National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for om pu te

  1. Te

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    N u n a v u t O n t a r i o A l b e r t a Te x a s N o r t h w e s t Te r r i t o r i e s M a n i t o b a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S a s k a t c h e w a n Y u k o n M o n t a n a U t a h I d a h o C a l i f o r n i a N e v a d a O r e g o n A r i z o n a I o w a K a n s a s C o l o r a d o W y o m i n g S o n o r a N e w M e x i c o M i n n e s o t a N e b r a s k a O h i o C h i h u a h u a I l l i n o i s M i s s o u r i F l o r i d a G e o r g i a O k l a h o m a W a s h i n g t o n S o

  2. Te

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A l a s k a N u n a v u t O n t a r i o A l b e r t a Te x a s N o r t h w e s t Te r r i t o r i e s M a n i t o b a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S a s k a t c h e w a n Y u k o n M o n t a n a U t a h I d a h o C a l i f o r n i a N e v a d a O r e g o n A r i z o n a I o w a K a n s a s C o l o r a d o W y o m i n g S o n o r a N e w M e x i c o M i n n e s o t a N e b r a s k a O h i o C h i h u a h u a I l l i n o i s M i s s o u r i F l o r i d a G e o r g i a O k l a h o m a W a s h i n

  3. Te

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    D u N o r d - O u e s t Te r r e - N e u v e - e t - L a b r a d o r Q u é b e c Í l e - d u - P r i n c e - É d o u a r d N o u v e l l e - É c o s s e N o u v e a u - B r u n s w i c k C o l o m b i e - B r i t a n n i q u e B a f f i n I s l a n d Í l e d u B a f f i n E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d Í l e d u E l l e s m e r e V i c t o r i a I s l a n d Í l e d u V i c t o r i a N e w f o u n d l a n d a n d L a b r a d o r Te r r e - N e u v e - e t - L a b r a d o r A l a s k a N u n

  4. ARM - Instrument - om

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Instrument : Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OM) <-- Picture of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) --> General Overview The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) distinguishes between ...

  5. ERYLFIUM OM PANY

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ERYLFIUM OM PANY 3714 CI-XIESTER /%"EXUE J &CO-74 -L;s C+SSIFICATION CANCELLED OR April 22, 1947 Dear 3. 3elmore: Xith reference to Contract X- 7401 ens 78, supp1emstit 11 calJi?Jg for 5000 pounds of SP ?eO 1350X, we have shipped 5000 pounds to the A. C. Spark E' lU~ co. in i?int i~i0hige.n. There were two s!lipi%ents made against this order. GE/L Kc. The first shipmast was ;lade on i.i)ril 12, ,A947 via ~rnili7c.y eqress on K,' -23305 copies .;; -"5 and ~$7 of which are enclosed.

  6. Reliability, O&M, Standards Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reliability, O&M, Standards Development - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home ... Twitter Google + Vimeo GovDelivery SlideShare Reliability, O&M, Standards Development ...

  7. Pu Qian | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pu Qian Pu Qian placeholder image Pu Qian Postdoctoral Associate E-mail: p.qian@sheffield.ac.uk Postdoctoral Associates

  8. Changes of O/M, dimension and microstructure of MOX pellet during heat treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watanabe, M.; Kato, M.; Sunaoshi, T.

    2013-07-01

    The oxidation and reduction behaviors of sintered (Pu{sub 0.3}U{sub 0.7})O{sub 2-x} pellets have been studied at 1873 K under a controlled oxygen partial pressure. From the results of oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio changes, dimensional and structural changes, it was concluded that the crack nucleation-propagation and the local density change of pores were caused by the tensile and compressive stresses due to the O/M ratio distribution in the direction of the pellet radius. (authors)

  9. Elastic properties of Pu metal and Pu-Ga alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soderlind, P; Landa, A; Klepeis, J E; Suzuki, Y; Migliori, A

    2010-01-05

    We present elastic properties, theoretical and experimental, of Pu metal and Pu-Ga ({delta}) alloys together with ab initio equilibrium equation-of-state for these systems. For the theoretical treatment we employ density-functional theory in conjunction with spin-orbit coupling and orbital polarization for the metal and coherent-potential approximation for the alloys. Pu and Pu-Ga alloys are also investigated experimentally using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. We show that orbital correlations become more important proceeding from {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} plutonium, thus suggesting increasing f-electron correlation (localization). For the {delta}-Pu-Ga alloys we find a softening with larger Ga content, i.e., atomic volume, bulk modulus, and elastic constants, suggest a weakened chemical bonding with addition of Ga. Our measurements confirm qualitatively the theory but uncertainties remain when comparing the model with experiments.

  10. O/M RATIO MEASUREMENT IN PURE AND MIXED OXIDE FULES - WHERE ARE WE NOW?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. RUBIN; ET AL

    2000-12-01

    The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio is one of the most critical parameters of nuclear fuel fabrication, and its measurement is closely monitored for manufacturing process control and to ensure the service behavior of the final product. Thermogravimetry is the most widely used method, the procedure for which has remained largely unchanged since its development some thirty years ago. It was not clear to us, however, that this method is still the optimum one in light of advances in instrumentation, and in the current regulatory environment, particularly with regard to waste management and disposal. As part of the MOX fuel fabrication program at Los Alamos, we conducted a comprehensive review of methods for O/M measurements in UO{sub 2}, PuO{sub 2} and mixed oxide fuels for thermal reactors. A concerted effort was made to access information not available in the open literature. We identified approximately thirty five experimental methods that (a) have been developed with the intent of measuring O/M, (b) provided O/M indirectly by suitable reduction of the measured data, or (c) could provide O/M data with suitable data reduction or when combined with other methods. We will discuss the relative strengths and weaknesses of these methods in their application to current routine and small-lot production environment.

  11. Properties measurements of (U{sub 0.7}Pu{sub 0.3})O{sub 2-x} in PO{sub 2}-controlled atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kato, M.; Murakami, T.; Sunaoshi, T.; Nelson, A.T.; McClellan, K.J.

    2013-07-01

    The investigation of physical properties of uranium and plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels is important for the development of fast reactor fuels. It is well known that MOX is a nonstoichiometric oxide, and the physical properties change drastically with the Oxygen-to-Metal (O/M) ratio. A control technique for O/M ratio was established for measurements of high temperature properties of uranium and plutonium mixed oxide fuels. Sintering behavior, thermal expansion and O/M change of (U{sub 0.7}Pu{sub 0.3})O{sub 2.00} and (U{sub 0.7}Pu{sub 0.3})O{sub 1.99} were investigated in PO{sub 2}-controlled atmosphere which was controlled by H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O gas system. Sintering behavior changed drastically with O/M ratio, and shrinkage of (U{sub 0.7}Pu{sub 0.3})O{sub 2.00} was faster and more advanced at lower temperatures as compared with (U{sub 0.7}Pu{sub 0.3})O{sub 1.99}. Thermal expansion was observed to be slightly increased with decreasing O/M ratio. (authors)

  12. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2015-10-08

    This project seeks to improve the efficiency of the plutonium anion-exchange process for purifying Pu through the development of alternate ion-exchange media. The objective of the project in FY15 was to develop and test a porous foam monolith material that could serve as a replacement for the current anion-exchange resin, Reillex® HPQ, used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for purifying Pu. The new material provides advantages in efficiency over the current resin by the elimination of diffusive mass transport through large granular resin beads. By replacing the large resin beads with a porous foam there is much more efficient contact between the Pu solution and the anion-exchange sites present on the material. Several samples of a polystyrene based foam grafted with poly(4-vinylpyridine) were prepared and the Pu sorption was tested in batch contact tests.

  13. Program Pu Futures 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fluss, M

    2006-06-12

    The coordination chemistry of plutonium remains relatively unexplored. Thus, the fundamental coordination chemistry of plutonium is being studied using simple multi-dentate ligands with the intention that the information gleaned from these studies may be used in the future to develop plutonium-specific sequestering agents. Towards this goal, hard Lewis-base donors are used as model ligands. Maltol, an inexpensive natural product used in the commercial food industry, is an ideal ligand because it is an all-oxygen bidentate donor, has a rigid structure, and is of small enough size to impose little steric strain, allowing the coordination preferences of plutonium to be the deciding geometric factor. Additionally, maltol is the synthetic precursor of 3,4-HOPO, a siderophore-inspired bidentate moiety tested by us previously as a possible sequestering agent for plutonium under acidic conditions. As comparisons to the plutonium structure, Ce(IV) complexes of the same and related ligands were examined as well. Cerium(IV) complexes serve as good models for plutonium(IV) structures because Ce(IV) has the same ionic radius as Pu(IV) (0.94 {angstrom}). Plutonium(IV) maltol crystals were grown out of a methanol/water solution by slow evaporation to afford red crystals that were evaluated at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using single crystal X-ray diffraction. Cerium(IV) complexes with maltol and bromomaltol were crystallized via slow evaporation of the mother liquor to afford tetragonal, black crystals. All three complexes crystallize in space group I4{sub 1}/a. The Ce(IV) complex is isostructural with the Pu(IV) complex, in which donating oxygens adopt a trigonal dodecahedral geometry around the metal with the maltol rings parallel to the crystallographic S{sub 4} axis and lying in a non-crystallographic mirror plane of D{sub 2d} molecular symmetry (Fig 1). The metal-oxygen bonds in both maltol complexes are equal to within 0.04 {angstrom

  14. OM300 Direction Drilling Module

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    MacGugan, Doug

    2013-08-22

    OM300 – Geothermal Direction Drilling Navigation Tool: Design and produce a prototype directional drilling navigation tool capable of high temperature operation in geothermal drilling Accuracies of 0.1° Inclination and Tool Face, 0.5° Azimuth Environmental Ruggedness typical of existing oil/gas drilling Multiple Selectable Sensor Ranges High accuracy for navigation, low bandwidth High G-range & bandwidth for Stick-Slip and Chirp detection Selectable serial data communications Reduce cost of drilling in high temperature Geothermal reservoirs Innovative aspects of project Honeywell MEMS* Vibrating Beam Accelerometers (VBA) APS Flux-gate Magnetometers Honeywell Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) High-temperature electronics Rugged High-temperature capable package and assembly process

  15. Spring O&M Users Group Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The spring 2015 UVIG O&M User Group meeting will feature a plenary session focused on blade inspection best practices.  The UVIG membership will hear presentations from:

  16. Economical Production of Pu-238

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven D. Howe; Douglas Crawford; Jorge Navarro; Terry Ring

    2013-02-01

    All space exploration missions traveling beyond Jupiter must use radioisotopic power sources for electrical power. The best isotope to power these sources is plutonium-238. The US supply of Pu-238 is almost exhausted and will be gone within the next decade. The Department of Energy has initiated a production program with a $10M allocation from NASA but the cost is estimated at over $100 M to get to production levels. The Center for Space Nuclear Research has conceived of a potentially better process to produce Pu-238 earlier and for significantly less cost. The new process will also produce dramatically less waste. Potentially, the front end costs could be provided by private industry such that the government only had to pay for the product produced. Under a NASA Phase I NIAC grant, the CSNR has evaluated the feasibility of using a low power, commercially available nuclear reactor to produce at least 1.5 kg of Pu-238 per year. The impact on the neutronics of the reactor have been assessed, the amount of Neptunium target material estimated, and the production rates calculated. In addition, the size of the post-irradiation processing facility has been established. In addition, a new method for fabricating the Pu-238 product into the form used for power sources has been identified to reduce the cost of the final product. In short, the concept appears to be viable, can produce the amount of Pu-238 needed to support the NASA missions, can be available within a few years, and will cost significantly less than the current DOE program.

  17. Savannah River Site: Plutonium Preparation Project (PuPP) at...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Site: Plutonium Preparation Project (PuPP) at Savannah River Site Savannah River Site: Plutonium Preparation Project (PuPP) at Savannah River Site Full Document and Summary ...

  18. The Evolution in Pu Nanocluster Electronic Structure: from Atomicity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: The Evolution in Pu Nanocluster Electronic Structure: from Atomicity to Three Dimensionality Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Evolution in Pu Nanocluster ...

  19. A=3n (2010PU04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2010PU04) GENERAL: There is no experimental evidence for either bound states or narrow resonances of the three neutron system. Theoretical studies in the 3n system using the...

  20. AWEA Wind Project O&M and Safety Seminar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The AWEA Wind Project O&M and Safety Seminar is where leading owners, operators, turbine manufacturers, material suppliers, wind technicians, managers, supervisors, engineers, and occupational...

  1. AWEA Wind Project O&M and Safety Conference 2016

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The American Wind Energy Association Wind Project O&M and Safety Conference is where leading owners, operators, turbine manufacturers, material suppliers, wind technicians, managers,...

  2. Om Sakthi Wind Power Pvt Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sakthi Wind Power Pvt Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Om Sakthi Wind Power Pvt. Ltd. Place: Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Sector: Wind energy Product: Chennai-based wind project...

  3. A New Bench-Top Approach to Isotopic Purification of 244Pu

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liezers, Martin; Farmer, Orville T.; Thomas, Linda MP; Hager, George J.; Eiden, Gregory C.

    2016-03-01

    A new approach to isotopic purification has been developed and applied to the production of a small quantity of 244Pu with an isotopic purity >99.996 %, as compared against the standard 244Pu available that displays an isotopic purity of 97.87 %. The presence of Pu isotopes 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu and 242Pu have been greatly reduced, allowing for higher spiking levels of the isotopically purified 244Pu tracer. Details of the isotopic purification process will be described along with the effect this improved Pu tracer could have on analytical Pu mass spectrometry measurements.

  4. Pu-bearing materials - from fundamental science to storage standards.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tam, S. W.; Liu, Y.; Decision and Information Sciences; Michigan Technical Univ.

    2008-01-01

    The behavior of plutonium (Pu) oxides in the presence of water/moisture in a confined space and the associated issues of hydrogen and oxygen generation due to radiolysis have important implications for the storage and transportation of Pu-bearing materials. This paper reviews the results of recent studies of gas generation in the Pu-O-H system, including the determination of release rates via engineering-scale measurement. The observations of the significant differences in gas generation behavior between 'pure' Pu-bearing materials and those that contain salt impurities are addressed. In conjunction with the discussion of these empirical observations, the work also addresses recent scientific advances in the investigations of the Pu-O-H system using state-of-the-art ab initio electronic structure calculations, as well as advanced synchrotron techniques to determine the electronic structure of the various Pu-containing phases. The role of oxidizing species such as the hydroxyl radical from the radiolysis of water is examined. Discussed also is the challenge in the predictive ab-initio calculations of the electronic structure of the Pu-H-O system, due to the nature of the 5f valence electrons in Pu. Coupled with the continuing material surveillance program, it is anticipated that this work may help determine the electronic structure of the various Pu-containing phases and the role of impurity salts on gas generation and the long-term stability of oxygen/hydrogen-containing plutonium oxides beyond PuO{sub 2}.

  5. Sintering of compacts of UN, (U,Pu)N, and PuN

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tennery, V.J.; Godfrey, T.G.; Bomar, E.S.

    1973-10-16

    >A method is provided for preparing a densified compact of a metal nitride selected from the group consisting of UN, (U,Pu)N, and PuN which comprises heating a green compact of at least one selected nitride in the mononitride single-phase region, as displayed by a phase diagram of the mononitride of said compact, in a nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of nitrogen less than 760 torr. At a given temperature, this process produces a singlephase structure and a maximal sintered density as measured by mercury displacement. (Official Gazette)

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance offers new insights into Pu 239

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance offers new insights into Pu 239 Nuclear magnetic resonance offers new insights into Pu 239 Fingerprint of element found by LANL/Japanese team. May 29, 2012 How would the detonation of a nuclear energy source afffect an incoming asteroid? Georgios Koutroulakis and H. Yasuoka in the condensed-matter NMR lab at Los Alamos National Laboratory after having observed the magnetic resonance signal of Pu 239 for the first time. Get Expertise Scientist Eric Bauer Condensed

  7. A=3Li (2010PU04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2010PU04) GENERAL: The previous A = 3 evaluations (1975FI08, 1987TI07) identified reactions 1 through 4 below as possible candidates for the observation of a bound or resonant state of three protons. An additional possibility would be the double charge exchange reaction 3H(π+, π-)3Li. There is a report of this reaction (2001PA47), but the pion energy was high, 500 MeV, and the focus of the experiment was on the role of the Δ component in the 3H ground state, not on the possible presence of a

  8. OM Code Requirements For MOVs -- OMN-1 and Appendix III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin G. DeWall

    2011-08-01

    The purpose or scope of the ASME OM Code is to establish the requirements for pre-service and in-service testing of nuclear power plant components to assess their operational readiness. For MOVs this includes those that perform a specific function in shutting down a reactor to the safe shutdown condition, maintaining the safe shutdown condition, and mitigating the consequences of an accident. This paper will present a brief history of industry and regulatory activities related to MOVs and the development of Code requirements to address weaknesses in earlier versions of the OM Code. The paper will discuss the MOV requirements contained in the 2009 version of ASME OM Code, specifically Mandatory Appendix III and OMN-1, Revision 1.

  9. Effect of equilibration time on Pu desorption from goethite

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wong, Jennifer C.; Zavarin, Mavrik; Begg, James D.; Kersting, Annie B.; Powell, Brian A.

    2015-01-28

    Strongly sorbing ions such as plutonium may become irreversibly bound to mineral surfaces over time implicates near- and far-field transport of Pu. Batch adsorption–desorption data were collected as a function of time and pH to study the surface stability of Pu on goethite. Pu(IV) was adsorbed to goethite over the pH range 4.2 to 6.6 for different periods of time (1, 6, 15, 34 and 116 d). Moreover, following adsorption, Pu was leached from the mineral surface with desferrioxamine B (DFOB), a complexant capable of effectively competing with the goethite surface for Pu. The amount of Pu desorbed from the goethitemore » was found to vary as a function of the adsorption equilibration time, with less Pu removed from the goethite following longer adsorption periods. This effect was most pronounced at low pH. Logarithmic desorption distribution ratios for each adsorption equilibration time were fit to a pH-dependent model. Model slopes decreased between 1 and 116 d adsorption time, indicating that overall Pu(IV) surface stability on goethite surfaces becomes less dependent on pH with greater adsorption equilibration time. The combination of adsorption and desorption kinetic data suggest that non-redox aging processes affect Pu sorption behavior on goethite.« less

  10. Effect of equilibration time on Pu desorption from goethite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Jennifer C.; Zavarin, Mavrik; Begg, James D.; Kersting, Annie B.; Powell, Brian A.

    2015-01-28

    Strongly sorbing ions such as plutonium may become irreversibly bound to mineral surfaces over time implicates near- and far-field transport of Pu. Batch adsorption–desorption data were collected as a function of time and pH to study the surface stability of Pu on goethite. Pu(IV) was adsorbed to goethite over the pH range 4.2 to 6.6 for different periods of time (1, 6, 15, 34 and 116 d). Moreover, following adsorption, Pu was leached from the mineral surface with desferrioxamine B (DFOB), a complexant capable of effectively competing with the goethite surface for Pu. The amount of Pu desorbed from the goethite was found to vary as a function of the adsorption equilibration time, with less Pu removed from the goethite following longer adsorption periods. This effect was most pronounced at low pH. Logarithmic desorption distribution ratios for each adsorption equilibration time were fit to a pH-dependent model. Model slopes decreased between 1 and 116 d adsorption time, indicating that overall Pu(IV) surface stability on goethite surfaces becomes less dependent on pH with greater adsorption equilibration time. The combination of adsorption and desorption kinetic data suggest that non-redox aging processes affect Pu sorption behavior on goethite.

  11. Fission fragment charge and mass distributions in Pu 239 ( n...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Fission fragment charge and mass distributions in Pu 239 ( n , f ) in the adiabatic nuclear energy density functional theory Citation Details In-Document Search ...

  12. Report on the Feasibility of Pu Photoelectron Spectroscopy with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report on the Feasibility of Pu Photoelectron Spectroscopy with Microscopic and Nanoscopic Samples at NSLSII Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Report on the Feasibility of ...

  13. Procedure for plutonium determination using Pu(VI) spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, L.F.; Temer, D.J.; Jackson, D.D.

    1996-09-01

    This document describes a simple spectrophotometric method for determining total plutonium in nitric acid solutions based on the spectrum of Pu(VI). Plutonium samples in nitric acid are oxidized to Pu(VI) with Ce(IV) and the net absorbance at the 830 nm peak is measured.

  14. 238PuO2 Fuel and Dosimetry (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: 238PuO2 Fuel and Dosimetry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 238PuO2 Fuel and Dosimetry 238Pu is an ideal material for use as a heat source with its ...

  15. LLNL Workshop on TEM of Pu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, W.E.

    1996-09-10

    On Sept. 10, 1996, LLNL hosted a workshop aimed at answering the question: Is it possible to carry out transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on plutonium metal in an electron microscope located outside the LLNL plutonium facility. The workshop focused on evaluation of a proposed plan for Pu microscopy both from a technical and environment, health, and safety point of view. After review and modification of the plan, workshop participants unanimously concluded that: (1) the technical plan is sound, (2) this technical plan, including a proposal for a new TEM, provides significant improvements and unique capabilities compared with the effort at LANL and is therefore complementary, (3) there is no significant environment, health, and safety obstacle to this plan.

  16. A=3H (2010PU04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2010PU04) GENERAL: Ground State: Jπ = 1/2+ μ = 2.978960 ± 0.000001 μN Mass Excess, M - A = 14.9498060 ± 0.0000023 MeV T1/2 = 12.32 ± 0.02 y = 4500 ± 8 days Decay Mode: β- decay Binding Energy, EB = 8.481798 ± 0.000002 MeV Neutron Separation Energy, Sn = 6.257233 ± 0.000002 MeV The ground state wave functions for 3H and 3He consist mainly of a spatially symmetric S state (about 90%), a mixed symmetry S' state (about 1%), a D state (about 9%) and a small P state (less than 0.1%). Some

  17. A=3He (2010PU04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2010PU04) GENERAL: Ground State: Jπ = 1/2+ μ = -2.127497718 ± 0.000000025 μN Mass Excess, M - A = 14.93121475 ± 0.00000242 MeV Decay Mode: stable Binding Energy, EB = 7.718043 ± 0.000002 MeV Proton Separation Energy, Sp = 5.493478 ± 0.000002 MeV A topic of interest in connection with the mass 3 nuclei is the difference in binding energies of 3H and 3He and the relationship of this difference to charge symmetry breaking (CSB). The binding energy of 3H is larger than that of 3He by a little

  18. AWEA O&M Recommended Practices Series Part VII: Wind Turbine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AWEA O&M Recommended Practices Series Part VII: Wind Turbine Gear Lubricant Flushing Procedures AWEA O&M Recommended Practices Series Part VII: Wind Turbine Gear Lubricant Flushing...

  19. Performance of Cladding on MOX Fuel with Low 240Pu/239Pu Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, Kevin; Blanpain, Patrick; Morris, Robert Noel

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has decided to dispose of a portion of its surplus plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. As part of fuel qualification, four lead assemblies were manufactured and irradiated to a maximum fuel rod average burnup of 47.3 MWd/kg heavy metal. This was the world s first commercial irradiation of MOX fuel with a 240Pu/239Pu ratio less than 0.10. Five fuel rods with varying burnups and plutonium contents were selected from one of the assemblies and shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for hot cell examination. This paper discusses the results of those examinations with emphasis on cladding performance. Exams relevant to the cladding included visual and eddy current exams, profilometry, microscopy, hydrogen analysis, gallium analysis, and mechanical testing. There was no discernible effect of the type of MOX fuel on the performance of the cladding.

  20. Internal Corrosion Analysis of Model 9975 Packaging Containing Pu or PuO{sub 2} During Shipping and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vormelker, P.

    1999-03-23

    The Materials Consultation Group of SRTC has completed an internal corrosion analysis of the Model 9975 packaging assembly containing either Pu or PuO2 for storage in K Reactor under ambient conditions for a period of 12 years. The 12-year storage period includes two years for shipping and up to ten years for storage.

  1. 125Te NMR chemical-shift trends in PbTeGeTe and PbTeSnTe alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Njegic, Bosiljka; Levin, Evgenii M.; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-10-08

    Complex tellurides, such as doped PbTe, GeTe, and their alloys, are among the best thermoelectric materials. Knowledge of the change in 125Te NMR chemical shift due to bonding to dopant or solute atoms is useful for determination of phase composition, peak assignment, and analysis of local bonding. We have measured the 125Te NMR chemical shifts in PbTe-based alloys, Pb1?xGexTe and Pb1?xSnxTe, which have a rocksalt-like structure, and analyzed their trends. For low x, several peaks are resolved in the 22-kHz MAS 125Te NMR spectra. A simple linear trend in chemical shifts with the number of Pb neighbors is observed. No evidence of a proposed ferroelectric displacement of Ge atoms in a cubic PbTe matrix is detected at low Ge concentrations. The observed chemical shift trends are compared with the results of DFT calculations, which confirm the linear dependence on the composition of the first-neighbor shell. The data enable determination of the composition of various phases in multiphase telluride materials. They also provide estimates of the 125Te chemical shifts of GeTe and SnTe (+970 and +400150 ppm, respectively, from PbTe), which are otherwise difficult to access due to Knight shifts of many hundreds of ppm in neat GeTe and SnTe.

  2. Elastic properties of gamma-Pu by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Migliori, Albert; Betts, J; Trugman, A; Mielke, C H; Mitchell, J N; Ramos, M; Stroe, I

    2009-01-01

    Despite intense experimental and theoretical work on Pu, there is still little understanding of the strange properties of this metal. We used resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method to investigate the elastic properties of pure polycrystalline Pu at high temperatures. Shear and longitudinal elastic moduli of the {gamma}-phase of Pu were determined simultaneously and the bulk modulus was computed from them. A smooth linear and large decrease of all elastic moduli with increasing temperature was observed. We calculated the Poisson ratio and found that it increases from 0.242 at 519K to 0.252 at 571K.

  3. 239Pu Resonance Evaluation for Thermal Benchmark System Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leal, Luiz C; Noguere, G; De Saint Jean, C; Kahler, A.

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of thermal plutonium solution critical benchmark systems have indicated a deciency in the 239Pu resonance evaluation. To investigate possible solutions to this issue, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party for Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) established Subgroup 34 to focus on the reevaluation of the 239Pu resolved resonance parameters. In addition, the impacts of the prompt neutron multiplication (nubar) and the prompt neutron ssion spectrum (PFNS) have been investigated. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the 239Pu resolved resonance evaluation eort.

  4. New directions and challenges for the O&M committee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelletier, J.P.

    1996-12-01

    In the second half of the decade of the nineties, the imperative of finding new ways to improve efficiency while maintaining safety is taking on a new urgency. The looming deregulation of the electric industry and the expected competition in the power production business fuels this urgency. The recently completed ASME research in the area of Risk-Based Inservice Testing offers the Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Committee an opportunity to meet this challenge. This opportunity, however, offers its own challenges. New ways of thinking about inservice testing and new technical skills will be needed to successfully incorporate this technology into Code documents. It will not be adequate to rely solely on incorporation of risk-based methods into the Code to meet this challenge. A thorough self assessment of what O&M does, how it is done, and the value added will help assure that the directions which are pursued do, indeed, meet the challenge ahead.

  5. Ferro- and antiferro-magnetism in (Np, Pu)BC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klimczuk, T.; Kozub, A. L.; Griveau, J.-C.; Colineau, E.; Wastin, F.; Falmbigl, M.; Rogl, P.

    2015-04-01

    Two new transuranium metal boron carbides, NpBC and PuBC, have been synthesized. Rietveld refinements of powder XRD patterns of (Np,Pu)BC confirmed in both cases isotypism with the structure type of UBC. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility data reveal antiferromagnetic ordering for PuBC below T{sub N} = 44 K, whereas ferromagnetic ordering was found for NpBC below T{sub C} = 61 K. Heat capacity measurements prove the bulk character of the observed magnetic transition for both compounds. The total energy electronic band structure calculations support formation of the ferromagnetic ground state for NpBC and the antiferromagnetic ground state for PuBC.

  6. Probing Actinide Electronic Structure through Pu Cluster Calculations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ryzhkov, Mickhail V.; Mirmelstein, Alexei; Yu, Sung-Woo; Chung, Brandon W.; Tobin, James G.

    2013-02-26

    The calculations for the electronic structure of clusters of plutonium have been performed, within the framework of the relativistic discrete-variational method. Moreover, these theoretical results and those calculated earlier for related systems have been compared to spectroscopic data produced in the experimental investigations of bulk systems, including photoelectron spectroscopy. Observation of the changes in the Pu electronic structure as a function of size provides powerful insight for aspects of bulk Pu electronic structure.

  7. Method of removing Pu(IV) polymer from nuclear fuel reclaiming liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallent, Othar K.; Mailen, James C.; Bell, Jimmy T.; Arwood, Phillip C.

    1982-01-01

    A Pu(IV) polymer not extractable from a nuclear fuel reclaiming solution by conventional processes is electrolytically converted to Pu.sup.3+ and PuO.sub.2.sup.2+ ions which are subsequently converted to Pu.sup.4+ ions extractable by the conventional processes.

  8. O&M Best Practices - A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency (Release 2.0)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Gregory P.; Pugh, Ray; Melendez, Aldo P.; Hunt, W. D.

    2004-07-31

    This guide, sponsored by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program, highlights operations and maintenance (O&M) programs targeting energy efficiency that are estimated to save 5% to 20% on energy bills without a significant capital investment. The purpose of this guide is to provide the federal O&M energy manager and practitioner with useful information about O&M management, technologies, energy efficiency and cost-reduction approaches.

  9. OM300 -GeoThermal MWD Navigation Instrument | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OM300 -GeoThermal MWD Navigation Instrument OM300 -GeoThermal MWD Navigation Instrument Develop a 300°C capable directional drilling navigation tool using Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometers and flux-gate magnetometers. high_macgugan_om300.pdf (857.64 KB) More Documents & Publications 300ºC DDS + 300ºC MWD Development of a HT Seismic Tool track 3: enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) | geothermal 2015 peer review

  10. FEMP'S O&M Best Practices Guide A Guide to Achieving Operational...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Efficiency The Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP's) O&M Best Practices ... under the direction of the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program. ...

  11. O&M Best Practices - A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This guide, sponsored by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program, highlights operations ... about O&M management, technologies, energy efficiency and cost-reduction approaches. ...

  12. Average Structure Evolution of ?-phase Pu-Ga Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Alice Iulia; Page, Katharine L.; Gourdon, Olivier; Siewenie, Joan E.; Richmond, Scott; Saleh, Tarik A.; Ramos, Michael; Schwartz, Daniel S.

    2015-03-30

    [Full Text] Plutonium metal is a highly unusual element, exhibiting six allotropes at ambient pressure, from room temperature to its melting point. Many phases of plutonium metal are unstable with temperature, pressure, chemical additions, and time. This strongly affects structure and properties, and becomes of high importance, particularly when considering effects on structural integrity over long time periods. The fcc ?-phase deserves additional attention, not only in the context of understanding the electronic structure of Pu, but also as one of the few high-symmetry actinide phases that can be stabilized down to ambient pressure and room temperature by alloying it with trivalent elements. We will present results on recent work on aging of Pu-2at.%Ga and Pu-7at.%Ga alloys

  13. DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR PU-238 AQUEOUS RECOVERY PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. PANSOY-HJELVIK; M. REIMUS; ET AL

    2000-10-01

    Aqueous processing is necessary for the removal of impurities from {sup 238}Pu dioxide ({sup 238}PuO{sub 2}) fuel due to unacceptable levels of {sup 234}U and other non-actinide impurities in the scrap fuel. Impurities at levels above General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fuel specifications may impair the performance.of the heat sources. Efforts at Los Alamos have focused on developing the bench scale methodology for the aqueous process steps which includes comminution, dissolution, ion exchange, precipitation, and calcination. Recently, work has been performed to qualify the bench scale methodology, to show that the developed process produces pure {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} meeting GPHS fuel specifications. In addition, this work has enabled us to determine how waste volumes may be minimized during full-scale processing. Results of process qualification for the bench scale aqueous recovery operation and waste minimization efforts are presented.

  14. Transuranic concentrations in reef and pelagic fish from the Marshall Islands. [/sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.

    1980-09-01

    Concentrations of /sup 239 + 240/Pu are reported in tissues of several species of reef and pelagic fish caught at 14 different atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Several regularities that are species dependent are evident in the distribution of /sup 239 + 240/Pu among different body tissues. Concentrations in liver always exceeded those in bone and concentrations were lowest in the muscle of all fish analyzed. A progressive discrimination against /sup 239 + 240/Pu was observed at successive trophic levels at all atolls except Bikini and Enewetak, where it was difficult to conclude if any real difference exists between the average concentration factor for /sup 239 + 240/Pu among all fish, which include bottom feeding and grazing herbivores, bottom feeding carnivores, and pelagic carnivores from different atoll locations. The average concentration of /sup 239 + 240/Pu in the muscle of surgeonfish from Bikini and Enewetak was not significantly different from the average concentrations determined in these fish at the other, lesser contaminated atolls. Concentrations among all 3rd, 4th, and 5th trophic level species are highest at Bikini where higher environmental concentrations are found. The reasons for the anomalously low concentrations in herbivores from Bikini and Enewetak are not known.

  15. (U) CIELO: Status of 239Pu Evaluation (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (U) CIELO: Status of 239Pu Evaluation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: (U) CIELO: Status of 239Pu Evaluation Authors: Chadwick, Mark B. 1 ; Kahler, Albert C. III 1 ; ...

  16. Nuclear Design of Fissile Pu and HEU LIFE Engine - NA22 (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Nuclear Design of Fissile Pu and HEU LIFE Engine - NA22 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nuclear Design of Fissile Pu and HEU LIFE Engine - NA22 ...

  17. Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields for 239Pu, 235U,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields for 239Pu, 235U, and 238U Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields for 239Pu, 235U, and ...

  18. (U) CIELO: Status of 239Pu Evaluation (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (U) CIELO: Status of 239Pu Evaluation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: (U) CIELO: Status of 239Pu Evaluation You are accessing a document from the Department of ...

  19. Summary of Pu u O o - Kupaianaha Eruption, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pu u O o - Kupaianaha Eruption, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Summary of Pu u O o - Kupaianaha Eruption,...

  20. Nuclear Design of Fissile Pu and HEU LIFE Engine - NA22 (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Nuclear Design of Fissile Pu and HEU LIFE Engine - NA22 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nuclear Design of Fissile Pu and HEU LIFE Engine - NA22 You ...

  1. Characterization of Pu-238 Heat Source Granule Containment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, Paul Dean II; Sanchez, Joey Leo; Wall, Angelique Dinorah; Chavarria, Rene

    2015-02-11

    The Milliwatt Radioisotopic Themoelectric Generator (RTG) provides power for permissive-action links. Essentially these are nuclear batteries that convert thermal energy to electrical energy using a doped silicon-germanium thermopile. The thermal energy is provided by a heat source made of 238Pu, in the form of 238PuO2 granules. The granules are contained by 3 layers of encapsulation. A thin T-111 liner surrounds the 238PuO2 granules and protects the second layer (strength member) from exposure to the fuel granules. An outer layer of Hastalloy-C protects the T-111 from oxygen embrittlement. The T-111 strength member is considered the critical component in this 238PuO2 containment system. Any compromise in the strength member seen during destructive testing required by the RTG surveillance program is characterized. The T-111 strength member is characterized through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Metallography. SEM is used in the Secondary Electron mode to reveal possible grain boundary deformation and/or cracking in the region of the strength member weld. Deformation and cracking uncovered by SEM are further characterized by Metallography. Metallography sections are mounted and polished, observed using optical microscopy, then documented in the form of microphotographs. SEM mat further be used to examine polished Metallography mounts to characterize elements using the SEM mode of Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS).

  2. Atomic Structure and Phase Transformations in Pu Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, A J; Cynn, H; Blobaum, K M; Wall, M A; Moore, K T; Evans, W J; Farber, D L; Jeffries, J R; Massalski, T B

    2008-04-28

    Plutonium and plutonium-based alloys containing Al or Ga exhibit numerous phases with crystal structures ranging from simple monoclinic to face-centered cubic. Only recently, however, has there been increased convergence in the actinides community on the details of the equilibrium form of the phase diagrams. Practically speaking, while the phase diagrams that represent the stability of the fcc {delta}-phase field at room temperature are generally applicable, it is also recognized that Pu and its alloys are never truly in thermodynamic equilibrium because of self-irradiation effects, primarily from the alpha decay of Pu isotopes. This article covers past and current research on several properties of Pu and Pu-(Al or Ga) alloys and their connections to the crystal structure and the microstructure. We review the consequences of radioactive decay, the recent advances in understanding the electronic structure, the current research on phase transformations and their relations to phase diagrams and phase stability, the nature of the isothermal martensitic {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation, and the pressure-induced transformations in the {delta}-phase alloys. New data are also presented on the structures and phase transformations observed in these materials following the application of pressure, including the formation of transition phases.

  3. Selection and Evaluation of a new Pu Density Measurement Fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dziewinska, Krystyna; Peters, Michael A; Martinez, Patrick P; Dziewinski, Jacek J; Pugmire, David L; Trujillo, Stephen M; La Verne, Jake A; Rajesh, P

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes efforts leading to selection of a new fluid for the determination of the density of large Pu parts. Based on an extended literature search, perfluorotributylamine (FC-43) was chosen for an experimental study. Plutonium coupon corrosion studies were performed by exposing Pu to deaerated and aerated solutions and measuring corrosion gravimetrically. Corrosion rates were determined. Samples of deaerated and aerated perfuluorotributylamine (FC-43) were also irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays (96 Gy/min) to various doses. The samples were extracted with NaOH and analyzed by IC and showed the presence of F and Cl{sup -}. The G-values were established. In surface study experiments Pu coupons were exposed to deaerated and aerated solutions of FC-43 and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS data indicate that there is no detectable surface effect caused by the new fluid. In conclusion the FC-43 was determined to be a very effective and practical fluid for Pu density measurements.

  4. Bulk characterization of (U, Pu) mixed carbide fuel for distribution of plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devi, K. V. Vrinda Khan, K. B.; Biju, K.; Kumar, Arun

    2015-06-24

    Homogeneous distribution of plutonium in (U, Pu) mixed fuels is important from fuel performance as well as reprocessing point of view. Radiation imaging and assay techniques are employed for the detection of Pu rich agglomerates in the fuel. A simulation study of radiation transport was carried out to analyse the technique of autoradiography so as to estimate the minimum detectability of Pu agglomerates in MC fuel with nominal PuC content of 70% using Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. AFS-2 FLOWSHEET MODIFICATIONS TO ADDRESS THE INGROWTH OF PU(VI) DURING METAL DISSOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crapse, K.; Rudisill, T.; O'Rourke, P.; Kyser, E.

    2014-07-02

    In support of the Alternate Feed Stock Two (AFS-2) PuO{sub 2} production campaign, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted a series of experiments concluding that dissolving Pu metal at 95°C using a 6–10 M HNO{sub 3} solution containing 0.05–0.2 M KF and 0–2 g/L B could reduce the oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) as compared to dissolving Pu metal under the same conditions but at or near the boiling temperature. This flowsheet was demonstrated by conducting Pu metal dissolutions at 95°C to ensure that PuO{sub 2} solids were not formed during the dissolution. These dissolution parameters can be used for dissolving both Aqueous Polishing (AP) and MOX Process (MP) specification materials. Preceding the studies reported herein, two batches of Pu metal were dissolved in the H-Canyon 6.1D dissolver to prepare feed solution for the AFS-2 PuO{sub 2} production campaign. While in storage, UV-visible spectra obtained from an at-line spectrophotometer indicated the presence of Pu(VI). Analysis of the solutions also showed the presence of Fe, Ni, and Cr. Oxidation of Pu(IV) produced during metal dissolution to Pu(VI) is a concern for anion exchange purification. Anion exchange requires Pu in the +4 oxidation state for formation of the anionic plutonium(IV) hexanitrato complex which absorbs onto the resin. The presence of Pu(VI) in the anion feed solution would require a valence adjustment step to prevent losses. In addition, the presence of Cr(VI) would result in absorption of chromate ion onto the resin and could limit the purification of Pu from Cr which may challenge the purity specification of the final PuO{sub 2} product. Initial experiments were performed to quantify the rate of oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) (presumed to be facilitated by Cr(VI)) as functions of the HNO{sub 3} concentration and temperature in simulated dissolution solutions containing Cr, Fe, and Ni. In these simulated Pu dissolutions studies, lowering the temperature from near boiling

  6. Np and Pu Sorption to Manganese Oxide Minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, P; Johnson, M R; Roberts, S K; Zavarin, M

    2005-08-30

    Manganese oxide minerals are a significant component of the fracture lining mineralogy at Yucca Mountain (Carlos et al., 1993) and within the tuff-confining unit at Yucca Flat (Prothro, 1998), Pahute Mesa (Drellack et al., 1997), and other locations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Radionuclide sorption to manganese oxide minerals was not included in recent Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hydrologic source term (HST) models which attempt to predict the migration behavior of radionuclides away from underground nuclear tests. However, experiments performed for the Yucca Mountain Program suggest that these minerals may control much of the retardation of certain radionuclides, particularly Np and Pu (Triay et al., 1991; Duff et al., 1999). As a result, recent HST model results may significantly overpredict radionuclide transport away from underground nuclear tests. The sorption model used in HST calculations performed at LLNL includes sorption to iron oxide, calcite, zeolite, smectite, and mica minerals (Zavarin and Bruton 2004a; 2004b). For the majority of radiologic source term (RST) radionuclides, we believe that this accounts for the dominant sorption processes controlling transport. However, for the case of Np, sorption is rather weak to all but the iron and manganese oxides (Figure 1). Thus, we can expect to significantly reduce predicted Np transport by accounting for Np sorption to manganese oxides. Similarly, Pu has been shown to be predominantly associated with manganese oxides in Yucca Mountain fractured tuffs (Duff et al., 1999). Recent results on colloid-facilitated Pu transport (Kersting and Reimus, 2003) also suggest that manganese oxide coatings on fracture surfaces may compete with colloids for Pu, thus reducing the effects of colloid-facilitated Pu transport (Figure 1b). The available data suggest that it is important to incorporate Np and Pu sorption to manganese oxides in reactive transport models. However, few data are available for

  7. Characterization of Pu-238 heat source granule containment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson Ii, P D; Thronas, D L; Romero, J P; Sandoval, F E; Neuman, A D; Duncan, W S

    2008-01-01

    The Milliwatt Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) provides power for permissive-action links. These nuclear batteries convert thermal energy to electrical energy using a doped silicon-germanium thermopile. The thermal energy is provided by a heat source made of {sup 238}Pu, in the form of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} granules. The granules are contained in 3 layers of encapsulation. A thin T-111 liner surrounds the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} granules and protects the second layer (strength member) from exposure to the fuel granules. The T-111 strength member contains the fuel under impact condition. An outer clad of Hastelloy-C protects the T-111 from oxygen embrittlement. The T-111 strength member is considered the critical component in this {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} containment system. Any compromise in the strength member is something that needs to be characterized. Consequently, the T-111 strength member is characterized upon it's decommissioning through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Metallography. SEM is used in Secondary Electron mode to reveal possible grain boundary deformation and/or cracking in the region of the strength member weld. Deformation and cracking uncovered by SEM are further characterized by Metallography. Metallography sections are mounted and polished, observed using optical microscopy, then documented in the form of photomicrographs. SEM may further be used to examine polished Metallography mounts to characterize elements using the SEM mode of Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). This paper describes the characterization of the metallurgical condition of decommissioned RTG heat sources.

  8. Slow Neutron Velocity Spectrometer Transmission Studies Of Pu

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Havens, W. W. Jr.; Melkonian, E.; Rainwater, L. J.; Levin, M.

    1951-05-28

    The slow neutron transmission of several samples of Pu has been investigated with the Columbia Neutron Velocity Spectrometer. Data are presented in two groups, those covering the energy region from 0 to 6 ev, and those covering the region above 6 ev. Below 6 ev the resolution was relatively good, and a detailed study of the cross section variation was made. Work above 6 ev consisted of merely locating levels and obtaining a rough idea of their strengths.

  9. A Best Practice for Developing Availability Guarantee Language in Photovoltaic (PV) O&M Agreements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Balfour, John

    2015-11-01

    This document outlines the foundation for developing language that can be utilized in an Equipment Availability Guarantee, typically included in an O&M services agreement between a PV system or plant owner and an O&M services provider, or operator. Many of the current PV O&M service agreement Availability Guarantees are based on contracts used for traditional power generation, which create challenges for owners and operators due to the variable nature of grid-tied photovoltaic generating technologies. This report documents language used in early PV availability guarantees and presents best practices and equations that can be used to more openly communicate how the reliability of the PV system and plant equipment can be expressed in an availability guarantee. This work will improve the bankability of PV systems by providing greater transparency into the equipment reliability state to all parties involved in an O&M services contract.

  10. Where might I find simplified Data on Capital, O&M, and fuel...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Where might I find simplified Data on Capital, O&M, and fuel costs? Home I teach math to high school seniors. My students are studying energy in all their classes. I have just...

  11. Removal of Pu238 from Neptunium Solution by Anion Exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KYSER, EDWARD

    2003-12-01

    A new anion flowsheet for use in HB-Line was tested in the lab with Reillex{trademark} HPQ for removal of Pu{sup 238} contamination from Np. Significant rejection of Pu{sup 238} was observed by washing with 6 to 12 bed volumes (BV) of reductive wash containing reduced nitric acid concentration along with both ferrous sulfamate (FS) and hydrazine. A shortened-height column was utilized in these tests to match changes in the plant equipment. Lab experiments scaled to plant batch sizes of 1500 to 2200 g Np were observed with modest losses for up-flow washing. Down-flow washing was observed to have high losses. The following are recommended conditions for removing Pu{sup 238} from Np solutions by anion exchange in HB-Line: (1) Feed conditions: Up-flow 6.4-8 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.02 M hydrazine, 0.05 M excess FS, less than 5 days storage of solution after FS addition. (2) Reductive Wash conditions: Up-flow 6-12 BV of 6.4 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.05 M FS, 0.05 M hydrazine. 1.8 mL/min/cm{sup 2} flowrate. (3) Decontamination Wash conditions: Up-flow 1-2 BV of 6.4-8 M HNO{sub 3}, no FS, no hydrazine. (4) Elution conditions: Down-flow 0.17 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.05 M hydrazine, no FS.

  12. First-principles elastic properties of (alpha)-Pu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soderlind, P; Klepeis, J E

    2008-11-04

    Density-functional electronic structure calculations have been used to investigate the ambient pressure and low temperature elastic properties of the ground-state {alpha} phase of plutonium metal. The electronic structure and correlation effects are modeled within a fully relativistic anti-ferromagnetic treatment with a generalized gradient approximation for the electron exchange and correlation functionals. The 13 independent elastic constants, for the monoclinic {alpha}-Pu system, are calculated for the observed geometry. A comparison of the results with measured data from resonant ultrasound spectroscopy for a cast sample is made.

  13. Neutron Resonance Parameters and Covariance Matrix of 239Pu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derrien, Herve; Leal, Luiz C; Larson, Nancy M

    2008-08-01

    In order to obtain the resonance parameters in a single energy range and the corresponding covariance matrix, a reevaluation of 239Pu was performed with the code SAMMY. The most recent experimental data were analyzed or reanalyzed in the energy range thermal to 2.5 keV. The normalization of the fission cross section data was reconsidered by taking into account the most recent measurements of Weston et al. and Wagemans et al. A full resonance parameter covariance matrix was generated. The method used to obtain realistic uncertainties on the average cross section calculated by SAMMY or other processing codes was examined.

  14. Significant issues and changes for ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, part 1, ASME OMc code-1994, and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, inservice testing of pressure relief devices in light water reactor power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seniuk, P.J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper identifies significant changes to the ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, Part 1, and ASME Omc Code-1994 and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, {open_quotes}Inservice Testing of Pressure Relief Devices in Light-Water Reactor Power Plants{close_quotes}. The paper describes changes to different Code editions and presents insights into the direction of the code committee and selected topics to be considered by the ASME O&M Working Group on pressure relief devices. These topics include scope issues, thermal relief valve issues, as-found and as-left set-pressure determinations, exclusions from testing, and cold setpoint bench testing. The purpose of this paper is to describe some significant issues being addressed by the O&M Working Group on Pressure Relief Devices (OM-1). The writer is currently the chair of OM-1 and the statements expressed herein represents his personal opinion.

  15. Analysis of Pu-Only Partitioning Strategies in LMFBR Fuel Cycles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analysis of Pu-Only Partitioning Strategies in LMFBR Fuel Cycles Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) have been under consideration for ...

  16. Development of U and Pu Co-Recovery Process (Co-Processing) for Future Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, K.; Yanagibashi, F.; Fujimoto, I.; Sato, T.; Ohbu, T.; Taki, K.; Hayashi, S.

    2013-07-01

    Co-processing process, which is the modified Purex process focused on co-recovery of Pu and U, has been studied at Operation Testing Laboratory, Tokai Reprocessing Plant in JAEA. The set up of the process was performed with flow-sheets study by process calculation to avoid Pu isolation in the whole process and to co-recover Pu/U product solution with a suitable Pu/U ratio (0.5< Pu/U <2). The initial Pu/U ratios of the feed solutions were taken as 1%, 3% and 20% considering the composition of the future spent fuels. The verification of the flow-sheets for each feed solutions were carried out with mixer-setters and active Pu/U feed solutions, focusing on the partitioning unit, and favorable back extraction performances of Pu accompanied by U were observed at all cases of the given feed solutions. According to these results, the co-processing process showed a good prospect to treat all kinds of future fuels from LWR, LWR-MOX and FBR, and a good prospect to be simplified by omitting the Pu/U purification cycle.

  17. Overview of advanced technologies for stabilization of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, K.B.; Foltyn, E.M.; Heslop, J.M.

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of potential technologies for stabilization of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has processed {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel into heat sources for space and terrestrial uses for the past several decades. The 88-year half-life of {sup 238}Pu and thermal power of approximately 0.6 watts/gram make this isotope ideal for missions requiring many years of dependable service in inaccessible locations. However, the same characteristic which makes {sup 238}Pu attractive for heat source applications, the high Curie content (17 Ci/gram versus 0.06 Ci/gram for 239{sup Pu}), makes disposal of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste difficult. Specifically, the thermal load limit on drums destined for transport to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), 0.23 gram per drum for combustible waste, is impossible to meet for nearly all {sup 238}Pu-contaminated glovebox waste. Use of advanced waste treatment technologies including Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) and aqueous chemical separation will eliminate the combustible matrix from {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste and recover kilogram quantities of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} from the waste stream. A conceptual design of these advanced waste treatment technologies will be presented.

  18. Thermal Analysis of ZPPR High Pu Content Stored Fuel

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solbrig, Charles W.; Pope, Chad L.; Andrus, Jason P.

    2014-01-01

    The Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) operated from April 18, 1969, until 1990. ZPPR operated at low power for testing nuclear reactor designs. This paper examines the temperature of Pu content ZPPR fuel while it is in storage. Heat is generated in the fuel due to Pu and Am decay and is a concern for possible cladding damage. Damage to the cladding could lead to fuel hydriding and oxidizing. A series of computer simulations were made to determine the range of temperatures potentially occuring in the ZPPR fuel. The maximum calculated fuel temperature is 292°C (558°F). Conservative assumptions in themore » model intentionally overestimate temperatures. The stored fuel temperatures are dependent on the distribution of fuel in the surrounding storage compartments, the heat generation rate of the fuel, and the orientation of fuel. Direct fuel temperatures could not be measured but storage bin doors, storage sleeve doors, and storage canister temperatures were measured. Comparison of these three temperatures to the calculations indicates that the temperatures calculated with conservative assumptions are, as expected, higher than the actual temperatures. The maximum calculated fuel temperature with the most conservative assumptions is significantly below the fuel failure criterion of 600°C (1,112°F).« less

  19. ZPR-6 assembly 7 high {sup 240}Pu core experiments : a fast reactor core with mixed (Pu,U)-oxide fuel and a centeral high{sup 240}Pu zone.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lell, R. M.; Morman, J. A.; Schaefer, R.W.; McKnight, R.D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-02-23

    ZPR-6 Assembly 7 (ZPR-6/7) encompasses a series of experiments performed at the ZPR-6 facility at Argonne National Laboratory in 1970 and 1971 as part of the Demonstration Reactor Benchmark Program (Reference 1). Assembly 7 simulated a large sodium-cooled LMFBR with mixed oxide fuel, depleted uranium radial and axial blankets, and a core H/D near unity. ZPR-6/7 was designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, so configurations in the Assembly 7 program were as simple as possible in terms of geometry and composition. ZPR-6/7 had a very uniform core assembled from small plates of depleted uranium, sodium, iron oxide, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and Pu-U-Mo alloy loaded into stainless steel drawers. The steel drawers were placed in square stainless steel tubes in the two halves of a split table machine. ZPR-6/7 had a simple, symmetric core unit cell whose neutronic characteristics were dominated by plutonium and {sup 238}U. The core was surrounded by thick radial and axial regions of depleted uranium to simulate radial and axial blankets and to isolate the core from the surrounding room. The ZPR-6/7 program encompassed 139 separate core loadings which include the initial approach to critical and all subsequent core loading changes required to perform specific experiments and measurements. In this context a loading refers to a particular configuration of fueled drawers, radial blanket drawers and experimental equipment (if present) in the matrix of steel tubes. Two principal core configurations were established. The uniform core (Loadings 1-84) had a relatively uniform core composition. The high {sup 240}Pu core (Loadings 85-139) was a variant on the uniform core. The plutonium in the Pu-U-Mo fuel plates in the uniform core contains 11% {sup 240}Pu. In the high {sup 240}Pu core, all Pu-U-Mo plates in the inner core region (central 61 matrix locations per half of the split table machine) were replaced by Pu-U-Mo plates containing 27% {sup 240}Pu in the plutonium

  20. Gamma-ray Output Spectra from 239 Pu Fission

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ullmann, John

    2015-05-25

    Gamma-ray multiplicities, individual gamma-ray energy spectra, and total gamma energy spectra following neutron-induced fission of 239Pu were measured using the DANCE detector at Los Alamos. Corrections for detector response were made using a forward-modeling technique based on propagating sets of gamma rays generated from a paramaterized model through a GEANT model of the DANCE array and adjusting the parameters for best fit to the measured spectra. The results for the gamma-ray spectrum and multiplicity are in general agreement with previous results, but the measured total gamma-ray energy is about 10% higher. A dependence of the gamma-ray spectrum on the gamma-raymore » multplicity was also observed. Global model calculations of the multiplicity and gamma energy distributions are in good agreement with the data, but predict a slightly softer total-energy distribution.« less

  1. Consistent Data Assimilation of Isotopes: 242Pu and 105Pd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Palmiotti; H. Hiruta; M. Salvatores

    2012-09-01

    In this annual report we illustrate the methodology of the consistent data assimilation that allows to use the information coming from integral experiments for improving the basic nuclear parameters used in cross section evaluation. A series of integral experiments are analyzed using the EMPIRE evaluated files for 242Pu and 105Pd. In particular irradiation experiments (PROFIL-1 and -2, TRAPU-1, -2 and -3) provide information about capture cross sections, and a critical configuration, COSMO, where fission spectral indexes were measured, provides information about fission cross section. The observed discrepancies between calculated and experimental results are used in conjunction with the computed sensitivity coefficients and covariance matrix for nuclear parameters in a consistent data assimilation. The results obtained by the consistent data assimilation indicate that not so large modifications on some key identified nuclear parameters allow to obtain reasonable C/E. However, for some parameters such variations are outside the range of 1 s of their initial standard deviation. This can indicate a possible conflict between differential measurements (used to calculate the initial standard deviations) and the integral measurements used in the statistical data adjustment. Moreover, an inconsistency between the C/E of two sets of irradiation experiments (PROFIL and TRAPU) is observed for 242Pu. This is the end of this project funded by the Nuclear Physics Program of the DOE Office of Science. We can indicate that a proof of principle has been demonstrated for a few isotopes for this innovative methodology. However, we are still far from having explored all the possibilities and made this methodology to be considered proved and robust. In particular many issues are worth further investigation: • Non-linear effects • Flexibility of nuclear parameters in describing cross sections • Multi-isotope consistent assimilation • Consistency between differential and integral

  2. Neutron capture of /sup 122/Te, /sup 123/Te, /sup 124/Te, /sup 125/Te, and /sup 126/Te

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macklin, R.L.; Winters, R.R.

    1989-07-01

    Isotopically enriched samples of the tellurium isotopes from mass 122 to mass 126 were used to measure neutron capture in the energy range 2.6 keV to 600 keV at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator pulsed neutron source. Starting at 2.6 keV, over 200 Breit-Wigner resonances for each isotope were used to describe the capture data. Least-squares adjustment gave parameters and their uncertainties for a total of 1659 resonances. Capture cross sections averaged over Maxwellian neutron distributions with temperatures ranging from kT = 5 keV to kT = 100 keV were derived for comparison with stellar nucleosynthesis calculations. For the three isotopes shielded from the astrophysical r-process, /sup 122/Te, /sup 123/Te and /sup 124/Te at kT = 30 keV the respective values were (280 /plus minus/ 10) mb, (819 /plus minus/ 30) mb and (154 /plus minus/ 6) mb. The corresponding products of cross section and solar system abundance are nearly equal in close agreement with s-process nucleosynthesis calculations. 26 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. TE Connectivity Finds Answers in Tomography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TE Connectivity Finds Answers in Tomography TE Connectivity Finds Answers in Tomography Print Thursday, 22 August 2013 10:50 TE Connectivity is a world leader in connectivity-the...

  4. Determining site-specific drum loading criteria for storing combustible {sup 238}Pu waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, R.S.; Callis, E.L.; Cappis, J.H.; Espinoza, J.M.; Foltyn, E.M.; Reich, B.T.; Smith, M.C.

    1994-02-01

    Waste containing hydrogenous-combustible material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu can generate hydrogen gas at appreciable rates through alpha radiolysis. To ensure safe transportation of WIPP drums, the limit for {sup 238}Pu-combustible waste published in the WIPP TRUPACT-11 CONTENT (TRUCON) CODES is 21 milliwafts per 55 gallon drum. This corresponds to about 45 milligrams of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} used for satellite heat source-electrical generators. The Los Alamos waste storage site adopted a {sup 238}Pu waste storage criteria based on these TRCUCON codes. However, reviews of the content in drums of combustible waste generated during heat source assembly at Los Alamos showed the amount of {sup 238}Pu is typically much greater than 45 milligrams. It is not feasible to appreciably reduce Los Alamos {sup 238}Pu waste drum loadings without significantly increasing waste volumes or introducing unsafe practices. To address this concern, a series of studies were implemented to evaluate the applicability of the TRUCON limits for storage of this specific waste. Addressed in these evaluations were determination of the hydrogen generation rate, hydrogen diffusion rates through confinement layers and vent filters, and packaging requirements specific to Los Alamos generated {sup 238}Pu contaminated combustible waste. These studies also showed that the multiple-layer packaging practices in use at Los Alamos could be relaxed without significantly increasing the risk of contamination. Based on a model developed to predict H{sub 2} concentrations in packages and drum headspace, the site specific effective hydrogen generation rate, and hydrogen-diffusion values, and revising the waste packaging practices, we were able to raise the safe loading limit for {sup 238}Pu waste drums for on site storage to the gram levels typical of currently generated {sup 238}Pu waste.

  5. Multiscale Speciation of U and Pu at Chernobyl, Hanford, Los Alamos,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    McGuire AFB, Mayak, and Rocky Flats | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Multiscale Speciation of U and Pu at Chernobyl, Hanford, Los Alamos, McGuire AFB, Mayak, and Rocky Flats Friday, June 26, 2015 X-ray fluorescence maps of (clockwise from upper right) Ga, U, Ca, Pu, Ti, and K in a 350 micron PuO2-UO2 composite particle produced by the fire that consumed a nuclear armed BOMARC missile at McGuire AFB in 1960, measured with the two micron focused x-ray beam at SSRL. EST June 2,

  6. ZPR-6 assembly 7 high {sup 240} PU core : a cylindrical assemby with mixed (PU, U)-oxide fuel and a central high {sup 240} PU zone.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lell, R. M.; Schaefer, R. W.; McKnight, R. D.; Tsiboulia, A.; Rozhikhin, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering

    2007-10-01

    Over a period of 30 years more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. The term 'benchmark' in a ZPR program connotes a particularly simple loading aimed at gaining basic reactor physics insight, as opposed to studying a reactor design. In fact, the ZPR-6/7 Benchmark Assembly (Reference 1) had a very simple core unit cell assembled from plates of depleted uranium, sodium, iron oxide, U3O8, and plutonium. The ZPR-6/7 core cell-average composition is typical of the interior region of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) of the era. It was one part of the Demonstration Reactor Benchmark Program,a which provided integral experiments characterizing the important features of demonstration

  7. RAPID DETERMINATION OF 237 NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN WATER BY INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY AND ALPHA SPECTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, S.; Jones, V.; Culligan, B.; Nichols, S.; Noyes, G.

    2010-06-23

    A new method that allows rapid preconcentration and separation of plutonium and neptunium in water samples was developed for the measurement of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and alpha spectrometry; a hybrid approach. {sup 238}U can interfere with {sup 239}Pu measurement by ICP-MS as {sup 238}UH{sup +} mass overlap and {sup 237}Np via peak tailing. The method provide enhanced removal of uranium by separating Pu and Np initially on TEVA Resin, then moving Pu to DGA resin for additional removal of uranium. The decontamination factor for uranium from Pu is almost 100,000 and the decontamination factor for U from Np is greater than 10,000. This method uses stacked extraction chromatography cartridges and vacuum box technology to facilitate rapid separations. Preconcentration is performed using a streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation method. Purified solutions are split between ICP-MS and alpha spectrometry so that long and short-lived Pu isotopes can be measured successfully. The method allows for simultaneous extraction of 20 samples (including QC samples) in 4 to 6 hours, and can also be used for emergency response. {sup 239}Pu, {sup 242}Pu and {sup 237}Np were measured by ICP-MS, while {sup 236}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239}Pu were measured by alpha spectrometry.

  8. Top Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Efficiency Opportunities at DoD/Army Sites - A Guide for O&M/Energy Managers and Practitioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Gregory P.; Dean, Jesse D.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2007-05-25

    This report, sponsored the Army's Energy Engineering Analysis Program, provides the Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Energy manager and practitioner with useful information about the top O&M opportunities consistently found across the DoD/Army sector. The target is to help the DoD/Army sector develop a well-structured and organized O&M program.

  9. First-principles study of the Kondo physics of a single Pu impurity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    As a foundational study to probe the role of local electronic correlations in Pu, we use the local-density approximation together with a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo ...

  10. Summary of EXAFS results on Cd-doped PuRhIn5 (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Summary of EXAFS results on Cd-doped PuRhIn5 Authors: Booth, C H ; Bauer, E D ; Tobin, J G Publication Date: 2014-06-12 OSTI Identifier: ...

  11. Characterization of high-fired PuO/sub 2/ as a certified reference material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Legeled, M.A.; Cacic, C.G.; Crawford, D.W.; Spaletto, M.I.

    1984-07-01

    The New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL), U.S. Department of Energy, has certified a plutonium dioxide reference material, CRM 122, for plutonium assay and isotopic composition. The PuO/sub 2/ standard, one of several certified Pu reference materials currently being developed at NBL for use in instrumentation calibration and measurement control for safeguards, establishes traceability to the national measurement base. This plutonium reference material in the oxide form provides more directly demonstrable traceability than metal because it undergoes the same chemical treatment for dissolution as PuO/sub 2/ fuel materials. Various tests for achieving a constant weight and for dissolving CRM 122 high-fired PuO/sub 2/ were conducted. Results of these tests as well as the certification data generated by controlled-potential coulometry for plutonium assay and by thermal ionization mass spectrometry for isotopic composition will also be presented and discussed.

  12. Detection and Quantification of Pu(III, IV, V, and VI) Using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a1.0-meter Liquid Core Waveguide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Detection and Quantification of Pu(III, IV, V, and VI) Using a1.0-meter Liquid Core Waveguide ...

  13. Detection and Quantification of Pu(III, IV, V, and VI) Using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a1.0-meter Liquid Core Waveguide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Detection and Quantification of Pu(III, IV, V, and VI) Using a1.0-meter Liquid Core Waveguide You ...

  14. Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields for 239Pu, 235U,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields for 239Pu, 235U, and 238U Authors: Tornow, Werner 1 ; Bredeweg, Todd Allen 2 ; Wilhelmy, Jerry B. 2 ; Vieira, David J. 2 ...

  15. Discovery of Pu-based superconductors and relation to other classes of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    unconventional superconductors (Conference) | SciTech Connect Discovery of Pu-based superconductors and relation to other classes of unconventional superconductors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Discovery of Pu-based superconductors and relation to other classes of unconventional superconductors No abstract prepared. Authors: Bauer, Eric D. [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2012-08-20 OSTI Identifier: 1049339 Report Number(s):

  16. Mass transport properties of Pu/DT mixtures from orbital free molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kress, Joel David; Ticknor, Christopher; Collins, Lee A.

    2015-09-16

    Mass transport properties (shear viscosity and diffusion coefficients) for Pu/DT mixtures were calculated with Orbital Free Molecular Dynamics (OFMD). The results were fitted to simple functions of mass density (for ρ=10.4 to 62.4 g/cm3) and temperature (for T=100 up to 3,000 eV) for Pu/DT mixtures consisting of 100/0, 25/75, 50/50, and 75/25 by number.

  17. Physics of sup 238 Pu production in the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawlins, J.A.; Schmittroth, F.A.; Mann, F.M.; Schenter, R.E.; Lu, A.H.; Carter, L.L.; Wootan, D.W.; Schwarz, R.A.; Brager, H.R.; Matsumoto, W.Y.

    1989-11-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company conducted an assessment of producing {sup 238}Pu in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reactor located near Richland, Washington. The goal of the assessment was to determine whether the FFTF can produce at least 15 kg/yr of {sup 238}Pu to support the needs of the U.S. space program. Plutonium-238, with its 87.7-yr half-life and relatively pure alpha-particle decay mode, is an ideal power source for deep-space missions. The DOE is evaluating options for future {sup 238}Pu production, and the FFTF is a preferred candidate. The key technical issue for FFTF production is the isotopic purity of the product plutonium. FFTF production of at least 15 kg/yr of {sup 238}Pu is feasible. An FFTF physics test was completed and will reduce the large calculational uncertainties in {sup 236}Pu content, and the final test results will allow final production assembly design optimization. Use of the FFTF for {sup 238}Pu production can satisfy the needs of the U.S. space program for many years with a modern reactor that has an outstanding operational record.

  18. Absolute measurement of the 242Pu neutron-capture cross section

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Chyzh, A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; et al

    2016-04-21

    Here, the absolute neutron-capture cross section of 242Pu was measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. The first direct measurement of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section was made over the incident neutron energy range from thermal to ≈ 6 keV, and the absolute scale of the (n,γ) cross section was set according to the known 239Pu(n,f) resonance at En,R = 7.83 eV. This was accomplished by adding a small quantity of 239Pu to the 242Pu sample. The relative scale of the crossmore » section, with a range of four orders of magnitude, was determined for incident neutron energies from thermal to ≈ 40 keV. Our data, in general, are in agreement with previous measurements and those reported in ENDF/B-VII.1; the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section at the En,R = 2.68 eV resonance is within 2.4% of the evaluated value. However, discrepancies exist at higher energies; our data are ≈30% lower than the evaluated data at En ≈ 1 keV and are approximately 2σ away from the previous measurement at En ≈ 20 keV.« less

  19. COMPUTER SIMULATIONS TO ADDRESS PU-FE EUTECTICISSUE IN 3013 STORAGE VESSEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, N; Allen Smith, A

    2007-03-06

    On November 22, 2005, the Manager of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) in Richland, WA issued an Occurrence Report involving a potential Pu-Fe eutectic failure mechanism for the stainless steel (SS) 3013 cans containing plutonium (Pu) metal. Four additional reports addressed nuclear safety concerns about the integrity of stainless steel containers holding plutonium during fire scenarios. The reports expressed a belief that the probability and consequences of container failure due to the formation of a plutonium-iron eutectic alloy had been overlooked. Simplified thermal model to address the Pu-Fe eutectic concerns using axisymmetric model similar to the models used in the 9975 SARP were performed. The model uses Rocky Flats configuration with 2 stacked Pu buttons inside a 3013 assembly. The assembly has an outer can, an inner can, and a convenience can, all stainless steel. The boundary conditions are similar to the regulatory 30 minutes HAC fire analyses. Computer simulations of the HAC fire transients lasting 4 hours of burn time show that the interface between the primary containment vessel and the Pu metal in the 9975 package will not reach Pu-Fe eutectic temperature of 400 C.

  20. PU/SS EUTECTIC ASSESSMENT IN 9975 PACKAGINGS IN A STORAGE FACILITY DURING EXTENDED FIRE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, N.

    2012-03-26

    In a radioactive material (RAM) packaging, the formation of eutectic at the Pu/SS (plutonium/stainless steel) interface is a serious concern and must be avoided to prevent of leakage of fissile material to the environment. The eutectic temperature for the Pu/SS is rather low (410 C) and could seriously impact the structural integrity of the containment vessel under accident conditions involving fire. The 9975 packaging is used for long term storage of Pu bearing materials in the DOE complex where the Pu comes in contact with the stainless steel containment vessel. Due to the serious consequences of the containment breach at the eutectic site, the Pu/SS interface temperature is kept well below the eutectic formation temperature of 410 C. This paper discusses the thermal models and the results for the extended fire conditions (1500 F for 86 minutes) that exist in a long term storage facility and concludes that the 9975 packaging Pu/SS interface temperature is well below the eutectic temperature.

  1. Thermal Analysis of ZPPR High Pu Content Stored Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles W. Solbrig; Chad Pope; Jason Andrus

    2014-09-01

    This paper estimates the temperature of high Pu content ZPPR fuel while in storage to determine the probablilty of fuel damage during storage. The Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) is an experimental reactor which has been decomissioned. It ran only at extremely low power, for testing nuclear reactor designs and was operated as a criticality facility from April 18, 1969 until decommissioned in 1990. Its fuel was manufactured in 1967 and has been in storage since the reactor was decomissioned. Heat is generated in the fuel due to Pu and Am decay and is a concern for possible fuel damage. Any damage to the cladding would be expected to lead to the fuel hydriding and oxidizing over a long period of storage as was described in the analysis of the damage to the ZPPR uranium fuel resulting in the fuel becoming unuseable and a large potential source of contamination. (Ref. Solbrig, 1994). A series of computer runs were made to scope out the range of temperatures that can occur in the ZPPR fuel in storage. The maximum calculated conservative fuel temperature is high (292 degrees C [558 degrees F]) in spite of the fact that the fuel element heat generation rates seem quite low, between 35 and 10 W for containers (called clamshells) full of fuel. However, the ZPPR storage bins, built for safeguards, are very effective insulators. The calculated clamshells and the cavity doors temperatures are also high. No record exists of people receiving skin burns by touching the cavity doors or clamshells, which indicates the computed temperatures may be higher than actual. (Note, gloves are worn when handling hotter clamshells.) Given the high calculated temperatures, a cursory measurement program was conducted to calibrate the calculated results. The measurement of bin doors, cavity doors, and clamshell temperatures would be easy to make if it were not for regulations resulting from security and potential contamination. Due to conservative assumptions in the model like high heat

  2. DETERMINATION OF 237NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN LARGE SOIL SAMPLES BY INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, S.

    2010-07-26

    A new method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in large soil samples has been developed that provides enhanced uranium removal to facilitate assay by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This method allows rapid preconcentration and separation of plutonium and neptunium in large soil samples for the measurement of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes by ICP-MS. {sup 238}U can interfere with {sup 239}Pu measurement by ICP-MS as {sup 238}UH{sup +} mass overlap and {sup 237}Np via {sup 238}U peak tailing. The method provides enhanced removal of uranium by separating Pu and Np initially on TEVA Resin, then transferring Pu to DGA resin for additional purification. The decontamination factor for removal of uranium from plutonium for this method is greater than 1 x 10{sup 6}. Alpha spectrometry can also be applied so that the shorter-lived {sup 238}Pu isotope can be measured successfully. {sup 239}Pu, {sup 242}Pu and {sup 237}Np were measured by ICP-MS, while {sup 236}Pu and {sup 238}Pu were measured by alpha spectrometry.

  3. Measurement of the 240Pu/239Pu mass ratio using a transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeter for total decay energy spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoover, Andrew S.; Bond, Evelyn M.; Croce, Mark P.; Holesinger, Terry G.; Kunde, Gerd J.; Rabin, Michael W.; Wolfsberg, Laura E.; Bennett, Douglas A.; Hays-Wehle, James P.; Schmidt, Dan R.; Swetz, Daniel; Ullom, Joel N.

    2015-02-27

    In this study, we have developed a new category of sensor for measurement of the 240Pu/239Pu mass ratio from aqueous solution samples with advantages over existing methods. Aqueous solution plutonium samples were evaporated and encapsulated inside of a gold foil absorber, and a superconducting transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeter detector was used to measure the total reaction energy (Q-value) of nuclear decays via heat generated when the energy is thermalized. Since all of the decay energy is contained in the absorber, we measure a single spectral peak for each isotope, resulting in a simple spectral analysis problem with minimal peak overlap. We found that mechanical kneading of the absorber dramatically improves spectral quality by reducing the size of radioactive inclusions within the absorber to scales below 50 nm such that decay products primarily interact with atoms of the host material. Due to the low noise performance of the microcalorimeter detector, energy resolution values of 1 keV fwhm (full width at half-maximum) at 5.5 MeV have been achieved, an order of magnitude improvement over α-spectroscopy with conventional silicon detectors. We measured the 240Pu/239Pu mass ratio of two samples and confirmed the results by comparison to mass spectrometry values. These results have implications for future measurements of trace samples of nuclear material.

  4. Measurement of the 240Pu/239Pu mass ratio using a transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeter for total decay energy spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hoover, Andrew S.; Bond, Evelyn M.; Croce, Mark P.; Holesinger, Terry G.; Kunde, Gerd J.; Rabin, Michael W.; Wolfsberg, Laura E.; Bennett, Douglas A.; Hays-Wehle, James P.; Schmidt, Dan R.; et al

    2015-02-27

    In this study, we have developed a new category of sensor for measurement of the 240Pu/239Pu mass ratio from aqueous solution samples with advantages over existing methods. Aqueous solution plutonium samples were evaporated and encapsulated inside of a gold foil absorber, and a superconducting transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeter detector was used to measure the total reaction energy (Q-value) of nuclear decays via heat generated when the energy is thermalized. Since all of the decay energy is contained in the absorber, we measure a single spectral peak for each isotope, resulting in a simple spectral analysis problem with minimal peak overlap. We foundmore » that mechanical kneading of the absorber dramatically improves spectral quality by reducing the size of radioactive inclusions within the absorber to scales below 50 nm such that decay products primarily interact with atoms of the host material. Due to the low noise performance of the microcalorimeter detector, energy resolution values of 1 keV fwhm (full width at half-maximum) at 5.5 MeV have been achieved, an order of magnitude improvement over α-spectroscopy with conventional silicon detectors. We measured the 240Pu/239Pu mass ratio of two samples and confirmed the results by comparison to mass spectrometry values. These results have implications for future measurements of trace samples of nuclear material.« less

  5. Optical phonons in PbTe/CdTe multilayer heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novikova, N. N.; Yakovlev, V. A.; Kucherenko, I. V.; Karczewski, G.; Aleshchenko, Yu. A.; Muratov, A. V.; Zavaritskaya, T. N.; Melnik, N. N.

    2015-05-15

    The infrared reflection spectra of PbTe/CdTe multilayer nanostructures grown by molecular-beam epitaxy are measured in the frequency range of 20–5000 cm{sup −1} at room temperature. The thicknesses and high-frequency dielectric constants of the PbTe and CdTe layers and the frequencies of the transverse optical (TO) phonons in these structures are determined from dispersion analysis of the spectra. It is found that the samples under study are characterized by two TO phonon frequencies, equal to 28 and 47 cm{sup −1}. The first frequency is close to that of TO phonons in bulk PbTe, and the second is assigned to the optical mode in structurally distorted interface layers. The Raman-scattering spectra upon excitation with the radiation of an Ar{sup +} laser at 514.5 nm are measured at room and liquid-nitrogen temperatures. The weak line at 106 cm{sup −1} observed in these spectra is attributed to longitudinal optical phonons in the interface layers.

  6. Hematological responses after inhaling {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}: An extrapolation from beagle dogs to humans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, B.R.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Welsh, C.A.; Angerstein, D.A.

    1994-11-01

    The alpha emitter plutonium-238 ({sup 238}Pu), which is produced in uranium-fueled, light-water reactors, is used as a thermoelectric power source for space applications. Inhalation of a mixed oxide form of Pu is the most likely mode of exposure of workers and the general public. Occupational exposures to {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} have occurred in association with the fabrication of radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Organs and tissue at risk for deterministic and stochastic effects of {sup 238}Pu-alpha irradiation include the lung, liver, skeleton, and lymphatic tissue. Little has been reported about the effects of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} on peripheral blood cell counts in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate hematological responses after a single inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to alpha-emitting {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} particles and to extrapolate results to humans.

  7. EIS-0299: Proposed Production of Plutonium-238 (Pu-238) for Use in Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for Space Missions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS is for the proposed production of plutonium-238 (Pu-238) using one or more DOE research reactors and facilities.

  8. Modeling and production of 240Am by deuteron-induced activation of a 240Pu target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finn, Erin C.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Wittman, Richard S.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Woods, Vincent T.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Metz, Lori A.; Friese, Judah I.

    2015-02-01

    A novel reaction pathway for production of 240Am is reported. Models of reaction cross-sections in EMPIRE II suggests that deuteron-induced activation of a 240Pu target produces maximum yields of 240Am from 11.5 MeV incident deuterons. This activation had not been previously reported in the literature. A 240Pu target was activated under the modeled optimum conditions to produce 240Am. The modeled cross-section for the 240Pu(d, 2n)240Am reaction is on the order of 20-30 mbarn, but the experimentally estimated value is 5.3 0.2 mbarn. We discuss reasons for the discrepancy as well as production of other Am isotopes that contaminate the final product.

  9. La-oxides as tracers for PuO{sub 2} to simulate contaminated aerosol behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, L.C.; Newton, G.J.; Cronenberg, A.W.; Loomis, G.G.

    1994-04-01

    An analytical and experimental study was performed on the use of lanthanide oxides (La-oxides) as surrogates for plutonium oxides (PuO{sub 2}) during simulated buried waste retrieval. This study determined how well the La-oxides move compared to PuO{sub 2} in aerosolized soils during retrieval scenarios. As part of the analytical study, physical properties of La-oxides and PuO{sub 2}, such as molecular diameter, diffusivity, density, and molecular weight are compared. In addition, an experimental study was performed in which Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) soil, INEL soil with lanthanides, and INEL soil with plutonium were aerosolized and collected in filters. Comparison of particle size distribution parameters from this experimental study show similarity between INEL soil, INEL soil with lanthanides, and INEL soil with plutonium.

  10. TE Connectivity Finds Answers in Tomography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TE Connectivity Finds Answers in Tomography TE Connectivity Finds Answers in Tomography Print Thursday, 22 August 2013 10:50 TE Connectivity is a world leader in connectivity-the $13 billion global company designs and manufactures more than 500,000 different electronic connectivity products for the automotive, energy, industrial, broadband communications, consumer device, healthcare, aerospace, and defense industries. TE Connectivity has a long-standing commitment to innovation and engineering

  11. TE Connectivity Finds Answers in Tomography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TE Connectivity Finds Answers in Tomography TE Connectivity Finds Answers in Tomography Print Thursday, 22 August 2013 10:50 TE Connectivity is a world leader in connectivity-the $13 billion global company designs and manufactures more than 500,000 different electronic connectivity products for the automotive, energy, industrial, broadband communications, consumer device, healthcare, aerospace, and defense industries. TE Connectivity has a long-standing commitment to innovation and engineering

  12. Comprehensive appraisal of {sup 239+240}Pu in soils around Rocky Flats, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litaor, M.I.; Allen, L.; Ellerbroek, D.

    1995-12-01

    Plutonium contamination of soils around Rocky Flats Environmental & Technology Site, near Golden, Colorado, resulted from past outdoor storage practices and subsequent remobilization due to inadequate cleanup practices. Until now human-health risk assessment has not been performed because of a lack of sufficient information regarding the spatial extent of {sup 239+240}Pu in soils. The purpose of this work was to elucidate the extent of plutonium contamination in surface soils, and to assess the uncertainty associated with the spatial distribution of {sup 239+240}Pu around Rocky Flats Environmental & Technology Site.

  13. Code cases for implementing risk-based inservice testing in the ASME OM code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowley, C.W.

    1996-12-01

    Historically inservice testing has been reasonably effective, but quite costly. Recent applications of plant PRAs to the scope of the IST program have demonstrated that of the 30 pumps and 500 valves in the typical plant IST program, less than half of the pumps and ten percent of the valves are risk significant. The way the ASME plans to tackle this overly-conservative scope for IST components is to use the PRA and plant expert panels to create a two tier IST component categorization scheme. The PRA provides the quantitative risk information and the plant expert panel blends the quantitative and deterministic information to place the IST component into one of two categories: More Safety Significant Component (MSSC) or Less Safety Significant Component (LSSC). With all the pumps and valves in the IST program placed in MSSC or LSSC categories, two different testing strategies will be applied. The testing strategies will be unique for the type of component, such as centrifugal pump, positive displacement pump, MOV, AOV, SOV, SRV, PORV, HOV, CV, and MV. A series of OM Code Cases are being developed to capture this process for a plant to use. One Code Case will be for Component Importance Ranking. The remaining Code Cases will develop the MSSC and LSSC testing strategy for type of component. These Code Cases are planned for publication in early 1997. Later, after some industry application of the Code Cases, the alternative Code Case requirements will gravitate to the ASME OM Code as appendices.

  14. Recovery of UO[sub 2]/PuO[sub 2] in IFR electrorefining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomczuk, Z.; Miller, W.E.

    1994-10-18

    A process is described for converting PuO[sub 2] and UO[sub 2] present in an electrorefiner to the chlorides, by contacting the PuO[sub 2] and UO[sub 2] with Li metal in the presence of an alkali metal chloride salt substantially free of rare earth and actinide chlorides for a time and at a temperature sufficient to convert the UO[sub 2] and PuO[sub 2] to metals while converting Li metal to Li[sub 2]O. Li[sub 2]O is removed either by reducing with rare earth metals or by providing an oxygen electrode for transporting O[sub 2] out of the electrorefiner and a cathode, and thereafter applying an emf to the electrorefiner electrodes sufficient to cause the Li[sub 2]O to disassociate to O[sub 2] and Li metal but insufficient to decompose the alkali metal chloride salt. The U and Pu and excess lithium are then converted to chlorides by reaction with CdCl[sub 2].

  15. Hidden disorder in the α'→δ transformation of Pu-1.9 at.% Ga

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jeffries, J. R.; Manley, M. E.; Wall, M. A.; Blobaum, K. J. M.; Schwartz, A. J.

    2012-06-06

    Enthalpy and entropy are thermodynamic quantities critical to determining how and at what temperature a phase transition occurs. At a phase transition, the enthalpy and temperature-weighted entropy differences between two phases are equal (ΔH=TΔS), but there are materials where this balance has not been experimentally or theoretically realized, leading to the idea of hidden order and disorder. In a Pu-1.9 at. % Ga alloy, the δ phase is retained as a metastable state at room temperature, but at low temperatures, the δ phase yields to a mixed-phase microstructure of δ- and α'-Pu. The previously measured sources of entropy associated withmore » the α'→δ transformation fail to sum to the entropy predicted theoretically. We report an experimental measurement of the entropy of the α'→δ transformation that corroborates the theoretical prediction, and implies that only about 65% of the entropy stabilizing the δ phase is accounted for, leaving a missing entropy of about 0.5 kB/atom. Some previously proposed mechanisms for generating entropy are discussed, but none seem capable of providing the necessary disorder to stabilize the δ phase. This hidden disorder represents multiple accessible states per atom within the δ phase of Pu that may not be included in our current understanding of the properties and phase stability of δ-Pu.« less

  16. Recovery of UO{sub 2}/PuO{sub 2} in IFR electrorefining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomczuk, Z.; Miller, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a process for converting PuO{sub 2} and U0{sub 2} present in an electrorefiner to the chlorides, by contacting the PuO{sub 2} and U0{sub 2} with Li metal in the presence of an alkali metal chloride salt substantially free of rare earth and actinide chlorides for a time and at a temperature sufficient to convert the U0{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} to metals while converting Li metal to Li{sub 2}O. Li{sub 2}O is removed either by reducing with rare earth metals or by providing an oxygen electrode for transporting 0{sub 2} out of the electrorefiner and a cathode, and thereafter applying an emf to the electrorefiner electrodes sufficient to cause the Li{sub 2}O to disassociate to 0{sub 2} and Li metal but insufficient to decompose the alkali metal chloride salt. The U and Pu and excess lithium are then converted to chlorides by reaction with CdCl{sub 2}.

  17. Recovery of UO.sub.2 /Pu O.sub.2 in IFR electrorefining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomczuk, Zygmunt; Miller, William E.

    1994-01-01

    A process for converting PuO.sub.2 and UO.sub.2 present in an electrorefiner to the chlorides, by contacting the PuO.sub.2 and UO.sub.2 with Li metal in the presence of an alkali metal chloride salt substantially free of rare earth and actinide chlorides for a time and at a temperature sufficient to convert the UO.sub.2 and PuO.sub.2 to metals while converting Li metal to Li.sub.2 O. Li.sub.2 O is removed either by reducing with rare earth metals or by providing an oxygen electrode for transporting O.sub.2 out of the electrorefiner and a cathode, and thereafter applying an emf to the electrorefiner electrodes sufficient to cause the Li.sub.2 O to disassociate to O.sub.2 and Li metal but insufficient to decompose the alkali metal chloride salt. The U and Pu and excess lithium are then converted to chlorides by reaction with CdCl.sub.2.

  18. Crystal Dynamics of (delta) fcc Pu-Ga by High Resolution Inelastic X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, J; Krisch, M; Farber, D; Occelli, F; Xu, R; Chiang, T C; Clatterbuck, D; Schwartz, A J; Wall, M; Boro, C

    2004-09-28

    We have used a microbeam on large grain sample concept to carry out an inelastic x-ray scattering experiment to map the full phonon dispersion curves of an fcc {delta}-phase Pu-Ga alloy. This approach obviates experimental difficulties with conventional inelastic neutron scattering due to the high absorption cross section of the common {sup 239}Pu isotope and the non-availability of large (mm size) single crystal materials for Pu and its alloys. A classical Born von-Karman force constant model was used to model the experimental results, and no less than 4th nearest neighbor interactions had to be included to account for the observation. Several unusual features including, a large elastic anisotropy, a small shear elastic modulus, (C{sub 11}-C{sub 12})/2, a Kohn-like anomaly in the T{sub 1}[011] branch, and a pronounced softening of the T[111] branch towards the L point in the Brillouin are found. These features can be related to the phase transitions of plutonium and to strong coupling between the crystal structure and the 5f valence instabilities. Our results represent the first full phonon dispersions ever obtained for any Pu-bearing material, thus ending a 40-year quest for this fundamental data. The phonon data also provide a critical test for theoretical treatments of highly correlated 5f electron systems as exemplified by recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations for {delta}-plutonium.

  19. The Solubility of 242PuO2 in the Presence of Aqueous Fe(II): The Impact of Precipitate Preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Moore, Dean A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Conradson, Steven D.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Abrecht, David G.; Ilton, Eugene S.

    2014-01-28

    The solubility of different forms of precipitated 242PuO2(am) were examined in solutions containing aqueous Fe(II) over a range of pH values. The first series of 242PuO2(am) suspensions were prepared from a 242Pu(IV) stock that had been treated with thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) to remove the 241Am originating from the decay of 241Pu. These 242PuO2(am) suspensions showed much higher solubilities at the same pH value and Fe(II) concentration than previous studies using 239PuO2(am). X ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy of the precipitates showed a substantially reduced Pu-Pu backscatter over that previously observed in 242PuO2(am) precipitates, indicating that the 242PuO2(am) precipitates purified using TTA lacked the long range order previously found in 239PuO2(am) precipitates. The Pu(IV) stock solution was subsequently repurified using an ion exchange resin and an additional series of 242PuO2(am) precipitates prepared. These suspensions showed higher redox potentials and total aqueous Pu concentrations than the TTA purified stock solution. The higher redox potential and aqueous Pu concentrations were in general agreement with previous studies on 242PuO2(am) precipitates, presumably due to the removal of possible organic compounds originally present in the TTA purified stock. 242PuO2(am) suspensions prepared with both stock solutions showed almost identical solubilities in Fe(II) containing solutions even though the initial aqueous Pu concentrations before the addition of Fe(II) were orders of magnitude different. By examining the solubility of 242PuO2(am) prepared from both stocks in this way we have essentially approached equilibrium from both the undersaturated and oversaturated

  20. Understanding oxygen adsorption on 9.375 at. % Ga-stabilized δ-Pu (111) surface: A DFT study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez, Sarah C.; Wilkerson, Marianne P.; Huda, Muhammad N.

    2015-08-30

    Plutonium (Pu) metal reacts rapidly in the presence of oxygen (O), resulting in an oxide layer that will eventually have an olive green rust appearance over time. Recent experimental work suggested that the incorporation of gallium (Ga) as an alloying impurity to stabilize the highly symmetric high temperature δ-phase lattice may also provide resistance against corrosion/oxidation of plutonium. In this paper, we modeled a 9.375 at. % Ga stabilized δ-Pu (111) surface and investigated adsorption of atomic O using all-electron density functional theory. Key findings revealed that the O bonded strongly to a Pu-rich threefold hollow fcc site with a chemisorption energy of –5.06 eV. Migration of the O atom to a Pu-rich environment was also highly sensitive to the surface chemistry of the Pu–Ga surface; when the initial on-surface O adsorption site included a bond to a nearest neighboring Ga atom, the O atom relaxed to a Ga deficient environment, thus affirming the O preference for Pu. Only one calculated final on-surface O adsorption site included a Ga-O bond, but this chemisorption energy was energetically unfavorable. Chemisorption energies for interstitial adsorption sites that included a Pu or Pu-Ga environment suggested that over-coordination of the O atom was energetically unfavorable as well. Electronic structure properties of the on-surface sites, illustrated by the partial density of states, implied that the Ga 4p states indirectly but strongly influenced the Pu 6d states strongly to hybridize with the O 2p states, while also weakly influenced the Pu 5f states to hybridize with the O 2p states, even though Ga was not participating in bonding with O.

  1. Understanding oxygen adsorption on 9.375 at. % Ga-stabilized δ-Pu (111) surface: A DFT study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hernandez, Sarah C.; Wilkerson, Marianne P.; Huda, Muhammad N.

    2015-08-30

    Plutonium (Pu) metal reacts rapidly in the presence of oxygen (O), resulting in an oxide layer that will eventually have an olive green rust appearance over time. Recent experimental work suggested that the incorporation of gallium (Ga) as an alloying impurity to stabilize the highly symmetric high temperature δ-phase lattice may also provide resistance against corrosion/oxidation of plutonium. In this paper, we modeled a 9.375 at. % Ga stabilized δ-Pu (111) surface and investigated adsorption of atomic O using all-electron density functional theory. Key findings revealed that the O bonded strongly to a Pu-rich threefold hollow fcc site with amore » chemisorption energy of –5.06 eV. Migration of the O atom to a Pu-rich environment was also highly sensitive to the surface chemistry of the Pu–Ga surface; when the initial on-surface O adsorption site included a bond to a nearest neighboring Ga atom, the O atom relaxed to a Ga deficient environment, thus affirming the O preference for Pu. Only one calculated final on-surface O adsorption site included a Ga-O bond, but this chemisorption energy was energetically unfavorable. Chemisorption energies for interstitial adsorption sites that included a Pu or Pu-Ga environment suggested that over-coordination of the O atom was energetically unfavorable as well. Electronic structure properties of the on-surface sites, illustrated by the partial density of states, implied that the Ga 4p states indirectly but strongly influenced the Pu 6d states strongly to hybridize with the O 2p states, while also weakly influenced the Pu 5f states to hybridize with the O 2p states, even though Ga was not participating in bonding with O.« less

  2. Use of PuBe source to simulate neutron-induced single event upsets in static RAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Normand, E.; Wert, J.L.; Doherty, W.R.; Oberg, D.L.; Measel, P.R.; Criswell, T.L.

    1988-12-01

    Neutron induced single event upsets were measured in static memory devices using a 10 curie PuBe source. The PuBe source conservatively overestimates the spectrum of fast neutrons emitted by a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). For the 93L422, the neutron-induced upset rate compared favorably with calculated values derived using the burst generation concept. By accounting for the production of the ionizing particles by the PuBe and RTG neutron spectra, convenient upper bound SEU upset rates for memory devices near an RTG can be derived.

  3. Recycling of CdTe photovoltaic waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goozner, Robert E.; Long, Mark O.; Drinkard, Jr., William F.

    1999-01-01

    A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CdTe photovoltaic cells and manufacturing waste by leaching the waste with a leaching solution comprising nitric acid and water, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating the glass substrate from the liquid leachate and electrolyzing the leachate to separate Cd from Te, wherein the Te is deposits onto a cathode while the Cd remains in solution.

  4. TE Connectivity Finds Answers in Tomography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    healthcare, aerospace, and defense industries. TE Connectivity has a long-standing commitment to innovation and engineering excellence. Their products help address challenges...

  5. Microsoft Word - Template_SLAC Proprietary Use Agreement_PU 11_14_13

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PU 11/14/2013 1 The Department of Energy has opted to utilize the following agreement for Designated Proprietary User Facilities transactions. Because these transactions are widespread across Departmental facilities, uniformity in agreement terms is desirable. Except for the *** provisions, minor modifications to the terms of this agreement may be made by CONTRACTOR, but any changes to the *** provisions or substantive changes to the non *** provisons will require approval by the DOE Contracting

  6. Ostwald Ripening and Its Effect on PuO2 Particle Size in Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.

    2011-09-29

    Between 1944 and 1989, the Hanford Site produced 60 percent (54.5 metric tons) of the United States weapons plutonium and produced an additional 12.9 metric tons of fuels-grade plutonium. High activity wastes, including plutonium lost from the separations processes used to isolate the plutonium, were discharged to underground storage tanks during these operations. Plutonium in the Hanford tank farms is estimated to be {approx}700 kg but may be up to {approx}1000 kg. Despite these apparent large quantities, the average plutonium concentration in the {approx}200 million liter tank waste volume is only about 0.003 grams per liter ({approx}0.0002 wt%). The plutonium is largely associated with low solubility metal hydroxide/oxide sludges where its low concentration and intimate mixture with neutron-absorbing elements (e.g., iron) are credited in nuclear criticality safety. However, concerns have been expressed that plutonium, in the form of plutonium hydrous oxide, PuO{sub 2} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O, could undergo sufficient crystal growth through Ostwald ripening in the alkaline tank waste to potentially be separable from neutron absorbing constituents by settling or sedimentation. It was found that plutonium that entered the alkaline tank waste by precipitation through neutralization from acid solution is initially present as 2- to 3-nm (0.002- to 0.003-{mu}m) scale PuO{sub 2} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O crystallite particles and grows from that point at exceedingly slow rates, posing no risk to physical segregation. These conclusions are reached by both general considerations of Ostwald ripening and specific observations of the behaviors of PuO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O upon aging in alkaline solution.

  7. Chemical speciation of U, Fe, and Pu in melt glass from nuclear weapons testing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pacold, J. I.; Lukens, W. W.; Booth, C. H.; Shuh, D. K.; Knight, K. B.; Eppich, G. R.; Holliday, K. S.

    2016-05-18

    We report that nuclear weapons testing generates large volumes of glassy materials that influence the transport of dispersed actinides in the environment and may carry information on the composition of the detonated device. We determine the oxidation state of U and Fe (which is known to buffer the oxidation state of actinide elements and to affect the redox state of groundwater) in samples of melt glass collected from three U.S. nuclear weapons tests. For selected samples, we also determine the coordination geometry of U and Fe, and we report the oxidation state of Pu from one melt glass sample. Wemore » find significant variations among the melt glass samples and, in particular, find a clear deviation in one sample from the expected buffering effect of Fe(II)/Fe(III) on the oxidation state of uranium. In the first direct measurement of Pu oxidation state in a nuclear test melt glass, we obtain a result consistent with existing literature that proposes Pu is primarily present as Pu(IV) in post-detonation material. In addition, our measurements imply that highly mobile U(VI) may be produced in significant quantities when melt glass is quenched rapidly following a nuclear detonation, though these products may remain immobile in the vitrified matrices. The observed differences in chemical state among the three samples show that redox conditions can vary dramatically across different nuclear test conditions. The local soil composition, associated device materials, and the rate of quenching are all likely to affect the final redox state of the glass. Lastly, the resulting variations in glass chemistry are significant for understanding and interpreting debris chemistry and the later environmental mobility of dispersed material.« less

  8. The reduction of Np(VI) and Pu(VI) by organic chelating agents.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, D.T.; Aase, S.B.; Banaszak, J.E.

    1998-03-19

    The reduction of NpO{sup 2+} and PuO{sub 2}{sup 2+} by oxalate. citrate, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was investigated in low ionic strength media and brines. This was done to help establish the stability of the An(VI) oxidation state in the presence of organic complexants. The stability of the An(VI) oxidation state depended on the pH and relative strength of the various oxidation state-specific complexes. At low ionic strength and pH 6, NpO{sub 2}O{sup 2+} was rapidly reduced to form NpO{sub 2}{sup +} organic complexes. At longer times, Np(IV) organic complexes were observed in the presence of citrate. PuO{sub 2}{sup 2+} was predominantly reduced to Pu{sup 4+}, resulting in the formation of organic complexes or polymeric/hydrolytic precipitates. The relative rates of reduction to the An(V) complex were EDTA > citrate > oxalate. Subsequent reduction to An(IV) complexes, however, occurred in the following order: citrate > EDTA > oxalate because of the stability of the An(V)-EDTA complex. The presence of organic complexants led to the rapid reduction of NpO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and PuO{sub 2}P{sup 2+} in G-seep brine at pHs 5 and 7. At pHs 8 and 10 in ERDA-6 brine, carbonate and hydrolytic complexes predominated and slowed down or prevented the reduction of An(VI) by the organics present.

  9. Separate effects identification via casting process modeling for experimental measurement of UPuZr alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Crapps; D. S. DeCroix; J. D. Galloway; D. A. Korzekwa; R. Aikin; R. Fielding; R. Kennedy; C. Unal

    2013-11-01

    Computational simulations of gravity casting processes for metallic UPuZr nuclear fuel rods have been performed using a design-of-experiments technique to determine the fluid flow, liquid heat transfer, and solid heat transfer parameters which most strongly influence the process solidification speed and fuel rod porosity. The results are used to make recommendations for the best investment of experimental time and effort to measure process parameters.

  10. Phonon dispersion curves determination in (delta)-phase Pu-Ga alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, J; Clatterbuck, D; Occelli, F; Farber, D; Schwartz, A; Wall, M; Boro, C; Krisch, M; Beraud, A; Chiang, T; Xu, R; Hong, H; Zschack, P; Tamura, N

    2006-02-07

    We have designed and successfully employed a novel microbeam on large grain sample concept to conduct high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HRIXS) experiments to map the full phonon dispersion curves of an fcc {delta}-phase Pu-Ga alloy. This approach obviates experimental difficulties with conventional inelastic neutron scattering due to the high absorption cross section of the common {sup 239}Pu isotope and the non-availability of large (mm size) single crystal materials for Pu and its alloys. A classical Born von-Karman force constant model was used to model the experimental results, and no less than 4th nearest neighbor interactions had to be included to account for the observation. Several unusual features including, a large elastic anisotropy, a small shear elastic modulus, (C{sub 11}-C{sub 12})/2, a Kohn-like anomaly in the T{sub 1}[011] branch, and a pronounced softening of the T[111] branch towards the L point in the Brillouin are found. These features may be related to the phase transitions of plutonium and to strong coupling between the crystal structure and the 5f valence instabilities. Our results represent the first full phonon dispersions ever obtained for any Pu-bearing material, thus ending a 40-year quest for this fundamental data. The phonon data also provide a critical test for theoretical treatments of highly correlated 5f electron systems as exemplified by recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations for {delta}-plutonium. We also conducted thermal diffuse scattering experiments to study the T(111) dispersion at low temperatures with an attempt to gain insight into bending of the T(111) branch in relationship to the {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation.

  11. Te

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    " ' & ( &1; &25; 6 &26; &24; ( & &30; &24; &30; ( 2&3; &1; 2& &30; % ) &26; &1; &25; ) &1; &19; & &25; O c a n P a c i f i q u e P a c i f i c O c e a n O c a n o P a c f i c o O c a n A t l a n t i q u ...

  12. Te

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Refineras Refineries Refinera Raffinerie Asphalt ... Usine de valorisation United States Estados Unidos ... Ltd 71 Marathon Petroleum Co LP 106 Silver Eagle ...

  13. Te

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 3 2 1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 10°W 20°W 30°W 40°W 50°W 60°W 70°W 70°W 80°W 80°W 90°W 90°W 100°W 100°W 110°W 110°W 120°W 120°W 130°W 130°W 140°W 140°W 150°W 150°W 160°W 170°W 180° 170°E 160°E 150°E 140°E 70°N 70°N 60°N 60°N 50°N 50°N 40°N 40°N 30°N 30°N 20°N 20°N 10°N 10°N 0 250 500 750 1,000 125 Miles / Millas / Milles 1:12 000 000 Border Crossings of Liquids Pipelines, North America Cruces Fronterizos de Ductos de

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 15 14 13 12 11 10 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 10°W 20°W 30°W 40°W 50°W 60°W 70°W 70°W 80°W 80°W 90°W 90°W 100°W 100°W 110°W 110°W 120°W 120°W 130°W 130°W 140°W 140°W 150°W 150°W 160°W 170°W 180° 170°E 160°E 150°E 140°E 70°N 70°N 60°N 60°N 50°N 50°N 40°N 40°N 30°N 30°N 20°N 20°N 10°N 10°N Border Crossings of Natural Gas Pipelines, North America Cruces Fronterizos de Ductos de Gas Natural,

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

         + + 2 )  3 " /  $ "     ( % * !  6      / , * " ! & ,   + 2 )    ( % * ! <       , 6" + + "   + + 2" ))"     ( % * '/   , ) /   " 0, 2/ " 0      & / " 1   , / *  )

  17. Te

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0&1; &27; , )&30; & " 0&6; &1; &25; &27; &23;&1; &19; + 0, )" & ))" * " + 1 &1; &24; , * &30; )&1; &18; & " 1 &5; O c a n P a c i f i q u e P a c i f i c O c e a n O c a n o P a c f i c o O c a n A t l ...

  19. Te

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    &29; . + (1 2&6; &1; &27; &29; &25;&1; &19; - 2. + (+ + , - 3 &1; &21; . 1(9 . - 3 + &1; &20; + . + &5; O c a n P a c i f i q u e P a c i f i c O c e a n O c a n o P a c f i c o O c a n A t l ...

  20. Hydrothermal Alteration of Glass from Underground Nuclear Tests: Formation and Transport of Pu-clay Colloids at the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavarin, M.; Zhao, P.; Joseph, C.; Begg, J.; Boggs, M.; Dai, Z.; Kersting, A. B.

    2015-05-27

    The testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS), has led to the deposition of substantial quantities of plutonium into the environment. Approximately 2.8 metric tons (3.1×104 TBq) of Pu were deposited in the NNSS subsurface as a result of underground nuclear testing. While 3H is the most abundant anthropogenic radionuclide deposited in the NNSS subsurface (4.7×106 TBq), plutonium is the most abundant from a molar standpoint. The only radioactive elements in greater molar abundance are the naturally occurring K, Th, and U isotopes. 239Pu and 240Pu represent the majority of alpha-emitting Pu isotopes. The extreme temperatures associated with underground nuclear tests and the refractory nature of Pu results in most of the Pu (98%) being sequestered in melted rock, referred to as nuclear melt glass (Iaea, 1998). As a result, Pu release to groundwater is controlled, in large part, by the leaching (or dissolution) of nuclear melt glass over time. The factors affecting glass dissolution rates have been studied extensively. The dissolution of Pu-containing borosilicate nuclear waste glasses at 90ºC has been shown to lead to the formation of dioctahedral smectite colloids. Colloid-facilitated transport of Pu at the NNSS has been observed. Recent groundwater samples collected from a number of contaminated wells have yielded a wide range of Pu concentrations from 0.00022 to 2.0 Bq/L. While Pu concentrations tend to fall below the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for drinking water (0.56 Bq/L), we do not yet understand what factors limit the Pu concentration or its transport behavior. To quantify the upper limit of Pu concentrations produced as a result of melt glass dissolution and determine the nature of colloids and Pu associations, we performed a 3 year nuclear melt glass dissolution experiment

  1. Thermophysical properties of α−Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3}: A new potential model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Günay, S. D. Akdere, Ü.; Taşseven, Ç.; Akgenç, B.

    2013-12-16

    α−Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} is an important material among plutonium based materials in nuclear industry. Pure plutonium surfaces quickly oxidizes into α−Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} and PuO{sub 2} which are in the form of layers one on another. Here we have investigated thermal properties of α−Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} by molecular dynamics simulation by using a partially ionic semi-empirical rigid ion potential. Mechanical properties, thermal expansion, and heat capacity are calculated. Results were compared with available experimental data and quantum calculation [2]. Due to the experimental limitations such as toxicity and radiation effects, studying the physical properties of such materials from molecular dynamics simulations have vital importance.

  2. NMIS With Gamma Spectrometry for Attributes of Pu and HEU, Explosives and Chemical Agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihalczo, J. T.; Mattingly, J. K.; Mullens, J. A.; Neal, J. S.

    2002-05-10

    The concept for the system described herein is an active/passive Nuclear Materials Identification System{sup 2} (NMIS) that incorporates gamma ray spectrometry{sup 3}. This incorporation of gamma ray spectrometry would add existing capability into this system. This Multiple Attribute System can determine a wide variety of attributes for Pu and highly enriched uranium (HEU) of which a selected subset could be chosen. This system can be built using commercial off the shelf (COTS) components. NMIS systems are at All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) and Russian Federal Nuclear Center Institute of Technical Physics, (VNIITF) and measurements with Pu have been performed at VNIIEF and analyzed successfully for mass and thickness of Pu. NMIS systems are being used successfully for HEU at the Y-12 National Security Complex. The use of active gamma ray spectrometry for high explosive HE and chemical agent detection is a well known activation analysis technique, and it is incorporated here. This report describes the system, explains the attribute determination methods for fissile materials, discusses technical issues to be resolved, discusses additional development needs, presents a schedule for building from COTS components, and assembly with existing components, and discusses implementation issues such as lack of need for facility modification and low radiation exposure.

  3. Validation of MCNP6.1 for Criticality Safety of Pu-Metal, -Solution, and -Oxide Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiedrowski, Brian C.; Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd; Favorite, Jeffrey A.; Kahler, III, Albert C.; Kersting, Alyssa R.; Parsons, Donald K.; Walker, Jessie L.

    2014-05-13

    Guidance is offered to the Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Criticality Safety division towards developing an Upper Subcritical Limit (USL) for MCNP6.1 calculations with ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data for three classes of problems: Pu-metal, -solution, and -oxide systems. A benchmark suite containing 1,086 benchmarks is prepared, and a sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) method with a generalized linear least squares (GLLS) data adjustment is used to reject outliers, bringing the total to 959 usable benchmarks. For each class of problem, S/U methods are used to select relevant experimental benchmarks, and the calculational margin is computed using extreme value theory. A portion of the margin of sub criticality is defined considering both a detection limit for errors in codes and data and uncertainty/variability in the nuclear data library. The latter employs S/U methods with a GLLS data adjustment to find representative nuclear data covariances constrained by integral experiments, which are then used to compute uncertainties in keff from nuclear data. The USLs for the classes of problems are as follows: Pu metal, 0.980; Pu solutions, 0.973; dry Pu oxides, 0.978; dilute Pu oxide-water mixes, 0.970; and intermediate-spectrum Pu oxide-water mixes, 0.953.

  4. First-principles study of the Kondo physics of a single Pu impurity in a Th host

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Jian -Xin; Albers, R. C.; Haule, K.; Wills, J. M.

    2015-04-23

    Based on its condensed-matter properties, crystal structure, and metallurgy, which includes a phase diagram with six allotropic phases, plutonium is one of the most complicated pure elements in its solid state. Its anomalous properties, which are indicative of a very strongly correlated state, are related to its special position in the periodic table, which is at the boundary between the light actinides that have itinerant 5f electrons and the heavy actinides that have localized 5f electrons. As a foundational study to probe the role of local electronic correlations in Pu, we use the local-density approximation together with a continuous-time quantummore » Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the electronic structure of a single Pu atom that is either substitutionally embedded in the bulk and or adsorbed on the surface of a Th host. This is a simpler case than the solid phases of Pu metal. With the Pu impurity atom we have found a Kondo resonance peak, which is an important signature of electronic correlations, in the local density of states around the Fermi energy. We show that the peak width of this resonance is narrower for Pu atoms at the surface of Th than for those in the bulk due to a weakened Pu - 5f hybridization with the ligands at the surface.« less

  5. Ground-state wave function of plutonium in PuSb as determined via x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janoschek, M.; Haskel, D.; Fernandez-Rodriguez, J.; van Veenendaal, M.; Rebizant, J.; Lander, G. H.; Zhu, J. -X.; Thompson, J. D.; Bauer, E. D.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the Pu M?,? edges of the ferromagnet PuSb are reported. Using bulk magnetization measurements and a sum rule analysis of the XMCD spectra, we determine the individual orbital [?L = 2.8(1)?B/Pu] and spin moments [?S = ?2.0(1)?B/Pu] of the Pu 5f electrons for the first time. Atomic multiplet calculations of the XMCD and XANES spectra reproduce well the experimental data and are consistent with the experimental value of the spin moment. These measurements of ?Lz? and ?Sz? are in excellent agreement with the values that have been extracted from neutron magnetic form factor measurements, and confirm the local character of the 5f electrons in PuSb. Finally, we demonstrate that a split M? as well as a narrow M? XMCD signal may serve as a signature of 5f electron localization in actinide compounds.

  6. Ground-state wave function of plutonium in PuSb as determined via x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Janoschek, M.; Haskel, D.; Fernandez-Rodriguez, J.; van Veenendaal, M.; Rebizant, J.; Lander, G. H.; Zhu, J. -X.; Thompson, J. D.; Bauer, E. D.

    2015-01-14

    Measurements of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the Pu M₄,₅ edges of the ferromagnet PuSb are reported. Using bulk magnetization measurements and a sum rule analysis of the XMCD spectra, we determine the individual orbital [μL = 2.8(1)μB/Pu] and spin moments [μS = –2.0(1)μB/Pu] of the Pu 5f electrons for the first time. Atomic multiplet calculations of the XMCD and XANES spectra reproduce well the experimental data and are consistent with the experimental value of the spin moment. These measurements of Lz and Sz are in excellent agreement with the values thatmore » have been extracted from neutron magnetic form factor measurements, and confirm the local character of the 5f electrons in PuSb. We demonstrate that a split M₅ as well as a narrow M₄ XMCD signal may serve as a signature of 5f electron localization in actinide compounds.« less

  7. First-principles study of the Kondo physics of a single Pu impurity in a Th host

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jian -Xin; Albers, R. C.; Haule, K.; Wills, J. M.

    2015-04-23

    Based on its condensed-matter properties, crystal structure, and metallurgy, which includes a phase diagram with six allotropic phases, plutonium is one of the most complicated pure elements in its solid state. Its anomalous properties, which are indicative of a very strongly correlated state, are related to its special position in the periodic table, which is at the boundary between the light actinides that have itinerant 5f electrons and the heavy actinides that have localized 5f electrons. As a foundational study to probe the role of local electronic correlations in Pu, we use the local-density approximation together with a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the electronic structure of a single Pu atom that is either substitutionally embedded in the bulk and or adsorbed on the surface of a Th host. This is a simpler case than the solid phases of Pu metal. With the Pu impurity atom we have found a Kondo resonance peak, which is an important signature of electronic correlations, in the local density of states around the Fermi energy. We show that the peak width of this resonance is narrower for Pu atoms at the surface of Th than for those in the bulk due to a weakened Pu - 5f hybridization with the ligands at the surface.

  8. CdTe devices and method of manufacturing same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Noufi, Rommel; Dhere, Ramesh G.; Albin, David S.; Barnes, Teresa; Burst, James; Duenow, Joel N.; Reese, Matthew

    2015-09-29

    A method of producing polycrystalline CdTe materials and devices that incorporate the polycrystalline CdTe materials are provided. In particular, a method of producing polycrystalline p-doped CdTe thin films for use in CdTe solar cells in which the CdTe thin films possess enhanced acceptor densities and minority carrier lifetimes, resulting in enhanced efficiency of the solar cells containing the CdTe material are provided.

  9. High performance Zintl phase TE materials with embedded nanoparticles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Zintl phase TE materials with embedded nanoparticles High performance Zintl phase TE materials with embedded nanoparticles Performance of zintl phase thermoelectric ...

  10. Modeling and simulation of offshore wind farm O&M processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joschko, Philip; Widok, Andi H.; Appel, Susanne; Greiner, Saskia; Albers, Henning; Page, Bernd

    2015-04-15

    This paper describes a holistic approach to operation and maintenance (O&M) processes in the domain of offshore wind farm power generation. The acquisition and process visualization is followed by a risk analysis of all relevant processes. Hereafter, a tool was designed, which is able to model the defined processes in a BPMN 2.0 notation, as well as connect and simulate them. Furthermore, the notation was enriched with new elements, representing other relevant factors that were, to date, only displayable with much higher effort. In that regard a variety of more complex situations were integrated, such as for example new process interactions depending on different weather influences, in which case a stochastic weather generator was combined with the business simulation or other wind farm aspects important to the smooth running of the offshore wind farms. In addition, the choices for different methodologies, such as the simulation framework or the business process notation will be presented and elaborated depending on the impact they had on the development of the approach and the software solution. - Highlights: • Analysis of operation and maintenance processes of offshore wind farms • Process modeling with BPMN 2.0 • Domain-specific simulation tool.

  11. Stability constants important to the understanding of plutonium in environmental waters, hydroxy and carbonate complexation of PuO{sub 2}{sup +}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, D A

    1990-04-20

    The formation constants for the reactions PuO{sub 2}{sup +} + H{sub 2}O = PuO{sub 2}(OH) + H{sup +} and PuO{sub 2}{sup +} + CO{sub 3}{sup 2} = PuO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sup {minus}} were determined in aqueous sodium perchlorate solutions by laser-induced photoacoustic spectroscopy. The molar absorptivity of the PuO{sub 2}{sup +} band at 569 nm decreased with increasing hydroxide concentration. Similarly, spectral changes occurred between 540 and 580 nm as the carbonate concentration was increased. The absorption data were analyzed by the non-linear least-squares program SQUAD to yield complexation constants. Using the specific ion interaction theory, both complexation constants were extrapolated to zero ionic strength. These thermodynamic complexation constants were combined with the oxidation-reduction potentials of Pu to obtain Eh versus pH diagrams. 120 refs., 35 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Recycling of CdTe photovoltaic waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goozner, Robert E.; Long, Mark O.; Drinkard, Jr., William F.

    1999-04-27

    A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CdTe photovoltaic cells and manufacturing waste by leaching the metals in dilute nitric acid, leaching the waste with a leaching solution comprising nitric acid and water, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating the glass substrate from the liquid leachate, adding a calcium containing base to the leachate to precipitate Cd and Te, separating the precipitated Cd and Te from the leachate, and recovering the calcium-containing base.

  13. Recycling of CdTe photovoltaic waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goozner, R.E.; Long, M.O.; Drinkard, W.F. Jr.

    1999-04-27

    A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CdTe photovoltaic cells and manufacturing waste by leaching the metals in dilute nitric acid, leaching the waste with a leaching solution comprising nitric acid and water, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating the glass substrate from the liquid leachate, adding a calcium containing base to the leachate to precipitate Cd and Te, separating the precipitated Cd and Te from the leachate, and recovering the calcium-containing base. 3 figs.

  14. Post-Irradiation Examination of 237Np Targets for 238Pu Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Robert Noel [ORNL; Baldwin, Charles A [ORNL; Hobbs, Randy W [ORNL; Schmidlin, Joshua E [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is recovering the US 238Pu production capability and the first step in the process has been to evaluate the performance of a 237Np target cermet pellet encased in an aluminum clad. The process proceeded in 3 steps; the first step was to irradiate capsules of single pellets composed of NpO2 and aluminum power to examine their shrinkage and gas release. These pellets were formed by compressing sintered NpO2 and aluminum powder in a die at high pressure followed by sintering in a vacuum furnace. Three temperatures were chosen for sintering the solution precipitated NpO2 power used for pellet fabrication. The second step was to irradiate partial targets composed of 8 pellets in a semi-prototypical arrangement at the two best performing sintering temperatures to determine which temperature gave a pellet that performed the best under the actual planned irradiation conditions. The third step was to irradiate ~50 pellets in an actual target configuration at design irradiation conditions to assess pellet shrinkage and gas release, target heat transfer, and dimensional stability. The higher sintering temperature appeared to offer the best performance after one cycle of irradiation by having the least shrinkage, thus keeping the heat transfer gap between the pellets and clad small minimizing the pellet operating temperature. The final result of the testing was a target that can meet the initial production goals, satisfy the reactor safety requirements, and can be fabricated in production quantities. The current focus of the program is to verify that the target can be remotely dissembled, the pellets dissolved, and the 238Pu recovered. Tests are being conducted to examine these concerns and to compare results to code predictions. Once the performance of the full length targets has been quantified, the pellet 237Np loading will be revisited to determine if it can be increased to increase 238Pu production.

  15. Improved laboratory assays of Pu and U for SRP purification and finishing processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holland, M K; Dorsett, R S

    1986-01-01

    Significant improvements have been made in routine assay techniques for uranium and plutonium as part of an effort to improve accountability at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Emphasis was placed on input/output accountability points and key physical inventory tanks associated with purification and finishing processes. Improvements were made in existing assay methods; new methods were implemented; and the application of these methods was greatly expanded. Prior to assays, samples were validated via density measurements. Digital density meters precise to four, five, and six decimal places were used to meet specific requirements. Improved plutonium assay techniques are now in routine use: controlled-potential coulometry, ion-exchange coulometry, and Pu(III) diode-array spectrophotometry. A new state-of-the-art coulometer was fabricated and used to ensure maximum accuracy in verifying standards and in measuring plutonium in product streams. The diode-array spectrophotometer for Pu(III) measurements was modified with fiber optics to facilitate remote measurements; rapid, precise measurements made the technique ideally suited for high-throughput assays. For uranium assays, the isotope-dilution mass spectrometric (IDMS) method was converted to a gravimetric basis. The IDMS method and the existing Davies-Gray titration (gravimetric basis) have met accountability requirements for uranium. More recently, a Pu(VI) diode-array spectrophotometric method was used on a test basis to measure plutonium in shielded-cell input accountability samples. In addition, tests to measure uranium via diode-array spectrophotometry were initiated. This rapid, precise method will replace IDMS for certain key sample points.

  16. Nonlinear terahertz response of HgTe/CdTe quantum wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Qinjun; Sanderson, Matthew; Zhang, Chao

    2015-08-24

    Without breaking the topological order, HgTe/CdTe quantum wells can have two types of bulk band structure: direct gap type (type I) and indirect gap type (type II). We report that the strong nonlinear optical responses exist in both types of bulk states under a moderate electric field in the terahertz regime. Interestingly, for the type II band structure, the third order conductivity changes sign when chemical potentials lies below 10 meV due to the significant response of the hole excitation close to the bottom of conduction band. Negative nonlinear conductivities suggest that HgTe/CdTe quantum wells can find application in the gain medium of a laser for terahertz radiation. The thermal influences on nonlinear optical responses of HgTe/CdTe quantum wells are also studied.

  17. Attempt to produce element 120 in the 244Pu + 58Fe reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oganessian, Y T; Utyonkov, V K; Lobanov, Y V; Abdullin, F S; Polyakov, A N; Sagaidak, R N; Shorokovsky, I V; Tsyganov, Y S; Voinov, A A; Mezentsev, A N; Subbotin, V G; Sukhov, A M; Subotic, K; Zagrebaev, V I; Dmitriev, S N; Henderson, R A; Moody, K J; Kenneally, J M; Landrum, J H; Shaughnessy, D A; Stoyer, M A; Stoyer, N J; Wilk, P A

    2008-10-24

    An experiment aimed at the synthesis of isotopes of element 120 has been performed using the {sup 244}Pu({sup 58}Fe,xn){sup 302-x} 120 reaction. No decay chains consistent with fusion-evaporation reaction products were observed during an irradiation with a beam dose of 7.1 x 10{sup 18} 330-MeV {sup 58}Fe projectiles. The sensitivity of the experiment corresponds to a cross section of 0.4 pb for the detection of one decay.

  18. Modeling of constituent redistribution in U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Y. S.; Hofman, G. L.; Hayes, S. L.; Yacout, A. M.; Nuclear Engineering Division; INL

    2006-12-01

    A computer model was developed to analyze constituent redistribution in U-Pu-Zr metallic nuclear fuels. Diffusion and thermochemical properties were parametrically determined to fit the postirradiation data from a fuel test performed in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). The computer model was used to estimate redistribution profiles of fuels proposed for the conceptual designs of small modular fast reactors. The model results showed that the level of redistribution of the fuel constituents of the designs was similar to the measured data from EBR-II.

  19. Possible experimental evidence for the presence of double octupole states in {sup 240}Pu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pascu, S.; Spieker, M.; Bucurescu, D.; Faestermann, T.; Hertenberger, R.; Skalacki, S.; Weber, S.; Wirth, H. F.; Zamfir, N. V.; Zilges, A.

    2012-10-20

    Excited states in the {sup 240}Pu nucleus have been studied by means of the (p,t) reaction using the Q3D spectrometer and the focal plane detector from Munich. The comparison between experimental angular distributions and the DWBA calculations allowed the extraction of relative two-neutron transfer strengths. These observables may reveal important information about the structure of different states. The experimental two neutron strength for the 0{sup +}{sub 2} and 0{sup +}{sub 3} states is found in good agreement with the predictions of the IBA model, confirming the double octupole nature for the 0{sup +}{sub 2} state proposed in the previous studies.

  20. DOE plutonium disposition study: Pu consumption in ALWRs. Volume 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) to provide information on the capability of ABB-CE`s System 80 + Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) to transform, through reactor burnup, 100 metric tonnes (MT) of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) into a form which is not readily useable in weapons. This information is being developed as part of DOE`s Plutonium Disposition Study, initiated by DOE in response to Congressional action. This document Volume 2, provides a discussion of: Plutonium Fuel Cycle; Technology Needs; Regulatory Considerations; Cost and Schedule Estimates; and Deployment Strategy.

  1. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR 237NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN LARGE SOIL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.; Noyes, G.

    2010-07-26

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for large soil samples. The new soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using this two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time.

  2. Study on reduction and back extraction of Pu(IV) by urea derivatives in nitric acid conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, G.A.; Xiao, S.T.; Yan, T.H.; Lin, R.S.; Zhu, Z.W.

    2013-07-01

    The reduction kinetics of Pu(IV) by hydroxyl-semicarbazide (HSC), hydroxyurea (HU) and di-hydroxyurea (DHU) in nitric acid solutions were investigated separately with adequate kinetic equations. In addition, counter-current cascade experiments were conducted for Pu split from U in nitric acid media using three kinds of reductant, respectively. The results show that urea derivatives as a kind of novel salt-free reductant can reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III) rapidly in the nitric acid solutions. The stripping experimental results showed that Pu(IV) in the organic phase can be stripped rapidly to the aqueous phase by the urea derivatives, and the separation factors of plutonium /uranium can reach more than 10{sup 4}. This indicates that urea derivatives is a kind of promising salt-free agent for uranium/plutonium separation. In addition, the complexing effect of HSC with Np(IV) was revealed, and Np(IV) can be back-extracted by HSC with a separation factor of about 20.

  3. Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of YTe3, LaTe3 and CeTe3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ru, N.

    2011-08-19

    Measurements of heat capacity, susceptibility, and electrical resistivity are presented for single crystals of the charge density wave compounds YTe{sub 3}, LaTe{sub 3}, and CeTe{sub 3}. The materials are metallic to low temperatures, but have a small density of states due to the charge density wave gapping large portions of the Fermi surface. CeTe{sub 3} is found to be a weak Kondo lattice, with an antiferromagnetic ground state and T{sub N} = 2.8 K. The electrical resistivity of all three compounds is highly anisotropic, confirming the weak dispersion perpendicular to Te planes predicted by band structure calculations.

  4. GaTe semiconductor for radiation detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A.; Burger, Arnold; Mandal, Krishna C.

    2009-06-23

    GaTe semiconductor is used as a room-temperature radiation detector. GaTe has useful properties for radiation detectors: ideal bandgap, favorable mobilities, low melting point (no evaporation), non-hygroscopic nature, and availability of high-purity starting materials. The detector can be used, e.g., for detection of illicit nuclear weapons and radiological dispersed devices at ports of entry, in cities, and off shore and for determination of medical isotopes present in a patient.

  5. IMPORTANCE OF FULL COULOMB INTERACTIONS FOR UNDERSTANDING THE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF DELTA-Pu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorelov, E; Kolorenc, J; Wehling, T; Hafermann, H; Lichtenstein, A I; Shick, A B; Rubtsov, A N; Katsnelson, M I; Landa, A; McMahan, A K

    2010-04-01

    The solid-state properties of most elements are now well understood on the basis of quantum physics - with few exceptions, notably the element number 94, plutonium. Plutonium has six crystalline phases at ambient pressure, some of which are separated by unusual phase transitions with large discontinuities in volume, exhibit negative thermal expansion coefficients, or form exotic low-symmetry structures. The main challenge to explain these anomalous properties is that the characteristic ingredient of actinides, the 5f electronic states, are in the cross-over regime between the localized and delocalized (itinerant) behaviour in Pu. The early part of the actinide series with the 5f states being itinerant, i.e. part of the metallic bond, culminates with Pu; starting with Am (Z = 95), the 5f states are localized, nonbonding, and resemble the 4f states in lanthanides. Both itinerant and localized regimes are well covered by existing theories, but they cannot be simply interpolated due to the importance of dynamical electron-electron correlations. Here we present accurate quantum Monte Carlo calculations achieving previously inaccessible resolution. Obtained results demonstrate that interplay of the full Coulomb interaction vertex with spin-orbital coupling is crucial for understanding the experimentally observed spectral properties of plutonium near the Fermi level.

  6. Irradiation performance of U-Pu-Zr metal fuels for liquid-metal-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, H.; Cohen, A.B.; Billone, M.C.; Neimark, L.A.

    1994-10-01

    This report discusses a fuel system utilizing metallic U-Pu-Zr alloys which has been developed for advanced liquid metal-cooled reactors (LMRs). Result`s from extensive irradiation testing conducted in EBR-II show a design having the following key features can achieve both high reliability and high burnup capability: a cast nominally U-20wt %Pu-10wt %Zr slug with the diameter sized to yield a fuel smear density of {approx}75% theoretical density, low-swelling tempered martensitic stainless steel cladding, sodium bond filling the initial fuel/cladding gap, and an as-built plenum/fuel volume ratio of {approx}1.5. The robust performance capability of this design stems primarily from the negligible loading on the cladding from either fuel/cladding mechanical interaction or fission-gas pressure during the irradiation. The effects of these individual design parameters, e.g., fuel smear density, zirconium content in fuel, plenum volume, and cladding types, on fuel element performance were investigated in a systematic irradiation experiment in EBR-II. The results show that, at the discharge burnup of {approx}11 at. %, variations on zirconium content or plenum volume in the ranges tested have no substantial effects on performance. Fuel smear density, on the other hand, has pronounced but countervailing effects: increased density results in greater cladding strain, but lesser cladding wastage from fuel/cladding chemical interaction.

  7. MGA++ Analysis of Low Quantity Samples of U and Pu on an Extended-rage Gamma-ray Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, T; Russ, G P; Williams, R W

    2007-06-04

    The IAEA has expressed a need for improved determination of gamma emitting nuclides in environmental samples collected during inspections of nuclear facilities and to use the MGA++ to determine U and Pu concentrations and isotopic compositions when those elements are present in relatively high concentrations. We are addressing the IAEA needs by evaluating the applicability of extended-range germanium detectors (ERG). In this paper we used 1g U isotopic standards and 100ug Pu liquid standards (1) to determine the performance of MGA++ on this special detector and (2) to estimate the amount of U and Pu necessary in the sample for determination of the isotopics via MGA++ within reasonable accuracy for a week of counting time using this ERG detector.

  8. PLANTS AS BIO-MONITORS FOR 137CS, 238PU, 239, 240PU AND 40K AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, E.; Duff, M.; Ferguson, C.

    2010-12-16

    The nuclear fuel cycle generates a considerable amount of radioactive waste, which often includes nuclear fission products, such as strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr) and cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), and actinides such as uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu). When released into the environment, large quantities of these radionuclides can present considerable problems to man and biota due to their radioactive nature and, in some cases as with the actinides, their chemical toxicity. Radionuclides are expected to decay at a known rate. Yet, research has shown the rate of elimination from an ecosystem to differ from the decay rate due to physical, chemical and biological processes that remove the contaminant or reduce its biological availability. Knowledge regarding the rate by which a contaminant is eliminated from an ecosystem (ecological half-life) is important for evaluating the duration and potential severity of risk. To better understand a contaminants impact on an environment, consideration should be given to plants. As primary producers, they represent an important mode of contamination transfer from sediments and soils into the food chain. Contaminants that are chemically and/or physically sequestered in a media are less likely to be bio-available to plants and therefore an ecosystem.

  9. Efficiency, Cost and Weight Trade-off in TE Power Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    TE Materials with Embedded Particles High performance Zintl phase TE materials with embedded nanoparticles High performance Zintl phase TE materials with embedded nanoparticles

  10. Neutronics Simulations of 237Np Targets to Support Safety-Basis and 238Pu Production Assessment Efforts at the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, David; Ellis, Ronald James

    2015-01-01

    Fueled by two highly enriched uranium-bearing fuel elements surrounded by a large concentric ring of beryllium reflector, the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) provides one of the highest neutron fluxes in the world and is used to produce unique isotopes like plutonium-238. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration use radioisotope thermoelectric generators powered by 238Pu for deep-space missions. As part of the US Department of Energy s task to reestablish the domestic production of 238Pu, a technology demonstration sub-project has been initiated to establish a new 238Pu supply chain. HFIR safety-basis neutronics calculations are being performed to ensure the target irradiations have no adverse impacts on reactor performance and to calculate data required as input to follow-on thermal-structural, thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide/dose analyses. Plutonium-238 production assessments are being performed to estimate the amount of 238Pu that can be produced in HFIR s permanent beryllium reflector. It is estimated that a total of 0.96 1.12 kg 238Pu (~1.28 1.49 kg PuO2 at 85% 238Pu/Pu purity) could be produced per year in HFIR s permanent beryllium reflector irradiation facilities if they are all utilized.

  11. Post-Irradiation Examination of 237Np Targets for 238Pu Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Robert Noel; Baldwin, Charles A; Hobbs, Randy W; Schmidlin, Joshua E

    2015-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is recovering the US 238Pu production capability and the first step in the process has been to evaluate the performance of a 237Np target cermet pellet encased in an aluminum clad. The process proceeded in 3 steps; the first step was to irradiate capsules of single pellets composed of NpO2 and aluminum power to examine their shrinkage and gas release. These pellets were formed by compressing sintered NpO2 and aluminum powder in a die at high pressure followed by sintering in a vacuum furnace. Three temperatures were chosen for sintering the solution precipitated NpO2 power used for pellet fabrication. The second step was to irradiate partial targets composed of 8 pellets in a semi-prototypical arrangement at the two best performing sintering temperatures to determine which temperature gave a pellet that performed the best under the actual planned irradiation conditions. The third step was to irradiate ~50 pellets in an actual target configuration at design irradiation conditions to assess pellet shrinkage and gas release, target heat transfer, and dimensional stability. The higher sintering temperature appeared to offer the best performance after one cycle of irradiation by having the least shrinkage, thus keeping the heat transfer gap between the pellets and clad small minimizing the pellet operating temperature. The final result of the testing was a target that can meet the initial production goals, satisfy the reactor safety requirements, and can be fabricated in production quantities. The current focus of the program is to verify that the target can be remotely dissembled, the pellets dissolved, and the 238Pu recovered. Tests are being conducted to examine these concerns and to compare results to code predictions. Once the performance of the full length targets has been quantified, the pellet 237Np loading will be revisited to determine if it can be

  12. Radioecologycal study of {sup 239/240}Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula: Determination of {sup 239/240}Pu in marine sediment and seawater as part of baseline data collecting for sitting of candidates of first Indonesia NPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suseno, Heny; Wisnubroto, Djarot S.

    2014-03-24

    Radioisotope Pu-239/240 are alpha emitting nuclides important indicators of radioactive contamination of the marine environment. Global fallout is the main source of plutonium in the marine environment. There are very limited study on {sup 239/240}Pu in Indonesia coastal environments. The data of this radioisotopes is needed for baseline data of nuclear power plant (NPP) site candidates both in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. Bottom sediments play an important role in radioecological studies of the marine environment because a large proportion of radioactive substances entering the sea is adsorbed over time onto suspended particulate matter and deposited in sediments. Plutonium is particle reactive and deposited in marine sediment. Radioisotope {sup 239/240}Pu was determinated by alpha spectrometry after radiochemical procedure that was performed in both water and marine sediment from Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. The sediment baseline of concentration {sup 239/240}Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula were range from 0.013 to 0.021 Bq.kg{sup ?1} and 0.018 to 0.024 Bq.kg{sup ?1} respectively. The water baseline concentration this isotope were range from 2.73 to 4.05 mBq.m{sup ?3} and 2.98 to 4.50 mBq.m{sup ?3}.

  13. Upper concentration limits for {sup 239}Pu traces in some {open_quotes}KTB{close_quotes}-samples and in one Hawaiian lava

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, H.; Ganz, M.; Brandt, R.

    1994-11-01

    Trace quantities of plutonium are observed in the environment all over the world, and include both man-made {sup 238-242}Pu and natural {sup 239}Pu in uranium ores. Typical concentrations range from 10{sup {minus}14} g Pu/g sample up to 10{sup {minus}12} g Pu/g in pitchblende. We have determined some upper concentration limits for the plutonium in samples from KTB (Kontinentales Tiefbohrprogramm, Germany) which are in the range of 10{sup {minus}15} down to 3{center_dot}10{sup {minus}17} g Pu/g sample. In addition, we have investigated one sample of Hawaiian lava, with a limit of 5{center_dot}10{sup {minus}15}. We could not confirm previous reports on the observation of plutonium in some Pacific Lavas, nor do our results show any evidence for cold fusion neutrons producing plutonium in fluids of great depth in the crust.

  14. An evaluation of alternate production methods for Pu-238 general purpose heat source pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Borland; Steve Frank

    2009-06-01

    For the past half century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to power deep space satellites. Fabricating heat sources for RTGs, specifically General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHSs), has remained essentially unchanged since their development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the applicable fields of chemistry, manufacturing and control systems. This paper evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu 238 fueled heat sources. Specifically, this paper discusses the production of the plutonium-oxide granules, which are the input stream to the ceramic pressing and sintering processes. Alternate chemical processes are compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product.

  15. Microscopic modeling of mass and charge distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sandhukhan, Jhilam; Nazarewicz, Witold; Schunck, Nicolas

    2016-01-20

    We propose a methodology to calculate microscopically the mass and charge distributions of spontaneous fission yields. We combine the multidimensional minimization of collective action for fission with stochastic Langevin dynamics to track the relevant fission paths from the ground-state configuration up to scission. The nuclear potential energy and collective inertia governing the tunneling motion are obtained with nuclear density functional theory in the collective space of shape deformations and pairing. As a result, we obtain a quantitative agreement with experimental data and find that both the charge and mass distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu are sensitive both tomore » the dissipation in collective motion and to adiabatic fission characteristics.« less

  16. DOE Plutonium Disposition Study: Pu consumption in ALWRs. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) to provide information on the capability of ABB-CE`s System 80 + Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) to transform, through reactor burnup, 100 metric tonnes (MT) of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) into a form which is not readily useable in weapons. This information is being developed as part of DOE`s Plutonium Disposition Study, initiated by DOE in response to Congressional action. This document, Volume 1, presents a technical description of the various elements of the System 80 + Standard Plant Design upon which the Plutonium Disposition Study was based. The System 80 + Standard Design is fully developed and directly suited to meeting the mission objectives for plutonium disposal. The bass U0{sub 2} plant design is discussed here.

  17. Induced fission of Pu240 within a real-time microscopic framework

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bulgac, Aurel; Magierski, Piotr; Roche, Kenneth J.; Stetcu, Ionel

    2016-03-25

    Here, we describe the fissioning dynamics of 240Pu from a configuration in the proximity of the outer fission barrier to full scission and the formation of the fragments within an implementation of density functional theory extended to superfluid systems and real-time dynamics. The fission fragments emerge with properties similar to those determined experimentally, while the fission dynamics appears to be quite complex, with many excited shape and pairing modes. The evolution is found to be much slower than previously expected, and the ultimate role of the collective inertia is found to be negligible in this fully nonadiabatic treatment of nuclearmore » dynamics, where all collective degrees of freedom (CDOF) are included (unlike adiabatic treatments with a small number of CDOF).« less

  18. Gamma-ray Output Spectra from 239 Pu Fission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullmann, John

    2015-05-25

    Gamma-ray multiplicities, individual gamma-ray energy spectra, and total gamma energy spectra following neutron-induced fission of 239Pu were measured using the DANCE detector at Los Alamos. Corrections for detector response were made using a forward-modeling technique based on propagating sets of gamma rays generated from a paramaterized model through a GEANT model of the DANCE array and adjusting the parameters for best fit to the measured spectra. The results for the gamma-ray spectrum and multiplicity are in general agreement with previous results, but the measured total gamma-ray energy is about 10% higher. A dependence of the gamma-ray spectrum on the gamma-ray multplicity was also observed. Global model calculations of the multiplicity and gamma energy distributions are in good agreement with the data, but predict a slightly softer total-energy distribution.

  19. Review of Calculations on Point Defect Properties in Delta-Pu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, P. G.; Wolfer, W. G.

    2015-09-08

    The results of theoretical predictions of properties for vacancies and self-interstitial atoms (SIA) in δ-Pu are presented and reviewed. Three methods have been used for these predictions, namely the modified embedded atom method (MEAM), density functional theory (DFT) with and without spin polarization, and continuum mechanics (CM) models adapted to plutonium. The properties considered are formation and migration energies, and relaxation volumes of vacancies and SIA. Predicted values vary considerably. Nevertheless, all three methods predict that the activation energy for self-diffusion by vacancies is of similar magnitude as the SIA formation energy. Furthermore, the absolute magnitudes of relaxation volumes for vacancies and SIA are also similar, indicating that there exist no large bias for radiation-induced void swelling.

  20. Applications of pulsed neutron powder diffraction to actinide elements. [Pu-Al

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawson, A.C.; Richardson, J.W.; Mueller, M.H.; Lander, G.H.; Goldstone, J.A.; Williams, A.; Kwei, G.H.; Von Dreele, R.B.; Faber, J. Jr.; Hitterman, R.L.

    1987-11-01

    We have been using the technique of pulsed neutron powder diffraction to study several problems in the physics and chemistry of the actinide elements. In these elements one often encounters very complex structures resulting from polymorphic transformations presumably induced by the presence of 5f-electrons. For example, at least five distinct structures of plutonium metal are found between room temperature and its melting point of 640/sup 0/C, and two of the structures are monoclinc. The determination of the crystal structure of beta-uranium (tetragonal, 30 atoms per unit cell) which has finnaly been shown to be centrosymmetric, after decades of uncertainty is discussed. Some preliminary results on the structure of alpha-plutonium (which confirm Zachariasen's original determination of the monoclinic structure) are presented. Pu-Al alloys were also studied. 12 refs., 18 figs.

  1. The new Mercedes-Benz OM 904 LA light heavy-duty diesel engine for class 6 trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schittler, M.; Bergmann, H.; Flathmann, K.

    1996-09-01

    As part of a comprehensive strategic product initiative the most important commercial vehicle manufacturer--Mercedes-Benz AG--is step by step renewing its entire product range. This primarily refers to the heart of the vehicles--the engine. After the OM 457 LA, which was developed together with DDC for the special American market demands and which is produced and sold in the US by DDC under the label Series 55, has had its premiere in Freightliner`s Century Class, the OM 904 LA will now follow in the light commercial vehicle class. This engine has a completely new concept of a direct-injection, highly sophisticated turbocharged four-cylinder in-line engine with air-to-air intercooler, whose main characteristics can be outlined by the terms multi-valve technology, high-pressure injection via unit pumps and electronic engine control. This small engine has several interesting features, which--up to now--were only known from class 8 engines. In addition to fulfilling increased customer demands with regard to long service life, easy maintenance, reliability and economy, great attention was paid during the design of the engine to not only fulfill the global regulations, but also account for sufficient potential to comply with further aggravations to be expected. The most important design features and the attained engine ratings are indicated and explained in detail.

  2. Structure, phase transitions, and isotope effects in [(CH3)4N]2PuCl6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Richard E.

    2015-11-02

    The single crystal X-ray diffraction structure of [(CH3)4N]2PuCl6 is presented for the first time, resolving long standing confusion and speculation regarding the structure of this compound in the literature. A temperature dependent study of this compound shows that the structure of [(CH3)4N]2PuCl6 undergoes no fewer than two phase transitions between 100 and 360 K. The phase of [(CH3)4N]2PuCl6 at room temperature is Fd-3c a = 26.012(3) Å. At 360 K, the structure is in space group Fm-3m with a = 13.088(1) Å. The plutonium octahedra and tetramethylammonium cations undergo a rotative displacement and the degree of rotation varies with temperature, giving rise to the phase transition from Fm-3m to Fd-3c as the crystal is cooled. Synthesis and structural studies of the deuterated salt [(CD3)4N]2PuCl6 suggest that there is an isotopic effect associated with this phase transition as revealed by a changing transition temperature in the deuterated versus protonated compound indicating that the donor-acceptor interactions between the tetramethylammonium cations and the hexachloroplutonate anions are driving the phase transformation.

  3. MD simulations of phase stability of PuGa alloys: Effects of primary radiation defects and helium bubbles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dremov, V. V.; Sapozhnikov, F. A.; Ionov, G. V.; Karavaev, A. V.; Vorobyova, M. A.; Chung, B. W.

    2013-05-14

    We present classical molecular dynamics (MD) with Modified Embedded Atom Model (MEAM) simulations to investigate the role of primary radiation defects and radiogenic helium as factors affecting the phase stability of PuGa alloys in cooling–heating cycles at ambient pressure. The models of PuGa alloys equilibrated at ambient conditions were subjected to cooling–heating cycles in which they were initially cooled down to 100 K and then heated up to 500 K at ambient pressure. The rate of temperature change in the cycles was 10 K/ns. The simulations showed that the initial FCC phase of PuGa alloys undergo polymorphous transition in coolingmore » to a lower symmetry α'-phase. All the alloys undergo direct and reverse polymorphous transitions in the cooling–heating cycles. The alloys containing vacancies shift in both transitions to lower temperatures relative to the defect-free alloys. The radiogenic helium has much less effect on the phase stability compared to that of primary radiation defects (in spite of the fact that helium concentration is twice of that for the primary radiation defects). Lastly, this computational result agrees with experimental data on unconventional stabilization mechanism of PuGa alloys.« less

  4. Hidden disorder in the α'→δ transformation of Pu-1.9 at.% Ga

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffries, J. R.; Manley, M. E.; Wall, M. A.; Blobaum, K. J. M.; Schwartz, A. J.

    2012-06-06

    Enthalpy and entropy are thermodynamic quantities critical to determining how and at what temperature a phase transition occurs. At a phase transition, the enthalpy and temperature-weighted entropy differences between two phases are equal (ΔH=TΔS), but there are materials where this balance has not been experimentally or theoretically realized, leading to the idea of hidden order and disorder. In a Pu-1.9 at. % Ga alloy, the δ phase is retained as a metastable state at room temperature, but at low temperatures, the δ phase yields to a mixed-phase microstructure of δ- and α'-Pu. The previously measured sources of entropy associated with the α'→δ transformation fail to sum to the entropy predicted theoretically. We report an experimental measurement of the entropy of the α'→δ transformation that corroborates the theoretical prediction, and implies that only about 65% of the entropy stabilizing the δ phase is accounted for, leaving a missing entropy of about 0.5 kB/atom. Some previously proposed mechanisms for generating entropy are discussed, but none seem capable of providing the necessary disorder to stabilize the δ phase. This hidden disorder represents multiple accessible states per atom within the δ phase of Pu that may not be included in our current understanding of the properties and phase stability of δ-Pu.

  5. Determination of CdTe bulk carrier lifetime and interface recombination velocity of CdTe/MgCdTe double heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Xin-Hao; Campbell, Calli M.; DiNezza, Michael J.; Liu, Shi; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Hang

    2014-12-22

    The bulk Shockley-Read-Hall carrier lifetime of CdTe and interface recombination velocity at the CdTe/Mg{sub 0.24}Cd{sub 0.76}Te heterointerface are estimated to be around 0.5??s and (4.7??0.4)??10{sup 2?}cm/s, respectively, using time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Four CdTe/MgCdTe double heterostructures (DHs) with varying CdTe layer thicknesses were grown on nearly lattice-matched InSb (001) substrates using molecular beam epitaxy. The longest lifetime of 179?ns is observed in the DH with a 2??m thick CdTe layer. It is also shown that the photon recycling effect has a strong influence on the bulk radiative lifetime, and the reabsorption process affects the measured PL spectrum shape and intensity.

  6. The prospect of uranium nitride (UN) and mixed nitride fuel (UN-PuN) for pressurized water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syarifah, Ratna Dewi Suud, Zaki

    2015-09-30

    Design study of small Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) core loaded with uranium nitride fuel (UN) and mixed nitride fuel (UN-PuN), Pa-231 as burnable poison, and Americium has been performed. Pa-231 known as actinide material, have large capture cross section and can be converted into fissile material that can be utilized to reduce excess reactivity. Americium is one of minor actinides with long half life. The objective of adding americium is to decrease nuclear spent fuel in the world. The neutronic analysis results show that mixed nitride fuel have k-inf greater than uranium nitride fuel. It is caused by the addition of Pu-239 in mixed nitride fuel. In fuel fraction analysis, for uranium nitride fuel, the optimum volume fractions are 45% fuel fraction, 10% cladding and 45% moderator. In case of UN-PuN fuel, the optimum volume fractions are 30% fuel fraction, 10% cladding and 60% coolant/ moderator. The addition of Pa-231 as burnable poison for UN fuel, enrichment U-235 5%, with Pa-231 1.6% has k-inf more than one and excess reactivity of 14.45%. And for mixed nitride fuel, the lowest value of reactivity swing is when enrichment (U-235+Pu) 8% with Pa-231 0.4%, the excess reactivity value 13,76%. The fuel pin analyze for the addition of Americium, the excess reactivity value is lower than before, because Americium absorb the neutron. For UN fuel, enrichment U-235 8%, Pa-231 1.6% and Am 0.5%, the excess reactivity is 4.86%. And for mixed nitride fuel, when enrichment (U-235+Pu) 13%, Pa-231 0.4% and Am 0.1%, the excess reactivity is 11.94%. For core configuration, it is better to use heterogeneous than homogeneous core configuration, because the radial power distribution is better.

  7. Correlation testing of the European EMA (Engine Manufacturers Association) round-robin engine (Daimler-Benz OM 366a). Heavy-duty engine testing report. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baines, T.M.

    1987-12-01

    This report examines the results of testing the Daimler-Benz OM 366 A heavy-duty engine at the Environmental Protection Agency Motor Vehicle Emission Laboratory. This heavy-duty engine was tested for the purpose of providing correlation data for the comparison with similar data developed by European Engine Manufacturers (EMA). The European EMA members organized a round robin testing program and decided to test a Daimler-Benz OM 366A engine, and to focus the program on gathering simple cold start/hot start Federal Test Procedure data. The report includes the results of the tests, including engine description, fuels, test procedures and test plans.

  8. Post-Growth Annealing of Bridgman-grown CdZnTe and CdMnTe Crystals...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    temperature gradient, we observed the migration of Te inclusions from a low-temperature ... These results show that the migration, diffusion, and reaction of Te with Cd in the matrix ...

  9. Post-Growth Annealing of Bridgman-grown CdZnTe and CdMnTe Crystals...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nuclear Radiation Detectors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Post-Growth Annealing of Bridgman-grown CdZnTe and CdMnTe Crystals for Room-temperature Nuclear ...

  10. Burnup estimation of fuel sourcing radioactive material based on monitored Cs and Pu isotopic activity ratios in Fukushima N. P. S. accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, T.; Suzuki, M.; Ando, Y.

    2012-07-01

    After the severe core damage of Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Station, radioactive material leaked from the reactor buildings. As part of monitoring of radioactivity in the site, measurements of radioactivity in soils at three fixed points have been performed for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs with gamma-ray spectrometry and for Pu, Pu, and {sup 240}Pu with {alpha}-ray spectrometry. Correlations of radioactivity ratios of {sup 134}Cs to {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 238}Pu to the sum of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu with fuel burnup were studied by using theoretical burnup calculations and measurements on isotopic inventories, and compared with the Cs and Pu radioactivity rations in the soils. The comparison indicated that the burnup of the fuel sourcing the radioactivity was from 18 to 38 GWd/t, which corresponded to that of the fuel in the highest power and, therefore, the highest decay heat in operating high-burnup fueled BWR cores. (authors)

  11. Estimation of 240Pu Mass in a Waste Tank Using Ultra-Sensitive Detection of Radioactive Xenon Isotopes from Spontaneous Fission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowyer, Ted W.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Meacham, Joseph E.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Olsen, Khris B.; Prinke, Amanda M.; Reid, Bruce D.; Woods, Vincent T.

    2014-12-01

    We report on a technique to detect and quantify the amount of 240Pu in a large tank used to store nuclear waste from plutonium production at the Hanford nuclear site. While the contents of this waste tank are known from previous grab sample measurements, our technique could allow for determination of the amount of 240Pu in the tank without costly sample retrieval and analysis of this highly radioactive material. This technique makes an assumption, which was confirmed, that 240Pu dominates the spontaneous fissions occurring in the tank.

  12. Stress and Diffusion in Stored Pu ZPPR Fuel from Alpha Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles W. Solbrig; Chad L. Pope; Jason P. Andrus

    2014-07-01

    ZPPR (Zero Power Physics Reactor) is a research reactor that has been used to investigate breeder reactor fuel designs. The reactor has been dismantled but its fuel is still stored there. Of concern are its plutonium containing metal fuel elements which are enclosed in stainless steel cladding with gas space filled with helium–argon gas and welded air tight. The fuel elements which are 5.08 cm by 0.508 cm up to 20.32 cm long (2 in × 0.2 in × 8 in) were manufactured in 1968. A few of these fuel elements have failed releasing contamination raising concern about the general state of the large number of other fuel elements. Inspection of the large number of fuel elements could lead to contamination release so analytical studies have been conducted to estimate the probability of failed fuel elements. This paper investigates the possible fuel failures due to generation of helium in the metal fuel from the decay of Pu and its possible damage to the fuel cladding from metal fuel expansion or from diffusion of helium into the fuel gas space. This paper (1) calculates the initial gas loading in a fuel element and its internal free volume after it has been brought into the atmosphere at ZPPR, (2) shows that the amount of helium generated by decay of Pu over 46 years since manufacture is significantly greater than this initial loading, (3) determines the amount of fuel swelling if the helium stays fixed in the fuel plate and estimates the amount of helium which diffuses out of the fuel plate into the fuel plenum assuming the helium does not remain fixed in the fuel plate but can diffuse to the plenum and possibly through the cladding. Since the literature is not clear as to which possibility occurs, as with Schroedinger’s cat, both possibilities are analyzed. The paper concludes that (1) if the gas generated is fixed in the fuel, then the fuel swelling it can cause would not cause any fuel failure and (2) if the helium does diffuse out of the fuel (in accordance

  13. Rational Ligand Design for U(VI) and Pu(IV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szigethy, Geza

    2009-08-12

    , these ligands exhibited increased uranyl affinity compared to bis-Me-3,2-HOPO ligands. This result is due in part to their increased denticity, but is primarily the result of the presence of the TAM moiety. In an effort to explore the relatively unexplored coordination chemistry of Pu(IV) with bidentate moieties, a series of Pu(IV) complexes were also crystallized using bidentate hydroxypyridinone and hydroxypyrone ligands. The geometries of these complexes are compared to that of the analogous Ce(IV) complexes. While in some cases these showed the expected structural similarities, some ligand systems led to significant coordination changes. A series of crystal structure analyses with Ce(IV) indicated that these differences are most likely the result of crystallization condition differences and solvent inclusion effects.

  14. Effect and optimization of CdS/CdTe interdiffusion on CdTe electrical properties and CdS/CdTe cell performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, W.; Mao, D.; Kaydanov, V.; Ohno, T.R.; Trefny, J.V.; Levi, D.H.; Johnston, S. McCandless, B.E.

    1999-03-01

    We have investigated the effect of the CdS/CdTe interdiffusion on the properties of the CdTe films and the CdS/CdTe cell performance. Sulfur (S) diffusion into the CdTe films leads to a decreased defect density in the films, improvement of cell performance, and possibly to the increase of the carrier lifetime in the films. Cell performance is improved with the increase of the amount of S in the CdTe films. S diffusion into CdTe also deteriorates the uniformity of the CdS window layers, resulting in worse cell performance. Based on this study, we propose a processing method to improve cell performance. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Evaluation of Aqueous and Powder Processing Techniques for Production of Pu-238-Fueled General Purpose Heat Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    This report evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu-238 fueled General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) for radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG). Fabricating GPHSs with the current process has remained essentially unchanged since its development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the fields of chemistry, manufacturing, ceramics, and control systems. At the Department of Energy’s request, alternate manufacturing methods were compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product. An expert committee performed the evaluation with input from four national laboratories experienced in Pu-238 handling.

  16. Rapid fusion method for the determination of Pu, Np, and Am in large soil samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian; Hutchison, Jay B.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2015-02-14

    A new rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method for the preparation of 10-20 g soil samples has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The method enables lower detection limits for plutonium, neptunium, and americium in environmental soil samples. The method also significantly reduces sample processing time and acid fume generation compared to traditional soil digestion techniques using hydrofluoric acid. Ten gram soil aliquots can be ashed and fused using the new method in 1-2 hours, completely dissolving samples, including refractory particles. Pu, Np and Am are separated using stacked 2mL cartridges of TEVA and DGA Resin and measured using alpha spectrometry. The method can be adapted for measurement by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two 10 g soil aliquots of fused soil may be combined prior to chromatographic separations to further improve detection limits. Total sample preparation time, including chromatographic separations and alpha spectrometry source preparation, is less than 8 hours.

  17. Code System to Determine Pu Isotope Abundances from Multichannel Analyzer Gamma Spectra.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-09-26

    Version 00 The MGA (Multiple Group Analysis) program determines the relative abundances of plutonium and other actinide isotopes in different materials. The program analyzes spectra taken of such samples using a 4096-channel germanium (Ge) gamma-ray spectrometer. The code can be run in a one or two detector mode. The first spectrum, which is required and must be taken at a gain of 0.075 Kev/channel with a high resolution planar detector, contains the 0-300Kev energy region.more » The second spectrum, which is optional, must be taken at a gain of 0.25 Kev/channel; it becomes important when analyzing high burnup samples (concentration of Pu241 greater than one percent). Isotopic analysis precisions of one percent or better can be obtained, and no calibrations are required. The system also measures the abundances of U235, U238, Np237, and Am241. A special calibration option is available to perform a one-time peak-shape characterization when first using a new detector system.« less

  18. Rapid fusion method for the determination of Pu, Np, and Am in large soil samples

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian; Hutchison, Jay B.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2015-02-14

    A new rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method for the preparation of 10-20 g soil samples has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The method enables lower detection limits for plutonium, neptunium, and americium in environmental soil samples. The method also significantly reduces sample processing time and acid fume generation compared to traditional soil digestion techniques using hydrofluoric acid. Ten gram soil aliquots can be ashed and fused using the new method in 1-2 hours, completely dissolving samples, including refractory particles. Pu, Np and Am are separated using stacked 2mL cartridges of TEVA and DGA Resin and measuredmore » using alpha spectrometry. The method can be adapted for measurement by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two 10 g soil aliquots of fused soil may be combined prior to chromatographic separations to further improve detection limits. Total sample preparation time, including chromatographic separations and alpha spectrometry source preparation, is less than 8 hours.« less

  19. Assessment of a mechanistic model in U-Pu-Zr metallic alloy fuel fission-gas behavior simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, D.; Rest, J.; Yacout, A. M.

    2012-07-01

    A mechanistic kinetic rate theory model originally developed for the prediction of fission gas behavior in oxide nuclear fuels under steady-state and transient conditions has been assessed to look at its applicability to model fission gas behavior in U-Pu-Zr metallic alloy fuel. In order to capture and validate the underlying physics for irradiated U-Pu-Zr fuels, the mechanistic model was applied to the simulation of fission gas release, fission gas and fission product induced swelling, and the evolution of the gas bubble size distribution in three different fuel zones: the outer {alpha}-U, the intermediate, and the inner {gamma}-U zones. Due to its special microstructural features, the {alpha}-U zone in U-Pu-Zr fuels is believed to contribute the largest fraction of fission gas release among the different fuel zones. It is shown that with the use of small effective grain sizes, the mechanistic model can predict fission gas release that is consistent with (though slightly lower than) experimentally measured data. These simulation results are comparable to the experimentally measured fission gas release since the mechanism of fission gas transport through the densely distributed laminar porosity in the {alpha}-U zone is analogous to the mechanism of fission gas transport through the interconnected gas bubble porosity utilized in the mechanistic model. Detailed gas bubble size distributions predicted with the mechanistic model in both the intermediate zone and the high temperature {gamma}-U zone of U-Pu-Zr fuel are also compared to experimental measurements from available SEM micrographs. These comparisons show good agreements between the simulation results and experimental measurements, and therefore provide crucial guidelines for the selection of key physical parameters required for modeling these two zones. In addition, the results of parametric studies for several key parameters are presented for both the intermediate zone and the {gamma}-U zone simulations

  20. Addendum 2 to CSER 94-007 and CSER 94-008 Title: Burning one whole Pu button in muffle furnace in the HC-21C hood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiao, T., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-24

    This addendum reviews the current CPS` and their supporting CSERs for HC-21A and HC-21C Hoods and provides the criticality safety analysis for burning a whole Pu button in HC-21C.

  1. A comment on the thermal conductivity of (U,Pu)O2 and (U,Th)O2 by molecular dynamics with adjustment for phonon-spin scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cooper, Michael William D.; Liu, Xiang -Yang; Stanek, Christopher Richard; Andersson, David Anders

    2016-07-15

    In this study, a new approach for adjusting molecular dynamics results on UO2 thermal conductivity to include phonon-spin scattering has been used to improve calculations on Ux Pu1–x O2 and UxTh1xO2. We demonstrate that by including spin scattering a strong asymmetry as a function of uranium actinide fraction, x, is obtained. Greater degradation is shown for UxTh1–xO2 than UxPu1-xO2. Minimum thermal conductivities are predicted at U0.97Pu0.03O2 and U0.58Th0.42O2, although the degradation in UxPu1–xO2 is negligible relative to pure UO2.

  2. Data Testing Revised 235U, 239Pu and 63,65Cu Files with ICSBEP Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahler, III, Albert C.; Leal, Luiz C.

    2014-03-13

    We review recent critical benchmark calculations with revised 235U, 239Pu and 63,65Cu evaluated data files.

  3. Quantifying the importance of orbital over spin correlations in delta-Pu within density-functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soderlind, P; Wolfer, W

    2007-07-27

    Spin and orbital and electron correlations are known to be important when treating the high-temperature {delta} phase of plutonium within the framework of density-functional theory (DFT). One of the more successful attempts to model {delta}-Pu within this approach has included condensed-matter generalizations of Hund's three rules for atoms, i.e., spin polarization, orbital polarization, and spin-orbit coupling. Here they perform a quantitative analysis of these interactions relative rank for the bonding and electronic structure in {delta}-Pu within the DFT model. The result is somewhat surprising in that spin-orbit coupling and orbital polarization are far more important than spin polarization for a realistic description of {delta}-Pu. They show that these orbital correlations on their own, without any formation of magnetic spin moments, can account for the low atomic density of the {delta} phase with a reasonable equation-of-state. In addition, this unambiguously non-magnetic (NM) treatment produces a one-electron spectra with resonances close to the Fermi level consistent with experimental valence band photoemission spectra.

  4. Modeling of selected ceramic processing parameters employed in the fabrication of 238PuO2 fuel pellets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brockman, R. A.; Kramer, D. P.; Barklay, C. D.; Cairns-Gallimore, D.; Brown, J. L.; Huling, J. C.; Van Pelt, C. E.

    2011-10-01

    Recent deep space missions utilize the thermal output of the radioisotope plutonium-238 as the fuel in the thermal to electrical power system. Since the application of plutonium in its elemental state has several disadvantages, the fuel employed in these deep space power systems is typically in the oxide form such as plutonium-238 dioxide (238PuO2). As an oxide, the processing of the plutonium dioxide into fuel pellets is performed via ''classical'' ceramic processing unit operations such as sieving of the powder, pressing, sintering, etc. Modeling of these unit operations can be beneficial in the understanding and control of processing parameters withmore » the goal of further enhancing the desired characteristics of the 238PuO2 fuel pellets. A finite element model has been used to help identify the time-temperature-stress profile within a pellet during a furnace operation taking into account that 238PuO2 itself has a significant thermal output. The results of the modeling efforts will be discussed.« less

  5. Effect of 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) on Partitioning of Np and Pu to Synthetic Boehmite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Brian A.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2009-05-01

    The effect of 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) on sorption of Np(V) and Pu(V) to synthetic boehmite ({gamma}-AlOOH) was examined a function of time and pH (between 4 to 11). Sorption of both elements in boehmite suspensions (1 M NaCl, 600 mg L{sup -1} boehmite) increased with increasing pH. Sorption edges for neptunium and plutonium occurred at approximately pH 8.0 and 6.6, respectively. After steady state partitioning was reached, HEDPA was added to the neptunium-boehmite and plutonium-boehmite suspensions. Neptunium and plutonium partitioning appears to be primarily affected by the formation of soluble Np:HEDPA and Pu:HEDPA complexes, the dissolution of boehmite promoted by HEDPA, and the precipitation of Np:HEDPA and Pu:HEDPA colloids. The results are discussed in terms of applicability of HEDPA-promoted dissolution as a waste reduction method in the treatment of sludge phases contained within high-level nuclear waste storage tanks.

  6. New chalcogenide glasses in the CdTe-AgI-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassem, M.; Le Coq, D.; Boidin, R.; Bychkov, E.; ULCO, LPCA, EA 4493, F-59140 Dunkerque

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determination of the glass-forming region in the pseudo-ternary CdTe-AgI-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of macroscopic properties of the new CdTe-AgI-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} glasses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of the total conductivity of CdTe-AgI-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} glasses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison between the selenide and telluride equivalent systems. -- Abstract: Chalcogenide glasses in the pseudo-ternary CdTe-AgI-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} system were synthesized and the glass-forming range was determined. The maximum content of CdTe in this glass system was found to be equal to 15 mol.%. The macroscopic characterizations of samples have consisted in Differential Scanning Calorimetry, density, and X-ray diffraction measurements. The cadmium telluride addition does not generate any significant change in the glass transition temperature but the resistance of binary AgI-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} glasses towards crystallisation is estimated to be decreasing on the base of {Delta}T = T{sub x} - T{sub g} parameter. The total electrical conductivity {sigma} was measured by complex impedance spectroscopy. First, the CdTe additions in the (AgI){sub 0.5}(As{sub 2}Te{sub 3}){sub 0.5} host glass, (CdTe){sub x}(AgI){sub 0.5-x/2}(As{sub 2}Te{sub 3}){sub 0.5-x/2} lead to a conductivity decrease at x {<=} 0.05. Then, the behaviour is reversed at 0.05 {<=} x {<=} 0.15. The obtained results are discussed by comparison with the equivalent selenide system.

  7. Surveying The TeV Sky With Milagro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, G. P.

    2006-11-17

    A wide field of view, high duty factor TeV gamma-ray observatory is essential for studying TeV astrophysical sources, because most of these sources are either highly variable or are extended. Milagro is such a TeV detector and has performed the deepest survey of the Northern Hemisphere sky. In addition to detecting the Crab Nebula and Mrk 421, which are known TeV sources, Milagro has made the first detection of diffuse TeV emission from the Galactic plane. The Milagro data has been searched for unknown point sources and extended sources. A new extended TeV source is seen and is coincident with an EGRET unidentified source. Based on the success of Milagro, a second generation water Cherenkov gamma-ray observatory is planned which will give an increase in sensitivity of more than an order of magnitude.

  8. Astrophysics and Cosmology with TeV Gamma Rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aharonian, Felix

    2005-07-13

    I will discuss the astrophysical and cosmological implications of recent exciting discoveries of TeV gamma-rays from objects representing several Galactic and Extragalactic source populations.

  9. Luminosity goals for a 100-TeV pp collider

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hinchliffe, Ian; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Quigg, Chris; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2015-08-20

    We consider diverse examples of science goals that provide a framework to assess luminosity goals for a future 100-TeV proton-proton collider.

  10. High Performance Zintl Phase TE Materials with Embedded Particles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presents results from embedding nanoparticles in magnesium silicide alloy matrix ... Zintl Phase Materials with Embedded Nanoparticles High performance Zintl phase TE ...

  11. Battle Mountain Band - Te-Moak: Solar Energy Park

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Battle Mountain Band - Te-Moak Chairman Joseph Holley and Vice-chairman Mark Oppenhein, Members Donna Hill, Delbert Holley, Lydia Johnson, and Lydell Oppenhein Solar Energy Park ...

  12. Luminosity goals for a 100-TeV pp collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinchliffe, Ian; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Quigg, Chris; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2015-04-23

    We consider diverse examples of science goals that provide a framework to assess luminosity goals for a future 100-TeV proton-proton collider.

  13. Decontamination of soils and materials containing medium-fired PuO{sub 2} using inhibited fluorides with polymer filtration technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temer, D.J.; Villarreal, R.; Smith, B.F.

    1997-10-01

    The decontamination of soils and/or materials from medium-fired plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) with an effective and efficient decontamination agent that will not significantly dissolve the matrix requires a new and innovative technology. After testing several decontamination agents and solutions for dissolution of medium-fired PuO{sub 2}, the most successful decontamination solutions were fluoride compounds, which were effective in breaking the Pu-oxide bond but would not extensively dissolve soil constituents and other materials. The fluoride compounds, tetra fluoboric acid (HBF{sub 4}) and hydrofluorosilicic acid (H{sub 2}F{sub 6}Si), were effective in dissolving medium-fired PuO{sub 2}, and did not seem to have the potential to dissolve the matrix. In both compounds, the fluoride atom is attached to a boron or silicon atom that inhibits the reactivity of the fluoride towards other compounds or materials containing atoms less attracted to the fluoride atom in an acid solution. Because of this inhibition of the reactivity of the fluoride ion, these compounds are termed inhibited fluoride compounds or agents. Both inhibited fluorides studied effectively dissolved medium-fired PuO{sub 2} but exhibited a tendency to not attack stainless steel or soil. The basis for selecting inhibited fluorides was confirmed during leaching tests of medium-fired PuO{sub 2} spiked into soil taken from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). When dissolved in dilute HNO{sub 3}, HCl, or HBr, both inhibited fluoride compounds were effective at solubilizing the medium-fired PuO{sub 2} from spiked INEL soil.

  14. Pressure dependence of the charge-density-wave and superconducting states in GdTe3, TbTe3, and DyTe3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zocco, D. A.; Hamlin, J. J.; Grube, K.; Chu, J. -H.; Kuo, H. -H.; Fisher, I. R.; Maple, M. B.

    2015-05-14

    Here, we present electrical resistivity and ac-susceptibility measurements of GdTe3, TbTe3 and DyTe3 performed under pressure. An upper charge-density-wave (CDW) is suppressed at a rate of dTCW,1/dP~ –85K/GPa. For TbTe3 and DyTe3, a second CDW below TCDW,2 increases with pressure until it reaches the TCDW,1(P) line. For GdTe3, the lower CDW emerges as pressure is increased above ~1GPa. As these two CDW states are suppressed with pressure, superconductivity (SC) appears in the three compounds at lower temperatures. Ac-susceptibility experiments performed on TbTe3 provide compelling evidence for bulk SC in the low-pressure region of the phase diagram. We provide measurements ofmore » superconducting critical fields and discuss the origin of a high-pressure superconducting phase occurring above 5 GPa.« less

  15. Comparison of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in soil around Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulse, S.E.; Ibrahim, S.A.; Whicker, F.W.; Chapman, P.L.

    1999-03-01

    Gamma spectroscopy measurements were used to estimate concentrations of {sup 241}Am and {sup 137}Cs in soil profiles to depths of 21 cm at on-site and off-site locations around the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and at regional background locations east of the Front Range between Colorado`s borders with New Mexico and Wyoming. Concentrations of these radionuclides were compared with concentrations of {sup 239,240}Pu in the same samples. Concentrations of {sup 241}Am in soil from depths of 0 to 3 cm decreased in an easterly direction from more than 5.3 kBq kg{sup {minus}1} 5 to 7 km away at a rate that was nearly proportional to the inverse square of distance. Deposits of {sup 137}Cs were ubiquitous, averaging 0.12 kBq kg{sup {minus}1} in soil from depths of 0 to 3 cm, but were unevenly distributed around Rocky Flats and the regional background locations. Deviations from the uniform exponential rate at which soil concentrations of {sup 137}Cs typically decreased with depth, {minus}0.25 cm{sup {minus}1} at undisturbed sites, enabled the authors to determine that about 10% of their sampling sites had been disturbed by erosion, tillage, or other factors. The mean rate at which {sup 239,240}Pu decreased with depth was about the same, {minus}0.23 cm{sup {minus}1}, throughout the study area. Soil concentrations of {sup 241}Am decreased with depth at a similar mean rate of {minus}0.22 cm{sup {minus}1} at locations close to the 903 pad where measurements were robust. Ratios between {sup 241}Am or {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 137}Cs proved more useful for delineating the extent and pattern of contamination from Rocky Flats than did activity concentrations in soil.

  16. Copper migration in CdTe heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, H.C.; Rohatgi, A.; Jokerst, N.M.; Thomas, E.W.; Kamra, S.

    1996-07-01

    CdTe solar cells were fabricated by depositing a Au/Cu contact with Cu thickness in the range of 50 to 150A on polycrystalline CdTe/CdS/SnO{sub 2} glass structures. The increase in Cu thickness improves ohmic contact and reduces series resistance (R{sub s}), but the excess Cu tends to diffuse into CdTe and lower shunt resistance (R{sub sh}) and cell performance. Light I-V and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) measurements were performed to understand the correlations between the Cu contact thickness, the extent of Cu incorporation in the CdTe cells, and its impact on the cell performance. The CdTe/CdS/SnO{sub 2} glass, CdTe/CdS/GaAs, and CdTe/GaAs structures were prepared in an attempt to achieve CdTe films with different degrees of crystallinity and grain size. A large grain polycrystalline CdTe thin film solar cell was obtained for the first time by selective etching the GaAs substrate coupled with the film transfer onto a glass substrate. SIMS measurement showed that poor crystallinity and smaller grain size of the CdTe film promotes Cu diffusion and decreases the cell performance. Therefore, grain boundaries are the main conduits for Cu migration and larger CdTe grain size or alternate method of contact formation can mitigate the adverse effect of Cu and improve the cell performance. 15 refs., 1 fig.,6 tabs.

  17. TRISO-Fuel Element Performance Modeling for the Hybrid LIFE Engine with Pu Fuel Blanket

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMange, P; Marian, J; Caro, M; Caro, A

    2010-02-18

    A TRISO-coated fuel thermo-mechanical performance study is performed for the hybrid LIFE engine to test the viability of TRISO particles to achieve ultra-high burnup of a weapons-grade Pu blanket. Our methodology includes full elastic anisotropy, time and temperature varying material properties for all TRISO layers, and a procedure to remap the elastic solutions in order to achieve fast fluences up to 30 x 10{sup 25} n {center_dot} m{sup -2} (E > 0.18 MeV). In order to model fast fluences in the range of {approx} 7 {approx} 30 x 10{sup 25} n {center_dot} m{sup -2}, for which no data exist, careful scalings and extrapolations of the known TRISO material properties are carried out under a number of potential scenarios. A number of findings can be extracted from our study. First, failure of the internal pyrolytic carbon (PyC) layer occurs within the first two months of operation. Then, the particles behave as BISO-coated particles, with the internal pressure being withstood directly by the SiC layer. Later, after 1.6 years, the remaining PyC crumbles due to void swelling and the fuel particle becomes a single-SiC-layer particle. Unrestrained by the PyC layers, and at the temperatures and fluences in the LIFE engine, the SiC layer maintains reasonably-low tensile stresses until the end-of-life. Second, the PyC creep constant, K, has a striking influence on the fuel performance of TRISO-coated particles, whose stresses scale almost inversely proportional to K. Obtaining more reliable measurements, especially at higher fluences, is an imperative for the fidelity of our models. Finally, varying the geometry of the TRISO-coated fuel particles results in little differences in the scope of fuel performance. The mechanical integrity of 2-cm graphite pebbles that act as fuel matrix has also been studied and it is concluded that they can reliable serve the entire LIFE burnup cycle without failure.

  18. Full-length U-xPu-10Zr (x=0, 8, 19 wt%) Fast Reactor Fuel Test in FFTF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Porter; H.C. Tsai

    2012-08-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor-1 (IFR-1) experiment performed in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was the only U-Pu-10Zr (Pu-0, 8 and 19 wt%) metallic fast reactor test with commercial-length (91.4 cm active fuel column length) conducted to date. With few remaining test reactors there is little opportunity for performing another test with a long active fuel column. The assembly was irradiated to the goal burnup of 10 at.%. The beginning of life (BOL) peak cladding temperature of the hottest pin was 608?C, cooling to 522?C at end of life (EOL). Selected fuel pins were examined non destructively using neutron radiography, precision axial gamma scanning, and both laser and spiral contact cladding profilometry. Destructive exams included plenum gas pressure, volume, and gas composition determinations on a number of pins followed by optical metallography, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and alpha and beta gamma autoradiography on a single U-19Pu-10Zr pin. The post-irradiation examinations (PIEs) showed very few differences compared to the short-pin (34.3 cm fuel column) testing performed on fuels of similar composition in Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II). The fuel column grew axially slightly less than observed in the short pins, but with the same pattern of decreasing growth with increasing Pu content. There was a difference in the fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) in that the maximum cladding penetration by interdiffusion with fuel/fission products did not occur at the top of the fuel column where the cladding temperature is highest, as observed in EBR-II tests. Instead, the more exaggerated fission-rate profile of the FFTF pins resulted in a peak FCCI at ~0.7 X/L axial location along the fuel column. This resulted from a lower production of rare earth fission products higher in the fuel column as well as a much smaller delta-T between fuel center and cladding, and therefore less FCCI, despite the higher cladding temperature. This behavior could

  19. Commentary on Inhaled 239PuO2 in Dogs — A Prophylaxis against Lung Cancer?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuttler, Jerry M.; Feinendegen, Ludwig E.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies on the effect of inhaled plutonium-dioxide particulates and the incidence of lung tumors in dogs reveal beneficial effects when the cumulative alpha-radiation dose is low. There is a threshold at an exposure level of about 100 cGy for excess tumor incidence and reduced lifespan. The observations conform to the expectations of the radiation hormesis dose-response model and contradict the predictions of the LNT hypothesis. These studies suggest investigating the possibility of employing low-dose alpha-radiation, such as from 239PuO2 inhalation, as a prophylaxis against lung cancer.

  20. Theory of the compactness of the hot fusion reaction {sup 48}Ca+{sup 244}Pu{yields}{sup 292}114*

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Raj K.; Manhas, Monika; Muenzenberg, G.; Greiner, Walter

    2005-07-01

    Within the fragmentation theory, extended to include the orientations degrees of freedom and hexadecupole deformations, for optimized orientations, the {sup 48}Ca+{sup 244}Pu{yields}{sup 292}114* reaction is shown to be a 'compact' hot fusion reaction. The barrier is highest (hot fusion) and interaction radius smallest (compact), which occur for the collisions in the direction of the minor axis of the deformed reaction partner (i.e. for 90 deg. orientation of {sup 244}Pu). In addition to the {sup 48}Ca+{sup 244}Pu reaction valley, a number of other new reaction valleys (target-projectile combinations) are shown to arise for the 'optimally oriented hot' fusion process, the {sup 48}Ca+{sup 244}Pu being the best (lowest barrier) and {sup 54}Ti+{sup 238}U as the next possible best reaction for forming the cold compound nucleus {sup 292}114*. A similar reaction valley for {sup 48}Ca+{sup 244}Pu is found absent in the 'optimally oriented cold' fusion process.

  1. QUALIFICATION OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE 252CF SHUFFLER FOR RECEIPT VERIFICATION MEASUREMENTS OF MIXED U-PU OXIDES STORED IN 9975 SHIPPING CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubose, F.

    2011-05-26

    To extend their ability to perform accountability and verification measurements of {sup 235}U in a U-Pu oxide matrix, the K-Area Material Storage facility commissioned the development and construction of a Passive/Active {sup 252}Cf Shuffler. A series of {sup 252}Cf, PuO{sub 2}, and U-Pu oxide standards, in addition to a single U{sub 3}O{sub 8} standard, were measured to characterize and calibrate the shuffler. Accompanying these measurements were simulations using MCNP5/MCNPX, aimed at isolating the neutron countrate contributions for each of the isotopes present. Two calibration methods for determining the {sup 235}U content in mixed UPu oxide were then developed, yielding comparable results. The first determines the {sup 235}U mass by estimating the {sup 239}Pu/{sup 235}U ratio-dependent contributions from the primary delayed neutron contributors. The second defines an average linear response based on the {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu mass contents. In each case, it was observed that self-shielding due to {sup 235}U mass has a large influence on the observed rates, requiring bounds on the applicable limits of each calibration method.

  2. High performance Zintl phase TE materials with embedded nanoparticles |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Performance of zintl phase thermoelectric materials with embedded particles are evaluated shakouri.pdf (2.3 MB) More Documents & Publications High performance Zintl phase TE materials with embedded nanoparticles High Performance Zintl Phase TE Materials with Embedded Particles Thermoelectrics Partnership: High Performance Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery System Based on Zintl Phase Materials with Embedded Nanoparticles

  3. ETA-NAC007 - Control of Measuring and Test Equipment (M&TE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control of Measuring and Test Equipment (M&TE) Prepared by Electric Transportation ... of calibration standards and Measuring and Test Equipment (M&TE) used for measuring, ...

  4. ETA-UAC07 - Control of Measuring and Test Equipment (M&TE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "Control of Measuring and Test Equipment (M&TE)" Prepared by Electric Transportation ... of calibration standards and Measuring and Test Equipment (M&TE) used for measuring, ...

  5. Thermoelectric device including an alloy of GeTe and AgSbTe as the P-type element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skrabek, Emanuel Andrew; Trimmer, Donald Smith

    1976-01-01

    Improved alloys suitable for thermoelectric applications and having the general formula: (AgSbTe.sub.2).sub.1.sub.-x + (GeTe).sub.x wherein x has a value of about 0.80 and 0.85, have been found to possess unexpectedly high thermoelectric properties such as efficiency index, as well as other improved physical properties.

  6. A generalized method for characterization of 235U and 239Pu content using short-lived fission product gamma spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Knowles, Justin R.; Skutnik, Steven E.; Glasgow, David C.; Kapsimalis, Roger J.

    2016-06-23

    Rapid non-destructive assay methods for trace fissile material analysis are needed in both nuclear forensics and safeguards communities. To address these needs, research at the High Flux Isotope Reactor Neutron Activation Analysis laboratory has developed a generalized non-destructive assay method to characterize materials containing fissile isotopes. This method relies on gamma-ray emissions from short-lived fission products and capitalizes off of differences in fission product yields to identify fissile compositions of trace material samples. Although prior work has explored the use of short-lived fission product gamma-ray measurements, the proposed method is the first to provide a holistic characterization of isotopic identification,more » mass ratios, and absolute mass determination. Successful single fissile isotope mass recoveries of less than 6% error have been conducted on standards of 235U and 239Pu as low as 12 nanograms in less than 10 minutes. Additionally, mixtures of fissile isotope standards containing 235U and 239Pu have been characterized as low as 229 nanograms of fissile mass with less than 12% error. The generalizability of this method is illustrated by evaluating different fissile isotopes, mixtures of fissile isotopes, and two different irradiation positions in the reactor. Furthermore, it is anticipated that this method will be expanded to characterize additional fissile nuclides, utilize various irradiation sources, and account for increasingly complex sample matrices.« less

  7. U and Pu Gamma-Ray Measurements of Spent Fuel Using a Gamma-Ray Mirror Band-Pass Filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Alameda, J.B.; Brejnholt, N.F.; Decker, T.A.; Descalle, M.A.; Fernandez-Perea, M.; Hill, R.M.; Kisner, R.A.; Melin, A.M.; Patton, B.W.; Ruz, J.; Soufli, R.; Pivovaroff, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We report on the use of grazing incidence gamma-ray mirrors to serve as a narrow band-pass filter for advanced non-destructive analysis (NDA) of spent nuclear fuel. The purpose of the mirrors is to limit the radiation reaching a HPGe detector to narrow spectral bands around characteristic emission lines from fissile isotopes in the fuel. This overcomes the normal rate issues when performing gamma-ray NDA measurements. In a proof-of-concept experiment, a set of simple flat gamma-ray mirrors were used to directly observe the atomic florescence lines from U and Pu from spent fuel pins with the detector located in a shirt-sleeve environment. The mirrors, consisting of highly polished silicon substrates deposited with WC/SiC multilayer coatings, successfully deflected the lines of interest while the intense primary radiation beam from the fuel was blocked by a lead beam stop. The gamma-ray multilayer coatings that make the mirrors work at the gamma-ray energies used here (~ 100 keV) have been experimentally tested at energies as high as 645 keV, indicating that direct observation of nuclear emission lines from 239Pu should be possible with an appropriately designed optic and shielding configuration.

  8. High- and low-Am RE inclusion phases in a U-Np-Pu-Am-Zr alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janney, Dawn E.; Madden, James W.; O'Holleran, Thomas P.; Kennedy, J. Rory

    2015-03-01

    Structural, microstructural, and microchemical data were collected from rare-earth inclusions in an as-cast U-Pu-Zr alloy with ~3 at% Am, 2% Np, and 9% rare-earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, and Nd). Two RE phases with different concentrations of Am were identified. The composition of high-Am RE inclusions is ~2-5 at% La, 15-20 % Ce, 5-10% Pr, 25-45% Nd, 1% Np, 5-10% Pu, and 10-20% Am. Some areas also have O, although this does not appear to be an essential part of the high-Am RE phase. The inclusions have a face-centered cubic structure with a lattice parameter a ~ 0.54 nm. The composition of the only low-Am RE inclusion studied in detail is ~~35-40 at% O, 40-45 % Nd, 1-2% Zr, 4-5% La, 9-10% Ce, and 6-7% Pr. This inclusion is an oxide with a crystal structure similar to the room-temperature structure of Nd2O3. Microstructural features suggest that oxidation occurred during casting, and that early crystallization of high-temperature oxides led to formation of two distinct RE phases.

  9. Effects of Aging on PuO2?xH2O Particle Size in Alkaline Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.

    2013-05-01

    Between 1944 and 1989, 54.5 metric tons of the United States weapons-grade plutonium and an additional 12.9 metric tons of fuel-grade plutonium were produced and separated from irradiated fuel at the Hanford Site. Acidic high-activity wastes containing around 600 kg of plutonium were made alkaline and discharged to underground storage tanks from separations, isolation, and recycle processes to yield average plutonium concentration of about 0.003 grams per liter (or ~0.0002 wt%) in the ~200 million liter tank waste volume. The plutonium is largely associated with low-solubility metal hydroxide/oxide sludges where its low concentration and intimate mixture with neutron-absorbing elements (e.g., iron) are credited in nuclear criticality safety. However, concerns have been expressed that plutonium, in the form of plutonium hydrous oxide, PuO2?xH2O, could undergo sufficient crystal growth through dissolution and reprecipitation in the alkaline tank waste to potentially become separable from neutron absorbing constituents by settling or sedimentation. Thermodynamic considerations and laboratory studies of systems chemically analogous to tank waste show that the plutonium formed in the alkaline tank waste by precipitation through neutralization from acid solution probably entered as 24-nm PuO2?xH2O crystallite particles that, because of their low solubility and opposition from radiolytic processes, grow from that point at exceedingly slow rates, thus posing no risk of physical segregation.

  10. Multiband Te p Based Superconductivity of Ta4Pd3Te16

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Singh, David J.

    2014-10-06

    We recently discovered that Ta4Pd3Te16 is a superconductor that has been suggested to be an unconventional superconductor near magnetism. Here, we report electronic structure calculations showing that despite the layered crystal structure the material is an anisotropic three-dimensional (3D) metal. The Fermi surface contains prominent one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) features, including nested 1D sheets, a 2D cylindrical section, and a 3D sheet. Moreover, the electronic states that make up the Fermi surface are mostly derived from Te p states with small Ta d and Pd d contributions. This places the compound far from magnetic instabilities. The results are discussedmore » in terms of multiband superconductivity.« less

  11. Isothermal Martensitic and Pressure-Induced Delta to Alpha-Prime Phase Transformations in a Pu-Ga Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, A J; Wall, M A; Farber, D L; Moore, K T; Blobaum, K M

    2008-01-18

    A well-homogenized Pu-2 at.% Ga alloy can be retained in the metastable face-centered cubic {delta} phase at room temperature. Ultimately, this metastable {delta} phase will decompose via a eutectoid transformation to the thermodynamically stable monoclinic {alpha} phase and the intermetallic compound Pu{sub 3}Ga over a period of approximately 10,000 years [1]. In addition, these low solute-containing {delta}-phase Pu alloys are metastable with respect to an isothermal martensitic phase transformation to the {alpha}{prime} phase during low temperature excursions [2, 3] and are also metastable with respect to a {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} phase transformation with increases in pressure [3-5]. The low temperature {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} isothermal martensitic phase transformation in the Pu-2 at.% Ga alloy only goes to {approx}25% completion with the resultant {approx}20 {micro}m long by 2 {micro}m wide lath-shaped {alpha}{prime} particles dispersed within the {delta} matrix. In recently reported studies, Faure et al. [4] have observed a {delta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {alpha}{prime} pressure-induced phase transformation sequence during a diamond anvil cell investigation and, based on x-ray diffraction and density and compressibility experiments, Harbur [5] has concluded that both {alpha}{prime} and an amorphous phase are present in samples that were pressurized and recovered. In this work, a large volume moissanite anvil cell is constructed to permit the pressurization and recovery of specimens of a size suitable for TEM and electron diffraction studies. The cell, shown in Fig. 1, has an overall diameter of 101.6 mm, a moissanite anvil diameter of 9.00 mm, a culet size of 3 mm, and a spring steel gasket 0.5 mm thick with a hole diameter of 2.5 mm. A 2.3 mm diameter by 100 {micro}m thick sample of {delta}-phase Pu-2 at.% Ga is compressed at a rate of approximately 0.05 GPa/minute to {approx}1 GPa to induce the phase transformation to {alpha

  12. Use of separate ZnTe interface layers to form OHMIC contacts to p-CdTe films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gessert, Timothy A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of improving electrical contact to a thin film of a p-type tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductor comprising: depositing a first undoped layer of ZnTe on a thin film of p-type tellurium containing II-VI semiconductor with material properties selected to limit the formation of potential barriers at the interface between the p-CdTe and the undoped layer, to a thickness sufficient to control diffusion of the metallic-doped ZnTe into the p-type tellurim-containing II-VI semiconductor, but thin enough to minimize affects of series resistance; depositing a second heavy doped p-type ZnTe layer to the first layer using an appropriate dopant; and depositing an appropriate metal onto the outer-most surface of the doped ZnTe layer for connecting an external electrical conductor to an ohmic contact.

  13. Use of separate ZnTe interface layers to form ohmic contacts to p-CdTe films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gessert, T.A.

    1999-06-01

    A method of is disclosed improving electrical contact to a thin film of a p-type tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductor comprising: depositing a first undoped layer of ZnTe on a thin film of p-type tellurium containing II-VI semiconductor with material properties selected to limit the formation of potential barriers at the interface between the p-CdTe and the undoped layer, to a thickness sufficient to control diffusion of the metallic-doped ZnTe into the p-type tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductor, but thin enough to minimize affects of series resistance; depositing a second heavy doped p-type ZnTe layer to the first layer using an appropriate dopant; and depositing an appropriate metal onto the outer-most surface of the doped ZnTe layer for connecting an external electrical conductor to an ohmic contact. 11 figs.

  14. Measurements of /sup 239/Pu and /sup 235/U fission cross sections and their ratio for neutron energies from 100 ev to 50 kev

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergman, A.A.; Kolosovskii, A.G.; Kuznetsov, S.P.; Medvedev, A.N.; Samsonov, A.E.; Tolstikov, V.A.

    1980-07-01

    Values for the ratio of the /sup 239/Pu and /sup 235/U fission cross sections over the energy intervals are in good agreement with Carlson's data. Carlson's data were normalized by the threshold method and also to Lemmel's data, which in turn were normalized to the thermal region. The totality of the data listed on the /sup 235/U fission cross section, Carlson's data, and our results for the ratio of the fission cross sections are inconsistent with the average energy dependence of /sigma/sub //f (/sup 239/Pu) reported in recent papers by Gwin, Gayther, and Ryabov.

  15. Surveying the TeV Sky with Milagro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lansdell, C. P.

    2006-07-11

    A wide field of view, high duty factor, TeV gamma-ray observatory is essential for studying TeV astrophysical sources, because most of these sources are either highly variable or are extended. Milagro is such a TeV detector and has performed the deepest survey of the Northern Hemisphere sky. In addition to detecting the known TeV sources of the Crab Nebula and Markarian 421, Milagro has made the first detection of diffuse TeV emission from the Galactic plane. The Milagro data has been searched for unknown point sources and extended sources. Evidence for a new extended TeV source is seen and is coincident with an EGRET unidentified source. The Milagro data has also been searched for the predicted TeV emitters of gamma-ray bursts, galaxy clusters, and EGRET unidentified sources. Based on the success of Milagro, a second generation water Cherenkov gamma-ray observatory is planned which will give an increase in sensitivity of more than an order of magnitude.

  16. Electrochemically deposited BiTe-based nanowires for thermoelectric applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, Inn-Khuan; Kok, Kuan-Ying; Rahman, Che Zuraini Che Ab; Saidin, Nur Ubaidah; Ilias, Suhaila Hani; Choo, Thye-Foo

    2014-02-12

    Nanostructured materials systems such as thin-films and nanowires (NWs) are promising for thermoelectric power generation and refrigeration compared to traditional counterparts in bulk, due to their enhanced thermoelectric figures-of-merit. BiTe and its derivative compounds, in particular, are well-known for their near-room temperature thermoelectric performance. In this work, both the binary and ternary BiTe-based nanowires namely, BiTe and BiSbTe, were synthesized using template-assisted electrodeposition. Diameters of the nanowires were controlled by the pore sizes of the anodised alumina (AAO) templates used. Systematic study on the compositional change as a function of applied potential was carried out via Linear Sweep Voltanmetry (LSV). Chemical compositions of the nanowires were studied using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDXS) and their microstructures evaluated using diffraction and imaging techniques. Results from chemical analysis on the nanowires indicated that while the Sb content in BiSbTe nanowires increased with more negative deposition potentials, the formation of Te{sup 0} and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} were favorable at more positive potentials.

  17. Cu Migration in Polycrystalline CdTe Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Da; Akis, Richard; Brinkman, Daniel; Sankin, Igor; Fang, Tian; Vasileska, Dragica; Ringhofer, Christian

    2014-03-12

    An impurity reaction-diffusion model is applied to Cu defects and related intrinsic defects in polycrystalline CdTe for a better understanding of Cu’s role in the cell level reliability of CdTe PV devices. The simulation yields transient Cu distributions in polycrystalline CdTe during solar cell processing and stressing. Preliminary results for Cu migration using available diffusivity and solubility data show that Cu accumulates near the back contact, a phenomena that is commonly observed in devices after back-contact processing or stress conditions.

  18. Process Development for High Voc CdTe Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferekides, C. S.; Morel, D. L.

    2011-05-01

    This is a cumulative and final report for Phases I, II and III of this NREL funded project (subcontract # XXL-5-44205-10). The main research activities of this project focused on the open-circuit voltage of the CdTe thin film solar cells. Although, thin film CdTe continues to be one of the leading materials for large-scale cost-effective production of photovoltaics, the efficiency of the CdTe solar cells have been stagnant for the last few years. This report describes and summarizes the results for this 3-year research project.

  19. Ba2TeO: A new layered oxytelluride

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Besara, T.; Ramirez, D.; Sun, J.; Whalen, J. B.; Tokumoto, T. D.; McGill, S. A.; Singh, D. J.; Siegrist, T.

    2015-02-01

    For single crystals of the new semiconducting oxytelluride phase, Ba2TeO, we synthesized from barium oxide powder and elemental tellurium in a molten barium metal flux. Ba2TeO crystallizes in tetragonal symmetry with space group P4/nmm (#129), a=5.0337(1) Å, c=9.9437(4) Å, Z=2. The crystals were characterized by single crystal x-ray diffraction, heat capacity and optical measurements. Moreover, the optical measurements along with electronic band structure calculations indicate semiconductor behavior with a band gap of 2.93 eV. Resistivity measurements show that Ba2TeO is highly insulating.

  20. NMIS with Imaging and Gamma Ray Spectrometry for Pu, HEU, HE and Other Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihalczo, John T; Mullens, James Allen

    2012-03-01

    information barrier to protect classified information. The system hardware and software can be configured to obtain the following: plutonium presence, plutonium mass, Pu-240/239 ratio, plutonium geometry, plutonium metal vs non-metallic (absence of metal), time (age) since processing for plutonium (or last purification), uranium presence, uranium mass, uranium enrichment, uranium geometry, uranium metal vs non-metallic compound (absence of metal), beryllium presence and mass, tritium and deuterium gas bottle presence, HE, and chemical weapons. A matrix of the quantities determined, the method of determination, whether active (external neutron source) or passive, and the measurement equipment involved is given in the Tables 1-4. Some of these attributes can be obtained by multiple data analysis methods. The gamma-ray spectrometry methods for HEU, plutonium, and HE have been developed by other laboratories, are well known, and will be incorporated.

  1. Relativistic energy density functionals: Low-energy collective states of {sup 240}Pu and {sup 166}Er

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z. P.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.; Meng, J.

    2010-06-15

    The empirical relativistic density-dependent, point-coupling energy density functional, adjusted exclusively to experimental binding energies of a large set of deformed nuclei with Aapprox =150-180 and Aapprox =230-250, is tested with spectroscopic data for {sup 166}Er and {sup 240}Pu. Starting from constrained self-consistent triaxial relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov calculations of binding energy maps as functions of the quadrupole deformation in the beta-gamma plane, excitation spectra and E2 transition probabilities are calculated as solutions of the corresponding microscopic collective Hamiltonian in five dimensions for quadrupole vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom and compared with available data on low-energy collective states.

  2. High-silicon {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel characterization study: Half module impact tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.H.

    1997-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of [sup 238]Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. The modular GPHS design was developed to address both survivability during launch abort and return from orbit. Previous testing conducted in support of the Galileo and Ulysses missions documented the response of GPHSs to a variety of fragment- impact, aging, atmospheric reentry, and Earth-impact conditions. The evaluations documented in this report are part of an ongoing program to determine the effect of fuel impurities on the response of the heat source to conditions baselined during the Galileo/Ulysses test program. In the first two tests in this series, encapsulated GPHS fuel pellets containing high levels of silicon were aged, loaded into GPHS module halves, and impacted against steel plates. The results show no significant differences between the response of these capsules and the behavior of relatively low-silicon fuel pellets tested previously.

  3. Radiochemical procedures for analysis of Pu, Am, Cs and Sr in water, soil, sediments and biota samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Noshkin, V.E.

    1994-02-01

    The Environmental Radioactivity Analysis Laboratory (ERAL) was established as an analytical facility. The primary function of ERAL is to provide fast and accurate radiological data of environmental samples. Over the years, many radiochemical procedures have been developed by the staffs of ERAL. As result, we have found that our procedures exist in many different formats and in many different notebooks, documents and files. Therefore, in order to provide for more complete and orderly documentation of the radiochemical procedures that are being used by ERAL, we have decided to standardize the format and compile them into a series of reports. This first report covers procedures we have developed and are using for the radiochemical analysis of Pu, Am, Cs, and Sr in various matrices. Additional analytical procedures and/or revisions for other elements will be reported as they become available through continuation of these compilation efforts.

  4. Ir/PuO/sub 2/ compatibility: transfer of impurities from plutonium dioxide to iridium metal during high temperature aging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, D.H.; Christie, W.H.; Pavone, D.

    1984-01-01

    Plutonium oxide fuel pellets for powering radioisotopic thermoelectric generators for NASA space vehicles are encapsulated in iridium which has been grain-boundary-stabilized with thorium and aluminum. After aging for 6 months at 1310/sup 0/C under vacuum, enhanced grain growth is observed in the near-surface grains of the iridium next to the PuO/sub 2/. Examination of the grain boundaries by AES and SIMS shows a depletion of thorium and aluminum. Iron, chromium, and nickel from the fuel were found to diffuse into the iridium along the grain boundaries. Enhanced grain growth appears to result from thorium depletion in the grain boundaries of the near-surface grains next to the fuel. However, in one instance grain growth was slowed by the formation of thorium oxide by oxygen diffusing up the grain boundaries.

  5. CONTAINMENT VESSEL TEMPERATURE FOR PU-238 HEAT SOURCE CONTAINER UNDER AMBIENT, FREE CONVECTION AND LOW EMISSIVITY COOLING CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, N.; Smith, A.

    2011-02-14

    The EP-61 primary containment vessel of the 5320 shipping package has been used for storage and transportation of Pu-238 plutonium oxide heat source material. For storage, the material in its convenience canister called EP-60 is placed in the EP-61 and sealed by two threaded caps with elastomer O-ring seals. When the package is shipped, the outer cap is seal welded to the body. While stored, the EP-61s are placed in a cooling water bath. In preparation for welding, several containers are removed from storage and staged to the welding booth. The significant heat generation of the contents, and resulting rapid rise in component temperature necessitates special handling practices. The test described here was performed to determine the temperature rise with time and peak temperature attained for an EP-61 with 203 watts of internal heat generation, upon its removal from the cooling water bath.

  6. Modeling Copper Diffusion in Polycrystalline CdTe Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akis, Richard; Brinkman, Daniel; Sankin, Igor; Fang, Tian; Guo, Da; Vasileska, Dragica; Ringhofer, Christain

    2014-06-06

    It is well known that Cu plays an important role in CdTe solar cell performance as a dopant. In this work, a finite-difference method is developed and used to simulate Cu diffusion in CdTe solar cells. In the simulations, which are done on a two-dimensional (2D) domain, the CdTe is assumed to be polycrystalline, with the individual grains separated by grain boundaries. When used to fit experimental Cu concentration data, bulk and grain boundary diffusion coefficients and activation energies for CdTe can be extracted. In the past, diffusion coefficients have been typically obtained by fitting data to simple functional forms of limited validity. By doing full simulations, the simplifying assumptions used in those analytical models are avoided and diffusion parameters can thus be determined more accurately

  7. Extracting Cu Diffusion Parameters in Polycrystalline CdTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akis, Richard; Brinkman, Daniel; Sankin, Igor; Fang, Tian; Guo, Da; Dragica, Vasileska; Ringhofer, Christian

    2014-06-13

    It is well known that Cu plays an important role in CdTe solar cell performance as a dopant. In this work, a finite-difference method is developed and used to simulate Cu diffusion in CdTe solar cells. In the simulations, which are done on a two-dimensional (2D) domain, the CdTe is assumed to be polycrystal-line, with the individual grains separated by grain boundaries. When used to fit experimental Cu concentration data, bulk and grain boundary diffusion coefficients and activation energies for CdTe can be extracted. In the past, diffusion coefficients have been typically obtained by fitting data to simple functional forms of limited validity. By doing full simulations, the simplifying assumptions used in those analytical models are avoided and diffusion parameters can thus be determined more accurately.

  8. CdTe Solar Cells: The Role of Copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Da; Akis, Richard; Brinkman, Daniel; Sankin, Igor; Fang, Tian; Vasileska, Dragica; Ringhofer, Christain

    2014-06-06

    In this work, we report on developing 1D reaction-diffusion solver to understand the kinetics of p-type doping formation in CdTe absorbers and to shine some light on underlying causes of metastabilities observed in CdTe PV devices. Evolution of intrinsic and Cu-related defects in CdTe solar cell has been studied in time-space domain self-consistently with free carrier transport and Poisson equation. Resulting device performance was simulated as a function of Cu diffusion anneal time showing pronounced effect the evolution of associated acceptor and donor states can cause on device characteristics. Although 1D simulation has intrinsic limitations when applied to poly-crystalline films, the results suggest strong potential of the approach in better understanding of the performance and metastabilities of CdTe photovoltaic device.

  9. PVA TePla AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: PVA TePla AG Place: Asslar, Germany Zip: 35614 Product: Supplier of plants and equipment for vacuum systems, crystal-growing systems and plasma systems, some of...

  10. Summary of the TeV33 working group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagley, P.P.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Colestock, P.

    1996-10-01

    This summary of the TeV33 working group at Snowmass reports on work in the areas of Tevatron store parameters, the beam-beam interaction, Main Injector intensity (slip stacking), antiproton production, and electron cooling.