Sample records for open hearth steel

  1. HearthStone Homes | Open Energy Information

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  2. Hearth and Home Technologies | Open Energy Information

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  3. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

    2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  4. Titanium addition practice, and maintenance for the hearths in AHMSA`s blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boone, A.G.; Jimenez, G.; Castillo, J. [Altos Hornos de Mexico, Monclova (Mexico)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA) is a steel company located in Northern Mexico, in the state of Coahuila. Currently there are three blast furnaces in operation and one more about to finish its general repair. This last one is to remain as a back-up unit. Because of blast furnace hearth wear outs AHMSA has developed some maintenance procedures. These procedures are based on titanium ore additions and hearth thermic control monitoring. There are also some other maintenance practices adopted to the working operations to assure that such operations detect and avoid in time hearth wear outs that place personnel and/or the unit in danger (due to hearth leaks). This paper describes titanium ore addition to No. 2 blast furnace during the final campaign and it also illustrates maintenance practices and continuous monitoring of temperature trends both of which were implemented at AHMSA`s No. 5 blast furnace.

  5. Electron beam cold hearth refining in Vallejo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, J.H.C. [Axel Johnson Metals, Inc., Vallejo, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron Beam Cold Hearth Refining Furnace (EBCHR) in Vallejo, California is alive, well, and girding itself for developing new markets. A brief review of the twelve years experience with EBCHR in Vallejo. Acquisition of the Vallejo facility by Axel Johnson Metals, Inc. paves the way for the development of new products and markets. A discussion of some of the new opportunities for the advancement of EBCHR technology. Discussed are advantages to the EBCHR process which include: extended surface area of molten metal exposed to higher vacuum; liberation of insoluble oxide particles to the surface of the melt; higher temperatures that allowed coarse solid particles like carbides and carbonitrides to be suspended in the fluid metal as fine micro-segregates, and enhanced removal of volatile trace impurities like lead, bismuth and cadmium. Future work for the company includes the continued recycling of alloys and also fabricating stainless steel for the piping of chip assembly plants. This is to prevent `killer defects` that ruin a memory chip.

  6. Energy Consumption and Potential for Energy Conservation in the Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, M. L.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , April 22-25, 1979 IRON ORE REDUCTION STEELMAKING PRIMARY CONVERSION HOT ROLLING FINISHING SIMPLIFIED FLOW SHEET STEEL PRODUCTION PROCESSES Iron Ore & Wastes , Agg lomerating Pellets Ore & Flux Coal ~ " Sinter - Blast ~ Coke Furnaces... - Ovens '( BF Iron Outside ,~., Scrap Open Hearth Furnaces , Ingot Casting Basic Oxygen Furnaces Raw Steel Electric Arc Furnaces Scrap , Primary Rolling Mills Continuous Casting Slabs, Blooms, Billets r Secondary Hot Rolling Bars...

  7. JFE Steel Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup | OpenHunanInformation sourceInvensysIsland GasItron IncJFEJFE Steel

  8. Intermediate hearth repair technique at Thyssen Stahl AG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski, W.; Bachhofen, H.J.; Ruether, P.; Ballewski, T. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Nowadays various techniques for the fastest possible intermediate repair and/or emplacement of refractory materials above the tuyere level allow a significant extension of furnace campaign life. The latter are hence now exclusively determined by the service life of the hearth. The improvement of hearth monitoring and the estimation of residual brick strength of the refractory lining on the basis of temperature measurements in the hearth enable the location of individual zones of premature wear. These measurement methods, which were developed by Thyssen Stahl AG, aid the decision to undertake selective repair of the hearth. Three areas of repair are differentiated: taphole zone; hearth wall, localized; and hearth wall, extensive. This hearth repair method is described in this report using the example of hearth refurbishing blast furnace 8, Hamborn.

  9. Sealed rotary hearth furnace with central bearing support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Docherty, James P. (Carnegie, PA); Johnson, Beverly E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Beri, Joseph (Morgan, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The furnace has a hearth which rotates inside a stationary closed chamber and is supported therein on vertical cylindrical conduit which extends through the furnace floor and is supported by a single center bearing. The charge is deposited through the furnace roof on the rim of the hearth as it rotates and is moved toward the center of the hearth by rabbles. Externally generated hot gases are introduced into the furnace chamber below the hearth and rise through perforations in the hearth and up through the charge. Exhaust gases are withdrawn through the furnace roof. Treated charge drops from a center outlet on the hearth into the vertical cylindrical conduit which extends downwardly through the furnace floor to which it is also sealed.

  10. The limitation of hearth sidewall wear at Redcar blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parratt, J.E.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Redcar blast furnace with 14m hearth diameter was blown-in for its second campaign in August 1996. It is currently in its 10th year of operation and to date has produced just over 30 million tonnes. Current plans are to continue the second campaign to the year 2000 and beyond, producing over 40 million tonnes. In order to achieve this objective, any further wear on the lining, and in particular the hearth sidewall, needs to be minimized. This paper describes the present hearth design, the monitoring of hearth wear, the predicted wear profile, and the protection measures that have been taken or are being considered.

  11. Kobe Steel Ltd Kobelco | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMALTexas: Energy Resources JumpKobe Steel Ltd

  12. Preliminary Hazards Analysis Plasma Hearth Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aycock, M.; Coordes, D.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)] [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) follows the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE, 1992a), DOE Order 5480.21 (DOE, 1991d), DOE Order 5480.22 (DOE, 1992c), DOE Order 5481.1B (DOE, 1986), and the guidance provided in DOE Standards DOE-STD-1027-92 (DOE, 1992b). Consideration is given to ft proposed regulations published as 10 CFR 830 (DOE, 1993) and DOE Safety Guide SG 830.110 (DOE, 1992b). The purpose of performing a PRA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PRA then is followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title I and II design. This PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during construction, testing, and acceptance and completed before routine operation. Radiological assessments indicate that a PHP facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous material assessments indicate that a PHP facility will be a Low Hazard facility having no significant impacts either onsite or offsite to personnel and the environment.

  13. Hearth monitoring experiences at Dofasco`s No. 4 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stothart, D.W.; Chaykowski, R.D.; Donaldson, R.J.; Pomeroy, D.H.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of a 1994 taphole breakout at Dofasco`s No. 4 Blast Furnace, extensive effort has gone into monitoring, understanding and controlling hearth wear. This paper reviews the hearth monitoring system developed and the various hearth operating and maintenance techniques used to ensure No. 4 Blast Furnace safely reaches its 1998 reline date. The impact of changes in coke quality, productivity, casting practice and leaking cooling members on hearth refractory temperature fluctuations will also be examined.

  14. Long life hearth in blast furnace -- Kokura No. 2 B.F. of Sumitomo Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Takaiku; Sunahara, Kouhei; Inada, Takanobu; Takatani, Kouji; Miyahara, Mitsuo; Sato, Yasusi; Hatano, Yasuhiko; Takata, Kouzo

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The factors elongating hearth life of Sumitomo Kokura No. 2 B.F. were investigated by use of an estimation system of the furnace hearth condition, which consisted of four mathematical simulation models. Lowered heat load operation together with integrated design of both refractories and cooling enabled the furnace life to be extended for over 16 years without severe damage in the hearth.

  15. Oxygen-enriched multiple-hearth sewage sludge incineration demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen-enhanced multiple-hearth sludge incineration was the focus of a five-month joint study by Praxair and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Testing and demonstration were conducted in Rochester NY, at Monroe County`s Frank E. Van Lare Sewage Treatment Plant. A simple retrofit of high-momentum oxygen lances created a convection hearth in which convective heat and mass transfer with the drying sludge were greatly enhanced, while hearth temperatures were moderated by the wet sludge to prevent overheating. Based on the results of short- and long-term controlled tests discussed in this report, oxygen enhancement of multiple-hearth sludge incinerators can be economically viable, with a savings between $30 and $60 per hour at Van Lare based upon increased sludge throughput and reduced fuel consumption.

  16. Z Group Steel Holding Zelezarny Veseli | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapers HomeXuanenYongzhouYunnan DiqingZ Group Steel Holding Zelezarny

  17. Dofasco`s No. 4 blast furnace hearth breakout, repair and rescue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, R.J.; Fischer, A.J.; Sharp, R.M.; Stothart, D.W. [Dofasco Inc., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On May 5, 1994, after producing 9.5 million metric tons of iron, Dofasco`s No. 4 Blast Furnace experienced a hearth breakout 250 millimeters below the west taphole. The hot metal spill caused a fire resulting in severe damage and 33 days of lost production. During a 26-day period, electrical wiring, water drainage systems and both tapholes were repaired. Recovery from an unprepared furnace stop of this length, with the deadman depleted is difficult. To aid with the rescue Hoogovens-designed oxygen/fuel lances were commissioned. The furnace recovery began with a lance in each taphole and all tuyeres plugged. Six days after startup the furnace was casting into torpedo cars, and after nine days operation had returned to normal. This incident prompted Dofasco to expand the hearth monitoring system to detect and prevent similar occurrences. During the repair, 203 new thermocouples were installed in the hearth, concentrating on the tapholes and elephant foot areas. These thermocouples were installed at various depths and locations to allow heat flux calculations. This hearth monitoring system has already identified other problem areas and provided valuable information about hearth drainage patterns. This information has allowed them to develop control strategies to manage localized problem areas.

  18. 2015-04-01 ISSUANCE: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Hearth Products, Notice of Comment Period Extension

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Hearth Products, Notice of Comment Period Extension

  19. Video imaging system and thermal mapping of the molten hearth in an electron beam melting furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miszkiel, M.E.; Davis, R.A.; Van Den Avyle, J.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated to develop an enhanced video imaging system for the Liquid Metal Processing Laboratory Electron Beam Melting (EB) Furnace at Sandia and to use color video images to map the temperature distribution of the surface of the molten hearth. In a series of test melts, the color output of the video image was calibrated against temperatures measured by an optical pyrometer and CCD camera viewing port above the molten pool. To prevent potential metal vapor deposition onto line-of-sight optical surfaces above the pool, argon backfill was used along with a pinhole aperture to obtain the vide image. The geometry of the optical port to the hearth set the limits for the focus lens and CCD camera`s field of view. Initial melts were completed with the pyrometer and pinhole aperture port in a fixed position. Using commercially available vacuum components, a second flange assembly was constructed to provide flexibility in choosing pyrometer target sights on the hearth and to adjust the field of view for the focus lens/CCD combination. RGB video images processed from the melts verified that red wavelength light captured with the video camera could be calibrated with the optical pyrometer target temperatures and used to generate temperature maps of the hearth surface. Two color ratio thermal mapping using red and green video images, which has theoretical advantages, was less successful due to probable camera non-linearities in the red and green image intensities.

  20. Healthy Hearth brings the coziness of home to patients, their family and guests of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    Family 4-pack Menu Let Healthy Hearth cook for you! Order any item, Monday-Friday Call 271-1685 by 3 p, grilled chicken or veggie crumbles, black beans, tomatoes, green chilis, shredded cheddar jack, served with salsa, sour cream and guacamole Beverages Fountain Drinks, 149 Bottled Water, 249 Starbucks

  1. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 3: Plasma hearth process testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, J.M.; Bostick, W.D.; Hoffman, D.P.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The plasma hearth process (PHP) presented in this report has been tested at a facility at Ukiah, California, in a cooperative effort between the Department of Energy (DOE), Science Applications International Corporation, Inc., and ReTech, Inc. The electrically heated plasma gas is used to destroy organic materials and bind radionuclides and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals in the glassy slag. Proof-of-principle tests were conducted successfully using nonhazardous and non-radioactive materials placed in 30-gal steel drums. On-line analyses of the gaseous effluents indicated complete combustion; emissions of CO, NO{sub x}, and particulates were low. The process also produced highly stable solid waste forms. The experiments for the next phase have been planned employing surrogates for the hazardous and radioactive components of the simulated waste streams. Natural cerium oxide is selected to simulate the behavior of radioactive actinide and transuranium elements, while natural cesium chloride is simulated for the study of relatively volatile radioactive fission products. For RCRA organics, naphthalene and 1,2-dichlorobenzene are semivolatile compounds selected to represent significant challenges to thermal destruction, whereas chlorobenzene is selected for the study of relatively volatile organics. Salts of chromium, nickel, lead, and cadmium are chosen to represent the twelve regulated toxic metals for emission and partitioning studies. The simulated waste packages presented in the text do not necessarily represent an individual waste stream within the DOE complex; rather, they were formulated to represent the most probable components in generic waste stream categories.

  2. Optimal beam pattern to maximize inclusion residence time in an electron beam melting hearth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, A.; Pal, U. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Avyle, J. van den [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximate probabilities of inclusion survival through an electron beam melting hearth are computed from nitride dissolution rates, flotation velocities, and residence times. Dissolution rates were determined by measuring shrinkage rates of pure TiN and nitrided sponge in small pools of molten titanium in an electron beam melting hearth. Flotation velocities were calculated using correlations for fluid flow around spheres, and show that particles sink or float unless their densities are extremely close to that of molten titanium. Flow field characteristics which lead to effective inclusion removal are discussed in terms of heat flux pattern required to produce them, based on the electron beam`s unique ability to impart a nearly arbitrary heat flux pattern to the melt surface.

  3. Characterization of U-6Nb ingots produced via the electron beam cold hearth refining process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKoon, R.H.

    1997-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was undertaken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to characterize uranium, 6% niobium ingots produced via electron beam melting, hearth refining and continuous casting and to compare this material with conventional VIM/skull melt/VAR material. Samples of both the ingot and feed material were analyzed for niobium and trace metallic elements, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. This material was also inspected metallographically and via microprobe analysis.

  4. Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via electron beam cold hearth refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKoon, R.H.

    1994-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium-6%-niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using Virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented.

  5. Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via Electron Cold Hearth Refining (EBCHR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKoon, R.H.

    1994-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium-6% - niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented.

  6. Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via electron beam cold hearth refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKoon, R.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium 6% niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented.

  7. Monitoring lining and hearth conditions at Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quisenberry, P.; Grant, M.; Carter, W.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes: furnace statistics; mini-reline undertaken in November, 1993; the stack condition; throat gunning; stabilizing the graphite bricks; the hearth condition; reactions to temperature excursions; future instrumentation; and hot blast system areas of concern. The present data from monitoring systems and inspections indicate that the furnace should be able to operate well beyond the expectation for the 1993 mini-reline (3--5 years) with: (1) consistent, high quality raw materials; (2) instrumentation, diagnostic, remedial, and preventative techniques developed; and (3) stopping quickly any water leaks into the furnace. The longevity of this campaign has undoubtedly been a result of this monitoring program.

  8. A study on the flow of molten iron in the hearth of blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suh, Y.K.; Lee, Y.J.; Baik, C.Y. [Pohang Iron and Steel Co., Ltd. (Korea, Republic of). Technical Research Labs.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The flow of molten iron in the hearth of blast furnace was investigated by using a water model test and a numerical simulation. The water model apparatus was set up in order to evaluate the effects of coke size, coke bed structure, drain rate, and coke free space on the fluidity of molten iron through measurement of residence time and visualization of flow pattern. In addition, the flow was calculated by solving momentum equation in porous media using finite element method. The residence time increased with the coke size decrease, but decreased with the drain rate increase. If small coke was placed in the center of deadman, peripheral flow was enhanced. The flow path was changed due to the coke free space.

  9. A new direct steel making process based upon the blast furnace (Including scrap processing with recovery of tramp elements)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabi, G.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Steel is produced from raw materials containing iron and alloying elements with direct elimination of oxygen and impurities in the blast furnace process. The blast furnace shaft is modified to take off load from the liquid bath and carbon is prevented from going into the liquid steel. In the gas purification system sulphur and CO{sub 2} removal facilities are included and purified reducing gases so obtained are combusted in the hearth with oxygen to produce heat for smelting. Scrap can be charged as raw material with the recovery of tramp elements with continuous production of liquid steel.

  10. High productivity injection practices at Rouge Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, D.H.; Hegler, G.L.; Falls, C.E. [Rouge Steel Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rouge Steel Company, located in Dearborn, Michigan, operates two blast furnaces. The smaller of the pair, ``B`` Furnace, has a hearth diameter of 20 feet and 12 tuyeres. It has averaged 2,290 NTHM (net ton of hot metal) per day of 8.2 NTHM per 100 cubic feet of working volume. ``C`` Furnace has a hearth diameter of 29 feet and 20 tuyeres. Both of these furnaces are single tap hole furnaces. Prior to its reline in 1991, ``C`` Furnace was producing at a rate of 3,300 NTHM/day or about 6.25 NTHM/100 cfwv. In November, 1994 it averaged 5,106 NTHM/day or 9.6 NTHM/100 cfwv. This paper discusses how the current production rates were achieved. Also, the areas that needed to be addressed as production increased will be described. These areas include casthouse arrangement and workload, hot metal ladle capacity, slag pot capacity and charging capability. Coupled with the high blast temperature capability, the furnace was provided with a new natural gas injection system that injected the gas through the blowpipes and a natural gas injection system to enrich the stove gas. Following the furnace reline, natural gas has been used in three ways: tuyere level control; combination injection; and stove gas enrichment. Coke consumption rate has also decreased per NTHM.

  11. Energy use in the U.S. steel industry: a historical perspective and future opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stubbles, John

    2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. steel industry has taken enormous strides over the past decades to reduce its energy consumption; since the end of World War II, the industry has reduced its energy intensity (energy use per shipped ton) by 60 percent. Between 1990 and 1998 alone, intensity has dropped from 20 to 18 million Btu (MBtu) per ton. This figure is projected to decrease to 15 MBtu/ton by 2010 with an asymptotic trend towards 14 MBtu/ton. Domestic shipments are projected to flatten out over the next decade to around 105 million tons which means that total energy consumption will also decrease. Historically, the steel industry has accounted for about 6 percent of U.S. energy consumption. Today, that figure is less than 2 percent and will decrease further to 1.5 percent by 2010. The primary causes for the decrease in energy consumption since WWII are: The use of pellets in the blast furnace and the application of new technology in the ironmaking process to further reduce fuel rates per net ton of hot metal (NTHM); The total replacement of the open hearth process by basic oxygen and electric furnaces; The almost total replacement of ingot casting by continuous casting (which improved yield dramatically and thus reduced the tons of raw steel required per ton of shipments); and The growth of the electric furnace sector of the industry at the expense of hot metal-based processes (which has also stimulated scrap recycling so that about 55 percent of ''new'' steel is now melted from scrap steel). This report focuses on the concept of good practices (i.e., those that are sustainable and can use today's technology). If all the industry could operate on this basis, the additional savings per ton could total 2 MBtu, As further restructuring occurs and the swing from hot metal-based to electric furnace-based production continues, the average consumption will approach the good practice energy per ton. Further savings will accrue through new technology, particularly in the areas of reduced blast furnace fuel rates and reheating efficiency, both of which relate to large tonnages of material.

  12. Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, Stanley R. (Windsor, SC); Korinko, Paul S. (Aiken, SC)

    2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

  13. ITmk3: High-Quality Iron Nuggets Using a Rotary Hearth Furnace | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),Energy Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 ITPandSteelConditions,of

  14. Research to understand the embrittlement behavior of Yankee/BR3 surveillance plate and other outlier RPV steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fabry, A.; Velde, J. van de; Puzzolante, J.L.; Ransbeeck, T. van; Verstrepen, A. [SCK/CEN, Mol (Belgium); Biemiller, E.C. [Yankee Atomic Electric Co., Bolton, MA (United States); Carter, R.G. [Electric Power Research Inst., Charlotte, NC (United States); Petrova, T. [INRNE, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The reactor pressure vessels at the Yankee Rowe and Belgian BR3 nuclear plants were constructed by Babcock and Wilcox in 1958. The plates of an open-hearth fabrication were welded using a submerged-arc process with Linde 80 flux as the filler. The original surveillance programs at the two plants were limited to representative A302B specimens; they feature similar chemistries as the ASTM reference plate, but coarser microstructure. The present testing program includes sixteen Charpy-V and four tensile specimens of the surveillance plate, irradiated at BR3 at a dose rate of {approx} 7 E10 cm{sup {minus}2}.s-1 (> 1 MeV) over a period of 25 years; the investigation also addresses annealing and notch orientation effects. The new experimental results are compared to previously published data for the same and/or related melts. The Yankee/BR3 surveillance plate displays an anomalously large 41J C{sub v}-shift as compared to the ASTM reference plate and to Regulatory predictions. Some of the Linde 80 welds investigated by the BR3 program are also found to behave as outliers. The data are evaluated in the light of state-of-the-art damage modeling and fracture micromechanics concepts, which are currently being incorporated into a new, consolidated strategy for improved RPV surveillance. The approach makes extensive use of the information contained in the load-deflection response of the instrumented C{sub v} test. The implications of such analysis in terms of RPV steel embrittlement trend curve development are discussed. 90 refs.

  15. Heartland Community College | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI ReferenceJumpEnergyStrategyHayes CenterHearthStone Homes Jump

  16. Heber II Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI ReferenceJumpEnergyStrategyHayes CenterHearthStonearea,report

  17. Heber South Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI ReferenceJumpEnergyStrategyHayes CenterHearthStonearea,reportSouth

  18. LENNOX HEARTH PRODUCTS

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Inc. (NYSE: LII), a global leader in the heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration markets. LHP believes that implementation of Executive Order 13563 should include...

  19. LENNOX HEARTH PRODUCTS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PM toLED Lighting Facts LEDLEDs on

  20. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1 Termoelectrica U.SPRESS FACTBiofuels1of Page Thisnew

  1. activation martensitic steels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    modeling and experimental study of brittle fracture in tempered martensitic steels for thermonuclear fusion applications. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??In this...

  2. activation martensitic steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    modeling and experimental study of brittle fracture in tempered martensitic steels for thermonuclear fusion applications. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??In this...

  3. Steel Winds | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎SolarCityInformation Glass Buttes AreaSteaIIIIWinds Jump

  4. Heat flow in the northern Basin and Range province | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI ReferenceJumpEnergyStrategyHayes CenterHearthStonearea,

  5. Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part II. Rates of reduction of composite pellets in a rotary hearth furnace simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Praxair Technological Center

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new ironmaking concept is being proposed that involves the combination of a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) with an iron-bath smelter. The RHF makes use of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets as the charge material and the final product is direct-reduced iron (DRI) in the solid or molten state. This part of the research includes the development of a reactor that simulated the heat transfer in an RHF. The external heat-transport and high heating rates were simulated by means of infrared (IR) emitting lamps. The reaction rates were measured by analyzing the off-gas and computing both the amount of CO and CO{sub 2} generated and the degree of reduction. The reduction times were found to be comparable to the residence times observed in industrial RHFs. Both artificial ferric oxide (PAH) and naturally occurring hematite and taconite ores were used as the sources of iron oxide. Coal char and devolatilized wood charcoal were the reductants. Wood charcoal appeared to be a faster reductant than coal char. However, in the PAH-containing pellets, the reverse was found to be true because of heat-transfer limitations. For the same type of reductant, hematite-containing pellets were observed to reduce faster than taconite-containing pellets because of the development of internal porosity due to cracking and fissure formation during the Fe2O{sub 3}-to-Fe3O{sub 4} transition. This is, however, absent during the reduction of taconite, which is primarily Fe3O{sub 4}. The PAH-wood-charcoal pellets were found to undergo a significant amount of swelling at low-temperature conditions, which impeded the external heat transport to the lower layers. If the average degree of reduction targeted in an RHF is reduced from 95 to approximately 70 pct by coupling the RHF with a bath smelter, the productivity of the RHF can be enhanced 1.5 to 2 times. The use of a two- or three-layer bed was found to be superior to that of a single layer, for higher productivities.

  6. ITP Steel: Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, March 2000 ITP Steel: Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, March 2000...

  7. Auto/Steel Partnership: Advanced High-Strength Steel Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced High-Strength Steel Research and Development AutoSteel Partnership: Advanced High-Strength Steel Research and Development 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

  8. ITP Steel: Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Study September...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Study September 2005 ITP Steel: Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Study September 2005 steelmarginalopportunity.pdf More Documents &...

  9. Ultrahigh carbon steels, Damascus steels, and superplasticity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherby, O.D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wadsworth, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The processing properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) have been studied at Stanford University over the past twenty years. These studies have shown that such steels (1 to 2.1% C) can be made superplastic at elevated temperature and can have remarkable mechanical properties at room temperature. It was the investigation of these UHCSs that eventually brought us to study the myths, magic, and metallurgy of ancient Damascus steels, which in fact, were also ultrahigh carbon steels. These steels were made in India as castings, known as wootz, possibly as far back as the time of Alexander the Great. The best swords are believed to have been forged in Persia from Indian wootz. This paper centers on recent work on superplastic UHCSs and on their relation to Damascus steels. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Supporting steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badra, C. [International Trade Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) have just completed a pilot program on the technical and economic viability of direct ironmaking by a process based on bath smelting. In this process, oxygen, prereduced iron ore pellets, coal, and flux are charged into a molten slag bath containing a high percentage of carbon. The carbon removes oxygen from the iron ore and generates carbon monoxide and liquid iron. Oxygen is then injected to burn some of the carbon monoxide gas before it leaves the smelting vessel. The partially combusted gas is sued to preheat and prereduced the ore before it is injected into the bath. There are several competing cokeless ironmaking processes in various stages of development around the world. A brief comparison of these processes provides a useful perspective with which to gauge the progress and objectives of the AISI-DOE research initiative. The principal competing foreign technologies include the Corex process, DIOS, HIsmelt, and Jupiter. The advantages of the direct ironmaking process examined by AISI-DOE were not sufficiently demonstrated to justify commercialization without further research. However, enough knowledge was gained from laboratory and pilot testing to teach researchers how to optimize the direct ironmaking process and to provide the foundation for future research. Researchers now better understand issues such as the dissolution of materials, reduction mechanisms and rates, slag foaming and control, the behavior of sulfur, dust generation, and the entire question of energy efficiency--including post combustion and the role of coal/volatile matter.

  11. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauer, Roger E. (Kennewick, WA); Straalsund, Jerry L. (Kennewick, WA); Chin, Bryan A. (Auburn, AL)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  12. Baotou Iron and Steel Group Baotou Steel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbon CaptureAtriaPower Systems JumpUSAIDBaodingBaotou Iron

  13. Methods of forming steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J. (Iona, ID); Burch, Joseph V. (Shelley, ID)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

  14. A steel trap | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    physical and chemical interactions in metallic elements, such as the irradiated ODS steels used in this study. The APT work revealed clear images of the nanoclusters for...

  15. Steel Winds II | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎SolarCityInformation Glass Buttes AreaSteaIIII

  16. Plugging of intersubassembly gaps by downward flowing molten steel. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the assessment of the meltout phase of an LMFBR hypothetical core disruptive accident, a pathway for the escape of molten fuel from the disrupted core is provided by the narrow channels separating adjacent subassemblies. However, the removal of fuel through intersubassembly gaps might be impeded by steel blockage formation, if molten steel is postulated to enter the gap network ahead of disrupted fuel. Reported here are the results of an analysis of the conduction freezing controlled penetration behavior of molten steel flowing downward through the voided (of sodium) gap channels nominally separating adjacent subassemblies below the active core region. The objective is to determine the range of conditions under which the steel is predicted to be deposited as a thin crust on the channel walls leaving an open pathway remaining for subsequent fuel flow instead of forming a complete plug which closes off the gap channel and obstructs fuel removal immediately thereafter.

  17. Ris-R-1244(EN) Tool Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -resistant steels 18 5.5 Hot-work steels 18 5.6 Cold-work steels 19 5.7 High-speed steels (HSSs) 20 Appendix 1 and chromium) furthermore some steel types contains cobalt, which respectively raises the temperature at which.1 Water-hardening steels 17 5.2 Low-alloy special purpose steels 17 5.3 Mould steels 18 5.4 Shock

  18. Clean steels for fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fusion energy production has an inherent advantage over fission: a fuel supply with reduced long term radioactivity. One of the leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor is a tungsten stabilized 9% chromium Martensitic steel. This alloy class is being considered because it offers the opportunity to maintain that advantage in the reactor structure as well as provide good high temperature strength and radiation induced swelling and embrittlement resistance. However, calculations indicate that to obtain acceptable radioactivity levels within 500 years after service, clean steel will be required because the niobium impurity levels must be kept below about 2 appm and nickel, molybdenum, nitrogen, copper, and aluminum must be intentionally restricted. International efforts are addressing the problems of clean steel production. Recently, a 5,000 kg heat was vacuum induction melted in Japan using high purity commercial raw materials giving niobium levels less than 0.7 appm. This paper reviews the need for reduced long term radioactivity, defines the advantageous properties of the tungsten stabilized Martensitic steel class, and describes the international efforts to produce acceptable clean steels.

  19. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peaslee, Kent D. (Rolla, MO); Peter, Jorg J. (McMinnville, OR); Robertson, David G. C. (Rolla, MO); Thomas, Brian G. (Champaign, IL); Zhang, Lifeng (Trondheim, NO)

    2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  20. Reaustenitisation from Bainite in Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahashi, Manabu

    1993-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    .7 APPLICATIONS . . . 1.7.1 Ferrite-Martensite dual phase steels 1.7.2 Steels containing some retained austenite 1.7.3 Welding of steels . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.4 Initial austenite grain size . . . . . . . 1.8 TRANSFORMATION FROM AUSTENITE 1.8.1 Widmanstiitten... is important in the production of dual phase steels which have a final microstructure of ferrite and about 20% martensite. These steels have a good combination of strength and uniform ductility, and find applications in the automobile industry. When a fully...

  1. Studies of Degraded Smelt Spout Opening Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R [ORNL; Kish, Joseph R. [Paprican; Willoughby, Adam W [ORNL; Longmire, Hu Foster [ORNL; Singbeil, Douglas [Paprican

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Co-extruded type 304L stainless steel/SA210 carbon steel tubes have been used on the floors and lower walls of many black liquor recovery boilers to address the wall thinning problem that had been an issue for boiler owners and operators. Use of these tubes greatly reduced the corrosion issue, but corrosion was still sometimes observed and cracking was discovered in some tubes, particularly those that are bent to form the openings for smelt spouts. Because cracks in the opening tubes were sometimes observed to extend a significant distance into the tube wall and because these cracks were found fairly frequently, tubes made from a number of alternate cladding materials were tried in place of the 304L clad opening tubes. This paper describes the results of examinations of spout opening tubes of the standard 304L/carbon steel and of several of the alternate materials that have been tried. In addition to the corrosion and cracking seen in the spout opening tubes, another issue associated with these tubes has been observed. Preferential corrosion of the cap welds is sometimes seen on butt welds attaching the spout opening tubes made with alternate cladding materials to the standard 304L/carbon steel co-extruded wall tubes. Some information on the observations of this corrosion is also included in this paper.

  2. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEWResponse(Expired) |CERCLA Process & Public Involvement This

  3. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1 Termoelectrica U.SPRESS FACTBiofuels1of Page ThisnewPaired

  4. Process for dezincing galvanized steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, William A. (Hamilton, CA); Dudek, Frederick J. (Arlington Heights, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75.degree. C. and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (i) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (ii) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (iii) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (iv) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte.

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: stainless steel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    stainless steel Sandia-California Partners with Japanese National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in Hydrogen-Materials Research On July 26, 2013, in...

  6. Process for dezincing galvanized steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, W.A.; Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75 C and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (1) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (2) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (3) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (4) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte. 1 fig.

  7. Spider Silk: Sronger than Steel? Nature's Supermaterial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powers, Alexander

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    spider silk were as thick as a steel beam, it would be verysized and much heavier steel. In fact, it would take aboutstrength comparable to that of steel, about 1.5 gigapascals,

  8. Imagining Chivalry: Charles V's Suits of Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Machado, Erin Jeannine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mail, German, 15 th century. Steel and brass. MetropolitanI. , Innsbruck, ca. 1512-14. Steel, gilded silver, velvet,Elector of Saxony, ca. 1555. Steel, copper alloy (brass),

  9. Switch to duplex stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quik, J.M.A.; Geudeke, M.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Duplex stainless steels contain approximately equal proportions of ferrite and austenite. These stainless steels have become an established material of construction in the chemical process industries (CPI). Duplexes offer benefits over austenitic stainless steels and carbon steels because of their higher strength, and good toughness and ductility, in combination with equivalent resistance to general corrosion, as well as better resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Additionally, duplex materials have thermal-conductivity and thermal-expansion coefficients similar to those of ferritic materials, are tough at low (sub-zero) temperatures, and have a high resistance to erosion and abrasion. In some of the highly corrosive environments encountered in the CPI, the super duplex stainless steels offer cost-effective options not possible with the standard austenitic stainless steels. The initial applications were almost exclusively as heat exchanger tubing in water-cooled service. In recent times, duplex stainless steels have been used in the oil, gas, and chemical industries. Examples include service in sweet and mildly sour corrosive environments, on offshore platforms where weight savings can be realized, and as a replacement for standard austenitic stainless steel in chemical-processing plants.

  10. Duplex Stainless Steels Margaret Gorog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    , substituted for 6% mo SS in bleach plant Hyper DSS, Offshore oil applications Super, Hyper ­ Corrosion11/14/2014 1 Duplex Stainless Steels Margaret Gorog Federal Way, WA Pulp and Paper Corrosion for suction rolls Duplex Stainless Steel · Improved corrosion and more importantly, stress corrosion cracking

  11. 2169 steel waveform experiments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe - phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mm-thick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.

  12. POLYETHERSULFONE COATING FOR MITIGATING CORROSION OF STEEL IN GEOTHERMAL ENVIRONMENT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SUGAMA, T.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emphasis was directed toward evaluating the usefulness of a polyethersulfone (PES)-dissolved N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent precursor as a low-temperature film-forming anti-corrosion coating for carbon steel in simulated geothermal environments at brine temperatures up to 300 C. A {approx} 75 {micro}m thick PES coating performed well in protecting the steel against corrosion in brine at 200 C. However, at {>=} 250 C, the PES underwent severe hydrothermal oxidation that caused the cleavage of sulfone- and ether-linkages, and the opening of phenyl rings. These, in turn, led to sulfone {yields} benzosulfonic acid and ether {yields} benzophenol-type oxidation derivative transformations, and the formation of carbonyl-attached open rings, thereby resulting in the incorporation of the functional groups, hydroxyl and carbonyl, into the coating. The presence of these functional groups raised concerns about the diminutions in water-shedding and water-repellent properties that are important properties of the anti-corrosion coatings; such changes were reflected in an enhancement of the magnitude of susceptibility of the coatings surfaces to moisture. Consequently, the disintegration of the PES structure by hydrothermal oxidation was detrimental to the maximum efficacy of the coating in protecting the steel against corrosion, allowing the corrosive electrolytes to infiltrate easily through it.

  13. ITP Steel: Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: An Historical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: An Historical Perspective and Future Opportunities, September 2000 ITP Steel: Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: An Historical...

  14. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Iron and Steel: Resources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Industry Associations American Iron and Steel Institute For over a century, North American steel producers have worked as partners and members of the American Iron and Steel...

  15. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSTRUCTURE IN DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL WELDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSTRUCTURE IN DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL WELDS by Naseem Issa Abdallah Haddad;The Development of Microstructure in Duplex Stainless Steel Welds Abstract Duplex stainless steels

  16. Auto/Steel Partnership: AHSS Stamping, Strain Rate Characterization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AHSS Stamping, Strain Rate Characterization, Sheet Steel Fatigue, AHSS Joining AutoSteel Partnership: AHSS Stamping, Strain Rate Characterization, Sheet Steel Fatigue, AHSS...

  17. Nonlinear seismic response analysis of steel-concrete composite frames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbato, Michele

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    formulation of nonlinear steel- concrete composite beam ele-Behaviour of Composite Steel and Concrete Struc- turalE. (2001). Analysis of steel-concrete composite frames with

  18. Iron and Steel Energy Intensities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    If you are having trouble, call 202-586-8800 for help. Home > >Energy Users > Energy Efficiency Page > Iron and Steel Energy Intensities First Use of Energy Blue Bullet First Use...

  19. Great Lakes Steel -- PCI facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichinger, F.T. [BMH Claudius Peters AG, Buxtehude (Germany); Dake, S.H.; Wagner, E.D.; Brown, G.S. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the planning, design, and start-up of the 90 tph PCI facility for National Steel`s Great Lakes Steel Division in River Rouge, MI. This project is owned and operated by Edison Energy Services, and was implemented on a fast-track basis by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Babcock Material Handling, and Babcock and Wilcox. This paper presents important process issues, basic design criteria, an the challenges of engineering and building a state-of-the-art PCI facility in two existing plants. Pulverized coal is prepared at the River Rouge Power Plant of Detroit Edison, is pneumatically conveyed 6,000 feet to a storage silo at Great Lakes Steel, and is injected into three blast furnaces.

  20. Overlay welding irradiated stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanne, W.R.; Chandler, G.T.; Nelson, D.Z.; Franco-Ferreira, E.A.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An overlay technique developed for welding irradiated stainless steel may be important for repair or modification of fusion reactor materials. Helium, present due to n,{alpha} reactions, is known to cause cracking using conventional welding methods. Stainless steel impregnated with 3 to 220 appm helium by decay of tritium was used to develop a welding process that could be used for repair. The result was a gas metal arc weld overlay technique with low-heat input and low-penetration into the helium-containing material. Extensive metallurgical and mechanical testing of this technique demonstrated substantial reduction of helium embrittlement damage. The overlay technique was applied to irradiated 304 stainless steel containing 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking, although greater than for tritium charged and aged material, was minimal compared to conventional welding methods.

  1. Welding tritium aged stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stainless steels exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to He buildup within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for new weapon systems, and service life extensions of older systems, methods for welding/repair on tritium-exposed material will become important. Results are reported that indicate that both solid-state resistance welding and low-heat gas metal arc overlay welding are promising methods for repair or modification of tritium-aged stainless steel.

  2. Aluminium Electroplating on Steel from a Fused Bromide Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabhat Tripathy; Laura Wurth; Eric Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven Frank; Guy Fredrickson; J Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr-KBr-CsBr-AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminium on steel substrates. The electrolyte was prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr-KBr-CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminium coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminium coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggest that the coatings did display good corrosion-resistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminium coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminium coating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  3. Saturation in ``nonmagnetic'' stainless steel C. Weber and J. Fajansa)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fajans, Joel

    Saturation in ``nonmagnetic'' stainless steel C. Weber and J. Fajansa) Department of Physics July 1998 Scientific equipment often uses ``nonmagnetic'' stainless steel, relying on the steel's nonmagnetic behavior to leave external magnetic fields unaltered. However, stainless steel's permeability can

  4. STEEL STRUCTURES FOR BUILDING IN CHINA PROF. HE MINGXUAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    STEEL STRUCTURES FOR BUILDING IN CHINA PROF. HE MINGXUAN VICE-PRESIDENT OF CHINA STEEL CONSTRUCTION SOCIETY CHIEF ENGINEER OF BAOSTEEL CONSTRUCTION CO., LTD JULY 6, 2012 LONDON #12;1. STEEL AND STEEL STRUCTURES IN CHINA 2. SOME PROJECTS OF STEEL STRUCTURES FOR HIGH- RISE BUILDINGS IN CHINA #12;STEEL

  5. STUDENT STEEL BRIDGE COMPETITION The mission of the Student Steel Bridge Competition (SSBC) is to supplement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    1 STUDENT STEEL BRIDGE COMPETITION 2012 RULES #12;2 MISSION The mission of the Student Steel Bridge in a steel structure that meets client specifications and optimizes performance and economy. The SSBC are stimulated to innovate, practice professionalism, and use structural steel efficiently. WELCOME ASCE and AISC

  6. Effect of debonded interfaces on corrosion of mild steel composites in supercritical CO2-saturated brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John, Han [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carey, James W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, Jinsuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2} is a proposed method to limit greenhouse gas emissions and has been the subject of many studies in the last decade. Wellbore systems achieve isolation of the storage reservoir through a combination of steel (generally carbon steel) and Portland cement. CO{sub 2} leakage along the steel-cement interface has the potential to accelerate corrosion. We conduct experiments to assess the corrosion risk at cement-steel interface under in situ wellbore conditions. Wellbore interfaces were simulated by assemblies constructed of J55 mild steel and Portland class G (Epoxy was used in this study to separate) cement and corrosion was investigated in supercritical CO{sub 2} saturated brines, (NaCl = 1 wt%) at T = 50 C, pCO{sub 2} = 1200 psi with interface gap size = 100 {micro}m and {infinity} (open surface). The experiments were carried out in a high-pressure, 1.8 L autoclave. The corrosion kinetics were measured employing electrochemical techniques including linear polarization resistance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The corrosion scales were analyzed using secondary electron microscopy, back scattering electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Corrosion rates decreased as time with or without interface gap. In this case corrosion rates are controlled by scale protectivity through the interface gap. Scaled steel corrosion rates were two orders of magnitude less compared with fresh steel. The corrosion scale is pseudo crystalline at the open interface. Well-crystallized scale was observed at interface gap sizes 100 {micro}m. All corrosion scales were composed of iron carbonates.

  7. STEEL: RECENT PUBLICATIONS HAMPSON, G. J., STEEL, R. J., BURGESS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    , eds., Atlas of Deepwater Outcrops, American Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Studies in Geology 56 YOSHIDA, S of Deepwater Outcrops, American Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Studies in Geology 56 MCLAURIN, B. & STEEL, R. J. (2006 on an Eocene shelf margin, Central Basin, Spitsbergen. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. 90, 1451-72. #12;

  8. Ammonia removal process upgrade to the Acme Steel Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J.L. [Acme Steel Co., Chicago, IL (United States). Chicago Coke Plant

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need to upgrade the ammonia removal process at the Acme Steel Coke Plant developed with the installation of the benzene NESHAP (National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) equipment, specifically the replacement of the final cooler. At Acme Steel it was decided to replace the existing open cooling tower type final cooler with a closed loop direct spray tar/water final cooler. This new cooler has greatly reduced the emissions of benzene, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide to the atmosphere, bringing them into environmental compliance. At the time of its installation it was not fully recognized as to the effect this would have on the coke oven gas composition. In the late seventies the decision had been made at Acme Steel to stop the production of ammonia sulfate salt crystals. The direction chosen was to make a liquid ammonia sulfate solution. This product was used as a pickle liquor at first and then as a liquid fertilizer as more markets were developed. In the fall of 1986 the ammonia still was brought on line. The vapors generated from the operation of the stripping still are directed to the inlet of the ammonia absorber. At that point in time it was decided that an improvement to the cyclical ammonia removal process was needed. The improvements made were minimal yet allowed the circulation of solution through the ammonia absorber on a continuous basis. The paper describes the original batch process and the modifications made which allowed continuous removal.

  9. MIC on stainless steels in wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iversen, A. [Avesta Sheffield AB (Sweden)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field tests of stainless steels were carried out at five wastewater treatment plants for one year. Three stainless steel grades i.e. AISI 304 (UNS S30400), AISI 316 (UNS S31600) and duplex 2205 (UNS S31803) were tested in the final settling tank in the plants. The time dependence of the open circuit potential (OCP) was measured for all coupons. Ennoblement of the OCP, similar to that reported from investigations in seawater, was found in one of the plants. Waters from three of the exposure sites, containing dispersed deposits from exposed coupons, were chemically analyzed. Pitting corrosion was observed after the field test on steel grade AISI 304 in three of the five plants, and on AISI 316 in one plant. No corrosion was found on 2205 in any of the plants. Laboratory measurements of the OCP were carried out for AISI 304, AISI 316 and 2205 in water collected from one of the plants. Cathodic polarization curves were determined as well in wastewater from the same plant. The cathodic reaction rate increased at the highest OCP. Simulation of the ennoblement was carried out by potentiostatic polarization in a 600 ppm chloride solution. The current response indicated corrosion on AISI 304 welded material and on AISI 304, AISI 316 in crevice assemblies after a long period of induction time.

  10. OPEN HONE

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003040IBMPC00 The Open Host Network Packet Process Correlator for Windows http://www.github.com/HoneProject/

  11. Superplastic deformation in two microduplex stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesuer, D.R.; Nieh, T.G.; Syn, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Taleff, E.M. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The deformation behavior and mechanisms of superplastic flow in two microduplex stainless steels (SuperDux64 and Nitronic 19D) were studied at {similar_to}0.7T{sub m}. The two steels differed in initial grain size by a factor of 3. Both steels exhibited solute-drag-controlled grain boundary sliding in a high temperature {gamma}+{delta} phase field. In a lower temperature {gamma}+{sigma} phase field, the fine-grained steel ({bar L}=5{mu}m) exhibited climb-controlled grain boundary sliding and the coarser- grained steel ({bar L}=15{mu}m) exhibited solute-drag-controlled slip creep.

  12. 60 Years of duplex stainless steel applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsson, J.; Liljas, M. [Avesta Sheffield AB, Avesta (Sweden)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the history of wrought duplex stainless steel development and applications is described. Ferritic-austenitic stainless steels were introduced only a few decades after stainless steels were developed. The paper gives details from the first duplex stainless steels in the 1930`s to the super duplex stainless steel development during the 1980`s. During the years much effort has been devoted to production and welding metallurgy as well as corrosion research of the duplex stainless steels. Therefore, duplex stainless steels are to-day established in a wide product range. Numerous important applications are exemplified. In most cases the selection of a duplex steel has been a result of the combination high strength excellent corrosion resistance. In the pulp and paper industry the most interesting use is as vessel material in digesters. For chemical process industry, the duplex steels are currently used in heat exchangers. The largest application of duplex steels exists in the oil and gas/offshore industry. Hundreds of kms of pipelines are installed and are still being installed. An increased use of duplex steels is foreseen in areas where the strength is of prime importance.

  13. Industrial Sector Energy Conservation Programs in the People's Republic of China during the Seventh Five-Year Plan (1986-1990)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhiping, L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in coking, sterling, ironmaking, and open hearth processes,injections for coke in ironmaking is a common practiceinjection methods i n ironmaking. Data from the Anshan Iron

  14. Steele County, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk,SoutheastSt. Francis(RedirectedStarr||Ste.FacilitySteca GmbH

  15. Suryachakra Global Enviro Power Formerly Lahari Power Steels Limited | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolar Jump to:Holdings Co Ltd Place:Mclaren, 2010) ||Surya Jyoti

  16. Steele County, North Dakota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎SolarCityInformation Glass Buttes AreaSteaIIIIWinds

  17. Korea Iron Steel Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin Zhongdiantou New EnergyKenosistecKilaraKoRentaKorchipKoreaKorea

  18. Linzhou Zhongsheng Steel Ltd Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin ZhongdiantouLichuan City YujiangLincolnLinjiawuLinnLinyi

  19. Steele-Waseca Cooperative Electric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheastern IL Elec Coop,Lanka-DLRStandardStaxera GmbH Jump

  20. Tokyo Steel Manufacturing Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin Baxin Hydropower Station Jump to:Tioga EnergyTokyo Electron

  1. Open Recreation Open Recreation Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, S. Massoud

    43 Open Recreation Open Recreation Policy These policies apply to all University Recreation scheduled for their chosen activity at that time. The Open Recreation Policy has been revised to read due to violations of policies or inappropriate behavior, i.e.: fighting, using abusive language, etc

  2. Steel project fact sheet: Steel reheating for further processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steel reheating is an energy-intensive process requiring uniform temperature distribution within reheating furnaces. Historically, recuperators have ben used to preheat combustion air, thereby conserving energy. More recent innovations include oxygen enrichment and the use of regenerative burners, which provide higher preheat air temperatures than recuperators. These processes have limitations such as equipment deterioration, decreasing energy efficiency over time, high maintenance costs, and increased NO{sub x} emissions with increased air preheat temperature, unless special equipment is used. Praxair, Inc., supplier of oxygen and other industrial gases to the steel industry, proposes to introduce an innovative oxy-fuel burner technology (using 100% oxygen) to the steel reheating industry. Oxy-fuel combustion reduces or eliminates nitrogen in combustion air and substantially reduces waste heat carried out with flue gas. Based on technology currently used in the glass, hazardous waste, and aluminum industries, Praxair has developed and patented low temperature, oxy-fuel burners that can be used in high temperature industrial furnaces where temperature uniformity is critical and extremely low NO{sub x} emissions are desired. The technical goal of the project is to demonstrate the use of oxy-fuel burners in a slab reheat furnace while reducing energy consumption by 45% and NO{sub x} emissions by 90% within the converted furnace zones. Successful implementation of this technology also will eliminate the need to periodically replace recuperators and install NO{sub x} removal equipment.

  3. Duplex stainless steel: From specialty to commodity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quick, J.M.A.; Geudeke, M. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Mij. B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Important applications of duplex stainless steel in the oil and chemical industry date from the seventies. Duplex stainless steel is attractive because it combines high mechanical strength, about the same as for carbon steel, and good corrosion resistance particularly against chloride stress corrosion cracking up to about 100 C. This paper highlights a number of examples that are typical for the potential as well as the problems associated with this type of material.

  4. Estimation of fracture toughness of cast stainless steels during thermal aging in LWR systems-revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O.K

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a revision of the procedure and correlations presented earlier in NUREG/CR-4513, ANL-90/42 (June 1991) for predicting the change in mechanical properties of cast stainless steel components due to thermal aging during service in light water reactors at 280-330{degrees}C (535-625{degrees}F). The correlations presented in this report are based on an expanded data base and have been optimized with mechanical-property data on cast stainless steels aged up to {approx}58,000 h at 290-350{degrees}C (554-633{degrees}F). The fracture toughness J-R curve, tensile stress, and Charpy-impact energy of aged cast stainless steels are estimated from known material information. Mechanical properties of a specific cast stainless steel are estimated from the extent and kinetics of thermal embrittlement. Embrittlement of cast stainless steels is characterized in terms of room-temperature Charpy-impact energy. Charpy-impact energy as a function of time and temperature of reactor service is estimated from the kinetics of thermal embrittlement, which are also determined from the chemical composition. The initial impact energy of the unaged steel is required for these estimations. Initial tensile flow stress is needed for estimating the flow stress of the aged material. The fracture toughness J-R curve for the material is then obtained by correlating room-temperature Charpy-impact energy with fracture toughness parameters. The values of J{sub IC} are determined from the estimated J-R curve and flow stress. A common {open_quotes}predicted lower-bound{close_quotes} J-R curve for cast stainless steels of unknown chemical composition is also defined for a given grade of steel, range of ferrite content, and temperature. Examples of estimating mechanical properties of cast stainless steel components during reactor service are presented.

  5. Assessing the effect of cement-steel interface on well casing corrosion in aqueous CO2 environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jiabin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carey, James W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, Jinsuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO{sub 2} leakage is a critical safety concern for geologic storage. In wellbore environments, important leakage paths include the rock-cement and cement-casing interfaces. If the cement-casing interface is filled with escaping CO{sub 2}, the well casing directly contacts the CO{sub 2}. This can cause severe corrosion in the presence of water. This paper studies the effect of steel-cement interface gaps, ranging from 1 mm to 0 um, on casing corrosion. Corrosion kinetics were measured employing electrochemical techniques including linear polarization resistance, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the corrosion of steel is not significant where the gap between steel and cement is small ({le} 100 {micro}m). Corrosion rates are controlled by the diffusion of corrosive species (H{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and H{sup +}) along the interface. In contrast, steel corrosion is severe in a broad gap where the corrosion process is limited only by the reaction kinetics of steel and corrosive species. The threshold leading to severe corrosion in terms of the cement-steel interface size (100 {micro}m) was determined. Our research clarifies a corrosion scenario at the cement-steel interface. Casing steel corrosion is initiated when attacked by corrosive species at the cement-steel interface. For relatively tight interfaces, this results in a slow thinning of the casing and expansion of the interface width. If the gap increases beyond the critical threshold size, the corrosion rate increases significantly, and a potentially damaging cycle of corrosion and interface expansion is developed.

  6. Improving the toughness of ultrahigh strength steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soto, Koji

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the low-alloy steels used in aerospace applications. Thisalloys of each category and their compositions are shown in Table 1.1 with their Aerospace

  7. HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT IN LOW CARBON STEEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rafiq A. Siddiqui; Sabah A. Abdul-wahab; Tasneem Pervez; Sayyad Z. Qamar

    Many metals and alloys absorb hydrogen and diffusion of hydrogen under certain conditions can seriously weaken and produces embrittlement in steel. Hydrogen embrittlement is a type of metal deterioration that is related to stress corrosion cracking. Although steels are well known for their susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement, the mechanism of transportation of hydrogen is not very clear in low carbon steels. Standard tensile steel specimens were hydrogenated from 1 to 5 hours and deformed by cold worked to 50%,60%,70 % 80 % and were investigated for mechanical properties.

  8. MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF DUAL PHASE STEELS CONTAINING FINE PRECIPITATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gau, J.S.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Properties of Dual-Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. W.of Niobium Microalloyed Dual- Phase Steel, MetallurgicalAND PROPERTIES OF DUAL PHASE STEELS CONTAINING FINE

  9. FERRITE STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LOW ALLOY DUPLEX STEELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoel, R.H.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Properties of Dual-Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. W.Formable HSLA and Dual Phase Steels, A. T. Davenport, ed. ,Formable HSLA and Dual Phase Steels, A. T. Davenport, ed. ,

  10. Mag-Foot: a steel bridge inspection robot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asada, Harry

    A legged robot that moves across a steel structure is developed for steel bridge inspection. Powerful permanent magnets imbedded in each foot allow the robot to hang from a steel ceiling powerlessly. Although the magnets ...

  11. Blast damage mitigation of steel structures from near- contact charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfson, Janet Crumrine

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Depth 6.5 in. 6.5 in. 3 in. .625 in. 1.5 in. Material SteelSteelAluminum Steel Polyurethane Weight 472 lb 472 lb 73 lb 45 lb

  12. PROTON INDUCED SWELLING IN TYPE 316 STAINLESS STEEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, A.K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    an Austenitic Stainless Steel, USAEC Report ORNL-4580, Oakin Austenitic Stainless Steel, Ref. 5, p. 142. D. I. R.Irradiated 304 Stainless Steel, Ref. 5, p. 499. Table 1.

  13. CRAD, Nuclear Facility Construction - Structural Steel, May 29...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Steel, May 29, 2009 CRAD, Nuclear Facility Construction - Structural Steel, May 29, 2009 May 29, 2009 Nuclear Facility Construction - Structural Steel (HSS CRAD 64-16, Rev. 0) This...

  14. Overview: STEEL Auto/Steel Partnership | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartmentOutreachDepartment ofProgram |Department ofAuto/Steel

  15. ITP Steel: Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study October 2004

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),Energy Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 ITPandSteel Industry

  16. ITP Steel: Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Study September 2005 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),Energy Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 ITPandSteel

  17. ITP Steel: Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),Energy Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 ITPandSteelConditions,

  18. annealed stainless steels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: of stainless steel container materials is a potential problem for long-term radioactive waste storage-to-failure of relevant stainless steels in the annealed...

  19. BACKGROUND GLOBAL STEEL OVERCAPACITY and OIL COUNTRY TUBULAR...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    surging-steel-imports Strong trade enforcement is especially critical in the market for oil country tubular goods (OCTG), the pipe and steel products used for energy exploration....

  20. advanced bar steels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This thesis is devoted to the numerical investigation of mechanical behavior of Dual phase (DP) steels. Such grade of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) is favorable to the...

  1. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steels II Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  2. Development of Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Magnesium Parts (AMD-704) Development of Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Magnesium...

  3. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Iron and Steel: GHG...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GHG Inventory Protocols Principles for a Steel Industry Methodology for Reporting Carbon-Related Energy Sources and Raw Materials (PDF 48 KB) Download Acrobat Reader Steel Industry...

  4. Monitoring of Fracture Cri0cal Steel Bridges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    #12;Monitoring of Fracture Cri0cal Steel Bridges: Acous0c Emission Sensors system on other fracture cri0cal steel bridges #12;Project Impact #12;Thank

  5. alloy tool steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of weldments of a high strength low alloy(HSLA) steel in a simulated seawater environment. This steel, designated HSLA80, was developed by the United ... Needham, William...

  6. Behaviour model identification based on inverse modeling and using Optical Full Field Measurements (OFFM): application on rubber and steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velay, V.; Robert, L.; Schmidt, F.; Hmida, S.; Vallet, T. [Research Centre on Tools Materials and Processes (CROMeP), Ecole des mines d'Albi-Carmaux, 81013 ALBI Cedex 9 (France)

    2007-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Biaxial properties of materials (polymer or steel) used in many industrial processes are often difficult to measure. However, these properties are useful for the numerical simulations of plastic-processing operations like blow moulding or thermoforming for polymers and superplastic forming or single point incremental forming for steels. Today, Optical Full Field Measurements (OFFM) are promising tools for experimental analysis of materials. Indeed, they are able to provide a very large amount of data (displacement or strain) spatially distributed. In this paper, a mixed numerical and experimental investigation is proposed in order to identify multi-axial constitutive behaviour models. The procedure is applied on two different materials commonly used in forming processes: polymer (rubber in this first approach) and steel. Experimental tests are performed on various rubber and steel structural specimens (notched and open-hole plate samples) in order to generate heterogeneous displacement field. Two different behaviour models are considered. On the one hand, a Money-Rivlin hyperelastic law is investigated to describe the high levels of strain induced in tensile test performed on a rubber open-hole specimen. On the other hand, Ramberg-Osgood law allows to reproduce elasto-plastic behaviour of steel on a specimen that induces heterogeneous strain fields. Each parameter identification is based on a same Finite Element Model Updated (FEMU) procedure which consists in comparing results provided by the numerical simulation (ABAQUS) with full field measurements obtained by the DISC (Digital Image Stereo-Correlation) technique (Vic-3D)

  7. Method for welding chromium molybdenum steels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Clinton, TN)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chromium-molybdenum steels exhibit a weakening after welding in an area adjacent to the weld. This invention is an improved method for welding to eliminate the weakness by subjecting normalized steel to a partial temper prior to welding and subsequently fully tempering the welded article for optimum strength and ductility.

  8. A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J. (Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

  9. A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J. [Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

  10. Interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunwoody, John T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Richard E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freibert, Franz J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Willson, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veirs, Douglas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Worl, Laura A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Archuleta, Alonso [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conger, Donald J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Long-term storage of excess plutonium is of great concern in the U.S. as well as abroad. The current accepted configuration involves intimate contact between the stored material and an iron-bearing container such as stainless steel. While many safety scenario studies have been conducted and used in the acceptance of stainless steel containers, little information is available on the physical interaction at elevated temperatures between certain forms of stored material and the container itself. The bulk of the safety studies has focused on the ability of a package to keep the primary stainless steel containment below the plutonium-iron eutectic temperature of approximately 410 C. However, the interactions of plutonium metal with stainless steel have been of continuing interest. This paper reports on a scoping study investigating the interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal in a pseudo diffusion couple at temperatures above the eutectic melt-point.

  11. Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCAT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Casuccio (RJ Lee Group); Michael Potter (RJ Lee Group); Fred Schwerer (RJ Lee Group); Dr. Richard J. Fruehan (Carnegie Mellon University); Dr. Scott Story (US Steel)

    2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to develop the Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCATTM) to permit steelmakers to evaluate the quality of the steel through the analysis of individual inclusions. By characterizing individual inclusions, determinations can be made as to the cleanliness of the steel. Understanding the complicating effects of inclusions in the steelmaking process and on the resulting properties of steel allows the steel producer to increase throughput, better control the process, reduce remelts, and improve the quality of the product. The ASCAT (Figure 1) is a steel-smart inclusion analysis tool developed around a customized next-generation computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (NG-CCSEM) hardware platform that permits acquisition of inclusion size and composition data at a rate never before possible in SEM-based instruments. With built-in customized ''intelligent'' software, the inclusion data is automatically sorted into clusters representing different inclusion types to define the characteristics of a particular heat (Figure 2). The ASCAT represents an innovative new tool for the collection of statistically meaningful data on inclusions, and provides a means of understanding the complicated effects of inclusions in the steel making process and on the resulting properties of steel. Research conducted by RJLG with AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) and SMA (Steel Manufactures of America) members indicates that the ASCAT has application in high-grade bar, sheet, plate, tin products, pipes, SBQ, tire cord, welding rod, and specialty steels and alloys where control of inclusions, whether natural or engineered, are crucial to their specification for a given end-use. Example applications include castability of calcium treated steel; interstitial free (IF) degasser grade slag conditioning practice; tundish clogging and erosion minimization; degasser circulation and optimization; quality assessment/steel cleanliness; slab, billet or bloom disposition; and alloy development. Additional benefits of ASCAT include the identification of inclusions that tend to clog nozzles or interact with refractory materials. Several papers outlining the benefits of the ASCAT have been presented and published in the literature. The paper entitled ''Inclusion Analysis to Predict Casting Behavior'' was awarded the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Medal in 2004 for special merit and importance to the steel industry. The ASCAT represents a quantum leap in inclusion analysis and will allow steel producers to evaluate the quality of steel and implement appropriate process improvements. In terms of performance, the ASCAT (1) allows for accurate classification of inclusions by chemistry and morphological parameters, (2) can characterize hundreds of inclusions within minutes, (3) is easy to use (does not require experts), (4) is robust, and (5) has excellent image quality for conventional SEM investigations (e.g., the ASCAT can be utilized as a dual use instrument). In summary, the ASCAT will significantly advance the tools of the industry and addresses an urgent and broadly recognized need of the steel industry. Commercialization of the ASCAT will focus on (1) a sales strategy that leverages our Industry Partners; (2) use of ''technical selling'' through papers and seminars; (3) leveraging RJ Lee Group's consulting services, and packaging of the product with a extensive consulting and training program; (4) partnering with established SEM distributors; (5) establishing relationships with professional organizations associated with the steel industry; and (6) an individualized plant by plant direct sales program.

  12. Cathodic protection of carbon steel in simulated geothermal environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, R.; van Rooyen, D.

    1982-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The applicability of cathodic protection to mitigate corrosion of carbon steel in two different environments containing H{sub 2}S has been investigated using impressed current and sacrificial anode techniques. Results of impressed current tests conducted under potential control shows that the weight loss can be reduced significantly by shifting the potential of the metal 60 to 80 mV cathodic to the open circuit potential. The relationship between the applied current and the potential shift shows that the current requirement does not necessarily increase with the voltage shift, thus implying that the cost of cathodic protection may not increase in proportion to the protection achieved. The feasibility of using zinc as a sacrificial anode in the environment of interest has also been studied.

  13. Onsite recycling of electric arc furnace dust: The Jorgensen Steel Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Licis, I.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Bermark, R.C. [Washington State Dept. of Ecology, Olympia, WA (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steel-making industry produces a large amount of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) dust as part of normal production. This waste is listed as KO61, defined as {open_quotes}emission control dust/sludge from the primary production of steel in electric arc furnaces{close_quotes} under 40 CFR 261.32. A glass making technology called Ek Glassification{trademark} (hereafter called {open_quotes}the Process{close_quotes}) has been developed by Roger B. Ek and Associates, Inc. (hereafter called {open_quotes}the Developer{close_quotes}) to recycle EAF dust and convert it, along with other byproducts of the steel-making industry, into marketable commodities. This Process was evaluated under the Waste Reduction Innovative Technology Evaluation (WRITE) Program. The project was designed and conducted in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Environmental Quality, the Process Developer and the host test site, the Earle M. Jorgensen (EMJ) Steel Company of Seattle, Washington. Test personnel for EPA were supplied by SAIC Inc., on contract to EPA. The overall objectives of the project were to conduct a pilot scale evaluation of the Process, investigate if toxic metals are leached from the products (such as colored glass and glass-ceramics; ceramic glazes, colorants, and fillers; roofing granules and sand-blasting grit; and materials for Portland cement production). Three glass recipes (Glass I, II, and III) were designed by the developer for potential use at EMJ. The EPA portion was focused on determining the toxic metals concentrations of the Glass II recipe, evaluating the P2 impact of using this Process in comparison to traditional methods of waste treatment and disposal, and assessing the economics of both.

  14. Microstructural characterization in dissimilar friction stir welding between 304 stainless steel and st37 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jafarzadegan, M. [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China); Feng, A.H. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China); Abdollah-zadeh, A., E-mail: zadeh@modares.ac.ir [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saeid, T. [Advanced Materials Research Center, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box: 51335-1996, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Advanced Materials Research Center, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box: 51335-1996, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shen, J. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China); Assadi, H. [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present study, 3 mm-thick plates of 304 stainless steel and st37 steel were welded together by friction stir welding at a welding speed of 50 mm/min and tool rotational speed of 400 and 800 rpm. X-ray diffraction test was carried out to study the phases which might be formed in the welds. Metallographic examinations, and tensile and microhardness tests were used to analyze the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joint. Four different zones were found in the weld area except the base metals. In the stir zone of the 304 stainless steel, a refined grain structure with some features of dynamic recrystallization was evidenced. A thermomechanically-affected zone was characterized on the 304 steel side with features of dynamic recovery. In the other side of the stir zone, the hot deformation of the st37 steel in the austenite region produced small austenite grains and these grains transformed to fine ferrite and pearlite and some products of displacive transformations such as Widmanstatten ferrite and martensite by cooling the material after friction stir welding. The heat-affected zone in the st37 steel side showed partially and fully refined microstructures like fusion welding processes. The recrystallization in the 304 steel and the transformations in the st37 steel enhanced the hardness of the weld area and therefore, improved the tensile properties of the joint. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FSW produced sound welds between st37 low carbon steel and 304 stainless steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SZ of the st37 steel contained some products of allotropic transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material in the SZ of the 304 steel showed features of dynamic recrystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The finer microstructure in the SZ increased the hardness and tensile strength.

  15. Mechanical properties and microstructures of dual phase steels containing silicon, aluminum and molybdenum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neill, Thomas John O'

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AND MICROSTRUCTURES OF DUAL PHASE STEELS CONTAINING SILICON,and Microstructures of Dual Phase Steels Containing Silicon,microstructures of selected dual-phase steels in which the

  16. EFFECTS OF MORPHOLOGY ON THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF DUAL PHASE Fe/Si/C STEELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, N.J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and ductility in dual phase steels. However, it seems thatmechanical behavior of dual phase steels. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSL INTRODUCTION Dual phase steels whose structures consist of

  17. THE EROSION BEHAVIOR OF STEEL AS A FUNCTION OF MICROSTRUCTURE ON SOLID PARTICLE EROSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Alan V.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the spheroidized 1075 steel by rolling prior to erosionAbrasive Wear Resistance of Steels. A Review, ~Jear, FIGUREelectron micrographs of 1075 steel in the coarse pearlite,

  18. Beam Energy Scaling on Ion-Induced Electron Yield from K+ Impact on Stainless Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K + Impact on Stainless Steel Michel Kireeff Covo Lawrence+ ions hit the stainless steel target with energy up to 400energies hitting stainless steel target obtained from

  19. Testing and analysis of structural steel columns subjected to blast loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Lauren K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Blast Simulator Testing of Steel Columns and Components. Testing of Structural Steel Columns. 8 th Internationaland Analysis of Structural Steel Columns Subjected to Blast

  20. A direct displacement-based design of low-rise seismic resistant steel moment frames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, John L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bending Resistance of Steel Beams. J. Struct. Div. ,in the Design of Steel Structures. Engineering715- American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) (2001).

  1. Cyclic behavior and design of steel columns subjected to large drift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newell, James David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bending Resistance of Steel Beams, Journal of the2007). Bolted Flange Plate Steel Moment Connections forSeismic Upgrade of a 15-Story Steel Moment Frame Building

  2. Open Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest and Evaluation |quasicrystals65Open Issues Open

  3. Open Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctoberResearchOpen Data Winners from theOpen

  4. Open Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctoberResearchOpen Data Winners"Unable to open

  5. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho [Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, 699, Gumho-dong, Gwangyang-si, Jeonnam, 545-090 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  6. Case hardenable nickel-cobalt steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, Yana (Sunnyvale, CA); Olson, Gregory B. (Evanston, IL)

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An advanced secondary hardening carburized Ni--Co steel achieves an improved case hardness of about 68-69 Rc together with nominal core hardness of about 50 Rc.

  7. Light Steel Framing: Improving the Integral Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amundarain, Aitor; Torero, Jose L; Usmani, Asif; Al-Remal, Ahmad M

    2006-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Light Steel Framing has been extensively used in cold climate countries due to its good thermal and structural behaviour. Improved thermal behaviour results in positive environmental impact essential for sustainable ...

  8. Transformation Strain and Crystallographic Texture in Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kundu, Saurabh

    Transformation Strain and Crystallographic Texture in Steels By Saurabh Kundu Darwin College, Cambridge University of Cambridge Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ A dissertation submitted for the degree... , Crystallographic tex- ture of stress-affected bainite, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, (submitted). Saurabh Kundu March, 2007 ii Acknowledgments I am grateful to the EPSRC, UK and TATA STEEL, India for funding this project. I would also like to thank...

  9. Microstructural studies of advanced austenitic steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, J. A.; Ren, Jyh-Ching [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (USA). Dept. of Materials Science

    1989-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the first complete microstructural and analytical electron microscopy study of Alloy AX5, one of a series of advanced austenitic steels developed by Maziasz and co-workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for their potential application as reheater and superheater materials in power plants that will reach the end of their design lives in the 1990's. The advanced steels are modified with carbide forming elements such as titanium, niobium and vanadium. When combined with optimized thermo-mechanical treatments, the advanced steels exhibit significantly improved creep rupture properties compared to commercially available 316 stainless steels, 17--14 Cu--Mo and 800 H steels. The importance of microstructure in controlling these improvements has been demonstrated for selected alloys, using stress relaxation testing as an accelerated test method. The microstructural features responsible for the improved creep strengths have been identified by studying the thermal aging kinetics of one of the 16Ni--14Cr advanced steels, Alloy AX5, in both the solution annealed and the solution annealed plus cold worked conditions. Time-temperature-precipitation diagrams have been developed for the temperature range 600 C to 900 C and for times from 1 h to 3000 h. 226 refs., 88 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Development of Steel Foam Materials and Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth Kremer; Anthony Liszkiewicz; James Adkins

    2004-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past few years there has been a growing interest in lightweight metal foams. Demands for weight reduction, improved fuel efficiency, and increased passenger safety in automobiles now has manufacturers seriously considering the use of metal foams, in contrast to a few years ago, when the same materials would have been ruled out for technical or economical reasons. The objective of this program was to advance the development and use of steel foam materials, by demonstrating the advantages of these novel lightweight materials in selected generic applications. Progress was made in defining materials and process parameters; characterization of physical and mechanical properties; and fabrication and testing of generic steel foam-filled shapes with compositions from 2.5 wt.% to 0.7 wt.% carbon. A means of producing steel foam shapes with uniform long range porosity levels of 50 to 60 percent was demonstrated and verified with NDE methods. Steel foam integrated beams, cylinders and plates were mechanically tested and demonstrated advantages in bend stiffness, bend resistance, and crush energy absorption. Methods of joining by welding, adhesive bonding, and mechanical fastening were investigated. It is important to keep in mind that steel foam is a conventional material in an unconventional form. A substantial amount of physical and mechanical properties are presented throughout the report and in a properties database at the end of the report to support designer's in applying steel foam in unconventional ways.

  11. Irradiation Assisted Grain Boundary Segregation in Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Zheng; Faulkner, Roy G. [IPTME, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leics (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The understanding of radiation-induced grain boundary segregation (RIS) has considerably improved over the past decade. New models have been introduced and much effort has been devoted to obtaining comprehensive information on segregation from the literature. Analytical techniques have also improved so that chemical analysis of layers 1 nm thick is almost routine. This invited paper will review the major methods used currently for RIS prediction: namely, Rate Theory, Inverse Kirkendall, and Solute Drag approaches. A summary is made of the available data on phosphorus RIS in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. This will be discussed in the light of the predictions of the various models in an effort to show which models are the most reliable and easy to use for forecasting P segregation behaviour in steels. A consequence of RIS in RPV steels is a radiation induced shift in the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT). It will be shown how it is possible to relate radiation-induced P segregation levels to DBTT shift. Examples of this exercise will be given for RPV steels and for ferritic steels being considered for first wall fusion applications. Cr RIS in high alloy stainless steels and associated irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) will be briefly discussed. (authors)

  12. Nickel-free duplex stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.; Uggowitzer, P.J.; Magdowski, R.; Speidel, M.O. [ETH-Zentrum, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Metallurgy] [ETH-Zentrum, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Metallurgy

    1998-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that nitrogen-alloying in steel produces a variety of exceptional properties such as high strength, high ductility and, eventually, resistance to stress corrosion cracking. High-nitrogen steels (HNS), therefore, have recently been developed to enhance the strength and corrosion resistance of stainless steels. However, due to a low solubility of nitrogen in a liquid steel under atmospheric pressure, the production of such high-nitrogen alloys needs high-pressure facilities that cause an extra cost. A possible route of developing high-nitrogen alloys under atmospheric pressure is to choose a duplex microstructure, where the amount of austenite and ferrite phase is nearly equal. A much lower nitrogen content is needed to maintain a 50% austenite phase compared with the necessary addition of nitrogen to reach a 100% austenitic microstructure. In addition, duplex stainless steels (DSS) with 40--60% ferrite can significantly improve the SCC-resistance. The objective of this work was to develop a new group of nickel-free, high strength and corrosion resistant DSS. Nickel was completely replaced by nitrogen in order to enhance SCC resistance and reduce the alloying element cost. The microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and cost analysis of new alloys are investigated in comparison with some commercial stainless steels.

  13. High Mn austenitic stainless steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Yukinori (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Santella, Michael L (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Brady, Michael P (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Liu, Chain-tsuan (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy includes, in weight percent: >4 to 15 Mn; 8 to 15 Ni; 14 to 16 Cr; 2.4 to 3 Al; 0.4 to 1 total of at least one of Nb and Ta; 0.05 to 0.2 C; 0.01 to 0.02 B; no more than 0.3 of combined Ti+V; up to 3 Mo; up to 3 Co; up to 1W; up to 3 Cu; up to 1 Si; up to 0.05 P; up to 1 total of at least one of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; less than 0.05 N; and base Fe, wherein the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, nanometer scale sized particles distributed throughout the microstructure, the particles including at least one of NbC and TaC, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure that is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  14. Hearth of Darkness: The Familiar, the Familial, and the Zombie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Sara Simcha

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    locale, weapons, victims, and shock effects. The slasherinfected by the effects of a nuclear weapon). And although

  15. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace-Transformational Ironmaking Process

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagementOPAM5 Accretion-of-DutiesPROPERTY3-0127Paducah3 Theof Pageof2

  16. DOE Issues Proposed Coverage Determination for Hearth Products | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave theJulyD&DDepartment offor Energy DeliveryConservationof

  17. .Hearth, Patio & Barbecue Association's Comments on DOE's Regulatory Burden

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO Overview OCHCOSystems AnalysisVOLUME I A1/19/10 ProtocolWays to Save40.3RFI | Department of

  18. Development of Next Generation Heating System for Scale Free Steel Reheating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi

    2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Teh report describes methods of reheating of steel billets and slabs for hot rolling or forging without forming steel scale.

  19. Open University

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Michel Pentz est ne en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et prsident de l'associaion du personnel. Il est galement fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genve et a particip la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pdagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la mthode peut s'appliquer.

  20. Open Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctoberResearchOpen Data Winners from

  1. Open Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctoberResearchOpen Data Winners

  2. Open Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctoberResearchOpen Data

  3. Open Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctoberResearchOpen DataResolved: Reports

  4. Open Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctoberResearchOpen DataResolved:

  5. Open Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctoberResearchOpen DataResolved:runtime

  6. Dislocation substructure in fatigued duplex stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polak, J. (Ecole Centrale de Lille, Villeneuve d'Ascq (France). Lab. de Mecanique de Lille Inst. of Physical Metallurgy, Brno (Czechoslovakia). Academy of Sciences); Degallaix, S. (Ecole Centrale de Lille, Villeneuve d'Ascq (France). Lab. de Mecanique de Lille); Kruml, T. (Inst. of Physical Metallurgy, Brno (Czechoslovakia). Academy of Sciences)

    1993-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Cyclic plastic straining of crystalline materials results in the formation of specific dislocation structures. Considerable progress in mapping and understanding internal dislocation structures has been achieved by studying single crystal behavior: however, most structural materials have a polycrystalline structure and investigations of polycrystals in comparison to single crystal behavior of simple metals prove to be very useful in understanding more complex materials. There are some classes of materials, however, with complicated structure which do not have a direct equivalent in single crystalline form. Moreover, the specific dimensions and shapes of individual crystallites play an important role both in the cyclic stress-strain response of these materials and in the formation of their interior structure in cyclic straining. Austenitic-ferritic duplex stainless steel, which is a kind of a natural composite, is a material of this type. The widespread interest in the application of duplex steels is caused by approximately doubled mechanical properties and equal corrosion properties, when compared with classical austenitic stainless steels. Fatigue resistance of these steels as well as the surface damage evolution in cyclic straining have been studied; however, much less is known about the internal substructure development in cyclic straining. In this study the dislocation arrangement in ferritic and austenitic grains of the austenitic-ferritic duplex steel alloyed with nitrogen and cyclically strained with two strain amplitudes, is reported and compared to the dislocation arrangement found in single and polycrystals of austenitic and ferritic materials of a similar composition and with the surface relief produced in cyclic plastic straining.

  7. Laminar inclusions of duplex stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson, M.E. [Fluor Daniel Canada Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Duplex Stainless Steel have been utilized in the offshore petrochemical industries for over twenty years. The steels are normally manufactured to produce a 50:50 duplex austenitic and ferritic microstructure. The microstructure yields the benefits of high strength, corrosion resistance and low thermal expansion. While constructing a high pressure header box for an air cooled heat exchanger, linear indications were observed along the weld preparation faces. These laminations were parallel to the plate surfaces, reminiscent to oxide inclusions found in carbon steel plates manufactured 20 years ago. Concern over premature failure at the highly stressed corner joints resulted in the rejection of the plates. A metallurgical investigation followed. From scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray, the indications were shown to be rich in Cr, Mn and Si. The inclusions occurred during steel manufacturing and were most likely due to incorrect removal of oxides at the top of the ingot and/or the exclusion of a secondary remelting process. New plates were ordered with tighter production controls on steel processing. The plates were ultrasonically inspected prior to fabrication and no further problems were discovered.

  8. Open Energy Information Systems (OpenEIS) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Open Energy Information Systems (OpenEIS) Open Energy Information Systems (OpenEIS) Lead Performer: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Berkeley, CA Project Partners: --...

  9. Electrodynamics in Iron and Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Paul Wallace

    2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to calculate the reflected EM fields at low amplitudes in iron and steel, more must be understood about the nature of long wavelength excitations in these metals. A bulk piece of iron is a very complex material with microstructure, a split band structure, magnetic domains and crystallographic textures that affect domain orientation. Probing iron and other bulk ferromagnetic materials with weak reflected and transmitted inductive low frequency fields is an easy operation to perform but the responses are difficult to interpret because of the complexity and variety of the structures affected by the fields. First starting with a simple single coil induction measurement and classical EM calculation to show the error is grossly under estimating the measured response. Extending this experiment to measuring the transmission of the induced fields allows the extraction of three dispersion curves which define these internal fields. One dispersion curve yielded an exceedingly small effective mass of 1.8 10^{-39}kg (1.3 10^{-9} m_e) for those spin waves. There is a second distinct dispersion curve more representative of the density function of a zero momentum bound state rather than a propagating wave. The third dispersion curve describes a magneto-elastic coupling to a very long wave length propagating mode. These experiments taken together display the characteristics of a high temperature Bose-Einstein like condensation that can be initiated by pumping two different states. A weak time dependent field drives the formation of coupled J=0 spin wave pairs with the reduced effective mass reflecting the increased size of the coherent state. These field can dominate induction measurements well past the Curie temperature.

  10. austenitic steel tp: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  11. afa stainless steels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  12. austenitic steels reaction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  13. a 285 steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut, Claude 46...

  14. aisi steel vliyanie: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut, Claude 203 Flexural...

  15. aisi 316l steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut, Claude 238 Flexural...

  16. activation austenitic steels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  17. austenitic stainless steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  18. aisi h13 steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut, Claude 209 Flexural...

  19. austenitic steels approche: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  20. alloy steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut, Claude 357 Flexural...

  1. alloy steel weldment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut, Claude 370 Flexural...

  2. austenitic steels wirkung: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  3. aisi-304 stainless steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  4. area stainless steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  5. austenitic steel aisi: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  6. austenitic steels final: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  7. algeciras spain steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut, Claude 311 Flexural...

  8. activation ferritic steels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  9. activation ferritic steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  10. aged stainless steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  11. austenitic stainless steels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  12. austenitic steel irradiated: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  13. alloy steel exposed: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut, Claude 434 Flexural...

  14. aisi52100 hardened steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut, Claude 324 Flexural...

  15. austenitic steel type: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut, Claude 120 Flexural...

  16. austenite stainless steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  17. austenitic steels amorcage: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  18. austenitic steels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  19. alloy steel primary: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut, Claude First Page Previous Page...

  20. austenitic steels irradiated: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  1. austentic stainless steels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  2. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Iron and Steel: Results

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and the Energy Information Agency website for updates. Read the U.S. Steel Industry Energy Efficiency Fact Sheet (PDF 83 KB) Download Acrobat Reader Read Steel Is The New...

  3. Transformation induced plasticity assisted steels: stress or strain affected martensitic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Transformation induced plasticity assisted steels: stress or strain affected martensitic transformation? S. Chatterjee and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia* Transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels contain a small quantity of carbon enriched retained austenite, which transforms into martensite during

  4. First Structural Steel Erected at NSLS-II

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Ten steel columns were incorporated into the ever-growing framework for the National Synchrotron Light Source II last week, the first structural steel erected for the future 400,000-square-foot facility.

  5. advanced ferritic steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    behavior of ferrite and dual phase steels Engineering Websites Summary: and dual phase steels C.F. Kuang a,n , J. Li b , S.G. Zhang a , J. Wang b , H.F. Liu b , A.A....

  6. alloy ferritic steels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    behavior of ferrite and dual phase steels Engineering Websites Summary: and dual phase steels C.F. Kuang a,n , J. Li b , S.G. Zhang a , J. Wang b , H.F. Liu b , A.A....

  7. advanced ferritic steels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    behavior of ferrite and dual phase steels Engineering Websites Summary: and dual phase steels C.F. Kuang a,n , J. Li b , S.G. Zhang a , J. Wang b , H.F. Liu b , A.A....

  8. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle...

  9. Structural Reliability of Bridges Elevated with Steel Pedestals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bisadi, Vahid 1980-

    2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    seismic regions using statistical tests. Then, to provide a general framework, which can be applied to all bridges that are elevated with steel pedestals, this dissertation develops probabilistic capacity and demand models for steel pedestals considering...

  10. Cartwright on Causality: Methods, Metaphysics, and Modularity Daniel Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steel, Daniel

    Cartwright on Causality: Methods, Metaphysics, and Modularity Daniel Steel Department of Philosophy 503 S Kedzie Hall Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824-1032 USA Email: steel@msu.edu #12

  11. G odel's legacy in set theory John R. Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koellner, Peter

    G? odel's legacy in set theory John R. Steel University of California, Berkeley August 2006 1 #12 generalizes the theory of L, has been developed. (Silver, Kunen, Mitchell, Dodd, Jensen, Martin, Steel, Woodin

  12. Must a Bayesian Accept the Likelihood Principle? Daniel Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitelson, Branden

    Must a Bayesian Accept the Likelihood Principle? Daniel Steel Department of Philosophy 503 S. Kedzie Hall Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824-1032 Email: steel@msu.edu #12;1 1

  13. Inductive Rules, Background Knowledge, and Skepticism Daniel Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steel, Daniel

    Inductive Rules, Background Knowledge, and Skepticism Daniel Steel Department of Philosophy 503 S. Kedzie Hall Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48823-1032 Email: steel@msu.edu #12;Abstract

  14. Enhanced Inclusion Removal from Steel in the Tundish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. C. Bradt; M.A.R. Sharif

    2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to develop an effective chemical filtering system for significantly reducing the content of inclusion particles in the steel melts exiting the tundish for continuous casting. This project combined a multi-process approach that aimed to make significant progress towards an "inclusion free" steel by incorporating several interdependent concepts to reduce the content of inclusions in the molten steel exiting the tundish for the caster. The goal is to produce "cleaner" steel.

  15. The anisotropic fatigue behaviour of forged steel ETIENNE PESSARDa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . This variation has been reported as being 35% for 42CrMo4 steel [7] and 15% for a duplex stainless steel [4] From in the matrix. For instance, Mateo and Lütjering [3-4] showed that for a duplex stainless steel and an aluminium(°)/D(0°) Mateo Duplex Stainless Steel Yield Stress= 610MPa Lütjering Al 7475 Yield Stress= 450MPa

  16. Auto/Steel Partnership: Hydroforming Materials and Lubricant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lightweight Rear Chassis Structures Future Generation Passenger Compartment AutoSteel Partnership: Hydroforming Materials and Lubricant Lightweight Rear Chassis Structures...

  17. Deformation rate effects on failure modes of open-cell Al foams and textile cellular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    September 2005 Abstract The compressive behavior of open-cell aluminum alloy foam and stainless steel woven: Metallic cellular materials; Dynamic compression; Aluminum foams; Woven textile lattice 0020-7683/$ - see are of attracting interest for a variety of automotive, locomotive, marine, and aerospace applications (Gibson

  18. Iron and steel industry process model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparrow, F.T.; Pilati, D.; Dougherty, T.; McBreen, E.; Juang, L.L.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The iron and steel industry process model depicts expected energy-consumption characteristics of the iron and steel industry and ancillary industries for the next 25 years by means of a process model of the major steps in steelmaking, from ore mining and scrap recycling to the final finishing of carbon, alloy, and stainless steel into steel products such as structural steel, slabs, plates, tubes, and bars. Two plant types are modeled: fully integrated mills and mini-mills. User-determined inputs into the model are as follows: projected energy and materials prices; projected costs of capacity expansion and replacement; energy-conserving options, both operating modes and investments; the internal rate of return required on investment; and projected demand for finished steel. Nominal input choices in the model for the inputs listed above are as follows: National Academy of Sciences Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems Demand Panel nominal energy-price projections for oil, gas, distillates, residuals, and electricity and 1975 actual prices for materials; actual 1975 costs; new technologies added; 15% after taxes; and 1975 actual demand with 1.5%/y growth. The model reproduces the base-year (1975) actual performance of the industry; then, given the above nominal input choices, it projects modes of operation and capacity expansion that minimize the cost of meeting the given final demands for each of 5 years, each year being the midpoint of a 5-year interval. The output of the model includes the following: total energy use and intensity (Btu/ton) by type, by process, and by time period; energy conservation options chosen; utilization rates for existing capacity; capital-investment decisions for capacity expansion.

  19. Corrosion of carbon steels, stainless steels, and titanium in aqueous lithium bromide solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guinon, J.L.; Garcia-Anton, J.; Perez-Herranz, V. (Univ. Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear); Lacoste, G. (ENSIGC, Toulouse (France))

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of lithium bromide (LiBr) concentration, pH, temperature, exposure time, and the action of some inhibitors on corrosion of several carbon (C) steels, stainless steels (SS), and a titanium (Ti) alloy were studied. Corrosion rates were determined by the polarization resistance method and compared to rates determined by weight-loss measurements. Pitting potentials (E[sub p]) were evaluated in neutral LiBr solution and with different inhibitors. Pit density and average pit depth depended on the metal tested, with lowest values for Ti, the next lowest values for type 316 SS (UNS S31600), and the highest values for UNS G41350 tempered steel.

  20. CE 4990 -Construction Scheduling Week 1: Steel Frame Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukherjee, Amlan

    CE 4990 - Construction Scheduling Week 1: Steel Frame Project Fall 2011 January 13, 2012 Introduction You are a construction manager for a project to build a steel frame for an office building1 of 964 pre-fabricated structural steel members will be used in the construction. The standard bay size

  1. Model coupling friction and adhesion for steel-concrete interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Model coupling friction and adhesion for steel- concrete interfaces Michel Raous Laboratoire de: In this paper the interface behaviour between steel and concrete, during pull out tests, is numerically a variable friction coefficient in order to simulate the behaviour of the steel-concrete interface during

  2. Water Modeling of Steel Flow, Air Entrainment and Filtration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Water Modeling of Steel Flow, Air Entrainment and Filtration Christoph Beckermann Associate Beckermann, C., "Water Modeling of Steel Flow, Air Entrainment and Filtration," in Proceedings of the 46th, 1992. #12;Abstract This paper presents an analysis of water modeling of steel pouring to study (1) air

  3. 1D subsurface electromagnetic fields excited by energized steel casing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdn, Carlos

    1D subsurface electromagnetic fields excited by energized steel casing Wei Yang1 , Carlos Torres the possibility of enabling steel-cased wells as galvanic sources to detect and quantify spatial variations of electrical conductivity in the subsurface. The study assumes a vertical steel-cased well that penetrates

  4. Open Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest and Evaluation |quasicrystals65 (9/12)JeffersonOpen

  5. Open Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  19. Reuse of steel and aluminium without melting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, Daniel

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    -of-life metal components that could be reused for each product, the catalogue formed the basis of a set of semi-structured interviews with industrial experts. The results suggest that approximately 30% of steel and aluminium used in current products could... Allwood J.M., Cullen J.M., Cooper D.R., Milford R.L., Patel A.C.H., Carruth M.A., McBrien M., 2010. Conserving our metal energy: avoiding melting steel and aluminium scrap to save energy and carbon. University of Cambridge, ISBN 978-0-903428-30-9 Allwood...

  20. Carbon Diffusion Across Dissimilar Steel Welds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Race, Julia Margaret

    1992-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    CrMo 0.056 0.40 0.77 0.010 0.012 1.11 0.44 0.035 0.015 lCr1MolV 0.13 0.23 0.50 0.033 0.055 0.41 0.58 0.25 0.252 2 4 Table 1.2: Typical compositions of the commonly used high strength low alloy steels. 1.3.2 High Cr ferritie steels Increasing...

  1. The Signifance of Retained Austenite in Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhadeshia, H K D H

    1980-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    . Introduction 90 2. Experimental Method and Techniques 91 3. Results and Discussion 92 4. Summary 94 VIII. An Analysis o the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure o a High-Silicon Dual-Phase Steel 1. Introduction 2. Deormation Models 3. Experimental... ects such that the extent o twinning was the greatest when adjacent martensite units had twin-related lattices. The thermodynamics o dislocated martensites have been briefly examined, The inhomogeneous deormation behaviour o dual-phase steels has been analysed in terms...

  2. The corrosion of some stainless steels in a marine mud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, R.; Byrne, G. [Weir Materials and Foundries Park Works, Manchester (United Kingdom); Campbell, H.S. [Univ. of Surrey (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report presents the results for three alloys: carbon steel, 316L stainless steel and a proprietary super duplex stainless steel (UNS S32760), exposed in a marine mud off the south coast of England for 5 years. Analysis of the mud showed it to be very aggressive using a corrosion index developed at the University of Manchester. Carbon steel showed a typical corrosion rate for microbial attack with pits up to 0.64mm deep. The 316L stainless steel had extensive broad, shallow attack with a few, deeper pits. The Z100 parent pipe and weldments showed no evidence of corrosion attack.

  3. Microstructural Evolution in Power Plant Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    energy of the steam is converted to electrical energy by a system of turbines and a generator. Figure 2 temperature as possible. Progress in power-plant alloy design has allowed T1 to be increased from 370 C Steels Pump Cooling water Cooling water Electrical output Condenser Reheat Coal Boiler Superheater Ash HP

  4. Extraordinary Ductility in Albearing TRIP Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    .K. Abstract An ironbased alloy system has been developed which exhibits impressive combina- tions of tensile is research in progress on the stronger steels in order to enhance ductility and assess other engineering cooling transformation (DeCooman, 2004; Jacques, 2004; Matsumura et al., 1987a,b; Sakuma et al., 1991

  5. Selection of Processes for Welding Steel Rails

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ...._ _) Selection of Processes for Welding Steel Rails by N.S. Tsai* and T.W. Eagar* ABSTRACT 421 The advantages and limitations ofseveral conventional and prospective rail welding processes are reviewed with emphasis on the heat input rate, on joint preparation, on post weld grinding and on resultant metallurgical

  6. Weldment for austenitic stainless steel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bagnall, Christopher (Hempfield, PA); McBride, Marvin A. (Hempfield, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For making defect-free welds for joining two austenitic stainless steel mers, using gas tungsten-arc welding, a thin foil-like iron member is placed between the two steel members to be joined, prior to making the weld, with the foil-like iron member having a higher melting point than the stainless steel members. When the weld is formed, there results a weld nugget comprising melted and then solidified portions of the joined members with small portions of the foil-like iron member projecting into the solidified weld nugget. The portions of the weld nugget proximate the small portions of the foil-like iron member which project into the weld nugget are relatively rich in iron. This causes these iron-rich nugget portions to display substantial delta ferrite during solidification of the weld nugget which eliminates weld defects which could otherwise occur. This is especially useful for joining austenitic steel members which, when just below the solidus temperature, include at most only a very minor proportion of delta ferrite.

  7. The Steel Market Today And Tomorrow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    a liability as a benefit. Mature Industry Many observers suggest that the metals industry is based on old straddled the traditional metals industries, as well as the newer "high technol- ogy'' industries, the claim problems have been solved." For example, the scrap rate for the steel industry is extremely low, esp~ dally

  8. Must we use ferritic steel in TBM?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salavy, Jean-Francois; Boccaccini, Lorenzo V.; Chaudhuri, Paritosh; Cho, Seungyon; Enoeda, Mikio; Giancarli, Luciano; Kurtz, Richard J.; Luo, Tian Y.; Rao, K. Bhanu Sankara; Wong, Clement

    2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Mock-ups of DEMO breeding blankets, called Test Blanket Modules (TBMs), inserted and tested in ITER in dedicated equatorial ports directly facing the plasma, are expected to provide the first experimental answers on the necessary performance of the corresponding DEMO breeding blankets. Several DEMO breeding blanket designs have been studied and assessed in the last 20 years. At present, after considering various coolant and breeder combinations, all the TBM concepts proposed by the seven ITER Parties use Reduced-Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steel as the structural material. In order to perform valuable tests in ITER, the TBMs are expected to use the same structural material as corresponding DEMO blankets. However, due to the fact that this family of steels is ferromagnetic, their presence in the ITER vacuum vessel will create perturbations of the ITER magnetic fields that could reduce the quality of the plasma confinement during H-mode. As a consequence, a legitimate question has been raised on the necessity of using RAFM steel for TBMs structural material in ITER. By giving a short description of the main TBM testing objectives in ITER and assessing the consequences of not using such a material, this paper gives a comprehensive answer to this question. According to the working group author of the study, the use of RAFM steel as structural material for TBM is judged mandatory.

  9. Energy Flow Models for the Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyman, B.; Andersen, J. P.

    Energy patterns in the U. S. steel industry are examined using several models. First is an end-use model based on data in the 1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). Then a seven-step process model is presented and material flow through...

  10. Transformation texture of allotriomorphic ferrite in steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Transformation texture of allotriomorphic ferrite in steel D. W. Kim1 , R. S. Qin1 and H. K. D. H into that of the product is mathematically defined. This is not the case when the ferrite forms by a reconstructive mechanism. The allotriomorphic ferrite nucleates heterogeneously at austenite grain boundaries, and although

  11. Avoid stainless steel failures in FGD systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, J.P.; Schillmoller, C.M.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preventing pitting and localized corrosion is the key to success where low maintenance and high reliability are rime considerations in flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) designs. Knowing when to use a stainless steel, and when not to, is crucial. Operating parameters and environmental factors greatly affect alloy performance, especially pH, temperature, and chloride and oxygen levels. Failures of stainless steels can be avoided by understanding their limits in light of these variables. This article will focus on the capabilities of Types 316L, 317L, 317LM, 317LMN, 904L, and 6% Mo stainless steels and their applications, as well as provide details on unique combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the 22% Cr duplex and 25% Cr super-duplex stainless steels in acid chloride systems. Guidelines will be presented on methods to prevent intergranular corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and pitting and crevice corrosion, and what process steps can be taken to assure reasonable performance of marginal alloy selections. Emphasis will be on the lime/limestone wet scrubbing process and the quencher/absorber.

  12. Modelling of Simultaneous Transformations in Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy Univesity of Professor H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia in the Department of Materi- als Science and Metallurgy, University in the proceedings of the conference on New Development on Metallurgy and Applications of High Strength Steels

  13. Modelling Precipitation of Carbides in Martensitic Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, between October 2000 and November 2003. Except facilities in the Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy at the University of Cambridge. I would like of the physical metallurgy of secondary hardening steels and the phenomena of hydrogen embrittlement and hydrogen

  14. Mechanical Behavior and Microstructural Development of Low-Carbon Steel and Microcomposite Steel Reinforcement Bars Deformed under Quasi-Static and Dynamic Shear Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pp. 6677. 44. G. Krauss: Steels: Processing, Structure, andConf. Super High Strength Steels, AIM, Rome, Italy, 2005,cation for Epoxy-Coated Steel Reinforcing Bars, Annual

  15. Crack stability analysis of low alloy steel primary coolant pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, T.; Kameyama, M. [Kansai Electric Power Company, Osaka (Japan); Urabe, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago (Japan)] [and others

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At present, cast duplex stainless steel has been used for the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan and joints of dissimilar material have been applied for welding to reactor vessels and steam generators. For the primary coolant piping of the next APWR plants, application of low alloy steel that results in designing main loops with the same material is being studied. It means that there is no need to weld low alloy steel with stainless steel and that makes it possible to reduce the welding length. Attenuation of Ultra Sonic Wave Intensity is lower for low alloy steel than for stainless steel and they have advantageous inspection characteristics. In addition to that, the thermal expansion rate is smaller for low alloy steel than for stainless steel. In consideration of the above features of low alloy steel, the overall reliability of primary coolant piping is expected to be improved. Therefore, for the evaluation of crack stability of low alloy steel piping to be applied for primary loops, elastic-plastic future mechanics analysis was performed by means of a three-dimensioned FEM. The evaluation results for the low alloy steel pipings show that cracks will not grow into unstable fractures under maximum design load conditions, even when such a circumferential crack is assumed to be 6 times the size of the wall thickness.

  16. Retained austenite thermal stability in a nanostructured bainitic steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avishan, Behzad, E-mail: b_avishan@sut.ac.ir [Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Garcia-Mateo, Carlos, E-mail: cgm@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), MATERALIA Research Group, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Yazdani, Sasan, E-mail: yazdani@sut.ac.ir [Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Caballero, Francisca G., E-mail: fgc@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), MATERALIA Research Group, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The unique microstructure of nanostructured bainite consists of very slender bainitic ferrite plates and high carbon retained austenite films. As a consequence, the reported properties are opening a wide range of different commercial uses. However, bainitic transformation follows the T{sub 0} criteria, i.e. the incomplete reaction phenomena, which means that the microstructure is not thermodynamically stable because the bainitic transformation stops well before austenite reaches an equilibrium carbon level. This article aims to study the different microstructural changes taking place when nanostructured bainite is destabilized by austempering for times well in excess of that strictly necessary to end the transformation. Results indicate that while bainitic ferrite seems unaware of the extended heat treatment, retained austenite exhibits a more receptive behavior to it. - Highlights: Nanostructured bainitic steel is not thermodynamically stable. Extensive austempering in these microstructures has not been reported before. Precipitation of cementite particles is unavoidable at longer austempering times. TEM, FEG-SEM and XRD analysis were used for microstructural characterization.

  17. Microscale investigation of the corrosion performances of low-carbon and stainless steels in highly alkaline concretes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Itty, Pierre-Adrien

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FILM FORMED ON DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL IN HIGHLY ALKALINEouter-layer. On duplex stainless steel (UNS S32101), theto corrosion. Finally, duplex stainless steels contain both

  18. Performance of steel-polymer and ceramic-polymer layered composites and concrete under high strain rate loadings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samiee, Ahsan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance of Steel-Polyurea Bi-layers Subjected to Impul-Performance of Steel-Polymer-Steel Sandwich Structures Sub- jected to Impulsive

  19. Fabrication procedure effects on fatigue resistance of rib -to-deck welded joints of steel orthotropic bridge decks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sim, Hyoung-Bo

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    details of orthotropic steel deck. Proc. , Internationalnew approaches to fatigue evaluation of steel bridges. International Journal of Steel Structures, KSSC, Vol. 6, No.

  20. Micromechanisms of ductile fracturing of DH-36 steel plates under impulsive loads and influence of polyurea reinforcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amini, M. R.; Nemat-Nasser, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of ductile fracturing of DH-36 steel plates under impulsiveductile fracturing of DH-36 steel plates subjected to blast-microstructure of the deformed steel samples also revealed

  1. Broadening the Statistical Search for Metal Price Super Cycles to Steel and Related Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broadening the Statistical Search for Metal Price Super Cycles to Steel and Related Metals of industrial development and urbanization: steel, pig iron, and molybdenum (a key ingredient in many steel's (2008) econometric search for super cycles in metals prices to our `steel group', defined here as steel

  2. Steel Creek fish: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paller, M.H.; Heuer, J.H.; Kissick, L.A.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fish samples were collected from Steel Creek during 1986 and 1987 following the impoundment of the headwaters of the stream to form L-Lake, a cooling reservoir for L-Reactor which began operating late in 1985. Electrofishing and ichthyoplankton sample stations were located throughout the creek. Fykenetting sample stations were located in the creek mouth and just above the Steel Creek swamp. Larval fish and fish eggs were collected with 0.5 m plankton nets. Multivariate analysis of the electrofishing data suggested that the fish assemblages in Steel Creek exhibited structural differences associated with proximity to L-Lake, and habitat gradients of current velocity, depth, and canopy cover. The Steel Creek corridor, a lotic reach beginning at the base of the L-Lake embankment was dominated by stream species and bluegill. The delta/swamp, formed where Steel Creek enters the Savannah River floodplain, was dominated by fishes characteristic of slow flowing waters and heavily vegetated habitats. The large channel draining the swamp supported many of the species found in the swamp plus riverine and anadromous forms.

  3. Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Microstructure/property relationships in dissimilar welds between duplex stainless steels and carbon steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnhouse, E.J. [Weirton Steel Corp., WV (United States); Lippold, J.C. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The metallurgical characteristics, toughness and corrosion resistance of dissimilar welds between duplex stainless steel Alloy 2205 and carbon steel A36 have been evaluated. Both duplex stainless steel ER2209 and Ni-based Alloy 625 filler metals were used to join this combination using a multipass, gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. Defect-free welds were made with each filler metal. The toughness of both the 625 and 2209 deposits were acceptable, regardless of heat input. A narrow martensitic region with high hardness was observed along the A36/2209 fusion boundary. A similar region was not observed in welds made with the 625 filler metal. The corrosion resistance of the welds made with 2209 filler metal improved with increasing heat input, probably due to higher levels of austenite and reduced chromium nitride precipitation. Welds made with 625 exhibited severe attack in the root pass, while the bulk of the weld was resistant. This investigation has shown that both filler metals can be used to joint carbon steel to duplex stainless steels, but that special precautions may be necessary in corrosive environments.

  5. Phase Transformation in Cast Superaustenitic Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathaniel Steven Lee Phillips

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Superaustenitic stainless steels constitute a group of Fe-based alloys that are compositionally balanced to have a purely austenitic matrix and exhibit favorable pitting and crevice corrosion resistant properties and mechanical strength. However, intermetallic precipitates such as sigma and Laves can form during casting or exposure to high-temperature processing, which degrade the corrosion and mechanical properties of the material. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the solid-solid phase transformations seen in cast superaustenitic stainless steels. Heat treatments were performed to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formations in alloys CN3MN and CK3MCuN. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, WDS). The equilibrium microstructures, composed primarily of sigma and Laves within purely austenitic matrices, showed slow transformation kinetics. Factors that determine the extent of transformation, including diffusion, nucleation, and growth, are discussed.

  6. Metallurgical evaluation of recycled stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imrich, K.J.

    1997-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Recycled Type 304 stainless steel from both Carolina Metals Inc. (CMI) and Manufacturing Science Corporation (MSC) met all the requirements of ASTM A-240 required by Procurement Specification G-SPP-K-00005 Rev. 4. Mechanical strength and corrosion resistance of the material are adequate for service as burial boxes, overpacks, and drums. Inclusion content of both manufacturer`s material was high, resulting in a corresponding decrease in the corrosion resistance. Therefore, an evaluation of the service conditions should be performed before this material is approved for other applications. These heats of stainless steel are not suitable for fabricating DWPF glass canisters because the inclusion and carbon contents are high. However, MSC has recently installed a vacuum induction furnace capable of producing L grade material with a low inclusion content. Material produced from this furnace should be suitable for canister material if appropriate care is taken during the melting/casting process.

  7. TEM microscopical examination of the magnetic domain boundaries in a super duplex austenitic-ferritic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fourlaris, G.; Gladman, T. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom); Maylin, M. [Holton Heath, Dorset (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been demonstrated in an earlier publication that significant improvements in the coercivity, maximum induction and remanence values can be achieved, by using a 2205 type Duplex austenitic-ferritic stainless steel (DSS) instead of the low alloy medium carbon steels currently being used. These improvements are achieved in the as received 2205 material, and after small amounts of cold rolling have been applied, to increase the strength. In addition, the modification of the duplex austenitic-ferritic microstructure, via a heat treatment route, results in a finer austenite `island` dispersion in a ferritic matrix and provides an attractive option for further modification of the magnetic characteristics of the material. However, the 2205 type DSS exhibits {open_quotes}marginal{close_quotes} corrosion protection in a marine environment, so that a study has been undertaken to examine whether the beneficial effects exhibited by the 2205 DSS, are also present in a 2507 type super-DSS.

  8. Modelling Precipitation of Carbides in Martensitic Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamasaki, Shingo

    is greater than the yield stress of many commercial steels. II Sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSCC) There were cases in which joints of pipes used in oil wells ruptured only a few days after the commencement of operation [45, 46]. These accidents were... -composition IG Intergranular fracture MVC Microvoid coalescence rupture MTDATA Metallurgical and Thermochemical Databank PC Pre-stressed concrete QC Quasi-cleavage fracture SSCC Sulfide stress corrosion cracking TEM Transmission electron microscope TMCP...

  9. Cast Stainless Steel Ferrite and Grain Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruud, Clayton O.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Mathews, Royce; Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In-service inspection requirements dictate that piping welds in the primary pressure boundary of light-water reactors be subject to a volumetric examination based on the rules contained within the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI. The purpose of the inspection is the reliable detection and accurate sizing of service-induced degradation and/or material flaws introduced during fabrication. The volumetric inspection is usually carried out using ultrasonic testing (UT) methods. However, the varied metallurgical macrostructures and microstructures of cast austenitic stainless steel piping and fittings, including statically cast stainless steel and centrifugally cast stainless steel (CCSS), introduce significant variations in the propagation and attenuation of ultrasonic energy. These variations complicate interpretation of the UT responses and may compromise the reliability of UT inspection. A review of the literature indicated that a correlation may exist between the microstructure and the delta ferrite content of the casting alloy. This paper discusses the results of a recent study where the goal was to determine if a correlation existed between measured and/or calculated ferrite content and grain structure in CCSS pipe.

  10. Integrating Steel Production with Mineral Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klaus Lackner; Paul Doby; Tuncel Yegulalp; Samuel Krevor; Christopher Graves

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the project were (i) to develop a combination iron oxide production and carbon sequestration plant that will use serpentine ores as the source of iron and the extraction tailings as the storage element for CO2 disposal, (ii) the identification of locations within the US where this process may be implemented and (iii) to create a standardized process to characterize the serpentine deposits in terms of carbon disposal capacity and iron and steel production capacity. The first objective was not accomplished. The research failed to identify a technique to accelerate direct aqueous mineral carbonation, the limiting step in the integration of steel production and carbon sequestration. Objective (ii) was accomplished. It was found that the sequestration potential of the ultramafic resource surfaces in the US and Puerto Rico is approximately 4,647 Gt of CO2 or over 500 years of current US production of CO2. Lastly, a computer model was developed to investigate the impact of various system parameters (recoveries and efficiencies and capacities of different system components) and serpentinite quality as well as incorporation of CO2 from sources outside the steel industry.

  11. Dimensional variability of production steel castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, F.E.; Risteu, J.W.; Vaupel, W.G.; DeMeter, E.C.; Voigt, R.C.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Work is ongoing to characterize the dimensional variability of steel casting features. Data are being collected from castings produced at representative Steel Founders` Society of America foundries. Initial results based on more than 12,500 production casting feature measurements are presented for carbon and low alloy steel castings produced in green sand, no-bake, and shell molds. A comprehensive database of casting, pattern, and feature variables has been developed so that the influence of the variables on dimensional variability can be determined. Measurement system analysis is conducted to insure that large measurement error is not reported as dimensional variability. Results indicate that the dimensional variability of production casting features is less than indicated in current US (SFSA) and international (ISO) standards. Feature length, casting weight, parting line and molding process all strongly influence dimensional variability. Corresponding pattern measurements indicate that the actual shrinkage amount for casting features varies considerably. This variation in shrinkage will strongly influence the ability of the foundry to satisfy customer dimensional requirements.

  12. EAF steel producers and the K061 dilemma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prichard, L.C.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The scrap based steel producers in the United States generate an estimated 650,000 tons of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust annually which is classified as hazardous waste, K061. These scrap based producers commonly referred to as mini-mills represented 39% of the steel produced in 1994. Based upon the EAF plants being installed or planned today, it is a reasonable projection to anticipate 50% of the steel produced in the United States will be by EAF`S. Using a straight line projection of percent of steel produced to tonnage of EAF dust generated, this will result in 833,000 tons of dust being generated upon the completion of these new EAF producing plants, presumably by the year 2000. Because the United States is a capitalistic economy, a steel producer is in business to make a profit therefore dust management becomes a very important variable in the cost of making steel.

  13. The performance of duplex stainless steels in chemical environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, R. [Weir Materials Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom). Park Works

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The process industries have used 300 series stainless steels for many years where the corrosion resistance of carbon steel is inadequate. Where stainless steels have proved inadequate there has been a tendency to utilize high nickel alloys, with a greatly increased cost. The present paper reviews the different grades of duplex stainless steel and shows how their superior corrosion and stress corrosion cracking resistance, plus their high strength, can be utilized to provide cost effective alternatives to the high nickel alloys. The use of alternative design codes to take advantages of the properties of duplex alloys is discussed. Data is presented to show the resistance of duplex stainless steels to a variety of chemical environments. The use of duplex stainless steels and the reason for their selection in a number of applications is reviewed.

  14. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum.

  15. Characterization of thermal aging of duplex stainless steel by SQUID

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isobe, Y.; Kamimura, A.; Aoki, K.; Nakayasu, F. [Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal aging is a growing concern for long-term-aged duplex stainless steel piping in nuclear power plants. Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) was used for the detection of thermal aging of SUS329 rolled duplex stainless steel and SCS16 cast duplex stainless steel. It was found that the SQUID output signal pattern in the presence of AC magnetic field applied to the specimen was sensitive to the changes in electromagnetic properties due to thermal aging.

  16. Apparatus and method for producing fragment-free openings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherry, Christopher R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for explosively penetrating hardened containers such as steel drums without producing metal fragmentation is disclosed. The apparatus can be used singularly or in combination with water disrupters and other disablement tools. The apparatus is mounted in close proximity to the target and features a main sheet explosive that is initiated at least three equidistant points along the sheet's periphery. A buffer material is placed between the sheet explosive and the target. As a result, the metallic fragments generated from the detonation of the detonator are attenuated so that no fragments from the detonator are transferred to the target. As a result, an opening can be created in containers such as steel drums through which access to the IED is obtained to defuse it with projectiles or fluids.

  17. automotive sheet steels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and 90, elongated Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 88 Spot weldability of TRIP assisted steels with high carbon and aluminium contents Materials Science Websites Summary:...

  18. ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations castingops.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  19. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Iron and Steel: GHG...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    chemicals, forest products (such as paper and wood products), glass, metal casting, petroleum and coal products, and steel. As soon as the current briefs are available, we...

  20. analog stainless steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (more) Naraghi, Reza 2009-01-01 2 Quantification of phase transformation in stainless steel 301LN sheets MIT - DSpace Summary: This thesis investigates the large deformation...

  1. arc stainless steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (more) Naraghi, Reza 2009-01-01 2 Quantification of phase transformation in stainless steel 301LN sheets MIT - DSpace Summary: This thesis investigates the large deformation...

  2. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    does not contain any proprietary or confidential information Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) (13056 ORNL, 13055 PNNL) Friction Stir Spot...

  3. Production design for plate products in the steel industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanjeeb Dash

    2007-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 5, 2007 ... Abstract: We describe an optimization tool for a multistage production process for rectangular steel plates. The problem we solve yields a...

  4. New Austenitic Stainless Steels for Exhaust Components (Agreement...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Documents & Publications CF8C PLus: A New Cast Stainless Steel for High-Temperature Diesel Exhaust Components Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Materials for...

  5. Blast damage mitigation of steel structures from near- contact charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfson, Janet Crumrine

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Blast Damage Mitigation of Steel35 Damage Levels Observed in LaboratoryFigure 3.34: Progression of damage for a Ballistic Loading

  6. a537 carbon steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon...

  7. Strain Rate Characterization of Advanced High Strength Steels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    design factor - New materials do not have design history available for conventional automotive materials (e.g. mild steel) - This lack of knowledge is compensated by...

  8. Auto/Steel Partnership: Fatigue of AHSS Strain Rate Characterization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fatigue of AHSS Strain Rate Characterization AutoSteel Partnership: Fatigue of AHSS Strain Rate Characterization 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual...

  9. alloyed stainless steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 3 Standard test methods for pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of stainless steels and related alloys by use of ferric Chloride solution...

  10. alloy steels etudes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    y-dend rites. (Note: primary y Cambridge, University of 2 Estimation of Atmospheric Corrosion of High-Strength, Low-Alloy Steels Engineering Websites Summary: Estimation of...

  11. alloy coated steels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    y-dend rites. (Note: primary y Cambridge, University of 2 Estimation of Atmospheric Corrosion of High-Strength, Low-Alloy Steels Engineering Websites Summary: Estimation of...

  12. alloy steel transition: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    y-dend rites. (Note: primary y Cambridge, University of 2 Estimation of Atmospheric Corrosion of High-Strength, Low-Alloy Steels Engineering Websites Summary: Estimation of...

  13. alloy coated steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    y-dend rites. (Note: primary y Cambridge, University of 2 Estimation of Atmospheric Corrosion of High-Strength, Low-Alloy Steels Engineering Websites Summary: Estimation of...

  14. alloys stainless steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 3 Standard test methods for pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of stainless steels and related alloys by use of ferric Chloride solution...

  15. ITP Steel: Energy and Environmental Profile fo the U.S. Iron...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy and Environmental Profile fo the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry ITP Steel: Energy and Environmental Profile fo the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry steelprofile.pdf More...

  16. CARBON ATOM DISTRIBUTION IN A DUAL PHASE STEEL: AN ATOM PROBE STUDY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnard, S.J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ATOM DISTRIBUTION IN A DUAL PHASE STEEL: AN ATOM PROBE STUDY~4720 1 U.S.A. IntroductioE. Dual Phase steels are currentlymartensite-austenite dual phase steel, although the results

  17. MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF 0.1C STEEL WITH Nb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gau, Jing-Sheng

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Properties of Dual-Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. W.and Prooerties of Dual-Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. W.Prooerties of Vanadium Dual Phase Steel and Cold Pressing

  18. DESIGN OF DUAL PHASE Fe/Mn/C STEEL FOR LOW TEMPERATURE APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Nack-Joon

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Properties of Dual- Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. \\4.and Properties of Dual Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. W. ~Formable HSLA and Dual- Phase Steels, A. T. Davenport, ed. ,

  19. A MOSSBAUER STUDY OF AUSTENITE STABILITY AND IMPACT FRACTURE IN Fe - 6 Ni STEEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fultz, Brent

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IMPACT FRACTURE IN Fe-6Ni STEEL Brent Thomas Fultz Materialscommercial cryogenic alloy steel was studied with regard toThe Experiments Fe-6Ni-lMn steel plate was received from the

  20. THE EFFECT OF SILICON ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL CRACKING BEHAVIOR OF A HIGH STRENGTH STEEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cedeno, M.H.C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-Alloy, High-Strength Steel, Advanced Research ProjectsTests of High Strength Steels, BISRA Report September 1971.Cracking in High Strength Steels and in Titanium and

  1. People of Steel: The Support of a Town during the Homestead Strike

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partida, Jason

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the riot between the steel strikers and the Pinkertons afterNovember 19, 1892. People of Steel 126 The position you1892, between the Carnegie Steel Company, Limited, and the

  2. WELDABILITY OF GRAIN-REFINED Fe-12Ni-0.25Ti STEEL FOR CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris Jr., J.W.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the Cryogenic Nickel Steels, WRC Bull, 205, May, 1975.REFINED Fe-12Ni-0.25Ti STEEL FOR CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS D.E.REFINED Fe-12Ni-0.25Ti STEEL FOR CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS D.

  3. Effect of polyurea on dynamic response and fracture resistance of steel plates under impulsive loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amini, Mahmoud Reza

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the dynamic response of steel plates, 2006 SEM AnnualPenetration protection of steel plates with polyurea layer,the post-failure motion of steel plates subjected to blast

  4. Propagating Waves Recorded in the Steel, Moment-Frame Factor Building During Earthquakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohler, Monica; Heaton, Thomas H.; Samuel C. Bradford

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    studies of damage to tall steel moment-frame buildings inan instrumented 15-story steel- frame building, EarthquakePropagating Waves in the Steel, Moment-Frame Factor Building

  5. DESIGN OF DUAL PHASE Fe/Mn/C STEEL FOR LOW TEMPERATURE APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Nack-Joon

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Properties of Dual- Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. \\4.Properties of Dual Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. W. ~lorrisand Hardenability in Steels, Symp. ASt~. ~. Garvey, Trans.

  6. Identification, Model Updating, and Response Prediction of an Instrumented 15-Story Steel-Frame Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skolnik, Derek; Lei, Ying; Yu, Eunjong; Wallace, J W

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A. , 1998. Ductile Design of Steel Structure, McGraw Hill,monitoring of the steel-frame UCLA Factor Building,an Instrumented 15-Story Steel-Frame Building Derek Skolnik,

  7. MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF AISI 4340 STEEL MODIFIED WITH ALUMINUM AND SILICON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhat, M.S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1968), G, Thomas. Iron and Steel Int, 46. 451 (1973), G,Containing High-Strength Steels, Cobalt Monograph Series, A.Strength Structural j Steels," ASTM Spec, Tech, PubL 498,

  8. Performance-Based Seismic Demand Assessment of Concentrically Braced Steel Frame Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chui-Hsin

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Ductility Factors for Steel Frames De- signed According1980), Inelastic Buckling of Steel Struts Under Cyclic LoadBS 5950: Structural use of steel work in building. Part1

  9. THE USE OF MICROSTRUCTURE CONTROL TO TOUGHEN FERRITIC STEELS FOR CRYOGENIC USE. II. Fe-Mn STEELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, S.K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    steels in current use at LNG temperatures and below containtemperature to below LNG temperature. The resulting alloysis suitable for use to below LNG temperature in the grain-

  10. Open Access Task Force Open Access to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    Libraries Initiative launched by National Science Foundation; Social Sciences Research Network (SSRN Library System rgmiller@pitt.edu #12;Open Access Task Force Open Access is... A family of copyright The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain

  11. Feasibility analysis of recycling radioactive scrap steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, F. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp., Woodland, WA (United States); Balhiser, B. [MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States); Cignetti, N. [Cignetti Associates, North Canton, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to: (1) establish a conceptual design that integrates commercial steel mill technology with radioactive scrap metal (RSM) processing to produce carbon and stainless steel sheet and plate at a grade suitable for fabricating into radioactive waste containers; (2) determine the economic feasibility of building a micro-mill in the Western US to process 30,000 tons of RSM per year from both DOE and the nuclear utilities; and (3) provide recommendations for implementation. For purposes of defining the project, it is divided into phases: economic feasibility and conceptual design; preliminary design; detail design; construction; and operation. This study comprises the bulk of Phase 1. It is divided into four sections. Section 1 provides the reader with a complete overview extracting pertinent data, recommendations and conclusions from the remainder of the report. Section 2 defines the variables that impact the design requirements. These data form the baseline to create a preliminary conceptual design that is technically sound, economically viable, and capitalizes on economies of scale. Priorities governing the design activities are: (1) minimizing worker exposure to radionuclide hazards, (2) maximizing worker safety, (3) minimizing environmental contamination, (4) minimizing secondary wastes, and (5) establishing engineering controls to insure that the plant will be granted a license in the state selected for operation. Section 3 provides details of the preliminary conceptual design that was selected. The cost of project construction is estimated and the personnel needed to support the steel-making operation and radiological and environmental control are identified. Section 4 identifies the operational costs and supports the economic feasibility analysis. A detailed discussion of the resulting conclusions and recommendations is included in this section.

  12. SOLID STATE JOINING OF MAGNESIUM TO STEEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana, Saumyadeep; Hovanski, Yuri; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Field, David P.; Yu, Hao; Pan, Tsung-Yu; Santella, M. L.

    2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Friction stir welding and ultrasonic welding techniques were applied to join automotive magnesium alloys to steel sheet. The effect of tooling and process parameters on the post-weld microstructure, texture and mechanical properties was investigated. Static and dynamic loading were utilized to investigate the joint strength of both cast and wrought magnesium alloys including their susceptibility and degradation under corrosive media. The conditions required to produce joint strengths in excess of 75% of the base metal strength were determined, and the effects of surface coatings, tooling and weld parameters on weld properties are presented.

  13. Method for machining steel with diamond tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casstevens, J.M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method for machine optical quality finishes and contour accuracies of workpieces of carbon-containing metals such as steel with diamond tooling. The wear rate of the diamond tooling is significantly reduced by saturating the atmosphere at the interface of the workpiece and the diamond tool with a gaseous hydrocarbon during the machining operation. The presence of the gaseous hydrocarbon effectively eliminates the deterioration of the diamond tool by inhibiting or preventing the conversion of the diamond carbon to graphite carbon at the point of contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece.

  14. Method for machining steel with diamond tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casstevens, John M. (Greenville, TX)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method for machining optical quality inishes and contour accuracies of workpieces of carbon-containing metals such as steel with diamond tooling. The wear rate of the diamond tooling is significantly reduced by saturating the atmosphere at the interface of the workpiece and the diamond tool with a gaseous hydrocarbon during the machining operation. The presence of the gaseous hydrocarbon effectively eliminates the deterioration of the diamond tool by inhibiting or preventing the conversion of the diamond carbon to graphite carbon at the point of contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece.

  15. Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosseel, T.M.

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Maintaining the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a light-water-cooled nuclear power plant is crucial in preventing and controlling severe accidents that have the potential for major contamination release. Because the RPV is the only key safety-related component of the plant for which a redundant backup system does not exist, it is imperative to fully understand the degree of irradiation-induced degradation of the RPV's fracture resistance that occurs during service. For this reason, the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program has been established.

  16. Gas Atomization of Stainless Steel - Slow Motion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stainless steel liquid atomized by supersonic argon gas into a spray of droplets at ~1800C. Atomization of metal requires high pressure gas and specialized chambers for cooling and collecting the powders without contamination. The critical step for morphological control is the impingement of the gas on the melt stream. The video is a black and white high speed video of a liquid metal stream being atomized by high pressure gas. This material was atomized at the Ames Laboratory's Materials Preparation Center http://www.mpc.ameslab.gov

  17. Automated inspection of hot steel slabs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Ronald J. (Burnsville, MN)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a real time digital image enhancement system for performing the image enhancement segmentation processing required for a real time automated system for detecting and classifying surface imperfections in hot steel slabs. The system provides for simultaneous execution of edge detection processing and intensity threshold processing in parallel on the same image data produced by a sensor device such as a scanning camera. The results of each process are utilized to validate the results of the other process and a resulting image is generated that contains only corresponding segmentation that is produced by both processes.

  18. Automated inspection of hot steel slabs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, R.J.

    1985-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a real time digital image enhancement system for performing the image enhancement segmentation processing required for a real time automated system for detecting and classifying surface imperfections in hot steel slabs. The system provides for simultaneous execution of edge detection processing and intensity threshold processing in parallel on the same image data produced by a sensor device such as a scanning camera. The results of each process are utilized to validate the results of the other process and a resulting image is generated that contains only corresponding segmentation that is produced by both processes. 5 figs.

  19. Microstructure of Super-duplex Stainless Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharafi, Shahriar

    1993-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    .1 Introduction 24 3.2 The Fe-Cr-Ni System . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3.3 The Alloying Elements in Duplex Stainless Steels 33 3.4 Chromium and Nickel Equivalents . . . . . . . 42 3.5 The Effect of Creq/Nieq Ratio on Equilibrium Volume Fraction of Austenite 43 3... / Austenite Balance 6.1 Introduction . 6.2 Thermodynamic Calculations . . . . . 6.3 Equilibrium Isothermal Heat Treatments 6.4 Effect of Ferrite/ Austenite Balance on Hardness 6.5 Equilibrium Partitioning of Alloying Elements 6.6 Precipitation of Cr2N 6...

  20. Carbon Emissions: Iron and Steel Industry

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321Spain (Million Cubic Feet)Iron and Steel

  1. Steel Industry Profile | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretaryVideosSpringoutAPBF-DEC NOxBestPractices SteamOfficeSteel

  2. Collection sir Samuel Steele university of alberta libraries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacMillan, Andrew

    carrire de milicien, de policier cheval et de soldat. La vaste correspondance entre Steele et sa femme nature personnelle de leur fils, Harwood Steele (1897 1978), qui fut soldat, explorateur de l. R #12;7 Le gouvernement canadien envoya une expdition arme de la milice canadienne et des soldats

  3. STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALL BUILDINGS: DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AND RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruneau, Michel

    , University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260. #12;plate shear wall design and use of light-gage cold form platesSTEEL PLATE SHEAR WALL BUILDINGS: DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AND RESEARCH Michel Bruneau, P.E. 1 Dr areas. This paper provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art in steel plate shear wall design

  4. Rutherford backscattering analysis of gallium implanted 316 stainless steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortensi, Javier

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion implantation of Ga ions into 316 stainless steel was performed at fluences ranging from 8x10? to 10? ions/cm. The depth profile of Ga in the steel was analyzed via Rutherford Backscattering and ToFSIMS. The surface effects were...

  5. Welding residual stresses in ferritic power plant steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    REVIEW Welding residual stresses in ferritic power plant steels J. A. Francis*1 , H. K. D. H require therefore, an accounting of residual stresses, which often are introduced during welding. To do in the estimation of welding residual stresses in austenitic stainless steels. The progress has been less convincing

  6. Cinematography of Resistance Spot Welding of Galvanized Steel Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    Cinematography of Resistance Spot Welding of Galvanized Steel Sheet Preweld and postweld current modifications on the resistance spot welding of galvanized steel sheet are analyzed using high phenomena through out the weld process are discussed. In addition. the duration of current modifi cation

  7. Plastic strain due to twinning in austenitic TWIP steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Plastic strain due to twinning in austenitic TWIP steels B. Qin and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia* Twinning induced plasticity steels are austenitic alloys in which mechanical twinning is a prominent deformation, Twinning, Twinning induced plasticity, Automobiles Introduction Mechanical twinning is a plastic

  8. Corrosion protection of steel in ammonia/water heat pumps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansfeld, Florian B.; Sun, Zhaoli

    2003-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion of steel surfaces in a heat pump is inhibited by adding a rare earth metal salt to the heat pump's ammonia/water working fluid. In preferred embodiments, the rare earth metal salt includes cerium, and the steel surfaces are cerated to enhance the corrosion-inhibiting effects.

  9. CLEAVAGE FRACTURE MICROMECHANISMS RELATED TO WPS EFFECT IN RPV STEEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    CLEAVAGE FRACTURE MICROMECHANISMS RELATED TO WPS EFFECT IN RPV STEEL S. R. Bordet1 , B. Tanguy1 , S vessel (RPV) steel. In this purpose, different WPS fracture test results obtained on compact tensile (CT fractographic investigations and finite element (FE) calculations, demonstrate a strong material aspect to WPS

  10. Sigma phase formation kinetics in stainless steel laminate composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenmen, D.W.; Olson, D.L.; Matlock, D.K. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Stainless steel laminate composites were made to simulate weld microstructures. The use of laminates with variations in chemical composition allows for one dimensional analysis of phase transformation associated with the more complex three-dimensional solidification experience of weld metal. Alternate layers of austenitic (304L and 316L) and ferritic (Ebrite) stainless steels allowed for the study of sigma phase formation at the austenite-ferrite interface in duplex stainless steel. Two austenitic stainless steels, 304L (18.5Cr-9.2Ni-0.3Mo) and 316L (16.2Cr-10.1Ni-2.6Mo), and one ferritic stainless steel, Ebrite (26.3Cr-0Ni-1.0Mo) were received in the form of sheet which was laboratory cold rolled to a final thickness of 0.25 mm (0.030 in.). Laminate composites were prepared by laboratory hot rolling a vacuum encapsulated compact of alternating layers of the ferrite steel with either 304L or 316L stainless steel sheets. Laminate composite specimens, which simulate duplex austenite-ferrite weld metal structure, were used to establish the kinetics of nucleation and growth of sigma phase. The factors affecting sigma phase formation were identified. The effects of time, temperature, and transport of chromium and nickel were evaluated and used to establish a model for sigma phase formation in the austenite-ferrite interfacial region. Information useful for designing stainless steel welding consumables to be used for high temperature service was determined.

  11. Welding type 347 stainless steel -- An interpretive report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, R.D. Jr.; Messler, R.W. Jr.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stainless steels fall into three major classifications: ferritic, austenitic and martensitic. Type 347 stainless steels are classified as austenitic, though, as well be described later, they may contain small amounts of ferrite as well. They are of the 18-8 chromium-nickel type with up to 1% niobium, an element once referred to as columbium. Type 347 stainless steel is the primary focus of this document. Similar stainless steels containing niobium will be included, such as Types 348 and 309Nb, as these are frequently encountered in certain applications in welded construction. Ferritic and duplex stainless steels, some of which may contain niobium, are not within the scope of this report. This report covers the following topics: applicable welding processes; composition; properties; ferrite potential effect of weld thermal cycle; post-weld heat treatments; cracks and microfissures; and industrial applications.

  12. High temperature mechanical strength and microstructural stability of advanced 9-12%Cr steels and ODS steels.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    and ODS steels. B. Fournier,1 M. Salvi1 , C. Cas1 , J. Malaplate1 , F. Dalle1 , M. Sauzay1 , Y. de Carlan. In the framework of Generation IV nuclear reactors and for fusion reactors, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS. In the present article advanced 9-12%Cr steels, including their ODS grades, are tested under creep, fatigue

  13. Early Detection of Steel Rebar Corrosion by Acoustic Emission Monitoring Early Detection of Steel Rebar Corrosion by Acoustic Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Early Detection of Steel Rebar Corrosion by Acoustic Emission Monitoring Early Detection of Steel Rebar Corrosion by Acoustic Emission Monitoring Alan D. Zdunek and David Prine BIRL Industrial Research, Evanston, IL 60201 Paper No. 547 presented at CORROSION95, the NACE International Annual Conference

  14. October 14 WA Division Newsletter Page 4 Tool durability and steel microstructure in friction stir welding of mild steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    ) of aluminium alloys are cost effective and durable, whereas the much larger market for welding of steels for the welding of 7075 aluminium alloy. The results were presented as easy to use maps of "tool durability index- ium alloys has been applied to the FSW of steel. The calculations were extended to predict

  15. Heat Treatment Procedure Qualification for Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Professor Robert C. Voigt

    2003-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The science of heat treatment has been well studied and is the basis from which existing specifications and practices for the heat treatment of steel castings have been developed. Although these existing specifications address the general needs of steel castings to be heat-treated, they do not take into account the variability in the parameters that govern the processes. The need for a heat treatment qualification procedure that accounts for this variability during heat treatment is an important step toward heat treatment quality assurance. The variability in temperatures within a heat treatment furnace is one such variable that a foundry has to contend with in its day-to-day activity. Though specifications indicate the temperatures at which a particular heat treatment has to be conducted, heat treatment specifications do not adequately account for all aspects of heat treatment quality assurance. The heat treatment qualification procedure will comprise of a robust set of rules and guidelines that ensure that foundries will still be able to operate within the set of constraints imposed on them by non-deterministic elements within the processes.

  16. Cast alumina forming austenitic stainless steels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Brady, Michael P

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy consisting essentially of, in terms of weight percent ranges 0.15-0.5C; 8-37Ni; 10-25Cr; 2.5-5Al; greater than 0.6, up to 2.5 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; up to 3Mo; up to 3Co; up to 1W; up to 3Cu; up to 15Mn; up to 2Si; up to 0.15B; up to 0.05P; up to 1 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; <0.3Ti+V; <0.03N; and, balance Fe, where the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale comprising alumina, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure, the austenitic matrix being essentially delta-ferrite free and essentially BCC-phase-free. A method of making austenitic stainless steel alloys is also disclosed.

  17. Effects of thermal annealing and reirradiation on toughness of reactor pressure vessel steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nanstad, R.K.; Iskander, S.K.; Sokolov, M.A. [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the options to mitigate the effects of irradiation on reactor pressure vessels (RPV) is to thermally anneal them to restore the toughness properties that have been degraded by neutron irradiation. This paper summarizes recent experimental results from work performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the annealing response, or {open_quotes}recovery,{close_quotes} of several irradiated RPV steels; it also includes recent results from both ORNL and the Russian Research Center-Kurchatov Institute (RRC-KI) on a cooperative program of irradiation, annealing and reirradiation of both U.S. and Russian RPV steels. The cooperative program was conducted under the auspices of Working Group 3, U.S./Russia Joint Coordinating Committee for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety (JCCCNRS). The materials investigated are an RPV plate and various submerged-arc welds, with tensile, Charpy impact toughness, and fracture toughness results variously determined. Experimental results are compared with applicable prediction guidelines, while observed differences in annealing responses and reirradiation rates are discussed.

  18. Effects of thermal annealing and reirradiation on toughness of reactor pressure vessel steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nanstad, R.K.; Iskander, S.K.; Sokolov, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the options to mitigate the effects of irradiation on reactor pressure vessels (RPV) is to thermally anneal them to restore the toughness properties that have been degraded by neutron irradiation. This paper summarizes recent experimental results from work performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the annealing response, or {open_quotes}recovery,{close_quotes} of several irradiated RPV steels; it also includes recent results from both ORNL and the Russian Research Center-Kurchatov Institute (RRC-KI) on a cooperative program of irradiation, annealing and reirradiation of both U.S. and Russian RPV steels. The cooperative program was conducted under the auspices of Working Group 3, U.S./Russia Joint Coordinating Committee for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety (JCCCNRS). The materials investigated are an RPV plate and various submerged-arc welds, with tensile, Charpy impact toughness, and fracture toughness results variously determined. Experimental results are compared with applicable prediction guidelines, while observed differences in annealing responses and reirradiation rates are discussed.

  19. National Policy Memorandum NPM-TRUS-29: Guidance for the Approval...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Memorandum NPM-TRUS-29: Guidance for the Approval of Tribal Leasing Regulations under the HEARTH Act Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal...

  20. Investigation Of Adhesion Formation In New Stainless Steel Trim Spring Operated Pressure Relief Valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, Robert E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Bukowski, Julia V. [Villanova University, Villanova, PA (United States); Goble, William M. [exida, Sellersville, PA (United States)

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Examination of proof test data for new (not previously installed) stainless steel (SS) trim spring operated pressure relief valves (SOPRV) reveals that adhesions form between the seat and disc in about 46% of all such SOPRV. The forces needed to overcome these adhesions can be sufficiently large to cause the SOPRV to fail its proof test (FPT) prior to installation. Furthermore, a significant percentage of SOPRV which are found to FPT are also found to ''fail to open'' (FTO) meaning they would not relief excess pressure in the event of an overpressure event. The cases where adhesions result in FTO or FPT appear to be confined to SOPRV with diameters < 1 in and set pressures < 150 psig and the FTO are estimated to occur in 0.31% to 2.00% of this subpopulation of SS trim SOPRV. The reliability and safety implications of these finding for end-users who do not perform pre-installation testing of SOPRV are discussed.

  1. Impact of graphite gasket/duplex stainless steel couples on crevice chemistry and likelihood of crevice attack in seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turnbull, A. [National Physical Lab., Teddington (United Kingdom). Centre for Materials Measurement and Technology

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochemical polarization measurements have been made on a graphite laminate gasket and a super-duplex stainless steel (DSS) in deaerated IM NaCl solution over a range of pH. The open circuit potential of the graphite is significantly more noble than that of the duplex stainless steel and the kinetics of the hydrogen ion reduction are greater at potentials more positive than about 0.0 V SCE. The data were used as input to a model of crevice chemistry and predictions made for potentials up to +0.4 V SCE. For crevices of parallel plates of DSS-DSS and DSS-Plastic, the usual acidic conditions were predicted but for a DSS-Graphite combination the pH was predicted to be alkaline. The latter is a consequence of the enhanced kinetics for cathodic reduction of hydrogen ions and water on the graphite which, when contained within the crevice, act to elevate the pH. The predictions suggest that coupling to graphite, contained within the crevice, may act to prevent crevice corrosion initiation in contrast to the usual perception of behavior when coupling to more noble materials. In practice, there have been significant crevice corrosion failures of a super-duplex stainless steel associated with graphite gaskets. However, in all cases, the failures were in chlorinated systems for which the corrosion potentials are particularly high and beyond the range for which a benefit from graphite could be anticipated.

  2. Numerical simulations of welds of thick steel pieces of interest for the thermonuclear fusion ITER machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmignani, B

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical simulations of welds of thick steel pieces of interest for the thermonuclear fusion ITER machine

  3. Spot weldability of d-TRIP steel containing , K. Y. Lee2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    of the strong dual phase steels,10,11 is large when compared with interstitial free or bake hardening steels in Table 1 according to the common standards.2125 A dual phase steel DP-78026 has in this work been-TRIP steel, designed to retain d-ferrite as a stable phase at all temperatures below melting. Fully

  4. Modelling the role of non metallic inclusions on the anisotropic fatigue behaviour of forged steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    reported as being 35% for 42CrMo4 steel [1] and 15% for a duplex stainless steel [2]. To design a forged steel E. Pessard* , F. Morel, A. Morel, D. Bellett LAMPA (EA1427) Arts et Métiers ParisTech Angers 2, Bd. This study aims at describing the high cycle fatigue response of a forged bainitic steel. This material

  5. Differences in synchrotron radiation induced gas desorption from stainless steel and aluminium alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andritschky, M; Mathewson, A G; Souchet, R; Strubin, Pierre M; Trickett, B A

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Differences in synchrotron radiation induced gas desorption from stainless steel and aluminium alloy

  6. NEUTRON DAMAGE IN REACTOR PRESSURE-VESSEL STEEL EXAMINED WITH POSITRON ANNIHILATION LIFETIME SPECTROSCOPY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    NEUTRON DAMAGE IN REACTOR PRESSURE-VESSEL STEEL EXAMINED WITH POSITRON ANNIHILATION LIFETIME-vessel steels. We irradiated samples ofASTM A508 nuclear reactor pressure-vessel steel to fast neutron 17 2 (PALS) to study the effects of neutron damage in the steels on positron lifetimes. Non

  7. The morphology and formation mechanism of pearlite in steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, M.-X., E-mail: Mingxing.Zhang@uq.edu.au [Division of Materials, School of Engineering, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Kelly, P.M. [Division of Materials, School of Engineering, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of morphological features of pearlite were revealed through scanning electron microscopy using deeply etched specimens. These include cementite branching, bridging, gaps, holes and curvature. The presence of cementite thin films or networks along the austenite grain boundaries in eutectoid steel and at the interface between pearlite and proeutectoid ferrite in hypoeutectoid steel is another characteristic of pearlite. Furthermore, ferrite thin films surrounding the proeutectoid cementite in hypereutectoid steels are also observed. Hence, it is considered that in hypoeutectoid steels the nucleus for pearlite is a film of cementite rather than the expected proeutectoid ferrite and, similarly, in hypereutectoid steels pearlite forms from a ferrite film rather than from proeutectoid cementite. Convergent beam Kikuchi line diffraction was used to accurately determine the orientation relationships between pearlitic constituents and parent austenite in a Hadfields steel. The results show that neither the pearlitic ferrite nor the cementite is crystallographically related to the austenite grain into which the pearlite was growing and to that into which it was not growing. In addition, a new orientation relationship between pearlitic cementite and ferrite in the Hadfield steel was also observed.

  8. Sulphide stress cracking resistance of supermartensitic stainless steel for OCTG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scoppio, L.; Barteri, M. [Centro Sviluppo Materiali S.p.A., Rome (Italy); Cumino, G. [Dalmine Tubi Industriali S.r.l., Bergamo (Italy)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supermartensitic stainless steels, recently made available as oil country tubular goods (OCTG), have been developed as a valuable cost effective alternative to duplex stainless steel for high CO{sub 2}, medium/high chlorides, and very low H{sub 2}S environments. Experimental tests were carried out to determine the localized corrosion and the sulfide stress cracking (SSC) resistance of supermartensitic steel UNS S41425 to be used as OCTG in slightly sour oil and gas wells and to compare its performance with standard L80 API grade UNS S42000 13% Cr steel, considered as a reference. Supermartensitic steels with yield range as per L80, C95, P110, API5CT, were developed and corrosion and mechanical properties were determined. The influence of different chloride contents (NaCl 10 {divided_by} 50 g/l), hydrogen sulfide partial pressure (0.1 {divided_by} 100 kPa) and pH (2.7 {divided_by} 4.5) has been investigated in order to simulate production service conditions. Modified NACE constant load test and slow strain rate (SSR) test were performed. SSR gave the most severe evaluation for the SSC resistance. In the SSR test supermartensitic steel is deeply influenced by the chloride concentration. Supermartensitic steel corrosion resistance is by far superior to that of 13% Cr.

  9. Phase Transformations in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon-Jun Kim

    2004-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as {sigma} and {chi} can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe-22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase ({sigma} + {chi}) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (MA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations. The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities; a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, {sigma} was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and {chi} by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by local composition fluctuations in the cast alloy. This may cause discrepancy between thermodynamic prediction and experimental observation.

  10. Yield improvement and defect reduction in steel casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kent Carlson

    2004-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project investigated yield improvement and defect reduction techniques in steel casting. Research and technology development was performed in the following three specific areas: (1) Feeding rules for high alloy steel castings; (2) Unconventional yield improvement and defect reduction techniques--(a) Riser pressurization; and (b) Filling with a tilting mold; and (3) Modeling of reoxidation inclusions during filling of steel castings. During the preparation of the proposal for this project, these areas were identified by the High Alloy Committee and Carbon and Low Alloy Committee of the Steel Founders' Society of America (SFSA) as having the highest research priority to the steel foundry industry. The research in each of the areas involved a combination of foundry experiments, modeling and simulation. Numerous SFSA member steel foundries participated in the project through casting trials and meetings. The technology resulting from this project will result in decreased scrap and rework, casting yield improvement, and higher quality steel castings produced with less iteration. This will result in considerable business benefits to steel foundries, primarily due to reduced energy and labor costs, increased capacity and productivity, reduced lead-time, and wider use and application of steel castings. As estimated using energy data provided by the DOE, the technology produced as a result of this project will result in an energy savings of 2.6 x 10{sup 12} BTU/year. This excludes the savings that were anticipated from the mold tilting research. In addition to the energy savings, and corresponding financial savings this implies, there are substantial environmental benefits as well. The results from each of the research areas listed above are summarized.

  11. ON QUANTIFICATION OF HELIUM EMBRITTLEMENT IN FERRITIC/MARTENSITIC STEELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelles, David S.

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Helium accumulation due to transmutation has long been considered a potential cause for embrittlement in ferritic/martensitic steels. Three Charpy impact databases involving nickel- and boron-doped alloys are quantified with respect to helium accumulation, and it is shown that all predict a very large effect of helium production on embrittlement. If these predictions are valid, use of Ferritic/Martensitic steels for Fusion first wall applications is highly unlikely. It is therefore necessary to reorient efforts regarding development of these steels for fusion applications to concentrate on the issue of helium embrittlement.

  12. Stainless steel anodes for alkaline water electrolysis and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The corrosion resistance of stainless steel anodes for use in alkaline water electrolysis was increased by immersion of the stainless steel anode into a caustic solution prior to electrolysis. Also disclosed herein are electrolyzers employing the so-treated stainless steel anodes. The pre-treatment process provides a stainless steel anode that has a higher corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel anode of the same composition.

  13. Diode laser welding of aluminum to steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santo, Loredana; Quadrini, Fabrizio; Trovalusci, Federica [University of Rome Tor Vergata, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser welding of dissimilar materials was carried out by using a high power diode laser to join aluminum to steel in a butt-joint configuration. During testing, the laser scan rate was changed as well as the laser power: at low values of fluence (i.e. the ratio between laser power and scan rate), poor joining was observed; instead at high values of fluence, an excess in the material melting affected the joint integrity. Between these limiting values, a good aesthetics was obtained; further investigations were carried out by means of tensile tests and SEM analyses. Unfortunately, a brittle behavior was observed for all the joints and a maximum rupture stress about 40 MPa was measured. Apart from the formation of intermeltallic phases, poor mechanical performances also depended on the chosen joining configuration, particularly because of the thickness reduction of the seam in comparison with the base material.

  14. Radiation resistant austenitic stainless steel alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Braski, David N. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rowcliffe, Arthur F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy, with improved resistance to radiation-induced swelling and helium embrittlement, and improved resistance to thermal creep at high temperatures, consisting essentially of, by weight percent: from 16 to 18% nickel; from 13 to 17% chromium; from 2 to 3% molybdenum; from 1.5 to 2.5% manganese; from 0.01 to 0.5% silicon; from 0.2 to 0.4% titanium; from 0.1 to 0.2% niobium; from 0.1 to 0.6% vanadium; from 0.06 to 0.12% carbon; from 0.01% to 0.03% nitrogen; from 0.03 to 0.08% phosphorus; from 0.005 to 0.01% boron; and the balance iron, and wherein the alloy may be thermomechanically treated to enhance physical and mechanical properties.

  15. The US steel industry: An energy perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azimi, S. A.; Lowitt, H. E.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report investigates the state of the US steel industry in terms of energy consumption and conservation. The specific objectives were: to update and verify energy and materials consumption data at the various process levels in 1983; to determine the potential energy savings attainable with current (1983), state-of-the-art, and future production practices and technologies (2000); and to identify new areas of research and development opportunity that will enable these potential future savings to be achieved. The results of this study concluded that in year 2000, there is a potential to save between 40% and 46% of the energy used in current production practices, dependent on the projected technology mix. R and D needs and opportunities were identified for the industry. Potential R and D candidates for DOE involvement with the private sector were assessed and selected from the identified list.

  16. Radiation resistant austenitic stainless steel alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, P.J.; Braski, D.N.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1987-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy, with improved resistance to radiation-induced swelling and helium embrittlement, and improved resistance to thermal creep at high temperatures, consisting essentially of, by weight percent: from 16 to 18% nickel; from 13 to 17% chromium; from 2 to 3% molybdenum; from 1.5 to 2.5% manganese; from 0.01 to 0.5% silicon; from 0.2 to 0.4% titanium; from 0.1 to 0.2% niobium; from 0.1 to 0.6% vanadium; from 0.06 to 0.12% carbon; from 0.01 to 0.03% nitrogen; from 0.03 to 0.08% phosphorus; from 0.005 to 0.01% boron; and the balance iron, and wherein the alloy may be thermomechanically treated to enhance physical and mechanical properties. 4 figs.

  17. Open Burning (New Mexico)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Mexico Environment Department's Air Quality Bureau regulates the open burning rules established by the Environmental Improvement Board. These rules are established to protect public health...

  18. Job Openings at CEES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Job Openings at the Center for Electrical Energy Storage All CEES positions are currently filled. For more information about Postdoctoral Fellowship Programs at Argonne, please...

  19. Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, T.T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved Product Quality, Ironmaking and Steel making 18(pound Investment, Ironmaking and Steel making, Anonymous,Oil Through Sintering," Ironmaking and Steel making Dawson,

  20. Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, T.T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assessment of Electric Steel making Through the Year 2000,by Injection Technology Steel Times, October 1994 pp.391-Hanes, C. , 1999. USS/Kobe Steel, Personal communication,

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF RETAINED AUSTENITE ON THE THICK SECTION MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF A COMMERCIAL LOW ALLOY ULTRA-HIGH STRENGTH STEEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horn, R.M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Fracture of High Strength Steels, Final Tech. Report,Arsenal Lab. , K. J. Irvine, Steel Strengthening Mechanisms,Diagrams, United States Steel, Pittsburgh, PA, 1963. E. G.

  2. A COMPARISON OF THE MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF 300-M STEEL MANUFACTURED BY THE VACUUM ARC REMELT AND THE ELECTROSLAG REMELT PROCESSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lechtenberg, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF 300~M STEEL MANUFACTURED BY THEAND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF 300~M STEEL MANUFACTURED BY THEArc Remelt (VAR) 300-M steel were measured, These were

  3. Development of sodium silicate adhesives for electrical steel bonding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marks, Jordan (Jordan Christine)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inorganic adhesives have several benefits over traditional joining methods for joining electrical steels used in magnetic cores of numerous industrial applications. As insulators with very high melting temperatures, the ...

  4. Eddy sensors for small diameter stainless steel tubes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, Jack L.; Morales, Alfredo Martin; Grant, J. Brian; Korellis, Henry James; LaFord, Marianne Elizabeth; Van Blarigan, Benjamin; Andersen, Lisa E.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project was to develop non-destructive, minimally disruptive eddy sensors to inspect small diameter stainless steel metal tubes. Modifications to Sandia's Emphasis/EIGER code allowed for the modeling of eddy current bobbin sensors near or around 1/8-inch outer diameter stainless steel tubing. Modeling results indicated that an eddy sensor based on a single axial coil could effectively detect changes in the inner diameter of a stainless steel tubing. Based on the modeling results, sensor coils capable of detecting small changes in the inner diameter of a stainless steel tube were designed, built and tested. The observed sensor response agreed with the results of the modeling and with eddy sensor theory. A separate limited distribution SAND report is being issued demonstrating the application of this sensor.

  5. A structural analysis of the Cardington British Steel corner test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gillie, Martin; Usmani, Asif; Rotter, J Michael

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a structural analysis of the Cardington British Steel corner test. The test is a analyzes using ABAQUS, the commercial finite element program. The results of the analysis indicate that the response of ...

  6. axially loaded steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    image correlation and FE analysis Mathematics Websites Summary: conducted on dual-phase high-strength steel in a split-Hopkinson tension bar at a strain-rate in the...

  7. Process to Continuously Melt, Refine, and Cast High Quality Steel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a project to conduct research and development targeted at designing an innovative steelmaking process to produce higher quality steel faster than traditional batch processes while consuming less energy and other resources.

  8. Fracture and plasticity characterization of DH-36 Navy steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacLean, Christopher Glenn

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-layered plates consisting of DH-36 steel coated by a thick layer of polyurea, for increased blast and impact protection, are of increasing importance to the Department of Defense. A hybrid approach of experiments and ...

  9. 9 Cr-- 1 Mo steel material for high temperature application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jablonski, Paul D; Alman, David; Dogan, Omer; Holcomb, Gordon; Cowen, Christopher

    2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    One or more embodiments relates to a high-temperature, titanium alloyed, 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibiting improved creep strength and oxidation resistance at service temperatures up to 650.degree. C. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel has a tempered martensite microstructure and is comprised of both large (0.5-3 .mu.m) primary titanium carbides and small (5-50 nm) secondary titanium carbides in a ratio of. from about 1:1.5 to about 1.5:1. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel may be fabricated using exemplary austenizing, rapid cooling, and tempering steps without subsequent hot working requirements. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibits improvements in total mass gain, yield strength, and time-to-rupture over ASTM P91 and ASTM P92 at the temperature and time conditions examined.

  10. Energy intensity in China's iron and steel sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jingsi, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, I examine the spatial and economic factors that influence energy intensity in China's iron and steel sector, namely industrial value added, renovation investment, coke consumption, and local coke supply. ...

  11. Technology Roadmap Research Program for the Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph R. Vehec

    2010-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The steel industry's Technology Roadmap Program (TRP) is a collaborative R&D effort jointly sponsored by the steel industry and the United States Department of Energy. The TRP program was designed to develop new technologies to save energy , increase competitiveness, and improve the environment. TRP ran from July, 1997 to December, 2008, with a total program budget of $38 million dollars. During that period 47 R&D projects were performed by 28 unique research organizations; co-funding was provided by DOE and 60 industry partners. The projects benefited all areas of steelmaking and much know-how was developed and transferred to industry. The American Iron and Steel Institute is the owner of all intellectual property developed under TRP and licenses it at commercial rates to all steelmakers. TRP technologies are in widespread use in the steel industry as participants received royalty-free use of intellectual property in return for taking the risk of funding this research.

  12. A Micro-Alloyed Ferritic Steel Strengthened by Nanoscale Precipitates...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    microscope (TEM), fine carbides with an average diameter of 10 nm were observed in the ferrite matrix of the 0.08%Ti steel, and some cubic M23C6 precipitates were also observed at...

  13. A micro-alloyed ferritic steel strengthened by nanoscale precipitates...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (TEM), fine carbides TiC with an average diameter of 10 nm were observed in the ferrite matrix of the 0.08%Ti steel, and some cubic M23C6 precipitates were also observed at...

  14. Surface modified stainless steels for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Wang, Heli [Littleton, CO; Turner, John A [Littleton, CO

    2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A nitridation treated stainless steel article (such as a bipolar plate for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell) having lower interfacial contact electrical resistance and better corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel article is disclosed. The treated stainless steel article has a surface layer including nitrogen-modified chromium-base oxide and precipitates of chromium nitride formed during nitridation wherein oxygen is present in the surface layer at a greater concentration than nitrogen. The surface layer may further include precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide. The surface layer in the treated article is chemically heterogeneous surface rather than a uniform or semi-uniform surface layer exclusively rich in chromium, titanium or aluminum. The precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide are formed by the nitriding treatment wherein titanium and/or aluminum in the stainless steel are segregated to the surface layer in forms that exhibit a low contact resistance and good corrosion resistance.

  15. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Iron and Steel

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Climate VISION goal of achieving a 10 percent increase in sector-wide average energy efficiency by 2012 using a 2002 baseline. Read the U.S. Steel Industry Energy Efficiency Fact...

  16. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Iron and Steel: Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    results in the near, mid, and long term. Industry Vision & Roadmaps Saving One Barrel of Oil per Ton of Steel: A New Roadmap for Transformation of Steelmaking Process (October...

  17. Analysis of steel silo structures on discrete supports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hongyu

    The objective of this thesis is to broaden current knowledge of the strength and buckling/collapse of shells, with special reference to steel silo structures on discrete supports, and thus to provide design guidance of ...

  18. Buckling of circular steel cylindrical shells under different loading conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Lei

    2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Cylindrical shells are widely used in civil engineering. Examples include cooling towers, pipelines, nuclear containment vessels, steel silos and tanks for storage of bulk solids and liquids, and pressure vessels. The ...

  19. New Austenitic Stainless Steels for Exhaust Components (Agreement...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    diesel engines in January, 2007 CF8C-Plus steel SiMo Cast-iron * Exhaust combustor (turbo exhaust + injected fuel) to clean out particulate filters: high temperature and rapid...

  20. alloy steel standard: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Estimation of Atmospheric Corrosion of High-Strength, Low-Alloy Steels Engineering Websites Summary: Estimation of...

  1. Machinability of a Stainless Steel by Electrochemical Discharge Microdrilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coteata, Margareta; Pop, Nicolae; Slatineanu, Laurentiu ['Gheorghe Asachi' Technical University of Iasi, Department of Machine Manufacturing Technology, Blvd. D Mangeron 59A, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Schulze, Hans-Peter [Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Institute of Fundamental Electrical Engineering and EMC Universitaetsplatz 2, D-39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Besliu, Irina [University 'Stefan cel Mare' of Suceava, Department of Technologies and Management, Str. Universitatii, 13, 720 229 Suceava (Romania)

    2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the chemical elements included in their structure for ensuring an increased resistance to the environment action, the stainless steels are characterized by a low machinability when classical machining methods are applied. For this reason, sometimes non-traditional machining methods are applied, one of these being the electrochemical discharge machining. To obtain microholes and to evaluate the machinability by electrochemical discharge microdrilling, test pieces of stainless steel were used for experimental research. The electrolyte was an aqueous solution of sodium silicate with different densities. A complete factorial plan was designed to highlight the influence of some input variables on the sizes of the considered machinability indexes (electrode tool wear, material removal rate, depth of the machined hole). By mathematically processing of experimental data, empirical functions were established both for stainless steel and carbon steel. Graphical representations were used to obtain more suggestive vision concerning the influence exerted by the considered input variables on the size of the machinability indexes.

  2. Making Steel Framing as Thermally Efficient as Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosny, J.; Childs, P.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the steel web with a less conductive material, and 4) placing foam insulation in locations where the thermal shorts are most critical. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have utilized both hot box testing and computer simulations in aim...

  3. Galvanised steel to aluminium joining by laser and GTAW processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sierra, G. [CEA/DRT/DTEN/LITEN/UTIAC, Groupement d'Etudes et de Recherche pour l'Application Industrielle des Lasers de Puissance (GERAILP), Arcueil, 94114 (France); Universite Montpellier 2, Laboratoire de Mecanique et Genie Civil, UMR 5508 CNRS, Montpellier, 34095 (France); Peyre, P. [GIP-GERAILP, Laboratoire pour l'Application des Lasers de Puissance, UPR 1578 CNRS, Arcueil, 94114 (France); Deschaux Beaume, F. [Universite Montpellier 2, Laboratoire de Mecanique et Genie Civil, UMR 5508 CNRS, Montpellier, 34095 (France)], E-mail: deschaux@iut-nimes.fr; Stuart, D. [GIP-GERAILP, Laboratoire pour l'Application des Lasers de Puissance, UPR 1578 CNRS, Arcueil, 94114 (France); Fras, G. [Universite Montpellier 2, Laboratoire de Mecanique et Genie Civil, UMR 5508 CNRS, Montpellier, 34095 (France)

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new means of assembling galvanised steel to aluminium involving a reaction between solid steel and liquid aluminium was developed, using laser and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) processes. A direct aluminium melting strategy was investigated with the laser process, whereas an aluminium-induced melting by steel heating and heat conduction through the steel was carried out with the GTAW process. The interfaces generated during the interaction were mainly composed of a 2-40 {mu}m thick intermetallic reaction layers. The linear strength of the assemblies can be as high as 250 N/mm and 190 N/mm for the assemblies produced respectively by laser and GTAW processes. The corresponding failures were located in the fusion zone of aluminium (laser assemblies), or in the reaction layer (GTAW assemblies)

  4. Accelerated corrosion of stainless steel in thiocyanate-containing solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pistorius, P Chris; Li, Wen

    2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known that reduced sulfur compounds (such as thiocyanate and thiosulfate) can accelerate active corrosion of austenitic stainless steel in acid solutions, but before we started this project the mechanism of acceleration was largely unclear. This work combined electrochemical measurements and analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS), which provided a comprehensive understanding of the catalytic effect of reduced sulfur species on the active corrosion of stainless steel. Both the behavior of the pure elements and the steel were studied and the work focused on the interaction between the pure elements of the steel, which is the least understood area. Upon completion of this work, several aspects are now much clearer. The main results from this work can be summarized as follows: The presence of low concentrations (around 0.1 mM) of thiocyanate or tetrathionate in dilute sulfuric acid greatly accelerates the anodic dissolution of chromium and nickel, but has an even stronger effect on stainless steels (iron-chromium-nickel alloys). Electrochemical measurements and surface analyses are in agreement with the suggestion that accelerated dissolution really results from suppressed passivation. Even well below the passivation potential, the electrochemical signature of passivation is evident in the electrode impedance; the electrode impedance shows clearly that this pre-passivation is suppressed in the presence of thiocyanate. For the stainless steels, remarkable changes in the morphology of the corroded metal surface and in the surface concentration of chromium support the suggestion that pre-passivation of stainless steels is suppressed because dissolution of chromium is accelerated. Surface analysis confirmed that adsorbed sulfur / sulfide forms on the metal surfaces upon exposure to solutions containing thiocyanate or thiosulfate. For pure nickel, and steels containing nickel (and residual copper), bulk sulfide (visible as a black corrosion product) forms during anodic dissolution. The sulfide is electronically conductive, and gives an increase of several orders of magnitude in the electrode capacitance; the sulfide also causes anodic activation to persist after the pure metals and steels were removed from the thiocyanate-containing electrolyte and transferred to a thiocyanate-free electrolyte. The main practical implications of this work are that low concentrations of reduced sulfur compounds strongly affect anodic dissolution of stainless steels, and that selecting steels with elevated concentrations of chromium, nickel or molybdenum would serve to limit the anodic dissolution rate in the presence of reduced sulfur compounds.

  5. Steel-SiC Metal Matrix Composite Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Don D.

    2005-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to develop a method for fabricating SiC-reinforced high-strength steel. We are developing a metal-matrix composite (MMC) in which SiC fibers are be embedded within a metal matrix of steel, with adequate interfacial bonding to deliver the full benefit of the tensile strength of the SiC fibers in the composite.

  6. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  7. Measurement of intergranular attack in stainless steel using ultrasonic energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mott, Gerry (Pittsburgh, PA); Attaar, Mustan (Monroeville, PA); Rishel, Rick D. (Monroeville, PA)

    1989-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrasonic test methods are used to measure the depth of intergranular attack (IGA) in a stainless steel specimen. The ultrasonic test methods include a pitch-catch surface wave technique and a through-wall pulse-echo technique. When used in combination, these techniques can establish the extent of IGA on both the front and back surfaces of a stainless steel specimen from measurements made on only one surface.

  8. Procedure for flaw detection in cast stainless steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kupperman, David S. (Oak Park, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of ultrasonic flaw detection in cast stainless steel components incorporating the steps of determining the nature of the microstructure of the cast stainless steel at the site of the flaw detection measurements by ultrasonic elements independent of the component thickness at the site; choosing from a plurality of flaw detection techniques, one such technique appropriate to the nature of the microstructure as determined and detecting flaws by use of the chosen technique.

  9. Stability of stainless-steel nanoparticle and water mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, You Young; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.; Suh, Dong-Woo

    2014-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    of such mixtures, especially for heavy metallic particles. For 0.017 wt% stainless steel-distilled water nanoparticle-fluid, the thermal conductivity increases by 8.3 % at the optimal stability condition of pH 11. Keywords: Stainless steel, Nanofluid, Stability... of larger particle density related to metallic particles, metallic nanoparticle-fluids have been studied much less than oxides or nanotube dispersions. An important characteristic of a nanoparticle-fluid mixture or nanofluid is its stability with respect...

  10. Corrosion of reinforcing steel is typically one of the main problems causing deterioration of concrete structures. The Microcomposite Multistructural Formable (MMFX) steel, which is a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corrosion of reinforcing steel is typically one of the main problems causing deterioration available steel, has proven to have high corrosion resistance in comparison with conventional steel without provides a high resistance to corrosion due to severe environmental exposure in comparison to the use

  11. OpenXC | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLuOpenNorthOlympia GreenThe community Energy ToolsOpenXC Home

  12. OpenBarter | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri: EnergyExcellenceOfficeOhio: Energy Resourcesen) OpenOpenBarter Jump

  13. Design and analysis of prestressed composite steel beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thammasila, D.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study experimentally and analytically examined the behavior of prestressed composite steel beams. Methods for analysis and design of the prestressed composite steel beams with constant and variable eccentricities based on the load and resistance factor design and the working stress design were formulated. Three specimens were tested under static and cyclic loadings to verify the proposed design methods. The results from the cyclic loadings were used to test the feasibility of the prestressed composite steel beams under actual loading conditions. Finite element models were developed to study the behavior of the prestressed composite steel beams and to ensure the validity of the proposed design methods. The modes of failure of the three specimens tested were crushing of concrete slabs and yielding of steel beams and prestressing tendons. The cyclic loads reduced the ultimate strength of the specimens tested by 7.8 percent. Overall, the proposed design methods for the load and resistance factor design and the working stress design adequately predicted the behavior of the prestressed composite steel beams.

  14. Demystifying Open Access

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mele, Salvatore

    2007-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a 'fair share' scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

  15. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dadfarnia, Mohsen (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Nibur, Kevin A.; San Marchi, Christopher W.; Sofronis, Petros (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Somerday, Brian P.; Foulk, James W., III; Hayden, Gary A. (CP Industries, McKeesport, PA)

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  16. Development of Next Generation Heating System for Scale Free Steel Reheating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi

    2011-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The work carried out under this project includes development and design of components, controls, and economic modeling tools that would enable the steel industry to reduce energy intensity through reduction of scale formation during the steel reheating process. Application of scale free reheating offers savings in energy used for production of steel that is lost as scale, and increase in product yield for the global steel industry. The technology can be applied to a new furnace application as well as retrofit design for conversion of existing steel reheating furnaces. The development work has resulted in the knowledge base that will enable the steel industry and steel forging industry us to reheat steel with 75% to 95% reduction in scale formation and associated energy savings during the reheating process. Scale reduction also results in additional energy savings associated with higher yield from reheat furnaces. Energy used for steel production ranges from 9 MM Btu/ton to 16.6 MM Btu/ton or the industry average of approximately 13 MM Btu/ton. Hence, reduction in scale at reheating stage would represent a substantial energy reduction for the steel industry. Potential energy savings for the US steel industry could be in excess of 25 Trillion Btu/year when the technology is applied to all reheating processes. The development work has resulted in new design of reheating process and the required burners and control systems that would allow use of this technology for steel reheating in steel as well as steel forging industries.

  17. 13 Modern Bainitic Steels Steels with yield strengths in excess of 1000 MPa are important in certain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    .029 Rapidly cooled bainitic 5 0.100 0.25 1.00 Bainitic dual phase 6 0.040 0.40 0.05 Triple phase 7 0.150 0.35 1.40 0.022 0.011 0.035 Bainitic dual phase 8 0.120 113 Modern Bainitic Steels Steels with yield strengths in excess of 1000 MPa are important

  18. Benefits of recycling galvanized steel scrap for recovery of high-quality steel and zinc metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Morgan, W.A. (Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada))

    1991-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Metal Recovery Industries, Inc. (MRII), in cost-sharing collaboration, have developed an electrolytic process to separate and recover steel and zinc from galvanized steel scrap. This work has been supported by the US DOE. An assessment of available dezinc technology was begun in 1987 which (1) screened process concepts for separating and recovering zinc and steel from galvanized ferrous scrap, (2) selected electrochemical stripping in hot caustic as the most promising process, (3) evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of the selected process on the basis of fundamental electrochemical studies, (4) experimentally verified the technical and economic feasibility of the process in a phased evaluation from bench-scale controlled experiments through batch tests of actual scrap up to six ton lots, and (5) concluded that the process has technical and economic merit and requires larger- scale evaluation in a continuous mode as the final phase of process development. This work has attracted worldwide interest. Preliminary economic analysis indicates that the cost of the recovered ferrous scrap would be about $150/ton (at a base cost of $110/ton for galvanized scrap), including credit for the co-product zinc. Concentrations of zinc, lead, cadmium and other coating constituents on loose scrap are reduced by a minimum of 98%, with zinc, in particular, reduced to below 0.1%. Removal efficiencies on baled scrap with bulk densities between 60 and 245 pounds per cubic foot range from 80 to 90%. About 1000 tons of galvanized scrap bales have been treated in batch operation at MRII in Hamilton, Ontario. A pilot plant for continuous treatment of 40 ton/day of loose scrap is being built by MRII in East Chicago, Indiana, with operation starting in early 1992. 9 refs.

  19. Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Toole, M.A.; van Duyn, Y. [Normandeau Associates Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years` data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143.

  20. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Sutton Steele and Steele Co - TX 09

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling Corp -K LeDowntown Site - MOSutton Steele and

  1. Steele Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk,SoutheastSt. Francis(RedirectedStarr||Ste.FacilitySteca

  2. EFFECT OF VANADIUM ON STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONS OF DUAL PHASE Fe/Mn/Si/0.lC STEELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakagawa, Alvin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Formable HSLA and Dual Phase Steels, Proceedings of AIME,and Properties of Dual Phase Steels, Proceedings of Aifv1E,in intercritically annealed dual phase steels. Many of the

  3. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Potentials in the Iron and steel Industry in China. Reportfor the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guidebusiness/industry/Iron_Steel_Guide.pdf Worrell, E. Ramesohl,

  4. Seismic testing of existing full-scale pile-to-deck connections : precast prestressed and steel piles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Jared Keith

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    volume ratio of confining steel. Section curvature. d b:f su : Ultimate stress of the longitudinal steel. fstress of the longitudinal steel. f yh : Yield stress of the

  5. Simulating the Inelastic Seismic Behavior of Steel Braced Frames Including the Effects of Low-Cycle Fatigue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yuli

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    6 Studies of Steel Braced Frame Behavior 6.1 Brace3 Structural Steel Deterioration 3.1 Plastic behavior andv List of Figures Schematic steel building comprising braced

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF FERRITIC G.M.A. WELD DEPOSITS IN 9percentNi STEEL FOR CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahin, Kim Walker

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Welding Electrode Div . Kobe Steel, Japan, 1974, 51 pages;337s. 102. T. Ohwa: Kobe Steel vJorks Welding Lab. Rep. ,fo~ and Tough. Charac. and Steels, ed. P. L Mangonon, Jr. ,

  7. A Long, Contingent Path to Comparative Advantage: Industrial Policy and the Japanese Iron and Steel Industry, 1900-1973

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ELBAUM, BERNARD

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    F. and Schorsch, Louis. Steel: Upheaval in a Basic Industry.Taplin, W. History of the British Steel Industry. Cambridge,Crandall, Robert W. The U.S. Steel Industry in Recurrent

  8. How Godzilla Ate Pittsburgh: The Long Rise of the Japanese Iron and Steel Industry, 19001973

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard Elbaum

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1962. History of the British Steel Industry. Cambridge, MA:Robert W. 1981. The U.S. Steel Industry in Recurrent Crisis.Elbaum, Bernard. 1986. The Steel Industry Before World War

  9. THE DESIGN OF AN Fe-12Mn-O.2Ti ALLOY STEEL FOR LOW TEMPERATURE USE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, S.-K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    62, p. 690. W. Jolley: J. Iron Steel Inst. , Feb. , 1968, V.V. 215, p. 2. J. Iron Steel Inst. , Mar. , 1958, Trans. M.v. 41, p. 1185. J. Iron Steel Inst. , Mar. , 1965, D. W.

  10. A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    flow models for the US steel industry, Energy 26, no. 2 (pdf Association for Iron and Steel Technology (AIST). 2010a.American BOF Roundup. Iron & Steel Technology. November.

  11. NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeHoff, R.; Glasgow, C. (MesoCoat, Inc.)

    2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating a new class of Fe-based amorphous material stemming from a DARPA, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency initiative in structural amorphous metals. Further engineering of the original SAM materials such as chemistry modifications and manufacturing processes, has led to the development of a class of Fe based amorphous materials that upon processing, devitrify into a nearly homogeneous distribution of nano sized complex metal carbides and borides. The powder material is produced through the gas atomization process and subsequently utilized by several methods; laser fusing as a coating to existing components or bulk consolidated into new components through various powder metallurgy techniques (vacuum hot pressing, Dynaforge, and hot isostatic pressing). The unique fine scale distribution of microstructural features yields a material with high hardness and wear resistance compared to material produced through conventional processing techniques such as casting while maintaining adequate fracture toughness. Several compositions have been examined including those specifically designed for high hardness and wear resistance and a composition specifically tailored to devitrify into an austenitic matrix (similar to a stainless steel) which poses improved corrosion behavior.

  12. Open Bibliography for Science, Technology, and Medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Richard; MacGillivray, Mark; Murray-Rust, Peter; Pitman, Jim; Sefton, Peter; O'Steen, Ben; Waites, William

    2011-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of Open Bibliography in science, technology and medicine (STM) is introduced as a combination of Open Source tools, Open specifications and Open bibliographic data. An Openly searchable and navigable network of bibliographic information...

  13. Open Energy Info (OpenEI) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Open Energy Information (OpenEI.org) initiative is a free, open-source, knowledge-sharing platform. OpenEI was created to provide access to data, models, tools, and information that accelerate the transition to clean energy systems through informed decisions.

  14. OpenGL Lighting 13. OpenGL Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDowell, Perry

    OpenGL Lighting 13. OpenGL Lighting Overview of Lighting in OpenGL In order for lighting to have an effect in OpenGL, two things are required: A light An object to be lit Lights can be set to any color determine how they reflect the light which hits them. The color(s) of an object is determined

  15. Active wear and failure mechanisms of TiN-coated high speed steel and TiN-coated cemented carbide tools when machining powder metallurgically made stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, L.; Haenninen, H.; Paro, J.; Kauppinen, V. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, active wear and failure mechanisms of both TiN-coated high speed steel and TiN-coated cemented carbide tools when machining stainless steels made by powder metallurgy in low and high cutting speed ranges, respectively, have been investigated. Abrasive wear mechanisms, fatigue-induced failure, and adhesive and diffusion wear mechanisms mainly affected the tool life of TiN-coated high speed steel tools at cutting speeds below 35 m/min, between 35 and 45 m/min, and over 45 m/min, respectively. Additionally, fatigue-induced failure was active at cutting speeds over 45 m/min in the low cutting speed range when machining powder metallurgically made duplex stainless steel 2205 and austenitic stainless steel 316L. In the high cutting speed range, from 100 to 250 m/min, fatigue-induced failure together with diffusion wear mechanism, affected the tool life of TiN-coated cemented carbide tools when machining both 316L and 2205 stainless steels. It was noticed that the tool life of TiN-coated high speed steel tools used in the low cutting speed range when machining 2205 steel was longer than that when machining 316L steel, whereas the tool life of TiN-coated cemented carbide tools used in the high cutting speed range when machining 316L steel was longer than that when machining 2205 steel.

  16. Heavy reflector experiments in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor: Stainless steel, carbon steel and nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos, Adimir dos; Andrade e Silva, Graciete Simoes de; Jerez, Rogerio; Liambos Mura, Luis Felipe; Fuga, Rinaldo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242 - CEP 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    New experiments devoted to the measurements of physical parameters of a light water core surrounded by a heavy reflector were performed in the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor facility. These experiments comprise three sets of heavy reflector (SS-304, Carbon Steel, and Nickel) in a form of laminates around 3 mm thick. Each set was introduced individually in the west face of the core of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor. The aim here is to provide high quality experimental data for the interpretation and validation of the SS-304 heavy reflector calculation methods. The experiments of Carbon Steel, which is composed mainly of iron, and Nickel were performed to provide a consistent and an interpretative check for the SS-304 reflector experiment. The experimental results comprise critical control bank positions, temperatures and reactivities as a function of the number of the plates. Particularly to the case of Nickel, the experimental data are unique of its kind. The theoretical analysis was performed by MCNP-5 with the nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0. It was shown that this nuclear data library has a very good performance up to thirteen plates and overestimates the reactivity for higher number of plates independently of the type of the reflector.

  17. OpenDAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    only the subset of the data requested. Additionally the data may be processed on the server through GrADS expressions in the URL. Some examples are given below. OpenDAP for...

  18. Open cycle thermoacoustics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, Robert Stowers

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of thermodynamic device combining a thermodynamic cycle with the externally applied steady flow of an open thermodynamic process is discussed and experimentally demonstrated. The gas flowing through this device can be heated or cooled in a series of semi-open cyclic steps. The combination of open and cyclic flows makes possible the elimination of some or all of the heat exchangers (with their associated irreversibility). Heat is directly exchanged with the process fluid as it flows through the device when operating as a refrigerator, producing a staging effect that tends to increase First Law thermodynamic efficiency. An open-flow thermoacoustic refrigerator was built to demonstrate this concept. Several approaches are presented that describe the physical characteristics of this device. Tests have been conducted on this refrigerator with good agreement with a proposed theory.

  19. Advanced steel reheat furnaces: Research and development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Q.; Koppang, R.; Maly, P.; Moyeda, D. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Li, X. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1999-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of two phases of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate an Advanced Steel Reheat Furnace (SSRF) concept which incorporates two proven and commercialized technologies, oxy-fuel enriched air (OEA) combustion and gas reburning (GR). The combined technologies aim to improve furnace productivity with higher flame radiant heat transfer in the heating zones of a steel reheat furnace while controlling potentially higher NOx emissions from these zones. The project was conducted under a contract sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). Specifically, this report summarizes the results of a modeling study and an experimental study to define and evaluate the issues which affect the integration and performance of the combined technologies. Section 2.0 of the report describes the technical approach uses in the development and evaluation of the advanced steel reheat furnace. Section 3.0 presents results of the modeling study applied to a model steel furnace. Experimental validation of the modeling results obtained from EER`s Fuel Evaluation Facility (FEF) pilot-scale furnace discussed in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an economic evaluation on the cost effectiveness of the advanced reheat furnace concept. Section 6.0 concludes the report with recommendations on the applicability of the combined technologies of steel reheat furnaces.

  20. 2012 ACCOMPLISHMENTS - TRITIUM AGING STUDIES ON STAINLESS STEELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, M.

    2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the research and development accomplishments during FY12 for the tritium effects on materials program. The tritium effects on materials program is designed to measure the long-term effects of tritium and its radioactive decay product, helium-3, on the structural properties of forged stainless steels which are used as the materials of construction for tritium reservoirs. The FY12 R&D accomplishments include: (1) Fabricated and Thermally-Charged 150 Forged Stainless Steel Samples with Tritium for Future Aging Studies; (2) Developed an Experimental Plan for Measuring Cracking Thresholds of Tritium-Charged-and-Aged Steels in High Pressure Hydrogen Gas; (3) Calculated Sample Tritium Contents For Laboratory Inventory Requirements and Environmental Release Estimates; (4) Published report on Cracking Thresholds and Fracture Toughness Properties of Tritium-Charged-and-Aged Stainless Steels; and, (5) Published report on The Effects of Hydrogen, Tritium, and Heat Treatment on the Deformation and Fracture Toughness Properties of Stainless Steels. These accomplishments are highlighted here and references given to additional reports for more detailed information.

  1. a533b steels investigated: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut, Claude First Page Previous Page...

  2. advanced high-strength steels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut, Claude 346 Flexural...

  3. advanced high-strength steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut, Claude 346 Flexural...

  4. austenitic cr-ni steels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  5. austenite cr-mn steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  6. alloy-based ferritic steels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut, Claude 407 Flexural...

  7. austenitic chromium-nickel steels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  8. austenitic chromium-nickel steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  9. a-890-1b stainless steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  10. austenitic-ferritic stainless steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut,...

  11. astm a533-b steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made Sammut, Claude 202 Flexural...

  12. The hardening of Type 316L stainless steel welds with thermal aging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayers, Lauren Juliet

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Welded stainless steel piping is a component of boiling water reactors (BWRs). Reirculation and other large diameter piping are fabricated from Type 304 or 316 stainless steels. Delta ferrite is present in welds, because ...

  13. A New Approach to Argument by Analogy: Extrapolation and Chain Graphs Daniel Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steel, Daniel

    A New Approach to Argument by Analogy: Extrapolation and Chain Graphs Daniel Steel Department of Philosophy 503 S Kedzie Hall East Lansing, MI 48824-1032 steel@msu.edu #12;1. Introduction. In order to make

  14. On deformation twinning in a 17.5%Mn-TWIP steel: A physically...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    On deformation twinning in a 17.5%Mn-TWIP steel: A physically-based phenomenological model. On deformation twinning in a 17.5%Mn-TWIP steel: A physically-based phenomenological...

  15. Inventory management of steel plates at an oil rig construction company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Chien Yung

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Keppel Fels produces make-to-order oil exploration rigs for the global market. Each rig requires close to 6000 metric tons of steel in the course of its production. Optimal management of this steel is very critical in this ...

  16. CF8C PLus: A New Cast Stainless Steel for High-Temperature Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CF8C PLus: A New Cast Stainless Steel for High-Temperature Diesel Exhaust Components CF8C PLus: A New Cast Stainless Steel for High-Temperature Diesel Exhaust Components...

  17. Multi-echelon multi-product inventory strategy in a steel company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iocco, Juan D. (Juan Domingo)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines a distribution multi-echelon production-inventory system subject to stochastic demand in the steel industry. The sponsor company, Ternium (a South American steel producer), needs to provide short service ...

  18. Heat and corrosion resistant cast CF8C stainless steel with improved...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Heat and corrosion resistant cast CF8C stainless steel with improved high temperature strength and ductility Re-direct Destination: A CF8C type stainless steel alloy and articles...

  19. Stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement of thick section high strength low alloy steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Needham, William Donald

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the corrosion performance of weldments of a high strength low alloy(HSLA) steel in a simulated seawater environment. This steel, designated HSLA80, was developed by the United ...

  20. ZPower | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapers HomeXuanenYongzhouYunnan DiqingZ Group Steel HoldingZBBZMK

  1. Solving Steel Mill Slab Problems with Constraint-Based Techniques: CP, LNS, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deville, Yves

    is a heavy task in the steel industry and hence limiting the number of slabs is also desirable in practice

  2. Wear-Resistant NanoCompositeStainless Steel Coatings and Bits...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    resistant nanocompositestainless steel coatings and bulk components for geothermal drilling applications. highpeternanocompositebits.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  3. aisi d2 steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nitrogenadas microemulsionados. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Corrosion inhibition efficiency of saponified coconut oil (SCO) and sodium dodecilbenzene...

  4. An alternative to the crystallographic reconstruction of austenite in steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernier, Nicolas, E-mail: n.bernier@yahoo.fr [OCAS N.V., ArcelorMittal R and D Gent, Pres. J.F. Kennedylaan 3, 9060 Zelzate (Belgium); Bracke, Lieven, E-mail: lieven.bracke@arcelormittal.com [OCAS N.V., ArcelorMittal R and D Gent, Pres. J.F. Kennedylaan 3, 9060 Zelzate (Belgium); Malet, Loc; Godet, Stphane [Universit Libre de Bruxelles, 4 MAT (Materials Engineering, Characterisation, Synthesis and Recycling), Avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50, CP 194/03, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alternative crystallographic austenite reconstruction programme written in Matlab is developed by combining the best features of the existing models: the orientation relationship refinement, the local pixel-by-pixel analysis and the nuclei identification and spreading strategy. This programme can be directly applied to experimental electron backscatter diffraction mappings. Its applicability is demonstrated on both quenching and partitioning and as-quenched lath-martensite steels. - Highlights: An alternative crystallographic austenite reconstruction program is developed. The method combines a local analysis and a nuclei identification/spreading strategy. The validity of the calculated orientation relationship is verified on a Q and P steel. The accuracy of the reconstructed microtexture is investigated on a martensite steel.

  5. Electrical resistance tomography from measurements inside a steel cased borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA); Schenkel, Clifford (Walnut Creek, CA); Ramirez, Abelardo L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) produced from measurements taken inside a steel cased borehole. A tomographic inversion of electrical resistance measurements made within a steel casing was then made for the purpose of imaging the electrical resistivity distribution in the formation remotely from the borehole. The ERT method involves combining electrical resistance measurements made inside a steel casing of a borehole to determine the electrical resistivity in the formation adjacent to the borehole; and the inversion of electrical resistance measurements made from a borehole not cased with an electrically conducting casing to determine the electrical resistivity distribution remotely from a borehole. It has been demonstrated that by using these combined techniques, highly accurate current injection and voltage measurements, made at appropriate points within the casing, can be tomographically inverted to yield useful information outside the borehole casing.

  6. Energy and materials flows in the iron and steel industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparrow, F.T.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Past energy-consumption trends and future energy-conservation opportunities are investigated for the nation's iron and steel industry. It is estimated that, in 1980, the industry directly consumed approximately 2.46 x 10/sup 15/ Btu of energy (roughly 3% of total US energy consumption) to produce 111 million tons of raw steel and to ship 84 million tons of steel products. Direct plus indirect consumption is estimated to be about 3.1 x 10/sup 15/ Btu. Of the set of conservation technologies identified, most are judged to be ready for commercialization if and when the industry's capital formation and profitability problems are solved and the gradual predicted increase in energy prices reduces the payback periods to acceptable levels.

  7. Reliability-based condition assessment of steel containment and liners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingwood, B.; Bhattacharya, B.; Zheng, R. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steel containments and liners in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environments that may cause their strength and stiffness to decrease during the plant service life. Among the factors recognized as having the potential to cause structural deterioration are uniform, pitting or crevice corrosion; fatigue, including crack initiation and propagation to fracture; elevated temperature; and irradiation. The evaluation of steel containments and liners for continued service must provide assurance that they are able to withstand future extreme loads during the service period with a level of reliability that is sufficient for public safety. Rational methodologies to provide such assurances can be developed using modern structural reliability analysis principles that take uncertainties in loading, strength, and degradation resulting from environmental factors into account. The research described in this report is in support of the Steel Containments and Liners Program being conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The research demonstrates the feasibility of using reliability analysis as a tool for performing condition assessments and service life predictions of steel containments and liners. Mathematical models that describe time-dependent changes in steel due to aggressive environmental factors are identified, and statistical data supporting the use of these models in time-dependent reliability analysis are summarized. The analysis of steel containment fragility is described, and simple illustrations of the impact on reliability of structural degradation are provided. The role of nondestructive evaluation in time-dependent reliability analysis, both in terms of defect detection and sizing, is examined. A Markov model provides a tool for accounting for time-dependent changes in damage condition of a structural component or system. 151 refs.

  8. Measuring the Magnetic Flux Density in the CMS Steel Yoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. I. Klyukhin; N. Amapane; A. Ball; B. Cur; A. Gaddi; H. Gerwig; A. Herv; M. Mulders; R. Loveless

    2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector, designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Its distinctive features include a 4 T superconducting solenoid with 6-m-diameter by 12.5-m-length free bore, enclosed inside a 10000-ton return yoke made of construction steel. The return yoke consists of five dodecagonal three-layered barrel wheels and four end-cap disks at each end comprised of steel blocks up to 620 mm thick, which serve as the absorber plates of the muon detection system. Accurate characterization of the magnetic field everywhere in the CMS detector is required. To measure the field in and around the steel, a system of 22 flux-loops and 82 3-D Hall sensors is installed on the return yoke blocks. Fast discharges of the solenoid (190 s time-constant) made during the CMS magnet surface commissioning test at the solenoid central fields of 2.64, 3.16, 3.68 and 4.01 T were used to induce voltages in the flux-loops. The voltages are measured on-line and integrated off-line to obtain the magnetic flux in the steel yoke close to the muon chambers at full excitations of the solenoid. The 3-D Hall sensors installed on the steel-air interfaces give supplementary information on the components of magnetic field and permit to estimate the remanent field in steel to be added to the magnetic flux density obtained by the voltages integration. A TOSCA 3-D model of the CMS magnet is developed to describe the magnetic field everywhere outside the tracking volume measured with the field-mapping machine. The results of the measurements and calculations are presented, compared and discussed.

  9. DEFORMATION MECHANISMS AND DAMAGE OF OXIDE DISPERSION STRENGTHENED STEELS AT HIGH TEMPERATURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    alloy, an ODS ferritic steel produced by hot extrusion at CEA are presented. Its mechanical propertiesTech, 91003 Evry, France ABSTRACT A ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened steel is under study for fuel are suspected and intergranular damage is observed on fractured specimens. KEYWORDS ODS steels, high temperature

  10. Understanding the Role Water-cooling Plays during Continuous Casting of Steel and Aluminum Alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Brian G.

    Understanding the Role Water-cooling Plays during Continuous Casting of Steel and Aluminum Alloys J the mold and solidifying metal during the continuous casting of steel and aluminum alloys for the control of cooling in casting processes for both steel and aluminum alloys are evaluated. Introduction

  11. TRP 9904 - Constitutive Behavior of High Strength Multiphase Sheel Steel Under High Strain Rate Deformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Matlock; John Speer

    2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of the research project was to systematically assess the strain rate dependence of strengthening mechanisms in new advanced high strength sheet steels. Data were obtained on specially designed and produced Duel Phase and TRIP steels and compared to the properties of automotive steels currently in use.

  12. Energy balance properties of steels subjected to high cycle A. Chrysochoos1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    associated with the fatigue of a dual-phase steel often used in mechanical industries. This paper is composedEnergy balance properties of steels subjected to high cycle fatigue A. Chrysochoos1 , A. Blanche1 estimate the different terms of the energy balance associated with the high cycle fatigue (HCF) of steels

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF COOLING RATE ON THE FERRITE CONTENT OF STAINLESS STEEL ALLOYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    cooling rates. INTRODUCTION Rcsid ual ferrite is present in the microstructure of duplex stainless steel) ) ) THE INFLUENCE OF COOLING RATE ON THE FERRITE CONTENT OF STAINLESS STEEL ALLOYS J. W. Elmer that this ferrite can influence the mechanical properties of stainless steel alloys and the integrity of castings

  14. A Study of Austenite Precipitate Growth in Duplex Stainless Steel A Research Performance Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGaughey, Alan

    A Study of Austenite Precipitate Growth in Duplex Stainless Steel A Research Performance Evaluation-based metals handbooks. Due the multi-component nature of the duplex stainless steels which are the basis stainless steel. Current State of Knowledge The velocity of an interface during a phase transformation can

  15. Measuring the Residual Ferrite Content of Rapidly Solidified Stainless Steel Alloys-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    -Gage and ferrite meters have been developed to measure the amount of residual ferrite in duplex stainless steel) ) Measuring the Residual Ferrite Content of Rapidly Solidified Stainless Steel Alloys. Electron beam welds, laser beam welds and rapidly solidified stainless steel alloys have small physical

  16. Alternated high-and low-pressure nitriding of austenitic stainless steel: Mechanisms and results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alternated high- and low-pressure nitriding of austenitic stainless steel: Mechanisms and results G a gas mixture of (N2 /H2):(50/50) in pressure, was applied to stainless-steel AISI 304. In the first or plasma nitriding of metal parts, in par- ticular those made of steel and cast iron, is extensively ap

  17. Det&rmlrvatton af AuetenH vs. a-ferrlt Hi Steel by Neutron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Det&rmlrvatton af AuetenH© vs. a-ferrlté Hi Steel by Neutron and X-ray Oif fraction Bltv Nitl-FERRITE IN STEEL BY NEUTRON AND X-RAY DIFFRACTION J. Als-Nielsen and K. Clausen Physics Department Abstract-ferrite) phases in steel samples are reported. In addition to determine the relative content of phases

  18. NICKEL-FREE Fe-12Mn-0.2Ti ALLOY STEEL FOR CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parr, J. Gordon, J. Iron and Steel Inst. B, vol. 283,137 (Properties of Fe-12Mn-0.2Ti Steel at -196C Yield Stress (FREE Fe-12Mn-O. 2Ti ALLOY STEEL FOR CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS

  19. Heavy Section Steel Technology HSST eLib Computational Structural Fracture Mechanics Team

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heavy Section Steel Technology HSST eLib Computational Structural Fracture Mechanics Team the reports generated by the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) program (JCN B0119) from the early 1970's welcome the opportunity to discuss your potential applications and ways that the Heavy-Section Steel

  20. Dynamics of static friction between steel and silicon Zhiping Yang, H. P. Zhang, and M. Marder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin. University of

    Dynamics of static friction between steel and silicon Zhiping Yang, H. P. Zhang, and M. Marder 4, 2008) We conducted experiments in which steel and silicon or quartz are clamped together. Even experiments where silicon and quartz are clamped on steel, motion is measured down to the nanometer scale

  1. GUIDELINES FOR DESIGN AND SAFE HANDLING OF CURVED I-SHAPED STEEL GIRDERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    0-5574-P1 GUIDELINES FOR DESIGN AND SAFE HANDLING OF CURVED I-SHAPED STEEL GIRDERS Authors: Jason FOR DESIGN AND SAFE HANDLING OF CURVED I-SHAPED STEEL GIRDERS PURPOSE: The purpose of this set of guidelines-sixth #12;2 (Eq. 6.10.2.2-2). However, TxDOT's Preferred Practices for Steel Bridge Design, Fabrication

  2. ACOUSTIC EMISSION HEALTH MONITORING OF STEEL BRIDGES Pooria L. Pahlavan1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACOUSTIC EMISSION HEALTH MONITORING OF STEEL BRIDGES Pooria L. Pahlavan1 , Joep Paulissen2 in the field of Acoustic Emission (AE) for monitoring fatigue cracks in steel structures, the implementation in the utilization of AE systems for steel bridge decks. These challenges are mainly related to the multi

  3. Fast solution of optimal control problems in the selective cooling of steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chemnitz, Technische Universitt

    Fast solution of optimal control problems in the selective cooling of steel F. Troltzsch and A of cooling milled steel profiles at a maximum rate subject to given bounds on the difference of temperatures in prescribed points of the steel profile. This leads to a nonlinear parabolic control problem with state

  4. III.C. 3. A Delphi on the Future of the Steel and Ferroalloy Industries*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bieber, Michael

    204 III.C. 3. A Delphi on the Future of the Steel and Ferroalloy Industries* NANCY H. GOLDSTEIN for policy issues affecting the use of ferroalloys in steel making and certain other alloy production of the Delphi. The Steel and Ferroalloy Delphi included three rounds. The questions and exercises presented

  5. Controlling a Steel Mill with BOXES Michael McGarity, Claude Sammut and David Clements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sammut, Claude

    Controlling a Steel Mill with BOXES Michael McGarity, Claude Sammut and David Clements and Chambers (1968) to a large-scale, real-world problem, namely, learning to control a steel mill. By applying BOXES to a model of a skinpass mill (a type of steel mill), we find that the BOXES algorithm can be made

  6. A STUDY OF FERRITIC WELD DEPOSITS IN Fe-9Ni STEEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahin, K.W.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the Welding of 9% Nickel Steel: Research in the U.S. andWELD DEPOSITS IN Fe-9Ni STEEL K. W. Mahin and J. W. Morris,1977). F. H. lang: Ferritic Steel Welcl'ing 3,218,432 (

  7. A new concept for the contact at the interface of steel-concrete composite beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    A new concept for the contact at the interface of steel-concrete composite beams Samy GUEZOULI of contact at the interface of steel-concrete composite beams. The F.E. model "Pontmixte", able to study only 4 degrees of freedom per node: both longitudinal displacements of the slab and the steel beam

  8. Waves and Vortices of Rust on the Surface of Corroding Steel K. Agladze and O. Steinbock*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinbock, Oliver

    Waves and Vortices of Rust on the Surface of Corroding Steel K. Agladze and O. Steinbock; In Final Form: September 8, 2000 Two-dimensional wave patterns have been observed on corroding steel plates. A thin layer of oxygen-containing nitric acid covering the surface of the low-carbon steel induces

  9. Author's personal copy Investigation of effect of polyurea on response of steel plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    Author's personal copy Investigation of effect of polyurea on response of steel plates to impulsive the results of the response of monolithic steel plates and steel-polyurea bilayer plates to impulsive blast), it will magnify the initial shock effect and promote fail- ure. These experimental results are paralleled

  10. Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Steel I-Beams Under Fire Conditions Researcher: Ronisi Cazeli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birmingham, University of

    Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Steel I-Beams Under Fire Conditions Researcher: Ronisi Cazeli understanding of the phenomenon of lateral-torsional buckling of steel I-beams at elevated temperature. A model for the fire resistance of lateral-torsional buckling of steel I- beams, based on numerical analyses

  11. Transmission electron microscopy of undermined passive films on stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isaacs, H.S.; Zhu, Y.; Sabatini, R.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; Ryan, M.P. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study has been made of the passive film remaining over pits on stainless steel using a high resolution transmission electron microscope. Type 305 stainless steel was passivated in a borate buffer solution and pitted in ferric chloride. Passive films formed at 0.2 V relative to a saturated calomel electrode were found to be amorphous. Films formed at higher potentials showed only broad diffraction rings. The passive film was found to cover a remnant lacy structure formed over pits passivated at 0.8 V. The metallic strands of the lace were roughly hemitubular in shape with the curved surface facing the center of the pit.

  12. Transformations in TRIP-assisted Steels: Microstructure and Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterjee, Sourabh

    and the prevailing state of stress or strain may be much more complex than uniaxial tension. Static and quasi-static tensile tests performed with a slow strain rate of about 0.005 s?1 are therefore not sufficient. Servo-hydraulic testing system, Split Hopkinson Bar... . The justification for the formability criteria is another feature of the present work. Chapter 2 TRIP-assisted steels An overview of TRIP-assisted steels is presented in this chapter. Typical mechanical properties such as proof strength (YS), ultimate tensile...

  13. Degradation of nanostructured bainitic steel under rolling contact fatigue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solano-Alvarez, W.; Pickering, E. J.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    2014-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    down causing decohe- sion [30, 31]. It is well known in the context of dual phase steels [3235], that ductile voids form at the interface between hard martensite and soft ferrite. In the present case it is of course the larger regions of carbon... of relatively coarse regions of austenite. It is safe to assume that the strain incompatibility between 17 the hard, untempered martensite and relatively soft bainite that in- duces void formation in a manner akin to dual-phase steels of the type used...

  14. Creep of A508/533 Pressure Vessel Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Wright

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT Evaluation of potential Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels has been carried out as part of the pre-conceptual Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design studies. These design studies have generally focused on American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code status of the steels, temperature limits, and allowable stresses. Initially, three candidate materials were identified by this process: conventional light water reactor (LWR) RPV steels A508 and A533, 2Cr-1Mo in the annealed condition, and Grade 91 steel. The low strength of 2Cr-1Mo at elevated temperature has eliminated this steel from serious consideration as the VHTR RPV candidate material. Discussions with the very few vendors that can potentially produce large forgings for nuclear pressure vessels indicate a strong preference for conventional LWR steels. This preference is based in part on extensive experience with forging these steels for nuclear components. It is also based on the inability to cast large ingots of the Grade 91 steel due to segregation during ingot solidification, thus restricting the possible mass of forging components and increasing the amount of welding required for completion of the RPV. Grade 91 steel is also prone to weld cracking and must be post-weld heat treated to ensure adequate high-temperature strength. There are also questions about the ability to produce, and very importantly, verify the through thickness properties of thick sections of Grade 91 material. The availability of large components, ease of fabrication, and nuclear service experience with the A508 and A533 steels strongly favor their use in the RPV for the VHTR. Lowering the gas outlet temperature for the VHTR to 750C from 950 to 1000C, proposed in early concept studies, further strengthens the justification for this material selection. This steel is allowed in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for nuclear service up to 371C (700F); certain excursions above that temperature are allowed by Code Case N-499-2 (now incorporated as an appendix to Section III Division 5 of the Code). This Code Case was developed with a rather sparse data set and focused primarily on rolled plate material (A533 specification). Confirmatory tests of creep behavior of both A508 and A533 are described here that are designed to extend the database in order to build higher confidence in ensuring the structural integrity of the VHTR RPV during off-normal conditions. A number of creep-rupture tests were carried out at temperatures above the 371C (700F) Code limit; longer term tests designed to evaluate minimum creep behavior are ongoing. A limited amount of rupture testing was also carried out on welded material. All of the rupture data from the current experiments is compared to historical values from the testing carried out to develop Code Case N-499-2. It is shown that the A508/533 basemetal tested here fits well with the rupture behavior reported from the historical testing. The presence of weldments significantly reduces the time to rupture. The primary purpose of this report is to summarize and record the experimental results in a single document.

  15. Final Scientific Report - "Novel Steels for High Temperature Carburizing"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKimpson, Marvin G.; Liu, Tianjun; Maniruzzaman, Md

    2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This program was undertaken to develop a microalloy-modified grade of standard carburizing steel that can successfully exploit the high temperature carburizing capabilities of current commercial low pressure (i.e. 'vacuum') carburizing systems. Such steels can lower the amount of energy required for commercial carburizing operations by reducing the time required for deep-case carburizing operations. The specific technical objective of the work was to demonstrate a carburizing steel composition capable of maintaining a prior austenite grain size no larger than ASTM grain size number 5 after exposure to simulated carburizing conditions of 1050 C for 8 hr. Such thermal exposure should be adequate for producing carburized case depths up to about 2 mm. Such carburizing steels are expected to be attractive for use across a wide range of industries, including the petroleum, chemical, forest products, automotive, mining and industrial equipment industries. They have potential for reducing energy usage during low pressure carburizing by more than 25%, as well as reducing cycle times and process costs substantially. They also have potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from existing low pressure carburizing furnaces by more than 25%. High temperature carburizing can be done in most modern low pressure carburizing systems with no additional capital investment. Accordingly, implementing this technology on carburizing furnaces will provide a return on investment significantly greater than 10%. If disseminated throughout the domestic carburizing community, the technology has potential for saving on the order of 23 to 34 trillion BTU/year in industrial energy usage. Under the program, two compositions of microalloyed, coarsening-resistant low alloy carburizing steels were developed, produced and evaluated. After vacuum annealing at 1050oC for 8 hrs and high pressure gas quenching, both steels exhibited a prior austenite ASTM grain size number of 5.0 or finer. For comparison, a control alloy of similar composition but without the microalloy additions exhibited a duplex prior austenite grain size with grains ranging from ASTM grain size 3 down to ASTM grain size 1 after similar processing and thermal exposure. These results confirm the potential for using microalloy additions of Ti, B, Nb, Al, rare earths and/or N for austenite grain size control in Cr-Mo (i.e. 4000-series) low alloy carburizing steels. They also demonstrate that these microalloy additions will not compromise the processability of the steel; all three materials produced under the program could be hot worked readily using normal steel processing protocols. To fully realize the technical and commercial potential of these steels, there is a need to continue development work using larger-scale heats. These larger-scale heats are needed to provide adequate material for fatigue testing of quenched and tempered alloys, to conduct more complete investigations of potential alloy chemistries and to provide additional material for processing studies. It will also be beneficial to carefully review intellectual property issues associated with this family of steels, since existing Japanese patent literature suggests that significant microstructural and/or process characterization work may be needed on new materials to confirm that these materials fall outside existing patent claims.

  16. SQA(TM): Surface Quality Assured Steel Bar Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tzyy-Shuh Chang; Jianjun Shi; Shiyu Zhou

    2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    OG Technologies, Inc. (OGT) has led this SQA (Surface Quality Assured Steel Bar) program to solve the major surface quality problems plaguing the US special quality steel bars and rods industry and their customers, based on crosscutting sensors and controls technologies. Surface defects in steel formed in a hot rolling process are one of the most common quality issues faced by the American steel industry, accounting for roughly 50% of the rejects or 2.5% of the total shipment. Unlike other problems such as the mechanical properties of the steel product, most surface defects are sporadic and cannot be addressed based on sampling techniques. This issue hurts the rolling industry and their customers in their process efficiency and operational costs. The goal of this program is to develop and demonstrate an SQA prototype, with synergy of HotEye and other innovations, that enables effective rolling process control and efficient quality control. HotEye, OGTs invention, delivers high definition images of workpieces at or exceeding 1,450?C while the workpieces travel at 100 m/s. The elimination of surface defect rejects will be achieved through the integration of imaging-based quality assessment, advanced signal processing, predictive process controls and the integration with other quality control tools. The SQA program team, composed of entities capable of and experienced in (1) research, (2) technology manufacturing, (3) technology sales and marketing, and (4) technology end users, is very strong. There were 5 core participants: OGT, Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), University of Wisconsin (UW), Charter Steel (Charter) and ArcelorMittal Indiana Harbor (Inland). OGT served as the project coordinator. OGT participated in both research and commercialization. GIT and UW provided significant technical inputs to this SQA project. The steel mills provided access to their rolling lines for data collection, design of experiments, host of technology test and verification, and first-hand knowledge of the most advanced rolling line operation in the US. This project lasted 5 years with 5 major tasks. The team successfully worked through the tasks with deliverables in detection, data analysis and process control. Technologies developed in this project were commercialized as soon as they were ready. For instance, the advanced surface defect detection algorithms were integrated into OGTs HotEye RSB systems late 2005, resulting in a more matured product serving the steel industry. In addition to the commercialization results, the SQA team delivered 7 papers and 1 patent. OGT was also recognized by two prestigious awards, including the R&D100 Award in 2006. To date, this SQA project has started to make an impact in the special bar quality industry. The resulted product, HotEye RSB systems have been accepted by quality steel mills worldwide. Over 16 installations were completed, including 1 in Argentina, 2 in Canada, 2 in China, 2 in Germany, 2 in Japan, and 7 in the U.S. Documented savings in reduced internal rejects, improved customer satisfaction and simplified processes were reported from various mills. In one case, the mill reported over 50% reduction in its scrap, reflecting a significant saving in energy and reduction in emission. There exist additional applications in the steel industry where the developed technologies can be used. OGT is working toward bringing the developed technologies to more applications. Examples are: in-line inspection and process control for continuous casting, steel rails, and seamless tube manufacturing.

  17. linked open data | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapersWindey Wind Home Rmckeel'slinked open data Home Jweers's picture

  18. About OpenEI | Open Energy Information

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  19. OpenEI | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarmsPowerKaitianOstsee Wind AG Jump to:OhioDataOpenEI

  20. OpenEI and Linked Open Data

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEWResponse toOctober 2014Funds for CleanAbout Energy.govOpenEI and

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  7. OpenEI Community - Open Data

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    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest and Evaluation |quasicrystals65Open OpenMP Home »

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    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  17. Microstructural Origins of Variability in the Tensile Ductility of Dual Phase Steels Claire Teresi, Clemson University, SURF Fellow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Microstructural Origins of Variability in the Tensile Ductility of Dual Phase Steels Claire Teresi Introduction: Dual phase (DP) steels are a class of advanced high strength structural steels that also have automotive applications. Generally composed of two primary phases- martensite and ferrite- these steels have

  18. Optimisation of Neural Network for Charpy Toughness of Steel Welds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Optimisation of Neural Network for Charpy Toughness of Steel Welds Jun Hak, Pak #12;Contents Introduction Modelling of output Bias in Models Interpass temperature effect Results Discussion Conclusions #12) Measured energy absorbed by a standard s ample during fracture Never be negative ! #12;Example of non

  19. Optimisation of Neural Network for Charpy Toughness of Steel Welds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Optimisation of Neural Network for Charpy Toughness of Steel Welds Jun Hak, Pak #12;Contents Introduction Modelling of output Bias in Models Interpass temperature effectInterpass temperature effect unphysical values PossiblePossible Charpy toughness (Impact toughness) Measured energy absorbed by a standard

  20. Low Temperature Air Bake of Stainless Steel for Very Low

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that gives very hot water with detergent. #12;4. The method of using a relatively low temperature air bake of the requirements for high quality forged blanks for flanges. After machining using a water based lubricantLow Temperature Air Bake of Stainless Steel for Very Low Outgassing Rates Surface Conditioning