National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for opec oil output

  1. Do oil markets work; is OPEC dead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gately, D. (New York Univ., NY (USA). Dept. of Economics)

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the authors review what has happened in world oil markets since the 1970s and examine the prospects for OPEC and world oil prices. The paper summarizes the data for the last two decades: by fuel, by product, and by region. It focuses on OPEC and its members, examining the differences in behavior between its members and non-OPEC producers. The authors find that OPEC is clearly still relevant, if no longer very powerful. Its members have collectively reduced output dramatically, in an unsuccessful attempt to defend the price increases. They examine the important institutional changes of the last two decades, in comparison with the industry's stability for much of the century. They suggest an interpretation of OPEC's current situation. The paper summarizes the outlook for OPEC and the world oil market over the next two decades.

  2. Shifting production trends point to more oil from OPEC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ismail, I.A.H. (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, Vienna (Austria))

    1994-12-26

    Oil production from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and non-OPEC regions has undergone four major phases of change in relation to oil price since 1960. Patterns visible in those phases offer an indication of world-wide production trends in the future. These four phases are described. Overall, demand for oil during 1960--93 has increased from around 20 million b/d in 1960 to as high as 65 million b/d in 1993. The consensus among energy analysts and forecasters is that this demand growth will continue. This will encourage OPEC and non OPEC producers to invest in the oil industry to meet future demand growth. However, since the resource base is larger in OPEC than in non-OPEC areas, and since the cost of developing these resources is lower in OPEC than outside OPEC, the future call on OPEC oil to meet growth in demand will undoubtedly be substantiated as production from the non-OPEC region diminishes or at best stagnates. The paper discusses OPEC production trends, non-OPEC production, natural gas liquids, future production scenarios, and future constraints on production.

  3. Non-OPEC oil supply gains to outpace demand in 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, R.J.

    1997-01-27

    Rising oil supplies in 1997 will relax some of the market tightness that drove up crude prices last year. Worldwide demand for petroleum products in 1996 rose faster than anticipated and faster than supply from outside the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. This increased demand for OPEC oil and pushed up prices for crude. At year end, the world export price of crude was up more than 25% from the same period a year earlier. Market conditions will change in 1997. While worldwide economic growth will continue to boost demand for energy and petroleum, non-OPEC petroleum supply will grow even more. Increases in North Sea and Latin American production will help boost non-OPEC output by 1.9 million b/d. And revenues from 1996 production gains will make additional investment possible in exploration and production. The paper discusses world economic growth, world oil demand, worldwide supply, supply outlook, prices and international drilling.

  4. The oil price and non-OPEC supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour, A.

    1991-01-01

    The design of any effective oil pricing policy by producers depends on a knowledge of the nature and complexity of supply responses. This book examines the development of non-OPEX oil reserves on a field-by-filed basis to determine how much of the increase in non-OPEC production could be attributable to the price shocks and how much was unambiguously due to decisions and developments that preceded the price shocks. Results are presented in eighteen case-studies of non-OPEC producers. This study will be of interest to economists and planners specializing in the upstream and to policy makers both in oil producing and consuming countries.

  5. Non-OPEC oil supply continues to grow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, D.H. [International Energy Agency, Paris (France)

    1995-12-25

    Global reserves of crude oil remain at 1 trillion bbl, according to OGJ`s annual survey of producing countries. Significant gains are in Brazil, Colombia, Congo, Egypt, Libya, Nigeria, Oman, and Papua New Guinea. Decreases were reported by Indonesia, Norway, the U.K., Iran, Canada, Mexico, and the US. Natural gas reserves slipped to 4.9 quadrillion cu ft. The major production trend is a lasting surge from outside of OPEC. This year`s Worldwide Production report begins with a detailed analysis of this crucial development by an international authority. This article discusses the OECD outlook by region and the turnaround in production in the former Soviet Union.

  6. Macro economic approach to oil production in OPEC countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shojai, S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper uses a macro economic model of oil exporting developing nations (OPEC) in conjunction with a social welfare function approach (optimal control) to derive an optimum level of oil production. The macro model assumes the economy produces only three goods (oil, imported goods, and nontraded goods), and the foreign exchange rate if fixed. There are twelve endogenous and nine exogenous variables. A 2SLS technique is applied to estimate the macro model using pooled data over the period from 1973-1979. Countries included in this study are: Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela. The estimated macro model is used as a constraint in the process of maximization of a quadratic social welfare function which includes all of some of the endogenous variables of the model as well as the only control variable, namely, oil exports. Optimal oil production for the period 1974-1981 is calculated based on three different scenarios (A, B, and C). The empirical results indicate that oil revenue is an important factor in determination of GNP, government revenues, and expenditures, consumption, and money supply. The price level does not influence imports, consumption, and demand for money balances. Also, the nontraded goods industry seems to be an isolated industry, and distribution of income changes to the detriment of this industry as the economy becomes more open to international trade. The paper concludes that if economic growth is the main objective of policy makers, greater utilization of oil resources is required. Finally, it suggests more reliance on market forces and less subsidy programs.

  7. OPEC at high noon 1974-1981

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adelman, Morris Albert

    1992-01-01

    After 1973, oil consumption stagnated worldwide. Non-OPEC output increased, mostly in Alaska, Mexico, and the North Sea, but not because of the price rise. The cartel nations had to assume the whole burden of cutting back ...

  8. OPEC Revenues Fact Sheet

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01

    This report includes estimates of OPEC net oil export revenues, based on historical estimates and forecasts from the latest Energy Information Administration (EIA) Short-Term Energy Outlook.

  9. Statement from Energy Secretary Bodman on OPEC's Decision to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Statement from Energy Secretary Bodman on OPEC's Decision to Cut Crude Oil Production Statement from Energy Secretary Bodman on OPEC's Decision to Cut Crude Oil Production October...

  10. OPEC agreement and its implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Following lengthy and intensive negotiations, OPEC recently reached agreement on new prices and production quotas. Although the agreement has been met by general skepticism, Bankers Trust believes that the chances of defending the new marker price are reasonably good. Saudi willingness to reduce oil production and earnings to shield less financially secure OPEC members from the full impact of production cuts provides added and much-needed strength to the organization. If indeed the OPEC agreement proves successful, product prices in the important US market may have already bottomed out.

  11. Interdependencies 1989, Part III: Focus on solidarity with OPEC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-07-10

    Several non-OPEC countries, and sometimes elements within countries, have been in dialogue with OPEC about oil market supply, demand, and pricing for the past few years. Recently, some have attended OPEC meetings as observers for the first time. Economists have asked, Will this strengthen OPEC make it into a true cartel Is free oil marketing threatened In this issue a remarkable paper addresses the evolution of relationships between OPEC and non-OPEC producers. This issue also presents the following: (1) ED refining netback data series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of July 7, 1989; and (2) ED fuel price/tax series for the countries of the Western Hemisphere, July 1989 edition. Includes paper by John Roberts, OPEC and non-OPEC Relations, March 1989. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Changes in exchange rates and oil prices for Saudi Arabia and other OPEC members

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    When the U.S. dollar weakens significantly against currencies of other major trading nations, oil-exporting countries often become concerned about both loss of purchasing power for their imports as well as capital losses on dollar-denominated assets. This paper addresses these issues by (1) examining previous studies, (2) reviewing the historical oil price movements of oil denominated in different G-7 currencies, (3) performing a causality test between changes in exchange rates and the price of oil, (4) using an analytical model to relate changes in exchange rates and the price of oil through the world oil market; and (5) evaluating the gains and losses in terms of purchasing power of Saudi Arabia and other members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries for selected historical periods.

  13. Texas, oil estate: How a pre-OPEC producer has changed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-20

    Oil producer, powerful political voice at home, international influence: Texas was and is all of those things. But its role in these arenas has changed dramatically, as this issue of Energy Detente reveals. Herein, ED views Texas' emerging oil and economic profile as something new that could herald some similar changes in other petroleum estates. It is pointed out that, in most recent years, the importance of West Texas Intermediate grade on the New York Mercantile Exchange as an international benchmark is unsurpassed by any other. This issue of ED also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of Jan. 10, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, Jan. 1992 edition.

  14. Exclusive: OPEC's story - denies it is a cartel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-03-23

    Coverage of OPEC news in the Western press exploded in 1973 during the Arab Oil Embargo and blossomed during the 1979 oil price hike. Since then, however, coverage wanes when OPEC's problems are its own and not widely impacting consuming nations. OPECNA, the OPEC News Agency, was established in 1980 to improve the quantity and quality of world press coverage of OPEC activities. Since then, OPECNA has also been OPEC's historian. It is felt that OPECNA has achieved its principal goal, that of providing reliable and frequent information about OPEC and the activities of its member countries; however, it appears to have little success in restructuring world opinion. Included here is an exclusive interview by Energy Detente with Mr. Gonzalo Plaza, Director of OPECNA. The Energy Detente fuel price/tax series and industrial fuel prices for March 1983 are presented for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  15. OPEC production: Untapped reserves, world demand spur production expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ismail, I.A.H. (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, Vienna (Austria))

    1994-05-02

    To meet projected world oil demand, almost all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) have embarked on ambitious capacity expansion programs aimed at increasing oil production capabilities. These expansion programs are in both new and existing oil fields. In the latter case, the aim is either to maintain production or reduce the production decline rate. However, the recent price deterioration has led some major OPEC producers, such as Saudi Arabia and Iran, to revise downward their capacity plans. Capital required for capacity expansion is considerable. Therefore, because the primary source of funds will come from within each OPEC country, a reasonably stable and relatively high oil price is required to obtain enough revenue for investing in upstream projects. This first in a series of two articles discusses the present OPEC capacity and planned expansion in the Middle East. The concluding part will cover the expansion plans in the remaining OPEC countries, capital requirements, and environmental concerns.

  16. Nigeria`s oil production behavior: Tests of alternative hypotheses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Awokuse, T.O.; Jones, C.T.

    1994-12-31

    The sudden quadrupling of world oil prices in 1973-1974 marked the beginning of several formal inquiries by economists into the production behavior of members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Interest in the organization was further heightened in 1979 when nominal oil prices further doubled. However, oil market analysts have differed in their evaluation of OPEC`s role in the determination of world oil prices. Most energy economists have modeled OPEC as a cartel. Morris Adelman has suggested that OPEC`s true nature lies somewhere between two polar cases of a dominant-firm industry and an imperfect, market-sharing cartel. In the former case, one large, dominant firm (i.e., Saudi Arabia) serves as the {open_quotes}swing producer,{close_quotes} allowing other cartel members and non-OPEC oil producers to produce whatever they wished, controlling the market price by itself through its own output adjustments. The latter case of an imperfect market-sharing cartel is a loose collusive arrangement in which all members agree on an acceptable price level and individual output shares for each producer. Adelman believes that OPEC wobbles between these two cases, depending upon market conditions.

  17. Comparative analysis of Nigerian international oil marketing model (NIOMM) and the models of four selected OPEC members; and a proposed new model for Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Udeke, O.O.

    1986-01-01

    This study demonstrates that NIOMM has deficiencies and, as a result, has affected the progress of Nigeria's political and socio-economic development. One finding is that Nigeria is beset with ineffective planning, lack of marketing expertise, and inadequate marketing strategies. Other findings show that: (1) the Nigerian oil industry (HOI) is suffering from mismanagement stemming from corruption, tribalism, Federal Character Policy, and lack of dedication and patriotism by the Nigerian workers; (2) there is inefficiency in the Nigerian national petroleum corporation (NNPC) but, at the same time, the inefficiency is partly because of the government policies, conflicts, interference by high government officials and politicians, and the enormous size of the oil industry; (3) oil revenues are improperly utilized; (4) neither the multinational oil corporations (MNOCs) nor multinational corporations (MNCs) are assisting the oil producing nations (OPNs) or developing countries (DCs) in their economic development, and MNOCs and MNCs are interested in profit maximization; and (5) MNCs do not transfer the type of technology that meets the needs of DCs, and sometimes the technology creates problems for DCs which ultimately results into conflicts between MNCs and DCs. The inverse of these problems has been a sine qua non for success in the IOMMs of the four OPEC member, especially in Saudi Arabia.

  18. OPEC's investments and the international financial system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattione, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    Few events of the past decade have affected the global economic and political landscape as much as the sharp increase in the price of oil in 1973-74 and again in 1979-80. The massive transfer of real resources from mostly Western oil-consuming nations to oil-producing countries, especially to members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, raised widespread fears that actions of OPEC nations could disrupt world financial markets, that oil markets and energy supplies would become unstable, and that a significant shift of political power would increase international tensions. In this study of how OPEC nations have used and learned to invest their wealth, Richard P. Mattione shows that the fears, have not in any significant way been realized. Mattione is the first to analyze in detail the size and distribution of the investments, their effects on the international financial system, and the motivations behind each OPEC member's investment strategy. Analyzing hard-to-find data from a variety of sources, he argues that investments in the United States and elsewhere have been motivated at least as much by conventional financial considerations - the need for liquidity, diversification, safety, and adequate rate of return - as by oil policy, development policy, or political considerations. He also traces the growth of these countries' abilities to absorb funds through internal development, their growing sophistication in financial planning and in moving Arab banks into international financial markets, and their mixed success in using aid to Third World countries to further their foreign policy goals. The book concludes with an analysis of the interplay of oil prices and policy, development needs, and financial strategies and their implication for the investments of each OPEC member in the 1980s. 33 tabs.

  19. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),the Predictive Accuracy of Crude Oil Futures Prices,” EnergyFigure 3. Price of crude oil contract maturing December of

  20. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),percent change in real oil price. Figure 3. Price of crude023 Understanding Crude Oil Prices James D. Hamilton June

  1. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),023 Understanding Crude Oil Prices James D. Hamilton Junedirectly. Understanding Crude Oil Prices* James D. Hamilton

  2. Colombian manufacturing industry during the era of the OPEC price shocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mokate, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    In the first part of this research, an examination of the data on output, value-added, employment and energy use of the Colombian manufacturing industry for the OPEC price shock era shows that the behavior predicted by theory does not describe that industry's reactions to the OPEC price increases. The industry's energy utilization rate does not follow a downward trend, but rather fluctuates throughout the 1970s. The analysis of the production responses provides no evidence of a decline in the energy intensive sectors; all of the manufacturing sectors experienced cyclical fluctuation during the 1970s, regardless of their energy intensity levels. There is no evidence of change in the intrasectoral product mixes or in the technical input coefficients. However, the fluctuations in the energy utilization rate of the manufacturing industry coincide with those of the share of the industry's total output which originated in the energy intensive sectors. In short, the Colombian manufacturing industry has been virtually unresponsive to the increased international oil price. Any technological chage or production response to the oil price increases would be likely to induce change in the functional distribution of industrial income. In the second section of this thesis, then, an input-output methodology for the analysis of the components of this change is introduced; its application to the Colombian case reveals little change in the functional distribution during the 1970s.

  3. Model of world energy markets and OPEC pricing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choe, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the world energy and petroleum markets, carried out by means of an econometric simulation model. The model accepts a certain pricing path for OPEC crude oil (a price seen as being chosen by OPEC mainly on the basis of its revenue implications) together with assumptions about GDP and population growth, and generates energy balance projections for seven world regions - three industrial country regions and four developing country groups. The demand side of the model consists of three end-use sectors (transportation, industrial and residential/commercial) and one energy transformation sector (thermal power generation). The model presently has an endogenous supply specification only for coal. The performance of the model in simulating the historical period of the 1970s was reasonably satisfactory. Simulation results under a range of assumptions about future economic growth and OPEC pricing portend that world demand for energy and petroleum is likely to remain at relatively low levels throughout the 1980s and the early 1990s. Past and expected petroleum price increases will provide a strong and sustained incentive to substitute away from energy and petroleum; enough to keep the demand for OPEC oil comfortably within OPEC's productive capacity through the early 1990s. Coal will play a key role as a substitute fuel for the next 20 years. About two-thirds of the projected incremental demand for primary energy between 1978 and the year 2000 is accounted for by developing countries. 87 references, 8 figures, 45 tables.

  4. Determinants of official OPEC crude prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verleger, P.K. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    The hypothesis of this paper is that crude oil, like any other unfinished commodity, is valued for the products derived from it; the purpose is to offer an empirical explanation for changes in the crude price charged by the members of OPEC. The model results show that the market-clearing prices reported to prevail for petroleum products on the principal petroleum spot market at Rotterdam are the primary determinants of changes in official crude prices. A systematic relationship between offical and spot prices is argued to have prevailed since 1974. An appendix clarifies five types of data required for the model. 13 references, 4 tables.

  5. Fact #563: March 23, 2009 OPEC Petroleum Imports | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3: March 23, 2009 OPEC Petroleum Imports Fact 563: March 23, 2009 OPEC Petroleum Imports In the 1970's, the U.S. imported more petroleum from OPEC than from non-OPEC countries....

  6. Fact #734: July 2, 2012 OPEC Countries Represent Less Than Half of U.S. Petroleum Imports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Even though Saudi Arabia is the world's largest producer of petroleum, and OPEC countries produce much of the oil in the global market, the U.S. imports most of its oil from Canada, Mexico and...

  7. World Oil: Market or Mayhem?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, James L.

    2008-01-01

    The world oil market is regarded by many as a puzzle. Why are oil prices so volatile? What is OPEC and what does OPEC do? Where are oil prices headed in the long run? Is “peak oil” a genuine concern? Why did oil prices ...

  8. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    per day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq KuwaitEIA Table 1.2, “OPEC Crude Oil Production (Excluding Lease2008, from EIA, “Crude Oil Production. ” Figure 16. U.S.

  9. Maximum of oil output of a treadle-powered peanut oil press

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Ravi M. (Ravi Mahendra)

    2007-01-01

    The manual processing of food products has become a substantial part of the daily routine of a typical household in the developing world. Consumption of oil is an essential part of an individual's diet and thus, the ...

  10. World Oil Price Cases (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    World oil prices in Annual Energy Outlook 2005 are set in an environment where the members of OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) are assumed to act as the dominant producers, with lower production costs than other supply regions or countries. Non-OPEC oil producers are assumed to behave competitively, producing as much oil as they can profitability extract at the market price for oil. As a result, the OPEC member countries will be able effectively to set the price of oil when they can act in concert by varying their aggregate production. Alternatively, OPEC members could target a fixed level of production and let the world market determine the price.

  11. Modeling of Energy Production Decisions: An Alaska Oil Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    and Weimer, D.L. (1984) Oil prices shock, market response,OPEC behavior and world oil prices (pp. 175-185) London:many decades. Recent high oil prices have caused oil-holding

  12. World oil flow slips in 1991 amid Mideast, U. S. S. R. woes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, R.J.

    1992-03-09

    World crude oil production slipped 0.9% in 1991 to average 59,964 million b/d. This paper reports that production declines related to war damage in Kuwait, United Nations sanctions on exports from Iraq, and oil sector woes in the crumbling U.S.S.R. were almost offset by higher production from other members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. OPEC crude production rose 0.6% in 1991 to average 23.425 million b/d, and non-OPEC output fell 1.9% to average 36.539 million b/d in 1991. Excluding the U.S.S.R., non-OPEC production moved up 1.5% to average 26.239 million b/d. World demand inched up about 200,000 b/d, estimates International Energy Agency, and IEA data show about 300,000 b/d was added to stocks in 1991. World crude prices started 1991 at their highest level, then fell off to average $17.82/bbl, down 16.5% from 1990 levels. Meantime, a slight increase in demand is predicted for 1992, and price stability again hinges on OPEC's ability to limit production.

  13. Negative margins and OPEC prices: how buyers and sellers are coping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-11-28

    Apparent refining margins are so poor that many US refiners have accelerated their destocking, waiting for market uncertainty to be resolved. Margins based on official OPEC prices continue to be virtually all negative, including very light oils from the Middle East; by now, up to half the world's oil trade may reflect spot marketing, compared to less than 10% a few years ago. In today's buyer's market for crude oil, several sellers are resorting to multi-faceted discounts amounting to as much as US $4.50 or more under official OPEC prices. But meanwhile, US oil importers have learned how not to rely so much on a traditional run of crude oil: they are running reduced crude, resid, cat feed, condensate; and they are blending components for lighter products by importing and swapping whenever even pennies per barrel can be saved. This issue presents: (1) refining netback data, US Gulf and West Coasts, late November 1984 (official/contract vs spot crude prices; (2) asphalt export prices to the US from Canada, N. Antilles, and Venezuela; and (3) the fuel price/tax series and industrial fuel prices as of October 1984 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  14. Inscrutable OPEC? : behavioral tests of the cartel hypothesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, James L.

    2003-01-01

    We show that standard statistical tests of OPEC behavior have very low power across a wide range of alternative hypotheses regarding market structure. Consequently, it is difficult, given the current availability and ...

  15. Fact #734: July 2, 2012 OPEC Countries Represent Less Than Half...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by Country of Origin, 1973-2011 (million barrels per day) Year Saudi Arabia Venezuela Nigeria Other OPEC Countries Canada Mexico Russia Other Non-OPEC Countries Total 1973 0.49...

  16. Fact #836: September 1, Non-OPEC Countries Supply Nearly Two...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) are shown in shades of blue while non-OPEC countries are shown in shades of green. Petroleum imports rose sharply...

  17. Putting the press to the test : effects of temperature on Shea nut oil output

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tacoronte, Lisa Cristina

    2010-01-01

    In northern Ghana, part of a belt reaching from Sub-Saharan Africa to northern Uganda, women collect and process Shea nuts for their valuable oil. This oil is then used in various cosmetic, cooking, and medicinal products. ...

  18. Expansion of the commercial output of Estonian oil shale mining and processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I. [Estonian Oil Shale State Co., Jyhvi (Estonia). Scientific Research Center

    1996-09-01

    Economic and ecological preconditions are considered for the transition from monoproduct oil shale mining to polyproduct Estonian oil shale deposits. Underground water, limestone, and underground heat found in oil shale mines with small reserves can be operated for a long time using chambers left after oil shale extraction. The adjacent fields of the closed mines can be connected to the operations of the mines that are still working. Complex usage of natural resources of Estonian oil shale deposits is made possible owing to the unique features of its geology and technology. Oil shale seam development is carried out at shallow depths (40--70 m) in stable limestones and does not require expensive maintenance. Such natural resources as underground water, carbonate rocks, heat of rock mass, and underground chambers are opened by mining and are ready for utilization. Room-and-pillar mining does not disturb the surface, and worked oil shale and greenery waste heaps do not breach its ecology. Technical decisions and economic evaluation are presented for the complex utilization of natural resources in the boundaries of mine take of the ``Tammiku`` underground mine and the adjacent closed mine N2. Ten countries have already experienced industrial utilization of oil shale in small volumes for many years. Usually oil shale deposits are not notable for complex geology of the strata and are not deeply bedded. Thus complex utilization of quite extensive natural resources of Estonian oil shale deposits is of both scientific and practical interest.

  19. Who Are the Major Players Supplying the World Oil Market?

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01

    Energy in Brief article on the world supply of oil through ownership of national oil companies and, for some governments, their membership in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

  20. The outlook for US oil dependence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; Jones, D.W.; Leiby, P.N.

    1995-05-11

    Market share OPEC lost in defending higher prices from 1979-1985 is being steadily regained and is projected to exceed 50% by 2000. World oil markets are likely to be as vulnerable to monopoly influence as they were 20 years ago, as OPEC regains lost market share. The U.S. economy appears to be as exposed as it was in the early 1970s to losses from monopoly oil pricing. A simulated 2-year supply reduction in 2005-6 boosts OPEC revenues by roughly half a trillion dollars and costs the U.S. economy an approximately equal amount. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve appears to be of little benefit against such a determined, multi-year supply curtailment either in reducing OPEC revenues or protecting the U.S. economy. Increasing the price elasticity of oil demand and supply in the U.S. and the rest of the world, however, would be an effective strategy.

  1. Oil Dependence: The Value of R{ampersand}D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    1997-07-01

    Over the past quarter century the United States` dependence on oil has cost its economy on the order of $5 trillion. Oil dependence is defined as economically significant consumption of oil, given price inelastic demand in the short and long run and given the ability of the OPEC cartel to use market power to influence oil prices. Although oil prices have been lower and more stable over the past decade, OPEC still holds the majority of the world`s conventional oil resources according to the best available estimates. OPEC`s share of the world oil market is likely to grow significantly in the future,restoring much if not all of their former market power. Other than market share, the key determinants of OPEC`s market power are the long and short run price elasticities of world oil demand and supply. These elasticities depend critically on the technologies of oil supply and demand, especially the technology of energy use in transportation. Research and development can change these elasticities in fundamental ways, and given the nature of the problem,the government has an important role to play in supporting such research.

  2. What's Driving Oil Prices? James L. Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Tom

    1 What's Driving Oil Prices? James L. Smith Cary M. Maguire Chair in Oil & Gas Management Critical Issues in Energy Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas November 2, 2006 The Price of OPEC Oil ($/bbl) $0 $20 $40 $60 $80 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Real Price ($2005) #12;2 Hubbert's Curve (Peak Oil

  3. Economics, producer politics will shape oil markets through 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-25

    Two main forces will shape the oil market during the next 3 years. The pace of worldwide economic growth will determine demand growth. Although energy use efficiency has improved, especially in the industrialized world, demand for energy and oil products remains chiefly a function of economic activity. And producing nation politics will have much to say about supply. A crucial and unpredictable variable is when Iraq, now subject to a United Nations trade embargo, resumes exports at significant rates. Demand growth will exceed production increases outside the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, which means an ever-increasing role for the exporters' group. The paper discusses the demand outlook, economic projections, energy intensity, regional energy mixes, world energy mix, petroleum demand, petroleum product demand, supply questions, non-OPEC production, reserves and output capacity, production gains, industry operations (drilling, stocks, refining), prices, price forecasts, and the role of taxes.

  4. Import policy effects on the optimal oil price

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suranovic, S.M. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A steady increase in oil imports leaves oil importing countries increasingly vulnerable tofuture oil price shocks. Using a variation of the U.S. EIA`s oil market simulation model, equilibria displaying multiple price shocks is derived endogenously as a result of optimizing behavior on the part of OPEC. Here we investigate the effects that an oil import tariff and a petroleum stock release policy may have on an OPEC optimal price path. It is shown that while both policies can reduce the magnitude of future price shocks neither may be politically or technically feasible. 21 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Oil Exports and the Iranian Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esfahani, H. S.; Mohaddes, K.; Pesaran, M. Hashem

    in oil exploration and extraction technologies. Figure 1: Oil export revenues to income ratios for major oil exporters 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1980 1987 1994 2001 2008 Saudi Arabia Iran Norway Venezuela Kuwait UAE Qatar Libya Nigeria Algeria Russia... . As Figure 1 shows most other OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) member countries such as Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Nigeria, Algeria, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait, and a few countries outside OPEC such as Norway and Russia have similar...

  6. Market Power in the World Oil Market: Evidence for an OPEC Cartel and an Oligopolistic Non-OPEC Fringe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    costs (Farzin, 1992; Hanson, 1980; Solow & Wan, 1976), exploration (Pesaran, 1990; Pindyck, 1978; Pindyck, 1980), and drilling activity (Anderson, Kel- logg & Salant, 2014). Cremer and Salehi

  7. World oil market outlook: recent history and forecasts of world oil prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Recent world oil price trends and pricing behavior by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) are examined. An outlook for consumption, production and prices in the world oil market, both for the short-term horizon through 1982 and for the midterm period from 1985 through 1995 is presented. A historical review focuses on OPEC activity in the period from January 1980 to May 1981. Several sensitivity analyses and the impact of supply disruptions are used to determine projections. The appendix provides data on world crude oil prices for each of 23 countries for January, May, and June of 1980 and May of 1981. 22 tables, 9 figures.

  8. Oil demand continues to grow in the U.S. and worldwide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tippee, B.; Beck, R.J.

    1995-07-31

    Rising oil consumption is challenging the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries production quota--but not the group`s ability to meet demand. In the second half of 1995, the oil market will continue to need more oil from OPEC members than the group claims to be willing to produce with its quota at 24.52 million b/d. If the quota really limited supply, ingredients would be in place for a significant price hike. Growth in a non-OPEC production intensities temptations on OPEC members to cheat on quotas and has become a key factor in the market. OPEC producers have seen that if they don`t meet incremental demand at the current price, other producers will. OPEC eventually will have to raise its quota or acknowledge that the artificial production limit lacks meaning. At present, the only real limit to supply is production capacity, which remains in excess relative to demand and which has demonstrated its ability to grow both within and outside of OPEC when prices rise. The paper discusses worldwide trends, pressures on OPEC, world crude prices, US prices, natural gas prices, US energy demand, natural gas use, gas supply, US demand for petroleum products, imports, and inventories.

  9. Update: Oil protectionism - three views of US vulnerability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-06-30

    World oil prices seem to have stabilized above the US $18 mark, many US publics fear that market power will once again be transferred to the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). When the price was weak, many observers said the weakness reflected victory over OPEC, as if the 1986 oil price crash were a result of the Organization's failure to exert its selfish will. Now that prices are higher, will US dependency on OPEC mushroom, fueling a campaign to protect indigenous crude oil prices through effective import fees. In this issue, latest available official import statistics for three views on how US oil import dependency might be evolving are supplied. This issue also contains: (1) ED refining netback data for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore for late June 1987; and (2) the ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, June 1987 edition. 4 figures, 5 tables.

  10. An Empirical Growth Model for Major Oil Exporters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esfahani, Hadi Salehi; Mohaddes, Kamiar; Pesaran, M. Hashem

    2012-03-21

    . 3See, for example, Amuzegar (2008) and the British Petroleum Statistical Review of World Energy. 3 Figure 1: Oil Export Revenues to Income Ratios for Major Oil Exporters 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1980 1988 1996 2004 2010 Saudi Arabia Iran Norway Venezuela... shows most other OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) member countries such as Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Nigeria, Algeria, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait, and a few countries outside OPEC such as Norway and Russia have similar oil...

  11. International transmission of oil price effects and the derivation of optimal oil prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marquez, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to study the international transmission of oil-price effects and the derivation of optimal oil prices not as two separate problems but rather as one problem by recognizing that changes in oil prices affect real income of oil importers and thus feed back to the demand for oil faced by OPEC. To study the international transmission of oil price changes, the author develops a three-region world model where real income, prices, and international trade are endogenously determined. With this model he derives the comparative statics of oil price changes. He also analyzes the feedback effect of oil price changes, allowing for counterinflationary policies in oil-importing countries. A modified version of the theoretical model is econometrically estimated with data for 1960-1979. The quantitative dimension of oil price changes using dynamic multipliers is studied. Also studied are the impacts of restrictive fiscal policy in DC's, greater absorption by OPEC, and increased financial transfers to LDC's on real income, in the international oil market, on inflation, and on international trade of manufacturers and raw materials. It was found that not recognizing the feedback effects of oil price increases introduces a significant upward bias in the total price elasticity and in the optimal oil price path, neither of which is consistent with OPEC's best interest.

  12. U.S. crude oil production expected to top 8 million barrels per day, highest output since 1988

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat'sMay-15May-15Area: U.S.crude oilU.S.

  13. The oil policies of the Gulf Arab Nations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ripple, R.D.; Hagen, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    At its heart, Arab oil policy is inseparable from Arab economic and social policy. This holds whether we are talking about the Arab nations as a group or each separately. The seven Arab nations covered in this report-Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates--participate in several organizations focusing on regional cooperation regarding economic development, social programs, and Islamic unity, as well as organizations concerned with oil policies. This report focuses on the oil-related activities of the countries that may reveal the de facto oil policies of the seven Persian Gulf nations. Nevertheless it should be kept in mind that the decision makers participating in the oil policy organizations are also involved with the collaborative efforts of these other organizations. Oil policies of five of the seven Arab nations are expressed within the forums of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC). Only Oman, among the seven, is not a member of either OAPEC or OPEC; Bahrain is a member of OAPEC but not of OPEC. OPEC and OAPEC provide forums for compromise and cooperation among their members. Nevertheless, each member state maintains its own sovereignty and follows its own policies. Each country deviates from the group prescription from time to time, depending upon individual circumstances.

  14. Fact #836: September 1, Non-OPEC Countries Supply Nearly Two-thirds of U.S. Petroleum Imports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The figure below shows the volume and source of imported petroleum to the United States from 1960 to 2013. The countries which are members of OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries...

  15. The Differential Effects of Oil Demand and Supply Shocks on the Global Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cashin, Paul; Mohaddes, Kamiar; Raissi, Maziar; Raissi, Mehdi

    2012-11-01

    . The GVAR literature almost exclusively focuses on business cycle linkages among ad- vanced and major emerging market economies, with limited attention to growth spillovers to/from major oil exporters (e.g. the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting... it comes to oil supply, the MENA region.5 Of the 50 countries included in our sample, 17 are oil exporters, of which 10 are current members of the OPEC and one is a former member (Indonesia left OPEC in January 2009). We were not able to include Angola...

  16. Production and pricing patterns in the international crude oil market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    This study focuses on measuring the patterns of production and pricing of the major oil-exporting countries over the past decade. It conducts a series of empirical investigations, relying largely on quarterly data, into the determinants of the distribution of oil liftings in the OPEC areas, including the significance of relative crude oil price incentives, the stability of oil prices and market shares, the components of the residual demand for OPEC oil with emphasis on fluctuations in speculative demand for oil inventories, the impact of effective capacity utilization and speculative demand on major price escalations, and the sensitivity of Saudi Arabian price preferences to evolving net demand reaction to higher oil prices and to the share it is able to retain of the OPEC market. The background for this analysis is provided by a review of the historical evolution of oil and energy consumption, production and development patterns during the postwar era, and the reversal of theoretical frameworks for analyzing the international oil market are described, and the rationale for the noncompetitive view of oil prices and production in major exporting countries is detailed. Finally, the transformation of the structure of crude oil marketing over the past decade is analyzed, emphasizing growing competitive trends in the industry mixed with residual oligopolistic tendencies.

  17. Evidence of OPEC pricing power: raw materials or refined products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-09-30

    For eight years, US petroleum and consumer sectors have argued for or against a free-market policy where international trade is concerned. Briefly, between 1982 and 1985, the argument against importation of refined products was almost as heated as the argument against importation of crude. But since the 1986 crude oil price crash, much has changed. Some contemporary thinking is that as long as the US can count on low crude prices, the benefits will outweigh the detriment to the US crude producing sector. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED refining netback data series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore for late September 1988; and (2) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, September 1988 edition. 8 figures, 5 tables.

  18. Household energy use in non-OPEC developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, J.C.

    1980-05-01

    Energy use in the residential sector in India, Brazil, Mexico, the Republic of Korea, the Sudan, Pakistan, Malaysia, and Guatemala is presented. Whenever possible, information is included on the commercial fuels (oil, gas, coal, and electricity) and on what are termed noncommercial fuels (firewood, animal dung, and crop residues). Of special interest are the differences in the consumption patterns of urban and rural areas, and of households at different income levels. Where the data allow, the effect of household size on energy consumption is discussed. Section II is an overview of the data for all eight countries. Section III examines those areas (India, Brazil, Mexico City) for which data exist on the actual quantity of energy consumed by households. Korea, the Sudan, and Pakistan, which collect data on household expenditures on fuels, are discussed in Section IV. The patterns of ownership of energy-using durables in Malaysia and Guatemala are discussed in Section V. (MCW)

  19. Statement from Energy Secretary Bodman on OPEC's Decision to Cut Crude Oil

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLE DIRECTIVESDepartmentSpecialCodethe Blue RibbonVisiting

  20. Non-OPEC oil production set to decline for the first time since 2008

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIARegionalMethodology

  1. The bears come out for summer: A world awash in oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-30

    In this issue, Energy Detente examines near term oil price and supply prospects. World oil prices have plunged over the last eight weeks to their lowest levels since 1991. This can be attributed to low world oil demand and bearish speculation on world oil markets that the on-again off-again oil export negotiations between Iraq and the United Nations may result in limited amounts of Iraqi crude being added to already swollen oil supplies. To recessionary economics in consuming countries, trends to raise taxes and reduce fuel price subsidies in many countries, and rising costs of environmental protection, producers also scrutinize a concerned Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). OPEC's reactive potentials are heightened in a period of such market uncertainities.

  2. World oil model development. Progress report No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gately, D.

    1981-01-01

    A newly developed model of the world oil market is described in this report. This model has the following features: (1) energy is disaggregated into oil and non-oil; (2) the world is disaggregated as follows: the US, the rest of the OECD, OPEC, and the rest of WOCA; and (3) an energy-economy feedback is included. This satisfies some of the tasks in the Contract's Statement of Work. The model is described in Section II. Illustrative results are presented in Section III, for a single price-path: actual OPEC prices from 1973 to 1981, then constant real price thru 1990. These results are also compared with actual historical data for 1973 to 1980.

  3. Northwestern team assembling oil alternative http://www.suntimes.com/output/zinescene/cst-fin-ecol21.html 1 of 3 12/22/2005 6:24 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    lead to cheap, viable solar energy. The magazine chose 50 researchers to honor for "shaping the future," said Stupp, who is both a professor of materials science, chemistry and medicine, and director the pharmaceutical industry manufactures drugs. Stupp is a big believer in solar energy as an alternative to oil. "I

  4. World heavy oil and bitumen riches - update 1983: Part one, reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-05-25

    The fact that there are several OPEC members with significant non-conventional petroleum reserves, coupled with the economic interdependence of OPEC with oil-importing industrialized countries, means it is very much in OPEC's interest to promote international cooperation on non-conventional oil. The rationale behind the goal of decreasing dependence on conventional oil, particularly in the case of imports, is promotive of reducing pressure not only on oil-importing nations, but exporters as well. Thus it is in the interests of all countries to plan for the heavying up of the petroleum barrel, as this will inevitably accompany the decreases in conventional supplies and any increases of non-petroleum participation in the world energy diet. Although the megaprojects in Canada and Venezuela and other ambitious plans for development of heavy oil and bitumen have been shelved or delayed indefinitely due to lower light oil prices and reduced financial support, it was found that these setbacks have been superficial. Both Canada and Venezuela continue to pursue joint research with foreign countries and private companies. Like conservation, non-conventional petroleum-resource development is seen as internationally constructive. In this updating of reserves, it is noted that the geopolitics are inescapable when most of the light and medium oil is in the Middle East, and most heavy oil and tar sands are in the Western Hemisphere. This issue presents the Energy Detente fuel price/tax series and industrial fuel prices for May 1983 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  5. World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2008 (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO) defines the world oil price as the price of light, low-sulfur crude oil delivered in Cushing, Oklahoma. Since 2003, both "above ground" and "below ground" factors have contributed to a sustained rise in nominal world oil prices, from $31 per barrel in 2003 to $69 per barrel in 2007. The AEO2008 reference case outlook for world oil prices is higher than in the AEO2007 reference case. The main reasons for the adoption of a higher reference case price outlook include continued significant expansion of world demand for liquids, particularly in non-OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, which include China and India; the rising costs of conventional non-OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) supply and unconventional liquids production; limited growth in non-OPEC supplies despite higher oil prices; and the inability or unwillingness of OPEC member countries to increase conventional crude oil production to levels that would be required for maintaining price stability. The Energy Information Administration will continue to monitor world oil price trends and may need to make further adjustments in future AEOs.

  6. The Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lower crude oil output from OPEC countries (Tables 2 and 3). * Global surplus crude oil production capacity averaged 1.8 million bbld in July and August, 0.3 million bbld...

  7. Costs of Imported Crude Oil by Selected Country

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    OPEC Algeria Indonesia Mexico Nigeria Saudi Arabia United Kingdom Venezuela Other Countries Arab OPEC b Total OPEC c 1978 ... 14.12 13.61 13.24 14.05...

  8. US oil-import dependency growing: but on whom, for what

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-02-24

    During 1987, the US became more dependent on imports for its crude oil requirements. Price and marketing competition among exporters are the causes. A close scrutiny of latest statistics reveals greater US reliance on OPEC, Arab OPEC member countries, and lighter crude oils. These shifts also reflect greater US import reliance on the more-distant sources of supply -- producers with competitive production economics and increasingly competitive marketing operations. Would future higher crude oil prices reverse these developments. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED refining netback data for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore, for late Feb. 1988; and (2) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, Feb. 1988 edition. In addition, tabular data are also included on US import volume and market share by county (both over and under 25/sup 0/ API), 1986 and 1987. 2 figures, 7 tables.

  9. Oil Market Simulation model user's manual. [Oil market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The Oil Market Simulation (OMS) model is a LOTUS 1-2-3 spreadsheet that simulates the world oil market. OMS is an annual model that projects the world oil market through the year 2010 from a data base that begins in 1979. The geographic coverage includes all market economies, with net imports from the centrally planned economies taken as an assumption. The model estimates the effects of price changes on oil supply and demand and computes an oil price path over nine that allows supply and demand to remain in balance within the market economies area as a whole. The input assumptions of OMS are highlighted (in color) on the spreadsheet and include the following: The capacity of the OPEC countries to produce petroleum liquids (crude oil, natural gas liquids, condensates, refinery gains); a reference case projection of regional oil supply and demand at some arbitrary reference path of oil prices over time. The reference case provided with this diskette is that used for EIA's latest base case in the International Energy Outlook 1992 DOE/EIA-0484(92). The demonstration requires an IBM PC (or compatible), preferably with a color monitor. The demonstration diskette is self-contained, with all the files needed to run the demonstration. It does not, however, have the DOS system files, so this diskette cannot be used to start (boot) the computer.

  10. U. S. oil imports: reliance on American neighbors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-11-23

    U.S. reliance on other American nations for crude oil imports has nearly doubled in less than two years. In 1981, 23% of U.S. crude imports came from Western Hemisphere sources; today, 44% do. For total petroleum imports (crude and refined products combined), that percentage for the Western Hemisphere was 38%, rising to 56% in 1983 to date. In fact, the top three petroleum suppliers to the United States (crude and refine products combined) are Western Hemisphere neighbors: Mexico, Canada, and Venezuela, in that order. This represents a dramatic shift to the West since 1981, when Saudi Arabia was the U.S.'s most important source of foreign crude, and Nigeria second. By 1982, Saudi Arabia was bumped to second place by Mexico, and Nigeria came in third. Since 1982, reliance on members of OPEC has been reduced: about 49.75 of the crude imports came from OPEC suppliers last year, compared to 40.8% for the first eight months of 1983. Furthermore, U.S. reliance on Arab OPEC members has been reduced from 21% of total crude oil imports in 1982 to just 13% in 1983. This issue of Energy Dentente includes the fuel price/tol series and the industrial fuel prices for November 1983 for countries for the Western Hemisphere.

  11. The social costs to the US of monopolization of the world oil market, 1972--1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; Leiby, P.N.

    1993-03-01

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the US over the period 1972--1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the US and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel`s ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972--1991 period to a hypothetical ``more competitive`` world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader`s judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing US oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing theeconomic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy`s potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy`s inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972--1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US`s primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison.

  12. The social costs to the US of monopolization of the world oil market, 1972--1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; Leiby, P.N.

    1993-03-01

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the US over the period 1972--1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the US and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel's ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972--1991 period to a hypothetical more competitive'' world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader's judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing US oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing theeconomic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy's potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy's inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972--1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US's primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison.

  13. Iraqi oil industry slowly returning to normal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-07

    This paper reports that Iraq is making progress in putting its battered petroleum industry back together 1 1/2 years after the Persian Gulf war ended. OPEC News Agency (Opecna) reported the finish of reconstruction of Iraq's Mina al-Bakr oil terminal on the northern tip of the Persian Gulf, using Iraqi know-how and engineering personnel. The terminal, heavily damaged during the gulf conflict, has been restored to its prewar loading capacity of 1.6 million b/d at a cost of $16 million. Ninety per cent of the port had been damaged.

  14. The response of world energy and oil demand to income growth and changes in oil prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dargay, J. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Transport Studies Unit; Gately, D. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Economics Dept.

    1995-11-01

    This paper reviews the path of world oil demand over the past three decades, and the effects of both the oil price increases of the 1970s and the oil price decreases of the 1980s. Compared with demand in the industrialized countries, demand in the Less Developed Countries (LDC) has been more responsive to income growth, less responsive to price increases, and more responsive to price decreases. The LDC has also exhibited much greater heterogeneity in income growth and is effect on demand. The authors expect a smaller demand response to future price increases than to those of the 1970s. The demand response to future income growth will be not substantially smaller than in the past. Finally, given the prospect of growing dependence on OPEC oil, in the event of a major disruption the lessened price-responsiveness of demand could cause dramatic price increases and serious macroeconomic effects.

  15. Business cycles in oil economies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Mutairi, N.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the impact of oil price shocks on output fluctuations of several oil-exporting economies. In most studies of business cycles, the role of oil price is ignored; the few studies that use oil price as one of the variables in the system focus on modeling oil-importing economies. The vector autoregression (VAR) technique is used to consider the cases of Norway, Nigeria, and Mexico. Both atheoretical and structural' VARs are estimated to determine the importance of oil price impulses on output variations. The study reports two types of results: variance decomposition and impulse response functions, with particular emphasis on the issues of stationarity and co-integration among the series. The empirical results suggest that shocks to oil price are important in explaining output variations. In most cases, shocks to oil price are shown to explain more than 20% of the forecast variance of output over a 40-quarter horizon.

  16. Table 25. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil by Selected Country

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    OPEC Algeria Canada Indonesia Mexico Nigeria Saudi Arabia United Kingdom Venezuela Other Countries Arab OPEC a Total OPEC b 1978 ... 14.93 14.41 14.65...

  17. The Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    was more than offset by the decrease in total OPEC output (Table 4). Global surplus crude oil production capacity in September and October 2013 averaged 1.8 million bbld, which...

  18. What else did the price crash do. World oil's new-think

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-06-18

    The pricing of crude oil in relation to its refined product value should probably be viewed not as the cause of the international price crash touched off in late 1985, but as the consequence. Negotiating tables appear more cozy, with smaller distances between what buyers and sellers recognize as market-oriented prices. To an important degree, OPEC now officially prices by the netback system, and many other producers will likely follow soon. In California, an OPEC light crude and two domestics reveal new-think. This issue also includes the following: (1) ED refining netback data for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore for June 1986; (2) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere for May 1986 (unless otherwise indicated); and (3) principal industrial fuel prices for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere for March 1986.

  19. A Methodology to Assess the Reliability of Hydrogen-based Transportation Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan

    2004-01-01

    OPEC Share of World Production OPEC Crude Oil ProductionShare of World Production Persian Gulf Crude Oil Productioncrude oil production 42 Figure 13. World

  20. Oil market simulation model user's manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    The Oil Market Simulation (OMS) Model is a LOTUS 1-2-3 Spreadsheet that simulates the world oil market. OMS is an annual model with a data base that begins in 1979 and computes projections through the year 2000. The geographic coverage includes all market economies, with net imports from the centrally planned economies taken as an assumption. The model estimate the effects of price changes on oil supply and demand and computes an oil price path over time that allows supply and demand to remain in balance within the market economics area as a whole. The input assumptions of OMS are highlighted (in color) on the spreadsheet and include the following: 1. The capacity of the OPEC countries to produce petroleum liquids (crude oil, natural gas liquids, condensates, refinery gains); 2. A reference case projection of regional oil supply and demand at some arbitrary reference path of oil prices over time. The reference case provided with this diskette is that used or EIA's latest base case in the International Energy Outlook, 1987 DOE/EIA-0484(87). 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Oil and development: The case of agriculture in Nigeria and Algeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachrach, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis explores the relationship between the oil-boom of the 1970s and development outcomes and the prospects in two African OPEC states. The theoretical framework is provided by the political-economy literatures, both domestic and international. The research is carried out as a limited comparative study with a loosely constructed (before-during-after) interrupted time-series design. Algeria's greater success in managing it soil economy suggests further evidence supporting the promise of a mixed political-economy state model. State and societal complexions are identified, with a primarily qualitative methodology, to explain Nigerian and Algerian development outcomes on the heels of the oil decade.

  2. Oil and the American Way of Life: Don't Ask, Don't Tell

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Kaufmann, Robert [Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

    2010-01-08

    In the coming decades, US consumers will face a series of important decisions about oil. To make effective decisions, consumers must confront some disturbing answers to questions they would rather not ask. These questions include: is the US running out of oil, is the world running out of oil, is OPEC increasing its grip on prices, is the US economy reducing its dependence on energy, and will the competitive market address these issues in a timely fashion? Answers to these questions indicate that the market will not address these issues: the US has already run out of inexpensive sources of oil such that rising prices no longer elicit significant increases in supply. The US experience implies that within a couple of decades, the world oil market will change from increasing supply at low prices to decreasing supply at higher prices. As the world approaches this important turning point, OPEC will strengthen its grip on world oil prices. Contrary to popular belief, the US economy continues to be highly dependent on energy, especially inexpensive sources of energy. Together, these trends threaten to undermine the basic way in which the US economy generates a high standard of living.

  3. Have We Run Out of Oil Yet? Oil Peaking Analysis from an Optimist's Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L; Hopson, Dr Janet L; Li, Jia

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses several questions concerning the peaking of conventional oil production from an optimist's perspective. Is the oil peak imminent? What is the range of uncertainty? What are the key determining factors? Will a transition to unconventional oil undermine or strengthen OPEC's influence over world oil markets? These issues are explored using a model combining alternative world energy scenarios with an accounting of resource depletion and a market-based simulation of transition to unconventional oil resources. No political or environmental constraints are allowed to hinder oil production, geological constraints on the rates at which oil can be produced are not represented, and when USGS resource estimates are used, more than the mean estimate of ultimately recoverable resources is assumed to exist. The issue is framed not as a question of "running out" of conventional oil, but in terms of the timing and rate of transition from conventional to unconventional oil resources. Unconventional oil is chosen because production from Venezuela's heavy-oil fields and Canada's Athabascan oil sands is already underway on a significant scale and unconventional oil is most consistent with the existing infrastructure for producing, refining, distributing and consuming petroleum. However, natural gas or even coal might also prove to be economical sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels. These results indicate a high probability that production of conventional oil from outside of the Middle East region will peak, or that the rate of increase of production will become highly constrained before 2025. If world consumption of hydrocarbon fuels is to continue growing, massive development of unconventional resources will be required. While there are grounds for pessimism and optimism, it is certainly not too soon for extensive, detailed analysis of transitions to alternative energy sources.

  4. Linear output nitinol engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banks, R.M.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes a linear output nitinol engine consisting of a number of integrated communicating parts. The engine has an external support framework which is described in detail. The patent further describes a wire transport mechanism, a pair of linkage levers with a loom secured to them, a number of nitinol wires strung between the looms, and a power takeoff block secured to the linkage levers. A pulley positioned in a flip-flop supporting bracket and a power takeoff modality including a tension member connected to a power output cable in order to provide linear power output transmission is described. A method for biasing the timing and the mechanism for timing the synchronization of the throw over arms and the flip-flop of the pulley are also described.

  5. Mediterranean clonal selections evaluated for modern hedgerow olive oil production in Spain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tous, Joan; Romero, Agusti; Hermoso, Juan Francisco; Ninot, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    oil output Cumulative oil production tons/acre 5.68b 5.83bmodern hedgerow olive oil production in Spain Paul M. VossenNinot Traditional olive oil production is limited by its

  6. Energy accounting for eleven vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goering, C.E.; Daugherty, M.J.

    1982-09-01

    Energy inputs and outputs were comparatively analyzed for 11 vegetable oil fuels. Three-year average prices and production quantities were also compared. All nonirrigated oil crops had favorable energy ratios. Soybean, peanut and sunflower oils were the most promising as domestic fuel sources. Rapeseed oil would also be promising if significant domestic production can be established.

  7. Oil Market Simulation model user`s manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The Oil Market Simulation (OMS) model is a LOTUS 1-2-3 spreadsheet that simulates the world oil market. OMS is an annual model that projects the world oil market through the year 2010 from a data base that begins in 1979. The geographic coverage includes all market economies, with net imports from the centrally planned economies taken as an assumption. The model estimates the effects of price changes on oil supply and demand and computes an oil price path over nine that allows supply and demand to remain in balance within the market economies area as a whole. The input assumptions of OMS are highlighted (in color) on the spreadsheet and include the following: The capacity of the OPEC countries to produce petroleum liquids (crude oil, natural gas liquids, condensates, refinery gains); a reference case projection of regional oil supply and demand at some arbitrary reference path of oil prices over time. The reference case provided with this diskette is that used for EIA`s latest base case in the International Energy Outlook 1992 DOE/EIA-0484(92). The demonstration requires an IBM PC (or compatible), preferably with a color monitor. The demonstration diskette is self-contained, with all the files needed to run the demonstration. It does not, however, have the DOS system files, so this diskette cannot be used to start (boot) the computer.

  8. Mexico’s Deteriorating Oil Outlook: Implications and Energy Options for the Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shields, David

    2008-01-01

    A ccelerates Mexico’s crude oil production, which reached a43 percent of Mexico’s crude oil production, compared to 63potential. Estimates of crude oil output and exports in

  9. Enhanced performance CCD output amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunham, Mark E. (Los Alamos, NM); Morley, David W. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A low-noise FET amplifier is connected to amplify output charge from a che coupled device (CCD). The FET has its gate connected to the CCD in common source configuration for receiving the output charge signal from the CCD and output an intermediate signal at a drain of the FET. An intermediate amplifier is connected to the drain of the FET for receiving the intermediate signal and outputting a low-noise signal functionally related to the output charge signal from the CCD. The amplifier is preferably connected as a virtual ground to the FET drain. The inherent shunt capacitance of the FET is selected to be at least equal to the sum of the remaining capacitances.

  10. A Methodology to Assess the Reliability of Hydrogen-based Transportation Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan

    2004-01-01

    global crude oil production.global crude oil production11. OPEC share of global crude oil production (EIA). Persian

  11. Muslim oil and gas periphery; the future of hydrocarbons in Africa, southeast Asia and the Caspian. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crockett, B.D.

    1997-12-01

    This thesis is a study of the contemporary political, economic, and technical developments and future prospects of the Muslim hydrocarbon exporters of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Caspian. The established Muslim oil and gas periphery of Africa and Southeast Asia has four members in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and is systemically increasing its production of natural gas. I analyze US government and corporate policies regarding the countries and the major dilemmas of the Muslim hydrocarbon periphery. The first chapter provides a selective overview of global energy source statistics; the policies, disposition and composition of the major hydrocarbon production and consumption players and communities; a selective background of OPEC and its impact on the globe; and a general portrait of how the Muslim periphery piece fits into the overall Muslim oil and gas puzzle. Chapter two analyzes the established Muslim oil and gas periphery of Africa and Southeast Asia asking the following questions: What are the major political, economic, and technical trends and dilemmas affecting these producer nations. And what are the United States` policies and relationships with these producers. Chapter three asks the same questions as chapter two, but with regard to the newly independent states of the Caspian Sea. I probe the regional petroleum exploration and transportation dilemmas in some detail.

  12. Maximum output at minimum cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Gamesa G90-2.0 MW #12;Maximum output at minimum cost per kWh for low wind sites ®® Class IIIA mast and the electrical substation. This innovative modular design based on TCP/IP architecture has

  13. The imperfect price-reversibility of world oil demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gately, D. [New York Univ., NY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper examines the price-reversibility of world oil demand, using price-decomposition methods employed previously on other energy demand data. We conclude that the reductions in world oil demand following the oil price increases of the 1970s will not be completely reversed by the price cuts of the 1980s. The response to price cuts in the 1980s is perhaps only one-fifth that for price increases in the 1970s. This has dramatic implications for projections of oil demand, especially under low-price assumptions. We also consider the effect on demand of a price recovery (sub-maximum increase) in the 1990s - due either to OPEC or to a carbon tax-specifically whether the effects would be as large as for the price increases of the 1970s or only as large as the smaller demand reversals of the 1980s. On this the results are uncertain, but a tentative conclusion is that the response to a price recovery would lie midway between the small response to price cuts and the larger response to increases in the maximum historical price. Finally, we demonstrate two implications of wrongly assuming that demand is perfectly price-reversible. First, such an assumption will grossly overestimate the demand response to price declines of the 1980s. Secondly, and somewhat surprisingly, it causes an underestimate of the effect of income growth on future demand. 21 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Agricultural and Resource Economics Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hyunok; Sumner, Daniel A.; Martin, Philip; Hochman, Gal; Rajagopal, Deepak; Zilberman, David

    2011-01-01

    is how responsive the demand of oil from OPEC in the oil-caused the import demand of oil from OPEC coun- tries toincrease in global demand for crude oil from 2000 to 2008,

  15. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, J.B.; Walker, T.L.

    1988-10-01

    Significant rightholding changes took place in central and southern Africa during 1987. Angola, Benin, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Seychelles, Somali Republic, Tanzania, Zaire, and Zambia announced awards or acreage open for bidding. Decreases in exploratory rightholdings occurred in Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, and Tanzania. More wells and greater footage were drilled in 1987 than in 1986. Total wells increased by 18% as 254 wells were completed compared to 217 in 1986. Footage drilled during the year increased by 46% as about 1.9 million ft were drilled compared to about 1.3 million ft in 1986. The success rate for exploration wells in 1987 improved slightly to 36% compared to 34% in 1986. Significant discoveries were made in Nigeria, Angola, Congo, and Gabon. Seismic acquisition in 1987 was the major geophysical activity during the year. Total oil production in 1987 was 773 million bbl (about 2.1 million b/d), a decrease of 7%. The decrease is mostly due to a 14% drop in Nigerian production, which comprises 60% of total regional production. The production share of OPEC countries (Nigeria and Gabon) versus non-OPEC countries of 67% remained unchanged from 1986. 24 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Oil and Gas Production Optimization; Lost Potential due to Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    Oil and Gas Production Optimization; Lost Potential due to Uncertainty Steinar M. Elgsaeter Olav.ntnu.no) Abstract: The information content in measurements of offshore oil and gas production is often low, and when in the context of offshore oil and gas fields, can be considered the total output of production wells, a mass

  17. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    growth. For data on world oil consumption and long- term oilOil Production Domestic Oil Consumption a variety of

  18. Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspac...

  19. Impact of growing Asian markets on the world oil industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manning, T.J. [Purvin and Gertz, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Vautrain, J.H. [Purvin and Gertz, Inc., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Adair, P. [Purvin and Gertz, Inc., Singapore (Singapore)

    1996-12-01

    The focus of world petroleum activity has largely shifted from the industrialized OPEC nations to the rapidly developing countries of Asia where new refinery ventures, marketing operations, and trading offices have proliferated. Asia consumed 22% of the world`s petroleum in 1985, but rapid growth in the past decade has raised its share to over 30%. Demand in Asia has grown by an average of 550,000 B/D each year since 1985, accounting for 80% of the world`s total growth in demand. The robust demand growth envisioned for the 1990s cannot last indefinitely. The key factor restricting growth will be the world`s capacity to produce crude oil, which they believe will begin to approach sustainable limits after 2000. When those limits are reached, another oil price shock is likely, and another cycle of conservation and substitution will begin. If growth were to continue at the high rates of the 1990s, crude availability limits would be reached early in the next century. In this paper, they have presented a soft landing path for demand, production, and pricing. They project a gradual slowdown in demand growth, in response to a gradual increase in real crude oil prices. In the real world, a much rougher path is likely, even though both paths start and end at the same point.

  20. Mexico’s Deteriorating Oil Outlook: Implications and Energy Options for the Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shields, David

    2008-01-01

    decline at the supergiant Cantarell oil field in CampecheBay. Cantarell declined sharply in 2007, with output fromd achieved in December 2003. Cantarell now accounts for only

  1. AEO2014: Preliminary Industrial Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers THURSDAY, August 27, 20123 Oil andFOR:

  2. A Methodology to Assess the Reliability of Hydrogen-based Transportation Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan

    2004-01-01

    World Production Persian Gulf Crude Oil Production Persian Gulf Share of Globalglobal crude oil production 42 Figure 13. WorldWorld Production OPEC Crude Oil Production Average Production (Thousand bbl/d) OPEC Share of Global

  3. The Politics of Mexico’s Oil Monopoly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huizar, Richard

    2008-01-01

    in barrels per day Year Cantarell Other oilfields TotalOil: What the fall in Cantarell’s production means. ” 12To make matters worse Cantarell’s output is beginning to

  4. Rising U.S. oil output leads world oil supply growth

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating13, 2014propanepropane2,165

  5. Modeling the Oil Transition: A Summary of the Proceedings of the DOE/EPA Workshop on the Economic and Environmental Implications of Global Energy Transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L

    2007-02-01

    The global energy system faces sweeping changes in the next few decades, with potentially critical implications for the global economy and the global environment. It is important that global institutions have the tools necessary to predict, analyze and plan for such massive change. This report summarizes the proceedings of an international workshop concerning methods of forecasting, analyzing, and planning for global energy transitions and their economic and environmental consequences. A specific case, it focused on the transition from conventional to unconventional oil and other energy sources likely to result from a peak in non-OPEC and/or global production of conventional oil. Leading energy models from around the world in government, academia and the private sector met, reviewed the state-of-the-art of global energy modeling and evaluated its ability to analyze and predict large-scale energy transitions.

  6. Steamflooding projects boost California's crude oil production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 1981, the first time in more than a decade, US crude oil production in the lower 48 was higher than production in the preceding year. California is leading this resurgence. The state's oil production in October 1981 averaged 1,076,000 bpd, compared with 991,000 bpd in October 1980. Some of the increase comes from production in several offshore fields whose development had been delayed; some is due to greater output from the US Government's petroleum reserve at Elk Hills. However, a big portion of the state's increased production results from large steamdrive projects in heavy-oil fields of the San Joaquin Valley that were set in motion by decontrol of heavy-oil proces in mid-1979. California holds vast reserves of viscous, low-gravity oil in relatively shallow reservoirs. The methods used to produce heavy oil are discussed.

  7. OUTPUT REGULATION OF NONLINEAR NEUTRAL SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridman, Emilia

    OUTPUT REGULATION OF NONLINEAR NEUTRAL SYSTEMS Emilia Fridman1 Department of Electrical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University Ramat-Aviv, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel emilia@eng.tau.ac.il Summary. Output regulation regulation, regulator equations, center manifold 1 Introduction One of the most important problems in control

  8. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot...

  9. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities, 1999" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot (gallons)","per Worker...

  10. Fact #578: July 6, 2009 World Oil Reserves, Production, and Consumptio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    include Venezuela, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Libya, Nigeria, Indonesia, Gabon, and Ecuador. OPEC consumption data are for 2005....

  11. High Energy Output Marx Generator Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monty Lehmann

    2011-07-01

    High Energy Output Marx Generator Design a design of a six stage Marx generator that has a unipolar pulse waveform of 200 kA in a 50×500 microsecond waveform is presented. The difficulties encountered in designing the components to withstand the temperatures and pressures generated during the output pulse are discussed. The unique methods and materials used to successfully overcome these problems are given. The steps necessary to increase the current output of this Marx generator design to the meg-ampere region or higher are specified.

  12. A Program to Output Stored Pictures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodham, Robert J.

    A program called LPTSEE has been written for use with the MIT vision system. LPTSEE makes use of the overprint capability of the line printer to allow the user to output a stored picture image.

  13. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01

    Oil Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production and Productivity in Venezuela and

  14. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01

    the Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .in the Venezuelan Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . .and Productivity: Evidence from the Oil Industry . .

  15. How can we build an oil reserve without offending the Saudis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madison, C.

    1980-06-28

    Congress has ordered the Department of Energy to resume filling the strategic oil reserves at about the same 100,000 barrels of crude oil a day as the government fields at Elk Hills, California produce. Pressure to increase this amount while a world surplus exists will be strong, even though members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) have threatened to reduce their production if the US takes such action. The concept of a strategic reserve of 750 million barrels (a 90-day supply) first emerged as a way to separate foreign-policy decisions from foreign-oil supplies. The present level of 92 million barrels (12-13-days imports), however, has made the reserve a political issue. Delays were caused by a combination of site problems, budget cuts, market disruptions, and policy changes. The debate centers on timing - when the US should return to the market to continue filling the storage sites. US relations with Saudi Arabia are sensitive to Middle East peace agreements, the security of Saudi Arabian territory, and the security of Saudi Arabian production levels. The foreign-policy implications and their severity are disputed. (DCK)

  16. Running Out of and Into Oil: Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2003-11-14

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value. Probability distributions are produced for the year in which conventional oil production peaks for the world as a whole and the year of peak production from regions outside the Middle East. Recent estimates of world oil resources by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), the World Energy Council (WEC) and Dr. C. Campbell provide alternative views of the extent of ultimate world oil resources. A model of oil resource depletion and expansion for twelve world regions is combined with a market equilibrium model of conventional and unconventional oil supply and demand to create a World Energy Scenarios Model (WESM). The model does not make use of Hubbert curves but instead relies on target reserve-to-production ratios to determine when regional output will begin to decline. The authors believe that their analysis has a bias toward optimism about oil resource availability because it does not attempt to incorporate political or environmental constraints on production, nor does it explicitly include geologic constraints on production rates. Global energy scenarios created by IIASA and WEC provide the context for the risk analysis. Key variables such as the quantity of undiscovered oil and rates of technological progress are treated as probability distributions, rather than constants. Analyses based on the USGS and IIASA resource assessments indicate that conventional oil production outside the Middle East is likely to peak sometime between 2010 and 2030. The most important determinants of the date are the quantity of undiscovered oil, the rate at which unconventional oil production can be expanded, and the rate of growth of reserves and enhanced recovery. Analysis based on data produced by Campbell indicates that the peak of non-Middle East production will occur before 2010. For total world conventional oil production, the results indicate a peak somewhere between 2020 and 2050. Key determinants of the peak in world oil production are the rate at which the Middle East region expands its output and the minimum reserves-to-production ratios producers will tolerate. Once world conventional oil production peaks, first oil sands and heavy oil from Canada, Venezuela and Russia, and later some other source such as shale oil from the United States must expand if total world oil consumption is to continue to increase. Alternative sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, such as coal or natural gas are also possible resources but not considered in this analysis nor is the possibility of transition to a hydrogen economy. These limitations were adopted to simplify the transition analysis. Inspection of the paths of conventional oil production indicates that even if world oil production does not peak before 2020, output of conventional oil is likely to increase at a substantially slower rate after that date. The implication is that there will have to be increased production of unconventional oil after that date if world petroleum consumption is to grow.

  17. Incorporating stakeholders' perspectives into models of new technology diffusion: The case of fuel-cell vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collantes, Gustavo O

    2007-01-01

    sustained increases in oil demand from growing economies.increasing global demand for oil and changing consumerdemand, and the OPEC may exercise its power to affect oil

  18. PV output smoothing with energy storage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, Abraham; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2012-03-01

    This report describes an algorithm, implemented in Matlab/Simulink, designed to reduce the variability of photovoltaic (PV) power output by using a battery. The purpose of the battery is to add power to the PV output (or subtract) to smooth out the high frequency components of the PV power that that occur during periods with transient cloud shadows on the PV array. The control system is challenged with the task of reducing short-term PV output variability while avoiding overworking the battery both in terms of capacity and ramp capability. The algorithm proposed by Sandia is purposely very simple to facilitate implementation in a real-time controller. The control structure has two additional inputs to which the battery can respond. For example, the battery could respond to PV variability, load variability or area control error (ACE) or a combination of the three.

  19. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per...

  20. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  1. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per Square Foot"...

  2. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    From EIA, “World Production of Crude Oil, NGPL, and Otherfrom EIA, “World Production of Crude Oil, NGPL, and Otherfrom EIA, “World Production of Crude Oil, NGPL, and Other

  3. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per...

  4. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  5. Continuous VRML output fromContinuous VRML output from regional circulation models: aregional circulation models: a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Continuous VRML output fromContinuous VRML output from regional circulation models: aregional and volume to viewview ·· Generate Virtual Reality Modeling LanguageGenerate Virtual Reality ModelingDesktop or laptop PC with web browser ­­ High speed/large RAM not essentialHigh speed/large RAM not essential

  6. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheat, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  7. Porous radiant burners having increased radiant output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tong, Timothy W. (Tempe, AZ); Sathe, Sanjeev B. (Tempe, AZ); Peck, Robert E. (Tempe, AZ)

    1990-01-01

    Means and methods for enhancing the output of radiant energy from a porous radiant burner by minimizing the scattering and increasing the adsorption, and thus emission of such energy by the use of randomly dispersed ceramic fibers of sub-micron diameter in the fabrication of ceramic fiber matrix burners and for use therein.

  8. Adjoint Error Correction for Integral Outputs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Niles A.

    University Computing Laboratory, Oxford OX1 3QD, United Kingdom 2 Applied & Computational Mathematics problem gives the e#11;ect of numerical approximations on the output func- tional of interest and nonlinear di#11;erential equations, incor- porating a range of numerical examples illustrating the ability

  9. Oil price shocks and their short-and long-term effects on the Chinese economy Weiqi Tang a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthews, Adrian

    a historical record of US$147 per barrel in July 2008. The adverse impact of such oil-price shocksOil price shocks and their short- and long-term effects on the Chinese economy Weiqi Tang a , Libo-correction model Oil-price shocks Price transmission mechanisms Investment Output Producer/consumer price index

  10. A predictive ocean oil spill model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanderson, J.; Barnette, D.; Papodopoulos, P.; Schaudt, K.; Szabo, D.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Initially, the project focused on creating an ocean oil spill model and working with the major oil companies to compare their data with the Los Alamos global ocean model. As a result of this initial effort, Los Alamos worked closely with the Eddy Joint Industry Project (EJIP), a consortium oil and gas producing companies in the US. The central theme of the project was to use output produced from LANL`s global ocean model to look in detail at ocean currents in selected geographic areas of the world of interest to consortium members. Once ocean currents are well understood this information could be used to create oil spill models, improve offshore exploration and drilling equipment, and aid in the design of semi-permanent offshore production platforms.

  11. Generalized Input/Output Equations and Nonlinear Realizability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuan

    operator satisfies a possibly high-order differential input/output equation, then it is locally realizable-9108250 and DMS-9403924 Keywords: Generating series, local realization of input/output operators, input/outputGeneralized Input/Output Equations and Nonlinear Realizability Yuan Wang Mathematics Department

  12. UFO - The Universal FeynRules Output

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Céline Degrande; Claude Duhr; Benjamin Fuks; David Grellscheid; Olivier Mattelaer; Thomas Reiter

    2012-07-31

    We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so- called Universal FeynRules Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a Python module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the Mathematica package FeynRules that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

  13. UFO - The Universal FeynRules Output

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Degrande, Céline; Fuks, Benjamin; Grellscheid, David; Mattelaer, Olivier; Reiter, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so- called Universal FeynRules Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a Python module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the Mathematica package FeynRules that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

  14. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Linear Systems Extreme Inputs/Outputs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smallwood, David O.

    2007-01-01

    A linear structure is excited at multiple points with a stationary normal random process. The response of the structure is measured at multiple outputs. If the autospectral densities of the inputs are specified, the phase relationships between the inputs are derived that will minimize or maximize the trace of the autospectral density matrix of the outputs. If the autospectral densities of the outputs are specified, the phase relationships between the outputs that will minimize or maximize the trace of the input autospectral density matrix are derived. It is shown that other phase relationships and ordinary coherence less than one willmore »result in a trace intermediate between these extremes. Least favorable response and some classes of critical response are special cases of the development. It is shown that the derivation for stationary random waveforms can also be applied to nonstationary random, transients, and deterministic waveforms.« less

  15. Output Feedback Stabilization of Linear PDEs with Finite Dimensional Input-Output Maps and Kelvin-Voigt Damping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Soon-Jo

    Output Feedback Stabilization of Linear PDEs with Finite Dimensional Input-Output Maps and Kelvin with respect to x. The finite dimensional input-output (FDIO) map makes it tempting to design an output of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, India. Member, IEEE. paranjape@aero.iitb.ac.in. Soon-Jo Chung

  16. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy Headquaters Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy...

  17. 5 World Oil Trends WORLD OIL TRENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's share of world crude oil production has rebound5 World Oil Trends Chapter 1 WORLD OIL TRENDS INTRODUCTION In considering the outlook for California's petroleum supplies, it is important to give attention to expecta- tions of what the world oil

  18. Peanut, soybean and cottonseed oil as diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazed, M.A.; Summers, J.D.; Batchelder, D.G.

    1985-09-01

    Two single cylinder diesel engines burning three vegetable oils, and their blends with diesel fuel, were evaluated and compared to engines burning a reference diesel fuel (Phillips No. 2). Tests were conducted determining power output, fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and exhaust smoke. Using the three vegetable oils and their blends with No. 2 diesel fuel, maximum changes of 5%, 14%, 10%, and 40% were observed in power, fuel consumption by mass, thermal efficiency, and exhaust smoke, respectively. 41 references.

  19. Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings* Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  20. Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures for All Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  1. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-10-31

    In world crude oil markets, 1987 was a year of limited recovery and relative stability after the dramatic price slide of early 1986. Both foreign and domestic crude thereafter, ending the year somewhat higher than a year ago. In contrast, product wholesale markets remained relatively stable throughout the year, while retail prices sustained a fairly steady increase. As has been the case for over a decade, major price movements in international oil markets generally reflected responses to actual or perceived changes in the policies of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and/or its members. The year began with prices on an upward trend, in reaction to the December 1986 OPEC meeting in which the members resolved to return to an official pricing structure (a departure from the market-based pricing of 1986), and to reduce output quotas. Prices continued to rise until August, when evidence of continued OPEC overproduction appeared to outweigh market optimism, triggering a gradual slide that lasted the remainder of the year. Even with the downturn in the fourth quarter, crude oil markets in 1987, as measured by refiner acquisition costs, finished the year above year-end 1986 levels, and considerably above the lows reached in mid-1986. OPEC's struggle to maintain stable prices and production levels in 1987 reflected the organization's difficulties in reaching and enforcing agreements among its politically and economically diverse membership. 11 figs., 49 tabs.

  2. Bandwidth Guaranteed Multicast Scheduling for Virtual Output Queued Packet Switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Deng

    Bandwidth Guaranteed Multicast Scheduling for Virtual Output Queued Packet Switches Deng Pan Dept in Internet multimedia applications. Although several multicast scheduling schemes for packet switches have output queued (VOQ) switches. We propose the Credit based Multicast Fair scheduling (CMF) algorithm

  3. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    unfettered access to oil resources including the possibleChina’s search for oil resources around the world. However,a survey of China’s oil resources, while others focus

  4. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Figure 5. Monthly oil production for Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait,day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq Kuwait Figure 6.and the peak in U.S. oil production account for the broad

  5. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    and Income on Energy and Oil Demand,” Energy Journal 23(1),the faster its growth in oil demand over the last half ofthe income elasticity of oil demand to fall signi?cantly.

  6. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    current pace of growth in oil demand as staying consistentthis point, China’s demand Oil Demand vs. Domestic Supply inand predictions of oil supply and demand affected foreign

  7. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    Michael T. Klare, Blood and Oil: The Dangers of America’sDowns and Jeffrey A. Bader, “Oil-Hungry China Belongs at BigChina, Africa, and Oil,” (Council on Foreign Relations,

  8. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Natural Gas, Heating Oil and Gasoline,” NBER Working Paper.2006. “China’s Growing Demand for Oil and Its Impact on U.S.and Income on Energy and Oil Demand,” Energy Journal 23(1),

  9. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    China made an Iranian oil investment valued at $70 billion.across Iran, China’s oil investment may exceed $100 billionthese involving investment in oil and gas, really undermine

  10. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    in U.S. real GDP and oil consumption, 1949-2006. slope =Historical Chinese oil consumption and projection of trend.1991-2006: Chinese oil consumption in millions of barrels

  11. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    geological limits, global production of crude oil next yearGlobal production of crude petroleum. Notes: Bold line: From EIA, “World Production of Crude Oil,

  12. Oil Security Metrics Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L.; Leiby, Paul N.

    2005-03-06

    A presentation to the IWG GPRA USDOE, March 6, 2005, Washington, DC. OSMM estimates oil security benefits of changes in the U.S. oil market.

  13. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    China’s domestic oil supply will peak, and demand Robertpeak will come around 2020, 24 and that by this point, China’s demand Oil

  14. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    historical data for claiming to be able to predict oil pricehistorical data. The second is to look at the predictions of economic theory as to how oil prices

  15. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow (Rocky Point, NY)

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  16. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1994-03-29

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

  17. Commissioning of output factors for uniform scanning proton beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng Yuanshui; Ramirez, Eric; Mascia, Anthony; Ding Xiaoning; Okoth, Benny; Zeidan, Omar; Hsi Wen; Harris, Ben; Schreuder, Andries N.; Keole, Sameer [ProCure Proton Therapy Center, 5901 West Memorial Road, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73142 (United States); ProCure Treatment Centers, 420 North Walnut Street, Bloomington, Indiana 47404 (United States); ProCure Proton Therapy Center, 5901 West Memorial Road, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73142 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: Current commercial treatment planning systems are not able to accurately predict output factors and calculate monitor units for proton fields. Patient-specific field output factors are thus determined by either measurements or empirical modeling based on commissioning data. The objective of this study is to commission output factors for uniform scanning beams utilized at the ProCure proton therapy centers. Methods: Using water phantoms and a plane parallel ionization chamber, the authors first measured output factors with a fixed 10 cm diameter aperture as a function of proton range and modulation width for clinically available proton beams with ranges between 4 and 31.5 cm and modulation widths between 2 and 15 cm. The authors then measured the output factor as a function of collimated field size at various calibration depths for proton beams of various ranges and modulation widths. The authors further examined the dependence of the output factor on the scanning area (i.e., uncollimated proton field), snout position, and phantom material. An empirical model was developed to calculate the output factor for patient-specific fields and the model-predicted output factors were compared to measurements. Results: The output factor increased with proton range and field size, and decreased with modulation width. The scanning area and snout position have a small but non-negligible effect on the output factors. The predicted output factors based on the empirical modeling agreed within 2% of measurements for all prostate treatment fields and within 3% for 98.5% of all treatment fields. Conclusions: Comprehensive measurements at a large subset of available beam conditions are needed to commission output factors for proton therapy beams. The empirical modeling agrees well with the measured output factor data. This investigation indicates that it is possible to accurately predict output factors and thus eliminate or reduce time-consuming patient-specific output measurements for proton treatments.

  18. SolarOil Project, Phase I preliminary design report. [Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baccaglini, G.; Bass, J.; Neill, J.; Nicolayeff, V.; Openshaw, F.

    1980-03-01

    The preliminary design of the Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (SolarOil) Plant is described in this document. This plant is designed to demonstrate that using solar thermal energy is technically feasible and economically viable in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The SolarOil Plant uses the fixed mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) to heat high thermal capacity oil (MCS-2046) to 322/sup 0/C (611/sup 0/F). The hot fluid is pumped from a hot oil storage tank (20 min capacity) through a once-through steam generator which produces 4.8 MPa (700 psi) steam at 80% quality. The plant net output, averaged over 24 hr/day for 365 days/yr, is equivalent to that of a 2.4 MW (8.33 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr) oil-fired steam generator having an 86% availability. The net plant efficiency is 57.3% at equinox noon, a 30%/yr average. The plant will be demonstrated at an oilfield site near Oildale, California.

  19. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel, R.C.

    1987-10-01

    Licensed oil acreage in the 6 North Africa countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan and Tunisia) totaled 1,500,000 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1986, down 290,000 km/sup 2/ from 1985. About 50% of the relinquishments were in Libya. Most oil and gas discoveries were made in Egypt (16 oil and 2 gas). Several oil finds were reported in onshore Libya, and 1 was reported in Algeria in the southeastern Sahara. According to available statistics, development drilling decreased from 1985 levels, except in Tunisia. A 6.3% decline in oil production took place in 1986, falling below the 3 million bbl level (2,912,000 b/d). Only sparse data are released on the gas output in North Africa. 6 figures, 27 tables.

  20. Eco Oil 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett Earl; Brenda Clark

    2009-10-26

    This article describes the processes, challenges, and achievements of researching and developing a biobased motor oil.

  1. OIL & GAS INSTITUTE Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strathclyde, University of

    OIL & GAS INSTITUTE CONTENTS Introduction Asset Integrity Underpinning Capabilities 2 4 4 6 8 9 10 COMPETITIVENESS UNIVERSITY of STRATHCLYDE OIL & GAS INSTITUTE OIL & GAS EXPERTISE AND PARTNERSHIPS #12;1 The launch of the Strathclyde Oil & Gas Institute represents an important step forward for the University

  2. Simulating Quantum Circuits with Sparse Output Distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Schwarz; Maarten Van den Nest

    2013-10-24

    We show that several quantum circuit families can be simulated efficiently classically if it is promised that their output distribution is approximately sparse i.e. the distribution is close to one where only a polynomially small, a priori unknown subset of the measurement probabilities are nonzero. Classical simulations are thereby obtained for quantum circuits which---without the additional sparsity promise---are considered hard to simulate. Our results apply in particular to a family of Fourier sampling circuits (which have structural similarities to Shor's factoring algorithm) but also to several other circuit families, such as IQP circuits. Our results provide examples of quantum circuits that cannot achieve exponential speed-ups due to the presence of too much destructive interference i.e. too many cancelations of amplitudes. The crux of our classical simulation is an efficient algorithm for approximating the significant Fourier coefficients of a class of states called computationally tractable states. The latter result may have applications beyond the scope of this work. In the proof we employ and extend sparse approximation techniques, in particular the Kushilevitz-Mansour algorithm, in combination with probabilistic simulation methods for quantum circuits.

  3. Measuring the Costs of U.S. Oil Dependence and the Benefits of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    exporters operating as OPEC." Prof. M. Adelman, MIT, 2004. Algeria Angola Ecuador Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia UAE Venezuela 0 20 40 60 80 100 120...

  4. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (Btu) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity (thousand Btu...

  5. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01

    is described below. Data Crude oil production data is fromproductivity measure is crude oil production per worker, andwhich is measured as crude oil production per worker, is

  6. The Politics of Oil Nationalizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahdavi, Paasha

    2015-01-01

    in the oil and gas sectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . .of regime change, using oil and gas income per capita as aregime change, using fitted oil and gas income per capita as

  7. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01

    Venezuelan Oil Industry Total Wells Drilled and InvestmentWells Drilled and Investment in the Venezuelan Oil Industryopenness of the oil sector to foreign investment contributes

  8. Compact waveguide power divider with multiple isolated outputs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moeller, Charles P. (Del Mar, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A waveguide power divider (10) for splitting electromagnetic microwave power and directionally coupling the divided power includes an input waveguide (21) and reduced height output waveguides (23) interconnected by axial slots (22) and matched loads (25) and (26) positioned at the unused ends of input and output guides (21) and (23) respectively. The axial slots are of a length such that the wave in the input waveguide (21) is directionally coupled to the output waveguides (23). The widths of input guide (21) and output guides (23) are equal and the width of axial slots (22) is one half of the width of the input guide (21).

  9. Predicted Radiation Output from Several Kilograms of Plutonium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cycle & Fuel Materials(11); Nuclear Physics & Radiation Physics(73) radiation output, passive signature, plutonium oxide Word Cloud More Like This Full Text File size NAView Full...

  10. Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

    1984-02-14

    An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

  11. Spot-Oiling Johnsongrass. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Fred C.; Norris, M. J.; Rea, H. E.

    1955-01-01

    -treat Johnsongrass in cotton in 19 54. Power-driven sprayers normally used for in- tect control in row crops were modified for Yose. A spray pressure of 12 pounds re inch was used. Two systems of the grass were tried. In one system the crenr applying the oil... crown-oilings with naphtha, 83 percent in 7 tests by 3 oil- ings, 95 percent in 6 tests by 4 oilings and 98 percent in 4 tests by 5 to 7 oilings. The use of mixtures of 50 percent naphtha and 50 per- cent kerosene or diesel fuel oil reduced...

  12. Halbach array generator/motor having mechanically regulated output voltage and mechanical power output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2005-06-14

    A motor/generator has its stationary portion, i.e., the stator, positioned concentrically within its rotatable element, i.e., the rotor, along the axis of rotation of the rotor. The rotor includes a Halbach array of magnets. The voltage and power outputs are regulated by varying the radial gap in between the stator windings and the rotating Halbach array. The gap is varied by extensible and retractable supports attached to the stator windings that can move the windings in a radial direction.

  13. Challenges in Predicting Power Output from Offshore Wind Farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pryor, Sara C.

    Challenges in Predicting Power Output from Offshore Wind Farms R. J. Barthelmie1 and S. C. Pryor2 Abstract: Offshore wind energy is developing rapidly in Europe and the trend is towards large wind farms an offshore wind farm, accurate assessment of the wind resource/power output from the wind farm is a necessity

  14. Toward Controlled Wind Farm Output: Adjustable Power Filtering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maggiore, Manfredi

    1 Toward Controlled Wind Farm Output: Adjustable Power Filtering Barry G. Rawn, Student Member research into the limits on controllable power output from wind energy conversion systems. The viewpoint methodology that specifies the delivered power as a filtered version of available wind power. Simulation

  15. channels enable burst output in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Ray

    to generate an appropriate spike output depends on a balance between membrane depolarizationsKv3 K+ channels enable burst output in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells B. E. McKay and R. W. Turner and the repolarizing actions of K+ currents. The high-voltage-activated Kv3 class of K+ channels repolarizes Na+ spikes

  16. POLE PLACEMENT VIA OUTPUT FEEDBACK: A METHODOLOGY BASED ON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orsi, Robert

    POLE PLACEMENT VIA OUTPUT FEEDBACK: A METHODOLOGY BASED ON PROJECTIONS Kaiyang Yang and Robert Orsi feedback pole placement problems of the following rather general form: given n subsets of the complex plane, find a static output feedback that places in each of these subsets a pole of the closed loop system

  17. Challenging Aspects of MCDM Katta G. Murty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murty, Katta G.

    . Russia which is not a member of OPEC, is the 2nd largest crude oil exporter. Both SA and Russia mainly to such an extent that pretty soon the country will move from an oil importing country to an oil exporting country million barrels/day. Saudi Arabia ( SA ), the leader of OPEC (Oil Producing and Exporting Countries

  18. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01

    21, 2008. Ying, Wang. “ China, Venezuela firms to co-developApril 21, “China and Venezuela sign oil agreements. ” Chinaaccessed April 21, “Venezuela and China sign oil deal. ” BBC

  19. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    an alternative investment strategy to buying oil today andinvestments necessary to catch up. This was the view o?ered by oilinvestment strategy. date t) in order to purchase a quantity Q barrels of oil

  20. Vegetable oils for tractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moroney, M.

    1981-11-14

    Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

  1. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, Krishna C. (Whitehall, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  2. SRC residual fuel oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.; Foster, E.P.

    1985-10-15

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  3. Enhanced Oil Recovery of Viscous Oil by Injection of Water-in-Oil Emulsion Made with Used Engine Oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Xuebing

    2012-08-20

    Solids-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions have been suggested as a drive fluid to recover viscous oil through a piston-like displacement pattern. While crude heavy oil was initially suggested as the base oil, an alternative oil ? used engine oil...

  4. Oil Quantity : The histori

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    120 140 160 19 Oil Quantity Con Wel N E A N N ng Results e Bay : The histori Bay over tim : Prudhoe Ba returns plan n in percent m 0% to 300% 968 1973 Oil Productio Productio 5000600 4000500 3000400 2000300 model for Prudhoe Bay. Figure 11: Historical Prudhoe Bay oil production data, modeled economically

  5. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

  6. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

  7. Oil spill response resources 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muthukrishnan, Shankar

    1996-01-01

    source in an effective manner. Oil spills are fast becoming pollution sources that are causing the maximum damage to the environment. This is owing to the compounds that are released and the way oil spreads in both water and land. Preventing the oil spill...

  8. Oil and Gas Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    , oil and gas, and geothermal activities and accomplishments in Nevada: production statistics Products 23. Sloan dolomite quarry 24. Weiser gypsum quarry Oil Fields 1. Blackburn field 2. North WillowMetals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada

  9. Saving Output to a File (Using Codeblocks or Dev-C++) Saving Your Output to a File

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sokol, Dina

    Saving Output to a File (Using Codeblocks or Dev-C++) Saving Your Output to a File To save | New | Source File. d. In the new window, right-click and select Paste. e. Then select "File | Save as" to save and name the file. i. In the window that pops up, the bottom fill-in box is labelled "Save as type

  10. Pump packages for Colombian crude oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-05-01

    The Caterpillar Large Engine Center recently packaged ten engine-driven centrifugal pump packages for British Petroleum Exploration`s crude oil pipeline in South America. The ten sets, which use Ingersoll-Dresser centrifugal pumps, are designed to increase significantly the output of BP`s Central LLanos pipeline located in a remote region near Bogota, Colombia. BP anticipates that the addition of the new pump packages will increase daily volume from the current 100000 barrels to approximately 210000 barrels when the upgrade of the pipeline is completed in September. The ten sets are installed at three separate pumping stations. The stations are designed to operate continuously while unmanned, with only periodic maintenance required. The pump packages are powered by Caterpillar 3612 engines rated 3040 kW at 1000 r/min. The 12-cylinder engines are turbocharged and charge-air cooled and use the pipeline oil as both fuel and a cooling medium for the fuel injectors.

  11. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  12. Dual output acoustic wave sensor for molecular identification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A method of identification and quantification of absorbed chemical species by measuring changes in both the velocity and the attenuation of an acoustic wave traveling through a thin film into which the chemical species is sorbed. The dual output response provides two independent sensor responses from a single sensing device thereby providing twice as much information as a single output sensor. This dual output technique and analysis allows a single sensor to provide both the concentration and the identity of a chemical species or permits the number of sensors required for mixtures to be reduced by a factor of two.

  13. Passive states optimize the output of bosonic Gaussian quantum channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giacomo De Palma; Dario Trevisan; Vittorio Giovannetti

    2015-11-01

    An ordering between the quantum states emerging from a single mode gauge-covariant bosonic Gaussian channel is proven. Specifically, we show that within the set of input density matrices with the same given spectrum, the element passive with respect to the Fock basis (i.e. diagonal with decreasing eigenvalues) produces an output which majorizes all the other outputs emerging from the same set. When applied to pure input states, our finding includes as a special case the result of A. Mari, et al., Nat. Comm. 5, 3826 (2014) which implies that the output associated to the vacuum majorizes the others.

  14. Correction method for in-air output ratio for output variations occurring with changes in backscattered radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tajiri, Minoru; Tokiya, Yuji; Watanabe, Kazuhiro [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); International University of Health and Welfare, 1-4-3, Mita, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8329 (Japan); Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: The in-air output ratio (S{sub c}) for a rectangular field is usually obtained using an equivalent square field formula. However, it is well-known that S{sub c} obtained using an equivalent square field formula differs slightly from the measured S{sub c}. Though several correction methods have been suggested for the monitor-backscatter effect, the authors propose a more simple correction method for a rectangular field. Methods: For rectangular fields and equivalent square fields, the authors assumed that the output variation was the product of six output variations for each backscattering area at the top of the collimator jaws, and the correction factor was the ratio of the output variation for a rectangular field to the output variation for an equivalent square field. The output variation was measured by using a telescope measurement. Results: The differences between the measured and corrected S{sub c} ranged from -0.20% to 0.28% for symmetric rectangular fields by applying the correction factor to S{sub c} obtained using an equivalent square field formula. This correction method is also available for asymmetric rectangular fields. Conclusions: The authors propose a method to correct S{sub c} obtained using an equivalent square field formula, and a method to obtain the output variation for a field defined by collimator jaws.

  15. Calibrated Probabilistic Mesoscale Weather Field Forecasting: The Geostatistical Output Perturbation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    Calibrated Probabilistic Mesoscale Weather Field Forecasting: The Geostatistical Output. This is typically not feasible for mesoscale weather prediction carried out locally by organizations without by simulating realizations of the geostatistical model. The method is applied to 48-hour mesoscale forecasts

  16. Grid adaptation for functional outputs of compressible flow simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venditti, David Anthony, 1973-

    2002-01-01

    An error correction and grid adaptive method is presented for improving the accuracy of functional outputs of compressible flow simulations. The procedure is based on an adjoint formulation in which the estimated error in ...

  17. Community Climate System Model (CCSM) Experiments and Output Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The CCSM web makes the source code of various versions of the model freely available and provides access to experiments that have been run and the resulting output data.

  18. Tomography of photon-number resolving continuous-output detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter C. Humphreys; Benjamin J. Metcalf; Thomas Gerrits; Thomas Hiemstra; Adriana E. Lita; Joshua Nunn; Sae Woo Nam; Animesh Datta; W. Steven Kolthammer; Ian A. Walmsley

    2015-02-26

    We report a comprehensive approach to analysing continuous-output photon detectors. We employ principal component analysis to maximise the information extracted, followed by a novel noise-tolerant parameterised approach to the tomography of PNRDs. We further propose a measure for rigorously quantifying a detector's photon-number-resolving capability. Our approach applies to all detectors with continuous-output signals. We illustrate our methods by applying them to experimental data obtained from a transition-edge sensor (TES) detector.

  19. REVIEW PAPER Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil derived

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appanna, Vasu

    REVIEW PAPER Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil derived products: a review Natalia A. Yemashova January 2007 Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil of operational problems. Nowadays various test-systems are utilized for microbial monitoring in crude oils

  20. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  1. Current Output and Adjustment The 0-20mA current output is derived from the 0-10V output.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landers, Robert G.

    . There is no power supplied to the unit or power connections are reversed. The range LEDs are designed such that at least one of the LEDs will be lit whenever power is applied. · Sudden output change and/or no response reviewing these hints, call Lion Precision for assistance at 651-484-6544. · None of the range LEDs are lit

  2. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    disruptions, and the peak in U.S. oil production account foroil increased 81.1% (logarithmically) between January 1979 and the peak

  3. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 2001 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II (Continued) PAD District...

  4. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 2000 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II (Continued) PAD District...

  5. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II (Continued) PAD District...

  6. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1998 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II (Continued) PAD District...

  7. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 2002 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II (Continued) PAD District...

  8. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) More Documents & Publications PIA - WEB Physical Security Major Application PIA - GovTrip (DOE data) PIA - WEB Unclassified...

  9. Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development Robert Keiter; John Ruple...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah: Implications for Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development Robert Keiter; John Ruple; Heather Tanana; Rebecca Holt 29 ENERGY...

  10. The Politics of Oil Nationalizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahdavi, Paasha

    2015-01-01

    model specifications Oil production in the 1930-1950 period,NOCs by type, 1947-2005 . . Oil production, before and afterThe Political Economy of Oil Production in Latin America. ”

  11. The Politics of Oil Nationalizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahdavi, Paasha

    2015-01-01

    revenues (adjusted for real oil price) before and after es-to the volatility of oil prices – and thus the volatility ofSonin (2011) shows that oil prices and executive constraints

  12. The Politics of Oil Nationalizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahdavi, Paasha

    2015-01-01

    assessment of political and economic factors of oilAssessment of PEMEX’s Performance and Strategy. In Oil andOil Company resembled more of a regulator NOC). I will combine this assessment

  13. The Politics of Oil Nationalizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahdavi, Paasha

    2015-01-01

    Markus Br¨ uckner. 2012. “Oil Rents, Corruption, and Statewithin-country variance in oil rents and their effects onshift in the capture of oil rents – but I show why more work

  14. The Legacy of Oil Spills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trevors, J. T.; Saier, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    010-0527-5 The Legacy of Oil Spills J. T. Trevors & M. H.workers were killed, and oil has been gushing out everday. It is now June, and oil continues to spew forth into

  15. Oil shale technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. (Akron Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale is undoubtedly an excellent energy source that has great abundance and world-wide distribution. Oil shale industries have seen ups and downs over more than 100 years, depending on the availability and price of conventional petroleum crudes. Market forces as well as environmental factors will greatly affect the interest in development of oil shale. Besides competing with conventional crude oil and natural gas, shale oil will have to compete favorably with coal-derived fuels for similar markets. Crude shale oil is obtained from oil shale by a relatively simple process called retorting. However, the process economics are greatly affected by the thermal efficiencies, the richness of shale, the mass transfer effectiveness, the conversion efficiency, the design of retort, the environmental post-treatment, etc. A great many process ideas and patents related to the oil shale pyrolysis have been developed; however, relatively few field and engineering data have been published. Due to the vast heterogeneity of oil shale and to the complexities of physicochemical process mechanisms, scientific or technological generalization of oil shale retorting is difficult to achieve. Dwindling supplied of worldwide petroleum reserves, as well as the unprecedented appetite of mankind for clean liquid fuel, has made the public concern for future energy market grow rapidly. the clean coal technology and the alternate fuel technology are currently of great significance not only to policy makers, but also to process and chemical researchers. In this book, efforts have been made to make a comprehensive text for the science and technology of oil shale utilization. Therefore, subjects dealing with the terminological definitions, geology and petrology, chemistry, characterization, process engineering, mathematical modeling, chemical reaction engineering, experimental methods, and statistical experimental design, etc. are covered in detail.

  16. Mathematical model for oil slick transport and mixing in rivers. Special report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, H.T.; Yapa, P.D.; Wang, D.S.; Yang, X.Q.

    1993-08-01

    The growing concern over the impacts of oil spills on aquatic environments has led to the development of many computer models for simulating the transport and spreading of oil slicks in surface waters. Almost all of these models were developed for coastal environments. A few river models exist. These models only considered the movement of surface oil slicks. In this study a two-layer model, ROSS2, is developed for simulating oil spills in rivers. This model considers the oil in the river to consist of a surface slick and suspended oil droplets entrained over the depth of the flow. The oil transformation processes considered in the model include advection, mechanical spreading, turbulent diffusion and mixing, evaporation, dissolution, emulsification, shoreline deposition and sinking. The model can be used for simulating instantaneous or continuous spills either on or under the water surface in rivers with or without an ice cover. The model has been implemented for the Ohio-Monongahela-Allegheny river system and the upper St. Lawrence River. This report describes the model formulation and implementation. A case study is presented along with detailed explanations of the program structure and its input and output. Although it is developed for simulating oil spills, the model can be applied to spills of other hazardous materials. Computer models, Oil spills, Oil slicks, Rivers.

  17. Status of LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, D.E.; Cena, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    We have investigated the technical and economic barriers facing the introduction of an oil shale industry and we have chosen Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) oil shale retorting as the primary advanced technology of interest. We are investigating this approach through fundamental research, operation of a 4 tonne-per-day, HRS pilot plant and development of an Oil Shale Process (OSP) mathematical model. Over the last three years, from June 1991 to June 1993, we completed a series of runs (H10--H27) using the 4-TPD pilot plant to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the HRS process and answer key scale-up questions. With our CRADA partners, we seek to further develop the HRS technology, maintain and enhance the knowledge base gained over the past two decades through research and development by Government and industry and determine the follow on steps needed to advance the technology towards commercialization. The LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid process has the potential to improve existing oil shale technology. It processes oil shale in minutes instead of hours, reducing plant size. It processes all oil shale, including fines rejected by other processes. It provides controls to optimize product quality for different applications. It co-generates electricity to maximize useful energy output. And, it produces negligible SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, a non-hazardous waste shale and uses minimal water.

  18. Balancing oil and environment... responsibly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, Walter C.; Teske, Lisa

    2007-01-25

    Balancing Oil and Environment…Responsibly As the price of oil continues to skyrocket and global oil production nears the brink, pursuing unconventional oil supplies, such as oil shale, oil sands, heavy oils, and oils from biomass and coal has become increasingly attractive. Of particular significance to the American way is that our continent has significant quantities of these resources. Tapping into these new resources, however, requires cutting-edge technologies for identification, production, processing and environmental management. This job needs a super hero or two for a job of this size and proportion…

  19. Oil & Gas Science and Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. DAÏM

    2002-11-12

    update of the mechanical displacement and porosity field. In ... water and oil pressures are equal. ... o or w, denote the cell values of the oil and water phase.

  20. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01

    Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .and Productivity in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . OilEllner, ”Organized Labor in Venezuela 1958-1991: Behavior

  1. Cavity-output-field control via interference effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viorel Ciornea; Mihai A. Macovei

    2014-10-25

    We show how interference effects are responsible for manipulating the output electromagnetic field of an optical micro-resonator in the good-cavity limit. The system of interest consists in a moderately strongly pumped two-level emitter embedded in the optical cavity. When an additional weaker laser of the same frequency is pumping the combined system through one of the resonator's mirrors then the output cavity electromagnetic field can be almost completely suppressed or enhanced. This is due to the interference among the scattered light by the strongly pumped atom into the cavity mode and the incident weaker laser field. The result applies to photonic crystal environments as well.

  2. Heavy oil hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, R.E.; Nongbri, G.; Clausen, G.A. [Texaco R& D, Port Arthur, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Many of the crude oils available worldwide are classified as heavy oils (API gravity less than 20). In addition, many of the heavier crude oils are also high in sulfur content. Both the low gravity and high sulfur content make these crude oils difficult to process in many refineries and additional processing equipment is required. Often, deasphalting of the vacuum residuum is one of the processing routes chosen. However, the deasphalted oil (DAO) is often of poor quality and presents problems in processing in existing refinery units. Fixed bed hydrotreater and hydrocracker catalysts are quickly fouled and fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) reach regenerator temperature limits with only small amounts of DAO in the feed. Use of the T-STAR ebullated bed process to hydrocrack and upgrade the DAO is an excellent route for making the DAO more palatable to refinery units.

  3. Corrosivity Of Pyrolysis Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R; Bestor, Michael A; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oils from several sources have been analyzed and used in corrosion studies which have consisted of exposing corrosion coupons and stress corrosion cracking U-bend samples. The chemical analyses have identified the carboxylic acid compounds as well as the other organic components which are primarily aromatic hydrocarbons. The corrosion studies have shown that raw pyrolysis oil is very corrosive to carbon steel and other alloys with relatively low chromium content. Stress corrosion cracking samples of carbon steel and several low alloy steels developed through-wall cracks after a few hundred hours of exposure at 50 C. Thermochemical processing of biomass can produce solid, liquid and/or gaseous products depending on the temperature and exposure time used for processing. The liquid product, known as pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, as produced contains a significant amount of oxygen, primarily as components of water, carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones and aldehydes. As a result of these constituents, these oils are generally quite acidic with a Total Acid Number (TAN) that can be around 100. Because of this acidity, bio-oil is reported to be corrosive to many common structural materials. Despite this corrosive nature, these oils have the potential to replace some imported petroleum. If the more acidic components can be removed from this bio-oil, it is expected that the oil could be blended with crude oil and then processed in existing petroleum refineries. The refinery products could be transported using customary routes - pipelines, barges, tanker trucks and rail cars - without a need for modification of existing hardware or construction of new infrastructure components - a feature not shared by ethanol.

  4. Output-Based Regulations: A Handbook for Air Regulators (U.S. EPA), August 2004

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Handbook providing practical information to help regulators decide if they want to use output-based regulations and explains how to develop an output-based emission standard

  5. Just oil? The distribution of environmental and social impacts of oil production and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, D; Connolly, S

    2003-01-01

    htm ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF OIL Dutch Shell andAnalysis ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF OIL Briefs:ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF OIL Oil obviously

  6. An informal description of Standard OIL and Instance OIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murawski, Andrzej

    An informal description of Standard OIL and Instance OIL 28 November 2000 Sean Bechhofer (1) Jeen to be specified in some language. This paper introduces the newest version of OIL ­ the ontology inference layer of the DAML language, with working name DAML-OIL, was proposed in a message to the rdf-logic mailing list

  7. European Market Study for BioOil (Pyrolysis Oil)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    European Market Study for BioOil (Pyrolysis Oil) Dec 15, 2006 Doug Bradley President Climate Change of Contents Scope Executive Summary 1. Background 2. Pyrolysis Oil-Char Supply and Export Potential 2 Competitiveness 3.1. Substitute Fuels 3.2. Price of Fossil Fuels 3.3. Delivered Costs of Pyrolysis Oil/Char 4

  8. Submodule construction for specifications with input assumptions and output guarantees *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von Bochmann, Gregor

    bisimulation as conformance relation), and by synchronous finite state machines [Kim 97]. A restricted with synchronous communication or interleaving semantics. The paper also provides a new solution formula input and output. A new submodule construction algorithm for synchronous, partially defined input

  9. A Spatial Analysis of Multivariate Output from Regional Climate Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sain, Steve

    , Columbus, OH 43210, ncressie@stat.osu.edu. 1 #12;1 Introduction Many processes in the Earth system cannot, etc. Climate models attempt to represent this system, as well as to incorporate anthropogenic forcingsA Spatial Analysis of Multivariate Output from Regional Climate Models Stephan R. Sain,1 Reinhard

  10. APPROXIMATION THEORY OF OUTPUT STATISTICS Dept. Information Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verdú, Sergio

    . In order to generate a ran- dom process we assume that a primary random source with an equiprobableAPPROXIMATION THEORY OF OUTPUT STATISTICS Te Sun Han Dept. Information Systems Senshu University-length) source coding rate of any finite-alphabet source, and a strong converse of the identijication coding

  11. ANALOG-DIGITAL INPUT OUTPUT SYSTEM FOR APPLE CO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groppi, Christopher

    Initialization Program - ADIOS INITB Appendix 2 Test Program - ADIOS TEST Appendix 3 AND9513 Utilization Appendix HI-506A. Multiplexer F. Sprague UHP -507 Relay Driver G. Teledyne Solid-State Relays H. Advanced bus driver, a 4-bit relay driver, or two solid-state relays. Three of the digital output bits can

  12. Enhanced immune function does not depress reproductive output

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christians, Julian

    by a physiological (resource allocation) trade-o¡ between immune function and reproductive e¡ort, and several recent, based on a reciprocal, negative relationship between resources allocated to immune functionEnhanced immune function does not depress reproductive output T. D. Williams* , J. K. Christians, J

  13. TRICOLOR LIGHT EMITTING DIODE DOT MATRIX DISPLAY SYSTEM WITHAUDIO OUTPUT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pang, Grantham

    1 TRICOLOR LIGHT EMITTING DIODE DOT MATRIX DISPLAY SYSTEM WITHAUDIO OUTPUT Grantham Pang, Chi emitting diodes; tricolor display; audio communication. I. Introduction This paper relates to a tricolor broadcasting through the visible light rays transmitted by the display panel or assembly. Keywords: light

  14. Design of Controllers for a Multiple Input Multiple Output System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Amanda Lynne

    2012-07-16

    A method of controller design for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system is needed that will not give the high order controllers of modern control theory but will be more systematic than the “ad hoc” method. The objective of this method...

  15. Computability in Anonymous Networks: Revocable vs. Irrecovable Outputs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Computability in Anonymous Networks: Revocable vs. Irrecovable Outputs Yuval Emek 1 Jochen Seidel 2 Zurich ­ Distributed Computing Group ­ www.disco.ethz.ch #12;Anonymous Networks #12;Computability in Anonymous Networks #12;Computability in Anonymous Networks Computable Not Computable #12;Computability

  16. Control of fuel cell power output Federico Zenith, Sigurd Skogestad *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control of fuel cell power output Federico Zenith, Sigurd Skogestad * Department of Chemical A simplified dynamic model for fuel cells is developed, based on the concept of instantaneous characteristic, which is the set of values of current and voltage that a fuel cell can reach instantaneously

  17. POLE PLACEMENT BY STATIC OUTPUT FEEDBACK FOR GENERIC LINEAR SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eremenko, Alexandre

    POLE PLACEMENT BY STATIC OUTPUT FEEDBACK FOR GENERIC LINEAR SYSTEMS A. EREMENKO AND A. GABRIELOV of such systems, where the real pole placement map is not surjective. It follows that for each system in U, there exists an open set of pole configurations, symmetric with respect to the real line, which cannot

  18. Counterexamples to pole placement by static output feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eremenko, Alexandre

    Counterexamples to pole placement by static output feedback A. Eremenko # and A. Gabrielov + 6 these conditions, there is a non­empty open subset U of such systems, where the real pole placement map is not surjective. It follows that for systems in U , there exist open sets of pole configurations which cannot

  19. Counterexamples to pole placement by static output feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eremenko, Alexandre

    Counterexamples to pole placement by static output feedback A. Eremenko and A. Gabrielov 6 these conditions, there is a non-empty open subset U of such systems, where the real pole placement map is not surjective. It follows that for systems in U, there exist open sets of pole configurations which cannot

  20. POLE PLACEMENT BY STATIC OUTPUT FEEDBACK FOR GENERIC LINEAR SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eremenko, Alexandre

    POLE PLACEMENT BY STATIC OUTPUT FEEDBACK FOR GENERIC LINEAR SYSTEMS A. EREMENKO # AND A. GABRIELOV of such systems, where the real pole placement map is not surjective. It follows that for each system in U , there exists an open set of pole configurations, symmetric with respect to the real line, which cannot

  1. Agricultural and Resource Economics Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hyunok; Sumner, Daniel A.; Martin, Philip; Hochman, Gal; Rajagopal, Deepak; Zilberman, David

    2011-01-01

    produce 42% of the crude-oil production. The organizationfuel prices and crude-oil production but increase overallcrude oil during the same period. Although prices more than qua- drupled, OPEC production

  2. New Products TACKLING OIL SPILLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    New Products TACKLING OIL SPILLS Low-grade nonwoven cotton Texas Tech University researchers its own weight in oil. The results strengthen the use of cotton as a natural sorbent for oil, said Mr Engineering and Environmental Toxicology. "With the 2010 crude oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. which resulted

  3. KHAMIS, LAMPERT: CO-CLASSIFICATION WITH OUTPUT SPACE REGULARIZATION 1 CoConut: Co-Classification with Output

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daume III, Hal

    KHAMIS, LAMPERT: CO-CLASSIFICATION WITH OUTPUT SPACE REGULARIZATION 1 CoConut: Co, otherwise independent, data samples. The method we present, named CoConut, is based on the idea of adding on the class labels. CoConut can build on existing classi- fiers without making any assumptions on how

  4. Impacts of oil disturbances: lessons from experience. [1973-1974 Oil Crisis; 1978-1979 Iranian Revolution; 1980-1981 Iran-Iraq War

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curlee, T R

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of the impacts of previous oil distrubances can be used to suggest the impacts of future oil disturbances. This paper reviews how the 1973-1974 Oil Crisis, the 1978-1979 Iranian Revolution, and the 1980-1981 Iran-Iraq War impacted the US and world oil markets. Various measures of impacts are considered, such as impacts on physical flows of crude and products, crude and product price changes on the US and world markets, impacts on stocks of crude and products, and impacts on refiners' inputs and outputs. Various macroeconomic indicators, such as gross national product, inflation rates, and unemployment, are also considered. Of particular interest in this study are the impacts that oil disturbances have had (and could have) on the availabilities of particular crude types and the abilities of US refiners to process crudes of various types in the short run. In addition, this paper reviews how the actions of the consuming countries and the major oil companies affected the impacts of past disturbances. The paper briefly discusses the likely causes and impacts of future oil distrubances and summarizes the lessons to be learned from past reactions to oil disturbances.

  5. Oil shale research in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianqiu, W.; Jialin, Q. (Beijing Graduate School, Petroleum Univ., Beijing (CN))

    1989-01-01

    There have been continued efforts and new emergence in oil shale research in Chine since 1980. In this paper, the studies carried out in universities, academic, research and industrial laboratories in recent years are summarized. The research areas cover the chemical structure of kerogen; thermal behavior of oil shale; drying, pyrolysis and combustion of oil shale; shale oil upgrading; chemical utilization of oil shale; retorting waste water treatment and economic assessment.

  6. Oil Mill Operators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Natural gas and petroleum are non-renewable and scarce energy sources. Although, it is well known that hydrocarbon reserves are depleting through the years, oil and gas remain the principal source of energy upon which our ...

  7. Crude Oil Prices

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    19.11 18.73 18.63 17.97 18.75 18.10 See footnotes at end of table. 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual...

  8. Crude Oil Prices

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    20.86 20.67 20.47 20.24 20.32 19.57 See footnotes at end of table. 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual...

  9. Using Oils As Pesticides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogran, Carlos E.; Ludwig, Scott; Metz, Bradley

    2006-10-30

    Petroleum and plant-derived spray oils show increasing potential for use as part of Integrated Pest Management systems for control of soft-bodied pests on fruit trees, shade trees, woody ornamentals and household plants. ...

  10. Oil Market Assessment

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    Based on Energy Information Administration (EIA) contacts and trade press reports, overall U.S. and global oil supplies appear to have been minimally impacted by yesterday's terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.

  11. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01

    that the income elasticity of U.S. petroleum demand hasincome growth over the period and 1.11 for 11 oil-exporting countries.. And it is the latter countries where petroleum

  12. Imbibition assisted oil recovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pashayev, Orkhan H.

    2004-11-15

    analyzed in detail to investigate oil recovery during spontaneous imbibition with different types of boundary conditions. The results of these studies have been upscaled to the field dimensions. The validity of the new definition of characteristic length...

  13. Process for preparing lubricating oil from used waste lubricating oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whisman, Marvin L. (Bartlesville, OK); Reynolds, James W. (Bartlesville, OK); Goetzinger, John W. (Bartlesville, OK); Cotton, Faye O. (Bartlesville, OK)

    1978-01-01

    A re-refining process is described by which high-quality finished lubricating oils are prepared from used waste lubricating and crankcase oils. The used oils are stripped of water and low-boiling contaminants by vacuum distillation and then dissolved in a solvent of 1-butanol, 2-propanol and methylethyl ketone, which precipitates a sludge containing most of the solid and liquid contaminants, unspent additives, and oxidation products present in the used oil. After separating the purified oil-solvent mixture from the sludge and recovering the solvent for recycling, the purified oil is preferably fractional vacuum-distilled, forming lubricating oil distillate fractions which are then decolorized and deodorized to prepare blending stocks. The blending stocks are blended to obtain a lubricating oil base of appropriate viscosity before being mixed with an appropriate additive package to form the finished lubricating oil product.

  14. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

  15. Optical device with conical input and output prism faces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brunsden, Barry S. (Chicago, IL)

    1981-01-01

    A device for radially translating radiation in which a right circular cylinder is provided at each end thereof with conical prism faces. The faces are oppositely extending and the device may be severed in the middle and separated to allow access to the central part of the beam. Radiation entering the input end of the device is radially translated such that radiation entering the input end at the perimeter is concentrated toward the output central axis and radiation at the input central axis is dispersed toward the output perimeter. Devices are disclosed for compressing beam energy to enhance drilling techniques, for beam manipulation of optical spatial frequencies in the Fourier plane and for simplification of dark field and color contrast microscopy. Both refracting and reflecting devices are disclosed.

  16. An Advanced simulation Code for Modeling Inductive Output Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thuc Bui; R. Lawrence Ives

    2012-04-27

    During the Phase I program, CCR completed several major building blocks for a 3D large signal, inductive output tube (IOT) code using modern computer language and programming techniques. These included a 3D, Helmholtz, time-harmonic, field solver with a fully functional graphical user interface (GUI), automeshing and adaptivity. Other building blocks included the improved electrostatic Poisson solver with temporal boundary conditions to provide temporal fields for the time-stepping particle pusher as well as the self electric field caused by time-varying space charge. The magnetostatic field solver was also updated to solve for the self magnetic field caused by time changing current density in the output cavity gap. The goal function to optimize an IOT cavity was also formulated, and the optimization methodologies were investigated.

  17. Light-operated proximity detector with linear output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, M.L.; McNeilly, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    A light-operated proximity detector is described in which reflected light intensity from a surface whose proximity to the detector is to be gauged is translated directly into a signal proportional to the distance of the detector from the surface. A phototransistor is used to sense the reflected light and is connected in a detector circuit which maintains the phtotransistor in a saturated state. A negative feedback arrangement using an operational amplifier connected between the collector and emitter of the transistor provides an output at the output of the amplifier which is linearly proportional to the proximity of the surface to the detector containing the transistor. This direct proportional conversion is true even though the light intensity is varying with the proximity in proportion to the square of the inverse of the distance. The detector may be used for measuring the distance remotely from any target surface.

  18. Light-operated proximity detector with linear output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Marc L. (Harriman, TN); McNeilly, David R. (Maryville, TN)

    1985-01-01

    A light-operated proximity detector is described in which reflected light intensity from a surface whose proximity to the detector is to be gauged is translated directly into a signal proportional to the distance of the detector from the surface. A phototransistor is used to sense the reflected light and is connected in a detector circuit which maintains the phototransistor in a saturated state. A negative feedback arrangement using an operational amplifier connected between the collector and emitter of the transistor provides an output at the output of the amplifier which is linearly proportional to the proximity of the surface to the detector containing the transistor. This direct proportional conversion is true even though the light intensity is varying with the proximity in proportion to the square of the inverse of the distance. The detector may be used for measuring the distance remotely from any target surface.

  19. Quantum Discrete Fourier Transform with Classical Output for Signal Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao-Yang Pang; Ben-Qiong Hu

    2007-06-17

    Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is the base of modern signal or information processing. 1-Dimensional fast Fourier transform (1D FFT) and 2D FFT have time complexity O(NlogN) and O(N^2logN) respectively. Quantum 1D and 2D DFT algorithms with classical output (1D QDFT and 2D QDFT) are presented in this paper. And quantum algorithm for convolution estimation is also presented in this paper. Compared with FFT, QDFT has two advantages at least. One of advantages is that 1D and 2D QDFT has time complexity O(sqrt(N)) and O(N) respectively. The other advantage is that QDFT can process very long signal sequence at a time. QDFT and quantum convolution demonstrate that quantum signal processing with classical output is possible.

  20. The effects of output transformers on distortion in audio amplifiers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanier, Ross Edwin

    1949-01-01

    in Pig. 8. The audio frequency amplifier is a conventional single-ended, fixed bias, power amplifier using a 6?6 tube connected for triode operation and driven by a low impedance audio frequency oscillator. The amplifier was coupled to its recommended... distortion in either the primary or the output of the transformer. 52 INTZRMODUIATION DISTORTION Hewlett-Packer Audio Frequenc Oscillator odel 200 Regulate Power Supply Aud o Frequenc Am lifie rane orme under Hew e -Pac sr Harmonic lliave...

  1. Development of a high-output dual-fuel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danyluk, P.R. . Fairbanks Morse Engineering Division)

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a new dual-fuel engine development program. The engine is the largest commercially available in terms of power output (650 hp/cyl) and features very low emissions (1 g/hp-hr NO[sub x]) and excellent fuel consumption (43 percent thermal efficiency). A two-cylinder turbocharged prototype was designed and built for the initial development. Results from testing on 18-cylinder production versions are also reported.

  2. Seismic stimulation for enhanced oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pride, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    aims to enhance oil production by sending seismic wavesbe expected to enhance oil production. INTRODUCTION The hopethe reservoir can cause oil production to increase. Quite

  3. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    H. H. Peters, Shale Oil Waste Water Recovery by Evaporation,treatment of oil shale waste products. Consequently, bothmost difficult and costly oil shale waste stream requiring

  4. Water Heaters (Storage Oil) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Oil) Water Heaters (Storage Oil) Water Heater, Storage Oil - v1.0.xlsx More Documents & Publications Water Heaters (Tankless Electric) Water Heaters (Storage Electric)...

  5. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    during oil shale retorting: retort water and gas condensate.commercial oil shale plant, retort water and gas condensateunique to an oil shale retort water, gas condensate, and

  6. Global production through 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foreman, N.E.

    1996-12-01

    Two companion studies released recently should provide great food for thought among geo-political strategists and various national governments. If predictions contained in these Petroconsultants studies of oil and gas production trends for the next 10 years are realized, there will be great repercussions for net exporters and importers, alike. After analyzing and predicting trends within each of the world`s significant producing nations for the 1996--2005 period, the crude oil and condensate report concludes tat global production will jump nearly 24%. By contrast, worldwide gas output will leap 40%. The cast of characters among producers and exporters that will benefit from these increases varies considerably for each fuel. On the oil side, Russia and the OPEC members, particularly the Persian Gulf nations, will be back in the driver`s seat in terms of affecting export and pricing patterns. On the gas side, the leading producers will be an interesting mix of mostly non-OPEC countries. The reemergence of Persian Gulf oil producers, coupled with an anticipated long-term decline among top non-OPEC producing nations should present a sobering picture to government planners within large net importers, such as the US. They are likely to find themselves in much the same supply trap as was experienced in the 1970s, only this time the dependence on foreign oil supplies will be much worse. Gas supplies will not be similarly constrained, and some substitution for oil is probable. Here, two articles, ``World oil industry is set for transition`` and ``Worldwide gas surges forward in next decade,`` present a summary of the findings detailed in Petroconsultants` recent studies.

  7. Oil and Gas Investor returns climb as oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arizona, University of

    Oil and Gas Investor returns climb as oil and gas drilling ventures succeed. www #12;Eng-Tips Forum Medical News Building/Construction · Engineers Advance Fuel Cell Technology · Micro

  8. The triumph of pragmatism: Nigeria's role in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimah, A.

    1988-01-01

    Formed in 1960, the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) became a key participant in the international oil industry after the so-called oil shock in the early 1970s. OPEC's power in world trade increased tremendously during the 1970s and, as oil prices skyrocketed, literature on OPEC proliferated. Although OPEC's demise has often been predicted since its creation; it has, however, endured. Thus study examines OPEC from distinct vantage points: those of regime theory, oligopoly models, and cartel theory. The aim is to gain insight into the activities of the organization as a whole and in terms of the behavior of one of its members, the Government of Nigeria. The objective is to ascertain which of these theories, or aspects of the theories, best describes OPEC's activities and Nigeria's actions as a member. The review of OPEC and Nigeria's role in its demonstrates that OPEC is difficult to classify. It is more than anything, a fluid coalition of Third World countries seeking to improve their national economies by ensuring better prices for crude oil, their chief export product; and helping other Third World countries focus global awareness on the chronic political and economic inequities in the international system. Therefore, OPEC and Nigeria's role is best explained by coalition theory.

  9. A nuclear wind/solar oil-shale system for variable electricity and liquid fuels production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.

    2012-07-01

    The recoverable reserves of oil shale in the United States exceed the total quantity of oil produced to date worldwide. Oil shale contains no oil, rather it contains kerogen which when heated decomposes into oil, gases, and a carbon char. The energy required to heat the kerogen-containing rock to produce the oil is about a quarter of the energy value of the recovered products. If fossil fuels are burned to supply this energy, the greenhouse gas releases are large relative to producing gasoline and diesel from crude oil. The oil shale can be heated underground with steam from nuclear reactors leaving the carbon char underground - a form of carbon sequestration. Because the thermal conductivity of the oil shale is low, the heating process takes months to years. This process characteristic in a system where the reactor dominates the capital costs creates the option to operate the nuclear reactor at base load while providing variable electricity to meet peak electricity demand and heat for the shale oil at times of low electricity demand. This, in turn, may enable the large scale use of renewables such as wind and solar for electricity production because the base-load nuclear plants can provide lower-cost variable backup electricity. Nuclear shale oil may reduce the greenhouse gas releases from using gasoline and diesel in half relative to gasoline and diesel produced from conventional oil. The variable electricity replaces electricity that would have been produced by fossil plants. The carbon credits from replacing fossil fuels for variable electricity production, if assigned to shale oil production, results in a carbon footprint from burning gasoline or diesel from shale oil that may half that of conventional crude oil. The U.S. imports about 10 million barrels of oil per day at a cost of a billion dollars per day. It would require about 200 GW of high-temperature nuclear heat to recover this quantity of shale oil - about two-thirds the thermal output of existing nuclear reactors in the United States. With the added variable electricity production to enable renewables, additional nuclear capacity would be required. (authors)

  10. Used Oil and Filter Disposal Used Oil: Create a segregated storage area or container. Label the container "Waste Oil Only".

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroncelli, Mark

    the container "Waste Oil Only". Maintain a written log to document all amounts and types of oil addedUsed Oil and Filter Disposal Used Oil: Create a segregated storage area or container. Label to the container. No solvents, oil contaminated with solvents, PCBs, non-petroleum based oils, or any other

  11. Method and system for managing an electrical output of a turbogenerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean (Bettendorf, IA); Vuk, Carl Thomas (Denver, IA)

    2009-06-02

    The system and method manages an electrical output of a turbogenerator in accordance with multiple modes. In a first mode, a direct current (DC) bus receives power from a turbogenerator output via a rectifier where turbogenerator revolutions per unit time (e.g., revolutions per minute (RPM)) or an electrical output level of a turbogenerator output meet or exceed a minimum threshold. In a second mode, if the turbogenerator revolutions per unit time or electrical output level of a turbogenerator output are less than the minimum threshold, the electric drive motor or a generator mechanically powered by the engine provides electrical energy to the direct current bus.

  12. Method and system for managing an electrical output of a turbogenerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean (Bettendorf, IA); Vuk, Carl Thomas (Denver, IA)

    2010-08-24

    The system and method manages an electrical output of a turbogenerator in accordance with multiple modes. In a first mode, a direct current (DC) bus receives power from a turbogenerator output via a rectifier where turbogenerator revolutions per unit time (e.g., revolutions per minute (RPM)) or an electrical output level of a turbogenerator output meet or exceed a minimum threshold. In a second mode, if the turbogenerator revolutions per unit time or electrical output level of a turbogenerator output are less than the minimum threshold, the electric drive motor or a generator mechanically powered by the engine provides electrical energy to the direct current bus.

  13. Virent is Replacing Crude Oil

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Breakout Session 2A—Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing Virent is Replacing Crude Oil Randy Cortright, Founder & Chief Technology Officer, Virent

  14. Reliable Gas Turbine Output: Attaining Temperature Independent Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neeley, J. E.; Patton, S.; Holder, F.

    1992-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-92-04-10.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 16831 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-92-04-10.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 RELIABLE GAS TURBINE... OUTPUT; ATTAINING TEMPERATURE INDEPENDENT PERFORMANCE James E. Neeley, P.E. Power Plant Engineer Public Utility Commission of Texas Austin, Texas ABSTRACT Improvements in gas turbine efficiency, coupled with dropping gas prices, has made gas...

  15. Oil | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014DepartmentCouncilOffice of the ChiefResearchOil Oil For

  16. Oil and gas outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIARegionalMethodologyNorth093 *Oil andOil and

  17. International oil companies in the Far East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mlotok, P.

    1984-10-01

    All of the major international oil companies have extensive operations in the Far East, and in most cases, these operations account for a significant part of their worldwide earnings. In the refining and marketing end of the business, near-term profitability could be hampered by problems in the Singapore refining center. An expansion of Indonesian refining capacity has reduced profits from processing arrangements, and new Saudi product exports will enter Singapore starting this year. Longer term, however, the strong economic growth in the region renders it a highly attractive area in which to operate. On the producing end, rising output will boost profits for the international oil companies in Indonesia and Malaysia. Caltex (a 50/50 joint venture between Chevron and Texaco) is one of the largest marketers in the Far East. It will not initially be affected greatly by the Singapore refinery problem, as its production from this area goes directly into its own marketing system rather than into the open market. Exxon is a medium-size marketer with especially strong positions in Japan, Malaysia and Thailand. However, the company could be vulnerable to near-term problems in Singapore. Mobil, another medium-size marketer, has a very strong position in Japan but problems in Australia. As those problems are corrected, earnings should grow over time. The Royal Dutch Shell Group is one of the largest marketers in the Far East, with good positions in Singapore, Malaysia and Australia. Shell will have difficulty adjusting to the changing conditions in Singapore, but once this is complete, downstream earnings growth should resume. British Petroleum (BP) has a smaller upstream and downstream presence than the other international oils. Estimated 1983 Far East earnings are tabulated for these five companies. 5 figures.

  18. Nineteenth oil shale symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 23 selections. Some of the titles are: Effects of maturation on hydrocarbon recoveries from Canadian oil shale deposits; Dust and pressure generated during commercial oil shale mine blasting: Part II; The petrosix project in Brazil - An update; Pathway of some trace elements during fluidized-bed combustion of Israeli Oil Shale; and Decommissioning of the U.S. Department of Energy Anvil Points Oil Shale Research Facility.

  19. Oil Conservation Division Environmental Bureau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oil Conservation Division Environmental Bureau Brine Well Collapse Evaluation Report June 18, 2009 Prukop of the Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department (EMNRD) ordered the Oil Conservation directed OCD to work with the Environmental Protection Agency, other states, technical experts, and oil

  20. Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Marine Oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Marine Oils UNITED STATES DEPART MENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH FISHERIES, H. E. Crowther, Director Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Marine Oils By JAMES J. PEIFER Excerpt from Chapter 23 of the book, "Fish Oils,·· M. E. Stansby, editor Avi Publishing Company, Westport

  1. OIL ANALYSIS LAB TRIVECTOR ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OIL ANALYSIS LAB TRIVECTOR ANALYSIS This test method is a good routine test for the overall condition of the oil, the cleanliness, and can indicate the presence of wear metals that could be coming of magnetic metal particles within the oil. This may represent metals being worn from components (i

  2. Oil shale: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    This report documents the status of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oil Shale Program as of the end of FY 86. The report consists of (1) a status of oil shale development, (2) a description of the DOE Oil Shale Program, (3) an FY 86 oil shale research summary, and (4) a summary of FY 86 accomplishments. Discoveries were made in FY 86 about the physical and chemical properties and behavior of oil shales, process chemistry and kinetics, in situ retorting, advanced processes, and the environmental behavior and fate of wastes. The DOE Oil Shale Program shows an increasing emphasis on eastern US oil shales and in the development of advanced oil shale processing concepts. With the award to Foster Wheeler for the design of oil shale conceptual plants, the first step in the development of a systems analysis capability for the complete oil shale process has been taken. Unocal's Parachute Creek project, the only commercial oil shale plant operating in the United States, is operating at about 4000 bbl/day. The shale oil is upgraded at Parachute Creek for input to a conventional refinery. 67 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. The Politics of Oil Nationalizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahdavi, Paasha

    2015-01-01

    s ability to use oil wealth to finance its expenditures.Finance Bribes paid to SOCAR officials Bribes through agents to Sonangol, Iraqi oilFinance Act, and in the United States the effective tax rate is 16.7% for shallow-water oil

  4. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  5. Production of Shale Oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loper, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    part of 40% share up to a maximum of $1.1 billion. North of these two projects are the two prot Federal lease projects in Colorado -- the we most operated by the Rio Blanco Shale Oil Co a limited partnership between Amoco and Gulf Their early...

  6. Dying for oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachs, A.

    1996-05-01

    This article discusses the fight and execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa, the Ogoni leader who defended his people`s land on the Niger delta against oil development encouraged by the government and persued by the Royal/Dutch Shell Co. Political reprocussions and heightened vigilance of environmental activists are discussed at length.

  7. World Oil Transit Chokepoints

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2012-01-01

    Chokepoints are narrow channels along widely used global sea routes, some so narrow that restrictions are placed on the size of vessel that can navigate through them. They are a critical part of global energy security due to the high volume of oil traded through their narrow straits.

  8. Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freese, V, Charles Edwin (Westland, MI)

    2000-05-09

    An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

  9. Energy Policy 34 (2006) 515531 Have we run out of oil yet? Oil peaking analysis from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    of conventional oil production from an optimist's perspective. Is the oil peak imminent? What is the range oil production, geological constraints on the rates at which oil can be produced are not represented. Unconventional oil is chosen because production from Venezuela's heavy-oil fields and Canada's Athabascan oil

  10. New Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U.S. Nuclear Reactors New Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U.S. Nuclear Reactors May 3, 2011 -...

  11. Output-Based Regulations: A Handbook for Air Regulators (U.S...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Output-Based Regulations: A Handbook for Air Regulators (U.S. EPA), August 2004 Output-Based Regulations: A Handbook for Air Regulators (U.S. EPA), August 2004 The U.S....

  12. Stochastic Analysis of Stable Marriages in Combined Input Output Queued Switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goel, Ashish

    Stochastic Analysis of Stable Marriages in Combined Input Output Queued Switches Ashish Goel 1 Balaji Prabhakar 2 Abstract Traditionally, Output Queued switch architectures have been proposed to implement Quality of Service schemes such as Weighted Fair Queueing. Output Queued switches with N input

  13. SOLAR ENERGY (conditionally accepted 1/2010) QUANTIFYING PV POWER OUTPUT VARIABILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    SOLAR ENERGY (conditionally accepted 1/2010) QUANTIFYING PV POWER OUTPUT VARIABILITY Thomas E power output variability from a fleet of photovoltaic (PV) systems, ranging from a single central station to a set of distributed PV systems. The approach demonstrates that the relative power output

  14. A Framework to Determine the Probability Density Function for the Output Power of Wind Farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez-Garcia, Alejandro

    A Framework to Determine the Probability Density Function for the Output Power of Wind Farms Sairaj to the power output of a wind farm while factoring in the availability of the wind turbines in the farm availability model for the wind turbines, we propose a method to determine the wind-farm power output pdf

  15. Aalborg Universitet On the Impact of Partial Shading on PV Output Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sera, Dezso

    Aalborg Universitet On the Impact of Partial Shading on PV Output Power Sera, Dezso; Baghzouz version (APA): Sera, D., & Baghzouz, Y. (2008). On the Impact of Partial Shading on PV Output Power from vbn.aau.dk on: juli 06, 2015 #12;On the Impact of Partial Shading on PV Output Power DEZSO SERA

  16. A Deep Learning Model for Structured Outputs with High-order Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    A Deep Learning Model for Structured Outputs with High-order Interaction Hongyu Guo , Xiaodan Zhu to generate a powerful nonlinear functional mapping from structured input to structured output. More nonlinear functional mapping from high-order structured input to high-order structured output. To this end

  17. A 400 to 500-MHz CMOS Power Amplifier with Multi-Watt Output

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhn, William B.

    PA cells are power-combined to generate approximately 5-Watt output. The same PA chip is used, the authors demonstrated a fully integrated CMOS 1-Watt PA with high-Q 1:3 turns- ratio output balun [8A 400 to 500-MHz CMOS Power Amplifier with Multi-Watt Output Jeongmin Jeon, Student Member, IEEE

  18. Flexible High-Output Nanogenerator Based on Lateral ZnO Nanowire Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Flexible High-Output Nanogenerator Based on Lateral ZnO Nanowire Array Guang Zhu, Rusen Yang scalable sweeping-printing-method, for fabricating flexible high- output nanogenerator (HONG) that can-circuit voltage of up to 2.03 V and a peak output power density of 11 mW/cm3 have been achieved. The generated

  19. Supplementary Information Flexible high-output nanogenerator based on lateral ZnO nanowire array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    1 Supplementary Information Flexible high-output nanogenerator based on lateral ZnO nanowire array voltage input was provided by a functional generator (peak value of 2 V and 0.5 Hz); and the output direction is along the c-axis. #12;3 Durability test Figure S3. Result of the durability test on the output

  20. Augmenting Test Suites Effectiveness by Increasing Output Diversity Nadia Alshahwan and Mark Harman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harman, Mark

    that output uniqueness shall be used to augment a traditional test generation adequacy criterion not replace for relatively high coverage test suites. In this paper we use output uniqueness to augment a test suiteAugmenting Test Suites Effectiveness by Increasing Output Diversity Nadia Alshahwan and Mark Harman

  1. PARALLEL HIGH THROUGHPUT SOFT-OUTPUT SPHERE DECODER Q. Qi, C. Chakrabarti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    - putation complexity of only the list generator. Recently, a high speed systolic-like soft-output spherePARALLEL HIGH THROUGHPUT SOFT-OUTPUT SPHERE DECODER Q. Qi, C. Chakrabarti School of Electrical,chaitali}@asu.edu ABSTRACT Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output communication systems de- mand fast sphere decoding with high

  2. Toward high output-power nanogenerator Peng Fei,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Toward high output-power nanogenerator Jin Liu,1 Peng Fei,1,2 Jun Zhou,1 Rao Tummala,1 and Zhong contributed by all of the NWs while the output voltage is determined by the voltage generated by a single NW 2008; published online 29 April 2008 In this paper, the factors that determine the power output

  3. Just oil? The distribution of environmental and social impacts of oil production and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, D; Connolly, S

    2003-01-01

    bution of the impacts of oil production and consumption. Theof harmful effects from oil production and use. A criticaland procedural impacts of oil production and consumption

  4. Just oil? The distribution of environmental and social impacts of oil production and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, D; Connolly, S

    2003-01-01

    of the impacts of oil production and consumption. The reviewimpacts of oil production and consumption conclude theincreased oil production and consumption. But how well do

  5. Just oil? The distribution of environmental and social impacts of oil production and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, D; Connolly, S

    2003-01-01

    AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF OIL product, product that does notthe quantity of oil products that escapes from pipelines. ”transport of crude oil and petroleum products accounted for

  6. Just oil? The distribution of environmental and social impacts of oil production and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, D; Connolly, S

    2003-01-01

    VII. IMPACTS OF OIL CONSUMPTION . . . . . . .and the location of oil consumption necessitates that crudere?neries. VII. IMPACTS OF OIL CONSUMPTION The combustion of

  7. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-09-15

    World oil use is projected to grow to 98 million b/d in 2015 and 118 million b/d in 2030. Total world natural gas consumption is projected to rise to 134 Tcf in 2015 and 182 Tcf in 2030. In an era of declining production and increasing demand, economically producing oil and gas from unconventional sources is a key challenge to maintaining global economic growth. Some unconventional hydrocarbon sources are already being developed, including gas shales, tight gas sands, heavy oil, oil sands, and coal bed methane. Roughly 20 years ago, gas production from tight sands, shales, and coals was considered uneconomic. Today, these resources provide 25% of the U.S. gas supply and that number is likely to increase. Venezuela has over 300 billion barrels of unproven extra-heavy oil reserves which would give it the largest reserves of any country in the world. It is currently producing over 550,000 b/d of heavy oil. Unconventional oil is also being produced in Canada from the Athabasca oil sands. 1.6 trillion barrels of oil are locked in the sands of which 175 billion barrels are proven reserves that can be recovered using current technology. Production from 29 companies now operating there exceeds 1 million barrels per day. The report provides an overview of continuous petroleum sources and gives a concise overview of the current status of varying types of unconventional oil and gas resources. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of the history of Oil and Natural Gas; an analysis of the Oil and Natural Gas industries, including current and future production, consumption, and reserves; a detailed description of the different types of unconventional oil and gas resources; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in unconventional resources; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the development of unconventional resources; profiles of key producing regions; and, profiles of key unconventional oil and gas producers.

  8. High lumen compact fluorescents boost light output in new fixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-12-31

    Some compact fluorescent lamps aren`t so compact. General Electric (GE), OSRAM, and Philips have been expanding offerings in longer, more powerful, hard wired CFLs that generate enough light to serve applications once limited to conventional fluorescents and metal halide systems. All three of these manufacturers have for some time offered 18- to 40-watt high-output CFLs, which use a fluorescent tube doubled back on itself to produce a lot of light in a compact source. Now GE has introduced an even larger, more powerful 50-watt unit, and OSRAM is soon to follow suit with a 55-watt lamp. These new entries to the field of turbocharged CFLs can provide general lighting at ceiling heights of 12 feet or more as well as indirect lighting, floodlighting, and wall washing. They are such a concentrated source of light that they can provide the desired illumination using fewer lamps and fixtures than would be needed with competing sources.

  9. Status of LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid oil shale retort, January 1991--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cena, R.J.

    1993-11-01

    Our objective, together with our CRADA partners, is to demonstrate advanced technology that could lead to an economic and environmentally acceptable commercialization of oil shale. We have investigated the technical and economic barriers facing the introduction of an oil shale industry and we have chosen Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) oil shale retorting as the primary advanced technology of interest. We are investigating this approach through fundamental research, operation of a 4 tonne-per-day HRS pilot plant and development of an Oil Shale Process (OSP) mathematical model. The LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid process has the potential to improve existing oil shale technology. It processes oil shale in minutes instead of hours, reducing plant size. It processes all oil shale, including fines rejected by other processes. It provides controls to optimize product quality for different applications. It co-generates electricity to maximize useful energy output. And, it produces negligible SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, a non-hazardous waste shale and uses minimal water.

  10. Agricultural and Resource Economics Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hyunok; Sumner, Daniel A.; Martin, Philip; Hochman, Gal; Rajagopal, Deepak; Zilberman, David

    2011-01-01

    from oil produc- tion and domestic consumption. Using dataoil revenues due to the introduction of biofuels by increasing domestic fuel consumptionon Gasoline Consumption OPEC U.S. cents per liter All Oil-

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-09-30

    International crude oil spot markets staged a modest recovery in mid-July, although continued high levels of production, particularly within the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), made long term market strength appear unlikely. Crude oil output was held down slightly by temporary situations, including the explosion of the Piper Alpha platform in the North Sea and damage to a Colombian export pipeline. However, production in excess of OPEC quotas by several of its member countries pointed to a continuing surplus of crude oil on world markets in the immediate future. In the United States, the composite refiner acquisition cost of crude oil fell $1.08 per barrel, or 6.9 percent, to an average of $14.63 per barrel for July. Because of the continual slide in crude oil prices throughout June, the late-July price turnaround was not sufficient to result in an increase in the average price for the month. Total refiner sales statistics for the major petroleum products showed a 2.6 percent decrease from June. 12 figs., 53 tabs.

  12. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01

    EOR continues to unlock oil resources. Oil & Gas Journal, [of conventional oil resource availability. Estimates ofthe tar sands and heavy oil resource in Figure 10. Note that

  13. Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could Mean More Oil and Less CO2 Emissions Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could Mean More Oil...

  14. Shale oil recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zerga, Daniel P. (Concord, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

  15. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

    1990-01-01

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  16. The virtual oil company

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garibaldi, C.A.; Haney, R.M.; Ross, C.E. [Arthur D Little, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    In anticipation of continuing declines in upstream activity levels over the next 15 years, the virtual oil company model articulates a vision of fewer, leaner, but financially stronger firms that concentrate only on their core competencies and outsource the rest through well-structured partnering arrangements. Freed from the ``clutter,`` these leading companies will be in better position to focus on those opportunities that offer the potential for renewed reserve and revenue growth.

  17. ECUADOR: counting down the barrels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-02-09

    Within the world oil market, OPEC faces a reduced role as supplier and production/price dilemmas. One of its members, Ecuador, faces rapid drawdown of its reserves and ultimate loss of membership in the cartel. But Ecuador is tackling the problem by a variety of means and is still defending OPEC prices, as its OPEC Governor tells Energy Detente. The complete interview with Cesar Guerra Navarrete, the OPEC Governor is presented. The Energy Detente fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices as of February 1983 are included for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

  18. The Global Impact of the Systemic Economies and MENA Business Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cashin, Paul; Mohaddes, Kamiar; Raissi, Mehdi

    2012-11-01

    Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) members (see Table 1). Thus, our version of the GVAR model includes 50 countries, covering over 90% of world GDP as opposed to the "standard" 33 country set-up used in the literature, see Smith and Galesi... (2010). Of the 50 countries included in our sample, 17 are oil exporters, of which 10 are current OPEC members and one is a former member (Indonesia left OPEC in January 2009). We were not able to include Angola and Iraq, the remaining two OPEC members...

  19. Crude Oil Prices Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  20. International Oil and Gas Board International Oil and Gas Board...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Board International Oil and Gas Board Address Place Zip Website Abu Dhabi Supreme Petroleum Council Abu Dhabi Supreme Petroleum Council Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates http www...

  1. The Relations of Terror and Immigration: Preventive Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryder, Frances I.

    2009-09-01

    , the founding of The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), created an alliance of petroleum producing countries to ensure that oil remained a stable market that would produce wealth for member states. Then, in 1973, OPEC embargoed the U... policy has aggravated these situations. In the case of Saudi Arabia, historic imperialism has occurred with the help of international interests in oil, the corrupt Saudi monarchy, Saudi Arabia?s overconfidence in oil revenues beginning with 1973 oil...

  2. Production and fuel characteristics of vegetable oil from oilseed crops in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auld, D.L.; Bettis, B.L.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential yield and fuel quality of various oilseed crops adapted to the Pacific Northwest as a source of liquid fuel for diesel engines. The seed yield and oil production of three cultivars of winter rape (Brassica napus L.), two cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and two cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were evaluated in replicated plots at Moscow. Additional trials were conducted at several locations in Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Sunflower, oleic and linoleic safflower, and low and high erucic acid rapeseed were evaluated for fatty acid composition, energy content, viscosity and engine performance in short term tests. During 20 minute engine tests power output, fuel economy and thermal efficiency were compared to diesel fuel. Winter rape produced over twice as much farm extractable oil as either safflower or sunflower. The winter rape cultivars, Norde and Jet Neuf had oil yields which averaged 1740 and 1540 L/ha, respectively. Vegetable oils contained 94 to 95% of the KJ/L of diesel fuel, but were 11.1 to 17.6 times more viscous. Viscosity of the vegetable oils was closely related to fatty acid chain length and number of unsaturated bonds (R/sup 2/=.99). During short term engine tests all vegetable oils produced power outputs equivalent to diesel, and had thermal efficiencies 1.8 to 2.8% higher than diesel. Based on these results it appears that species and cultivars of oilseed crops to be utilized as a source of fuel should be selected on the basis of oil yield. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  3. BP Oil Spill November 10, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lega, Joceline

    BP Oil Spill Qiyam Tung November 10, 2011 1 Introduction Figure 1: BP Oil spill (source: http://thefoxisblack.com/2010/05/02/the-bp-oil-spill-in-the-gulf-of-mexico/) Last year, there was a major oil spill caused major techniques to minimize the threat once it happened. What kind of damage would an oil spill like this cause

  4. The twentieth oil shale symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: The technical contributions of John Ward Smith in oil shale research; Oil shale rubble fires: ignition and extinguishment; Fragmentation of eastern oil shale for in situ recovery; A study of thermal properties of Chinese oil shale; and Natural invasion of native plants on retorted oil shale.

  5. Canadian Oil Sands: Canada An Emerging Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    , the expectations regarding oil sands productive capacity, the assumption that all land disturbed by Syncrude1 Canadian Oil Sands: Canada ­ An Emerging Energy Superpower 0 University of Alberta February 8 Oil Sands Limited ("Canadian Oil Sands"), Syncrude Canada Ltd. ("Syncrude") and the oil sands industry

  6. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  7. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  8. Just oil? The distribution of environmental and social impacts of oil production and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, D; Connolly, S

    2003-01-01

    state oil companies, Saudi Aramco, Petroleos de Venezuela,state oil companies, Saudi Aramco, Petroleos de Venezuela,

  9. Oil-Particle Interactions and Submergence from Crude Oil Spills in Marine and Freshwater Environments--

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oil-Particle Interactions and Submergence from Crude Oil Spills in Marine and Freshwater of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey #12;#12;Oil-Particle Interactions and Submergence from Crude Oil Spills, 2015, Oil-particle interactions and submergence from crude oil spills in marine and freshwater

  10. Solar retorting of oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

  11. The Politics of Oil Nationalizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahdavi, Paasha

    2015-01-01

    and produce oil in the offshore Gulf of Mexico fields mustDutch territories (mostly offshore). The fields themselvesfirst production, and offshore dummy – are estimated using

  12. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

  13. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  14. Brushing up on oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, J.

    1995-12-01

    To be prepared for a range of oil spills, emergency response organizations must have an arsenal of powerful and adaptable equipment. Around the coastal United States, a network of oil spill cooperatives and emergency response organizations stand ready with the technology and the know-how to respond to the first sign of an oil spill. When the telephone rings, they may be required to mop up 200 gallons of oil that leaked off the deck of a ship or to contain and skim 2,000 gallons of oil from a broken hose at a loading terminal. In a few cases each year, they may find themselves responding to a major pollution incident, one that involves hundreds of people and tons of equipment. To clean an oil spill at a New Jersey marine terminal, the local cooperative used the Lundin Oil Recovery Inc. (LORI) skimming system to separate the oil and water and the lift the oil out of the river. The LORI skimming technology is based on sound principles of fluid management - using the natural movement of water instead of trying to fight against it. A natural feeding mechanism delivers oily water through the separation process, and a simple mechanical separation and recovery device - a brush conveyor - removes the pollutants from the water.

  15. SARAH 3.2: Dirac Gauginos, UFO output, and more

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florian Staub

    2013-02-12

    SARAH is a Mathematica package optimized for the fast, efficient and precise study of supersymmetric models beyond the MSSM: a new model can be defined in a short form and all vertices are derived. This allows SARAH to create model files for FeynArts/FormCalc, CalcHep/CompHep and WHIZARD/OMEGA. The newest version of SARAH now provides the possibility to create model files in the UFO format which is supported by MadGraph 5, MadAnalysis, GoSam, and soon by Herwig++. Furthermore, SARAH also calculates the mass matrices, RGEs and one-loop corrections to the mass spectrum. This information is used to write source code for SPheno in order to create a precision spectrum generator for the given model. This spectrum-generator-generator functionality as well as the output of WHIZARD and CalcHep model files have seen further improvement in this version. Also models including Dirac Gauginos are supported with the new version of SARAH, and additional checks for the consistency of model implementations have been created.

  16. Fail safe controllable output improved version of the Electromechanical battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical means are provided to control the voltages induced in the windings of a generator/motor. In one embodiment, a lever is used to withdraw or insert the entire stator windings from the cavity where the rotating field exists. In another embodiment, voltage control and/or switching off of the output is achievable with a variable-coupling generator/motor. A stator is made up of two concentric layers of windings, with a larger number of turns on the inner layer of windings than the outer layer of windings. The windings are to be connected in series electrically, that is, their voltages add vectorially. The mechanical arrangement is such that one or both of the windings can be rotated with respect to the other winding about their common central axis. Another improved design for the stator assembly of electromechanical batteries provides knife switch contacts that are in electrical contact with the stator windings. The operation of this embodiment depends on the fact that an abnormally large torque will be exerted on the stator structure during any short-circuit condition.

  17. Fail safe controllable output improved version of the electromechanical battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, R.F.

    1999-01-19

    Mechanical means are provided to control the voltages induced in the windings of a generator/motor. In one embodiment, a lever is used to withdraw or insert the entire stator windings from the cavity where the rotating field exists. In another embodiment, voltage control and/or switching off of the output is achievable with a variable-coupling generator/motor. A stator is made up of two concentric layers of windings, with a larger number of turns on the inner layer of windings than the outer layer of windings. The windings are to be connected in series electrically, that is, their voltages add vectorially. The mechanical arrangement is such that one or both of the windings can be rotated with respect to the other winding about their common central axis. Another improved design for the stator assembly of electromechanical batteries provides knife switch contacts that are in electrical contact with the stator windings. The operation of this embodiment depends on the fact that an abnormally large torque will be exerted on the stator structure during any short-circuit condition. 4 figs.

  18. Oil and gas production in the Amu Dar`ya Basin of Western Uzbekistan and Eastern Turkmenistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sagers, M.J.

    1995-05-01

    The resource base, development history, current output, and future outlook for oil and gas production in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are examined by a Western specialist with particular emphasis on the most important gas-oil province in the region, the Amu Dar`ya basin. Oil and gas have been produced in both newly independent countries for over a century, but production from the Amu Dar`ya province proper dates from the post-World War II period. Since that time, however, fields in the basin have provided the basis for a substantial natural gas industry (Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan consistently have trailed only Russia among the former Soviet republics in gas output during the last three decades). Despite high levels of current production, ample oil and gas potential (Turkmenistan, for example, ranks among the top five or six countries in the world in terms of gas reserves) contributes to the region`s prominence as an attractive area for Western investors. The paper reviews the history and status of several international tenders for the development of both gas and oil in the two republics. Sections on recent gas production trends and future outlook reveal considerable differences in consumption patterns and export potential in the region. Uzbekistan consumes most of the gas it produces, whereas Turkmenistan, with larger reserves and a smaller population, exported well over 85% of its output over recent years and appears poised to become a major exporter. A concluding section examines the conditions that will affect these countries` presence on world oil and gas markets over the longer term: reserves, domestic consumption, transportation bottlenecks, the likelihood of foreign investment, and future oil and gas demand. 33 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. Country Analysis Briefs

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2028-01-01

    An ongoing compilation of country energy profiles. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries that are important to world energy markets, including members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers, major energy transit countries, major energy consumers, and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers.

  20. Membrane degumming of crude vegetable oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Lan

    1997-01-01

    Crude vegetable oils contain various minor substances like phospholipids, coloring pigments, and free fatty acids (FFA) that may affect quality of the oil. Reduction of energy costs and waste disposal are major concerns for many oil refiners who...

  1. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    III, "Method of Breaking Shale Oil-Water Emulsion," U. S.Waters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,Effluents from In-Situ oil Shale Processing," in Proceedings

  2. CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellman Jr., R.

    2012-01-01

    CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS A. Levy and R.of Metals in In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts," NACE Corrosion 80,Corrosion of Oil Shale Retort Component Materials," LBL-

  3. Fueling the oil and gas industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Autumn2004 Fueling the oil and gas industry Fueling the oil and gas industry #12;College Editor Fueling the oil and gas Industry 12 Building a tradition of tomorrow 13 Planning your gift 14 VCom

  4. CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellman Jr., R.

    2012-01-01

    CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS A. Levy and R.of Metals in In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts," NACE Corrosion 80,Elevated Temperature Corrosion of Oil Shale Retort Component

  5. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Waters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,Effluents from In-Situ oil Shale Processing," in Proceedingsin the Treatment of Oil Shale Retort Waters," in Proceedings

  6. Estimates of Oil Reserves Jean Laherrere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Tom

    Estimates of Oil Reserves Jean Laherrere e-mail: jean.laherrere@wanadoo.fr sites: http oil will solve the present problems on welfare, retirement and they would dearly love to see the reserves of oil

  7. ,"U.S. Crude Oil Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Imports from Denmark of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from Egypt of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from Equatorial Guinea of Crude Oil...

  8. NETL: Oil & Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeatMaRIEdioxide capture CS Seminars CalendarOil & Gas

  9. Sound Oil Company

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLE DIRECTIVESDepartment of EnergyEnergy SolyndraSound Oil

  10. Residential heating oil price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctober 2015Administration (EIA)heating oil

  11. fuel_oil.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 Cooling Degree-DaysATTN: EIA-191Fuel Oil

  12. www.fightbac.o anola oil is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ca co Th Ca "Canola" c which is Addition Ca he Ca in Th ca Ca m C know? anola oil is ooking oils. he average anola oil is comes fro s another nal Inform anola oil is eart healthy anola oil is n the world. he part of th anola meal anola oil ca many crop va ano the lowest . canola see a good sou m

  13. The economic development of oil-exporting countries: The case of Iraq

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to measure the response of Iraqi development to the influx of oil-export revenues. The study employs several econometric techniques using data from 1960 to 1980. From 1960 to 1980, Iraq achieved remarkable economic growth, a high rate of investment and employment, more equitable income distribution, a favorable balance of trade, and a stabilized economy. The 1972 government takeover of oil industries and the oil price boom of 1973 brought even more unprecedented growth and prosperity to the nation. Despite this remarkable performance however, the economic structure of Iraq remains dominated by the oil-export sector. In other words, Iraq's ability to reduce its dependence on oil revenues has been constructed because home sectors were not yet developed sufficiently to provide outputs and revenues needed by the country. Recommendations include development of policies designed to link the oil export sector with the rest of the economy, to encourage more investment by the private sector, to expand and improve the productivity of the agricultural and industrial sectors, and to develop inter-nation regional cooperatives capable of expanding the market for locally produced goods.

  14. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

  15. Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs Transportation fuel Heat or electricity * Data are from literature, except heating oil is adjusted from 2011 winter average *...

  16. SciTech Connect: "oil shale"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    oil shale" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "oil shale" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator ...

  17. Engine breather oil recovery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speer, S.R.; Norton, J.G.; Wilson, J.D.

    1990-08-14

    This patent describes an engine breather oil recovery system, for use with reciprocating engines having an oil breather and an oil reservoir recovery system. It comprises:an engine breather outlet from the engine; a vapor and oil separator device in fluid flow connection with the engine breather outlet; a motive flow suction means in fluid flow connection between the separator device and the engine, so as to provide a substantially continuous pressure drop between the separator device and the engine oil reservoir; an engine fluid system in parallel with the separator device; and an engine driven pump in fluid flow connection with such other engine fluid system, wherein the motive force for the motive flow suction means is provided by the fluid from the engine pump.

  18. Process for oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, John B. (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501); Kunchal, S. Kumar (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501)

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  19. The Politics of Mexico’s Oil Monopoly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huizar, Richard

    2008-01-01

    2005), p. 59. Table 5: Oil production in barrels per daynot have much impact in oil production. In fact, oil exportscurrent oil reserves and oil production? 2) For how long can

  20. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  1. As OPEC Ministers Meet, Secretary Chu Stresses the Importance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    has discussed is the development of carbon capture and sequestration technology from coal-fired power plants that can significantly lower greenhouse gas emissions. From the U.S....

  2. Held Hostage: America and Its Allies Confront OPEC, 1973 - 1981 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barr, Kathleen

    2012-07-16

    , Honda, and Toyota forced American companies to make cars that could contend with the high gas mileage of the imports. American Motors Corporation bought the exclusive rights to a new two- liter engine from the German company Volkswagen to be installed... with the first Earth Day, and by 1976 ecologists in the United States, Western Europe, and Japan were making their voices heard about issues like the building of the Alaska pipeline and the development of nuclear power. It was within this framework...

  3. Quasi-output-buffered switches Cheng-Shang Chang, Jay Cheng, Duan-Shin Lee and Chi-Feung Wu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Cheng-Shang

    Quasi-output-buffered switches Cheng-Shang Chang, Jay Cheng, Duan-Shin Lee and Chi-Feung Wu--Output-buffered switches are known to have better performance than other switch architectures. However, output- buffered switches also suffer from the notorious scalability prob- lem, and direct constructions of large output

  4. ARM: ARSCL: multiple outputs from first Clothiaux algorithms on Vaisala or Belfort ceilometers, Micropulse lidar, and MMCR

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Karen Johnson; Michael Jensen

    ARSCL: multiple outputs from first Clothiaux algorithms on Vaisala or Belfort ceilometers, Micropulse lidar, and MMCR

  5. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  6. Enhanced oil recovery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsberry, Fred L. (Spring, TX)

    1989-01-01

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  7. Oil field management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-09-23

    Oil field management systems and methods for managing operation of one or more wells producing a high void fraction multiphase flow. The system includes a differential pressure flow meter which samples pressure readings at various points of interest throughout the system and uses pressure differentials derived from the pressure readings to determine gas and liquid phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flow. One or both of the gas and liquid phase mass flow rates are then compared with predetermined criteria. In the event such mass flow rates satisfy the predetermined criteria, a well control system implements a correlating adjustment action respecting the multiphase flow. In this way, various parameters regarding the high void fraction multiphase flow are used as control inputs to the well control system and thus facilitate management of well operations.

  8. Output Field-Quadrature Measurements and Squeezing in Ultrastrong Cavity-QED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberto Stassi; Salvatore Savasta; Luigi Garziano; Bernardo Spagnolo; Franco Nori

    2015-09-30

    We study the squeezing of output quadratures of an electro-magnetic field escaping from a resonator coupled to a general quantum system with arbitrary interaction strengths. The generalized theoretical analysis of output squeezing proposed here is valid for all the interaction regimes of cavity-quantum electrodynamics: from the weak to the strong, ultrastrong, and deep coupling regimes. For coupling rates comparable or larger then the cavity resonance frequency, the standard input-output theory for optical cavities fails to calculate the correct output field-quadratures and predicts a non-negligible amount of output squeezing, even if the system is in its ground state. Here we show that, for arbitrary interactions and cavity-embedded quantum systems, no squeezing can be found in the output-field quadratures if the system is in its ground state. We also apply the proposed theoretical approach to study the output squeezing produced by: (i) an artificial two-level atom embedded in a coherently-excited cavity; and (ii) a cascade-type three-level system interacting with a cavity field mode. In the latter case the output squeezing arises from the virtual photons of the atom-cavity dressed states. This work extends the possibility of predicting and analyzing continuous-variable optical quantum-state tomography when optical resonators interact very strongly with other quantum systems.

  9. Quasi-Output-Buffered Switches Cheng-Shang Chang, Fellow, IEEE, Jay Cheng, Senior Member, IEEE,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Cheng-Shang

    1 Quasi-Output-Buffered Switches Cheng-Shang Chang, Fellow, IEEE, Jay Cheng, Senior Member, IEEE-buffered switches have better performance than other switch architectures. However, output-buffered switches also-buffered switches are difficult. In this paper, we study the problem of constructing scalable switches that have

  10. Optimizing the Output of a Human-Powered Energy Harvesting System with Miniaturization and Integrated Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potkonjak, Miodrag

    1 Optimizing the Output of a Human-Powered Energy Harvesting System with Miniaturization]. Aside from reducing power consumption in such systems, har- vesting human energy output as a potential mechanical energy from human foot-strikes and explore its configuration and control towards optimized energy

  11. Distinguishers for the Compression Function and Output Transformation of Hamsi-256

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Distinguishers for the Compression Function and Output Transformation of Hamsi-256 Jean, with digital signatures and integrity checks as their main applications. Collision attacks on the deployed as the full 6-round output transformation. The former gives near-collisions on (256 - 25) bits

  12. Code optimization and analysis for multiple-input and multiple-output communication systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yue, Guosen

    2005-11-01

    at the output of the soft-input soft-output (SISO) multiuser detectors as a function of the pdf of input extrinsic messages, user spreading codes, channel impulse responses, and signal-to-noise ratios. Using these techniques, we are able to accurately compute...

  13. On the Communication Complexity of Secure Function Evaluation with Long Output

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    On the Communication Complexity of Secure Function Evaluation with Long Output Pavel Hub´acek Daniel Wichs Abstract We study the communication complexity of secure function evaluation (SFE). Consider SFE protocols have communication complexity that scales with size of the output y, which can

  14. Quality assurance of solar thermal systems with the ISFH-Input/Output-Procedure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quality assurance of solar thermal systems with the ISFH- Input/Output-Procedure Peter Paerisch/Output-Controllers for in situ and automatic function control of solar thermal systems that were developed within the research project have been installed in 12 systems. After five years seven solar thermal systems benefited from

  15. Statistical post processing of model output from the air quality model LOTOS-EUROS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    are calculated with R, a language for statistical computing. The routine STEP in R is used to remove variablesStatistical post processing of model output from the air quality model LOTOS-EUROS Annemiek Pijnappel De Bilt, 2011 | Stageverslag #12;#12;Statistical post processing of model output from the air

  16. Mode competition and output power in regular and chaotic dielectric cavity lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, A. Douglas

    Mode competition and output power in regular and chaotic dielectric cavity lasers Hakan E. T many modes and their competition can address the mode selection and output power of these lasers lasing patterns of two- dimensional dielectric microcavity lasers of different shape, including

  17. High power CW Tm:YLF laser with a holographic output Alex Dergachev, Peter F. Moulton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glebov, Leon

    High power CW Tm:YLF laser with a holographic output coupler Alex Dergachev, Peter F. Moulton Q with output power exceeding 30 W. 2003 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (140.3580) Lasers, solid yet reported of a high power Tm-doped bulk laser operated with a bulk holographic Bragg grating

  18. Modeling of passive microwave responses in convective situations using output from mesoscale models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pardo-Carrión, Juan R.

    Modeling of passive microwave responses in convective situations using output from mesoscale models using output from nonhydrostatic mesoscale atmospheric model, Meso-NH, simulations. The radiative for a systematic evaluation of the mesoscale cloud models. An overall good agreement is obtained for both

  19. Enhanced Oil Recovery to Fuel Future Oil Demands | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the fascinating things of my job is contemplating questions like: What will the future energy mix look like? This is difficult to predict but it is fair to argue that oil will...

  20. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    in this table do not include enclosed malls and strip malls. In the 1999 CBECS, total fuel oil consumption in malls was not statistically significant. (*)Value rounds to zero...

  1. Benin: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports Ashland discovered additional oil reserves deeper than current production in Seme, Benin's only oil field. The field is on a steep decline, producing as little as 2,500 bopd, down from 7,671 bopd in 1984. In an effort to restart offshore exploration, three offshore blocks have been designated. Hardy Oil and Gas (UK) Ltd. has since acquired 20% interest in Blocks 1 and 2 from International Petroleum Ltd. (IPL). IPL completed seismic work during 1990 that identified two large channel prospects similar to those that produce offshore elsewhere in West Africa. The first well is expected in 1991.

  2. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  3. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  4. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating oil3,4,heating oil

  5. Air Emissions and Oil Displacement Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGaughey, Alan

    and the U.S. costs of oil consumption, including supply disruption risks, increases in world oil prices dueAir Emissions and Oil Displacement Benefits from Plug-in Vehicles The electrification of passenger; and (3) reduce gasoline consumption, helping to diminish dependency on imported oil. Current policy

  6. OIL & GAS HISTORY 1 History in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OIL & GAS HISTORY 1 History in California 4 Superior figures refer to references at the end of the essay. OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION California oil was always a valued commodity. When the Spanish explorers, and Los Angeles Counties received the most attention. Interest in oil and gas seeps was stirred

  7. THE RIMINI PROTOCOL Oil Depletion Protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeling, Stephen L.

    1 THE RIMINI PROTOCOL an Oil Depletion Protocol ~ Heading Off Economic Chaos and Political Conflict During the Second Half of the Age of Oil As proposed at the 2003 Pio Manzu Conference Soaring oil prices have drawn attention to the issue of the relative supply and demand for crude oil

  8. EMPLOYEE BENEFIT SERVICE Signature Service Oil Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Mexico, University of

    UNM Staff EMPLOYEE BENEFIT SERVICE Jiffy Lube Signature Service Oil Change Fast - No Appointment We change your oil with up to 5 quarts of major brand motor oil We install a new oil fi We visually inspect. ASE training programs · Jiffy Lube uses top quality products that meet or exceed vehicle warranty

  9. Oil Trading Simon Basey / November 28, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Nathan D.

    Oil Trading Simon Basey / November 28, 2013 #12;2 What does IST do? Imports crude oil and other Markets BP's equity crude oil, NGLs and natural gas Generates entrepreneurial trading income Manages BP trader, focussing on US crude oil futures. How would you trade the following timeline of events: a

  10. 1 What is Oil ? General information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    of petroleum products manufactured from crude oil. Many are for specific purposes, for example motor gasoline gasoline to heavier ones such as fuel oil. Oil #12;Crude oil Natural gas liquids Other hydrocarbons Additives/blending components Refinery feedstocks Refinery gas Transport diesel Ethane Heating and other

  11. Bureau of Land Management Oil Shale Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    Bureau of Land Management Oil Shale Development Unconventional Fuels Conference University of Utah May 17, 2011 #12;#12;Domestic Oil Shale Resources Primary oil shale resources in the U.S. are in the Green River Formation in Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. 72 % of this oil shale resource is on Federal

  12. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  13. Favorable conditions noted for Australia shale oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    After brief descriptions of the Rundle, Condor, and Stuart/Kerosene Creek oil shale projects in Queensland, the competitive advantages of oil shale development and the state and federal governments' attitudes towards an oil shale industry in Australia are discussed. It is concluded that Australia is the ideal country in which to start an oil shale industry.

  14. Oil Classification with Fluorescence Spectroscopy Engineering Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Carl von Ossietzky Universität

    detected by these channels. The investigation used three methods to examine crude oil, heavy oil, sludge1 Oil Classification with Fluorescence Spectroscopy Engineering Physics Master of Engineering and classification of oil spills on water surfaces. It is an overview of the laser remote sensor technique

  15. International Oil and Gas Exploration and Development

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1993-01-01

    Presents country level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve to production ratios (R/P ratios) for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form.

  16. Predicting the Energy Output of Wind Farms Based on Weather Data: Important Variables and their Correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladislavleva, Katya; Neumann, Frank; Wagner, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Wind energy plays an increasing role in the supply of energy world-wide. The energy output of a wind farm is highly dependent on the weather condition present at the wind farm. If the output can be predicted more accurately, energy suppliers can coordinate the collaborative production of different energy sources more efficiently to avoid costly overproductions. With this paper, we take a computer science perspective on energy prediction based on weather data and analyze the important parameters as well as their correlation on the energy output. To deal with the interaction of the different parameters we use symbolic regression based on the genetic programming tool DataModeler. Our studies are carried out on publicly available weather and energy data for a wind farm in Australia. We reveal the correlation of the different variables for the energy output. The model obtained for energy prediction gives a very reliable prediction of the energy output for newly given weather data.

  17. Method for leveling the power output of an electromechanical battery as a function of speed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1999-01-01

    The invention is a method of leveling the power output of an electromechanical battery during its discharge, while at the same time maximizing its power output into a given load. The method employs the concept of series resonance, employing a capacitor the parameters of which are chosen optimally to achieve the desired near-flatness of power output over any chosen charged-discharged speed ratio. Capacitors are inserted in series with each phase of the windings to introduce capacitative reactances that act to compensate the inductive reactance of these windings. This compensating effect both increases the power that can be drawn from the generator before inductive voltage drops in the windings become dominant and acts to flatten the power output over a chosen speed range. The values of the capacitors are chosen so as to optimally flatten the output of the generator over the chosen speed range.

  18. Method for leveling the power output of an electromechanical battery as a function of speed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, R.F.

    1999-03-16

    The invention is a method of leveling the power output of an electromechanical battery during its discharge, while at the same time maximizing its power output into a given load. The method employs the concept of series resonance, employing a capacitor the parameters of which are chosen optimally to achieve the desired near-flatness of power output over any chosen charged-discharged speed ratio. Capacitors are inserted in series with each phase of the windings to introduce capacitative reactances that act to compensate the inductive reactance of these windings. This compensating effect both increases the power that can be drawn from the generator before inductive voltage drops in the windings become dominant and acts to flatten the power output over a chosen speed range. The values of the capacitors are chosen so as to optimally flatten the output of the generator over the chosen speed range. 3 figs.

  19. Biomolecular Filters for Improved Separation of Output Signals in Enzyme Logic Systems Applied to Biomedical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Halamek; Jian Zhou; Lenka Halamkova; Vera Bocharova; Vladimir Privman; Joseph Wang; Evgeny Katz

    2011-10-08

    Biomolecular logic systems processing biochemical input signals and producing "digital" outputs in the form of YES/NO were developed for analysis of physiological conditions characteristic of liver injury, soft tissue injury and abdominal trauma. Injury biomarkers were used as input signals for activating the logic systems. Their normal physiological concentrations were defined as logic-0 level, while their pathologically elevated concentrations were defined as logic-1 values. Since the input concentrations applied as logic 0 and 1 values were not sufficiently different, the output signals being at low and high values (0, 1 outputs) were separated with a short gap making their discrimination difficult. Coupled enzymatic reactions functioning as a biomolecular signal processing system with a built-in filter property were developed. The filter process involves a partial back-conversion of the optical-output-signal-yielding product, but only at its low concentrations, thus allowing the proper discrimination between 0 and 1 output values.

  20. System for adjusting frequency of electrical output pulses derived from an oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartholomew, David B.

    2006-11-14

    A system for setting and adjusting a frequency of electrical output pulses derived from an oscillator in a network is disclosed. The system comprises an accumulator module configured to receive pulses from an oscillator and to output an accumulated value. An adjustor module is configured to store an adjustor value used to correct local oscillator drift. A digital adder adds values from the accumulator module to values stored in the adjustor module and outputs their sums to the accumulator module, where they are stored. The digital adder also outputs an electrical pulse to a logic module. The logic module is in electrical communication with the adjustor module and the network. The logic module may change the value stored in the adjustor module to compensate for local oscillator drift or change the frequency of output pulses. The logic module may also keep time and calculate drift.

  1. Running Out Of and Into Oil. Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L.; Hopson, Janet L.; Li, Jia

    2003-10-01

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value.

  2. LLM Oil, Gas and Mining Law Module Information: Oil, Gas & Mining Environmental Law I and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Paul

    LLM Oil, Gas and Mining Law Module Information: Oil, Gas & Mining Environmental Law I and Oil, Gas of the area of Oil, Gas &, Mining Environmental Law; 2. communicate complex legal concepts that apply within the area of Oil, Gas & Mining & Environmental Law to a high level of competence; and 3. deploy a highly

  3. Oil and Gas CDT Development of a SUNTANS Baroclinic Model for 3D Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Oil and Gas CDT Development of a SUNTANS Baroclinic Model for 3D Oil Pollution Tracking Heriot will receive 20 weeks bespoke, residential training of broad relevance to the oil and gas industry: 10 weeks) Key Words Oil Spill, HF Radar, Trajectory Forecasting, Hydrodynamic Modelling, Oil Chemistry Overview

  4. 2 SPRAY OILS--BEYOND 2000 Modern use of petroleum-derived oils as agricultural crop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    2 SPRAY OILS--BEYOND 2000 Abstract Modern use of petroleum-derived oils as agricultural crop,buttheseweretoophytotoxic.Eventually, researchersconcentratedondistillatesintherangebetween kerosene and lubricating oils.Three basic classes of carbon structures present in petroleum oils (aromatics and other un- saturated components) in oils that were removable with sulfuric acid; the remainder

  5. OIL IN THE OPEN WATER Oil in the open water may a ect the health of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OIL IN THE OPEN WATER Oil in the open water may a ect the health of microscopic plants and animals. Far beneath the surface, corals and other deepwater communities might also be a ected. OIL AND HUMAN AND SEDIMENTS · Water quality surveys · Transect surveys to detect submerged oil · Oil plume modeling · Sediment

  6. Oil shale: The environmental challenges III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, K.K.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers of a symposium whose purpose was to discuss the environmental and socio-economic aspects of oil shale development. Topics considered include oil shale solid waste disposal, modeling spent shale disposal, water management, assessing the effects of oil shale facilities on water quality, wastewater treatment and use at oil shale facilities, potential air emissions from oil shale retorting, the control of air pollutant emissions from oil shale facilities, oil shale air emission control, socioeconomic research, a framework for mitigation agreements, the Garfield County approach to impact mitigation, the relationship of applied industrial hygiene programs and experimental toxicology programs, and industrial hygiene programs.

  7. Disposal of oil spill cleanup collections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wehrle, J.P.; Fisher, E.C.; Ness, J.R.; Howell, B.

    1995-12-01

    When in-situ ignition and burning oil slicks is not feasible, skimming the oil slicks by means of skimmer vessels has been used. The skimmer vessels collect the oil from the oil slick locations with a significant amount of water, such as 9 gallons of water for each gallon of oil recovered. The containment tanks associated with such skimmer vessels are rapidly filled with volumetrically large oil and water collections having relatively small amounts of the oil requiring frequent returns to shore for off-loading, causing interruptions in the cleanup operation during which oil slick spreading occurs. Because of such cleanup interruption difficulty, oil combustion aboard the skimming vessel may be used for a more rapid and continuous cleanup operation. However, such on-board combustion of the collected oil also involves considerable air pollution from in-situ discharge of gas combustion products.

  8. Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

  9. Table 1. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    can be the month of loading, the month of landing, or sometime between those events. Prices for crude oil can be determined at a time other than the acquisition date. See the...

  10. Bakken Shale Oil Production Trends 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tran, Tan

    2012-07-16

    ) database and in the format of monthly production for oil, water and gas. Additional 95 well data including daily production rate, completion, Pressure Volume Temperature (PVT), pressure data are given from companies who sponsor for this research study...

  11. Method for enhanced oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comberiati, Joseph R. (Morgantown, WV); Locke, Charles D. (Morgantown, WV); Kamath, Krishna I. (Chicago, IL)

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for enhanced recovery of oil from relatively "cold" reservoirs by carbon dioxide flooding. In oil reservoirs at a temperature less than the critical temperature of 87.7.degree. F. and at a pore pressure greater than the saturation pressure of carbon dioxide at the temperature of the reservoir, the carbon dioxide remains in the liquid state which does not satisfactorily mix with the oil. However, applicants have found that carbon dioxide can be vaporized in situ in the reservoir by selectively reducing the pore pressure in the reservoir to a value less than the particular saturated vapor pressure so as to greatly enhance the mixing of the carbon dioxide with the oil.

  12. Method for retorting oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Lui, A.P.

    1985-08-16

    The recovery of oil from oil shale is provided in a fluidized bed by using a fluidizing medium of a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and 5 steam. The mixture with a steam concentration in the range of about 20 to 75 volume percent steam provides an increase in oil yield over that achievable by using a fluidizing gas of carbon dioxide or steam alone when the mixture contains higher steam concentrations. The operating parameters for the fluidized bed retorted are essentially the same as those utilized with other gaseous fluidizing mediums with the significant gain being in the oil yield recovered which is attributable solely to the use of the binary mixture of carbon dioxide and steam. 2 figs.

  13. Corona processing of insulating oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1996-07-01

    It is well known that sustained corona discharge in insulating oil lowers its dielectric strength and simultaneously reduces its corona resistance. Therefore, for operating stresses in the corona regime, activity typically increases with time and, if allowed to continue, eventually leads to breakdown of the oil and failure of the component or system. It is, therefore, common practice to periodically replace oil in devices such as large power transformers and switch gear before breakdown occurs. Sealed components such as capacitors are typically replaced. Recent experiments have demonstrated that the dielectric properties of corona weakened oil can not only be restored, but actually improved by a simple regeneration process. These experiments were carried out on high voltage pulse transformer windings which were operated at high rep rates until partial discharges formed. Reprocessing the oil after each operating cycle resulted in successively longer operational periods before partial discharges appeared. In a separate experiment, a process was developed to precondition transformer oil to raise its corona inception voltage before using it to insulate a high voltage component, thus giving it a longer initial service life for a given operating stress or permitting higher stress operation for limited operating times.

  14. Oil sands processes-affected water treatment Research field: Oil sands processes-affected water treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milgram, Paul

    Oil sands processes-affected water treatment Research field: Oil sands processes-affected water., to make the system work as desired. We have experimental projects on oil extraction, polymers, fluid

  15. Oil and Gas Company Oil and Gas Company Address Place Zip Website

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Company Oil and Gas Company Address Place Zip Website Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Abu http www adnoc ae default aspx Al Furat Petroleum Company Al...

  16. State Oil and Gas Board State Oil and Gas Board Address Place...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Board State Oil and Gas Board Address Place Zip Website Alabama Oil and Gas Board Alabama Oil and Gas Board Hackberry Lane Tuscaloosa Alabama http www gsa state al us ogb ogb html...

  17. Oil transportation in the global landscape : the Murmansk Oil Terminal and Pipeline proposal evaluated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Ankur, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    Oil and transportation have been commingled since the first oil reserves were discovered. The importance of energy, namely oil, and the transportation of that energy from the producers to the consumers is persistently ...

  18. Simulation of Oil Displacement from Oil-Wet Cores by Interfacial Tension Reduction and Wettability Alteration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalaei, Mohammad Hosein

    2010-01-29

    Waterflooding in oil-wet naturally fractured reservoirs is not successful because the ability of matrix blocks to imbibe the injected water and displace the oil into the fracture system is poor. Chemical enhanced oil recovery methods...

  19. Finding the quantum thermoelectric with maximal efficiency and minimal entropy production at given power output

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert S. Whitney

    2015-03-16

    We investigate the nonlinear scattering theory for quantum systems with strong Seebeck and Peltier effects, and consider their use as heat-engines and refrigerators with finite power outputs. This article gives detailed derivations of the results summarized in Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 130601 (2014). It shows how to use the scattering theory to find (i) the quantum thermoelectric with maximum possible power output, and (ii) the quantum thermoelectric with maximum efficiency at given power output. The latter corresponds to a minimal entropy production at that power output. These quantities are of quantum origin since they depend on system size over electronic wavelength, and so have no analogue in classical thermodynamics. The maximal efficiency coincides with Carnot efficiency at zero power output, but decreases with increasing power output. This gives a fundamental lower bound on entropy production, which means that reversibility (in the thermodynamic sense) is impossible for finite power output. The suppression of efficiency by (nonlinear) phonon and photon effects is addressed in detail; when these effects are strong, maximum efficiency coincides with maximum power. Finally, we show in particular limits (typically without magnetic fields) that relaxation within the quantum system does not allow the system to exceed the bounds derived for relaxation-free systems, however, a general proof of this remains elusive.

  20. CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Persoff, P.

    2011-01-01

    and Utilization of Oil Shale Resources, Tillinn, Estonia (and Utilization of Oil Shale Resources, Tallinn, Estonia (Colorado's Primary Oil-Shale Resource for Vertical Modified

  1. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01

    J. Regular conventional oil production to 2100 and resource10% of total US oil production in 2004, almost entirelysteam-induced heavy oil production in Cali- fornia [30].

  2. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    in Alaskan North Slope oil production facilities. Title:Profiling Despite oil production from several major16) was isolated from oil-production water and has optimal

  3. The effect of biofuel on the international oil market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochman, Gal; Rajagopal, Deepak; Zilberman, David D.

    2010-01-01

    hand, the literature on crude oil usually assumes a COFconsequence of extracting crude oil. User costs include thecountries, at times when crude oil prices surged during 2002

  4. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01

    response to high oil prices and geopolitical threats tofor the e?ect of the oil price through the price elasticityprojections, corresponding oil price series are extracted

  5. Oil and Natural Gas Subsector Cybersecurity Capability Maturity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil and Natural Gas Subsector Cybersecurity Capability Maturity Model (February 2014) Oil and Natural Gas Subsector Cybersecurity Capability Maturity Model (February 2014) The Oil...

  6. Drunk On Oil: Russian Foreign Policy 2000-2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brugato, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Julia. “ World Stocks Sag as Oil Price Surges. ” The NewCollapse: Grain and Oil,” On the Issues, Am. Enterpriseet. al. , “Unrelenting Oil Addiction,” Russ. in Global

  7. Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    renewable heating oil substitution Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a renewable heating oil substitution Two-day agenda from the workshop: Technical...

  8. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    exclusionary distribution of oil rents (2001:189). map 3.likewise demonstrates how oil rents appear to materialize “becomes dependent on oil rents, the seemingly inevitable

  9. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    the political opposition. Oil wealth finances the generous2005b. Angola: Oil-Backed Loan Will Finance Recoveryincreasingly used oil revenues to finance food imports in

  10. Modeling of Energy Production Decisions: An Alaska Oil Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    like oil production requires some knowledge or assumptionlike oil production requires some knowledge or assumptionAlaska Oil Production We use the standard assumption that

  11. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities Kathleen E. Duncan,in Alaskan North Slope oil production facilities. Title:in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities Authors: Kathleen E.

  12. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01

    1] Andrews, S. and Udall, R. Oil Prophets: Lookingat World Oil Studies Over Time. In Campbell, C.International Workshop on Oil Depletion 2003, Paris, France,

  13. The effect of biofuel on the international oil market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochman, Gal; Rajagopal, Deepak; Zilberman, David D.

    2010-01-01

    producer surplus from oil consumption and production. Ourconsumption of crude oil, consumption grew from 2005 to 2006from oil extraction, production, and consumption. More

  14. Dynamic analysis in productivity, oil shock, and recession

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katayama, Munechika

    2008-01-01

    displays the share of oil consumption in the transportationis a major source of oil consumption. Any investigation ofrepresents ?rm i’s oil consumption for capital utilization

  15. HYDROCARBONS FROM AUSTRALIAN OIL, 200 MILLION YEARS OLD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Hoeven, William; Haug, Pat; Burlingame, A.L.; Calvin, Kelvin.

    1966-01-01

    of Moonie Oil "Branched- Cyclic" Hydrocarbon FractionNo. W -7405 -eng -48 HYDROCARBONS FROM AUSTRALIAN OIL, 200and Melvin Calvin July HYDROCARBONS FROM AUSTRALIAN OIL, 200

  16. X-ray source assembly having enhanced output stability, and fluid stream analysis applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radley, Ian; Bievenue, Thomas J.; Burdett Jr., John H.; Gallagher, Brian W.; Shakshober, Stuart M.; Chen, Zewu; Moore, Michael D.

    2007-04-24

    An x-ray source assembly (2700) and method of operation are provided having enhanced output stability. The assembly includes an anode (2125) having a source spot upon which electrons (2120) impinge and a control system (2715/2720) for controlling position of the anode source spot relative to an output structure. The control system can maintain the anode source spot location relative to the output structure (2710) notwithstanding a change in one or more operating conditions of the x-ray source assembly. One aspect of the disclosed invention is most amenable to the analysis of sulfur in petroleum-based fuels.

  17. X-ray source assembly having enhanced output stability, and fluid stream analysis applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radley, Ian (Glenmont, NY); Bievenue, Thomas J. (Delmar, NY); Burdett, John H. (Charlton, NY); Gallagher, Brian W. (Guilderland, NY); Shakshober, Stuart M. (Hudson, NY); Chen, Zewu (Schenectady, NY); Moore, Michael D. (Alplaus, NY)

    2008-06-08

    An x-ray source assembly and method of operation are provided having enhanced output stability. The assembly includes an anode having a source spot upon which electrons impinge and a control system for controlling position of the anode source spot relative to an output structure. The control system can maintain the anode source spot location relative to the output structure notwithstanding a change in one or more operating conditions of the x-ray source assembly. One aspect of the disclosed invention is most amenable to the analysis of sulfur in petroleum-based fuels.

  18. Just oil? The distribution of environmental and social impacts of oil production and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, D; Connolly, S

    2003-01-01

    Ranking the World’s Top Oil Companies, 2001: Fewer, Bigger,top echelon of “super majors” has been created that far surpasses other publicly traded oil companies

  19. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  20. Oil shale retorting method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    York, E.D.

    1983-03-22

    Disclosed is an improved method and apparatus for the retorting of oil shale and the formation of spent oil shale having improved cementation properties. The improved method comprises passing feed comprising oil shale to a contacting zone wherein the feed oil shale is contacted with heat transfer medium to heat said shale to retorting temperature. The feed oil shale is substantially retorted to form fluid material having heating value and forming partially spent oil shale containing carbonaceous material. At least a portion of the partially spent oil shale is passed to a combustion zone wherein the partially spent oil shale is contacted with oxidizing gas comprising oxygen and steam to substantially combust carbonaceous material forming spent oil shale having improved cementation properties.

  1. Crude oil prices: Are our oil markets too tight?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, M.R. [Simmons and Co. International, Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The answer to the question posed in the title is that tightness in the market will surely prevail through 1997. And as discussed herein, with worldwide demand expected to continue to grow, there will be a strong call on extra oil supply. Meeting those demands, however, will not be straightforward--as many observers wrongly believe--considering the industry`s practice of maintaining crude stocks at ``Just in time`` inventory levels. Further, impact will be felt from the growing rig shortage, particularly for deepwater units, and down-stream capacity limits. While these factors indicate 1997 should be another good year for the service industry, it is difficult to get any kind of consensus view from the oil price market. With most observers` information dominated by the rarely optimistic futures price of crude, as reflected by the NYMEX, the important fact is that oil prices have remained stable for three years and increased steadily through 1996.

  2. Augmentation of Power Output of Axisymmetric Ducted Wind Turbines by Porous Trailing Edge Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    widnall, sheila

    2014-06-30

    This paper presents analytical and experimental results that demonstrated that the power output from a ducted wind turbine can be dramatically increased by the addition of a trailing edge device such as a porous disk. In ...

  3. The New Active Output Filter for Variable Speed Constant Frequency Aerospace Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alhuwaishel, Fahad

    2015-08-06

    capacitor filter. Moreover, the main square wave inverter has a capability to regulate the output voltage depending on the Load requirements providing a wide range of modulation index. The operation principle of the concept is demonstrated for Variable Speed...

  4. Design of Dual-Output Alternators With Switched-Mode Rectification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hassan, Gimba

    The push to introduce dual-voltage (42 V/14 V) automotive electrical systems necessitates power generation solutions capable of supplying power to multiple outputs. A number of approaches for implementing dual-voltage ...

  5. Motor output in a bimanual continuation-tapping task is independent of visual cues 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Louisa

    2009-07-03

    Presented are two studies examining the role of vision on motor output in the continuation-tapping paradigm (Stevens, 1886). The role of vision is measured by comparisons of motor performance under three visual feedback conditions: freeview...

  6. Examining the Variability of Wind Power Output in the Regulation Time Frame: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Shedd, S.; Florita, A.

    2012-08-01

    This work examines the distribution of changes in wind power for different time scales in the regulation time frame as well as the correlation of changes in power output for individual wind turbines in a wind plant.

  7. Output of an Ultrasonic Wave-Driven Nanogenerator in a Confined Tube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    with theoretical simulations directly proves the relationship between the input wave energy and the output power of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0245, USA 2 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University

  8. A Hardware Implementation of the Soft Output Viterbi Algorithm for Serially Concatenated Convolutional Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Werling, Brett William

    2010-06-28

    two important algorithms for decoding convo- lutional codes: the Viterbi algoritm and soft output Viterbi algorithm. 4.1 Viterbi Algorithm The most common method for decoding a convolutionally-encoded sequence is the Viterbi algorithm, which was first...

  9. Biomolecular Filters for Improved Separation of Output Signals in Enzyme Logic Systems Applied to Biomedical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halamek, Jan; Halamkova, Lenka; Bocharova, Vera; Privman, Vladimir; Wang, Joseph; Katz, Evgeny

    2011-01-01

    Biomolecular logic systems processing biochemical input signals and producing "digital" outputs in the form of YES/NO were developed for analysis of physiological conditions characteristic of liver injury, soft tissue injury and abdominal trauma. Injury biomarkers were used as input signals for activating the logic systems. Their normal physiological concentrations were defined as logic-0 level, while their pathologically elevated concentrations were defined as logic-1 values. Since the input concentrations applied as logic 0 and 1 values were not sufficiently different, the output signals being at low and high values (0, 1 outputs) were separated with a short gap making their discrimination difficult. Coupled enzymatic reactions functioning as a biomolecular signal processing system with a built-in filter property were developed. The filter process involves a partial back-conversion of the optical-output-signal-yielding product, but only at its low concentrations, thus allowing the proper discrimination betw...

  10. Code design for multiple-input multiple-output broadcast channels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uppal, Momin Ayub

    2009-06-02

    Recent information theoretical results indicate that dirty-paper coding (DPC) achieves the entire capacity region of the Gaussian multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) broadcast channel (BC). This thesis presents practical ...

  11. 1 Executive Summary EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    than the expected growth in worldwide oil production, volatility in world oil prices could result to develop indigenous oil resources. Currently, total world oil production is 66 million barrels a day share of world production. NonOPEC oil production is currently increasing at a faster rate (70 percent

  12. Investigation of various ways of obtaining output waveforms of CMOS digital circuits by explicit methods 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ong, Lian Wah

    1989-01-01

    INVESTIGATION OF VARIOUS WAYS OF OBTAINING OUTPUT WAVEFORMS OF CMOS DIGITAL CIRCUITS BY EXPLICIT METHODS A Thesis by LIAN WAH ONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas Agi. M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of iMASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering INVESTIGATION OF VARIOUS WAYS OF OBTAINING OUTPUT WAVEFORMS OF CMOS DIGITAL CIRCUITS BY EXPLICIT METHODS A Thesis by LIAN-WAH ONG Approved...

  13. Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog Input/Output Module Ambient Temperature Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark D. McKay

    2011-02-01

    Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog input/output Module Ambient Temperature Testing A series of three ambient temperature tests were conducted for the Water Power Calculator development using the INL Calibration Laboratory’s Tenney Environmental Chamber. The ambient temperature test results demonstrate that the Moore Industries Temperature Input Modules, Analog Input Module and Analog Output Module, ambient temperature response meet or exceed the manufactures specifications

  14. LOW COST BIOHEATING OIL APPLICATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRISHNA,C.R.

    2003-05-01

    The report describes primarily the results of combustion tests carried out with a soy methyl ester (SME) that can be considered as a biofuel that does not quite meet the ASTM D 6751-02 specifications for biodiesel. The tests were performed in a residential boiler and a commercial boiler. Blends of the SME in distillate fuel (home heating fuel or equivalently, ASTM No.2 fuel oil) were tested in both the boilers. Similar tests had been conducted in a previous project with ASTM biodiesel blends and hence provided a comparison. Blends of the SME in ASTM No.6 oil (residual oil) were also tested in the commercial boiler using a different burner. Physical properties of the blends (in both the petroleum based fuels) were also measured. It was found that the SME blends in the distillate burned, not surprisingly, similarly to biodiesel blends. Reductions in NOx with blending of the SME were the most significant finding as before with biodiesel blends. The blends in No.6 oil also showed reductions in NOx in the commercial boiler combustion tests, though levels with No.6 blends are higher than with No.2 blends as expected. A significant conclusion from the physical property tests was that even the blending of 10% SME with the No.6 oil caused a significant reduction in viscosity, which suggests a potential direction of application of such blends.

  15. Supplementary Materials to "Adaptive Output-Feedback Control for Relative Degree Two Systems Based on Closed-Loop Reference Models"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, Zheng

    2015-09-14

    Abstract--- In this paper, a new adaptive output-feedback controller for multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) linear plant models with relative degree two is developed. The adaptive controller includes a baseline design based ...

  16. The Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    boosted global liquid fuels production relative to year-ago levels. However, OPEC crude oil production decreased slightly from year-ago levels, as production gains in Libya and...

  17. TABLE24.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    III-Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, a January 1998 Arab OPEC ... 38,701 294 2,258 0 0 0 0 443 0 0 Algeria...

  18. TABLE21.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the United States by Country of Origin, a January 1998 Arab OPEC ... 53,500 1,139 2,258 115 625 0 0...

  19. TABLE22.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    I-Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, a January 1998 Arab OPEC ... 6,171 845 0 115 625 0 0 824 0 0 Algeria...

  20. TABLE23.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    II-Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, a January 1998 Arab OPEC ... 6,219 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Kuwait...

  1. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    aimed at securing oil resources in the Gulf of Guinea (of (as yet unproven) oil resources in Angola (EIA 2008; Lylemost valuable natural resource: oil. But oil extraction—both

  2. Modeling of Energy Production Decisions: An Alaska Oil Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Oil Production The production of crude oil can generally beNorth Slope crude, Q it is the oil production per perioddiscoveries, production, costs, and prices of crude oil. ”

  3. Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a Marine Seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leifer, Ira; Boles, J R; Luyendyk, B P

    2007-01-01

    2007, Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a Marine2007, Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a MarineTides and the emission of oil and gas from an abandoned oil

  4. Strategic Significance of Americas Oil Shale Resource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    con- sists of three major steps: (1) oil shale mining and ore preparation (2) pyrolysis of oil shale to produce kerogen oil, and (3) processing kerogen oil to produce...

  5. Cursed Resources? Political Conditions and Oil Market Volatility*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    a country's political conditions affect oil production within its borders. We show production, with very democratic regimes exhibiting less volatility in their oil production than more of oil production volatility. Our finding has implications both for understanding world oil markets

  6. Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a Marine Seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leifer, Ira; Boles, J R; Luyendyk, B P

    2007-01-01

    hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil Point, California, Marineet al. , 2007, Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from aand P.G. Mikolaj, Natural oil seepage at Coal Oil Point,

  7. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    threatening to onshore oil investments in Cabinda. It usedto a $2.2 billion oil and gas investment in Block 14. Oil,the full burden of capital investment, oil corporations also

  8. Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a Marine Seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leifer, Ira; Boles, J R; Luyendyk, B P

    2007-01-01

    oil-gas separator, and gas flux turbine. B. Image of oil-gasoil. Absent the oil-gas separator, the turbine would havelines connected the turbine to the oil-gas separator and

  9. The end of the age of oil David Goodstein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    #12;Energy Myths $4.00 a gallon is too much to pay for gasoline Oil companies produce oil. We must for new oil more affordable. Typically oil companies can only produce one barrel for every three they find

  10. Optimization of the LCLS X-ray FEL output performance in the presence of strong undulator wakefields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiche, S; Emma, P; Fawley, W M; Huang, Z; Nuhn, H D; Stupakov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Optimization of the LCLS X-ray FEL output performance in the presence of strong undulator wakefields

  11. Guatemala: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that government officials have been working on changes to the hydrocarbon law to make it easier for operators to explore. In a reform effort, Minister of Energy and Mines Carlos Hutarte brought a new staff dedicated to spurring oil development into office with him. This includes the Directorate of Hydrocarbons, which held a three-day seminar in Dallas, Texas, to acquaint U.S. firms with new policies. Only one company, Basic Resources International, has been operating in Guatemala over the last year. The firm drilled three onshore wells in 1990 for 16,499 ft, including one oil producer. Two further onshore wells are slated this year. Oil production from 14 active wells out of 16 capable averaged 3,943 bpd, up 8.4% from 1989. Reserves are 191 MMbbl.

  12. Oil shale technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This collaborative project with industrial participants studied oil shale retorting through an integrated program of fundamental research, mathematical model development and operation of a 4-tonne-per-day solid recirculation oil shale test unit. Quarterly, project personnel presented progress and findings to a Project Guidance Committee consisting of company representatives and DOE program management. We successfully operated the test unit, developed the oil shale process (OSP) mathematical model, evaluated technical plans for process scale up and determined economics for a successful small scale commercial deployment, producing premium motor fuel, specility chemicals along with electricity co-production. In budget negotiations, DOE funding for this three year CRADA was terminated, 17 months prematurely, as of October 1993. Funds to restore the project and continue the partnership have not been secured.

  13. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  14. A Low Voltage, Rail-to-Rail, Class AB CMOS Amplifier With High Drive and Low Output Impedance Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    1 A Low Voltage, Rail-to-Rail, Class AB CMOS Amplifier With High Drive and Low Output Impedance describes a CMOS rail-to-rail class AB operational amplifier designed to have extremely low output impedance. The source follower ensures low output impedance, which enables it to drive relatively large load capacitors

  15. Output Harmonic Termination Techniques for AlGaN/GaN HEMT Power Amplifiers Using Active Integrated Antenna Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Itoh, Tatsuo

    Output Harmonic Termination Techniques for AlGaN/GaN HEMT Power Amplifiers Using Active Integrated 1200, Los Angeles, CA 90045 Abstract -- In this paper, effects of output harmonic terminations on PAE termination, we observe a substantial increase in PAE and output power. Further, we demonstrate the high

  16. A Fully Integrated Switched-Capacitor DC-DC Converter with Dual Output for Low Power Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayers, Joseph

    . The entire converter system uses two 2-to-1 converter blocks. The upper output voltage (3.2V) is generated from the 2-to-1_up converter by means of averaging the 5V input and the generated lower output voltage is designed using high-voltage 0.35m BCDMOS technology. Both output voltages are regulated by means of pulse

  17. The effect of biofuel on the international oil market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochman, Gal; Rajagopal, Deepak; Zilberman, David D.

    2010-01-01

    to reduction in crude oil production. The competitive modelbarrel of crude oil is allocated to gasoline production. The

  18. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01

    31] NEB. Canada’s oil sands: opportunities and challenges toUtah. Technical report, Oil Sands Exploration Company and

  19. Transforming the Oil Industry into the Energy Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    made from tar sands and conventional oil. Environmentalvery heavy oils fuel providers that and tar sands, also emit

  20. Microbial enhanced oil recovery and compositions therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryant, Rebecca S. (Bartlesville, OK)

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for microbial enhanced oil recovery, wherein a combination of microorganisms is empirically formulated based on survivability under reservoir conditions and oil recovery efficiency, such that injection of the microbial combination may be made, in the presence of essentially only nutrient solution, directly into an injection well of an oil bearing reservoir having oil present at waterflood residual oil saturation concentration. The microbial combination is capable of displacing residual oil from reservoir rock, which oil may be recovered by waterflooding without causing plugging of the reservoir rock. Further, the microorganisms are capable of being transported through the pores of the reservoir rock between said injection well and associated production wells, during waterflooding, which results in a larger area of the reservoir being covered by the oil-mobilizing microorganisms.

  1. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2-EOR provides about 5 percent of the total U.S. current crude oil production. Due to carbon capture and storage technology advances, prolonged high oil prices and the...

  2. Hometown News Scientists prepare for oil contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Hometown News Scientists prepare for oil contamination Posted: 2010 Jun 25 - 00:54 By Jay Meisel organisms. If the oil contaminates reefs in the area, it will probably not totally destroy the reefs

  3. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, Gus T. (Paducah, KY); Holshouser, Stephen K. (Boaz, KY); Coleman, Richard M. (Paducah, KY); Harless, Charles E. (Smithland, KY); Whinnery, III, Walter N. (Paducah, KY)

    1983-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  4. Completion of Oil Wells May 4, 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudge, John

    Completion of Oil Wells John Rudge May 4, 2003 1 Introduction After the initial drilling of an oil for given , z; i.e. ignore radial variation. Under this assumption these equations can be easily integrated

  5. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, G.T.; Holshouser, S.K.; Coleman, R.M.; Harless, C.E.; Whinnery, W.N. III

    1982-03-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  6. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND)

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  7. ,"U.S. Crude Oil Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Imports from Denmark of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels per Day)","U.S. Imports from Egypt of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels per Day)","U.S. Imports from Equatorial Guinea of Crude...

  8. Industrial Utilization of Coal-Oil Mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunn, J. E.; Hawkins, G. T.

    1982-01-01

    Coal-oil mixtures (COM) are receiving increasing interest as economical alternatives to residual fuel oil and natural gas used in heavy industrial and utility applications. Four basic approaches are currently employed in the manufacture of COM...

  9. Low pour crude oil compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motz, K.L.; Latham, R.A.; Statz, R.J.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes and improvement in the process of transporting waxy crude oils through a pipeline. It comprises: incorporating into the crude oil an effective pour point depressant amount of an additive comprising a polymer selected from the group consisting of copolymers of ethylene and acrylonitrile, and terpolymers of ethylene, acrylonitrile and a third monomer selected from the group consisting of vinyl acetate, carbon monoxide, alkyl acrylates, alkyl methacrylates, alkyl vinyl ethers, vinyl chloride, vinyl fluoride, acrylic acid, and methacrylic acid, wherein the amount of third monomer in the terpolymer ranges from about 0.1 to about 10.0 percent by weight.

  10. World frontiers beckon oil finders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This paper discusses the international aspects of the petroleum industry. Most who work in the industry agree that the possibilities for huge are found largely in international regions. Something that is helping fuel that possibility is the way countries are increasingly opening their doors to US oil industry involvement. Listed in this paper is a partial list of the reported projects now underway around the world involving US companies. It is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather an indication of how work continues despite a general lull atmosphere for the oil industry. These include Albania, Bulgaria, Congo, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ireland, Malta, Madagascar, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Panama, Paraquay, and Senegal.

  11. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil price decreases Theheating oil

  12. Residential heating oil prices decline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil price decreases9,heating oil

  13. Residential heating oil prices decrease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating oil prices

  14. Residential heating oil prices decrease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating oil prices5, 2014

  15. Residential heating oil prices decrease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating oil prices5,

  16. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating oil

  17. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating oil3, 2014

  18. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating oil3, 2014heating

  19. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating oil3,

  20. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNaturalOctoberheating oil priceheating oil3,4, 2013