuel cell running on formic acid vapor as a fuel has been developed to provide on-chip power was packaged in a plastic package to test the vapor-fed fuel cell concept. Initial results (0.4 V of the open

  20. PROGRESS REPORT OF FY 2004 ACTIVITIES: IMPROVED WATER VAPOR AND CLOUD RETRIEVALS AT THE NSA/AAO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. R. Westwater; V. V. Leuskiy; M. Klein; A. J. Gasiewski; and J. A. Shaw

    2004-11-01

    The basic goals of the research are to develop and test algorithms and deploy instruments that improve measurements of water vapor, cloud liquid, and cloud coverage, with a focus on the Arctic conditions of cold temperatures and low concentrations of water vapor. The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. Although several technologies have been investigated to measure these column amounts, microwave radiometers (MWR) have been used operationally by the ARM program for passive retrievals of these quantities: precipitable water vapor (PWV) and integrated water liquid (IWL). The technology of PWV and IWL retrievals has advanced steadily since the basic 2-channel MWR was first deployed at ARM CART sites Important advances are the development and refinement of the tipcal calibration method [1,2], and improvement of forward model radiative transfer algorithms [3,4]. However, the concern still remains that current instruments deployed by ARM may be inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and IWL. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important because of the possibility of scaling and/or quality control of radiosondes by the water amount. Extremely dry conditions, with PWV less than 3 mm, commonly occur in Polar Regions during the winter months. Accurate measurements of the PWV during such dry conditions are needed to improve our understanding of the regional radiation energy budgets. The results of a 1999 experiment conducted at the ARM North Slope of Alaska/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site during March of 1999 [5] have shown that the strength associated with the 183 GHz water vapor absorption line makes radiometry in this frequency regime suitable for measuring low amounts of PWV. As a portion of our research, we conducted another millimeter wave radiometric experiment at the NSA/AAO in March-April 2004. This experiment relied heavily on our experiences of the 1999 experiment. Particular attention was paid to issues of radiometric calibration and radiosonde intercomparisons. Our theoretical and experimental work also supplements efforts by industry (F. Solheim, Private Communication) to develop sub-millimeter radiometers for ARM deployment. In addition to quantitative improvement of water vapor measurements at cold temperature, the impact of adding millimeter-wave window channels to improve the sensitivity to arctic clouds was studied. We also deployed an Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI) during this experiment, both for measuring continuous day-night statistics of the study of cloud coverage and identifying conditions suitable for tipcal analysis. This system provided the first capability of determining spatial cloud statistics continuously in both day and night at the NSA site and has been used to demonstrate that biases exist in inferring cloud statistics from either zenith-pointing active sensors (lidars or radars) or sky imagers that rely on scattered sunlight in daytime and star maps at night [6].

  1. THE INFRARED SPECTRUM OF URANIUM HOLLOW CATHODE LAMPS FROM 850 nm to 4000 nm: WAVENUMBERS AND LINE IDENTIFICATIONS FROM FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redman, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Mahadevan, Suvrath [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lawler, James E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Nave, Gillian [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2011-08-01

    We provide new measurements of wavenumbers and line identifications of 10, 100 U I and U II near-infrared (NIR) emission lines between 2500 cm{sup -1} and 12, 000 cm{sup -1} (4000-850 nm) using archival Fourier transform spectrometer spectra from the National Solar Observatory. This line list includes isolated uranium lines in the Y, J, H, K, and L bands (0.9-1.1 {mu}m, 1.2-1.35 {mu}m, 1.5-1.65 {mu}m, 2.0-2.4 {mu}m, and 3.0-4.0 {mu}m, respectively), and provides six times as many calibration lines as thorium in the NIR spectral range. The line lists we provide enable inexpensive, commercially available uranium hollow cathode lamps to be used for high-precision wavelength calibration of existing and future high-resolution NIR spectrographs.

  2. Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    Renewable Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies, of theTransport in Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs, Geothermics,Depletion of Vapor-Dominated Geothermal Reservoirs, Lawrence

  3. Ion Partitioning at the liquid/vapor interface of a multi-component...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    vapor interface of a multi-component alkali halidesolution: A model for aqueous sea salt aerosols Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ion Partitioning at the liquid...

  4. Improved sensor selectivity for chemical vapors using organic thin-film transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royer, James Edward

    2012-01-01

    2012, American Chemical Society 3.1 Abstract Air-stablethe American Chemical Society 4.1 Abstract Direct selectiveChemical Vapor Detection Abstract

  5. Removal of hydrogen sulfide as ammonium sulfate from hydropyrolysis product vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

    2014-10-14

    A system and method for processing biomass into hydrocarbon fuels that includes processing a biomass in a hydropyrolysis reactor resulting in hydrocarbon fuels and a process vapor stream and cooling the process vapor stream to a condensation temperature resulting in an aqueous stream. The aqueous stream is sent to a catalytic reactor where it is oxidized to obtain a product stream containing ammonia and ammonium sulfate. A resulting cooled product vapor stream includes non-condensable process vapors comprising H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, CO, CO.sub.2, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

  6. PRODUCTION AND DESTRUCTION OF D- BY CHARGE TRANSFER IN METAL VAPORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlachter, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    alkali-vapor target of the heat- pipe type. The beam leavingthe incident beam. The heat-pipe target and the collimation

  7. Using the Noninteracting Cluster Theory to Predict the Properties of Real Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    in equilibrium: z j m 1 . The equation of state of a vapor in equilibrium is given by Dalton's law for an ideal

  8. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    such as nuclear, Concentrated Solar Power (CSP), and coal,energies, such as concentrated solar power (CSP) [165]. CSPand non- concentrated solar thermal, vapor power cycles

  9. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Integrated Development of Vapor Deposition for Non-line-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Integrated Development of Vapor Deposition, Materials Science & Engineering, 395 McCormick Rd, nonmember I #12;American Institute of Aeronautics

  10. Liquid fuel vaporizer and combustion chamber having an adjustable thermal conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, Michael R; Whyatt, Greg A; Howe, Daniel T; Fountain, Matthew S

    2014-03-04

    The efficiency and effectiveness of apparatuses for vaporizing and combusting liquid fuel can be improved using thermal conductors. For example, an apparatus having a liquid fuel vaporizer and a combustion chamber can be characterized by a thermal conductor that conducts heat from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The thermal conductor can be a movable member positioned at an insertion depth within the combustion chamber that corresponds to a rate of heat conduction from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The rate of heat conduction can, therefore, be adjusted by positioning the movable member at a different insertion depth.

  11. Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

  12. HOx radical chemistry in oxidation flow reactors with low-pressure mercury lamps systematically examined by modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Z.; Day, D. A.; Stark, H.; Li, R.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Palm, B. B.; Brune, W. H.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-11-20

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) using OH produced from low-pressure Hg lamps at 254 nm (OFR254) or both 185 and 254 nm (OFR185) are commonly used in atmospheric chemistry and other fields. OFR254 requires the addition of externally formed O3 since OH is formed from O3 photolysis, while OFR185 does not since O2 can be photolyzed to produce O3, and OH can also be formed from H2O photolysis. In this study, we use a plug-flow kinetic model to investigate OFR properties under a very wide range of conditions applicable to both field and laboratory studies. We show that the radical chemistrymore »in OFRs can be characterized as a function of UV light intensity, H2O concentration, and total external OH reactivity (OHRext, e.g., from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), NOx, and SO2). OH exposure is decreased by added external OH reactivity. OFR185 is especially sensitive to this effect at low UV intensity due to low primary OH production. OFR254 can be more resilient against OH suppression at high injected O3 (e.g., 70 ppm), as a larger primary OH source from O3, as well as enhanced recycling of HO2 to OH, make external perturbations to the radical chemistry less significant. However if the external OH reactivity in OFR254 is much larger than OH reactivity from injected O3, OH suppression can reach 2 orders of magnitude. For a typical input of 7 ppm O3 (OHRO3 = 10 s?1), 10-fold OH suppression is observed at OHRext ~ 100 s?1, which is similar or lower than used in many laboratory studies. The range of modeled OH suppression for literature experiments is consistent with the measured values except for those with isoprene. The finding on OH suppression may have important implications for the interpretation of past laboratory studies, as applying OHexp measurements acquired under different conditions could lead to over a 1-order-of-magnitude error in the estimated OHexp. The uncertainties of key model outputs due to uncertainty in all rate constants and absorption cross-sections in the model are within ±25 % for OH exposure and within ±60 % for other parameters. These uncertainties are small relative to the dynamic range of outputs. Uncertainty analysis shows that most of the uncertainty is contributed by photolysis rates of O3, O2, and H2O and reactions of OH and HO2 with themselves or with some abundant species, i.e., O3 and H2O2. OHexp calculated from direct integration and estimated from SO2 decay in the model with laminar and measured residence time distributions (RTDs) are generally within a factor of 2 from the plug-flow OHexp. However, in the models with RTDs, OHexp estimated from SO2 is systematically lower than directly integrated OHexp in the case of significant SO2 consumption. We thus recommended using OHexp estimated from the decay of the species under study when possible, to obtain the most appropriate information on photochemical aging in the OFR. Using HOx-recycling vs. destructive external OH reactivity only leads to small changes in OHexp under most conditions. Changing the identity (rate constant) of external OH reactants can result in substantial changes in OHexp due to different reductions in OH suppression as the reactant is consumed. We also report two equations for estimating OH exposure in OFR254. We find that the equation estimating OHexp from measured O3 consumption performs better than an alternative equation that does not use it, and thus recommend measuring both input and output O3 concentrations in OFR254 experiments. This study contributes to establishing a firm and systematic understanding of the gas-phase HOx and Ox chemistry in these reactors, and enables better experiment planning and interpretation as well as improved design of future reactors.« less

  13. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE ELECTROLYZER OPERATION WITH VARYING INLET WATER FEED CONFIGURATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, E

    2008-09-12

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolysis is a potential alternative technology to crack water in specialty applications where a dry gas stream is needed, such as isotope production. One design proposal is to feed the cathode of the electrolyzer with vapor phase water. This feed configuration would allow isotopic water to be isolated on the cathode side of the electrolyzer and the isotope recovery system could be operated in a closed loop. Tests were performed to characterize the difference in the current-voltage behavior between a PEM electrolyzer operated with a cathode water vapor feed and with an anode liquid water feed. The cathode water vapor feed cell had a maximum limiting current density of 100 mA/cm2 at 70 C compared to a current density of 800 mA/cm2 for the anode liquid feed cell at 70 C. The limiting current densities for the cathode water vapor feed cell were approximately 3 times lower than predicted by a water mass transfer model. It is estimated that a cathode water vapor feed electrolyzer system will need to be between 8-14 times larger in active area or number of cells than an anode liquid feed system.

  14. Parastillation Process in Operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canfield, F.; Jenkins, O.

    1986-01-01

    The Parastillation process is a new method for multi-stage, counter-current contact between vapor and liquid that results in 33% more ideal stages than distillation for a given tray spacing. Patents have been granted in the U.S.A., U.K., Europe...

  15. A VIRTUAL OPERATING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Dennis E.

    2013-01-01

    Unix time-sharing operating system. D. Hall, D. Scherrer, J.Prentice~Hall, Hansen, "Operating System Principles", Inc. ,of California. A Virtual Operating System Dennis E. Hall

  16. Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations (Released in the STEO June 1998)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    Changes in domestic refining operations are identified and related to the summer Reid vapor pressure (RVP) restrictions and oxygenate blending requirements. This analysis uses published Energy Information Administration survey data and linear regression equations from the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts appearing in the Short-Term Energy Outlook.

  17. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE AIXTRON (formerly NanoInstruments) Carbon Nanotube Deposition System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, Rafael

    1 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE AIXTRON (formerly NanoInstruments) Carbon Nanotube Deposition System Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) Figure 1. The TRL PECVD CNT Reactor (CCNT voltages to produce plasma. Typically, the catalyst metals #12;2 are Nickel, Iron or Cobalt. Representative

  18. Formal Specification of Operating System Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Paul E.

    Formal Specification of Operating System Operations Dan Zhou Department of Computer Science.black@nist.gov This paper describes the development of a formal specification for a secure operating system architecture operations. We also provide a uniform environment for system commands that change the security state

  19. Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    "Distillation is a big consumer of energy in process plant operations. A first step to energy cost savings is the use of high efficiency structured packing in place of trays or dumped packings in conventionally operated ...

  20. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Carbon Coatings on LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 for Li-Ion Battery Composite Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Carbonanthracene, by a one-step microwave plasma chemical vaporFigure 1. A diagram of the microwave plasma chemical vapor