National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for open hearth steel

  1. Hearth and Home Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam: Energy ResourcesHasselbachLightHayward,Hearth and Home

  2. HearthStone Homes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam: Energy ResourcesHasselbachLightHayward,Hearth and

  3. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    who will then be responsible to deliver the PSH technology to the market. The most likely point of initial entry into the mainstream market is integrated steel making facilities...

  4. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  5. Titanium addition practice, and maintenance for the hearths in AHMSA`s blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boone, A.G.; Jimenez, G.; Castillo, J. [Altos Hornos de Mexico, Monclova (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA) is a steel company located in Northern Mexico, in the state of Coahuila. Currently there are three blast furnaces in operation and one more about to finish its general repair. This last one is to remain as a back-up unit. Because of blast furnace hearth wear outs AHMSA has developed some maintenance procedures. These procedures are based on titanium ore additions and hearth thermic control monitoring. There are also some other maintenance practices adopted to the working operations to assure that such operations detect and avoid in time hearth wear outs that place personnel and/or the unit in danger (due to hearth leaks). This paper describes titanium ore addition to No. 2 blast furnace during the final campaign and it also illustrates maintenance practices and continuous monitoring of temperature trends both of which were implemented at AHMSA`s No. 5 blast furnace.

  6. 2015-01-28 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Hearth...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2015-01-28 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Hearth Products; NOPR 2015-01-28 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Hearth Products; NOPR This document is a...

  7. Intermediate hearth repair technique at Thyssen Stahl AG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski, W.; Bachhofen, H.J.; Ruether, P.; Ballewski, T. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Nowadays various techniques for the fastest possible intermediate repair and/or emplacement of refractory materials above the tuyere level allow a significant extension of furnace campaign life. The latter are hence now exclusively determined by the service life of the hearth. The improvement of hearth monitoring and the estimation of residual brick strength of the refractory lining on the basis of temperature measurements in the hearth enable the location of individual zones of premature wear. These measurement methods, which were developed by Thyssen Stahl AG, aid the decision to undertake selective repair of the hearth. Three areas of repair are differentiated: taphole zone; hearth wall, localized; and hearth wall, extensive. This hearth repair method is described in this report using the example of hearth refurbishing blast furnace 8, Hamborn.

  8. Sealed rotary hearth furnace with central bearing support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Docherty, James P. (Carnegie, PA); Johnson, Beverly E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Beri, Joseph (Morgan, PA)

    1989-01-01

    The furnace has a hearth which rotates inside a stationary closed chamber and is supported therein on vertical cylindrical conduit which extends through the furnace floor and is supported by a single center bearing. The charge is deposited through the furnace roof on the rim of the hearth as it rotates and is moved toward the center of the hearth by rabbles. Externally generated hot gases are introduced into the furnace chamber below the hearth and rise through perforations in the hearth and up through the charge. Exhaust gases are withdrawn through the furnace roof. Treated charge drops from a center outlet on the hearth into the vertical cylindrical conduit which extends downwardly through the furnace floor to which it is also sealed.

  9. The limitation of hearth sidewall wear at Redcar blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parratt, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    The Redcar blast furnace with 14m hearth diameter was blown-in for its second campaign in August 1996. It is currently in its 10th year of operation and to date has produced just over 30 million tonnes. Current plans are to continue the second campaign to the year 2000 and beyond, producing over 40 million tonnes. In order to achieve this objective, any further wear on the lining, and in particular the hearth sidewall, needs to be minimized. This paper describes the present hearth design, the monitoring of hearth wear, the predicted wear profile, and the protection measures that have been taken or are being considered.

  10. Preliminary Hazards Analysis Plasma Hearth Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aycock, M.; Coordes, D.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1993-11-01

    This Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) follows the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE, 1992a), DOE Order 5480.21 (DOE, 1991d), DOE Order 5480.22 (DOE, 1992c), DOE Order 5481.1B (DOE, 1986), and the guidance provided in DOE Standards DOE-STD-1027-92 (DOE, 1992b). Consideration is given to ft proposed regulations published as 10 CFR 830 (DOE, 1993) and DOE Safety Guide SG 830.110 (DOE, 1992b). The purpose of performing a PRA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PRA then is followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title I and II design. This PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during construction, testing, and acceptance and completed before routine operation. Radiological assessments indicate that a PHP facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous material assessments indicate that a PHP facility will be a Low Hazard facility having no significant impacts either onsite or offsite to personnel and the environment.

  11. Hearth monitoring experiences at Dofasco`s No. 4 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stothart, D.W.; Chaykowski, R.D.; Donaldson, R.J.; Pomeroy, D.H.

    1997-12-31

    As a result of a 1994 taphole breakout at Dofasco`s No. 4 Blast Furnace, extensive effort has gone into monitoring, understanding and controlling hearth wear. This paper reviews the hearth monitoring system developed and the various hearth operating and maintenance techniques used to ensure No. 4 Blast Furnace safely reaches its 1998 reline date. The impact of changes in coke quality, productivity, casting practice and leaking cooling members on hearth refractory temperature fluctuations will also be examined.

  12. Long life hearth in blast furnace -- Kokura No. 2 B.F. of Sumitomo Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Takaiku; Sunahara, Kouhei; Inada, Takanobu; Takatani, Kouji; Miyahara, Mitsuo; Sato, Yasusi; Hatano, Yasuhiko; Takata, Kouzo

    1997-12-31

    The factors elongating hearth life of Sumitomo Kokura No. 2 B.F. were investigated by use of an estimation system of the furnace hearth condition, which consisted of four mathematical simulation models. Lowered heat load operation together with integrated design of both refractories and cooling enabled the furnace life to be extended for over 16 years without severe damage in the hearth.

  13. Korea Iron Steel Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EAInvervar HydroElectric Cooperative Jump to: navigation,KoreSteel Co

  14. Z Group Steel Holding Zelezarny Veseli | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (UtilityMichigan) JumpZhuyuan Electric Development Co LtdZ Group Steel

  15. Healthy Hearth brings the coziness of home to patients, their family and guests of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    , grilled chicken or veggie crumbles, black beans, tomatoes, green chilis, shredded cheddar jack Coffee Tea, 149 Hearth Burgers Choose a side of your choice. Substitute turkey or veggie burger upon

  16. Suryachakra Global Enviro Power Formerly Lahari Power Steels Limited | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing CapacityVectren)Model for theSunLanSuperDriveEconomies | OpenSurya

  17. Steele County, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing CapacityVectren) Jumpand MaintenanceStationary PowerformSteca GmbH Jump

  18. Dofasco`s No. 4 blast furnace hearth breakout, repair and rescue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, R.J.; Fischer, A.J.; Sharp, R.M.; Stothart, D.W. [Dofasco Inc., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-01

    On May 5, 1994, after producing 9.5 million metric tons of iron, Dofasco`s No. 4 Blast Furnace experienced a hearth breakout 250 millimeters below the west taphole. The hot metal spill caused a fire resulting in severe damage and 33 days of lost production. During a 26-day period, electrical wiring, water drainage systems and both tapholes were repaired. Recovery from an unprepared furnace stop of this length, with the deadman depleted is difficult. To aid with the rescue Hoogovens-designed oxygen/fuel lances were commissioned. The furnace recovery began with a lance in each taphole and all tuyeres plugged. Six days after startup the furnace was casting into torpedo cars, and after nine days operation had returned to normal. This incident prompted Dofasco to expand the hearth monitoring system to detect and prevent similar occurrences. During the repair, 203 new thermocouples were installed in the hearth, concentrating on the tapholes and elephant foot areas. These thermocouples were installed at various depths and locations to allow heat flux calculations. This hearth monitoring system has already identified other problem areas and provided valuable information about hearth drainage patterns. This information has allowed them to develop control strategies to manage localized problem areas.

  19. 2015-04-01 ISSUANCE: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Hearth Products, Notice of Comment Period Extension

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Hearth Products, Notice of Comment Period Extension

  20. Vacuum Furnace Brazing Open Cell Reticulated Foam to Stainless Steel Tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.S.

    2002-09-13

    This paper describes the intended application and development effort required to braze the copper foam to the stainless steel tubing.

  1. Monitoring lining and hearth conditions at Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quisenberry, P.; Grant, M.; Carter, W.

    1997-12-31

    The paper describes: furnace statistics; mini-reline undertaken in November, 1993; the stack condition; throat gunning; stabilizing the graphite bricks; the hearth condition; reactions to temperature excursions; future instrumentation; and hot blast system areas of concern. The present data from monitoring systems and inspections indicate that the furnace should be able to operate well beyond the expectation for the 1993 mini-reline (3--5 years) with: (1) consistent, high quality raw materials; (2) instrumentation, diagnostic, remedial, and preventative techniques developed; and (3) stopping quickly any water leaks into the furnace. The longevity of this campaign has undoubtedly been a result of this monitoring program.

  2. 2015-01-28 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Hearth Products; NOPR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking and public meeting regarding energy conservation standards for hearth products, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on January 28, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  3. A study on the flow of molten iron in the hearth of blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suh, Y.K.; Lee, Y.J.; Baik, C.Y. [Pohang Iron and Steel Co., Ltd. (Korea, Republic of). Technical Research Labs.

    1996-12-31

    The flow of molten iron in the hearth of blast furnace was investigated by using a water model test and a numerical simulation. The water model apparatus was set up in order to evaluate the effects of coke size, coke bed structure, drain rate, and coke free space on the fluidity of molten iron through measurement of residence time and visualization of flow pattern. In addition, the flow was calculated by solving momentum equation in porous media using finite element method. The residence time increased with the coke size decrease, but decreased with the drain rate increase. If small coke was placed in the center of deadman, peripheral flow was enhanced. The flow path was changed due to the coke free space.

  4. Innovative residential floor construction: Structural evaluation of steel joists with pre-formed web openings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elhajj, N.R.

    1999-03-01

    Since 1992, the US Department of Housing and Urban Development has sponsored numerous studies to identify, evaluate, and implement innovative structural materials, such as cold-formed steel (CFS), in the residential market. The use of CFS is still very limited, partly because steel is not being effectively integrated into conventional home construction. One of the major barriers to the use of CFS floor joists is the impact it has on placement of large waste drains and ductwork installed in floor systems. This report provides an overview of tests conducted by the NAHB to integrate these systems with CFS. A brief literature review of relevant work followed by a detailed overview of the experimental and analytical approach are also provided. The report recommends adoption of the research findings in residential and commercial applications.

  5. A new direct steel making process based upon the blast furnace (Including scrap processing with recovery of tramp elements)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabi, G.

    1996-12-31

    Steel is produced from raw materials containing iron and alloying elements with direct elimination of oxygen and impurities in the blast furnace process. The blast furnace shaft is modified to take off load from the liquid bath and carbon is prevented from going into the liquid steel. In the gas purification system sulphur and CO{sub 2} removal facilities are included and purified reducing gases so obtained are combusted in the hearth with oxygen to produce heat for smelting. Scrap can be charged as raw material with the recovery of tramp elements with continuous production of liquid steel.

  6. Hydrofracture diagnosis in open-hole and steel-cased wells using borehole resistivity measurements David Pardo, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU and IKERBASQUE and Carlos Torres-Verdin, The Uni-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-VerdŪn, Carlos

    Hydrofracture diagnosis in open-hole and steel-cased wells using borehole resistivity measurements are suitable for hydrofracture characterization in steel-cased wells. INTRODUCTION In 1949, the Halliburton Oil is used only dur- ing the stimulation phase of the fracture; occasionally, an ul- terior assessment may

  7. High productivity injection practices at Rouge Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, D.H.; Hegler, G.L.; Falls, C.E. [Rouge Steel Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Rouge Steel Company, located in Dearborn, Michigan, operates two blast furnaces. The smaller of the pair, ``B`` Furnace, has a hearth diameter of 20 feet and 12 tuyeres. It has averaged 2,290 NTHM (net ton of hot metal) per day of 8.2 NTHM per 100 cubic feet of working volume. ``C`` Furnace has a hearth diameter of 29 feet and 20 tuyeres. Both of these furnaces are single tap hole furnaces. Prior to its reline in 1991, ``C`` Furnace was producing at a rate of 3,300 NTHM/day or about 6.25 NTHM/100 cfwv. In November, 1994 it averaged 5,106 NTHM/day or 9.6 NTHM/100 cfwv. This paper discusses how the current production rates were achieved. Also, the areas that needed to be addressed as production increased will be described. These areas include casthouse arrangement and workload, hot metal ladle capacity, slag pot capacity and charging capability. Coupled with the high blast temperature capability, the furnace was provided with a new natural gas injection system that injected the gas through the blowpipes and a natural gas injection system to enrich the stove gas. Following the furnace reline, natural gas has been used in three ways: tuyere level control; combination injection; and stove gas enrichment. Coke consumption rate has also decreased per NTHM.

  8. Steele Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing CapacityVectren) Jumpand MaintenanceStationary PowerformSteca GmbH

  9. Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, Stanley R. (Windsor, SC); Korinko, Paul S. (Aiken, SC)

    2008-05-27

    A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

  10. STUDENT STEEL BRIDGE COMPETITION The mission of the Student Steel Bridge Competition (SSBC) is to supplement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    1 STUDENT STEEL BRIDGE COMPETITION 2012 RULES #12;2 MISSION The mission of the Student Steel Bridge individuals in the Student Steel Bridge Competition without regard to race, ethnicity, religion, age, gender, sexual orientation, nationality, or physical challenges. Bridge teams should be inclusive and open

  11. The Mesabi Nugget Research Project New Ironmaking Technology of the Future: High Quality Iron Nuggets Using a Rotary Hearth Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    The manufacture of steel involves many energy intensive processes that consume raw or recycled materials, such as iron ore and scrap metal, from around the world.

  12. Stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lula, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses the stainless steels for high-strength, heat-resistant or corrosion-resistant applications. It is a treatment of the properties and selection of stainless steels. Up-to-date information covers physical, mechanical and chemical properties of all stainless grades, including the new ferritic and duplex grades. The book covers physical metallurgy as well as processing and service characteristics, including service in corrosive environments. It deals with wrought and cast stainless steels and reviews fabrication from cold-forming to powder metallurgy.

  13. LENNOX HEARTH PRODUCTS

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    International Inc. (NYSE: LII), a global leader in the heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration markets. LHP believes that implementation of Executive Order...

  14. LENNOX HEARTH PRODUCTS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIALU.S. DepartmentJeanKeyLANL SustainableRoadway LightingLEDs:LENNOX

  15. Metallurgical Research Engineer AK Steel, a leading producer of carbon, stainless and electrical steels, has an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prodiś, Aleksandar

    and carrying out laboratory and plant-based experiments ∑ Qualifying new process routings for existing products and electrical steels, has an immediate opening for an Engineer in its Research & Innovation Center located Send Resume to: molly.keith@aksteel.com AK Steel is an Equal Opportunity Employer. All qualified

  16. Steel Winds | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS ReportEurope GmbHSoloPageBefore the SenateHillsWinds II Jump to:Winds

  17. Supporting steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badra, C. [International Trade Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) have just completed a pilot program on the technical and economic viability of direct ironmaking by a process based on bath smelting. In this process, oxygen, prereduced iron ore pellets, coal, and flux are charged into a molten slag bath containing a high percentage of carbon. The carbon removes oxygen from the iron ore and generates carbon monoxide and liquid iron. Oxygen is then injected to burn some of the carbon monoxide gas before it leaves the smelting vessel. The partially combusted gas is sued to preheat and prereduced the ore before it is injected into the bath. There are several competing cokeless ironmaking processes in various stages of development around the world. A brief comparison of these processes provides a useful perspective with which to gauge the progress and objectives of the AISI-DOE research initiative. The principal competing foreign technologies include the Corex process, DIOS, HIsmelt, and Jupiter. The advantages of the direct ironmaking process examined by AISI-DOE were not sufficiently demonstrated to justify commercialization without further research. However, enough knowledge was gained from laboratory and pilot testing to teach researchers how to optimize the direct ironmaking process and to provide the foundation for future research. Researchers now better understand issues such as the dissolution of materials, reduction mechanisms and rates, slag foaming and control, the behavior of sulfur, dust generation, and the entire question of energy efficiency--including post combustion and the role of coal/volatile matter.

  18. Overview: STEEL Enabling Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    or confidential information Dr. Roger Heimbuch AutoSteel Partnership w w w . a - s p . o r g 2008 DOE Merit Review OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION * Sheet Steel Fatigue *...

  19. Typhoon of Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamamoto, Gena

    2012-01-01

    Typhoon of Steel, a Documentary Film A thesis submitted inTyphoon of Steel A Documentary Film by Gena Sayoko Hamamotoa short community-based documentary film that explores the

  20. Steel Industry Profile

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The steel industry is critical to the U.S. economy. Steel is the material of choice for many elements of manufacturing, construction, transportation, and various consumer products. Traditionally...

  1. Methods of forming steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J. (Iona, ID); Burch, Joseph V. (Shelley, ID)

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

  2. Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part II. Rates of reduction of composite pellets in a rotary hearth furnace simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Praxair Technological Center

    2008-12-15

    A new ironmaking concept is being proposed that involves the combination of a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) with an iron-bath smelter. The RHF makes use of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets as the charge material and the final product is direct-reduced iron (DRI) in the solid or molten state. This part of the research includes the development of a reactor that simulated the heat transfer in an RHF. The external heat-transport and high heating rates were simulated by means of infrared (IR) emitting lamps. The reaction rates were measured by analyzing the off-gas and computing both the amount of CO and CO{sub 2} generated and the degree of reduction. The reduction times were found to be comparable to the residence times observed in industrial RHFs. Both artificial ferric oxide (PAH) and naturally occurring hematite and taconite ores were used as the sources of iron oxide. Coal char and devolatilized wood charcoal were the reductants. Wood charcoal appeared to be a faster reductant than coal char. However, in the PAH-containing pellets, the reverse was found to be true because of heat-transfer limitations. For the same type of reductant, hematite-containing pellets were observed to reduce faster than taconite-containing pellets because of the development of internal porosity due to cracking and fissure formation during the Fe2O{sub 3}-to-Fe3O{sub 4} transition. This is, however, absent during the reduction of taconite, which is primarily Fe3O{sub 4}. The PAH-wood-charcoal pellets were found to undergo a significant amount of swelling at low-temperature conditions, which impeded the external heat transport to the lower layers. If the average degree of reduction targeted in an RHF is reduced from 95 to approximately 70 pct by coupling the RHF with a bath smelter, the productivity of the RHF can be enhanced 1.5 to 2 times. The use of a two- or three-layer bed was found to be superior to that of a single layer, for higher productivities.

  3. Success Story: Harrison Steel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study highlights how Harrison Steel leveraged both EPA's ENERGY STAR program and DOE resources to enhance energy efficiency efforts and multiply captured energy savings.

  4. Baotou Iron and Steel Group Baotou Steel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC Jump to:Greece:Bajo en Carbono, MexicoBanham PoultryBlade Coand

  5. Duplex Stainless Steels Margaret Gorog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    11/14/2014 1 Duplex Stainless Steels Margaret Gorog Federal Way, WA Pulp and Paper Corrosion Symposium Georgia Tech Renewable Bioproducts Institute November 2014 2205 stainless steel Microstructure: austenite + ferrite 304L stainless steel Microstructure: austenite Duplex Stainless Steel f a #12

  6. Kobe Steel Ltd Kobelco | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrderInformationKizildereTexas: Energy Resources JumpKUB)

  7. JFE Steel Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EAInvervar Hydro Jump to: navigation,Jump to:Corp Jump to: navigation,

  8. Steel Winds II | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS ReportEurope GmbHSoloPageBefore the SenateHillsWinds II Jump to:

  9. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peaslee, Kent D. (Rolla, MO); Peter, Jorg J. (McMinnville, OR); Robertson, David G. C. (Rolla, MO); Thomas, Brian G. (Champaign, IL); Zhang, Lifeng (Trondheim, NO)

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  10. Sensitisation of Austenitic Stainless Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Sensitisation of Austenitic Stainless Steels By Chia Hooi Too Queens' College University; Abstract Austenitic stainless steels with excellent corrosion resistance and good weldabil- ity have wide, making the steel `stainless'. However, carbide precipitation due to the welding process or heat treatment

  11. Reaustenitisation from Bainite in Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahashi, Manabu

    1993-03-16

    .7 APPLICATIONS . . . 1.7.1 Ferrite-Martensite dual phase steels 1.7.2 Steels containing some retained austenite 1.7.3 Welding of steels . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.4 Initial austenite grain size . . . . . . . 1.8 TRANSFORMATION FROM AUSTENITE 1.8.1 Widmanstiitten... is important in the production of dual phase steels which have a final microstructure of ferrite and about 20% martensite. These steels have a good combination of strength and uniform ductility, and find applications in the automobile industry. When a fully...

  12. Ferritic steel melt and FLiBe/steel experiment : melting ferritic steel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Smith, Brandon M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan

    2004-11-01

    In preparation for developing a Z-pinch IFE power plant, the interaction of ferritic steel with the coolant, FLiBe, must be explored. Sandia National Laboratories Fusion Technology Department was asked to drop molten ferritic steel and FLiBe in a vacuum system and determine the gas byproducts and ability to recycle the steel. We tried various methods of resistive heating of ferritic steel using available power supplies and easily obtained heaters. Although we could melt the steel, we could not cause a drop to fall. This report describes the various experiments that were performed and includes some suggestions and materials needed to be successful. Although the steel was easily melted, it was not possible to drip the molten steel into a FLiBe pool Levitation melting of the drop is likely to be more successful.

  13. ITP Steel: Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, March 2000 theoreticalminimumenergies.pdf More Documents & Publications Ironmaking Process Alternatives Screening Study...

  14. Stainless Steel Permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchenauer, Dean A.; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2015-09-01

    An understanding of the behavior of hydrogen isotopes in materials is critical to predicting tritium transport in structural metals (at high pressure), estimating tritium losses during production (fission environment), and predicting in-vessel inventory for future fusion devices (plasma driven permeation). Current models often assume equilibrium diffusivity and solubility for a class of materials (e.g. stainless steels or aluminum alloys), neglecting trapping effects or, at best, considering a single population of trapping sites. Permeation and trapping studies of the particular castings and forgings enable greater confidence and reduced margins in the models. For FY15, we have continued our investigation of the role of ferrite in permeation for steels of interest to GTS, through measurements of the duplex steel 2507. We also initiated an investigation of the permeability in work hardened materials, to follow up on earlier observations of unusual permeability in a particular region of 304L forgings. Samples were prepared and characterized for ferrite content and coated with palladium to prevent oxidation. Issues with the poor reproducibility of measurements at low permeability were overcome, although the techniques in use are tedious. Funding through TPBAR and GTS were secured for a research grade quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and replacement turbo pumps, which should improve the fidelity and throughput of measurements in FY16.

  15. MECS 2006- Iron and Steel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311, 3312) with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

  16. Process for dezincing galvanized steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, W.A.; Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1998-07-14

    A process is described for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75 C and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (1) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (2) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (3) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (4) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte. 1 fig.

  17. A two parameter fracture criterion for high strength low carbon steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betegon, C. [Univ. of Oviedo, Gijon (Spain). Escuela Tecnica de Ingenieros Industriales] [Univ. of Oviedo, Gijon (Spain). Escuela Tecnica de Ingenieros Industriales; Belzunce, F.J.; Rodriguez, C. [Inst. Tecnologico de Materiales, Asturias (Spain)] [Inst. Tecnologico de Materiales, Asturias (Spain)

    1996-03-01

    The critical J integral and crack tip opening displacement, CTOD, at cleavage instability of a low carbon high strength steel were obtained from three point bending specimens with different crack to width ratios (0.04 < a/W < 0.48). The geometry dependence of the elastoplastic toughness parameters has been correlated with the T stress. The obtained results have been explained by means of a local cleavage fracture criterion applied to the brittle to ductile transition behavior of the steel.

  18. Steel | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergyPlan | Department of Energy 1 DOE| Department ofSteam SystemSteamSteel

  19. Modelling Precipitation of Carbides in Martensitic Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Modelling Precipitation of Carbides in Martensitic Steels Shingo Yamasaki Darwin College appreciate Dr S. Aihara and Mr T. Tarui at Nippon Steel Corporation for giving me the opportunity to study at Nippon Steel Corporation. I am indebted to grants from the Personnel Division of Nippon Steel Corporation

  20. ITP Steel: Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: An Historical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: An Historical Perspective and Future Opportunities, September 2000 ITP Steel: Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: An Historical...

  1. Great Lakes Steel -- PCI facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichinger, F.T. [BMH Claudius Peters AG, Buxtehude (Germany); Dake, S.H.; Wagner, E.D.; Brown, G.S. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the planning, design, and start-up of the 90 tph PCI facility for National Steel`s Great Lakes Steel Division in River Rouge, MI. This project is owned and operated by Edison Energy Services, and was implemented on a fast-track basis by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Babcock Material Handling, and Babcock and Wilcox. This paper presents important process issues, basic design criteria, an the challenges of engineering and building a state-of-the-art PCI facility in two existing plants. Pulverized coal is prepared at the River Rouge Power Plant of Detroit Edison, is pneumatically conveyed 6,000 feet to a storage silo at Great Lakes Steel, and is injected into three blast furnaces.

  2. Electrochemical Dezincing of Steel Scrap

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Half of the steel produced in the United States is derived from scrap. With zinc-coated prompt scrap increasing fivefold since 1980, steelmakers are feeling the effect of increased contaminant...

  3. Auto/Steel Partnership: AHSS Stamping, Strain Rate Characterization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AHSS Stamping, Strain Rate Characterization, Sheet Steel Fatigue, AHSS Joining AutoSteel Partnership: AHSS Stamping, Strain Rate Characterization, Sheet Steel Fatigue, AHSS...

  4. MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF DUAL PHASE STEELS CONTAINING FINE PRECIPITATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gau, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    phase steels subjected to intercritical annealing followedphase steels sub- jected to intercritical annealing followedof steels fast quenched after intercritical annealing is a

  5. Hydrogen embrittlement of structural steels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-06-01

    Carbon-manganese steels are candidates for the structural materials in hydrogen gas pipelines, however it is well known that these steels are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Decades of research and industrial experience have established that hydrogen embrittlement compromises the structural integrity of steel components. This experience has also helped identify the failure modes that can operate in hydrogen containment structures. As a result, there are tangible ideas for managing hydrogen embrittement in steels and quantifying safety margins for steel hydrogen containment structures. For example, fatigue crack growth aided by hydrogen embrittlement is a key failure mode for steel hydrogen containment structures subjected to pressure cycling. Applying appropriate structural integrity models coupled with measurement of relevant material properties allows quantification of safety margins against fatigue crack growth in hydrogen containment structures. Furthermore, application of these structural integrity models is aided by the development of micromechanics models, which provide important insights such as the hydrogen distribution near defects in steel structures. The principal objective of this project is to enable application of structural integrity models to steel hydrogen pipelines. The new American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B31.12 design code for hydrogen pipelines includes a fracture mechanics-based design option, which requires material property inputs such as the threshold for rapid cracking and fatigue crack growth rate under cyclic loading. Thus, one focus of this project is to measure the rapid-cracking thresholds and fatigue crack growth rates of line pipe steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas. These properties must be measured for the base materials but more importantly for the welds, which are likely to be most vulnerable to hydrogen embrittlement. The measured properties can be evaluated by predicting the performance of the pipeline using a relevant structural integrity model, such as that in ASME B31.12. A second objective of this project is to enable development of micromechanics models of hydrogen embrittlement in pipeline steels. The focus of this effort is to establish physical models of hydrogen embrittlement in line pipe steels using evidence from analytical techniques such as electron microscopy. These physical models then serve as the framework for developing sophisticated finite-element models, which can provide quantitative insight into the micromechanical state near defects. Understanding the micromechanics of defects can ensure that structural integrity models are applied accurately and conservatively.

  6. Phase Transformations in Heterogeneous Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Shahid Amin

    1990-05-08

    for autocatalysis, relying on the fact that immediate vicinity of a plate is disturbed quite severely by a combination of elastic and plastic deformation processes due to the shear like nature of the transformation. ē Stress-induced Nucleation, i.e., the activation... elements in steels is twofold. They can affect both the thermodynamics and kinetics of transformations. The hardenability of steels is related directly to the in- fluence on the nucleation and growth kinetics of the decomposition products. Primarily...

  7. Development of New Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert F. Buck

    2005-08-30

    A new family of innovative martensitic stainless steels, 521-A, 521-B, and 521-C has been developed by Advanced Steel Technology, LLC (Trafford, PA) as high strength fastener (bolt) materials for use at moderate temperatures in turbine engines, including steam turbines, gas turbines, and aircraft engines. The primary objective of the development program was to create a martensitic stainless steel with high strength at moderate temperatures, and which could replace the expensive nickel-based superalloy IN 718 in some fasteners applications. A secondary objective was to replace conventional 12Cr steels such as AISI 422 used as blades, buckets and shafts that operate at intermediate temperatures in turbine engines with stronger steel. The composition of the new alloys was specifically designed to produce excellent mechanical properties while integrating heat treatment steps into production to reduce energy consumption during manufacturing. As a result, production costs and energy consumption during production of rolled bar products is significantly lower than conventional materials. Successful commercialization of the new alloys would permit the installed cost of certain turbine engines to be reduced without sacrificing high availability or operational flexibility, thereby enhancing the global competitiveness of U.S. turbine engine manufacturers. Moreover, the domestic specialty steel industry would also benefit through increased productivity and reduced operating costs, while increasing their share of the international market for turbine engine fasteners, blades, buckets and shafts.

  8. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase...

  9. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1, CONDUCT P - .Energy 5PVMajorFebruary|1 A8015

  10. Aluminum electroplating on steel from a fused bromide electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Laura A. Wurth; Eric J. Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie J. Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven M. Frank; Guy L. Frederickson; J. Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBrĖKBrĖCsBrĖAlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminum on steel substrates. The electrolytewas prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBrĖKBrĖCsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminum coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminum coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggested that the coatings did display a good corrosionresistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminum coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminumcoating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  11. Aluminium Electroplating on Steel from a Fused Bromide Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabhat Tripathy; Laura Wurth; Eric Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven Frank; Guy Fredrickson; J Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr-KBr-CsBr-AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminium on steel substrates. The electrolyte was prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr-KBr-CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminium coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminium coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggest that the coatings did display good corrosion-resistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminium coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminium coating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  12. Saturation in ``nonmagnetic'' stainless steel C. Weber and J. Fajansa)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fajans, Joel

    Saturation in ``nonmagnetic'' stainless steel C. Weber and J. Fajansa) Department of Physics July 1998 Scientific equipment often uses ``nonmagnetic'' stainless steel, relying on the steel's nonmagnetic behavior to leave external magnetic fields unaltered. However, stainless steel's permeability can

  13. FRACTURE MECHANISM OF A BAINITE STEEL IN PRECRACKED AND NOTCHED SPECIMENS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Qinghua

    . KEYWORDS Fracture toughness, cleavage fracture, crack depth, ductile crack growth, bainite steel, fracture specimens fractured at lower-shelf region without any ductile crack growth. The critical crack tip opening there was an apparent improvement in fracture toughness (KIC) measured using precracked specimens but a decrease

  14. FINITE ELEMENT INVESTIGATION AND DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PERFORATED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruneau, Michel

    FINITE ELEMENT INVESTIGATION AND DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PERFORATED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS of the behavior of unstiffened thin SPSW having a regular pattern of openings (a.k.a. perforated SPSW). Finite element monotonic pushover analyses were conducted, first on a series of individual perforated strips

  15. White(etching!matter!in!bearing!steel! Part1:!Controlled(cracking!of!52100!steel!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    ! quenched! and! untempered! steel! normally! used! in! the! manufacture! of! bearings.!The!varieties!of!cracks!studied!include!sparsely!distributed!martensite(lubricant!interactions,!or!hydrogen!trapping!can!be!studied!further.! ! Keywords:!bearing!steel,!indentation!cracks,!cracked!martensite,!grain(boundary!decohesion,! surface! 1! White(etching!matter!in!bearing!steel! Part1:!Controlled(cracking!of!52100!steel! ! W

  16. Modelling Precipitation of Carbides in Martensitic Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamasaki, Shingo

    The purpose of this work was to model carbide precipitation in steels of a quaternary system which includes two substitutional elements. The work focuses on secondary hardening steels which are used for high-strength components, where hydrogen...

  17. H-Series Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cast H-Series austenitic steels are used extensively in several industries for a broad range of high-temperature applications. The H-Series stainless steels have evolved over many years of complex...

  18. Extraordinary Ductility in Albearing TRIP Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    ferrite that is normally introduced into TRIP≠assisted steels by intercritical annealing or continuousExtraordinary Ductility in Al≠bearing ≠TRIP Steel By H. L. Yi1 , K. Y. Lee2 and H. K. D. H strength and elongation which are not available with current steels used in the manufacture of automobiles

  19. MICROSTRUCTURE OF SUPER-DUPLEX STAINLESS STEELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    MICROSTRUCTURE OF SUPER-DUPLEX STAINLESS STEELS By Shahriar Sharafi St. Edmund College Department of Sweden for providing the materials. IV #12;ABSTRACT Corrosion resistant stainless steels with a mixed microstructure of o-ferrite and austenite in approximately equal proportion are called "duplex stainless steels

  20. Tensile Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Tensile Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel by Iqbal Shah Corpus Christi College, Cambridge;Abstract The short-term mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels can be affected by a myriad of factors. Materials scientists conduct countless trials to find new steel compositions, in an attempt

  1. Tensile Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Tensile Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel by Iqbal Shah Corpus Christi College, Cambridge; Abstract The short≠term mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels can be affected by a myriad of factors. Materials scientists conduct countless trials to find new steel compositions, in an attempt

  2. Ammonia removal process upgrade to the Acme Steel Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J.L. [Acme Steel Co., Chicago, IL (United States). Chicago Coke Plant

    1995-12-01

    The need to upgrade the ammonia removal process at the Acme Steel Coke Plant developed with the installation of the benzene NESHAP (National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) equipment, specifically the replacement of the final cooler. At Acme Steel it was decided to replace the existing open cooling tower type final cooler with a closed loop direct spray tar/water final cooler. This new cooler has greatly reduced the emissions of benzene, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide to the atmosphere, bringing them into environmental compliance. At the time of its installation it was not fully recognized as to the effect this would have on the coke oven gas composition. In the late seventies the decision had been made at Acme Steel to stop the production of ammonia sulfate salt crystals. The direction chosen was to make a liquid ammonia sulfate solution. This product was used as a pickle liquor at first and then as a liquid fertilizer as more markets were developed. In the fall of 1986 the ammonia still was brought on line. The vapors generated from the operation of the stripping still are directed to the inlet of the ammonia absorber. At that point in time it was decided that an improvement to the cyclical ammonia removal process was needed. The improvements made were minimal yet allowed the circulation of solution through the ammonia absorber on a continuous basis. The paper describes the original batch process and the modifications made which allowed continuous removal.

  3. Seismic Performance and Design of Steel Plate Shear Walls with Low Yield Point Steel Infill Plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zirakian, Tadeh

    2013-01-01

    Bhowmick A.K. (2009a). Seismic Analysis and Design of Steeland Grondin G.Y. (2009b). ďSeismic analysis of steel plateand Bhagwagar T. (2002). ďSeismic retrofit of flexible steel

  4. 13 Modern Bainitic Steels Steels with yield strengths in excess of 1000 MPa are important in certain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    the formation of martensite. Steels like these (Alloy 1, Table 13.1), when normalised, are found to transform13 Modern Bainitic Steels Steels with yield strengths in excess of 1000 MPa are important balance of hardenability in the context of large scale steel production technologies. Lean steels tend

  5. Transformation induced plasticity assisted steels: stress or strain affected martensitic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Transformation induced plasticity assisted steels: stress or strain affected martensitic induced martensitic transformation of the retained austenite in TRIP assisted steels. The authors begin transformation? S. Chatterjee and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia* Transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels

  6. Iron and Steel (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Iron and Steel (2010 MECS) Iron and Steel (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311, 3312) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS...

  7. Wear-Resistant, Nano-Composite Steel Coatings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wear-Resistant, Nano-Composite Steel Coatings Laser Processing Techniques Used for the Production of Wear-Resistant Steel Coatings from Iron-Based Glassy Powders Introduction Steel...

  8. Mag-Foot: a steel bridge inspection robot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asada, Harry

    A legged robot that moves across a steel structure is developed for steel bridge inspection. Powerful permanent magnets imbedded in each foot allow the robot to hang from a steel ceiling powerlessly. Although the magnets ...

  9. HEAT TREATMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DUPLEX 1010 AND 1020 STEELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    1020 steels were subjected to the two phase * " annealingof steel. A viable alternative utilizes annealing in the twoAnnealing (1010). The-.initial microstructure is important in the duplex proc≠ essing of steel, and

  10. Modelling simultaneous precipitation reactions in austenitic stainless steels.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Modelling simultaneous precipitation reactions in austenitic stainless steels. T. Sourmail and H. K developed for simultaneous precipitation reactions in austenitic stainless steels, taking into account for important phases in creep-resistant austenitic stainless steels. 1 Introduction Precipitation phenomena

  11. PROTON INDUCED SWELLING IN TYPE 316 STAINLESS STEEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Damage in an Austenitic Stainless Steel, USAEC Report ORNL-Formation in Austenitic Stainless Steel, Ref. 5, p. 142. D.and Nicke1- Irradiated 304 Stainless Steel, Ref. 5, p. 499.

  12. FERRITE STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LOW ALLOY DUPLEX STEELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoel, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    and Properties of Dual-Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. W.Formable HSLA and Dual Phase Steels, A. T. Davenport, ed. ,Formable HSLA and Dual Phase Steels, A. T. Davenport, ed. ,

  13. MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF DUAL PHASE STEELS CONTAINING FINE PRECIPITATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gau, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    and Properties of Dual-Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. W.of Niobium Microalloyed Dual- Phase Steel, MetallurgicalAND PROPERTIES OF DUAL PHASE STEELS CONTAINING FINE

  14. Development of Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Magnesium Parts (AMD-704) Development of Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Magnesium...

  15. Development of 3rd Generation Advanced High Strength Steels ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3rd Generation Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) with an Integrated Experimental and Simulation Approach Development of 3rd Generation Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) with...

  16. First Generation Advanced High-Strength Steels Deformation Fundamental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generation Advanced High-Strength Steels Deformation Fundamentals First Generation Advanced High-Strength Steels Deformation Fundamentals 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program...

  17. Post Irradiation Examination of Stainless Steel Cladding from...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Post Irradiation Examination of Stainless Steel Cladding from In-Reactor Permeation Experiment Post Irradiation Examination of Stainless Steel Cladding from In-Reactor Permeation...

  18. CARBON DIFFUSION ACROSS DISSIMILAR STEEL WELDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    CARBON DIFFUSION ACROSS DISSIMILAR STEEL WELDS By Julia Margaret Race St. John's College, Cambridge. 111 #12;#12;ABSTRACT Dissimilar steel welds are used extensively in the power generation industry to the high alloy side of the weld. This leaves an area on one side of the weld denuded of carbon

  19. Transformation texture of allotriomorphic ferrite in steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Transformation texture of allotriomorphic ferrite in steel D. W. Kim1 , R. S. Qin1 and H. K. D. H into martensite or bainite are well established because the process by which the parent lattice is transformed within the austenite before its transformation. Keywords: Allotriomorphic ferrite, Steel, Texture, Dual

  20. Method for welding chromium molybdenum steels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Clinton, TN)

    1986-01-01

    Chromium-molybdenum steels exhibit a weakening after welding in an area adjacent to the weld. This invention is an improved method for welding to eliminate the weakness by subjecting normalized steel to a partial temper prior to welding and subsequently fully tempering the welded article for optimum strength and ductility.

  1. STRAIN AGING OF AUSTENITIC HADFIELD MANGANESE STEEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    STRAIN AGING OF AUSTENITIC HADFIELD MANGANESE STEEL W. S. OWEN1 { and M. GRUJICIC2 1 Departmentģeld steel is discussed in terms of the interstitial octahedron, local-order model, which deģnes order on the metal sublattice are frozen on sites determined either by the high-temperature equilibrium anneal

  2. Linzhou Zhongsheng Steel Ltd Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EAInvervarLeeds, UnitedLiberty PowerLine ExtensionLinn

  3. Steele-Waseca Cooperative Electric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc JumpHeter BatterySolarfinMarket Studies Jump to:StardateStatoilStaxera

  4. Tokyo Steel Manufacturing Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc JumpHeterInformation PolicyTinna Group Jump to:TokuyamaManufacturing Co

  5. Steele County, North Dakota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS ReportEurope GmbHSoloPageBefore the SenateHillsWinds II Jump

  6. Industrial Sector Energy Conservation Programs in the People's Republic of China during the Seventh Five-Year Plan (1986-1990)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhiping, L.

    2010-01-01

    in coking, sterling, ironmaking, and open hearth processes,injections for coke in ironmaking is a common practiceinjection methods i n ironmaking. Data from the Anshan Iron

  7. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    rate, oxygen concentration, coal type, PCI rate, and tuyeretype of vessel: H 2 , natural gas, or synthetic gas produced from partial combustion of coal and/coal or coke, which are reduced in the solid state using a rotary hearth or similar type

  8. BEHAVIOR OF BRIDGE DECKS REINFORCED WITH MMFX STEEL HATEM SELIEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    steel in bridge decks. The paper also presents the effects bending MMFX steel bars on their tensile, Corrosion, High-Strength Steel, MMFX, Flexure, Punching Shear. ABSTRACT This paper describes the behavior reinforcement. In addition, for the new steel to be accepted as transverse reinforcement, the effects of bending

  9. Steels for Bearings H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 6 Microcracking 33 7 Spheroidise Annealing 34 8 Steels for Aerospace Bearings 41 8.1 SpecialSteels for Bearings H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia May 5, 2011 Director, SKF University Technology Centre for Steels Tata Steel Professor of Metallurgy University of Cambridge Materials Science and Metallurgy

  10. Microstructural characterization in dissimilar friction stir welding between 304 stainless steel and st37 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jafarzadegan, M. [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China); Feng, A.H. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China); Abdollah-zadeh, A., E-mail: zadeh@modares.ac.ir [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saeid, T. [Advanced Materials Research Center, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box: 51335-1996, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Advanced Materials Research Center, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box: 51335-1996, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shen, J. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China); Assadi, H. [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    In the present study, 3 mm-thick plates of 304 stainless steel and st37 steel were welded together by friction stir welding at a welding speed of 50 mm/min and tool rotational speed of 400 and 800 rpm. X-ray diffraction test was carried out to study the phases which might be formed in the welds. Metallographic examinations, and tensile and microhardness tests were used to analyze the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joint. Four different zones were found in the weld area except the base metals. In the stir zone of the 304 stainless steel, a refined grain structure with some features of dynamic recrystallization was evidenced. A thermomechanically-affected zone was characterized on the 304 steel side with features of dynamic recovery. In the other side of the stir zone, the hot deformation of the st37 steel in the austenite region produced small austenite grains and these grains transformed to fine ferrite and pearlite and some products of displacive transformations such as Widmanstatten ferrite and martensite by cooling the material after friction stir welding. The heat-affected zone in the st37 steel side showed partially and fully refined microstructures like fusion welding processes. The recrystallization in the 304 steel and the transformations in the st37 steel enhanced the hardness of the weld area and therefore, improved the tensile properties of the joint. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FSW produced sound welds between st37 low carbon steel and 304 stainless steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SZ of the st37 steel contained some products of allotropic transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material in the SZ of the 304 steel showed features of dynamic recrystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The finer microstructure in the SZ increased the hardness and tensile strength.

  11. Light Steel Framing: Improving the Integral Design†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amundarain, Aitor; Torero, Jose L; Usmani, Asif; Al-Remal, Ahmad M

    2006-09-11

    Light Steel Framing has been extensively used in cold climate countries due to its good thermal and structural behaviour. Improved thermal behaviour results in positive environmental impact essential for sustainable ...

  12. Modelling of Simultaneous Transformations in Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jiawen

    The microstructure of a steel is often developed by solid-state transformation from austenite. The major transformation products are allotriomorphic ferrite, pearlite, Widmanstatten ferrite, bainite and martensite, differentiated by morphological...

  13. Study of Alumina in Austenitic Stainless Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chung

    2014-12-18

    transformation through temperature, as opposed to mechanical stresses, the martensite start temperature is calculated through the Ishida model. The addition of aluminum to an austenitic stainless steel composition can alloy for the growth of alumina oxide...

  14. Hydrogen compatibility handbook for stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1983-06-01

    This handbook compiles data on the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of stainless steels and discusses this data within the context of current understanding of hydrogen compatibility of metals. All of the tabulated data derives from continuing studies of hydrogen effects on materials that have been conducted at the Savannah River Laboratory over the past fifteen years. Supplementary data from other sources are included in the discussion. Austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, and precipitation hardenable stainless steels have been studied. Damage caused by helium generated from decay of tritium is a distinctive effect that occurs in addition to the hydrogen isotopes protium and deuterium. The handbook defines the scope of our current knowledge of hydrogen effects in stainless steels and serves as a guide to selection of stainless steels for service in hydrogen.

  15. Prevention of Hydrogen Embrittlement in Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    2015-01-01

    The essential facts about the nature of the hydrogen embrittlement of steels have now been known for 140 years. It is diffusible hydrogen that is harmful to the toughness of iron. It follows, therefore, that the harmful influence of diffusible...

  16. HotEyeģ Steel Surface Inspection System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A new inspection system, the HotEyeģ Rolled Steel Bar (RSB) System, has been developed and demonstrated by OG Technologies (OGT) Inc., with the help of both a NICE3 grant and a project under the...

  17. Instrumentation of Steel Const. Award to CE†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Overheight vehicle impact to bridge decks is a major problem in the transportation networks in the United States. An important factor that causes this problem is inadequate vertical clearance of bridges. Using steel pedestals to elevate bridge decks...

  18. Surface Roughness of Stainless Steel Bender Mirrors for Focusing Soft X-rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01

    Surface Roughness of Stainless Steel Bender Mirrors forWe have used polished stainless steel as a mirror substratefor smooth polishing. Stainless steel is stronger and can be

  19. Beam Energy Scaling on Ion-Induced Electron Yield from K+ Impact on Stainless Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Yield from K + Impact on Stainless Steel Michel Kireeff CovoThe K + ions hit the stainless steel target with energy upenergies hitting stainless steel target obtained from

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT OF NICKEL-FREE AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS FOR AMBIENT AND CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haddick, Glen T.

    2011-01-01

    OF NICKEL-FREE AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS FOR AMBIENT ANDOF NICKEL-FREE AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS FOR AMBIENT ANDOF NICKEL-FREE AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS FOR AMBIENT AND

  1. Protective coating on stainless steel interconnect for SOFCs: Oxidation kinetics and electrical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xuan; Hou, Peggy Y.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2004-01-01

    PROTECTIVE COATING ON STAINLESS STEEL INTERCONNECT FORcoatings on commercial stainless steel alloys that allow forTABLES Table 1. Stainless steel composition in Weight%

  2. EFFECTS OF MORPHOLOGY ON THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF DUAL PHASE Fe/Si/C STEELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, N.J.

    2012-01-01

    and ductility in dual phase steels. However, it seems thatmechanical behavior of dual phase steels. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSL INTRODUCTION Dual phase steels whose structures consist of

  3. Mechanical properties and microstructures of dual phase steels containing silicon, aluminum and molybdenum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neill, Thomas John O'

    2011-01-01

    AND MICROSTRUCTURES OF DUAL PHASE STEELS CONTAINING SILICON,and Microstructures of Dual Phase Steels Containing Silicon,microstructures of selected dual-phase steels in which the

  4. High strength, high ductility low carbon steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koo, Jayoung (Berkeley, CA); Thomas, Gareth (Berkeley, CA)

    1978-01-01

    A high strength, high ductility low carbon steel consisting essentially of iron, 0.05-0.15 wt% carbon, and 1-3 wt% silicon. Minor amounts of other constituents may be present. The steel is characterized by a duplex ferrite-martensite microstructure in a fibrous morphology. The microstructure is developed by heat treatment consisting of initial austenitizing treatment followed by annealing in the (.alpha. + .gamma.) range with intermediate quenching.

  5. Fracture initiation by local brittle zones in weldments of quenched and tempered structural alloy steel plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenney, K.L.; Reuter, W.G.; Reemsnyder, H.S.; Matlock, D.K.

    1997-12-31

    The heat-affected zone (HAZ) embrittlement of an API 2Y Grade 50T quenched and tempered offshore structural steel plate, welded by the submerged-arc process at a heat input of 4.5 kJ/mm, was investigated from the viewpoint of identifying the local brittle zone (LBZ) microstructure and the metallurgical factors associated with its formation. Microstructural and fractographic analysis showed the LBZ microstructure to be dual phase martensite-austenite (M-A) constituent. The formation of M-A constituent was found to be related to microstructural banding of the hot-rolled base plate. When the banded base plate was welded, M-A constituent formed only within the band microstructure which penetrated the intercritically-reheated coarse-grain HAZ (IRCGHAZ). The chemistry of the band microstructure in conjunction with the thermal cycle of the IRCGHAZ provided the critical conditions for the formation of M-A constituent in the API 2Y Grade 50T steel investigated. The influence of local brittle zones (i.e., M-A constituent) on the HAZ fracture toughness was evaluated by means of Crack-Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) tests. These tests showed the steel to suffer embrittlement when the fatigue precrack sampled an intercritically-reheated coarse-grain HAZ which contained M-A constituent, confirming that M-A constituent is the major microstructural factor controlling the HAZ toughness of this particular steel.

  6. Irradiation Assisted Grain Boundary Segregation in Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Zheng; Faulkner, Roy G.

    2008-07-01

    The understanding of radiation-induced grain boundary segregation (RIS) has considerably improved over the past decade. New models have been introduced and much effort has been devoted to obtaining comprehensive information on segregation from the literature. Analytical techniques have also improved so that chemical analysis of layers 1 nm thick is almost routine. This invited paper will review the major methods used currently for RIS prediction: namely, Rate Theory, Inverse Kirkendall, and Solute Drag approaches. A summary is made of the available data on phosphorus RIS in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. This will be discussed in the light of the predictions of the various models in an effort to show which models are the most reliable and easy to use for forecasting P segregation behaviour in steels. A consequence of RIS in RPV steels is a radiation induced shift in the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT). It will be shown how it is possible to relate radiation-induced P segregation levels to DBTT shift. Examples of this exercise will be given for RPV steels and for ferritic steels being considered for first wall fusion applications. Cr RIS in high alloy stainless steels and associated irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) will be briefly discussed. (authors)

  7. Development of Steel Foam Materials and Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth Kremer; Anthony Liszkiewicz; James Adkins

    2004-10-20

    In the past few years there has been a growing interest in lightweight metal foams. Demands for weight reduction, improved fuel efficiency, and increased passenger safety in automobiles now has manufacturers seriously considering the use of metal foams, in contrast to a few years ago, when the same materials would have been ruled out for technical or economical reasons. The objective of this program was to advance the development and use of steel foam materials, by demonstrating the advantages of these novel lightweight materials in selected generic applications. Progress was made in defining materials and process parameters; characterization of physical and mechanical properties; and fabrication and testing of generic steel foam-filled shapes with compositions from 2.5 wt.% to 0.7 wt.% carbon. A means of producing steel foam shapes with uniform long range porosity levels of 50 to 60 percent was demonstrated and verified with NDE methods. Steel foam integrated beams, cylinders and plates were mechanically tested and demonstrated advantages in bend stiffness, bend resistance, and crush energy absorption. Methods of joining by welding, adhesive bonding, and mechanical fastening were investigated. It is important to keep in mind that steel foam is a conventional material in an unconventional form. A substantial amount of physical and mechanical properties are presented throughout the report and in a properties database at the end of the report to support designer's in applying steel foam in unconventional ways.

  8. Indium oxide thin film as potential photoanodes for corrosion protection of stainless steel under visible light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yan; Yu, Jianqiang; Sun, Kai; Zhu, Yukun; Bu, Yuyu; Chen, Zhuoyuan

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: If the conduction band potential of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} is more negative than the corrosion potential of stainless steel, photo-induced electrons will be transferred from In{sub 2}O{sub 3} to the steel, thus shifting the potential of the steel into a corrosion immunity region and preventing the steel from the corrosion. - Highlights: ē Indium oxide performed novel application under visible light. ē Indium oxide by solĖgel method behaved better photoelectrochemical properties. ē Electrons were transferred to stainless steel from indium oxide once light on. - Abstract: This paper reports the photoelectrochemical cathodic protection of 304 stainless steel by In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin-film under visible-light. The films were fabricated with In{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders, synthesized by both solĖgel (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg) and solid-state (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ss) processes. The photo-induced open circuit potential and the photo-to-current efficiency measurements suggested that In{sub 2}O{sub 3} could be a promising candidate material for photoelectrochemical cathodic protection of metallic alloys under visible light. Moreover, the polarization curve experimental results indicated that In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg thin-film can mitigate the corrosion potential of 304 stainless steel to much more negative values with a higher photocurrent density than the In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ss film under visible-light illumination. All the results demonstrated that the In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg thin-film provides a better photoelectrochemical cathodic protection for 304 stainless steel than In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ss thin-film under visible-light illumination. The higher photoelectrochemical efficiency is possibly due to the uniform thin films produced with the smaller particle size of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg, which facilitates the transfer of the photo-induced electrons from bulk to the surface and suppresses the charge recombination of the electrons and holes.

  9. Tensile-property characterization of thermally aged cast stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michaud, W.F.; Toben, P.T.; Soppet, W.K.; Chopra, O.K.

    1994-02-01

    The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties of cast stainless steels during service in light water reactors has been evaluated. Tensile data for several experimental and commercial heats of cast stainless steels are presented. Thermal aging increases the tensile strength of these steels. The high-C Mo-bearing CF-8M steels are more susceptible to thermal aging than the Mo-free CF-3 or CF-8 steels. A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting the change in tensile flow and yield stresses and engineering stress-vs.-strain curve of cast stainless steel as a function of time and temperature of service. The tensile properties of aged cast stainless steel are estimated from known material information, i.e., chemical composition and the initial tensile strength of the steel. The correlations described in this report may be used for assessing thermal embrittlement of cast stainless steel components.

  10. ITP Steel: Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, March 2000

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The absolute theoretical minimum energies to produce liquid steel from idealized scrap (100% Fe) and ore (100% Fe2O3) are much lower than consumed in practice, as are the theoretical minimum energies to roll the steel into its final shape.

  11. High Mn austenitic stainless steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Yukinori (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Santella, Michael L (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Brady, Michael P (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Liu, Chain-tsuan (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-07-13

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy includes, in weight percent: >4 to 15 Mn; 8 to 15 Ni; 14 to 16 Cr; 2.4 to 3 Al; 0.4 to 1 total of at least one of Nb and Ta; 0.05 to 0.2 C; 0.01 to 0.02 B; no more than 0.3 of combined Ti+V; up to 3 Mo; up to 3 Co; up to 1W; up to 3 Cu; up to 1 Si; up to 0.05 P; up to 1 total of at least one of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; less than 0.05 N; and base Fe, wherein the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, nanometer scale sized particles distributed throughout the microstructure, the particles including at least one of NbC and TaC, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure that is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  12. OPEN HONE

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003040IBMPC00 The Open Host Network Packet Process Correlator for Windows† http://www.github.com/HoneProject/†

  13. Fracture toughness properties of low Charpy energy shelf steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witt, F.J.

    1980-04-01

    A low Charpy shelf steel is defined in this report as a steel which has a Charpy impact energy sufficiently low (less than 50 ft-lbs) to mitigate the determination of RT/sub NDT/ as defined by Appendix G of Section III of the ASME code. Six steels (one in both the irradiated and the unirradiated states) with Charpy shelf energies between 30 and 60 ft-lbs are evaluated. The evluation is based on an examination of the Charpy impact curves and fracture toughness parameters such as K/sub Ic/ and K/sub Ia/. One material was a low Charpy shelf steel for which both unirradiated and irradiated results are considered. Two of the materials are degraded (quenched only) carbon steels while a third is a high strength rotor forging steel. One material is a pipe steel and one is an ordinary carbon structural steel.

  14. Ferritic-martensitic steel subjected to equal channel angular extrusion†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foley, David Christopher

    2009-05-15

    Modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic-martensitic steel (T91) has been extensively investigated as a structural material for GenIV nuclear reactors and Accelerator Driven Transmutation systems. One attractive characteristic of this steel in these applications...

  15. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle...

  16. First Structural Steel Erected at NSLS-II

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    Ten steel columns were incorporated into the ever-growing framework for the National Synchrotron Light Source II last week, the first structural steel erected for the future 400,000-square-foot facility.

  17. Analytical modeling of composite steel-concrete frame systems†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atahan, Ali Osman

    1996-01-01

    of reinforced concrete or composite steel shapes encased in reinforced concrete (SRC), structural steel beams, and composite beam-column joints. To facilitate the modeling of inelastic deformations in joint regions, a panel element capable of representing joint...

  18. Specific grinding energy causing thermal damage in helicopter gear steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purushothaman, Ganesh Kumaran

    2001-01-01

    to the workpiece. From microhardness distributions in the subsurface of hardened steels, visible burn is found to be accompanied by reaustenitization of the workpiece. With burning, rehardening of the steel also occurs. Rehardening is a consequence...

  19. Enhanced Incluison Removal from Steel in the Tundish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.C. Bradt; M.A.R. Sharif

    2009-09-25

    The objective of this project was to develop an effective chemical filtering system for significantly reducing the content of inclusion particles in the steel melts exiting the tundish for continuous casting. This project combined a multi-process approach that aimed to make significant progress towards an "inclusion free" steel by incorporating several interdependent concepts to reduce the content of inclusions in the molten steel exiting the tundish for the caster. The goal is to produce "cleaner" steel.

  20. Enhanced Inclusion Removal from Steel in the Tundish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. C. Bradt; M.A.R. Sharif

    2009-09-25

    The objective of this project was to develop an effective chemical filtering system for significantly reducing the content of inclusion particles in the steel melts exiting the tundish for continuous casting. This project combined a multi-process approach that aimed to make significant progress towards an "inclusion free" steel by incorporating several interdependent concepts to reduce the content of inclusions in the molten steel exiting the tundish for the caster. The goal is to produce "cleaner" steel.

  1. Auto/Steel Partnership: Hydroforming Materials and Lubricant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydroforming Materials and Lubricant Lightweight Rear Chassis Structures Future Generation Passenger Compartment AutoSteel Partnership: Hydroforming Materials and Lubricant...

  2. Neutron Irradiation Resistance of RAFM Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaganidze, Ermile; Dafferner, Bernhard; Aktaa, Jarir

    2008-07-01

    The neutron irradiation resistance of the reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel EUROFER97 and international reference steels (F82H-mod, OPTIFER-Ia, GA3X and MANET-I) have been investigated after irradiation in the Petten High Flux Reactor up to 16.3 dpa at different irradiation temperatures (250-450 deg. C). The embrittlement behavior and hardening are investigated by instrumented Charpy-V tests with sub-size specimens. Neutron irradiation-induced embrittlement and hardening of EUROFER97 was studied under different heat treatment conditions. Embrittlement and hardening of as-delivered EUROFER97 steel are comparable to those of reference steels. Heat treatment of EUROFER97 at a higher austenitizing temperature substantially improves the embrittlement behaviour at low irradiation temperatures. Analysis of embrittlement vs. hardening behavior of RAFM steels within a proper model in terms of the parameter C={delta}DBTT/{delta}{sigma} indicates hardening-dominated embrittlement at irradiation temperatures below 350 deg. C with 0.17 {<=} C {<=} 0.53 deg. C/MPa. Scattering of C at irradiation temperatures above 400 deg. C indicates non hardening embrittlement. A role of He in a process of embrittlement is investigated in EUROFER97 based steels, that are doped with different contents of natural B and the separated {sup 10}B-isotope (0.008-0.112 wt.%). Testing on small scale fracture mechanical specimens for determination of quasi-static fracture toughness will be also presented in a view of future irradiation campaigns. (authors)

  3. Corrosion of carbon steels, stainless steels, and titanium in aqueous lithium bromide solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guinon, J.L.; Garcia-Anton, J.; Perez-Herranz, V. (Univ. Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear); Lacoste, G. (ENSIGC, Toulouse (France))

    1994-03-01

    Effects of lithium bromide (LiBr) concentration, pH, temperature, exposure time, and the action of some inhibitors on corrosion of several carbon (C) steels, stainless steels (SS), and a titanium (Ti) alloy were studied. Corrosion rates were determined by the polarization resistance method and compared to rates determined by weight-loss measurements. Pitting potentials (E[sub p]) were evaluated in neutral LiBr solution and with different inhibitors. Pit density and average pit depth depended on the metal tested, with lowest values for Ti, the next lowest values for type 316 SS (UNS S31600), and the highest values for UNS G41350 tempered steel.

  4. The Signifance of Retained Austenite in Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhadeshia, H K D H

    1980-02-05

    . Introduction 90 2. Experimental Method and Techniques 91 3. Results and Discussion 92 4. Summary 94 VIII. An Analysis o£ the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure o£ a High-Silicon Dual-Phase Steel 1. Introduction 2. De£ormation Models 3. Experimental... £ects such that the extent o£ twinning was the greatest when adjacent martensite units had twin-related lattices. The thermodynamics o£ dislocated martensites have been briefly examined, The inhomogeneous de£ormation behaviour o£ dual-phase steels has been analysed in terms...

  5. Stainless Steel Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Switzner, Nathan T

    2010-06-01

    A nitrogen strengthened 21-6-9 stainless steel plate was spinformed into hemispherical test shapes. A battery of laboratory tests was used to characterize the hemispheres. The laboratory tests show that near the pole (axis) of a spinformed hemisphere the yield strength is the lowest because this area endures the least ďcold-workĒ strengthening, i.e., the least deformation. The characterization indicated that stress-relief annealing spinformed stainless steel hemispheres does not degrade mechanical properties. Stress-relief annealing reduces residual stresses while maintaining relatively high mechanical properties. Full annealing completely eliminates residual stresses, but reduces yield strength by about 30%.

  6. Casting Engineer Process Research AK Steel, a leading producer of carbon, stainless and electrical steels, has an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prodiś, Aleksandar

    AK Steel Casting Engineer ≠ Process Research AK Steel, a leading producer of carbon, stainless, will act in support of primary and secondary steelmaking as well as casting operations for carbon

  7. MICROSTRUCTURAL STABILITY OF STRONG 912 wt% Cr STEELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    viewpoint, the factors determining the long≠term (105 h) stability of martensitic creep≠resistant steels≠design procedures. Although the paper deals with the martensitic steels, its conclusions are general ≠ for this reason it is necessary to briefly explain why martensitic steels are so popular in the modern power

  8. Technical Reference on Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials Austenitic Stainless Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siefert, Chris

    of martensite on hydrogen embrittlement in austenitic stainless steels has not been firmly established. Although stainless steels, ' martensite, in both sensitized and nonsensitized microstructures, is associated-induced martensite [6- 8]. The role of high-nickel compositions in type 316 stainless steels can then be said

  9. Mechanisms of Tempered Martensite Embrittlement in Low Alloy Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    Mechanisms of Tempered Martensite Embrittlement in Low Alloy Steels R. M. HORN AND ROBERT O strength martensitic steels, heat-treated to achieve optimum combinations of strength, ductility, and tough-quenched alloy steels in the range 250 to 450~ (tempered martensite embrittlement). Whereas there is now a large

  10. Analysis of deformation induced martensitic transformation in stainless steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Analysis of deformation induced martensitic transformation in stainless steels A. Das1,2,3 , P. C that the crystallographic texture due to martensitic transformation can be predicted for 18/8 austenitic stainless steel steel was prestrained and then tested in tension at a temperature where martensite was induced

  11. Technical Reference on Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials Austenitic Stainless Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siefert, Chris

    and corrosion resistance. Type 304 stainless steel is, however, susceptible to strain- induced martensitic in austenitic stainless steels, a' martensite, is associated with lower resistance to hydrogen embrittlementTechnical Reference on Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials Austenitic Stainless Steels: Type 304

  12. Water Modeling of Steel Flow, Air Entrainment and Filtration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Water Modeling of Steel Flow, Air Entrainment and Filtration Christoph Beckermann Associate Beckermann, C., "Water Modeling of Steel Flow, Air Entrainment and Filtration," in Proceedings of the 46th, 1992. #12;Abstract This paper presents an analysis of water modeling of steel pouring to study (1) air

  13. Improving the Performance of Creep-Strength-Enhanced Ferritic Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    to maximize performance of CSEF steels ∑ Activities combine basic & applied R&D with strong power industry Steels Approach to improved CSEF steels relies on two strategies 1. Modified heat treatments: ≠ Could stress-rupture results suggested reduced tendency for HAZ failures ∑ "Standard" heat treatment: 760įC

  14. Effect of Shrinkage on Service Performance of Steel Castings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Effect of Shrinkage on Service Performance of Steel Castings Richard Hardin and Christoph are summarized. Hardin, R., and Beckermann, C., "Effect of Shrinkage on Service Performance of Steel Castings An overview of the objectives and progress made by the "Integrated Design of Steel Castings for Service

  15. Prediction of Reoxidation Inclusion Composition in Casting of Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    in the production of steel castings. Removing inclusions and refilling the defect areas with the weld metal account in steel with oxygen during pouring of the (deoxidized) steel from the ladle into the mold. Oxy- gen may come from the surrounding atmosphere, refracto- ries, slag, or the sand mold.[3] The atmosphere

  16. Spheroidisation of Hypereutectoid State of Nanostructured Bainitic Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    annealing [16] but such processes are impractical to adopt for general use. Nanostructured bainitic steels retards the spheroidisation process in high carbon steel during isothermal annealing [17], making it allSpheroidisation of Hypereutectoid State of Nanostructured Bainitic Steel D. Luoa , M.J. Peeta , S

  17. Characterisation of severely deformed austenitic stainless steel wire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    . Experimental procedure Stainless steel (316L) wires with 190 mm diameter in the annealed state are usedCharacterisation of severely deformed austenitic stainless steel wire H. S. Wang1 , J. R. Yang1 of 316L austenitic stainless steel has been examined using TEM and X-ray diffraction. The deformation

  18. High Surface Area Stainless Steel Brushes as Cathodes in Microbial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Surface Area Stainless Steel Brushes as Cathodes in Microbial Electrolysis Cells D O U G L show here that high surface area stainless steel brush cathodes produce hydrogen at rates. Using a stainless steel brush cathode with a specific surface area of 810 m2 /m3 , hydrogen was produced

  19. Microstructural Investigation of Co-rolled Nanocrystalline Stainless Steel Sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universitť de

    Microstructural Investigation of Co-rolled Nanocrystalline Stainless Steel Sheets Delphine RetraintL austenitic stainless steel is commonly used in the food, chemical or petrochemical industries stainless steel plates of dimensions 120 ◊ 120 ◊ 1 mmand chemical composition (wt.%) 0.025 C, 0.38 Si, 1

  20. Microstructural Development during Solidification of Stainless Steel Alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ) Microstructural Development during Solidification of Stainless Steel Alloys J.W. ELMER, S.M. ALLEN, and T.W. EAGAR The microstructures that develop during the solidification of stainless steel investigates the influence of cooling rate on the microstructure of stainless steel alloys and describes

  1. Weldability Of New Ferritic Stainless Steel For Exhaust Manifold Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universitť de

    Weldability Of New Ferritic Stainless Steel For Exhaust Manifold Application Vincent Villaret1-2, a-marie.fortain@airliquide.com, e gilles.fras@iut-nimes.fr, f fabien.januard@airliquide.com Keywords: ferritic stainless steel, efficiency and small size. To achieve such requirements, ferritic stainless steels with high chromium content

  2. Low Temperature Air Bake of Stainless Steel for Very Low

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low Temperature Air Bake of Stainless Steel for Very Low Outgassing Rates Surface Conditioning will describe the process used for cleaning and processing stainless steel. As examples I will use our as good as ever. #12;Summary of the Cleaning Process for Stainless Steel (e.g. 316 L) 1. Keep the items

  3. absolute reaction rate theory 156 accelerated cooled steels 3538

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Ī4 dislocation density 26Ī9, 70Ī1 distribution of carbon 71Ī2 driving forces 202Ī4 dual phase steels 358absolute reaction rate theory 156 accelerated cooled steels 353Ī8 acicular ferrites 237Ī76 forging steels 273Ī4 growth 240Ī3 inoculation 267Ī75 lattice matches 245 morphology 237Ī40 nucleation 243

  4. Structural Analysis of LargeStructural Analysis of Large Caliber Hybrid Ceramic/SteelCaliber Hybrid Ceramic/Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Structural Analysis of LargeStructural Analysis of Large Caliber Hybrid Ceramic/SteelCaliber Hybrid Ceramic/Steel Gun BarrelsGun Barrels MS ThesisMS Thesis Jon DeLongJon DeLong Department of Mechanical ∑Merger of ceramics into the conventional steel gun barrel design ∑Use of a probabilistic structural

  5. Steel Innovations Conference 2013 Christchurch, New Zealand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruneau, Michel

    to transform seismic design in many applications. However, in spite of all the foreseen excellent attributesSteel Innovations Conference 2013 Christchurch, New Zealand 21-22 February 2013 SEISMIC BEHAVIOR of the structural system, lack of knowledge on its expected seismic performance has been an absolute impediment

  6. Hydrogen Susceptibility of Nanostructured Bainitic Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peet, Matthew; Hojo, Tomohiko

    2015-01-01

    to 2-5% and UTS to 65-70% of prior value. Thermal desorption measurements confirmed the higher solubility of hydrogen in the steel with higher austenite content. The level of hydrogen saturation was found to correlate to the total area of grain...

  7. Selection of Processes for Welding Steel Rails

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    structure. ∑ Particular attention is given to thermit, flash and oxyacetylene processes with some discussion for welding of steel rail. The traditional pro- cesses of thermit, oxacetylene and flash welding are well is brought to an elevated temperature, and the heat diffuses into the bulk of the metal. Thermit, electroslag

  8. Weldment for austenitic stainless steel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bagnall, Christopher (Hempfield, PA); McBride, Marvin A. (Hempfield, PA)

    1985-01-01

    For making defect-free welds for joining two austenitic stainless steel mers, using gas tungsten-arc welding, a thin foil-like iron member is placed between the two steel members to be joined, prior to making the weld, with the foil-like iron member having a higher melting point than the stainless steel members. When the weld is formed, there results a weld nugget comprising melted and then solidified portions of the joined members with small portions of the foil-like iron member projecting into the solidified weld nugget. The portions of the weld nugget proximate the small portions of the foil-like iron member which project into the weld nugget are relatively rich in iron. This causes these iron-rich nugget portions to display substantial delta ferrite during solidification of the weld nugget which eliminates weld defects which could otherwise occur. This is especially useful for joining austenitic steel members which, when just below the solidus temperature, include at most only a very minor proportion of delta ferrite.

  9. Simulation of Dimensional Changes in Steel Casting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    casting due to thermal effects (temperature differences) and volume changes (e.g., shrinkage, sand are the primary reasons for dimensional changes during casting. In the case such shrinkage is free or unrestrained of the sand and the solidifying steel. Such hindered shrinkage of restrained casting features is usually less

  10. Energy Flow Models for the Steel Industry†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyman, B.; Andersen, J. P.

    1998-01-01

    Energy patterns in the U. S. steel industry are examined using several models. First is an end-use model based on data in the 1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). Then a seven-step process model is presented and material flow through...

  11. Crack stability analysis of low alloy steel primary coolant pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, T.; Kameyama, M. [Kansai Electric Power Company, Osaka (Japan); Urabe, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago (Japan)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    At present, cast duplex stainless steel has been used for the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan and joints of dissimilar material have been applied for welding to reactor vessels and steam generators. For the primary coolant piping of the next APWR plants, application of low alloy steel that results in designing main loops with the same material is being studied. It means that there is no need to weld low alloy steel with stainless steel and that makes it possible to reduce the welding length. Attenuation of Ultra Sonic Wave Intensity is lower for low alloy steel than for stainless steel and they have advantageous inspection characteristics. In addition to that, the thermal expansion rate is smaller for low alloy steel than for stainless steel. In consideration of the above features of low alloy steel, the overall reliability of primary coolant piping is expected to be improved. Therefore, for the evaluation of crack stability of low alloy steel piping to be applied for primary loops, elastic-plastic future mechanics analysis was performed by means of a three-dimensioned FEM. The evaluation results for the low alloy steel pipings show that cracks will not grow into unstable fractures under maximum design load conditions, even when such a circumferential crack is assumed to be 6 times the size of the wall thickness.

  12. Microscale investigation of the corrosion performances of low-carbon and stainless steels in highly alkaline concretes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Itty, Pierre-Adrien

    2012-01-01

    Corrosion Behaviour of New Stainless Steels Reinforcing BarsSpecification for Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes. Ē ASTMFilms of Different Stainless Steels Developed on Alkaline

  13. Transformation Strain and Crystallographic Texture in Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kundu, Saurabh

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.5.2 Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2.6 Evolution of martensitic transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 v CONTENTS vi 2.6.1 Koistinen-Marburger equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.6.2 Justification... TEXTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Chapter 1 Introduction Displacive transformations in steels such as bainite and martensite gener- ate dilatational and shear strains of about 0.03 and 0.22-0.26 respectively [1]. However, the shear strains associated...

  14. Phase transformations in welded supermartensitic stainless steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrouge, Dominique

    steels, show a marked temperature dependence of the fracture toughness, as indicated in figure 1.11. At high temperatures fracture occurs normally by ductile rupture, whereas cleavage is the dominating fracture mode at low temperatures. The low carbon con... ductile metal experiences brittle frac- ture when exposed to both a tensile stress and hydrogen resulting from metal dissolu- tion in a corrosive atmosphere. Hydrogen-induced cracks are most often transgranu- lar, although intergranular fracture...

  15. Integrating Steel Production with Mineral Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klaus Lackner; Paul Doby; Tuncel Yegulalp; Samuel Krevor; Christopher Graves

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the project were (i) to develop a combination iron oxide production and carbon sequestration plant that will use serpentine ores as the source of iron and the extraction tailings as the storage element for CO2 disposal, (ii) the identification of locations within the US where this process may be implemented and (iii) to create a standardized process to characterize the serpentine deposits in terms of carbon disposal capacity and iron and steel production capacity. The first objective was not accomplished. The research failed to identify a technique to accelerate direct aqueous mineral carbonation, the limiting step in the integration of steel production and carbon sequestration. Objective (ii) was accomplished. It was found that the sequestration potential of the ultramafic resource surfaces in the US and Puerto Rico is approximately 4,647 Gt of CO2 or over 500 years of current US production of CO2. Lastly, a computer model was developed to investigate the impact of various system parameters (recoveries and efficiencies and capacities of different system components) and serpentinite quality as well as incorporation of CO2 from sources outside the steel industry.

  16. Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday

    2002-07-30

    The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.

  17. Hearth of Darkness: The Familiar, the Familial, and the Zombie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Sara Simcha

    2013-01-01

    grabbing hold of the periscope on a Nazi U-boat (withSwastika) and twisting the periscope into a pretzel shape,

  18. Comments of the Hearth, Patio & Barbecue Association on the U...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    decorative gas fireplaces certified to the American National Standards Institute ("ANSI") Z21.50 standard-to heating efficiency standards, 75 Fed. Reg. 20112 (April 16, 2010)....

  19. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace-Transformational Ironmaking Process

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAandSummary Areas ofEnergy On October 13,is a Request for Project

  20. DOE Issues Proposed Coverage Determination for Hearth Products | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE Federal AviationSynchrophasor Engineeringof Energy

  1. .Hearth, Patio & Barbecue Association's Comments on DOE's Regulatory Burden

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12 Beta-3 Racetracks Y-12 Beta-3of thePoliciesDuringWays

  2. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-09-29

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum.

  3. Auto/Steel Partnership: Fatigue of AHSS Strain Rate Characterization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fatigue of AHSS Strain Rate Characterization AutoSteel Partnership: Fatigue of AHSS Strain Rate Characterization 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual...

  4. ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations castingops.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  5. Formability Characterization of a New Generation High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sriram Sadagopan; Dennis Urban; Chris Wong; Mai Huang; Benda Yan

    2003-05-16

    Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are being progressively explored by the automotive industry all around the world for cost-effective solutions to accomplish vehicle lightweighting, improve fuel economy, and consequently reduce greenhouse emissions. Because of their inherent high strength, attractive crash energy management properties, and good formability, the effective use of AHSS such as Duel Phase and TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) steels, will significantly contribute to vehicle lightweighting and fuel economy. To further the application of these steels in automotive body and structural parts, a good knowledge and experience base must be developed regarding the press formability of these materials. This project provides data on relevant intrinsic mechanical behavior, splitting limits, and springback behavior of several lots of mild steel, conventional high strength steel (HSS), advanced high strength steel (AHSS) and ultra-high strength steel (UHSS), supplied by the member companies of the Automotive Applications Committee (AAC) of the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). Two lots of TRIP600, which were supplied by ThyssenKrupp Stahl, were also included in the study. Since sheet metal forming encompasses a very diverse range of forming processes and deformation modes, a number of simulative tests were used to characterize the forming behavior of these steel grades. In general, it was found that formability, as determined by the different tests, decreased with increased tensile strength. Consistant with previous findings, the formability of TRIP600 was found to be exceptionally good for its tensile strength.

  6. Blast damage mitigation of steel structures from near- contact charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfson, Janet Crumrine

    2008-01-01

    OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Blast Damage Mitigation of Steel35† Damage Levels Observed in LaboratoryFigure 3.34: Progression of damage for a Ballistic Loading

  7. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and Remediation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Collaboration to Enable a Carbon-Neutral Energy Economy Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and Remediation Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen...

  8. Bandwidth Study U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. iron and steel...

  9. New Austenitic Stainless Steels for Exhaust Components (Agreement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maryland. merit08maziasz9112.pdf More Documents & Publications CF8C PLus: A New Cast Stainless Steel for High-Temperature Diesel Exhaust Components Vehicle Technologies Office...

  10. Stainless steel 304 cladding mechanical properties and limitations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mechanical properties and limitations during steady state operation of U-ZrH TRIGA type fuel. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stainless steel 304 cladding mechanical...

  11. PublishedbyManeyPublishing(c)IOMCommunicationsLtd Stainless steel weld metal designed to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    to be significantly better than commercially available martensitic stainless steel welding consumables, and it has transformation, Residual stress, Stainless steel, Martensitic, Transformation plasticity Introduction Residual weld metal could be based on a martensitic stainless steel. Although such alloys are available

  12. ITP Steel: Energy and Environmental Profile fo the U.S. Iron...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    U.S. Iron and Steel Industry steelprofile.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Steel: Energy and Environmental Profile fo the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry Bandwidth Study U.S....

  13. Design of duplex low-carbon steels with carbide forming elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costello, Peter K.

    2012-01-01

    molybdenum steel is more sensitive to annealing temperatureannealing with selected commercial and experimental low-carbon steels.annealing and the resultant volume fraction of the strong phase, played a major role in the duplex processing of steel.

  14. Mechanical properties and microstructures of dual phase steels containing silicon, aluminum and molybdenum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neill, Thomas John O'

    2011-01-01

    annealing, This signifi- cantly increased the strength of commercial 1010 steel andtwo- phase annealing. The Mo containing steels (Figures 5(a)steels containing retained austenite in the martensitic structure, the austenite formed during the two-phase annealing

  15. DESIGN OF DUAL PHASE Fe/Mn/C STEEL FOR LOW TEMPERATURE APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Nack-Joon

    2013-01-01

    I Ferritic-Martensitic Steel Annealing temp (įC) Oy eu eTa+ y) phase annealing for dual phase steels when good impactphase annealing temperatures. The boron-treated steel shows

  16. In vitro Corrosion and Haemocompatibility of Bulk Nanocrystalline 304 Stainless Steel by Severe Rolling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    In vitro Corrosion and Haemocompatibility of Bulk Nanocrystalline 304 Stainless Steel by Severe; haemocompatibility. Abstract. Bulk nanocrystalline 304 stainless steel (nanocrystalline 304ss) discs had been successfully prepared by the commercial microcrystalline 304 stainless steel (microcrystalline 304ss) plate

  17. Measuring the Residual Ferrite Content of Rapidly Solidified Stainless Steel Alloys-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ) ) Measuring the Residual Ferrite Content of Rapidly Solidified Stainless Steel Alloys. Electron beam welds, laser beam welds and rapidly solidified stainless steel alloys have small physical Fe content by measur- ing the magnetic properties of fully ferritic stainless steel specimens

  18. CARBON ATOM DISTRIBUTION IN A DUAL PHASE STEEL: AN ATOM PROBE STUDY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnard, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    ATOM DISTRIBUTION IN A DUAL PHASE STEEL: AN ATOM PROBE STUDY~4720 1 U.S.A. IntroductioE. Dual Phase steels are currentlymartensite-austenite dual phase steel, although the results

  19. MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF 0.1C STEEL WITH Nb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gau, Jing-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    and Properties of Dual-Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. W.and Prooerties of Dual-Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. W.Prooerties of Vanadium Dual Phase Steel and Cold Pressing

  20. DESIGN OF DUAL PHASE Fe/Mn/C STEEL FOR LOW TEMPERATURE APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Nack-Joon

    2013-01-01

    and Properties of Dual- Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. \\4.and Properties of Dual Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. W. ~Formable HSLA and Dual- Phase Steels, A. T. Davenport, ed. ,

  1. THE USE OF MICROSTRUCTURE CONTROL TO TOUGHEN FERRITIC STEELS FOR CRYOGENIC USE. II. Fe-Mn STEELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    steels in current use at LNG temperatures and below containtemperature to below LNG temperature. The resulting alloysis suitable for use to below LNG temperature in the grain-

  2. FLATNESS BASED OPEN LOOP CONTROL FOR THE TWIN ROLL STRIP CASTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ollivier, François

    FLATNESS BASED OPEN LOOP CONTROL FOR THE TWIN ROLL STRIP CASTING PROCESS Ch. Fleck #,1 Th. Paulus, Steinbachstr. 54, D­52074 Aachen, Germany Abstract: Strip casting technology is the most recent innovative steel casting technology that integrates casting and rolling into a single production step. The strip

  3. FLATNESS BASED OPEN LOOP CONTROL FOR THE TWIN ROLL STRIP CASTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ollivier, François

    FLATNESS BASED OPEN LOOP CONTROL FOR THE TWIN ROLL STRIP CASTING PROCESS Ch. Fleck ,1 Th. Paulus ,2, D-52074 Aachen, Germany Abstract: Strip casting technology is the most recent innovative steel casting technology that integrates casting and rolling into a single production step. The strip thickness

  4. Friction Stir Welding High Strength Low Alloy Steel using a Multilayer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Friction Stir Welding High Strength Low Alloy Steel using a Multilayer Approach Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Friction Stir Welding High Strength Low Alloy Steel using...

  5. Quantitative evaluation of general corrosion of Type 304 stainless steel in subcritical and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benning, Liane G.

    Quantitative evaluation of general corrosion of Type 304 stainless steel in subcritical the corrosion rate of Type 304 stainless steel (SS) in subcritical and supercritical environments. The EN

  6. SOLID STATE JOINING OF MAGNESIUM TO STEEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana, Saumyadeep; Hovanski, Yuri; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Field, David P.; Yu, Hao; Pan, Tsung-Yu; Santella, M. L.

    2012-06-04

    Friction stir welding and ultrasonic welding techniques were applied to join automotive magnesium alloys to steel sheet. The effect of tooling and process parameters on the post-weld microstructure, texture and mechanical properties was investigated. Static and dynamic loading were utilized to investigate the joint strength of both cast and wrought magnesium alloys including their susceptibility and degradation under corrosive media. The conditions required to produce joint strengths in excess of 75% of the base metal strength were determined, and the effects of surface coatings, tooling and weld parameters on weld properties are presented.

  7. Simplified dynamic buckling assessment of steel containments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffey, T.A.; Renick, D.H.

    1993-01-01

    A simplified, three-degree-of-freedom analytical procedure for performing a response spectrum buckling analysis of a thin containment shell is developed. Two numerical examples with R/t values which bound many existing steel containments are used to illustrate the procedure. The role of damping on incipient buckling acceleration level is evaluated for a regulatory seismic spectrum using the two numerical examples. The zero-period acceleration level that causes incipient buckling in either of the two containments increases 31% when damping is increased from 1% to 4% of critical. Comparisons with finite element results on incipient buckling levels are favorable.

  8. Simplified dynamic buckling assessment of steel containments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffey, T.A.; Renick, D.H.

    1993-02-01

    A simplified, three-degree-of-freedom analytical procedure for performing a response spectrum buckling analysis of a thin containment shell is developed. Two numerical examples with R/t values which bound many existing steel containments are used to illustrate the procedure. The role of damping on incipient buckling acceleration level is evaluated for a regulatory seismic spectrum using the two numerical examples. The zero-period acceleration level that causes incipient buckling in either of the two containments increases 31% when damping is increased from 1% to 4% of critical. Comparisons with finite element results on incipient buckling levels are favorable.

  9. Method for machining steel with diamond tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casstevens, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for machine optical quality finishes and contour accuracies of workpieces of carbon-containing metals such as steel with diamond tooling. The wear rate of the diamond tooling is significantly reduced by saturating the atmosphere at the interface of the workpiece and the diamond tool with a gaseous hydrocarbon during the machining operation. The presence of the gaseous hydrocarbon effectively eliminates the deterioration of the diamond tool by inhibiting or preventing the conversion of the diamond carbon to graphite carbon at the point of contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece.

  10. Method for machining steel with diamond tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casstevens, John M. (Greenville, TX)

    1986-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for machining optical quality inishes and contour accuracies of workpieces of carbon-containing metals such as steel with diamond tooling. The wear rate of the diamond tooling is significantly reduced by saturating the atmosphere at the interface of the workpiece and the diamond tool with a gaseous hydrocarbon during the machining operation. The presence of the gaseous hydrocarbon effectively eliminates the deterioration of the diamond tool by inhibiting or preventing the conversion of the diamond carbon to graphite carbon at the point of contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece.

  11. Microstructure of Super-duplex Stainless Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharafi, Shahriar

    1993-12-07

    -DUPLEX STAINLESS STEELS By Shahriar Sharafi St. Edmund College Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy Pelnbroke Street Calnbridge CB23QZ A dissertation submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Calnbridge September 1993... The experts of Science and Culture are like candles Which light the way through the darkness for humanity But they never find daylight They just tell a tale and leave. OMAR KHAYYAM The great Persian Scienti3t, Philosopher and Poet Late 11th/early 12th Century...

  12. Communication Seebeck effect in steel fiber reinforced cement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Communication Seebeck effect in steel fiber reinforced cement Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung* Composite Abstract Cement pastes containing short steel fibers, which contribute to electron conduction, exhibit.0% by mass of cement gives a higher value of the absolute thermoelectric power than a content of 0.5% by mass

  13. Modelling of reoxidation inclusion formation in steel sand casting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Modelling of reoxidation inclusion formation in steel sand casting A. J. Melendez, K. D. Carlson pouring, as well as their final locations on the surface of steel sand castings. Inclusions originate. The inclusion model is implemented in a general-purpose casting simulation code. The model is validated

  14. MODELLING OF MICROSTRUCTURE IN NOVEL HIGH STRENGTH STEEL WELDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    MODELLING OF MICROSTRUCTURE IN NOVEL HIGH STRENGTH STEEL WELDS by Gethin Rees Ernmanuel College . . . . Nomenclature List CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1.1 An Introduction to the Welding Process 1.1.1 The Welding Processes . . 1.1.2 The Welding Thermal Cycle 1.2 An Introduction to the Metallurgy of Steel 1.2.1 Pure Iron

  15. DESIGN OF PARTIALLY RESTRAINED STEEL FRAMES USING ADVANCED ANALYSIS AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foley, Christopher M.

    DESIGN OF PARTIALLY RESTRAINED STEEL FRAMES USING ADVANCED ANALYSIS AND AN OBJECT by the experience and intuition of the designer. However, researchers are continually developing analysis of the steel frames in lieu of design specification and code requirements. The advanced analysis based design

  16. The limit of strength and toughness of steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Zhen

    2001-12-17

    The ideal structural steel combines high strength with high fracture toughness. This dissertation discusses the governing principles of strength and toughness, along with the approaches that can be used to improve these properties and the inherent limits to how strong and tough a steel can be.

  17. Steamside Oxidation Behavior of Experimental 9%Cr Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dogan, O.N.; Holcomb, G.R.; Alman, D.E.; Jablonski, P.D.

    2007-10-01

    Reducing emissions and increasing economic competitiveness require more efficient steam power plants that utilize fossil fuels. One of the major challenges in designing these plants is the availability of materials that can stand the supercritical and ultra-supercritical steam conditions at a competitive cost. There are several programs around the world developing new ferritic and austenitic steels for superheater and reheater tubes exposed to the advanced steam conditions. The new steels must possess properties better than current steels in terms of creep strength, steamside oxidation resistance, fireside corrosion resistance, and thermal fatigue resistance. This paper introduces a series of experimental 9%Cr steels containing Cu, Co, and Ti. Stability of the phases in the new steels is discussed and compared to the phases in the commercially available materials. The steels were tested under both the dry and moist conditions at 650ļC for their cyclical oxidation resistance. Results of oxidation tests are presented. Under the moist conditions, the experimental steels exhibited significantly less mass gain compared to the commercial P91 steel. Microstructural characterization of the scale revealed different oxide compositions.

  18. Variant selection in samples of austenitic stainless steel cold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    austenitic stainless steels such as AISI- 304L and 301L partially transform to martensite when deformed. #12Variant selection in samples of austenitic stainless steel cold rolled and deformed by tension of martensite crystallography (PMTC ) and Patel-Cohenīs theory for variant selection to predict crystallographic

  19. DESIGN PHILOSOPHY FOR STEEL STRUCTURES IN MODERATE SEISMIC REGIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hines, Eric

    DESIGN PHILOSOPHY FOR STEEL STRUCTURES IN MODERATE SEISMIC REGIONS E.M. Hines1 and L.A. Fahnestock2 ABSTRACT The authors propose a design philosophy for steel buildings in moderate seismic regions that draws of the International Building Code has introduced seismic design to regions of North America that heretofore have

  20. Plastic strain due to twinning in austenitic TWIP steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Plastic strain due to twinning in austenitic TWIP steels B. Qin and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia* Twinning induced plasticity steels are austenitic alloys in which mechanical twinning is a prominent deformation, Twinning, Twinning induced plasticity, Automobiles Introduction Mechanical twinning is a plastic

  1. Corrosion protection of steel in ammonia/water heat pumps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansfeld, Florian B.; Sun, Zhaoli

    2003-10-14

    Corrosion of steel surfaces in a heat pump is inhibited by adding a rare earth metal salt to the heat pump's ammonia/water working fluid. In preferred embodiments, the rare earth metal salt includes cerium, and the steel surfaces are cerated to enhance the corrosion-inhibiting effects.

  2. EFFECT OF POROSITY ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF 8630 CAST STEEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    of steel castings. Likewise there are no guidelines relating non-destructive testing or non- destructive radiographs of 8630 steel fatigue test specimens taken prior to fatigue testing. The measurement procedure well with the fatigue test specimens' measured elastic modulus. Converting the elastic modulus

  3. MODELING OF POROSITY FORMATION AND FEEDING FLOW IN STEEL CASTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    , or even larger shrinkage cavities found in inadequately fed cast sections. Microporosity can cause leaksMODELING OF POROSITY FORMATION AND FEEDING FLOW IN STEEL CASTING Kent D. Carlson, Zhiping Lin pressure, feeding flow, and porosity formation and growth in steel castings during solidification

  4. INTEGRATED DESIGN OF STEEL CASTINGS FOR SERVICE PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Bellet TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society), 2006 #12;Casting Simulation (Shrinkage PredictionINTEGRATED DESIGN OF STEEL CASTINGS FOR SERVICE PERFORMANCE Richard. A. Hardin1 , Richard K. Huff2, USA 2 Caterpillar Inc., Champaign, IL 61820, USA Keywords: steel casting, porosity, fatigue life

  5. Prediction of Reoxidation Inclusion Composition in Casting of Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    and refilling the defect areas with weld metal account for approximately 20% of the direct cost of steel pouring of the (deoxidized) steel from the ladle into the mold. Oxygen may come from the surrounding atmosphere, refractories, slag, or the sand mold (Sommerville and McKeogh, 1981). The atmosphere is generally

  6. Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. E. Bates; J. A. Griffin

    2000-05-01

    There were two main tasks in the Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer Project. These were (1) determine the processing facts that control the machinability of cast steel and (2) determine the ability of ladle stirring to homogenize ladle temperature, reduce the tap and pouring temperatures, and reduce casting scrap.

  7. Rutherford backscattering analysis of gallium implanted 316 stainless steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortensi, Javier

    2000-01-01

    Ion implantation of Ga ions into 316 stainless steel was performed at fluences ranging from 8x10Ļ? to 10Ļ? ions/cm≤. The depth profile of Ga in the steel was analyzed via Rutherford Backscattering and ToFSIMS. The surface effects were...

  8. Optimization of Steel Production Scheduling with Complex Time-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    in the prices of energy might significantly affect the profitability as shown for a stainless-steel productionOptimization of Steel Production Scheduling with Complex Time- Sensitive Electricity Cost Hubert Research, Wallstadter Str. 59, 68526 Ladenburg, Germany b Technische Universität Dortmund, Emil-Figge Str

  9. Open Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEY UNIVERSEHowScientificOmbuds OfficeOneFasterdata IPv6OpenOpen

  10. Open Season in Sacramento

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brosnan, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    egislative Open Season in Sacramento Douglas Brosnan, MD, JDs open season again in Sacramento: The legislative session

  11. Heartland Community College | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam: Energy ResourcesHasselbachLightHayward,Hearth andCommunity

  12. Heartland Consumers Power Dist | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam: Energy ResourcesHasselbachLightHayward,Hearth

  13. Cast alumina forming austenitic stainless steels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Brady, Michael P

    2013-04-30

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy consisting essentially of, in terms of weight percent ranges 0.15-0.5C; 8-37Ni; 10-25Cr; 2.5-5Al; greater than 0.6, up to 2.5 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; up to 3Mo; up to 3Co; up to 1W; up to 3Cu; up to 15Mn; up to 2Si; up to 0.15B; up to 0.05P; up to 1 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; <0.3Ti+V; <0.03N; and, balance Fe, where the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale comprising alumina, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure, the austenitic matrix being essentially delta-ferrite free and essentially BCC-phase-free. A method of making austenitic stainless steel alloys is also disclosed.

  14. Engineer HR/CR Process Research AK Steel, a leading producer of carbon, stainless and electrical steels, has an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prodiś, Aleksandar

    & Technology Center located in Middletown, Ohio. This position, reporting to the Manager of Process Research facilities. Travel may be required in support of AK Steel's manufacturing plants. The ideal candidate of this position. Send Resume to: molly.keith@aksteel.com AK Steel is an Equal Opportunity Employer. All qualified

  15. Steel-framed buildings: Impacts of wall detail configurations on the whole wall thermal performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, J.; Desjarlais, A.O.; Christian, J.E.

    1998-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is the influence of architectural wall details on the whole wall thermal performance. Whole wall thermal performance analysis was performed for six light gage steel-framed wall systems (some with wood components). For each wall system, all wall details were simulated using calibrated 3-D finite difference computer modeling. The thermal performance of the six steel-framed wall systems included various system details and the whole wall system thermal performance for a typical single-story ranch house. Currently, predicted heat losses through building walls are typically based on measurements of the wall system clear wall area using test methods such as ASTM C 236 or are calculated by one of the procedures recommended in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals that often is carried out for the clear wall area exclusively. In this paper, clear wall area is defined as the part of the wall system that is free of thermal anomalies due to building envelope details or thermally unaffected by intersections with other surfaces of the building envelope. Clear wall experiments or calculations normally do not include the effects of building envelope details such as corners, window and door openings, and structural intersections with roofs, floors, ceilings, and other walls. In steel-framed wall systems, these details typically consist of much more structural components than the clear wall. For this situation, the thermal properties measured or calculated for the clear wall area do not adequately represent the total wall system thermal performance. Factors that would impact the ability of today`s standard practice to accurately predict the total wall system thermal performance are the accuracy of the calculation methods, the area of the total wall that is clear wall, and the quantity and thermal performance of the various wall system details.

  16. Technical Reference on Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials High-Alloy Ferritic Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siefert, Chris

    Technical Reference on Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials High-Alloy Ferritic Steels: Martensitic on Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials High-Alloy Ferritic Steels: Martensitic Stainless Steels Heat Treatable (Fe-Cr type) (code 1820) 1. General The martensitic stainless steels with low nickel are hardenable

  17. Oxidation behavior of ferriticmartensitic and ODS steels in supercritical water Jeremy Bischoff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    Oxidation behavior of ferritic≠martensitic and ODS steels in supercritical water Jeremy Bischoff swelling under irradiation and to stress cor- rosion cracking, ferritic≠martensitic steels, such as HCM12A such as the 9CrODS (JAEA) and the 14CrODS (CEA) steels are ferritic≠martensitic steels that contain a fine

  18. Design and identification of high performance steel alloys for structures subjected to underwater impulsive loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    Necking Dynamic fracture a b s t r a c t Martensitic and austenitic steel alloys were designed to optimize under various loading paths. The model was calibrated for two high performance martensitic steels (HSLA-100 and BA-160) and an austenitic steel (TRIP-120). The martensitic steel (BA-160) was designed

  19. d TRIP steel S. Chatterjee, M. Murugananth and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    of 23%. Keywords: TRIP assisted steel, Martensite, Bainite, d Ferrite Introduction Steels into martensite during deformation.1≠10 The critical solute in TRIP assisted steels is silicon, whichd TRIP steel S. Chatterjee, M. Murugananth and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia* A combination of neural

  20. Slide diamond burnishing of tool steels with adhesive coatings and diffusion layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Texas, University of

    Slide diamond burnishing of tool steels with adhesive coatings and diffusion layers W. Brostow*1 modification of selected tool steels. The steels were covered with adhesive coatings of the hard chrome type was determined by a profilometer before and after burnishing. Adhesion of coatings to steel was determined

  1. Numerical simulations of welds of thick steel pieces of interest for the thermonuclear fusion ITER machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmignani, B

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulations of welds of thick steel pieces of interest for the thermonuclear fusion ITER machine

  2. Author's personal copy Magnetic properties of stainless steels at room and cryogenic temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxley, Paul

    temperature and at 77 K. The steel samples studied were in the annealed state as received from quoted in the ASM International Handbook, which studied fully annealed stainless steel samples. Despite having harder magnetic properties than fully annealed steels some of the as-received steels still display

  3. Copper precipitation in cobalt-alloyed precipitation-hardened stainless steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medvedeva, Julia E.

    Copper precipitation in cobalt-alloyed precipitation-hardened stainless steel Arpana S. Murthy-strength stainless steel was investigated using three-dimen- sional atom probe tomography. A decrease in copper; Stainless steels; First-principle electron theory; Casting; Precipitation Precipitation-hardened (PH) steels

  4. Evaluation of chlorines' impact on biofilms on scratched stainless steel surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schreuders, Paul

    Evaluation of chlorines' impact on biofilms on scratched stainless steel surfaces Andrea Lomander Escherichia coli were grown on 316 stainless steel slides in a nutrient starved medium. The stainless steel 6 and 24 h. A 3≠6 h old biofilm on a polished stainless steel surface detached when 200 ppm sodium

  5. The Size of the Sensitization Zone in 304 Stainless Steel Welds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ) ) viS i tf. f. t ~ I~ i \\ ! l The Size of the Sensitization Zone in 304 Stainless Steel Welds N stainless steel welds have been studied through a swtistical/y desigm∑d experimellt. Tire resuits indicate stainless steel plates using argon shielding gas. The chemical com- position of the stainless steel is given

  6. Hydrostatic Microextrusion of Steel and Copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berti, Guido; Monti, Manuel; D'Angelo, Luciano

    2011-05-04

    The paper presents an experimental investigation based on hydrostatic micro extrusion of billets in low carbon steel and commercially pure copper, and the relevant results. The starting billets have a diameter of 0.3 mm and are 5 mm long; a high pressure generator consisting of a manually operated piston screw pump is used to pressurize the fluid up to 4200 bar, the screw pump is connected through a 3-way distribution block to the extrusion die and to a strain gauge high pressure sensor. The sensor has a full scale of 5000 bar and the extrusion pressure is acquired at a sampling rate of 2 kHz by means of an acquisition program written in the LabVIEW environment. Tests have been conducted at room temperature and a lubricant for wire drawing (Chemetall Gardolube DO 338) acts both as the pressurizing fluid and lubricant too. In addition, billets were graphite coated. Different fluid pressures and process durations have been adopted, resulting in different extrusion lengths. The required extrusion pressure is much higher than in non-micro forming operations (this effect is more evident for steel). On the cross section of the extruded parts, hardness and grain size distribution have been measured, the former through Vickers micro hardness (10 g load) tests. In the case of the extrusion of copper, the material behaves as in microdrawing process. In the case of the extrusion of steel, the hardness increases from the core to the surface as in the drawing process, but with lower values. The analysis evidenced the presence of the external layer, but its thickness is about 1/3 of the external layer in the drawn wire and the grains appear smaller than in the layer of the drawn wire. The extruding force required along the extruding direction is higher (22-24 N) than the drawing force along the same direction (12 N): being the material, the reduction ratio, the die sliding length the same in both cases, the higher extrusion force should be caused by a higher tangential friction force and/or a higher redundant work of deformation and/or a different material behaviour. Which is the real mechanism is not clear at present, but surface layer grains in extrusion are more deformed than in wire drawing. For this reason the deformation inhomogeneity increases in extrusion and the material under the highly deformed surface layer should be subjected to lower strains, strain hardening and finally resulting in lower hardness.

  7. Phase Transformations in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon-Jun Kim

    2004-12-19

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as {sigma} and {chi} can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe-22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase ({sigma} + {chi}) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (MA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations. The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities; a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, {sigma} was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and {chi} by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by local composition fluctuations in the cast alloy. This may cause discrepancy between thermodynamic prediction and experimental observation.

  8. Yield improvement and defect reduction in steel casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kent Carlson

    2004-03-16

    This research project investigated yield improvement and defect reduction techniques in steel casting. Research and technology development was performed in the following three specific areas: (1) Feeding rules for high alloy steel castings; (2) Unconventional yield improvement and defect reduction techniques--(a) Riser pressurization; and (b) Filling with a tilting mold; and (3) Modeling of reoxidation inclusions during filling of steel castings. During the preparation of the proposal for this project, these areas were identified by the High Alloy Committee and Carbon and Low Alloy Committee of the Steel Founders' Society of America (SFSA) as having the highest research priority to the steel foundry industry. The research in each of the areas involved a combination of foundry experiments, modeling and simulation. Numerous SFSA member steel foundries participated in the project through casting trials and meetings. The technology resulting from this project will result in decreased scrap and rework, casting yield improvement, and higher quality steel castings produced with less iteration. This will result in considerable business benefits to steel foundries, primarily due to reduced energy and labor costs, increased capacity and productivity, reduced lead-time, and wider use and application of steel castings. As estimated using energy data provided by the DOE, the technology produced as a result of this project will result in an energy savings of 2.6 x 10{sup 12} BTU/year. This excludes the savings that were anticipated from the mold tilting research. In addition to the energy savings, and corresponding financial savings this implies, there are substantial environmental benefits as well. The results from each of the research areas listed above are summarized.

  9. Investigation Of Adhesion Formation In New Stainless Steel Trim Spring Operated Pressure Relief Valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, Robert E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Bukowski, Julia V. [Villanova University, Villanova, PA (United States); Goble, William M. [exida, Sellersville, PA (United States)

    2013-04-16

    Examination of proof test data for new (not previously installed) stainless steel (SS) trim spring operated pressure relief valves (SOPRV) reveals that adhesions form between the seat and disc in about 46% of all such SOPRV. The forces needed to overcome these adhesions can be sufficiently large to cause the SOPRV to fail its proof test (FPT) prior to installation. Furthermore, a significant percentage of SOPRV which are found to FPT are also found to ''fail to open'' (FTO) meaning they would not relief excess pressure in the event of an overpressure event. The cases where adhesions result in FTO or FPT appear to be confined to SOPRV with diameters < 1 in and set pressures < 150 psig and the FTO are estimated to occur in 0.31% to 2.00% of this subpopulation of SS trim SOPRV. The reliability and safety implications of these finding for end-users who do not perform pre-installation testing of SOPRV are discussed.

  10. Diode laser welding of aluminum to steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santo, Loredana; Quadrini, Fabrizio; Trovalusci, Federica [University of Rome Tor Vergata, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2011-05-04

    Laser welding of dissimilar materials was carried out by using a high power diode laser to join aluminum to steel in a butt-joint configuration. During testing, the laser scan rate was changed as well as the laser power: at low values of fluence (i.e. the ratio between laser power and scan rate), poor joining was observed; instead at high values of fluence, an excess in the material melting affected the joint integrity. Between these limiting values, a good aesthetics was obtained; further investigations were carried out by means of tensile tests and SEM analyses. Unfortunately, a brittle behavior was observed for all the joints and a maximum rupture stress about 40 MPa was measured. Apart from the formation of intermeltallic phases, poor mechanical performances also depended on the chosen joining configuration, particularly because of the thickness reduction of the seam in comparison with the base material.

  11. Radiation resistant austenitic stainless steel alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Braski, David N. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rowcliffe, Arthur F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy, with improved resistance to radiation-induced swelling and helium embrittlement, and improved resistance to thermal creep at high temperatures, consisting essentially of, by weight percent: from 16 to 18% nickel; from 13 to 17% chromium; from 2 to 3% molybdenum; from 1.5 to 2.5% manganese; from 0.01 to 0.5% silicon; from 0.2 to 0.4% titanium; from 0.1 to 0.2% niobium; from 0.1 to 0.6% vanadium; from 0.06 to 0.12% carbon; from 0.01% to 0.03% nitrogen; from 0.03 to 0.08% phosphorus; from 0.005 to 0.01% boron; and the balance iron, and wherein the alloy may be thermomechanically treated to enhance physical and mechanical properties.

  12. Radiation resistant austenitic stainless steel alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, P.J.; Braski, D.N.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1987-02-11

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy, with improved resistance to radiation-induced swelling and helium embrittlement, and improved resistance to thermal creep at high temperatures, consisting essentially of, by weight percent: from 16 to 18% nickel; from 13 to 17% chromium; from 2 to 3% molybdenum; from 1.5 to 2.5% manganese; from 0.01 to 0.5% silicon; from 0.2 to 0.4% titanium; from 0.1 to 0.2% niobium; from 0.1 to 0.6% vanadium; from 0.06 to 0.12% carbon; from 0.01 to 0.03% nitrogen; from 0.03 to 0.08% phosphorus; from 0.005 to 0.01% boron; and the balance iron, and wherein the alloy may be thermomechanically treated to enhance physical and mechanical properties. 4 figs.

  13. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J.; Santella, M. L.

    2009-11-13

    Friction stir spot welding techniques were developed to successfully join several advanced high strength steels. Two distinct tool materials were evaluated to determine the effect of tool materials on the process parameters and joint properties. Welds were characterized primarily via lap shear, microhardness, and optical microscopy. Friction stir spot welds were compared to the resistance spot welds in similar strength alloys by using the AWS standard for resistance spot welding high strength steels. As further comparison, a primitive cost comparison between the two joining processes was developed, which included an evaluation of the future cost prospects of friction stir spot welding in advanced high strength steels.

  14. Modern structural steels with improved properties through accelerated cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tschersich, H.J.; Schriever, U.; Bobbert, J.; Kuntze, C. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The last decade has seen an enormous increase in the stringency of the demands placed on steels. The main characteristics involved are higher strength and toughness, better suitability for welding and, in certain cases, corrosion resistance. The reason for these heightened demands resides in the higher strains to which the material is exposed in structural applications and in a greater need for safety. In many areas, the steel industry has succeeded in offering appropriate solutions through improved metallurgical and rolling techniques. Accelerated cooled steel grades are one example.

  15. Shear band structure in ballistically tested bainitic steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fielding, L. C. D.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    and simple process to obtain nano-structured bulk low-carbon steel with superior mechan- ical propertyí, Scripta Materialia, 2002, 46, 305Ė310. 18. X. Zhao, T. Jing, Y. Gao, G. Qiao, J. Zhou, and W. Wang: ĎAnnealing behavior of nano-layered steel produced... by heavy cold-rolling of lath martensiteí, Materials Science & Engineering A, 2005, 397, 117Ė121. 19. R. Ueji, N. Tsuji, Y. Minamino, and Y. Koizumi: ĎUltragrain refinement of plain low carbon steel by cold-rolling and annealing of martensite...

  16. Open University

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Michel Pentz est nťe en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et prťsident de l'associaion du personnel. Il est ťgalement fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de GenŤve et a participť ŗ la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pťdagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la mťthode peut s'appliquer.

  17. Stainless steel anodes for alkaline water electrolysis and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2014-01-21

    The corrosion resistance of stainless steel anodes for use in alkaline water electrolysis was increased by immersion of the stainless steel anode into a caustic solution prior to electrolysis. Also disclosed herein are electrolyzers employing the so-treated stainless steel anodes. The pre-treatment process provides a stainless steel anode that has a higher corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel anode of the same composition.

  18. Technology Roadmap Research Program for the Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph R. Vehec

    2010-12-30

    The steel industry's Technology Roadmap Program (TRP) is a collaborative R&D effort jointly sponsored by the steel industry and the United States Department of Energy. The TRP program was designed to develop new technologies to save energy , increase competitiveness, and improve the environment. TRP ran from July, 1997 to December, 2008, with a total program budget of $38 million dollars. During that period 47 R&D projects were performed by 28 unique research organizations; co-funding was provided by DOE and 60 industry partners. The projects benefited all areas of steelmaking and much know-how was developed and transferred to industry. The American Iron and Steel Institute is the owner of all intellectual property developed under TRP and licenses it at commercial rates to all steelmakers. TRP technologies are in widespread use in the steel industry as participants received royalty-free use of intellectual property in return for taking the risk of funding this research.

  19. Structural Reliability of Bridges Elevated with Steel Pedestals†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bisadi, Vahid 1980-

    2012-09-19

    Overheight vehicle impact to bridge decks is a major problem in the transportation networks in the United States. An important factor that causes this problem is inadequate vertical clearance of bridges. Using steel pedestals to elevate bridge decks...

  20. 9 Cr-- 1 Mo steel material for high temperature application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jablonski, Paul D; Alman, David; Dogan, Omer; Holcomb, Gordon; Cowen, Christopher

    2012-11-27

    One or more embodiments relates to a high-temperature, titanium alloyed, 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibiting improved creep strength and oxidation resistance at service temperatures up to 650.degree. C. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel has a tempered martensite microstructure and is comprised of both large (0.5-3 .mu.m) primary titanium carbides and small (5-50 nm) secondary titanium carbides in a ratio of. from about 1:1.5 to about 1.5:1. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel may be fabricated using exemplary austenizing, rapid cooling, and tempering steps without subsequent hot working requirements. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibits improvements in total mass gain, yield strength, and time-to-rupture over ASTM P91 and ASTM P92 at the temperature and time conditions examined.

  1. Energy intensity in China's iron and steel sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jingsi, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    In this study, I examine the spatial and economic factors that influence energy intensity in China's iron and steel sector, namely industrial value added, renovation investment, coke consumption, and local coke supply. ...

  2. Transformations in TRIP-assisted Steels: Microstructure and Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterjee, Sourabh

    Despite the presence of high-carbon martensite, TRIP-assisted steels possess large uniform elongation. High-carbon martensite is normally brittle. In this thesis, it has been demonstrated that this apparent anomaly is due to the fine size...

  3. Low temperature type new TMCP steel plate for LPG carriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Shuichi; Bessyo, Kiyoshi; Arimochi, Kazushige; Yajima, Hiroshi; Tada, Masuo; Sakai, Daisuke

    1994-12-31

    New Thermo-Mechanical Control Process (TMCP) steel plate for LPG carriers of completely liquefied type was developed with non-nickel chemistry. The new steel plate has a capability to arrest a long running brittle crack at {minus}46 C (which is the design temperature of the liquefied LPG tanks). A high heat-input one-pass welding can be applied to this steel despite its nickel-less chemistry. These capabilities were enabled by microalloying technology with low aluminum-medium nitrogen-boron, as well as by the advanced Thermo-Mechanical Control Process. This paper describes the new concept of utilizing the trace elements and the evaluation test results as the steel plate for the LPG tank and hull, especially from the standpoints of the fracture safe reliability at high heat input welding and from that of the shop workability.

  4. A structural analysis of the Cardington British Steel corner test†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gillie, Martin; Usmani, Asif; Rotter, J Michael

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a structural analysis of the Cardington British Steel corner test. The test is a analyzes using ABAQUS, the commercial finite element program. The results of the analysis indicate that the response of ...

  5. Analysis of steel silo structures on discrete supports†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hongyu

    The objective of this thesis is to broaden current knowledge of the strength and buckling/collapse of shells, with special reference to steel silo structures on discrete supports, and thus to provide design guidance of ...

  6. Optimal Panel Zone Participation in Steel Moment Frames†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ngo, Thanh Tat

    2014-01-03

    the overall seismic performance of that frame. As a result, the safety or reliability of a steel moment frame under earthquakes can be improved while maintaining the fabrication of the structure at an effective cost....

  7. 1D subsurface electromagnetic fields excited by energized steel casing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-VerdŪn, Carlos

    1D subsurface electromagnetic fields excited by energized steel casing Wei Yang1 , Carlos Torres-cased well is energized at the surface or within the borehole at an arbitrary depth with an electrode

  8. the university of iowa College of engineering Man of steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    critical issues facing the engineering profession. Whether living in Iowa or in other parts of the world, treelike appearance. Photo by fisheye. this page: A microscopic photo of dendrites in steel. inside Iowa

  9. Eddy sensors for small diameter stainless steel tubes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, Jack L.; Morales, Alfredo Martin; Grant, J. Brian; Korellis, Henry James; LaFord, Marianne Elizabeth; Van Blarigan, Benjamin; Andersen, Lisa E.

    2011-08-01

    The goal of this project was to develop non-destructive, minimally disruptive eddy sensors to inspect small diameter stainless steel metal tubes. Modifications to Sandia's Emphasis/EIGER code allowed for the modeling of eddy current bobbin sensors near or around 1/8-inch outer diameter stainless steel tubing. Modeling results indicated that an eddy sensor based on a single axial coil could effectively detect changes in the inner diameter of a stainless steel tubing. Based on the modeling results, sensor coils capable of detecting small changes in the inner diameter of a stainless steel tube were designed, built and tested. The observed sensor response agreed with the results of the modeling and with eddy sensor theory. A separate limited distribution SAND report is being issued demonstrating the application of this sensor.

  10. Low Temperature Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John

    2015-08-01

    The embrittlement trend curve development project for HFIR reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels was carried out with three major tasks. Which are (1) data collection to match that used in HFIR steel embrittlement trend published in 1994 Journal Nuclear Material by Remec et. al, (2) new embrittlement data of A212B steel that are not included in earlier HFIR RPV trend curve, and (3) the adjustment of nil-ductility-transition temperature (NDTT) shift data with the consideration of the irradiation temperature effect. An updated HFIR RPV steel embrittlement trend curve was developed, as described below. NDTT( C) = 23.85 log(x) + 203.3 log (x) + 434.7, with 2- uncertainty of 34.6 C, where parameter x is referred to total dpa. The developed update HFIR RPV embrittlement trend curve has higher embrittlement rate compared to that of the trend curve developed in 1994.

  11. Low-Temperature Colossal Supersaturation of Stainless Steels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Austenitic stainless steels in the 300 Series are the primary materials used for a very broad range of applications when corrosion resistance is needed in aqueous solutions at ambient temperatures....

  12. Process to Continuously Melt, Refine, and Cast High Quality Steel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a project to conduct research and development targeted at designing an innovative steelmaking process to produce higher quality steel faster than traditional batch processes while consuming less energy and other resources.

  13. The effects of alpha particle irradiation on stainless steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shipp, John Douglas

    1999-01-01

    A Monte Carlo code was developed to calculate the alpha particle emission rate from WGPu. It yielded information pertaining to the alpha particle source strength at the WGPU and stainless steel interface as well as the damage production and He...

  14. Making Steel Framing as Thermally Efficient as Wood†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosny, J.; Childs, P.

    2002-01-01

    In many world regions like North America and Scandinavia wood framing is dominant technology for residential buildings. During last two decades several companies around the world started to promote a low-gage steel framing for residential...

  15. Quantification of phase transformation in stainless steel 301LN sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beese, Allison M

    2008-01-01

    This thesis investigates the large deformation behavior of stainless steel 301LN cold-rolled sheets which is largely governed by the initial anisotropy combined with the phase transformation during deformation. Stainless ...

  16. Development of sodium silicate adhesives for electrical steel bonding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marks, Jordan (Jordan Christine)

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic adhesives have several benefits over traditional joining methods for joining electrical steels used in magnetic cores of numerous industrial applications. As insulators with very high melting temperatures, the ...

  17. Surface modified stainless steels for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P; Wang, Heli; Turner, John A

    2007-07-24

    A nitridation treated stainless steel article (such as a bipolar plate for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell) having lower interfacial contact electrical resistance and better corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel article is disclosed. The treated stainless steel article has a surface layer including nitrogen-modified chromium-base oxide and precipitates of chromium nitride formed during nitridation wherein oxygen is present in the surface layer at a greater concentration than nitrogen. The surface layer may further include precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide. The surface layer in the treated article is chemically heterogeneous surface rather than a uniform or semi-uniform surface layer exclusively rich in chromium, titanium or aluminum. The precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide are formed by the nitriding treatment wherein titanium and/or aluminum in the stainless steel are segregated to the surface layer in forms that exhibit a low contact resistance and good corrosion resistance.

  18. Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, T.T.

    2011-01-01

    Improved Product Quality,Ē Ironmaking and Steel making 18(pound Investment,Ē Ironmaking and Steel making,Ē Anonymous,Oil Through Sintering," Ironmaking and Steel making Dawson,

  19. Accelerated corrosion of stainless steel in thiocyanate-containing solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pistorius, P Chris; Li, Wen

    2012-09-19

    It is known that reduced sulfur compounds (such as thiocyanate and thiosulfate) can accelerate active corrosion of austenitic stainless steel in acid solutions, but before we started this project the mechanism of acceleration was largely unclear. This work combined electrochemical measurements and analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS), which provided a comprehensive understanding of the catalytic effect of reduced sulfur species on the active corrosion of stainless steel. Both the behavior of the pure elements and the steel were studied and the work focused on the interaction between the pure elements of the steel, which is the least understood area. Upon completion of this work, several aspects are now much clearer. The main results from this work can be summarized as follows: The presence of low concentrations (around 0.1 mM) of thiocyanate or tetrathionate in dilute sulfuric acid greatly accelerates the anodic dissolution of chromium and nickel, but has an even stronger effect on stainless steels (iron-chromium-nickel alloys). Electrochemical measurements and surface analyses are in agreement with the suggestion that accelerated dissolution really results from suppressed passivation. Even well below the passivation potential, the electrochemical signature of passivation is evident in the electrode impedance; the electrode impedance shows clearly that this pre-passivation is suppressed in the presence of thiocyanate. For the stainless steels, remarkable changes in the morphology of the corroded metal surface and in the surface concentration of chromium support the suggestion that pre-passivation of stainless steels is suppressed because dissolution of chromium is accelerated. Surface analysis confirmed that adsorbed sulfur / sulfide forms on the metal surfaces upon exposure to solutions containing thiocyanate or thiosulfate. For pure nickel, and steels containing nickel (and residual copper), bulk sulfide (visible as a black corrosion product) forms during anodic dissolution. The sulfide is electronically conductive, and gives an increase of several orders of magnitude in the electrode capacitance; the sulfide also causes anodic activation to persist after the pure metals and steels were removed from the thiocyanate-containing electrolyte and transferred to a thiocyanate-free electrolyte. The main practical implications of this work are that low concentrations of reduced sulfur compounds strongly affect anodic dissolution of stainless steels, and that selecting steels with elevated concentrations of chromium, nickel or molybdenum would serve to limit the anodic dissolution rate in the presence of reduced sulfur compounds.

  20. Steel-SiC Metal Matrix Composite Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Don D.

    2005-07-17

    The goal of this project is to develop a method for fabricating SiC-reinforced high-strength steel. We are developing a metal-matrix composite (MMC) in which SiC fibers are be embedded within a metal matrix of steel, with adequate interfacial bonding to deliver the full benefit of the tensile strength of the SiC fibers in the composite.

  1. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  2. Procedure for flaw detection in cast stainless steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kupperman, David S. (Oak Park, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A method of ultrasonic flaw detection in cast stainless steel components incorporating the steps of determining the nature of the microstructure of the cast stainless steel at the site of the flaw detection measurements by ultrasonic elements independent of the component thickness at the site; choosing from a plurality of flaw detection techniques, one such technique appropriate to the nature of the microstructure as determined and detecting flaws by use of the chosen technique.

  3. Measurement of intergranular attack in stainless steel using ultrasonic energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mott, Gerry (Pittsburgh, PA); Attaar, Mustan (Monroeville, PA); Rishel, Rick D. (Monroeville, PA)

    1989-08-08

    Ultrasonic test methods are used to measure the depth of intergranular attack (IGA) in a stainless steel specimen. The ultrasonic test methods include a pitch-catch surface wave technique and a through-wall pulse-echo technique. When used in combination, these techniques can establish the extent of IGA on both the front and back surfaces of a stainless steel specimen from measurements made on only one surface.

  4. Open Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996Technologies / OmbudsmanOneeoOpen

  5. Open Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996Technologies / OmbudsmanOneeoOpenJune 2012 Can't see

  6. Open Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996Technologies / OmbudsmanOneeoOpenJune 2012 Can't

  7. Open Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996Technologies / OmbudsmanOneeoOpenJune 2012

  8. Open Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996Technologies / OmbudsmanOneeoOpenJune 2012September

  9. Open Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996Technologies / OmbudsmanOneeoOpenJune

  10. Open Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996Technologies / OmbudsmanOneeoOpenJuneOctober 2010

  11. Open Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996Technologies / OmbudsmanOneeoOpenJuneOctober

  12. Open Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996Technologies / OmbudsmanOneeoOpenJuneOctoberMarch

  13. Open Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEY UNIVERSEHowScientificOmbuds OfficeOneFasterdata IPv6Open Issues

  14. Open Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEY UNIVERSEHowScientificOmbuds OfficeOneFasterdata IPv6Open

  15. Apparatus and method for producing fragment-free openings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherry, Christopher R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method for explosively penetrating hardened containers such as steel drums without producing metal fragmentation is disclosed. The apparatus can be used singularly or in combination with water disrupters and other disablement tools. The apparatus is mounted in close proximity to the target and features a main sheet explosive that is initiated at least three equidistant points along the sheet's periphery. A buffer material is placed between the sheet explosive and the target. As a result, the metallic fragments generated from the detonation of the detonator are attenuated so that no fragments from the detonator are transferred to the target. As a result, an opening can be created in containers such as steel drums through which access to the IED is obtained to defuse it with projectiles or fluids.

  16. Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

    2002-02-18

    This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the distance of a non-pressurized riser, and can increase casting yield by decreasing the required number of risers. All case studies for this projects were completed and compiled into an SFSA Technical Report that is submitted part of this Final Report

  17. Development of Next Generation Heating System for Scale Free Steel Reheating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi

    2011-01-27

    The work carried out under this project includes development and design of components, controls, and economic modeling tools that would enable the steel industry to reduce energy intensity through reduction of scale formation during the steel reheating process. Application of scale free reheating offers savings in energy used for production of steel that is lost as scale, and increase in product yield for the global steel industry. The technology can be applied to a new furnace application as well as retrofit design for conversion of existing steel reheating furnaces. The development work has resulted in the knowledge base that will enable the steel industry and steel forging industry us to reheat steel with 75% to 95% reduction in scale formation and associated energy savings during the reheating process. Scale reduction also results in additional energy savings associated with higher yield from reheat furnaces. Energy used for steel production ranges from 9 MM Btu/ton to 16.6 MM Btu/ton or the industry average of approximately 13 MM Btu/ton. Hence, reduction in scale at reheating stage would represent a substantial energy reduction for the steel industry. Potential energy savings for the US steel industry could be in excess of 25 Trillion Btu/year when the technology is applied to all reheating processes. The development work has resulted in new design of reheating process and the required burners and control systems that would allow use of this technology for steel reheating in steel as well as steel forging industries.

  18. White-Etching Matter in Bearing Steel. Part I: Controlled Cracking of 52100 Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solano-Alvarez, W.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    2014-07-08

    :!Steel!with!a!composition!of!iron,!carbon,!phosphorus!and!molybdenum:!Tech.!Rep.!US!Patent!4,961,904:!U.!S.!Patent!Office!1990.!![15]!Z.!Lei,!A.!Zhao,!J.!Xie,!C.!Sun,!Y.!Hong:!Theoretical!and!Applied!Mechanics!Letters!2012,!vol.!2,!pp.!031003.!![16]!W... .!Solano(Alvarez,!E.!J.!Song,!D.!K.!Han,!D.(W.!Suh,!H.!K.!D.!H.!Bhadeshia:!Submitted!2014.!![17]!B.!Chalmers,!R.!King,!R.!Shuttleworth:!Proceedings!of!the!Royal!Society!A!1948,!vol.!193,!pp.!465Ė483.!![18]!K.!Ryttberg,!M.!K.!Wedel,!V...

  19. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Sutton Steele and Steele Co - TX 09

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and Myers Co - OHStar Cutter Corp -Sutton Steele and

  20. Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Toole, M.A.; van Duyn, Y. [Normandeau Associates Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years` data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143.

  1. NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeHoff, R.; Glasgow, C. (MesoCoat, Inc.)

    2012-07-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating a new class of Fe-based amorphous material stemming from a DARPA, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency initiative in structural amorphous metals. Further engineering of the original SAM materials such as chemistry modifications and manufacturing processes, has led to the development of a class of Fe based amorphous materials that upon processing, devitrify into a nearly homogeneous distribution of nano sized complex metal carbides and borides. The powder material is produced through the gas atomization process and subsequently utilized by several methods; laser fusing as a coating to existing components or bulk consolidated into new components through various powder metallurgy techniques (vacuum hot pressing, Dynaforge, and hot isostatic pressing). The unique fine scale distribution of microstructural features yields a material with high hardness and wear resistance compared to material produced through conventional processing techniques such as casting while maintaining adequate fracture toughness. Several compositions have been examined including those specifically designed for high hardness and wear resistance and a composition specifically tailored to devitrify into an austenitic matrix (similar to a stainless steel) which poses improved corrosion behavior.

  2. Austenitic stainless steel for high temperature applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Gerald D. (Kennewick, WA); Powell, Roger W. (Pasco, WA)

    1985-01-01

    This invention describes a composition for an austenitic stainless steel which has been found to exhibit improved high temperature stress rupture properties. The composition of this alloy is about (in wt. %): 12.5 to 14.5 Cr; 14.5 to 16.5 Ni; 1.5 to 2.5 Mo; 1.5 to 2.5 Mn; 0.1 to 0.4 Ti; 0.02 to 0.08 C; 0.5 to 1.0 Si; 0.01 maximum, N; 0.02 to 0.08 P; 0.002 to 0.008 B; 0.004-0.010 S; 0.02-0.05 Nb; 0.01-0.05 V; 0.005-0.02 Ta; 0.02-0.05 Al; 0.01-0.04 Cu; 0.02-0.05 Co; 0.03 maximum, As; 0.01 maximum, O; 0.01 maximum, Zr; and with the balance of the alloy being essentially iron. The carbon content of the alloy is adjusted such that wt. % Ti/(wt. % C+wt. % N) is between 4 and 6, and most preferably about 5. In addition the sum of the wt. % P+wt. % B+wt. % S is at least 0.03 wt. %. This alloy is believed to be particularly well suited for use as fast breeder reactor fuel element cladding.

  3. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dadfarnia, Mohsen; Nibur, Kevin A.; San Marchi, Christopher W.; Sofronis, Petros; Somerday, Brian P.; Foulk, James W., III; Hayden, Gary A.

    2010-07-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  4. EFFECT OF VANADIUM ON STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONS OF DUAL PHASE Fe/Mn/Si/0.lC STEELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakagawa, Alvin

    2014-01-01

    Formable HSLA and Dual Phase Steels, Proceedings of AIME,and Properties of Dual Phase Steels, Proceedings of Aifv1E,in intercritically annealed dual phase steels. Many of the

  5. National Policy Memorandum NPM-TRUS-29: Guidance for the Approval...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Page Edit with form History National Policy Memorandum NPM-TRUS-29: Guidance for the Approval of Tribal Leasing Regulations under the HEARTH Act Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  6. Heavy reflector experiments in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor: Stainless steel, carbon steel and nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos, Adimir dos; Andrade e Silva, Graciete Simoes de; Jerez, Rogerio; Liambos Mura, Luis Felipe; Fuga, Rinaldo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242 - CEP 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    New experiments devoted to the measurements of physical parameters of a light water core surrounded by a heavy reflector were performed in the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor facility. These experiments comprise three sets of heavy reflector (SS-304, Carbon Steel, and Nickel) in a form of laminates around 3 mm thick. Each set was introduced individually in the west face of the core of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor. The aim here is to provide high quality experimental data for the interpretation and validation of the SS-304 heavy reflector calculation methods. The experiments of Carbon Steel, which is composed mainly of iron, and Nickel were performed to provide a consistent and an interpretative check for the SS-304 reflector experiment. The experimental results comprise critical control bank positions, temperatures and reactivities as a function of the number of the plates. Particularly to the case of Nickel, the experimental data are unique of its kind. The theoretical analysis was performed by MCNP-5 with the nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0. It was shown that this nuclear data library has a very good performance up to thirteen plates and overestimates the reactivity for higher number of plates independently of the type of the reflector.

  7. Active wear and failure mechanisms of TiN-coated high speed steel and TiN-coated cemented carbide tools when machining powder metallurgically made stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, L.; Haenninen, H.; Paro, J.; Kauppinen, V.

    1996-09-01

    In this study, active wear and failure mechanisms of both TiN-coated high speed steel and TiN-coated cemented carbide tools when machining stainless steels made by powder metallurgy in low and high cutting speed ranges, respectively, have been investigated. Abrasive wear mechanisms, fatigue-induced failure, and adhesive and diffusion wear mechanisms mainly affected the tool life of TiN-coated high speed steel tools at cutting speeds below 35 m/min, between 35 and 45 m/min, and over 45 m/min, respectively. Additionally, fatigue-induced failure was active at cutting speeds over 45 m/min in the low cutting speed range when machining powder metallurgically made duplex stainless steel 2205 and austenitic stainless steel 316L. In the high cutting speed range, from 100 to 250 m/min, fatigue-induced failure together with diffusion wear mechanism, affected the tool life of TiN-coated cemented carbide tools when machining both 316L and 2205 stainless steels. It was noticed that the tool life of TiN-coated high speed steel tools used in the low cutting speed range when machining 2205 steel was longer than that when machining 316L steel, whereas the tool life of TiN-coated cemented carbide tools used in the high cutting speed range when machining 316L steel was longer than that when machining 2205 steel.

  8. 2012 ACCOMPLISHMENTS - TRITIUM AGING STUDIES ON STAINLESS STEELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, M.

    2013-01-31

    This report summarizes the research and development accomplishments during FY12 for the tritium effects on materials program. The tritium effects on materials program is designed to measure the long-term effects of tritium and its radioactive decay product, helium-3, on the structural properties of forged stainless steels which are used as the materials of construction for tritium reservoirs. The FY12 R&D accomplishments include: (1) Fabricated and Thermally-Charged 150 Forged Stainless Steel Samples with Tritium for Future Aging Studies; (2) Developed an Experimental Plan for Measuring Cracking Thresholds of Tritium-Charged-and-Aged Steels in High Pressure Hydrogen Gas; (3) Calculated Sample Tritium Contents For Laboratory Inventory Requirements and Environmental Release Estimates; (4) Published report on ďCracking Thresholds and Fracture Toughness Properties of Tritium-Charged-and-Aged Stainless SteelsĒ; and, (5) Published report on ďThe Effects of Hydrogen, Tritium, and Heat Treatment on the Deformation and Fracture Toughness Properties of Stainless SteelsĒ. These accomplishments are highlighted here and references given to additional reports for more detailed information.

  9. Micromechanisms of ductile fracturing of DH-36 steel plates under impulsive loads and influence of polyurea reinforcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amini, M. R.; Nemat-Nasser, S.

    2010-01-01

    Micromechanisms of ductile fracturing of DH-36 steel platesMicromechanisms of ductile fracturing of DH-36 steel platesundergoes controllable fracturing, generally initiated near

  10. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Phylipsen, Dian; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-01-01

    Li, 2001. Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from SteelEnergy Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions ReductionEnergy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the Steel Sector

  11. Wear-Resistant NanoCompositeStainless Steel Coatings and Bits...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wear-Resistant NanoCompositeStainless Steel Coatings and Bits Wear-Resistant NanoCompositeStainless Steel Coatings and Bits Project objective: To develop ultra-hard and wear...

  12. Inventory management of steel plates at an oil rig construction company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Chien Yung

    2006-01-01

    Keppel Fels produces make-to-order oil exploration rigs for the global market. Each rig requires close to 6000 metric tons of steel in the course of its production. Optimal management of this steel is very critical in this ...

  13. Stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement of thick section high strength low alloy steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Needham, William Donald

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the corrosion performance of weldments of a high strength low alloy(HSLA) steel in a simulated seawater environment. This steel, designated HSLA80, was developed by the United ...

  14. Fire performance of unprotected and protected concrete filled steel hollow structural sections†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rush, David Ian

    2013-11-28

    Concrete filled steel hollow structural (CFS) sections are increasingly used to support large compressive loads in buildings, with the concrete infill and the steel tube working together to yield several benefits both ...

  15. PLC-9 Non Rusting Stainless Steel Column 10" Square with Radius Corners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    PLC-9 Non Rusting Stainless Steel Column 10" Square with Radius Corners Unit includes two lights General Specifications of PLC-9 Column Non Rusting, Non Magnetic Stainless Steel - .125" Thick Dimensions

  16. ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In recent years there has been an increasing demand to reduce and control the amount of dissolved gases in steel. Hydrogen and nitrogen are two of the most important gases which when dissolved in liquid steel affect its properties significantly

  17. DESIGN OF DUPLEX LOW CARBON STEELS FOR IMPROVED STRENGTH: WEIGHT APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koo, J.

    2010-01-01

    of all the Cr steels is about Upon annealing of the initialCr bearing steels to attain similar initial of the annealingsteel) and martensite lath boundaries, coupled with the gradual evo- lution of austenite particles with annealing

  18. Case Study of Optimal Byproduct Gas Distribution in Integrated Steel Mill Using Multi-Period Optimization†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makinen, K.; Kymalainen, T.; Junttila, J.

    2012-01-01

    Energy constitutes about 20 % of the total production cost in an integrated steel mill, and therefore energy efficiency is crucial for profitability within the environmental policy context. An integrated steel mill generates high calorific value...

  19. A Computational-based Approach for the Design of Trip Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Sheng-Yen

    2013-08-06

    The purpose of this work is to optimize the chemical composition as well as the heat treatment for improving the mechanical performance of the TRIP steel by employing the theoretical models. TRIP steel consists of the microstructure with ferrite...

  20. Experiments to Separate the Effect of Texture on Anisotropy of Pipeline Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Experiments to Separate the Effect of Texture on Anisotropy of Pipeline Steel M. S. Jooa , D the anisotropy of Charpy test energy. Keywords: pipeline steel, anisotropy, crystallographic texture, memory

  1. Identification and probabilistic modeling of mesocrack initiations in 304L stainless steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Identification and probabilistic modeling of mesocrack initiations in 304L stainless steel J. Rupil the growth of fa- tigue damage in an austenitic stainless steel at a mesoscopic scale. Several fatigue

  2. CF8C PLus: A New Cast Stainless Steel for High-Temperature Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CF8C PLus: A New Cast Stainless Steel for High-Temperature Diesel Exhaust Components CF8C PLus: A New Cast Stainless Steel for High-Temperature Diesel Exhaust Components...

  3. The hardening of Type 316L stainless steel welds with thermal aging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayers, Lauren Juliet

    2012-01-01

    Welded stainless steel piping is a component of boiling water reactors (BWRs). Reirculation and other large diameter piping are fabricated from Type 304 or 316 stainless steels. Delta ferrite is present in welds, because ...

  4. Modelling precipitation sequences in power plant steels Part 2 -Application of kinetic theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Modelling precipitation sequences in power plant steels Part 2 - Application of kinetic theory J. D to predictthevastdifferencesin precipitation kineticsreportedin thepublishedliteraturefor powerplant steels.By implication, the precipitate phases usually present are metastable. Indeed,it is well establishedthat thereis

  5. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- U S Steel Co National Tube...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Steel Co National Tube Div Christy Park Works - PA 35 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: U. S. STEEL CO., NATIONAL TUBE DIV., CHRISTY PARK WORKS (PA.35) Eliminated from further...

  6. Effect of stainless steel weld overlay cladding on the structural integrity of flawed steel plates in bending. Series 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corwin, W.R.; Robinson, G.C.; Nanstad, R.K.; Merkle, J.G.; Berggren, R.G.; Goodwin, G.M.; Swain, R.L.; Owings, T.D.

    1985-04-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Stainless Steel Cladding Evaluations were undertaken to study the interaction of stainless steel cladding on the inside surface of a reactor pressure vessel with flaws initiating and propagating in base metal. With the more recent focus of safety studies on overcooling type transients, for which the behavior of small flaws is important, stainless steel cladding may have a key role in controlling the propagation and/or arrest of propagating flaws. A complicating factor in understanding the role of stainless steel cladding in this setting is the scarcity of data on its fracture toughness as a function of radiation dose and the fabrication process. The initial phase of the HSST evaluations addresses this question by testing the response of 51-mm-thick flawed plates clad with single-wire, submerged-arc weld overlays of different toughness levels. The tests completed indicate that cladding of moderate toughness had a limited ability to enhance the structural arrest toughness of a beam in bending. The specimen design and fabrication techniques employed for this first completed series of tests resulted in flaw and specimen configurations that prevented adequate control of the stress state at pop-in of the hydrogen-charged electron-beam welds. As a result, analyses of the tests by two approximate techniques and by the ORMGEN-ADINA-ORVIRT finite-element programs were not completely consistent.

  7. Energy and materials flows in the iron and steel industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparrow, F.T.

    1983-06-01

    Past energy-consumption trends and future energy-conservation opportunities are investigated for the nation's iron and steel industry. It is estimated that, in 1980, the industry directly consumed approximately 2.46 x 10/sup 15/ Btu of energy (roughly 3% of total US energy consumption) to produce 111 million tons of raw steel and to ship 84 million tons of steel products. Direct plus indirect consumption is estimated to be about 3.1 x 10/sup 15/ Btu. Of the set of conservation technologies identified, most are judged to be ready for commercialization if and when the industry's capital formation and profitability problems are solved and the gradual predicted increase in energy prices reduces the payback periods to acceptable levels.

  8. An alternative to the crystallographic reconstruction of austenite in steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernier, Nicolas, E-mail: n.bernier@yahoo.fr [OCAS N.V., ArcelorMittal R and D Gent, Pres. J.F. Kennedylaan 3, 9060 Zelzate (Belgium); Bracke, Lieven, E-mail: lieven.bracke@arcelormittal.com [OCAS N.V., ArcelorMittal R and D Gent, Pres. J.F. Kennedylaan 3, 9060 Zelzate (Belgium); Malet, LoÔc; Godet, Stťphane [Universitť Libre de Bruxelles, 4 MAT (Materials Engineering, Characterisation, Synthesis and Recycling), Avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50, CP 194/03, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-03-01

    An alternative crystallographic austenite reconstruction programme written in Matlab is developed by combining the best features of the existing models: the orientation relationship refinement, the local pixel-by-pixel analysis and the nuclei identification and spreading strategy. This programme can be directly applied to experimental electron backscatter diffraction mappings. Its applicability is demonstrated on both quenching and partitioning and as-quenched lath-martensite steels. - Highlights: ē An alternative crystallographic austenite reconstruction program is developed. ē The method combines a local analysis and a nuclei identification/spreading strategy. ē The validity of the calculated orientation relationship is verified on a Q and P steel. ē The accuracy of the reconstructed microtexture is investigated on a martensite steel.

  9. Dry film lubricant for difficult drawing applications of galvanized steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakano, Shigeru; Sakane, Tadashi; Hirose, Yozou . Iron and Steel Research Lab.); Matsuda, Naomichi; Onodera, Show . Oleo Chemicals Research Lab.)

    1993-09-01

    Press formability of metals sheets is considered to depend on surface lubricity, press forming condition and mechanical properties of the metal sheets. In Zn and Zn-alloy plated steel sheets with heavy coatings, surface lubricity is the most important property. This is because the low melting temperature and low hardness of the plated layer occasionally cause microscopic galling through deformation at the beads of dies which may, consequently, result in sheet breakage. Press formability of Zn and Zn-alloy plated steel sheets with heavy coating weight has been improved by the use of a high viscosity lubricant oil and a Fe-Zn alloy flash-plating on galvannealed steel. However, the use of high viscosity lubricant oils created problems with oil staining and removal before painting. An alloy flash plating results in appreciably higher production costs. This article describes the characteristics of a thin film dry lubricant, Super S-coat, as a new countermeasure, which will overcome these problems.

  10. Heat-affected zone liquation crack on resistance spot welded TWIP steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saha, Dulal Chandra [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, InSung [Automotive Production Development Division, Hyundai Motor Company (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yeong-Do, E-mail: ypark@deu.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the heat affected zone (HAZ) liquation crack and segregation behavior of the resistance spot welded twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steel have been reported. Cracks appeared in the post-welded joints that originated at the partially melted zone (PMZ) and propagated from the PMZ through the heat affected zone (HAZ) to the base metal (BM). The crack length and crack opening widths were observed increasing with heat input; and the welding current was identified to be the most influencing parameter for crack formation. Cracks appeared at the PMZ when nugget diameter reached at 4.50 mm or above; and the liquation cracks were found to occur along two sides of the notch tip in the sheet direction rather than in the electrode direction. Cracks were backfilled with the liquid films which has lamellar structure and supposed to be the eutectic constituent. Co-segregation of alloy elements such as, C and Mn were detected on the liquid films by electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) line scanning and element map which suggests that the liquid film was enrich of Mn and C. The eutectic constituent was identified by analyzing the calculated phase diagram along with thermal temperature history of finite element simulation. Preliminary experimental results showed that cracks have less/no significant effect on the static cross-tensile strength (CTS) and the tensile-shear strength (TSS). In addition, possible ways to avoid cracking were discussed. - Highlights: ē The HAZ liquation crack during resistance spot welding of TWIP steel was examined. ē Cracks were completely backfilled and healed with divorced eutectic secondary phase. ē Co-segregation of C and Mn was detected in the cracked zone. ē Heat input was the most influencing factor to initiate liquation crack. ē Cracks have less/no significant effect on static tensile properties.

  11. Steel slag carbonation in a flow-through reactor system: The role of fluid-flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steel Association, 2010), comprising ~275 kg of slag from the iron-making stage (namely, blast furnace

  12. HotStrength of Ferritic CreepResistant Steels Comparison of Neural Network and Genetic Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    to 1 #12;testing [1]. Such steels form the back≠bone of steam turbines used in electricity generation

  13. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint- Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS 2006)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311, 3312) with Total Energy Input

  14. Wear-Resistant NanoCompositeStainless Steel Coatings and Bits

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Project objective: To develop ultra-hard and wear resistant nanocompositestainless steel coatings and bulk components for geothermal drilling applications.

  15. Reliability-based condition assessment of steel containment and liners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingwood, B.; Bhattacharya, B.; Zheng, R.

    1996-11-01

    Steel containments and liners in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environments that may cause their strength and stiffness to decrease during the plant service life. Among the factors recognized as having the potential to cause structural deterioration are uniform, pitting or crevice corrosion; fatigue, including crack initiation and propagation to fracture; elevated temperature; and irradiation. The evaluation of steel containments and liners for continued service must provide assurance that they are able to withstand future extreme loads during the service period with a level of reliability that is sufficient for public safety. Rational methodologies to provide such assurances can be developed using modern structural reliability analysis principles that take uncertainties in loading, strength, and degradation resulting from environmental factors into account. The research described in this report is in support of the Steel Containments and Liners Program being conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The research demonstrates the feasibility of using reliability analysis as a tool for performing condition assessments and service life predictions of steel containments and liners. Mathematical models that describe time-dependent changes in steel due to aggressive environmental factors are identified, and statistical data supporting the use of these models in time-dependent reliability analysis are summarized. The analysis of steel containment fragility is described, and simple illustrations of the impact on reliability of structural degradation are provided. The role of nondestructive evaluation in time-dependent reliability analysis, both in terms of defect detection and sizing, is examined. A Markov model provides a tool for accounting for time-dependent changes in damage condition of a structural component or system. 151 refs.

  16. Hydrogen trapping in bearing steels: mechanisms and alloy design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szost, Blanka Angelika

    2013-02-05

    diffusion into the steel microstructure from lubricant decomposi- tion [1]. 8 Embrittlement caused by hydrogen entering the steel from oil was reported also in an oil-hydraulic unit [16], and the feeding line of an oil refinery [17]. The results show... of dislocations against a grain boundary in vacuum (black numbers and dislocation lines) and an image taken from the same pile-up at constant stress, after introduction of 95 torr of hydrogen gas in the environmental cell (white numbers and dislocation lines...

  17. Simulation of Convection and Macrosegregation in Steel Casting C. Beckermann* and M. C. Schneider**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Simulation of Convection and Macrosegregation in Steel Casting C. Beckermann* and M. C. Schneider.C., "Simulation of Convection and Macrosegregation in Steel Casting," in Proceedings of the 50th SFSA Technical and the mushy zone. This is particularly true in heavy steel castings which have very large cross sections

  18. TRP 9904 - Constitutive Behavior of High Strength Multiphase Sheel Steel Under High Strain Rate Deformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Matlock; John Speer

    2005-03-31

    The focus of the research project was to systematically assess the strain rate dependence of strengthening mechanisms in new advanced high strength sheet steels. Data were obtained on specially designed and produced Duel Phase and TRIP steels and compared to the properties of automotive steels currently in use.

  19. Cryorolling effect on microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe25Cr20Ni austenitic stainless steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    dealing with micro- structure and mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels, since martensitic steel Yi Xiong a,b, , Tiantian He c , Junbei Wang a , Yan Lu a , Lufei Chen a , Fengzhang Ren a Accepted 7 September 2015 Available online 11 September 2015 Keywords: Austenitic stainless steel

  20. Microstructure effect on hydrogen-induced cracking in TM210 maraging steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    August 2013 Keywords: Maraging steel Hydrogen embrittlement Reverted austenite Martensite lath boundaries formability. Solution- treated maraging steels have martensite with high dislocation density and a pronouncedMicrostructure effect on hydrogen-induced cracking in TM210 maraging steel Gang Wang a , Yu Yan

  1. Effect of Deformation on Hydrogen Trapping and Effusion in TRIPAssisted Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    pronounced in TRIP steel containing austenite which is relatively less stable to martensitic transformationEffect of Deformation on Hydrogen Trapping and Effusion in TRIP≠Assisted Steel Joo Hyun Ryua of hydrogen at a variety of sites in multiphase transformation≠induced plasticity (TRIP) steels has been

  2. Transmission electron microscopy of oxide development on 9Cr ODS steel in supercritical water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    cladding include austenitic stainless steels, solid solution and precipitation-hardened alloys, ferritic≠martensitic is on the ferritic≠martensitic 9Cr ODS steel, which was originally developed by JAEA for use in sodium-cooled fastTransmission electron microscopy of oxide development on 9Cr ODS steel in supercritical water A

  3. Technical Reference on Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials Carbon and Alloy Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siefert, Chris

    martensitic steel used primarily in the aerospace industry [1, 2]. Screening tests indicate that this alloyTechnical Reference on Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials Carbon and Alloy Steels: 9Ni-4Co (code of this information, whether direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential. #12;Carbon and Alloy Steels 9Ni-4

  4. Controlled Rocking System for Seismic Retrofit of Steel Truss Bridge Piers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruneau, Michel

    1 Controlled Rocking System for Seismic Retrofit of Steel Truss Bridge Piers Michael Pollino1 and Michel Bruneau2 ABSTRACT In assessments of the seismic adequacy of existing steel bridges, the steel, especially for bridges deemed critical for response and recovery efforts following an earthquake. While

  5. Microbial Corrosion in Linepipe Steel Under the Influence of a Sulfate-Reducing Consortium Isolated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    biofilm, carbon steel API 5L X52, microbiologically influenced corrosion, pipeline, sulfateMicrobial Corrosion in Linepipe Steel Under the Influence of a Sulfate-Reducing Consortium Isolated) This work investigates microbiologically influenced corrosion of API 5L X52 linepipe steel by a sulfate

  6. FATIGUE OF 8630 CAST STEEL IN THE PRESENCE OF SHRINKAGE POROSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    FATIGUE OF 8630 CAST STEEL IN THE PRESENCE OF SHRINKAGE POROSITY K.M. Sigl1 , R.A. Hardin2 , R of shrinkage porosity on the mechanical performance of the cast steel. Axial fatigue tests were conducted under.I., and Beckermann, C., "Fatigue of 8630 Cast Steel in the Presence of Shrinkage Porosity," in Proceedings of the 57

  7. Effect of Porosity on Deformation, Damage, and Fracture of Cast Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    shrinkage porosity on deformation, damage, and fracture of cast steel under tensile testing. Steel plates containing shrinkage porosity are cast in sand molds, machined into test coupons, and tensile testedEffect of Porosity on Deformation, Damage, and Fracture of Cast Steel R.A. HARDIN and C. BECKERMANN

  8. Prediction of Riser Carbon Macrosegregation due to Shrinkage Flow in Steel Casting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    1 Prediction of Riser Carbon Macrosegregation due to Shrinkage Flow in Steel Casting Kent D Carbon Macrosegregation due to Shrinkage Flow in Steel Casting," in Proceedings of the 64th SFSA macrosegregation in and below risers due to feeding flow in steel castings. The model uses feeding flow velocities

  9. Effect of mould expansion on pattern allowances in sand casting of steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    properties of the sand and the solidifying steel. Such hindered shrinkage of restrained casting featuresEffect of mould expansion on pattern allowances in sand casting of steel F. Peters1 , R. Voigt2 , S. Z. Ou3 and C. Beckermann*3 For steel castings produced in sand moulds, the expansion of the sand

  10. Rayleigh Number Criterion for Formation of A-Segregates in Steel Castings and Ingots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    steel sand castings. By comparing the predictions with observations made in the actual castingsRayleigh Number Criterion for Formation of A-Segregates in Steel Castings and Ingots M. TORABI RAD the formation of A-segregates in steel castings and ingots. The criterion is calibrated using available

  11. Rayleigh Number Criterion for Formation of A-Segregates in Steel Castings M. Torabi Rad1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    in a casting simulation code and used to predict A-segregates in three different shaped steel sand castings1 Rayleigh Number Criterion for Formation of A-Segregates in Steel Castings and Ingots M. Torabi the formation of A-segregates in steel castings and ingots. The criterion is calibrated using available

  12. A CORRELATION STUDY BETWEEN INTERGRANULAR STRAINS AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MILD STEEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clapham, Lynann

    that low temperature annealing (400-500ļC) is associated with recovery processes in steels [9A CORRELATION STUDY BETWEEN INTERGRANULAR STRAINS AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MILD STEEL R. Hutanu1 directions [1-4]. Interestingly, is the magnetic easy axis in steels as determined by the Magnetic

  13. Oxidation and decarburisation of high-carbon-chromium steel under charcoal protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    -carbon-chromium bearing steel is often annealed in a sealed pot with a small amount of charcoal without physically for the bearing steel is suggested. Keywords: Annealing, Oxidation, Decarburisation, Charcoal, Non of carbon steels during annealing in air at temperatures between 900 and 1200uC. Gong et al.4 investigated

  14. Annealing Steel Coils Mark McGuinness, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuinness, Mark

    Annealing Steel Coils Mark McGuinness, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand Winston L temperature within a Uniflow Annealing System (UAS) furnace. The steel coil is then maintained at this temperature for a period of time to achieve annealing. New Zealand Steel have a number of formulae

  15. HallPetch Behavior in Ultra-Fine-Grained AISI 301LN Stainless Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Paulo J.

    strength of conventional fully annealed AISI 301LN stainless steels. An analysis of the relationshipHall≠Petch Behavior in Ultra-Fine-Grained AISI 301LN Stainless Steel S. RAJASEKHARA, P.J. FERREIRA, L.P. KARJALAINEN, and A. KYRO® LA® INEN An ultra-fine-grained AISI 301LN austenitic stainless steel

  16. Effectiveness of advanced coating systems for mitigating blast effects on steel components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effectiveness of advanced coating systems for mitigating blast effects on steel components C. Chen1 of this work is to study the effectiveness of an advanced coating material, polyurea, as a blast mitigation tool for steel components. The response of polyurea coated steel components under blast loading

  17. Special Perforated Steel Plate Shear Walls with Reduced Beam Section Anchor Beams. II: Analysis and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruneau, Michel

    Special Perforated Steel Plate Shear Walls with Reduced Beam Section Anchor Beams. II: Analysis detailed ductile perforated steel plate shear walls SPSWs . These SPSWs had low yield strength steel infill, recommendations for the design of these special detailed perforated SPSWs are presented. DOI: 10.1061/ ASCE 0733

  18. Influence of filler wire composition on weld microstructures of a 444 ferritic stainless steel grade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universitť de

    1 Influence of filler wire composition on weld microstructures of a 444 ferritic stainless steel, wetting and grain structure of the fusion zone. Keywords: ferritic stainless steel, GMAW, filler wire) presented a new design approach to replace traditional manifolds made of cast iron to stainless steel tubes

  19. Coating of a stainless steel tube-wall catalytic reactor with thermally treated polysiloxane thick films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universitť de

    Coating of a stainless steel tube-wall catalytic reactor with thermally treated polysiloxane thick stainless steel by plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition process. Thicknesses up to 10Ķm were developed barrier. Key-words: PACVD, TDMS, stainless steel, surface passivity. 1. Introduction The use of tube

  20. Quick-Start Operating Guide Document No. 1800-13 Stainless Steel Glove Boxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    Quick-Start Operating Guide Document No. 1800-13 Stainless Steel Glove Boxes (Series 300 ≠ 600-Start Operating Guide Stainless Steel Glove Boxes (Series 300 ≠ 600) © Copyright 2010 Terra Universal Inc. All.0Introduction This manual provides information on installing and operating your Terra Stainless Steel Glove Box

  1. Flow stress of Nitronic-50 stainless steel over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    Flow stress of Nitronic-50 stainless steel over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures Wei August 2005 Abstract To understand and model the thermomechanical response of Nitronic-50 stainless steel are examined by optical microscopy. These experimental results show that: (1) Nitronic-50 stainless steel

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF COOLING RATE ON THE FERRITE CONTENT OF STAINLESS STEEL ALLOYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ) ) ) THE INFLUENCE OF COOLING RATE ON THE FERRITE CONTENT OF STAINLESS STEEL ALLOYS J. W. Elmer cooling rates. INTRODUCTION Rcsid ual ferrite is present in the microstructure of duplex stainless steel that this ferrite can influence the mechanical properties of stainless steel alloys and the integrity of castings

  3. Scripta Materialia 55 (2006) 779-781 Transformation Texture in Deformed Stainless Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    2006-01-01

    Scripta Materialia 55 (2006) 779-781 Transformation Texture in Deformed Stainless Steel Saurabh.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase≠trans In an elegant experimental study on an austenitic stainless steel, Gey et al. [1] found that not all of the 24 of necessary data do not exist for martensite in the 304 stainless steel of the type studied by Gey et al

  4. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution of Mo-Bearing Stainless Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DuPont, John N.

    Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution of Mo-Bearing Stainless Steels T.D. ANDERSON, J Transformations and Microstructural Evolution of Mo-Bearing Stainless Steels T.D. ANDERSON, J.N. DUPONT, M.J. PERRICONE, and A.R. MARDER The good corrosion resistance of superaustenitic stainless steel (SASS) alloys

  5. Electro-mechanical coupling of semiconductor film grown on stainless steel by oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    Electro-mechanical coupling of semiconductor film grown on stainless steel by oxidation M. C. Lin,1) Electro-mechanical coupling phenomenon in oxidation film on stainless steel has been discovered by using Publishing LLC. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4824072] It is generally known that stainless steel (SS) has

  6. Zirconia matrix composite dispersed with stainless steel particles: processing and oxidation behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universitť de

    Zirconia matrix composite dispersed with stainless steel particles: processing and oxidation for the ceramic part and on 304L stainless steel for the metallic part. The characteristics of this material(p)-CMC(s) described in this study is based on yttrium stabilized ZrO2 and 304L stainless steel materials. Zirconia

  7. "Ceramics and high-temperature composites, silicides" Oxidation of Stainless Steel Powder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universitť de

    "Ceramics and high-temperature composites, silicides" CHTC9 Oxidation of Stainless Steel Powder. To understand the corrosion behavior of a model 304L(p)-ZrO2(s) composite, a 304L stainless steel powder has stainless steel particles. In this domain a mechanism is proposed and the kp value is calculated both due

  8. ~ Ductility of Stabilized Ferritic Stainless Steel G. B. HUNTER AND T. W. EAGAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ) ) ∑ ~ Ductility of Stabilized Ferritic Stainless Steel Welds G. B. HUNTER AND T. W. EAGAR the form of a chromium rich nitride phase. FERRITIC stainless steels have received considerable attention of each of these detrimental effects. The factors influencing toughness of ferritic stainless steels have

  9. The use and optimization of stainless steel mesh cathodes in microbial electrolysis cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The use and optimization of stainless steel mesh cathodes in microbial electrolysis cells Yimin September 2010 Keywords: Stainless steel mesh Microbial electrolysis cell Cathode a b s t r a c t Microbial- ramethylphenylporphyrin (CoTMPP & FeCoTMPP) [8], nickel oxide [9], stainless steel (SS) [9e11], and tungsten carbide [12

  10. A creep model for austenitic stainless steels incorporating cavitation and wedge cracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahesh, Sivasambu

    A creep model for austenitic stainless steels incorporating cavitation and wedge cracking S Mahesh, Kalpakkam 603102. India Abstract. A model of damage evolution in austenitic stainless steels under creep experimental data for a type 316 austenitic stainless steel under uniaxial creep loading. Deformation

  11. Alternated high-and low-pressure nitriding of austenitic stainless steel: Mechanisms and results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alternated high- and low-pressure nitriding of austenitic stainless steel: Mechanisms and results G a gas mixture of (N2 /H2):(50/50) in pressure, was applied to stainless-steel AISI 304. In the first penetrate far beyond the compound layer. These nitrogen atoms, uptaken into the austenitic stainless-steel

  12. Formation of chromium borides in quenched modified 310 austenitic stainless steel.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Formation of chromium borides in quenched modified 310 austenitic stainless steel. T. Sourmail, T stainless steels is well documented [1, 2]. A number of studies have confirmed that boron segregates type 310 austenitic stainless steel (20 wt% Ni, 25 wt% Cr), during quenching from high

  13. Effect of white water chemistry on corrosion passivation behavior of 304L stainless steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Effect of white water chemistry on corrosion passivation behavior of 304L stainless steel What, while sulfate has an inhibiting effect on pitting corrosion. Stainless steels rely on passive films are closely related to repassivation properties of the stainless steel. Crack tip in Stress Corrosion Cracking

  14. Stainless steel pitting and early-stage stress corrosion cracking under ultra-low elastic load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    Stainless steel pitting and early-stage stress corrosion cracking under ultra-low elastic load Available online 7 September 2013 Keywords: A. Stainless steel B. SEM B. Modeling studies C. Stress] in stainless steel (SS), are key factors inducing the preferential pitting initiation. For homoge- neous

  15. Formation of annealing twins during recrystallization and grain growth in 304L austenitic stainless steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universitť de

    austenitic stainless steel is examined in relation to the thermo-mechanical history. The behavior results from a 304L austenitic stainless steel. 2. Experimental details 2.1 Material and thermo-mechanical treatments. Austenitic stainless steels, which do not undergo discernible phase transformation during

  16. An integrated hot-rolling and microstructure model for dual-phase steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    An integrated hot-rolling and microstructure model for dual-phase steels D. Bombaca, , M. J. Peeta as a function of the hot rolling and cooling conditions is proposed for dual phase steels. An integrated tool proposed for final phase constitution of dual-phase steel has been developed, modelling recrystallization

  17. Final Scientific Report - "Novel Steels for High Temperature Carburizing"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKimpson, Marvin G.; Liu, Tianjun; Maniruzzaman, Md

    2012-07-27

    This program was undertaken to develop a microalloy-modified grade of standard carburizing steel that can successfully exploit the high temperature carburizing capabilities of current commercial low pressure (i.e. 'vacuum') carburizing systems. Such steels can lower the amount of energy required for commercial carburizing operations by reducing the time required for deep-case carburizing operations. The specific technical objective of the work was to demonstrate a carburizing steel composition capable of maintaining a prior austenite grain size no larger than ASTM grain size number 5 after exposure to simulated carburizing conditions of 1050 C for 8 hr. Such thermal exposure should be adequate for producing carburized case depths up to about 2 mm. Such carburizing steels are expected to be attractive for use across a wide range of industries, including the petroleum, chemical, forest products, automotive, mining and industrial equipment industries. They have potential for reducing energy usage during low pressure carburizing by more than 25%, as well as reducing cycle times and process costs substantially. They also have potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from existing low pressure carburizing furnaces by more than 25%. High temperature carburizing can be done in most modern low pressure carburizing systems with no additional capital investment. Accordingly, implementing this technology on carburizing furnaces will provide a return on investment significantly greater than 10%. If disseminated throughout the domestic carburizing community, the technology has potential for saving on the order of 23 to 34 trillion BTU/year in industrial energy usage. Under the program, two compositions of microalloyed, coarsening-resistant low alloy carburizing steels were developed, produced and evaluated. After vacuum annealing at 1050oC for 8 hrs and high pressure gas quenching, both steels exhibited a prior austenite ASTM grain size number of 5.0 or finer. For comparison, a control alloy of similar composition but without the microalloy additions exhibited a duplex prior austenite grain size with grains ranging from ASTM grain size 3 down to ASTM grain size 1 after similar processing and thermal exposure. These results confirm the potential for using microalloy additions of Ti, B, Nb, Al, rare earths and/or N for austenite grain size control in Cr-Mo (i.e. 4000-series) low alloy carburizing steels. They also demonstrate that these microalloy additions will not compromise the processability of the steel; all three materials produced under the program could be hot worked readily using normal steel processing protocols. To fully realize the technical and commercial potential of these steels, there is a need to continue development work using larger-scale heats. These larger-scale heats are needed to provide adequate material for fatigue testing of quenched and tempered alloys, to conduct more complete investigations of potential alloy chemistries and to provide additional material for processing studies. It will also be beneficial to carefully review intellectual property issues associated with this family of steels, since existing Japanese patent literature suggests that significant microstructural and/or process characterization work may be needed on new materials to confirm that these materials fall outside existing patent claims.

  18. Creep of A508/533 Pressure Vessel Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Wright

    2014-08-01

    ABSTRACT Evaluation of potential Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels has been carried out as part of the pre-conceptual Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design studies. These design studies have generally focused on American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code status of the steels, temperature limits, and allowable stresses. Initially, three candidate materials were identified by this process: conventional light water reactor (LWR) RPV steels A508 and A533, 2ľCr-1Mo in the annealed condition, and Grade 91 steel. The low strength of 2ľCr-1Mo at elevated temperature has eliminated this steel from serious consideration as the VHTR RPV candidate material. Discussions with the very few vendors that can potentially produce large forgings for nuclear pressure vessels indicate a strong preference for conventional LWR steels. This preference is based in part on extensive experience with forging these steels for nuclear components. It is also based on the inability to cast large ingots of the Grade 91 steel due to segregation during ingot solidification, thus restricting the possible mass of forging components and increasing the amount of welding required for completion of the RPV. Grade 91 steel is also prone to weld cracking and must be post-weld heat treated to ensure adequate high-temperature strength. There are also questions about the ability to produce, and very importantly, verify the through thickness properties of thick sections of Grade 91 material. The availability of large components, ease of fabrication, and nuclear service experience with the A508 and A533 steels strongly favor their use in the RPV for the VHTR. Lowering the gas outlet temperature for the VHTR to 750įC from 950 to 1000įC, proposed in early concept studies, further strengthens the justification for this material selection. This steel is allowed in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for nuclear service up to 371įC (700įF); certain excursions above that temperature are allowed by Code Case N-499-2 (now incorporated as an appendix to Section III Division 5 of the Code). This Code Case was developed with a rather sparse data set and focused primarily on rolled plate material (A533 specification). Confirmatory tests of creep behavior of both A508 and A533 are described here that are designed to extend the database in order to build higher confidence in ensuring the structural integrity of the VHTR RPV during off-normal conditions. A number of creep-rupture tests were carried out at temperatures above the 371įC (700įF) Code limit; longer term tests designed to evaluate minimum creep behavior are ongoing. A limited amount of rupture testing was also carried out on welded material. All of the rupture data from the current experiments is compared to historical values from the testing carried out to develop Code Case N-499-2. It is shown that the A508/533 basemetal tested here fits well with the rupture behavior reported from the historical testing. The presence of weldments significantly reduces the time to rupture. The primary purpose of this report is to summarize and record the experimental results in a single document.

  19. Effects of LWR coolant environments on fatigue lives of austenitic stainless steels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O. K.

    1998-01-13

    Fatigue tests have been conducted on Types 304 and 316NG stainless steels to evaluate the effects of various material and loading variables, e.g., steel type, strain rate, dissolved oxygen (DO) in water, and strain range, on the fatigue lives of these steels. The results confirm significant decreases in fatigue life in water. Unlike the situation with ferritic steels, environmental effects on Types 304 and 316NG stainless steel are more pronounced in low-DO than in high-DO water. Experimental results have been compared with estimates of fatigue life based on a statistical model. The formation and growth of fatigue cracks in air and water environments are discussed.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC TECHNIQUES FOR HYDROGEN CONTENT ASSESSMENT IN COATED LINEPIPE STEEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasseigne-Jackson, A. N.; Anton, J.; Jackson, J. E.; Olson, D. L.; Mishra, B.

    2008-02-28

    With the introduction of new higher strength steels operating at higher pressure, the need for characterization of hydrogen content in high strength steel pipelines is timely for the pipeline industry. The higher-strength steel pipelines have higher susceptibility to hydrogen damage. Through the use of low-frequency induced current impedance measurements, a new non-contact sensor has been developed for real-time determination of diffusible hydrogen content in coated pipeline steel. A measurement scheme to separate variables associated with pipelines is discussed. This electromagnetic technique allows for a rapid, non-destructive assessment of hydrogen accumulation in coated steel line pipe and thus an evaluation of the pipeline integrity.

  1. The Effect of Connection Fractures on Steel Moment Resisting Frame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweetman, Bert

    The Effect of Connection Fractures on Steel Moment Resisting Frame Seismic Demands and Safety - The Effect of Connection Fractures on SMRF Seismic Demands and Safety 1. Contents, Approach, Models........................................................................................C-1 "Numerical Example of the Proposed SAC Procedure for Assessing the Annual Exceedance Probabilities

  2. Deformation during casting of steel: model and material C. Beckermann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Deformation during casting of steel: model and material properties C. Monroe C. Beckermann Dimensional differences between a final casting and its design are casting distortions. Distortion is created by the deformation occurring throughout solidification and further cooling during the casting process. Accurate

  3. Neural network model of creep strength of austenitic stainless steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Neural network model of creep strength of austenitic stainless steels T. Sourmail, H. K. D. H, and solution treatment temperature. The method involved a neural network analysis of a vast and general, and stress. Neural networks represent a more general regression method, which ameliorates most

  4. IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE CREEP STRENGTH-ENHANCED FERRITIC STEELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    and microstructure of CSEF steels influence mechanical properties. The approach relies on a combination on microstructural evolution and material properties. Recent testing at 650įC/70 MPa confirmed that reducing, ASTM A387 Grade 91, have become the key to the realization of increasingly efficient coal-fired power

  5. PRELIMINARY REPORT ON STEEL BUILDING DAMAGE FROM THE DARFIELD EARTHQUAKE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruneau, Michel

    351 PRELIMINARY REPORT ON STEEL BUILDING DAMAGE FROM THE DARFIELD EARTHQUAKE OF SEPTEMBER 4, 2010 the Darfield earthquake of September 4, 2010, including concentrically braced frames, eccentrically braced this earthquake, but much of this is attributed to the fact that seismic demands from the Darfield earthquake were

  6. IDS120h GEOMETRY SHIELDING VESSELS: STAINLESS STEEL vs. TUNGSTEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    IDS120h GEOMETRY SHIELDING VESSELS: STAINLESS STEEL vs. TUNGSTEN SHIELDING MATERIAL: 60%WC+40%H2 O shielding vessels (STST OR W) Different cases of shielding material. >mars1510/MCNP >10-11 MeV NEUTRON ENERGY CUTOFF >SHIELDING:60%WC+40%H2 O (STST or W VESSELS), 80%WC+20%He, 80%W+20%He (W VESSELS) >4 MW

  7. Specific grinding energy causing thermal damage in precision gear steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatathodi, Srinivas

    2002-01-01

    This project is aimed at developing a better understanding of thermal damage caused by grinding of precision gear materials and also a model to predict the onset of burn in AISI 9310 gear steel. This study is concerned with the thermal aspects...

  8. UNCORRECTED Reliability analysis of hybrid ceramic/steel gun barrels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    UNCORRECTED PROOF Reliability analysis of hybrid ceramic/steel gun barrels M. GRUJICIC1 , J. R-5069, USA Received in final form 25 February 2002 AB ST R AC T Failure of the ceramic gun-barrel lining probability for the lining is also discussed. Keywords failure; gun-barrel lining; reliability; thermo

  9. Macrosegregation and Microstructural Evolution in a Pressure-Vessel Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    for how the segregation might be minimised, and its detrimental effects suppressed by heat treatments. 1's knowledge) investigations have not been made into how macrosegregation in pressure-vessel steels can affect be prevented, and how its effects might be suppressed. 2. Experimental SA508 Grade 3 material was obtained from

  10. second gun the steel lining was dispensed with as being

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    effectually packed the joint,preventing any escape of gas. The vent for "ring ... Let us next examine the resisting ... iron in opposition to an area of the ?uid measuring one square inch ..... 56-15-ng coo/wad export a previously formed steel wing. A. (J-pdr. ... force exerted upon the projectile to overcome its natural vis inertiae†...

  11. Application of New Feeding Rules To Risering of Steel Castings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    and predicted shrinkage porosity in the castings to the expected level of porosity based on the new feeding1 Application of New Feeding Rules To Risering of Steel Castings Doug Smith , Tony Faivre , Shouzhu Engineering , ABC-NACO TECHNOLOGIES, Lombard, IL1 Project Engineer - Casting Simulation, ABC-NACO TECHNOLOGIES

  12. Simulation of Convection and Macrosegregation in a Large Steel Ingot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    convection and macrosegregation in casting of a large steel ingot are numerically simulated. The simulation of a shrinkage cavity at the top, is taken into account. The numerical results show the evolution macrosegregation observed in the lower part of the ingot. It is also shown that the inclusion of the shrinkage

  13. Sensitivity of Steel Casting Simulation Results to Alloy Property Datasets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    1 Sensitivity of Steel Casting Simulation Results to Alloy Property Datasets Kent D. Carlson these groupings to other casting simulation results, because such grouping neglects property variation effects. The effects of four property variations are studied here: (1) solidification shrinkage; (2) liquidus

  14. Feeding and Risering of High Alloy Steel Castings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Feeding and Risering of High Alloy Steel Castings Kent D. Carlson, Shouzhu Ou and Christoph radiographically sound castings at 2 pct sensitivity. By comparing results between plate casting trials known as the Niyama criterion and ASTM shrinkage x-ray level. This relationship was then used

  15. Modeling of Reoxidation Inclusion Formation During Filling of Steel Castings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    larger inclusions entering the mold cavity from the ladle, and they can also be born on the metal free of the resulting defect areas with weld metal. Inclusions that remain in the casting adversely affect machining inclusions, which form when deoxidized steel comes into contact with oxygen during mold filling, make up

  16. Factory Brings Solar Energy Jobs to Former Steel Town

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fairless Hills, like many Pennsylvania towns, has a long history with manufacturing. It is home to the Keystone Industrial Port Complex, a manufacturing and industrial site that was once the location of a U.S. Steel plant. So when AE Polysilicon was looking for a site suitable for its polycrystalline silicon plant, the Port Complex seemed like a natural choice.

  17. Stress relief cracking in creep resisting low alloy ferritic steels.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tait, Robert Andrew

    1976-10-26

    good creep strengthening in these low alloy steels. As a result of this work, it has been established that the above view is both inaccurate and misleading. Most of the experiments were performed on two samples of commercially produced 1/2Cr 1/2Mo 1...

  18. Improving the Performance of Creep-Strength-Enhanced Ferritic Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    generators used in combined cycle gas turbine units. Improvements in the high temperature capability of CSEF failures of CSEF steels after only a few years in service. These failures result from two main causes: (1 use of these advanced alloys in power generation equipment. Additionally, this work could establish

  19. IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE CREEP STRENGTH-ENHANCED FERRITIC STEELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    in coal-fired steam boilers, as well as in heat-recovery steam generators used in combined cycle gas, and there have been reports of numerous failures of CSEF steels after only a few years in service. This practical are sources of a number of failures because the microstructures that develop there can significantly reduce

  20. Reactor Material Program Fracture Toughness of Type 304 Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Awadalla, N.G.

    2001-03-28

    This report describes the experimental procedure for Type 304 Stainless Steel fracture toughness measurements and the application of results. Typical toughness values are given based on the completed test program for the Reactor Materials Program (RMP). Test specimen size effects and limitations of the applicability in the fracture mechanics methodology are outlined as well as a brief discussion on irradiation effects.

  1. Battery and fuel cell electrodes containing stainless steel charging additive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuckerbrod, David (Pittsburgh, PA); Gibney, Ann (Monroeville, PA)

    1984-01-01

    An electrode for use in electrochemical energy cells is made, comprising a hydrophilic layer and a hydrophobic layer, where the hydrophilic layer comprises a hydrophilic composite which includes: (i) carbon particles; (ii) stainless steel particles; (iii) a nonwetting agent; and (iv) a catalyst, where at least one current collector contacts said composite.

  2. Bulk Nanostructured FCC Steels With Enhanced Radiation Tolerance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xinghang; Hartwig, K. Ted; Allen, Todd; Yang, Yong

    2012-10-27

    The objective of this project is to increase radiation tolerance in austenitic steels through optimization of grain size and grain boundary (GB) characteristics. The focus will be on nanocrystalline austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni alloys with an fcc crystal structure. The long-term goal is to design and develop bulk nanostructured austenitic steels with enhanced void swelling resistance and substantial ductility, and to enhance their creep resistance at elevated temperatures via GB engineering. The combination of grain refinement and grain boundary engineering approaches allows us to tailor the material strength, ductility, and resistance to swelling by 1) changing the sink strength for point defects, 2) by increasing the nucleation barriers for bubble formation at GBs, and 3) by changing the precipitate distributions at boundaries. Compared to ferritic/martensitic steels, austenitic stainless steels (SS) possess good creep and fatigue resistance at elevated temperatures, and better toughness at low temperature. However, a major disadvantage of austenitic SS is that they are vulnerable to significant void swelling in nuclear reactors, especially at the temperatures and doses anticipated in the Advanced Burner Reactor. The lack of resistance to void swelling in austenitic alloys led to the switch to ferritic/martensitic steels as the preferred material for the fast reactor cladding application. Recently a type of austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS, was developed at ORNL, and is expected to show enhanced void swelling resistance through the trapping of point defects at nanometersized carbides. Reducing the grain size and increasing the fraction of low energy grain boundaries should reduce the available radiation-produced point defects (due to the increased sink area of the grain boundaries), should make bubble nucleation at the boundaries less likely (by reducing the fraction of high-energy boundaries), and improve the strength and ductility under radiation by producing a higher density of nanometer sized carbides on the boundaries. This project will focus on void swelling but advances in processing of austenitic steels are likely to also improve the radiation response of the mechanical properties.

  3. Recommendations for the shallow-crack fracture toughness testing task within the HSST (Heavy-Section Steel Technology) Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theiss, T.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Recommendations for Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program's investigation into the influence of crack depth on the fracture toughness of a steel prototypic of those in a reactor pressure vessel are included in this report. The motivation for this investigation lies in the fact that probabilistic fracture mechanics evaluations show that shallow flaws play a dominant role in the likelihood of vessel failure, and shallow-flaw specimens have exhibited an elevated toughness compared with conventional deep-notch fracture toughness specimens. Accordingly, the actual margin of safety of vessels may be greater than that predicted using existing deep-notch fracture-toughness results. The primary goal of the shallow-crack project is to investigate the influence of crack depth on fracture toughness under conditions prototypic of a reactor vessel. A limited data base of fracture toughness values will be assembled using a beam specimen of prototypic reactor vessel material and with a depth of 100 mm (4 in.). This will permit comparison of fracture-toughness data from deep-cracked and shallow-crack specimens, and this will be done for several test temperatures. Fracture-toughness data will be expressed in terms of the stress-intensity factor and crack-tip-opening displacement. Results of this investigation are expected to improve the understanding of shallow-flaw behavior in pressure vessels, thereby providing more realistic information for application to the pressurized-thermal shock issues. 33 refs., 17 figs.

  4. Corrosion Test of US Steels in Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) and Kinetic Modeling of Corrosion in LBE Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    316/316L, D9, ferritic/martensitic steels HT-9 and T- 410 and Russian martensitic steel EP823 were are thin compared to the oxides on ferritic/martensitic steels, which have pronounced double layer1 Corrosion Test of US Steels in Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) and Kinetic Modeling of Corrosion

  5. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    plants Variable speed drives for flue gas control, pumps, fans in integrated steel mills Cogeneration

  6. Proceedings of NAMRI/SME, Vol. 40, 2012 PVD Coated Mill Rolls for Cold Rolling of Stainless Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universitť de

    Proceedings of NAMRI/SME, Vol. 40, 2012 PVD Coated Mill Rolls for Cold Rolling of Stainless Steel related to tribological and mechanical characteristics of the surface layer of rolls. Stainless steel of stainless steel strips. KEYWORDS Strip rolling, Stainless steel, TiN PVD Coating, TiBN, CrN. INTRODUCTION

  7. CLEAN CAST STEEL TECHNOLOGY: DETERMINATION OF TRANSFORMATION DIAGRAMS FOR DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chumbley. L., S.

    2005-09-18

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as sigma (√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Į√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ā√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬≥) and chi (√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Į√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ā√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬£) can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling- transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe 22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase (√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Į√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ā√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬≥ + √?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Į√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ā√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬£) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations, The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities, a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, √?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Į√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ā√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬≥ was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by local composition fluctuations in the cast alloy. This may cause discrepancy between thermodynamic prediction and experimental observation.

  8. Open Access Task Force Open Access to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    Libraries Initiative launched by National Science Foundation; Social Sciences Research Network (SSRN Library System rgmiller@pitt.edu #12;Open Access Task Force Open Access is... ∑ A family of copyright ∑ The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain

  9. Rhenium Uptake as Analogue 96Tc by Steel Corrosion Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.M. Krupka, C.F. Brown, H. Todd Schaef, S. M. Heald, M. M. Valenta, B. W. Arey

    2006-04-30

    Static batch experiments were used to examine the sorption of dissolved perrhenate [Re(VII)], as a surrogate for pertechnetate [Tc(VII)], on corrosion products of A-516 carbon steel coupons contacted with synthetic groundwater or dilute water. After 109 days of contact time, the concentration of dissolved Re(VII) in the synthetic groundwater matrix decreased by approximately 26%; the dilute water matrix experienced a 99% decrease in dissolved Re(VII) over the same time period. Bulk x-ray diffraction (XRD) results for the corroded steel coupons showed that the corrosion products consisted primarily of maghemite, lepidocrocite, and goethite. Analyses of the coupons by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) indicated that Re was present with the morphologically complex assemblages of Fe oxide/hydroxide corrosion products for samples spiked with the highest dissolved Re(VII) concentration (1.0 mmol/L) used for these experiments. Analyses of corroded steel coupons contacted with solutions containing 1.0 mmol/L Re(VII) by synchrotron-based methods confirmed the presence of Re sorbed with the corrosion product on the steel coupons. Analyses showed that the Re sorbed on these corroded coupons was in the +7 oxidation state, suggesting that the Re(VII) uptake mechanism did not involve reduction of Re to a lower oxidation state, such as +4. The results of our studies using Re(VII) as an analogue for {sup 99}Tc(VII) suggest that {sup 99}Tc(VII) would also be sorbed with steel corrosion products and that the inventory of {sup 99}Tc(VII) released from breached waste packages would be lower than what is now conservatively estimated.

  10. The thermal performance of steel-framed walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbour, C.E. [NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States). Building Systems Div.; Goodrow, J. [Holometrix, Bedford, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Thermal bridges are areas in constructions that have highly conductive materials, allowing higher heat transfer through less conductive areas. In a wall, thermal bridges can increase heat loss, cause dust to accumulate on the studs (ghosting) due to temperature distribution, and cause condensation to form in and on the walls. The effects of thermal bridges are often misunderstood by engineers, buildings, and manufacturers of construction products. This study attempts to provide a better understanding of the effects of thermal bridges in steel-framed walls, as well as information leading to improved methods of predicting R-value of walls containing thermal bridges. An improved method for estimating R-value would allow an equitable comparison of thermal performance with other construction types and materials. This would increase the number of alternative materials for walls available to designers, thus allowing them the freedom to correctly choose the optimum choice for construction. In order to arrive at an improved method, experimental data on the heat transfer characteristics of steel-framed walls were collected. Twenty-three wall samples were tested in a calibrated hot box (ASTM C976) to measure the thermal performance of steel-framed wall systems. The tests included an array of stud frame configurations, exterior sheathing, and fiberglass batt insulations. Other studies of thermal bridging in steel-framed walls have not included the use of insulating sheathing, which reduces the extent of the thermal bridges and improves total thermal performance. The purpose of the project was to provide measured R-values for commonly used steel-framed wall configurations and to improve R-value estimating methods. Also, detailed monitoring of temperature gradients in the test walls combined with numerical analysis provided new insights into heat transfer phenomena concerning thermal bridges.

  11. Pickling Engineer Process Research AK Steel, a leading producer of carbon, stainless and electrical steels, has an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prodiś, Aleksandar

    & Technology Center located in Middletown, Ohio. This position, reporting to the Manager of Process Research Research Laboratory facilities. Travel may be required in support of AK Steel's manufacturing plants Opportunity Employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard

  12. METALLURGICAL RESEARCH ENGINEERING MANAGER AK Steel, a leading producer of carbon, stainless and electrical steels, has an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prodiś, Aleksandar

    located in Middletown, Ohio. This position will provide leadership in developing enabling technologies will serve as a primary communication link among Research/Applications Engineer/Operations/Plant Quality Steel is an Equal Opportunity Employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration

  13. An experimental study concerning the effect of temperature on phase velocity in a 3 layered, steel-Polydimethylsiloxane-steel, plate†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Marcell

    1993-01-01

    of PDMS, such as elongation and shear moduli, can be varied through temperature. The application of this research is polymer composite curing and extrusion. Using the Lamb formulation for elastic waves in steel plates, a theory for a 3 layered plate...

  14. OpenEI and Linked Open Data

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills and ReduceNovemberDOE'sManagementOpenEI and Linked Open Data OpenEI:

  15. Development of automatic operation system for coke oven machines at Yawata Works of Nippon Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsunaga, Masao; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Yoji; Ishiharaguchi, Yuji

    1995-12-01

    The coke plant is a working environment involving heavy dust emissions, high heat and demanding physical labor. The labor-saving operation of the coke plant is an essential issue from the standpoints of not only improvement in working environment, but also reduction in fixed cost by enhancement of labor productivity. Under these circumstances, Nippon Steel has implemented the automation of coke oven machines. The first automatic operation system for coke oven machinery entered service at Oita Works in 1992, followed by the second system at the No. 5 coke oven battery of the coke plant at Yawata Works. The Yawata automatic operation system is characterized by the installation of coke oven machinery to push as many as 140 ovens per day within a short cycle time, such as a preliminary ascension pipe cap opening car and cycle time simulator by the manned operation of the pusher, which is advantageous from the standpoint of investment efficiency, and by the monitoring of other oven machines by the pusher. These measures helped to reduce the manpower requirement to 2 persons per shift from 4 persons per shift. The system entered commercial operation in March, 1994 and has been smoothly working with an average total automatic rate of 97%. Results from the startup to recent operation of the system are reported below.

  16. Electrochemical investigation of stainless steel corrosion in a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer cell

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mo, Jingke; Steen, Stuart M.; Zhang, Feng-Yuan; Toops, Todd J.; Brady, Michael P.; Green, Johney B.

    2015-08-05

    The lack of a fundamental understanding of the corrosion mechanisms in the electrochemical environments of proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer and/or fuel cells (ECs/FCs) has seriously hindered the improvement of performance and efficiency of PEM ECs/FCs. In this study, a stainless steel mesh was purposely used as an anode gas diffusion layer that was intentionally operated with high positive potentials under harsh oxidative environments in a PEMEC to study the corrosion mechanism of metal migration. A significant amount of iron and nickel cations were determined to transport through the anode catalyst layer, the PEM and the cathode catalyst layer duringmore†Ľthe PEMEC operation. The formation/deposition of iron oxide and nickel oxide on the carbon paper gas diffusion layer at the cathode side is first revealed by both scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate the corrosion elements of iron and nickel are transported from anode to cathode through the catalyst-coated membrane, and deposited on carbon fibers as oxides. This phenomenon could also open a new corrosion-based processing approach to potentially fabricate multifunctional oxide structures on carbon fiber devices. This study has demonstrated a new accelerated test method for investigating the corrosion and durability of metallic materials as well.ę†less

  17. Investigation of Laser Peening Effects on Hydrogen Charged Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaleski, T M

    2008-10-23

    Hydrogen-rich environments such as fuel cell reactors can exhibit damage caused by hydrogen permeation in the form of corrosion cracking by lowering tensile strength and decreasing material ductility. Coatings and liners have been investigated, but there were few shot-peening or laser peening studies referenced in the literature with respect to preventing hydrogen embrittlement. The surface compressive residual stress induced by laser peening had shown success in preventing stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for stainless steels in power plants. The question arose if the residual stresses induced by laser peening could delay the effects of hydrogen in a material. This study investigated the effect of laser peening on hydrogen penetration into metal alloys. Three areas were studied: laser peening, hydrogenation, and hydrogen detection. This study demonstrated that laser peening does not reduce the hydrogen permeation into a stainless steel surface nor does it prevent hydrogen embrittlement. The effect of laser peening to reduce hydrogen-assisted fatigue was unclear.

  18. Pulsed Magnetic Welding for Advanced Core and Cladding Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Guoping; Yang, Yong

    2013-12-19

    To investigate a solid-state joining method, pulsed magnetic welding (PMW), for welding the advanced core and cladding steels to be used in Generation IV systems, with a specific application for fuel pin end-plug welding. As another alternative solid state welding technique, pulsed magnetic welding (PMW) has not been extensively explored on the advanced steels. The resultant weld can be free from microstructure defects (pores, non-matallic inclusions, segregation of alloying elements). More specifically, the following objectives are to be achieved, 1) To design a suitable welding apparatus fixture, and optimize welding parameters for repeatable and acceptable joining of the fuel pin end-plug. The welding will be evaluated using tensile tests for lap joint weldments and helium leak tests for the fuel pin end-plug. 2) investigate the microstructural and mechanical properties changes in PMW weldments of proposed advanced core and cladding alloys. 3) Simulate the irradiation effects on the PWM weldments using ion irradiation.

  19. Sensitization and IGSCC susceptibility prediction in stainless steel pipe weldments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atteridge, D.G.; Simmons, J.W.; Li, Ming ); Bruemmer, S.M. )

    1991-11-01

    An analytical model, based on prediction of chromium depletion, has been developed for predicting thermomechanical effects on austenitic stainless steel intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) susceptibility. Model development and validation is based on sensitization development analysis of over 30 Type 316 and 304 stainless steel heats. The data base included analysis of deformation effects on resultant sensitization development. Continuous Cooling sensitization behavior is examined and modelled with and without strain. Gas tungsten are (GTA) girth pipe weldments are also characterized by experimental measurements of heat affected zone (HAZ) temperatures, strains and sensitization during/after each pass; pass by pass thermal histories are also predicted. The model is then used to assess pipe chemistry changes on IGSCC resistance.

  20. Guidelines for Stretch Flanging Advanced High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sriram, S.; Chintamani, J. [Mittal Steel U. S. A, Research and Development, 3001 E. Columbus Drive, E. Chicago, IN-46312 (United States)

    2005-08-05

    Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are currently being considered for use in closure and structural panels in the automotive industry because of their high potential for affordable weight reduction and improved performance. AHSS such as dual phase steels are currently being used in some vehicle platforms. From a manufacturing perspective, stretch flanging during stamping is an important deformation mode requiring careful consideration of geometry and the die process. This paper presents some geometric and process guidelines for stretch flanging AHSS. Hole expansion experiments were conducted to determine the failure limit for a sheared edge condition. Effects of punching clearance, prestrain and prior strain path on hole expansion were explored in these experiments. In addition, dynamic explicit FE calculations using LS-DYNA were also conducted for a typical stretch flange by varying some key geometric parameters. The experimental and FEA results were then analyzed to yield process and geometric guidelines to enable successful stretch flanging of AHSS.

  1. Recovery Act: Waste Energy Project at AK Steel Corporation Middletown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyce, Jeffrey

    2012-06-30

    In 2008, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (ďAir ProductsĒ) began development of a project to beneficially utilize waste blast furnace ďtopgasĒ generated in the course of the iron-making process at AK Steel Corporationís Middletown, Ohio works. In early 2010, Air Products was awarded DOE Assistance Agreement DE-EE002736 to further develop and build the combined-cycle power generation facility. In June 2012, Air Products and AK Steel Corporation terminated work when it was determined that the project would not be economically viable at that time nor in the foreseeable future. The project would have achieved the FOA-0000044 Statement of Project Objectives by demonstrating, at a commercial scale, the technology to capture, treat, and convert blast furnace topgas into electric power and thermal energy.

  2. Electrochemical Corrosion Testing of Borated Stainless Steel Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    lister, tedd e; Mizia, Ronald E

    2007-05-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has specified borated stainless steel manufactured to the requirements of ASTM A 887-89, Grade A, UNS S30464, to be the material used for the fabrication of the fuel basket internals of the preliminary transportation, aging, and disposal canister system preliminary design. The long-term corrosion resistance performance of this class of borated materials must be verified when exposed to expected YMP repository conditions after a waste package breach. Electrochemical corrosion tests were performed on crevice corrosion coupons of Type 304 B4 and Type 304 B5 borated stainless steels exposed to single postulated in-package chemistry at 60įC. The results show low corrosion rates for the test period

  3. Monolithic torpedo bottle lining at Weirton Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, R.; Griffith, E. [Weirton Steel Corp., WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In late 1992 and early 1993 Weirton Steel burned through three torpedo bottles in a three-month period. To determine the cause of the burn throughs, a thorough review of bottle maintenance practices was initiated. Upon identification of contributing factors, changes in operating practices were made. In an effort to increase bottle reliability, lining trials were initiated. Among the trials, a monolithic lining was installed and this paper will discuss results of the lining to date.

  4. Use of explosives to demolish multistory steel frame buildings†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landry, Charles Vernon

    1988-01-01

    OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES . 1. INTRODUCTION. vi 1. 1 Problem Definition . 1. 2 Work Done to Date. 1. 3 Purpose of the Study . 1. 4 Approach. 2. GENERAL PLANNING FOR STEEL FRAME MULTISTORY DEMOLITION. 2. 1 Introduction. 2. 2 General Mechanics... of the other companies who use these techniques, have, in the past, worked for Controiled Demolition Inc. Due in part to these connections, many of these companies consider all of the information on their controlled demolition techniques as proprietary...

  5. Thermal performance of steel-framed walls. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbour, E. [NAHB Research Center, Inc., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Goodrow, J. [Holometrix, Inc., Bedford, MA (United States); Kosny, J.; Christian, J.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-11-21

    In wall construction, highly conductive members spaced along the wall, which allow higher heat transfer than that through less conductive areas, are referred to as thermal bridges. Thermal bridges in walls tend to increase heat loss and, under certain adverse conditions, can cause dust streaking (``ghosting``) on interior walls over studs due to temperature differentials, as well as condensation in and on walls. Although such adverse conditions can be easily avoided by proper thermal design of wall systems, these effects have not been well understood and thermal data has been lacking. Therefore, the present study was initiated to provide (1) a better understanding of the thermal behavior of steel-framed walls, (2) a set of R-values for typical wall constructions, and (3) information that could be used to develop improved methods of predicting R-values. An improved method for estimating R-value would allow an equitable comparison of thermal performance with other construction types and materials. This would increase the number of alternative materials for walls available to designers, thus allowing them to choose the optimum choice for construction. Twenty-three wall samples were tested in a calibrated hot box (ASTM C9761) to measure the thermal performance of steel-framed wall systems. The tests included an array of stud frame configurations, exterior sheathing and fiberglass batt insulations. Other studies have not included the use of insulating sheathing, which reduces the extent of the thermal bridges and improves total thermal performance. The purpose of the project was to provide measured R-values for commonly used steel-framed wall configurations and to improve R-value estimating methods. Test results were compared to R-value estimates using the parallel path method, the isothermal planes method and the ASHRAE Zone method. The comparison showed that the known procedures do not fully account for the three-dimensional effects created by steel framing in a wall.

  6. Wrought Cr--W--V bainitic/ferritic steel compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klueh, Ronald L.; Maziasz, Philip J.; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Santella, Michael L.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Jawad, Maan H.

    2006-07-11

    A high-strength, high-toughness steel alloy includes, generally, about 2.5% to about 4% chromium, about 1.5% to about 3.5% tungsten, about 0.1% to about 0.5% vanadium, and about 0.05% to 0.25% carbon with the balance iron, wherein the percentages are by total weight of the composition, wherein the alloy is heated to an austenitizing temperature and then cooled to produce an austenite transformation product.

  7. Manganese-stabilized austenitic stainless steels for fusion applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klueh, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN); Maziasz, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01

    An austenitic stainless steel that is comprised of Fe, Cr, Mn, C but no Ni or Nb and minimum N. To enhance strength and fabricability minor alloying additions of Ti, W, V, B and P are made. The resulting alloy is one that can be used in fusion reactor environments because the half-lives of the elements are sufficiently short to allow for handling and disposal.

  8. Development of a thin steel strip casting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    This is a comprehensive effort to develop direct strip casting to the point where a pilot scale program for casting carbon steel strip could be initiated. All important aspects of the technology were being investigated, however the program was terminated early due to a change in the business strategy of the primary contractor, Armco Inc. (focus to be directed at specialty steels, not low carbon steel). At termination, the project was on target on all milestones and under budget. Major part was casting of strip at the experiment casting facility. A new caster, capable of producing direct cast strip of up to 12 in. wide in heats of 1000 and 3000 lb, was used. A total of 81 1000-1200 lb heats were cast as well as one test heat of 3000 lb. Most produced strip of from 0.016 to 0.085 in. thick. Process reliability was excellent for short casting times; quality was generally poor from modern hot strip mill standards, but the practices necessary for good surface quality were identified.

  9. Processing and mechanical behavior of hypereutectoid steel wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D.; Kim, D.K.

    1996-06-25

    Hypereutectoid steels have the potential for dramatically increasing the strength of wire used in tire cord and in other high strength wire applications. The basis for this possible breakthrough is the elimination of a brittle proeutectoid network that can form along grain boundaries if appropriate processing procedures and alloy additions are used. A review is made of work done by Japanese and other researchers on eutectoid and mildly hypereutectoid wires. A linear extrapolation of the tensile strength of fine wires predicts higher strengths at higher carbon contents. The influence of processing, alloy additions and carbon content in optimizing the strength, ductility and fracture behavior of hypereutectoid steels is presented. It is proposed that the tensile strength of pearlitic wires is dictated by the fracture strength of the carbide lamella at grain boundary locations in the carbide. Methods to improve the strength of carbide grain boundaries and to decrease the carbide plate thickness will contribute to enhancing the ultrahigh strength obtainable in hypereutectoid steel wires. 23 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Impact Testing of Stainless Steel Material at Cold Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer D. Snow; D. Keith Morton; Robert K. Blandford

    2008-07-01

    Stainless steels are used for the construction of numerous spent nuclear fuel or radioactive material containers that may be subjected to high strains and moderate strain rates during accidental drop events. Mechanical characteristics of these base materials and their welds under dynamic loads in the strain rate range of concern are not well documented. However, a previous paper [1] reported on impact testing and analysis results performed at the Idaho National Laboratory using 304/304L and 316/316L stainless steel base material specimens at room and elevated temperatures. The goal of the work presented herein is to add recently completed impact tensile testing results at -20 degrees F conditions for dual-marked 304/304L and 316/316L stainless steel material specimens (hereafter referred to as 304L and 316L, respectively). Recently completed welded material impact testing at -20 degrees F, room, 300 degrees F, and 600 degrees F is also reported. Utilizing a drop-weight impact test machine and 1/4-inch to 1/2-inch thick dog-bone shaped test specimens, the impact tests achieved strain rates in the 4 to 40 per second range, depending upon the material temperature. Elevated true stress-strain curves for these materials reflecting varying strain rates and temperatures are presented herein.

  11. TENSILE TESTING OF CARBON STEEL IN HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, A; Thad Adams, T; Ps Lam, P

    2007-05-02

    An infrastructure of new and existing pipelines and systems will be required to carry and to deliver hydrogen as an alternative energy source under the hydrogen economy. Carbon and low alloy steels of moderate strength are currently used in hydrogen delivery systems as well as in the existing natural gas systems. It is critical to understand the material response of these standard pipeline materials when they are subjected to pressurized hydrogen environments. The methods and results from a testing program to quantify hydrogen effects on mechanical properties of carbon steel pipeline and pipeline weld materials are provided. Tensile properties of one type of steel (A106 Grade B) in base metal, welded and heat affected zone conditions were tested at room temperature in air and high pressure (10.34 MPa or 1500 psig) hydrogen. A general reduction in the materials ability to plastically deform was noted in this material when specimens were tested in hydrogen. Furthermore, the primary mode of fracture was changed from ductile rupture in air to cleavage with secondary tearing in hydrogen. The mechanical test results will be applied in future analyses to evaluate service life of the pipelines. The results are also envisioned to be part of the bases for construction codes and structural integrity demonstrations for hydrogen service pipeline and vessels.

  12. Creep resistant, precipitation-dispersion-strengthened, martensitic stainless steel and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buck, Robert F. (N. Huntingdon, PA)

    1994-01-01

    An iron-based, corrosion-resistant, precipitation strengthened, martensitic steel essentially free of delta ferrite for use at high temperatures has a nominal composition of 0.05-0.1 C, 8-12 Cr, 1-5 Co, 0.5-2.0 Ni, 0.41-1.0 Mo, 0.1-0.5 Ti, and the balance iron. This steel is different from other corrosion-resistant martensitic steels because its microstructure consists of a uniform dispersion of fine particles, which are very closely spaced, and which do not coarsen at high temperatures. Thus at high temperatures this steel combines the excellent creep strength of dispersion-strengthened steels, with the ease of fabricability afforded by precipitation hardenable steels.

  13. Creep resistant, precipitation-dispersion-strengthened, martensitic stainless steel and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buck, R.F.

    1994-05-10

    An iron-based, corrosion-resistant, precipitation strengthened, martensitic steel essentially free of delta ferrite for use at high temperatures has a nominal composition of 0.05--0.1 C, 8--12 Cr, 1--5 Co, 0.5--2.0 Ni, 0.41--1.0 Mo, 0.1--0.5 Ti, and the balance iron. This steel is different from other corrosion-resistant martensitic steels because its microstructure consists of a uniform dispersion of fine particles, which are very closely spaced, and which do not coarsen at high temperatures. Thus at high temperatures this steel combines the excellent creep strength of dispersion-strengthened steels, with the ease of fabricability afforded by precipitation hardenable steels. 2 figures.

  14. Irradiation effects in low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steels (Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program Series 4 and 5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, R.G.; McGowan, J.J.; Menke, B.H.; Nanstad, R.K.; Thoms, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    Multiple testing is done at two laboratories of typical nuclear pressure vessel materials (both irradiated and unirradiated) and statistical analyses of the test results. Multiple tests are conducted at each of several test temperatures for each material, standard deviations are determined, and results from the two laboratories are compared. The Fourth Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Irradiation Series, almost completed, was aimed at elastic-plastic and fully plastic fracture toughness of low-copper weldments (current practice welds). A typical nuclear pressure vessel plate steel was included for statistical purposes. The Fifth HSST Irradiation Series, now in progress, is aimed at determining the shape of the K/sub IR/ curve after significant radiation-induced shift of the transition temperatures. This series includes irradiated test specimens of thicknesses up to 100 mm and weldment compositions typical of early nuclear power reactor pressure vessel welds.

  15. Surface modification to improve fireside corrosion resistance of Fe-Cr ferritic steels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Jong-Hee (Clarendon Hills, IL); Natesan, Krishnamurti (Naperville, IL); Rink, David L. (Mokena, IL)

    2010-03-16

    An article of manufacture and a method for providing an Fe--Cr ferritic steel article of manufacture having a surface layer modification for corrosion resistance. Fe--Cr ferritic steels can be modified to enhance their corrosion resistance to liquid coal ash and other chemical environments, which have chlorides or sulfates containing active species. The steel is modified to form an aluminide/silicide passivating layer to reduce such corrosion.

  16. A Transformer Coupling Method for Imaging Defects in Concentrically Arranged Steel Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, G.; Hussin, H.; Fernandes, B.; Zaid, M.; Gaydecki, P.; El-Madaani, F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2006-03-06

    This paper describes the development of a system that uses a transformer coupling method for imaging defects in the outer tube of a concentric steel tube pair. Transformer coupling is employed where a receiver is mounted opposite to the transmitter. Magnetic field coupling is used, in which the field propagates through the inner steel tube towards the outer steel tube. Defects in the outer section distort the field and the change is detected by the receiver.

  17. Webinar January 12: Assessing Steel Pipeline and Weld Susceptibility to Hydrogen Embrittlement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled "Assessing Steel Pipeline and Weld Susceptibility to Hydrogen EmbrittlementĒ on Tuesday, January 12, from 12 to 1 p.m. EST. This webinar will discuss the breadth of testing performed at Sandia National Laboratories focused on the effects of hydrogen gas on steel pipelines and welds, and demonstrate how measured fatigue crack growth laws can be applied to calculate minimum wall thickness needed for steel hydrogen pipelines.

  18. Results of crack-arrest tests on irradiated a 508 class 3 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iskander, S.K.; Milella, P.P.; Pini, M.A.

    1998-02-01

    Ten crack-arrest toughness values for irradiated specimens of A 508 class 3 forging steel have been obtained. The tests were performed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Test Method for Determining Plane-Strain Crack-Arrest Fracture Toughness, K{sub la} of Ferritic Steels, E 1221-88. None of these values are strictly valid in all five ASTM E 1221-88 validity criteria. However, they are useful when compared to unirradiated crack-arrest specimen toughness values since they show the small (averaging approximately 10{degrees}C) shifts in the mean and lower-bound crack-arrest toughness curves. This confirms that a low copper content in ASTM A 508 class 3 forging material can be expected to result in small shifts of the transition toughness curve. The shifts due to neutron irradiation of the lower bound and mean toughness curves are approximately the same as the Charpy V-notch (CVN) 41-J temperature shift. The nine crack-arrest specimens were irradiated at temperatures varying from 243 to 280{degrees}C, and to a fluence varying from 1.7 to 2.7 x 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV). The test results were normalized to reference values that correspond to those of CVN specimens irradiated at 284{degrees}C to a fluence of 3.2 x 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV) in the same capsule as the crack-arrest specimens. This adjustment resulted in a shift to lower temperatures of all the data, and in particular moved two data points that appeared to lie close to or lower than the American Society of Mechanical Engineers K{sub la} curve to positions that seemed more reasonable with respect to the remaining data. A special fixture was designed, fabricated, and successfully used in the testing. For reasons explained in the text, special blocks to receive the Oak Ridge National Laboratory clip gage were designed, and greater-than-standard crack-mouth opening displacements measured were accounted for. 24 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Properties of Galvanized and Galvannealed Advanced High Strength Hot Rolled Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.Y. Guertsman; E. Essadiqi; S. Dionne; O. Dremmailova; R. Bouchard; B. Voyzelle; J. McDermid; R. Fourmentin

    2008-04-01

    The objectives of the project were (i) to develop the coating process information to achieve good quality coatings on 3 advanced high strength hot rolled steels while retaining target mechanical properties, (ii) to obtain precise knowledge of the behavior of these steels in the various forming operations and (iii) to establish accurate user property data in the coated conditions. Three steel substrates (HSLA, DP, TRIP) with compositions providing yield strengths in the range of 400-620 MPa were selected. Only HSLA steel was found to be suitable for galnaizing and galvannealing in the hot rolled condition.

  20. Compressed Air System Upgrade Generates Significant Energy Savings at a Steel Mill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    In 1996, U.S. Steel completed a project in which the main compressed air system at their Edgar Thomson plant in Braddock, Pennsylvania was overhauled.

  1. Results of charpy V-notch impact testing of structural steel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MATERIALS SCIENCE; FERRITIC STEELS; PHYSICAL RADIATION EFFECTS; TENSILE PROPERTIES; IRRADIATION; CHARPY TEST A capsule containing Charpy V-notch (CVN) and mini-tensile specimens...

  2. Considerations for the Weldability of Types 304L and 316L Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.S.

    2001-06-28

    The susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to solidification cracking and lack of penetration, two distinct weld characteristics related to the chemical composition of the base material is reviewed.

  3. Method of producing titanium-modified austenitic steel having improved swelling resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Megusar, Janez (Belmont, MA); Grant, Nicholas J. (Winchester, MA)

    1989-01-01

    A process for improving the swelling resistance of a titanium-modified austenitic stainless steel that involves a combination of rapid solidification and dynamic compaction techniques.

  4. Select appropriate gavage needle for the size of the animal (see Table). Gavage needles can be reusable and made of stainless steel or single use and made of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Robert A.

    be reusable and made of stainless steel or single use and made of plastic material. Stainless steel needles are often easier to pass but plastic needles are less likely to cause injury. Stainless steel needles can

  5. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendel, Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  6. OpenEI Community - Open Data

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg, Oregon:OGE EnergyOklahoma: EnergyOpenOpenEIper Category

  7. OpenEI Community - OpenEI

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg, Oregon:OGE EnergyOklahoma: EnergyOpenOpenEIper

  8. OpenEI:Contributing | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterly Smart Grid Data available forOpenEIcommercialOpenEI Contacts

  9. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    the Development of Strip Casting Technology. Energy Policythe Implementation of Continuous Casting of Steel,Ē StahlundSteelís commercial strip casting plant. Metallurgist 52, pp.

  10. Open Bibliography for Science, Technology, and Medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Richard; MacGillivray, Mark; Murray-Rust, Peter; Pitman, Jim; Sefton, Peter; O'Steen, Ben; Waites, William

    2011-07-04

    The concept of Open Bibliography in science, technology and medicine (STM) is introduced as a combination of Open Source tools, Open specifications and Open bibliographic data. An Openly searchable and navigable network of bibliographic information...

  11. Aging and Embrittlement of High Fluence Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Was, gary; Jiao, Zhijie; der ven, Anton Van; Bruemmer, Stephen; Edwards, Dan

    2012-12-31

    Irradiation of austenitic stainless steels results in the formation of dislocation loops, stacking fault tetrahedral, Ni-Si clusters and radiation-induced segregation (RIS). Of these features, it is the formation of precipitates which is most likely to impact the mechanical integrity at high dose. Unlike dislocation loops and RIS, precipitates exhibit an incubation period that can extend from 10 to 46 dpa, above which the cluster composition changes and a separate phase, (G-phase) forms. Both neutron and heavy ion irradiation showed that these clusters develop slowly and continue to evolve beyond 100 dpa. Overall, this work shows that the irradiated microstructure features produced by heavy ion irradiation are remarkably comparable in nature to those produced by neutron irradiation at much lower dose rates. The use of a temperature shift to account for the higher damage rate in heavy ion irradiation results in a fairly good match in the dislocation loop microstructure and the precipitate microstructure in austenitic stainless steels. Both irradiations also show segregation of the same elements and in the same directions, but to achieve comparable magnitudes, heavy ion irradiation must be conducted at a much higher temperature than that which produces a match with loops and precipitates. First-principles modeling has confirmed that the formation of Ni-Si precipitates under irradiation is likely caused by supersaturation of solute to defect sinks caused by highly correlated diffusion of Ni and Si. Thus, the formation and evolution of Ni-Si precipitates at high dose in austenitic stainless steels containing Si is inevitable.

  12. Precipitation in 18 wt% Ni maraging steel of grade 350

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, R.; Mazumder, S.; Batra, I.S.; Dey, G.K.; Banerjee, S.

    2000-03-14

    The evolution of precipitates in maraging steel of grade 350 was studied using the complementary techniques of small angle X-ray scattering (SACS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These investigations revealed that ageing the steel at 703 K involved a rhombohedral distortion of the supersaturated b.c.c. martensite accompanied by the appearance of diffuse {omega}-like structures. This was followed by the appearance of well-defined {omega} particles containing chemical order. At the ageing temperature of 783 K, Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo) precipitates were the first to appear with a growth exponent of 1/3. The values of the Pored exponent obtained from the SAXS profiles indicated that the {omega} particles, formed below 723 K, had diffuse interfaces up to an ageing time of 48 h. On the other hand, Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo) precipitates, formed above 723 K, developed sharp interfaces in just about an hour. Also, the steel exhibited scaling in phase separation both at 703 and 783 K, but only during the early stages. Through this study it was established that at temperatures of ageing less than 723 K, evolution of {omega} particles takes place through the collapse of the unstable b.c.c. lattice and, at temperatures above 723 K, precipitation of A{sub 3}B type of phases through the mechanism of clustering and ordering of atomic species. Sharp interfaces develop rather quickly when the mechanism of precipitation involves development and amplification of a concentration wave along as in the nucleation of Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo) at 783 K than when an interplay of both the displacement and concentration waves is required as in the evolution of {omega} at 703 K. These results indicate towards the possibility of existence of two separate time-temperature-transformation (TTT) curves, one for the evolution of {omega}-phase and another for nucleation and growth of Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo).

  13. The effect of thermal aging and boiling water reactor environment on Type 316L stainless steel welds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucas, Timothy R

    2011-01-01

    The thermal aging and consequent embrittlement of materials are ongoing issues in cast stainless steels and duplex stainless steels. Spinodal decomposition is largely responsible for the well known "475įC" embrittlement ...

  14. Characterization of HT-9 Ferritic-Martensitic Steels Oxidized in Lead Bismuth Eutectic , A. T. Motta1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    Characterization of HT-9 Ferritic-Martensitic Steels Oxidized in Lead Bismuth Eutectic J. Kunkle1. Using a combination of techniques, the oxide layers formed on three ferritic-martensitic HT-9 steel

  15. Innovation in mature industries : recent impacts of the oil & gas and automobile technological trends on the steel industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tivelli, Marco M. (Marco Mario), 1964-

    2004-01-01

    In order to survive, the steel industry has undergone traumatic changes in the last years. A thirty years old overcapacity combined with a slow growing market led to a steadily eroding profitability of steel companies, ...

  16. Analysis of Particle Size and Interface Effects on the Strength and Ductility of Advanced High Strength Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ettehad, Mahmood

    2013-03-14

    This thesis is devoted to the numerical investigation of mechanical behavior of Dual phase (DP) steels. Such grade of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) is favorable to the automotive industry due the unique properties such as high strength...

  17. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. Iron and Steel sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Martin, N.; Price, L.

    1999-01-01

    facilities. Cogeneration. All plants and sites that needmaking plants, we assume that most of the cogeneration (90%)Cogeneration Integrated Steel Making Measures Secondary Steel Making Measures Electric Arc Furnace Iron Ore Preparation (Sintermaking) Sinter plant

  18. Shrinkage Prediction for the Investment Casting of Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the alloy shrinkage factors were obtained for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts. For the investment casting process, unfilled wax and fused silica with a zircon prime coat were used for patterns and shell molds, respectively. Dimensions of the die tooling, wax pattern, and casting were measured using a Coordinate Measurement Machine in order to obtain the actual tooling allowances. The alloy dimensions were obtained from numerical simulation results of solidification, heat transfer, and deformation phenomena. The numerical simulation results for the shrinkage factors were compared with experimental results.

  19. Apparatus and process for ultrasonic seam welding stainless steel foils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leigh, Richard W. (New York, NY)

    1992-01-01

    An ultrasonic seam welding apparatus having a head which is rotated to form contact, preferably rolling contact, between a metallurgically inert coated surface of the head and an outside foil of a plurality of layered foils or work materials. The head is vibrated at an ultrasonic frequency, preferably along a longitudinal axis of the head. The head is constructed to transmit vibration through a contacting surface of the head into each of the layered foils. The contacting surface of the head is preferably coated with aluminum oxide to prevent the head from becoming welded to layered stainless steel foils.

  20. Electrolytic removal of rust from iron and steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynn, George; Means, Dwight R.

    1921-01-01

    , are the exception rather than the rule. This may be due to there being originally many more stone implements than metal ones, or, which seems more probable, to the corrosion of all but the exceptionally well pro≠ tected metal articles. In the field of corrosion... * This and the preceding table were taken from A. Sang, Corrosion of Iron and Steel5 page 4. 9 tenacity depending upon the relative importance of the various factors affecting its formation. Its electrical conductivity varies widely also, from a practical non...

  1. General and Localized Corrosion of Borated Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.E. Lister; Ronald E. Mizia; A.W. Erickson; T.L. Trowbridge; B. S. Matteson

    2008-03-01

    The Transportation, Aging and Disposal (TAD) canister-based system is being proposed to transport and store spent nuclear fuel at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The preliminary design of this system identifies borated stainless steel as the neutron absorber material that will be used to fabricate fuel basket inserts for nuclear criticality control. This paper discusses corrosion test results for verifying the performance of this material manufactured to the requirements of ASTM A887, Grade A, under the expected repository conditions.

  2. A steelmaker's view of 1/2-percent molybdenum steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, R.L.

    1982-05-01

    This paper addresses the viewpoint of a producing steel mill worker and the conclusion that all the 1/2-percent molybdenum plate materials are useful specifications. The steelmaker emphasizes that the quality of the plate materials must be designed in by the producing metallurgists if optimum performance is expected from the materials. If 1/2-percent molybdenum plates are to be used in critical services it is suggested that certain considerations be made including vacuum degassing; treatment for low sulfur and shape-controlled inclusions; allowing fine grain practice; normalizing in all gages; Charpy impact testing, when required.

  3. Degradation of nanostructured bainitic steel under rolling contact fatigue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solano-Alvarez, W.; Pickering, E. J.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    2014-09-06

    that the degradation mechanism is ductile void formation at interfaces, followed by growth and coalescence into larger voids that lead to fracture along the direction of the softer phase. This is di?erent from the conventional dam- age mechanism that involves crack... for the manufacture of bearings. The steel in its transformed condition can have a hardness in the range 600-670HV,Preprint submitted to Elsevier July 30, 2014 strength exceeding 2GPa, and toughness levels of around 30-40MPam1/2; the available information...

  4. Magnetic Detection of Microstructure Change in Power Plant Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yardley, Victoria Anne

    2003-07-12

    energy by a system of turbines and a generator. Figure 2.1 shows the route followed by the steam and water. Water is pumped into the boiler and converted to steam, then superheated. It is injected through nozzles onto the blades of the high pressure (HP... . Ė 2 Ė Chapter 2 Microstructural Evolution in Power Plant Steels 2.1 Power plant operation In power plant, heat energy from fuel combustion or nuclear fission is used to produce jets of steam. The kinetic energy of the steam is converted to electrical...

  5. Oxidation resistant high creep strength austenitic stainless steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Michael P.; Pint, Bruce A.; Liu, Chain-Tsuan; Maziasz, Philip J.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Lu, Zhao P.

    2010-06-29

    An austenitic stainless steel displaying high temperature oxidation and creep resistance has a composition that includes in weight percent 15 to 21 Ni, 10 to 15 Cr, 2 to 3.5 Al, 0.1 to 1 Nb, and 0.05 to 0.15 C, and that is free of or has very low levels of N, Ti and V. The alloy forms an external continuous alumina protective scale to provide a high oxidation resistance at temperatures of 700 to 800.degree. C. and forms NbC nanocarbides and a stable essentially single phase fcc austenitic matrix microstructure to give high strength and high creep resistance at these temperatures.

  6. CERTIFICATION DOCKET FOR BETHLEHEM STEEL CORPORATION LACKAWANNA, NEW YORK

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and Myers Co -VANaval ,, *' ; .BETHLEHEM STEEL

  7. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Wyckoff Steel Co - NJ 20

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and Myers Co -VANaval Ordnance - MI0-08Steel Co

  8. Journal of Constructional Steel Research 67 (2011) 261269 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, Shih-Ho

    2011-01-01

    September 2010 Accepted 13 November 2010 Keywords: Steel CFRP FRP Carbon fibers Buckling Lateral torsional buckling Local buckling Experimental a b s t r a c t Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites have and global buckling behavior of steel plastic hinges using CFRP Sherif El-Tawila, , Ekin Ekizb , Subhash

  9. Simulation of Hot Tearing and Distortion during Casting of Steel: Comparison with Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Simulation of Hot Tearing and Distortion during Casting of Steel: Comparison with Experiments C City, IA 52242 Abstract Hot tears are defects that occur during solidification of a casting that is subjected to mechanical restraints. Several key factors are known to aggravate the hot tearing of cast steel

  10. The Current State of Casting Yield: Results from the 1997 Steel Founders'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    The Current State of Casting Yield: Results from the 1997 Steel Founders' Society of America Casting Yield Survey Richard A. Hardin - Research Engineer Christoph Beckermann - Professor Solidification The results of a casting yield survey of steel foundries taken in the first quarter of 1997 are presented

  11. Prediction of burn-on and mould penetration in steel casting using simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Prediction of burn-on and mould penetration in steel casting using simulation B. E. Brooks1 , C. Beckermann*1 and V. L. Richards2 Burn-on and penetration defects in steel casting are principally caused burn-on and penetration defect locations as part of a standard casting simulation. The method relies

  12. PRESS-IN PILING: THE INSTALLATION OF INSTRUMENTED STEEL TUBULAR PILES WITH AND WITHOUT DRIVING SHOES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolton, Malcolm

    PRESS-IN PILING: THE INSTALLATION OF INSTRUMENTED STEEL TUBULAR PILES WITH AND WITHOUT DRIVING carried out in Japan using the Press-in Method are presented. An instrumented double-skin tubular steel in shaft friction is examined. keywords: press-in method, tubular pile, instrumented, driving shoe, shaft

  13. Behavior of Reinforced Concrete ColumnSteel Beam Roof Level T-Connections under Displacement Reversals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parra-Montesinos, Gustavo J.

    Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Column≠Steel Beam Roof Level T-Connections under Displacement study on the seismic response of two hybrid RC column-to-steel S beam RCS roof level T longitudinal bars; and 2 confinement requirements in RCS roof level T-connections. In the first subassembly

  14. A COST BASED APPROACH TO DESIGN OF RESIDENTIAL STEEL ROOF SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mobasher, Barzin

    A COST BASED APPROACH TO DESIGN OF RESIDENTIAL STEEL ROOF SYSTEMS B. Mobasher1 , S-Y.Chen2 , C-5306 Abstract A comprehensive system for the design of residential steel roof truss systems is presented automatically design a roof truss given minimal input and using the design curves as the performance constraints

  15. Cracks in martensite plates as hydrogen traps in a bearing steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Cracks in martensite plates as hydrogen traps in a bearing steel W. Solano-Alvareza , Eun Ju Songb stability requirements, and to improve the properties of the martensite [1]. Like most strong steels It is demonstrated that a macroscopically homogeneous distribution of tiny cracks introduced into a martensitic

  16. Corrosion of ferriticmartensitic steels in steam and supercritical water Jeremy Bischoff a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    Corrosion of ferritic≠martensitic steels in steam and supercritical water Jeremy Bischoff a of their resistance to radiation degradation and stress corrosion cracking, ferritic≠martensitic steels such as HCM12A įC for two ferritic≠martensitic alloys: HCM12A and NF616. The corrosion kinetics for the two alloys

  17. Elevated-Temperature Ferritic and Martensitic Steels and Their Application to Future Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klueh, RL

    2005-01-31

    In the 1970s, high-chromium (9-12% Cr) ferritic/martensitic steels became candidates for elevated-temperature applications in the core of fast reactors. Steels developed for conventional power plants, such as Sandvik HT9, a nominally Fe-12Cr-1Mo-0.5W-0.5Ni-0.25V-0.2C steel (composition in wt %), were considered in the United States, Europe, and Japan. Now, a new generation of fission reactors is in the planning stage, and ferritic, bainitic, and martensitic steels are again candidates for in-core and out-of-core applications. Since the 1970s, advances have been made in developing steels with 2-12% Cr for conventional power plants that are significant improvements over steels originally considered. This paper will review the development of the new steels to illustrate the advantages they offer for the new reactor concepts. Elevated-temperature mechanical properties will be emphasized. Effects of alloying additions on long-time thermal exposure with and without stress (creep) will be examined. Information on neutron radiation effects will be discussed as it applies to ferritic and martensitic steels.

  18. Characterization and In-Situ Ion-Irradiation of MA957 ODS Steel Djamel Kaoumi1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    Characterization and In-Situ Ion-Irradiation of MA957 ODS Steel Djamel Kaoumi1 , Arthur Motta1 Laboratory, Argonne, IL 060493, USA INTRODUCTION Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Ferritic/Martensitic steels produced by mechanical alloying with Y2O3 particles are considered as possible cladding materials

  19. Influence of carbon, manganese and nickel on microstructure and properties of strong steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Influence of carbon, manganese and nickel on microstructure and properties of strong steel weld of increasing the nickel content from 3 to 7 or 9 wt-% were investigated in high strength steel weld metals nickel contents. In these weld metals a mainly martensitic microstructure developed at interdendritic

  20. Thermodynamic extrapolation and martensite-start temperature of substitutionally alloyed steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Thermodynamic extrapolation and martensite-start temperature of substitutionally alloyed steels H appraisethe superelementtechniqueby considering martensitic transformations in low-alloy steels. K. D. H. Bhadeshia +AFt;'{T-l00~ }jATmag,}I +Af* (1) The martensite-start temperature M, of any

  1. Influence of carbon, manganese and nickel on microstructure and properties of strong steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Influence of carbon, manganese and nickel on microstructure and properties of strong steel weld strength steel weld metal with 7 wt-% nickel and 0.5 wt-% manganese could be increased significantly regions whereas martensite was found at interdendritic regions. From microstructural studies

  2. Effect of d-ferrite on impact properties of supermartensitic stainless steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Effect of d-ferrite on impact properties of supermartensitic stainless steel heat affected zones D of the presence of non-equilibrium d-ferrite on the impact properties of a supermartensitic stainless steel that the presence of 14% d-ferrite in a martensitic matrix of 60 mm prior austenite grain size, raises the ductile

  3. 1. Introduction The T0 temperature in steel is defined as that at which

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    1. Introduction The T0 temperature in steel is defined as that at which ferrite and austenite- dence of GN is, for low-alloy steels, independent of chemi- cal composition; together with the growth of thermodynamics alone.1,2) In a similar scheme, martensitic transformation becomes possible when4≠9) DGga MS G

  4. Promoting isothermal martensite formation by high temperature heat treatments in a precipitation hardening austenitic stainless steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Promoting isothermal martensite formation by high temperature heat treatments in a precipitation hardening austenitic stainless steel David San MartŪn* and Carlos GarcŪa-Mateo MATERALIA Group, Dept mechanical properties, the steel investigated (12Cr-9Ni-4Mo-2Cu-1Ti) is solution treated and cooled down

  5. Induction welding and heat treatment of steel pipes: evolution of crystallographic texture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Induction welding and heat treatment of steel pipes: evolution of crystallographic texture detrimental to toughness P. Yan*1 , O®. E. Gu®ngo®r2 , P. Thibaux2 and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia1 Steel welding using induction heating to produce pipelines is found to have lower toughness at the weld junction than

  6. IMPACT OF DIAPHRAGMS ON SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF EXISTING SLAB-ON-GIRDER STEEL BRIDGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruneau, Michel

    of seismic ductile detailing provisions for steel bridges in all bridge design codes to date partly explains literature on the seismic evaluation and/or design of bridges (e.g. Seismic 1981; Ontario 1991; American 1994IMPACT OF DIAPHRAGMS ON SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF EXISTING SLAB-ON-GIRDER STEEL BRIDGES by Seyed Mehdi

  7. Mechanical Properties of Bulk Nanocrystalline Austenitic Stainless Steels Produced by Equal Channel Angular Pressing†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, Jeremy

    2012-10-19

    . Tensile strength of nanocrystalline steels exceeds 1 GPa with good ductility in both systems. Mechanical properties of ECAPed 316L are also shown to have less dependence on strain rate than ECAPed 304L. ECAPed steels were shown to exhibit thermal stability...

  8. Characterization of niobium, tantalum and chromium sputtered coatings on steel using eddy currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    Characterization of niobium, tantalum and chromium sputtered coatings on steel using eddy currents for characterization of niobium, tantalum and chromium sputtered coating on steel is presented in this paper of coatings and to develop a system for fast inspection of coatings as a coating quality control tool during

  9. CIGS Solar Cell on Flexible Stainless Steel Substrate Fabricated by Sputtering Method: Simulation and Experimental Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanicki, Jerzy

    CIGS Solar Cell on Flexible Stainless Steel Substrate Fabricated by Sputtering Method: Simulation-electronic properties of the Cu(InGa)Se2(CIGS) solar cell fabricated by sputtering method on stainless steel substrate are consistent with each other. 1. Introduction Flexible Cu In Ga Se (CIGS) solar cells are very attractive

  10. DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION IN A STEEL FRAME USING HIGH-FREQUENCY ELECTRO-MECHANICAL IMPEDANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ji

    411 DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION IN A STEEL FRAME USING HIGH-FREQUENCY ELECTRO-MECHANICAL IMPEDANCE presents an experimental investigation of damage detection of a steel frame using electro damage in structures. Damages are introduced by completely loosening bolts over several locations

  11. Strain aging behavior of austenitic stainless steels containing strain induced martensite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rathbun, R.W.; Matlock, D.K.; Speer, J.G.

    2000-04-01

    Transformation of austenite to martensite during deformation is widely used to strengthen metastable austenitic stainless steel grades. It has been reported that aging of cold worked material can result in further strength increases through the formation of additional martensite. Alternate interpretations of the effects of aging on the strength of stainless steels containing strain induced martensite may also be hypothesized. It is well known that plastically deformed ferritic steels can be strengthened by the diffusion of interstitial solute atoms (carbon and nitrogen) during aging at low temperatures. It is anticipated that plastically deformed metastable austenitic steels containing the body-centered martensite phase may also be strengthened in a similar manner. This assumption appears reasonable as martensitic steels, with low carbon content similar to the austenitic steels of interest, have been shown to exhibit aging effects similar to those observed in low carbon ferritic steels. Thus the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of time and temperature on the stress-strain behavior and strength of cold worked metastable 300 series stainless steels to determine the degree to which observed strength increases might be attributed to strain aging.

  12. CREEP STRENGTH OF HIGH CR FERRITIC STEELS DESIGNED USING NEURAL NETWORKS AND PHASE STABILITY CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    in the creep resistance of 9- 12%Cr steels used for boiler header/piping and steam turbine rotor applications,000 h. While the 630įC goal may be realized, much more work is needed to achieve steam temperatures up Development of heat-resistant steel for power boilers and turbines has been ongoing for about five decades

  13. Hydrogen embrittlement of ferritic steels: Observations on deformation microstructure, nanoscale dimples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Sow-Hsin

    Hydrogen embrittlement of ferritic steels: Observations on deformation microstructure, nanoscale hydrogen embrittlement of ferritic steels has been a subject of significant research, one of the major challenges in tackling hydrogen embrittlement is that the mechanism of embrittlement is not fully resolved

  14. Hydrogen and chloride ions effects on the automobile interstitial-free steel corrosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    1 Hydrogen and chloride ions effects on the automobile interstitial-free steel corrosion L.Q. Guo 1 Abstract The effects of hydrogen and chloride ions on the corrosion behavior of interstitial-free steel and the corrosion potentials drop sharply. Under a given hydrogen charging current density, the drops of the pitting

  15. Hydrogen effects on stainless steel passive film fracture studied by nanoindentation , L.J. Qiao a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    Letter Hydrogen effects on stainless steel passive film fracture studied by nanoindentation Y. Yao. Hydrogen absorption a b s t r a c t Hydrogen effects on the fracture stress of passive film formed on 316L stainless steel were studied by nanoindentation. Hydrogen accumulated primarily on the sample surface

  16. Simulation of the Mechanical Performance of Cast Steel with Porosity: Static Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Simulation of the Mechanical Performance of Cast Steel with Porosity: Static Properties R.A. Hardin.A., and Beckermann, C., "Simulation of the Mechanical Performance of Cast Steel with Porosity: Static Properties1 and C. Beckermann2 1 Research Engineer, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Dept. The University

  17. BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE BRIDGE DECKS REINFORCED WITH HIGH-STRENGTH AND HIGH CORROSION-RESISTANT STEEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    presented. The paper assesses also the effect of bending of MMFX steel bars on its tensile strength. PHASE I_rizkalla@ncsu.edu ABSTRACT This paper describes the behavior of typical bridge deck slabs reinforced with high- strength other parameters related to the use of MMFX steel for bridge decks. The paper also presents the effect

  18. Prediction of the Fatigue Life of Cast Steel Containing Shrinkage Porosity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Prediction of the Fatigue Life of Cast Steel Containing Shrinkage Porosity RICHARD A. HARDIN and CHRISTOPH BECKERMANN A simulation methodology for predicting the fatigue life of cast steel components with shrinkage porosity is developed and validated through comparison with previously performed measure- ments

  19. ANALYSIS OF ASTM X-RAY SHRINKAGE RATING FOR STEEL CASTINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    1 ANALYSIS OF ASTM X-RAY SHRINKAGE RATING FOR STEEL CASTINGS Kent Carlson1 , Shouzhu Ou1 , Richard-ray shrinkage rating system for radiographs of steel castings. The first study evaluated the reliability and repeatability of x-ray shrinkage ratings through a statistical study of x-rays that were each rated seven

  20. Origin of a magnetic easy axis in pipeline steel L. Clapham,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clapham, Lynann

    Origin of a magnetic easy axis in pipeline steel L. Clapham,a) C. Heald, T. Krause, and D. L and low temperature annealing treatments. Our results indicate that plastic deformation and residual 100 crystallographic texture such as that found in electrical steels.1 In addition, recent work2,3 has