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1

Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Year No. 1 Distillate No. 2 Distillate a No. 4 Fuel b Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End...

2

"Table A10. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel" 0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel" " Oil for Selected Purposes by Census Region and Economic Characteristics of the" " Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Barrels per Day)" ,,,," Inputs for Heat",,," Primary Consumption" " "," Primary Consumption for all Purposes",,," Power, and Generation of Electricity",,," for Nonfuel Purposes",,,"RSE" ," ------------------------------------",,," ------------------------------------",,," -------------------------------",,,"Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","LPG","Distillate(b)","Residual","LPG","Distillate(b)","Residual","LPG","Distillate(b)","Residual","Factors"

3

PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF OLIN MATHIESON CHEMICAL CORPORATION Pasadena, Texas  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

OLIN MATHIESON CHEMICAL CORPORATION OLIN MATHIESON CHEMICAL CORPORATION Pasadena, Texas . Work performed by the Health and Safety Research Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 March 1980 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY operated by UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION for the DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites-- Remedial Action Program -- OLIN MATHIESON CHEMICAL CORPORATION Pasadena, Texas At the request of the Department of Energy (DOE), a preliminary survey was performed at the Olin Mathieson Chemical Corporation plant in Pasadena, Texas (see Fig. l), on November 18, 1977, to assess the radio- logical status of those facilities utilized under an Atomic Energy Commission raw materials contract for a period determined to be during the early 1950s. M. S. Davenport, Plant Manager, provided information

4

Figure HL1. U.S. Sales of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene in 2009 . ... the need for electric utilities to consume distillate fuel to meet peak summer generation loads remained ...

5

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Olin Mathieson - CT 0-02  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Olin Mathieson - CT 0-02 Olin Mathieson - CT 0-02 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: OLIN MATHIESON (CT.0-02 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: United Nuclear Corporation CT.0-02-1 Location: New Haven , Connecticut CT.0-02-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 CT.0-02-1 Site Operations: Began fabrication of nuclear reactor fuel elements for AEC circa late-1950s. Later became part of a group forming United Nuclear Corp. and were then licensed by AEC. Performed work for U.S. Navy and commercial applications. CT.0-02-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - No Authority - AEC licensed CT.0-02-1 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes CT.0-02-1 Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium CT.0-02-1 Radiological Survey(s): None Indicated

6

Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

End Use/ Product: Residential - Distillate Fuel Oil Residential - No. 1 Residential - No. 2 Residential - Kerosene Commercial - Distillate Fuel Oil Commercial - No. 1 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Fuel Oil Commercial - Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - High Sulfur Diesel Commercial - No. 4 Fuel Oil Commercial - Residual Fuel Oil Commercial - Kerosene Industrial - Distillate Fuel Oil Industrial - No. 1 Distillate Industrial - No. 2 Distillate Industrial - No. 2 Fuel Oil Industrial - Low Sulfur Diesel Industrial - High Sulfur Diesel Industrial - No. 4 Fuel Oil Industrial - Residual Fuel Oil Industrial - Kerosene Farm - Distillate Fuel Oil Farm - Diesel Farm - Other Distillate Farm - Kerosene Electric Power - Distillate Fuel Oil Electric Power - Residual Fuel Oil Oil Company Use - Distillate Fuel Oil Oil Company Use - Residual Fuel Oil Total Transportation - Distillate Fuel Oil Total Transportation - Residual Fuel Oil Railroad Use - Distillate Fuel Oil Vessel Bunkering - Distillate Fuel Oil Vessel Bunkering - Residual Fuel Oil On-Highway - No. 2 Diesel Military - Distillate Fuel Oil Military - Diesel Military - Other Distillate Military - Residual Fuel Oil Off-Highway - Distillate Fuel Oil Off-Highway - Distillate F.O., Construction Off-Highway - Distillate F.O., Non-Construction All Other - Distillate Fuel Oil All Other - Residual Fuel Oil All Other - Kerosene Period:

7

Catalytic Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Catalytic Distillation' refers to a chemical process which performs both a catalyzed reaction and primary fractionation of the reaction components simultaneously. A structured catalyst which also is an effective distillation component has been patented by Chemical Research & Licensing Co., Houston, Texas, and developed in a joint venture with Neochem Corp., Houston, Texas, and the Department of Energy. The catalytic distillation packing has been commercially demonstrated successfully with nearly three years continuous service for an acid catalyzed reaction in a carbon steel distillation tower.

Smith, L. A., Jr.; Hearn, D.; Wynegar, D. P.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Combustion of EDS mid-distillate and refined shale-oil residual fuel in a gas turbine with large single-combustion chamber  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The test fuels included a coal derived mid distillate recycle liquid from the EDS coal liquefaction process, produced by Exxon, and a hydroprocessed residual Paraho shale oil fraction originating from a US Government sponsored program. A BBC (Brown Boveri Co.) type 9 fully equipped 35 MW capacity gas turbine, located at BBC's test facilities near Basel, Switzerland, was utilized. The objective of the combustion test was to establish whether these alternate fuels can be fired in large single combustor turbines without deleterious effects to the turbine or environment. Nitrogen in the shale oil was on the order of 0.4 wt% while the EDS distillate contained slightly less than 10 wt% hydrogen. The test program entailed the firing of 600 barrels of each test fuel at varying turbine loads and a comparison of the results with those from a base case petroleum diesel fuel. Fuel bound nitrogen was not found to contribute significantly to NO/sub x/ emissions in contrast to other work reported earlier in subscale gas turbine tests. Water injection at 0.6 to 0.7 water-fo-fuel mass ratios was effective in meeting EPA requirements for NO/sub x/ emissions from the diesel, shale and coal derived fuels at full turbine load. Low fuel hydrogen content did not cause any operational or emission problems. Combustor wall temperature, the major problem with low hydrogen fuels, rose only slightly within acceptable limits.

Not Available

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Vacuum Distillation  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Day) Process: Vacuum Distillation Thermal Cracking Thermal Cracking: Coking Thermal Cracking: Delayed Coking Thermal Cracking: Fluid Coking Thermal Cracking: Visbreaking Thermal...

10

Winter Distillate  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: Throughout the summer, gasoline prices have drawn most of the public's attention, but EIA has been concerned over winter heating fuels as well. q Distillate inventories are likely to begin the winter heating season at low levels, which increases the chances of price volatility such as that seen last winter. q Natural gas does not look much better. q Winter Distillate http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/presentati...00/winter_distillate_and_natural_gas_outlook/sld001.htm [8/10/2000 4:35:57 PM] Slide 2 of 25 Notes: Residential heating oil prices on the East Coast (PADD 1) were 39 cents per gallon higher this June than last year (120 v 81 cents per gallon). As many of you already know, the increase is due mainly to increased crude oil prices.

11

Catalytic distillation structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Complementarity, distillable secret key, and distillable entanglement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider controllability of two conjugate observables Z and X by two parties with classical communication. The ability is specified by two alternative tasks, (i) agreement on Z and (ii) preparation of an eigenstate of X with use of an extra communication channel. We prove that their feasibility is equivalent to that of key distillation if the extra channel is quantum, and to that of entanglement distillation if it is classical. This clarifies the distinction between two entanglement measures, distillable key and distillable entanglement.

Masato Koashi

2007-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

13

Spot Distillate & Crude Oil Prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Retail distillate prices follow the spot distillate markets, and crude oil prices have been the main driver behind distillate spot price increases until recently.

14

A Study on Biogas from Anaerobic Digestion with the Distiller's Grains via Lactic Acid Fermentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The methane production of the distiller’s grains via lactic acid fermentation (shorter for the fermentation residue) was investigated, and the variable trend of pH values, alkali concentration and volatile fatty acids were examined. The results ... Keywords: the residue of distillers' grains via lactic acid fermentation, biomass wastes, anaerobic digestion, volatile fatty acids, biogas production

Li-Hong Wang; Wang Qunhui; Sun Xiaohong; Xin Zhao

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Catalytic distillation structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1984-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

16

Year/PAD District Distillation Crude Oil Atmospheric Distillation  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Distillation Crude Oil Atmospheric Distillation Vacuum Cracking Thermal Catalytic Cracking Fresh Recycled Catalytic Hydro- Cracking Catalytic Reforming Desulfurization...

17

Random multiparty entanglement distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe various results related to the random distillation of multiparty entangled states - that is, conversion of such states into entangled states shared between fewer parties, where those parties are not predetermined. In previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 260501 (2007)] we showed that certain output states (namely Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs) could be reliably acquired from a prescribed initial multipartite state (namely the W state) via random distillation that could not be reliably created between predetermined parties. Here we provide a more rigorous definition of what constitutes ``advantageous'' random distillation. We show that random distillation is always advantageous for W-class three-qubit states (but only sometimes for Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-class states). We show that the general class of multiparty states known as symmetric Dicke states can be readily converted to many other states in the class via random distillation. Finally we show that random distillation is provab...

Fortescue, Ben

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Multipartite nonlocality distillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo [Department of Physics, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli 32023, Taiwan (China)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

19

Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the same initial data set. Distillation Line \\ Tangent to \\ p i d u e EUWB Residue Curve Figure 14. Residue experimental data, we need to know more about the characteristics of residue curves (RCs). 3.2. Nodes and azeotropic data, using simple distillation experiments in the neighborhoodsof binary azeotropes. They require

Skogestad, Sigurd

20

Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

(Barrels per Calendar Day) (Barrels per Calendar Day) Data Series: Total Number of Operable Refineries Number of Operating Refineries Number of Idle Refineries Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/SD) Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Total Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Delayed Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD Thermal Cracking Fluid Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Visbreaking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Other/Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Cracking Fresh Feed Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Cracking Recycle Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Residual Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Low Pressure Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming High Pressure Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating/Desulfurization Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Naphtha/Reformer Feed Charge Cap (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Gasoline Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Heavy Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Kerosene/Jet Fuel Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Diesel Fuel Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Other Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Residual/Other Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Residual Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Other Oils Charge Capacity (B/SD) Fuels Solvent Deasphalting Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Total Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Catalytic Cracking Fresh Feed Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Period:

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oline distillates residuals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

District of Columbia Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 10,721: 15,894: 11,949: 13,216: 15,149: 15,321: 1984-2012: Residual ...

22

Delaware Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 68,223: 61,302: 57,382: 56,676: 57,720: 57,230: 1984-2012: Residual ...

23

Eclipse Distilled (Eclipse)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Eclipse DistilledDavid CarlsonForeword by Grady BoochSeries EditorsErich Gamma Lee Nackman John WiegandA Concise Introduction to Eclipse for the Productive ProgrammerOrganized for rapid access, focused on productivity, Eclipse Distilled brings together ...

David Carlson

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Catalytic distillation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Catalytic distillation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

26

Advanced Distillation Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were performed with the targeted mixture, ethane-ethylene, as well as with analogous low relative volatility systems: cyclohexane-hexane and cyclopentane-pentane. Devices and test stands were specifically designed for these efforts. Development progressed from experiments and models considering sections of a full scale device to the design, fabrication, and operation of a single-channel distillation unit with integrated heat transfer. Throughout the project, analytical and numerical models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were validated with experiments in the process of developing this platform technology. Experimental trials demonstrated steady and controllable distillation for a variety of process conditions. Values of Height-to-an-Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) ranging from less than 0.5 inch to a few inches were experimentally proven, demonstrating a ten-fold performance enhancement relative to conventional distillation. This improvement, while substantial, is not sufficient for MPT distillation to displace very large scale distillation trains. Fortunately, parallel efforts in the area of business development have yielded other applications for MPT distillation, including smaller scale separations that benefit from the flowsheet flexibility offered by the technology. Talks with multiple potential partners are underway. Their outcome will also help determine the path ahead for MPT distillation.

Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

27

Distillate Stocks Expected  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Notes: So let's get to what you want to know. What do we expect this upcoming winter? When EIA's demand forecast is combined with its outlook for production and net imports, distillate stocks are projected to remain towards the lower end of the normal range. We are forecasting about an 11 million barrel build between the end of July 2001 and the end of November 2001, slightly more than the average over the past 5 years (10 million barrels), but less than the average of the last 10 years (15 ½ million barrels). If, however, economic incentives are high enough, distillate stocks could build more, resulting in a higher distillate stock level heading into the winter. Of course, the reverse is true as well, if for example, the distillate fuel refining spread declines substantially. Since 1994,

28

Random multiparty entanglement distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe various results related to the random distillation of multiparty entangled states - that is, conversion of such states into entangled states shared between fewer parties, where those parties are not predetermined. In previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 260501 (2007)] we showed that certain output states (namely Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs) could be reliably acquired from a prescribed initial multipartite state (namely the W state) via random distillation that could not be reliably created between predetermined parties. Here we provide a more rigorous definition of what constitutes ``advantageous'' random distillation. We show that random distillation is always advantageous for W-class three-qubit states (but only sometimes for Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-class states). We show that the general class of multiparty states known as symmetric Dicke states can be readily converted to many other states in the class via random distillation. Finally we show that random distillation is provably not advantageous in the limit of multiple copies of pure states.

Ben Fortescue; Hoi-Kwong Lo

2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

29

DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

Barton, J.

1954-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

30

Winter Distillate and Natural Gas Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table of Contents. Winter Distillate and Natural Gas Outlook. Distillate Prices Increasing With Crude Oil. Distillate Outlook. When Will Crude Oil Prices Fall?

31

Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

End Use Product: Residential - Distillate Fuel Oil Residential - No. 1 Residential - No. 2 Residential - Kerosene Commercial - Distillate Fuel Oil Commercial - No. 1 Distillate...

32

Steam distillation effect and oil quality change during steam injection  

SciTech Connect

Steam distillation is an important mechanism which reduces residual oil saturation during steam injection. It may be the main recovery mechanism in steamflooding of light oil reservoirs. As light components are distilled the residual (initial) oil, the residuum becomes heavier. Mixing the distilled components with the initial oil results in a lighter produced oil. A general method has been developed to compute steam distillation yield and to quantify oil quality changes during steam injection. The quantitative results are specific because the California crude data bank was used. But general principles were followed and calculations were based on information extracted from the DOE crude oil assay data bank. It was found that steam distillation data from the literature can be correlated with the steam distillation yield obtained from the DOE crude oil assays. The common basis for comparison was the equivalent normal boiling point. Blending of distilled components with the initial oil results in API gravity changes similar to those observed in several laboratory and field operations.

Lim, K.T.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Topological Quantum Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct a class of topological quantum codes to perform quantum entanglement distillation. These codes implement the whole Clifford group of unitary operations in a fully topological manner and without selective addressing of qubits. This allows us to extend their application also to quantum teleportation, dense coding and computation with magic states.

H. Bombin; M. A. Martin-Delgado

2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

34

U.S. Distillate Market  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Are Important Part of Northeast Winter Supply Distillate Imports Surged to Meet SupplyDemand Imbalance Forecast U.S. Distillate Stocks Forecast Prices (U.S. Monthly Average)...

35

Winter Distillate .and Propane Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Winter Distillate .and Propane Outlook. Joanne Shore Energy Information Administration State Heating Oil and Propane Program August 2000

36

On bound entanglement assisted distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate asymptotic distillation of entanglement in the presence of an unlimited amount of bound entanglement for bi-partite systems. We show that the distillability is still bounded by the relative entropy of entanglement. This offers a strong support to the fact that bound entanglement does not improve distillation of entanglement.

V. Vedral

1999-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

37

Gulf Coast Distillate Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 of 15 4 of 15 Notes: PADD 3 is a major source of supply for the East Coast. This graph shows how during the winter of 1997-1998 when distillate stocks were very high, production fell back. In contrast, we entered the winter of 1996-1997 with very low stocks, and refineries reached record production levels as they tried to build stocks late in the season. Notice that production is normally reduced in January as distillate stocks are used to meet demand and as refineries begin maintenance and turnovers, which continue into February. This January is no different. There is room for some production increases in January and February, if refineries postpone maintenance. But postponing maintenance and turnarounds can create problems when the gasoline production season begins in March and April.

38

Simplified distillation column controls  

SciTech Connect

A simple, energy efficient method of controlling single or double distillation columns for the production of ethyl alcohol is described. The control system is based on a material balance scheme centered around a thermostat actuated control valve to regulate reflux rate and product purity. Column bottom's levels are automatically regulated by vented suction lines on the pump inlets. Methods of minimizing control input variations are used including column insulation, stillage-to-beer heat exchanger, and a steam pressure regulator.

Badger, P.; Pile, R.; Lightsey, G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

South Dakota Residual Fuel Oil Adj Sales/Deliveries to Oil Company ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Referring Pages: Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil for Oil Company Use ; Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil for Oil Company Use ; South Dakota Adjusted Distillate ...

40

Low Energy Distillation Schemes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we look at various options available for the reduction of energy consumption in distillation systems. For binary systems, we look at how heat pumps can be used. With multi-component systems, process integration offers a means of reducing energy consumption. We look at how the better integrated distillation schemes can be quickly identified. It is found that the design of integrated schemes is quicker than that of non-integrated schemes. We then look at how the use of heat pumps, non-isobaric operation and divided wall columns may be incorporated into the synthesis of multi-component separation schemes. It will be seen that process integration provides an important means of reducing energy consumption in distillation processes. However, its conventional use requires the installation of piping (and pipes carrying vapor streams tend to be of large diameter and are consequently expensive). So, finally we examine a way in which the capital cost of such systems can be reduced: the divided wall column.

Polley, G. T.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oline distillates residuals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Catalytic distillation : design and application of a catalytic distillation column.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Catalytic Distillation (CD) is a hybrid technology that utilizes the dynamics of si- multaneous reaction and separation in a single process unit to achieve a… (more)

Nieuwoudt, Josias Jakobus (Jako)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

On bound entanglement assisted distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate asymptotic distillation of entanglement in the presence of an unlimited amount of bound entanglement for bi-partite systems. We show that the distillability is still bounded by the relative entropy of entanglement. This offers a strong support to the fact that bound entanglement does not improve distillation of entanglement. PACS number(s): 03.65.Bz, 89.70.+c,89.80.+h

Vlatko Vedral

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Optimization approach to entanglement distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We put forward a method for optimized distillation of partly entangled pairs of qubits into a smaller number of more entangled pairs by recurrent local unitary operations and projections. Optimized distillation is achieved by minimization of a cost function with up to 30 real parameters, which is chosen to be sensitive to the fidelity and the projection probability at each step. We show that in many cases this approach can significantly improve the distillation efficiency in comparison to the present methods.

T. Opatrny; G. Kurizki

1998-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

44

residual fuel oil - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Residual fuel oil: A general classification for the heavier oils, known as No. 5 and No. 6 fuel oils, that remain after the distillate fuel oils and lighter ...

45

U.S. Distillate Inventories  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

average, but 18 percent above last year. The stability of distillate stocks through the heart of this winter, when they usually decline, has virtually eliminated concerns about...

46

U.S. Distillate Market  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Market Regional Residential Heating Oil Prices Retail Diesel Fuel Oil Prices Crude Oil Price Cycles Spot Distillate & Crude Oil Prices.(Prices through March 3, 2000) Low...

47

Rhode Island Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 77,882: 61,856: 59,789: 65,067: 65,295: 62,041: 1984-2012: Residual ...

48

A Parametric Reactive Distillation Study: Economic Feasibility and Design Heuristics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The integration of reaction and distillation into a single column is called reactive distillation or catalytic distillation. Reactive distillation provides many benefits such as reduced… (more)

Hoyme, Craig Alan

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Heat Pumps in Distillation Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Both new and retrofit heat pump installations are often economically justifiable for distillation columns with a temperature differential of 50 degrees F or less. However, this study reveals that the near-term demand for electric heat pumps in petroleum and chemical distillation processes appears very limited.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Oil recovery from condensed corn distillers solubles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Condensed corn distillers solubles (CCDS) contains more oil than dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), 20 vs. 12% (dry weight basis). Therefore, significant amount of… (more)

Majoni, Sandra

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

EIA Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Table 36)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

(Important Note on Sources of Crude Oil Distillation Capacity Estimates) Table 3.6 World Crude Oil Distillation Capacity, January 1, 1970 - January 1, 2009

52

Theoretical and experimental investigation of membrane distillation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Invented in the 1960s, membrane distillation is an emerging technology for water treatment attracting more attention since 1980s. There are four configurations of membrane distillations… (more)

Zhang, Jianhua

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Membrane distillation : module design and modeling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for seawater desalination that is traditionally accomplished by conventional separation processes such as thermal distillation or reverse osmosis.… (more)

Yang, Xing.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

American Distillation Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Distillation Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name American Distillation Inc. Place Leland, North Carolina Zip 28451 Product Biodiesel producer in North Carolina. References...

55

Distillate Demand Strong Last Winter  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 Notes: Well, distillate fuel demand wasn't the reason that stocks increased in January 2001 and kept prices from going higher. As you will hear shortly, natural gas prices spiked...

56

About distillability of depolarized states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reduction criteria for distillability is applied to general depolarized states and an explicit condition is found in terms of a characteristic polynomial of the density matrix. 3 × 3 bipartite systems are analyzed in some details. 1

Andrea R. Rossi; Matteo G. A. Paris

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Distillation process using microchannel technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Dublin, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Dublin, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Carbondale, IL); Perry, Steven T. (Galloway, OH); Yuschak, Thomas (Dublin, OH); Hickey, Thomas P. (Dublin, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Smith, Amanda (Galloway, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH)

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

58

Distillation Column Flooding Predictor  

SciTech Connect

The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid/vapor traffic that produce increased contact area and lead to substantial increases in separation efficiency – which translates to a 10% increase in energy efficiency on a BTU/bbl basis. The Flooding Predictor™ operates on the principle that between five to sixty minutes in advance of a flooding event, certain column variables experience an oscillation, a pre-flood pattern. The pattern recognition system of the Flooding Predictor™ utilizes the mathematical first derivative of certain column variables to identify the column’s pre-flood pattern(s). This pattern is a very brief, highly repeatable, simultaneous movement among the derivative values of certain column variables. While all column variables experience negligible random noise generated from the natural frequency of the process, subtle pre-flood patterns are revealed among sub-sets of the derivative values of column variables as the column approaches its hydraulic limit. The sub-set of column variables that comprise the pre-flood pattern is identified empirically through in a two-step process. First, 2ndpoint’s proprietary off-line analysis tool is used to mine historical data for pre-flood patterns. Second, the column is flood-tested to fine-tune the pattern recognition for commissioning. Then the Flooding Predictor™ is implemented as closed-loop advanced control strategy on the plant’s distributed control system (DCS), thus automating control of the column at its hydraulic limit.

George E. Dzyacky

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

59

Petroleum Gasoline & Distillate Needs Including the Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Home > Petroleum > Analysis > Petroleum Gasoline & Distillate Needs Including the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) ...

60

Oklahoma Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Oklahoma Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oline distillates residuals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Isotropic non-locality cannot be distilled  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate non-locality distillation protocols for isotropic correlations. These correlations are the hardest instances which respect to distillability and only partial results are known about their behaviour under non-locality distillation protocols. We completely resolve this issue by proving that non-locality distillation is impossible for all non-local isotropic correlations.

Dejan D. Dukaric

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

62

Mississippi Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Mississippi Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

63

Petroleum Gasoline & Distillate Needs Including the Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum Gasoline & Distillate Needs Including the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) Impacts

64

PPMCSA Presentation on Winter Distillate Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

PPMCSA Presentation on Winter Distillate Outlook PPMCSA Presentation on Winter Distillate Outlook 09/15/2000 Click here to start Table of Contents Winter Distillate Outlook Distillate Prices Increasing With Crude Oil Factors Driving Prices & Forecast First Factor Impacting Distillate Prices: Crude Oil Prices High Crude Prices Go With Low Inventories Second Price Component: Spread Impacted by Distillate Supply/Demand Balance Distillate Stocks are Low – Especially on the East Coast Distillate Stocks Are Important Part of East Coast Winter Supply Winter Demand Impacted by Weather Warm Winters Held Heating Oil Demand Down While Diesel Grew Distillate Demand Strong in December 1999 Dec 1999 & Jan 2000 Production Fell, But Rebounded with Price Higher Yields Can Be Achieved Unusual Net Imports May Only Be Available at a High Price

65

SRC Residual fuel oils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

Tewari, Krishna C. (Whitehall, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

U.S. Distillate Market  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

diesel and heating fuel prices diesel and heating fuel prices surged. The largest increases occurred in the distillate-based fuels (heating oil and diesel) in the Northeast. The main factors driving up these prices were low stocks leading into January, followed by a bout of severe weather that impacted both supply and demand. Warmer weather and the arrival of new supply, mainly imports, relieved the supply/demand imbalance and brought prices back down. The spike is now behind us, but high crude prices are keeping prices above year-ago levels. The low stock situation that set the stage for the distillate price spike was not unique to the United States, Low stocks exist worldwide and are not limited to distillate. The low stock situation stems from what is happening in the crude oil markets. A crude oil supply shortage drove crude

67

Collocation Methods For Distillation Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this third paper on collocation methods for distillation design, we explore the use of the collocation models for design of simple distillation columns as well as flexible columns. Solvent recovery plants must deal with a wide range of feeds and still return pure solvents. The design problem we address is a single flexible column within the overall solvent recovery plant. We have developed the models and algorithms in the ASCEND system. We discuss the attributes and use of the ASCEND system. With ASCEND we can create complex models with simple building blocks and interactively learn to solve them. We found the collocation model an excellent tool for distillation design, allowing us to develop new concepts in design strategies. We designed a single column as would exist in a flexible solvent recovery plant for an azeotropic system. It was designed to handle three possible feeds, each with a distinct separation task. For each possible feed to a column, we approximate the operation of ...

Flexible Column; Robert S. Huss; Arthur W. Westerberg

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Optimal protocols for nonlocality distillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Forster et al. recently showed that weak nonlocality can be amplified by giving the first protocol that distills a class of nonlocal boxes (NLBs) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 120401 (2009)] We first show that their protocol is optimal among all nonadaptive protocols. We next consider adaptive protocols. We show that the depth-2 protocol of Allcock et al. [Phys. Rev. A 80, 062107 (2009)] performs better than previously known adaptive depth-2 protocols for all symmetric NLBs. We present a depth-3 protocol that extends the known region of distillable NLBs. We give examples of NLBs for which each of the Forster et al., the Allcock et al., and our protocols perform best. The understanding we develop is that there is no single optimal protocol for NLB distillation. The choice of which protocol to use depends on the noise parameters for the NLB.

Hoeyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran [Department of Computer Science, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta, 2N 1N4 (Canada)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

Bounds for nonlocality distillation protocols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nonlocality can be quantified by the violation of a Bell inequality. Since this violation may be amplified by local operations, an alternative measure has been proposed--distillable nonlocality. The alternative measure is difficult to calculate exactly due to the double exponential growth of the parameter space. In this paper, we give a way to bound the distillable nonlocality of a resource by the solutions to a related optimization problem. Our upper bounds are exponentially easier to compute than the exact value and are shown to be meaningful in general and tight in some cases.

Forster, Manuel [Computer Science Department, ETH Zuerich, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Olefin production via reactive distillation based Olefin metathesis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Reactive distillation is a combination of a traditional multi-stage distillation column with a chemical reaction. The primary benefits of a reactive distillation process are reduced… (more)

Morrison, Ryan Frederick

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Purification of Indium by Vacuum Distillation - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The two-step vacuum distillation were carried out to study the influence of distillation temperature, distillation time on the impurities. At the first step the content of ...

72

Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

Mundarain, D. [Departmento de Fisica, Seccion de Fenomenos Opticos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Orszag, M. [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

Optimal Control of Distillation Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The optimum performance of a distillation system can be evaluated by examining the product purities, the product recoveries, and the system's capability to respond to small or large, expected or unexpected, plant disturbances. An optimal control system should include accurate instrumentation, closed loop purity control, and a computer system to execute direct digital control with appropriate feed-forward algorithms.

Chatterjee, N.; Suchdeo, S. R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Distillate Prices Increasing With Crude Oil  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 Notes: This slide shows the strong influence crude oil prices have on retail distillate prices. Distillate tracks the crude price increases seen in 1996 and the subsequent fall...

76

Binary distillation column design using mathematica  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accurate design of distillation columns is a very important topic in chemical industry. In this paper, we describe a Mathematica program for the design of distillation columns for binary mixtures. For simplicity, it is assumed that the columns are ...

Akemi Gálvez; Andrés Iglesias

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

When EIA's demand forecast is combined with its outlook for production and net imports, distillate stocks are projected to remain low for the rest of the year. - Distillate fuel...

78

Intermediate Vapor Expansion Distillation and Nested Enrichment Cascade Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although it is known that incorporating an intermediate reboiler or reflux condenser in a distillation column will improve column efficiency by 15 to 100%, there has been little use of this technique to date." Intermediate vapor compression heat pumping was recently introduced as one practical means of achieving this benefit. Introduced in this paper are two new means having added advantages over compression: intermediate vapor expansion heat pumping, and nested enrichment cascades. In both cases the efficiency advantage is obtained without requiring import of shaft work. With intermediate vapor expansion, the expander is more efficient and less costly than the compressor which achieves comparable improvement in distillation efficiency. With the "nested enrichment" technique, the increased efficiency is obtained without requiring either compressors or expanders.

Erickson, D. C.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Multiple Steady States in Azeotropic and Reactive Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction . Motivation Overview on the Contributions MSS in Reactive Distillation Conclusions Outline Multiple Steady States (MSS) Overview on the Contributions . The Starting Point . Consolidation . Industrial Applications . Incorporating Reactions MSS in Reactive Distillation Conclusions Outline Multiple Steady States (MSS) Overview on the Contributions MSS in Reactive Distillation . Prediction Method . MTBE Process Conclusions Outline Multiple Steady States (MSS) Overview on the Contributions MSS in Reactive Distillation Conclusions Distillation Overview . Ideal binary / multicomponent distillation . Homogeneous azeotropic distillation -- Heavy entrainer (extractive distillation) -- Intermediate entrainer -- "Boundary scheme" (ligh

Thomas E. Güttinger

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

U.S. Distillate Market  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Slide 1 of 11 Notes: During the second half of January, diesel and heating fuel prices surged. The largest increases occurred in the distillate-based fuels (heating oil and diesel) in the Northeast. From January 17, New England residential heating oil prices rose over 78 cents per gallon to average $1.97 February 7; diesel increased 68 cents per gallon, averaging $2.12 February 7, but fell back to $1.93 by February 14 as new supplies are arriving. The main factors driving up these prices were low stocks leading into January, followed by a bout of severe weather that impacted both supply and demand. Demand: Cold weather increases core heating customer demand. In addition, it was reported that utilities were buying distillate both for peaking power and, along with industrial and commercial users, to

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oline distillates residuals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

U.S. Distillate Market  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

U.S. diesel and heating fuel U.S. diesel and heating fuel prices surged. The largest increases occurred in the distillate-based fuels (heating oil and diesel) in the Northeast. From January 17, New England residential heating oil prices rose over 78 cents per gallon to average $1.97 February 7; diesel increased 68 cents per gallon, averaging $2.12 February 7. Prices for both fuels began to fall back by February 14 as new supplies were arriving, and have continued to decline since. The main factors driving up these prices were low stocks leading into January, followed by a bout of severe weather that impacted both supply and demand. Demand: Cold weather increases core heating customer demand. In addition, it was reported that utilities were buying distillate both for peaking power and, along with industrial and commercial users, to

82

Distillate Market Model documentation report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Distillate Market Model (DMM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on model functions. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The DMM performs a short-term (6- to 9-month) forecast of demand and retail price for distillate fuel oil in the national US market; it also calculates the end-of-month stock level during the term of the forecast. The model is used to analyze certain market behavior assumptions or shocks and to determine the effect on retail market price, demand, and stock level.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

AMMONIA DISTILLATION FOR DEUTERIUM SEPARATION  

SciTech Connect

The relative volatility or separation factor for deuterium enrichment in ammonia distillation was measured at several pressures and deuterium concentrations. The knowledge of this ingormation is very helpful in predicting costs of heawy water production by the ammonia distillation process. It hss been stated by others, that the ammonia distillation process of heawy water production would be competitive with other developed methods only if the actusl separation factor was at least 1.062 at low deuterium concentration. Ungortunately, the measurements do not indicate that the separation factor at low deuterium composition differs greatly from the vapor pressure pre diction ( alpha = 1.042). Deutero-ammonia was synthesized by isotopic exchange between natural ammonia and heavy water. Equilibrium determinations were made using an Othmer still, modified for low temperature operation, and a concentric tube fractionating column. The arnmonia samples were analyzed for deuterium content by converting them to water by flow torough hot copper oxide, followed by a differential density determination using the falling drop method. ( auth)

Petersen, G.T.; Benedict, M.

1960-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

84

Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology  

SciTech Connect

The application of microchannel technology for distributive distillation was studied to achieve the Grand Challenge goals of 25% energy savings and 10% return on investment. In Task 1, a detailed study was conducted and two distillation systems were identified that would meet the Grand Challenge goals if the microchannel distillation technology was used. Material and heat balance calculations were performed to develop process flow sheet designs for the two distillation systems in Task 2. The process designs were focused on two methods of integrating the microchannel technology â?? 1) Integrating microchannel distillation to an existing conventional column, 2) Microchannel distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated as a manufacturing method for microchannel distillation units. However, it was found that a significant development work would be required to develop process parameters to use UAM for commercial distillation manufacturing. Two alternate manufacturing methods were explored. Both manufacturing approaches were experimentally tested to confirm their validity. The conceptual design of the microchannel distillation unit (Task 3) was combined with the manufacturing methods developed in Task 4 and flowsheet designs in Task 2 to estimate the cost of the microchannel distillation unit and this was compared to a conventional distillation column. The best results were for a methanol-water separation unit for the use in a biodiesel facility. For this application microchannel distillation was found to be more cost effective than conventional system and capable of meeting the DOE Grand Challenge performance requirements.

Arora, Ravi

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

85

Catalytic dewaxing of middle distillates  

SciTech Connect

The fractionation and stripping equipment of a middle distillate catalytic dewaxing unit may be eliminated by integrating the catalytic dewaxing unit with a catalytic cracking unit. The light cycle oil sidestream from the cat cracker fractionator, bypasses the sidestream stripper and serves as the feed to the catalytic dewaxing unit. The dewaxed product is separated into a gasoline fraction which is recycled for fractionation in the cat cracker fractionator and a fuel oil fraction which is recycled to the cat cracker sidestream stripper for removal of light materials to produce a low pour fuel oil meeting product specifications.

Antal, M.J.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Entanglement distillation from quasifree Fermions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop a scheme to distill entanglement from bipartite Fermionic systems in an arbitrary quasifree state. It can be applied if either one system containing infinite one-copy entanglement is available or if an arbitrary amount of equally prepared systems can be used. We show that the efficiency of the proposed scheme is in general very good and in some cases even optimal. Furthermore we apply it to Fermions hopping on an infinite lattice and demonstrate in this context that an efficient numerical analysis is possible for more then 10^6 lattice sites.

Zoltan Kadar; Michael Keyl; Dirk Schlingemann

2010-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

87

Distillation of Bell states in open systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we review the entire classification of 2 × 2 distillable states for protocols with a finite numbers of copies. We show a distillation protocol that allows to distill Bell states with non zero probability at any time for an initial singlet in vacuum. It is shown that the same protocol used in non zero thermal baths yields a considerable recovering of entanglement. 1

E. Isasi; D. Mundarain

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Distillation of Bell states in open systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we review the entire classification of 2x2 distillable states for protocols with a finite numbers of copies. We show a distillation protocol that allows to distill Bell states with non zero probability at any time for an initial singlet in vacuum. It is shown that the same protocol used in non zero thermal baths yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

E. Isasi; D. Mundarain

2009-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

89

Separating lignite hydrogenation sludge by vacuum distillation  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum distillation was studied as a means to separate coal hydrogenation sludge. Additives containing mainly aromatic hydrocarbons intensified the process. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Gorlov, E.G.; Grobanova, L.T.; Belyavtseva, N.V. [Rossiskaya Akademiya, Nauk (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

90

Distillate Demand Strong in December 1999  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total distillate demand includes both diesel and heating oil. These are similar products. Physically, diesel can be used in the heating oil market, but low sulfur ...

91

Total Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity Former ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Former Corporation/Refiner Total Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (bbl/cd)a New Corporation/Refiner Date of Sale Table 14. Refinery Sales During 2005

92

Total Organic Carbon Rejection in Osmotic Distillation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The osmotic distillation (OD) system is a spacecraft wastewater recycling system designed to produce potable water from human urine and humidity condensate. The OD… (more)

Shaw, Hali Laraelizabeth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Conceptual Design for Pressure Swing Distillation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The separation of homogenous azeotropic mixtures is a common task in the chemical industry. In the literature, pressure swing distillation is often mentioned as an… (more)

Bozzacco, Carmen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Intelligent fuzzy supervisory control for distillation columns.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Distillation as a separation technique is widely used in the chemical and petroleum industries. With the growth of these industries and the availability of cheap… (more)

Santhanam, Srinivasan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Tritium Removal Facility High Tritium Distillation Simulation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A dynamic model was developed for the distillation mechanism of the Darlington Tritium Removal Facility. The model was created using the commercial software package MATLAB/Simulink.… (more)

Zahedi, Polad

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Vacuum Distillation Refining of Crude Tin - Thermodynamics ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Vacuum Distillation Refining of Crude Tin - Thermodynamics Analysis and Experiments on the Removal of Arsenic from the Crude Tin.

97

Distillation of liquid fuels by thermogravimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, design and operation of a custom-built thermogravimetric apparatus for the distillation of liquid fuels are reported. Using a sensitive balance with scale of 0.001 g and ASTM distillation glassware, several petroleum and petroleum-derived samples have been analyzed by the thermogravimetric distillation method. When the ASTM distillation glassware is replaced by a micro-scale unit, sample size could be reduced from 100 g to 5-10 g. A computer program has been developed to transfer the data into a distillation plot, e.g. Weight Percent Distilled vs. Boiling Point. It also generates a report on the characteristic distillation parameters, such as, IBP (Initial Boiling Point), FBP (Final Boiling Point), and boiling point at 50 wt% distilled. Comparison of the boiling point distributions determined by TG (thermogravimetry) with those by SimDis GC (Simulated-Distillation Gas Chromatography) on two liquid fuel samples (i.e. a decanted oil and a filtered crude oil) are also discussed in this paper.

Huang, He; Wang, Keyu; Wang, Shaojie; Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

98

Locally Accessible Information and Distillation of Entanglement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new type of complementary relation is found between locally accessible information and final average entanglement for given ensemble. It is also shown that in some well known distillation protocol, this complementary relation is optimally satisfied. We discuss the interesting trade-off between locally accessible information and distillable entanglement for some states.

Sibasish Ghosh; Pramod Joag; Guruprasad Kar; Samir Kunkri; Anirban Roy

2004-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

99

Distillation of Bell states in open systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work we show that the distillation protocol proposed by P. Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824 (1996)] allows one to distill Bell states at any time for a system evolving in vacuum and prepared in an initial singlet. It is also shown that the same protocol, applied in nonzero temperature thermal baths, yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

Isasi, E.; Mundarain, D. [Departamento de Fisica, Seccion de Fenomenos Opticos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

100

Rank three bipartite entangled states are distillable  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We prove that the bipartite entangled state of rank three is distillable. So there is no rank three bipartite bound entangled state. By using this fact, We present some families of rank four states that are distillable. We also analyze the relation between the low rank state and the Werner state.

Lin Chen; Yi-Xin Chen

2008-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oline distillates residuals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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101

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 Notes: Total distillate stocks rose only marginally in November, to about 117 million barrels from about 115 million barrels at the end of October. The "normal" or average inventory level at end November is 146 million barrels. Thus, by the end of November, instead of seeing an improvement, US distillate inventories were 30 million barrels less than normal rather than the 26 million barrels less as of the end of October, indicating greater tightness in markets for heating oil and diesel fuel. If the currently depressed level of distillate stocks continues, the result could be strong upward pressure on prices for the distillate fuels through the winter. In fact, the tightness in distillate markets, particularly in the Northeast, has worsened and left the heating oil market more vulnerable

102

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

As of December 29, distillate fuel oil stocks were about 116 million As of December 29, distillate fuel oil stocks were about 116 million barrels, which is over 14 percent below their 5 year average for this time of year. Heating oil stocks were at 47.4 million barrels, or about 28 percent lower than their seasonal 5-year average. If the currently depressed level of distillate stocks continues, the result could be strong upward pressure on prices for the distillate fuels through the winter. Recently, the tightness in distillate markets, particularly in the Northeast, has worsened and left the heating oil market more vulnerable to near-term shocks from potential cold weather events or disruptions in the logistical system than was expected earlier this fall. Unless the second half of the winter in the Northeast is unusually

103

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 Notes: At the end of December, distillate fuel oil stocks were about 116 million barrels, which is more than 14 percent below their 5-year average for this time of year, and about 7 percent less than last year's low levels. As of January 19, the most recent weekly data, distillate stocks remained at about that level, which is slightly higher than a year ago. If the currently depressed level of distillate stocks continues, the result could be strong upward pressure on prices for the distillate fuels through the winter. Recently, the tightness in distillate markets, particularly in the Northeast, has worsened and left the heating oil market more vulnerable to near-term shocks from potential cold weather events or disruptions in the logistical system than was expected earlier this fall.

104

Low Distillate Stocks Set Stage for Price Volatility  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

This distillate price spike is a classic response to a local supply and demand imbalance that began as a result of low distillate stocks. Low distillate stocks in the ...

105

GeneDistiller—Distilling Candidate Genes from Linkage Intervals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Background: Linkage studies often yield intervals containing several hundred positional candidate genes. Different manual or automatic approaches exist for the determination of the gene most likely to cause the disease. While the manual search is very flexible and takes advantage of the researchers ’ background knowledge and intuition, it may be very cumbersome to collect and study the relevant data. Automatic solutions on the other hand usually focus on certain models, remain ‘‘black boxes’ ’ and do not offer the same degree of flexibility. Methodology: We have developed a web-based application that combines the advantages of both approaches. Information from various data sources such as gene-phenotype associations, gene expression patterns and protein-protein interactions was integrated into a central database. Researchers can select which information for the genes within a candidate interval or for single genes shall be displayed. Genes can also interactively be filtered, sorted and prioritised according to criteria derived from the background knowledge and preconception of the disease under scrutiny. Conclusions: GeneDistiller provides knowledge-driven, fully interactive and intuitive access to multiple data sources. It displays maximum relevant information, while saving the user from drowning in the flood of data. A typical query takes less than two seconds, thus allowing an interactive and explorative approach to the hunt for the candidate gene.

Dominik Seelow; Jana Marie Schwarz; Markus Schuelke

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Predicting the products of crude oil distillation columns.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Crude oil distillation systems, consisting of crude oil distillation columns and the associated heat recovery systems, are highly energy intensive. Heat-integrated design of crude oil… (more)

Liu, Jing

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Vacuum distillation is a key part of the petroleum refining ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

About 80% of the refineries operating in the United States have a vacuum distillation unit (VDU), a secondary processing unit consisting of vacuum distillation columns.

108

Distillation: Present Status and Future Directions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Distillation will undoubtedly continue to be the most-used method for separating liquid mixtures, at any scale of operation. For this reason, and also because of its recognized energy intensiveness, distillation commands continued scrutiny with respect to cost-effective improvements. In this paper, the authors suggest fruitful areas of research that can lead to lower cost distillation separations. The areas of research are classified under the headings of phase equilibrium, material and energy balances, mass transfer efficiencies, equipment design, and system energy consumption. For each of the categories, a summary is given of the present status of the technology as well as directions that improvement-type investigations might take.

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

On two-distillable Werner states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider bipartite mixed states in a d x d quantum system with d at least 3. We say that such a state is PPT if its partial transpose is positive semidefinite, and otherwise that it is NPT. The well-known Werner states are partitioned into three types: a) the separable states (same as the PPT states), b) the 1-distillable states (necessarily NPT), and c) the NPT states which are not 1-distillable. We give several different formulations and provide further evidence for validity of the conjecture that the type c) Werner states are not 2-distillable.

Dragomir Z. Djokovic

2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

110

Distillate and Spot Crude Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: This slide shows the strong influence crude oil prices have on retail distillate prices. The price for distillate fuel oil tracks the crude price increases seen in 1996 and the subsequent fall in 1997 and 1998. Distillate prices have also followed crude oil prices up since the beginning of 1999. Actual data show heating oil prices on the East Coast in June at $1.20 per gallon, up 39 cents over last June. However, if heating oil prices are following diesel, they may be up another 5 cents in August. That would put heating oil prices about 40 cents over last August prices. Crude oil prices are only up about 25 cents in August over year ago levels. The extra 15 cents represents improved refiner margins due in part to the very low distillate inventory level.

111

U.S. Distillate Market Testimony  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 Notes: The Northeast distillate market is experiencing some difficulties that are being reflected in prices. Residential heating oil prices on January 24 were up 35-60 cents per...

112

Distillate Stocks Expected to Remain Low  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 Notes: When EIA's demand forecast is combined with its outlook for production and net imports, distillate stocks are projected to remain low for the rest of the year. - Stocks...

113

Distillate Stocks Expected to Remain Low  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

When EIA’s demand forecast is combined with its outlook for production and net imports, distillate stocks are projected to remain low for the rest of the year.

114

Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Distillers Grains: Production, Properties, and Utilization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the past several years, distillers dried grains with solubles (known as DDGS) has become a major feed ingredient in North America, and its use is increasing globally. This book provides a comprehensive summary of the research conducted to determine

116

Forecast U.S. Distillate Stocks  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

EIA is not projecting a large recovery over the summer, but because refineries are forecast to run at high utilization rates, they may produce more distillate than expected and...

117

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

These low inventories will put upward pressure on distillate fuel prices and set the stage for price sun-ups should there be an extended period of cold weather or a ...

118

Entanglement of Distillation and Conditional Mutual Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In previous papers, we expressed the Entanglement of Formation in terms of Conditional Mutual Information (CMI). In this brief paper, we express the Entanglement of Distillation in terms of CMI.

Robert R. Tucci

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

119

Development of energy efficient membrane distillation systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential as a means of desalination and water purification. As a thermally driven membrane technology which runs at relatively low pressure, which can withstand high salinity feed ...

Summers, Edward K

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Energy Recovery in Industrial Distillation Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Distillation processes are energy intensive separation processes which present attractive opportunities for energy conservation. Through the use of multistage vapor recompression, heat which is normally unavailable can be delivered at suitably high temperatures resulting in significant energy savings. The distillation process will be reviewed as it relates to both vapor recompression and heat pumping techniques and case study examples of these energy recovery methods will be discussed.

Paul, D. B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oline distillates residuals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland) and ICFO-Institute Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

Ohio Distillate Fuel Oil Stocks at Refineries, Bulk Terminals, and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Ohio Distillate Fuel Oil Stocks at Refineries, Bulk Terminals, and Natural Gas Plants (Thousand Barrels)

123

INTERIM VALIDATION REPORT MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRICE MONITORING SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GLOSSARY. • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .for LBL by EIA staff. V. GLOSSARY "Middle distillate" means

Hopelain, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Guam Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Guam Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

125

Weekly Rocky Mountains (PADD 4) Operable Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly Rocky Mountains (PADD 4) Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day)

126

Weekly West Coast (PADD 5) Operable Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly West Coast (PADD 5) Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day)

127

Texas Inland Refining District Operable Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Texas Inland Refining District Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day)

128

Weekly East Coast (PADD 1) Operable Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly East Coast (PADD 1) Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day)

129

East Coast Refining District Operable Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast Refining District Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day)

130

South Dakota Distillate Fuel Oil Stocks at Refineries, Bulk ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

South Dakota Distillate Fuel Oil Stocks at Refineries, Bulk Terminals, and Natural Gas Plants (Thousand Barrels)

131

Experimental study of oil yields and properties of light and medium Venezuelan crude oils under steam and steam-propane distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Six experimental runs were carried out to study the yields for a light crude oil (34.2°API) and an intermediate crude oil (25.1°API) under steam distillation and steam-propane distillation. Yields, were measured at five temperatures, 110, 150, 200, 250, and 300°C at slightly superheated conditions. A propane:steam mass ratio of 5:100 was used for the steam-propane distillation runs. For the 34.2°API crude oil, weight yields are very similar for steam and steam-propane distillation, about 54% weight of original oil. However for the 25.1°API crude oil, weight yield for steam-propane distillation, 63%, is significantly higher than for steam distillation, 42% weight of original oil. The results indicate that propane has a stronger distillation effect on the intermediate oil than on the light oil. This is possibly due to the following reasons: (1) lesser amount of light fractions in the intermediate oil that enhance the separation of components in the oil caused by the concentration gradient, (2) the solvent effect of the propane on paraffinic fractions, these being more abundant in the intermediate than in the light oil, and (3) the propane is inducing a cracking of the oil at the higher temperatures and pressure. The positive effect of propane on distillation of the intermediate oil is also evident from the fact that the residual oil is highly viscous (due most likely to asphaltene precipitation), while lighter fractions have been distilled off.

Plazas Garcia, Joyce Vivia

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Local purity distillation with bounded classical communication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Local pure states are an important resource for quantum computing. The problem of distilling local pure states from mixed ones can be cast in an information theoretic paradigm. The bipartite version of this problem where local purity must be distilled from an arbitrary quantum state shared between two parties, Alice and Bob, is closely related to the problem of separating quantum and classical correlations in the state and in particular, to a measure of classical correlations called the one-way distillable common randomness. In Phys. Rev. A 71, 062303 (2005), the optimal rate of local purity distillation is derived when many copies of a bipartite quantum state are shared between Alice and Bob, and the parties are allowed unlimited use of a unidirectional dephasing channel. In the present paper, we extend this result to the setting in which the use of the channel is bounded. We demonstrate that in the case of a classical-quantum system, the expression for the local purity distilled is efficiently computable and provide examples with their tradeoff curves.

Hari Krovi; Igor Devetak

2007-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

133

Spot Distillate & Crude Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: Retail distillate prices follow the spot distillate markets, and crude oil prices have been the main driver behind distillate spot price increases until recently. Crude oil rose about 36 cents per gallon from its low point in mid February 1999 to the middle of January 2000. Over this same time period, New York Harbor spot heating oil had risen about 42 cents per gallon, reflecting both the crude price rise and a return to a more usual seasonal spread over the price of crude oil. The week ending January 21, heating oil spot prices in the Northeast spiked dramatically to record levels, closing on Friday at $1.26 per gallon -- up 50 cents from the prior week. Gulf Coast prices were not spiking, but were probably pulled slightly higher as the New York Harbor market began to

134

Distillation of local purity from quantum states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently Horodecki et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 100402 (2003)] introduced an important quantum information processing paradigm, in which two parties sharing many copies of the same bipartite quantum state distill local pure states, by means of local unitary operations assisted by a one-way (two-way) completely dephasing channel. Local pure states are a valuable resource from a thermodynamical point of view, since they allow thermal energy to be converted into work by local quantum heat engines. We give a simple information-theoretical characterization of the one-way distillable local purity, which turns out to be closely related to a previously known operational measure of classical correlations, the one-way distillable common randomness.

I. Devetak

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

135

Entanglement Distillation Protocols and Number Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension $D$ benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set $\\zdn$ associated to Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of $\\zdn$ into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analitically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension $D$. When $D$ is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively.

H. Bombin; M. A. Martin-Delgado

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Advanced Distillation: Programs Proposed to DOE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EPRI has provided proposal preparation assistance and offered cost share funding assistance for two projects proposed in 2000. EPRI is highly interested, since this technology is applicable in all distillation systems, and since it will increase electric load in capacity increase revamps, probably the best economic targets in the U.S., since capital savings are best here. The approach can typically reduce energy use requirements, cooling (water) requirements, and environmental emissions per pound of distillate by 50%, while substantially reducing capital requirements for capacity increase revamps and new construction. If just 20% of all U.S. distillation were revamped by this approach as apposed to conventional, about 5x10^14 BTUs per year in energy use could be avoided, while increasing production by about 20%. Both the proposed petroleum refining (not awarded) and chemical industry programs and participants are described. As of this writing (1/31/01), chemical industry award selections have not yet been made.

Woinsky, S. G.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Electric Driven Heat Pumps in Distillation Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radian Corporation, under contract to the Electric Power Research Institute, has recently completed a study of the potential range of application for retrofitting electric driven heat pumps to existing distillation columns. A computerized evaluation program was developed, consisting of simulation, cost estimation, and economics analysis. The simulations were done using the PROCESS simulation package, while the cost and economics analysis routines were developed by Radian. This paper summarizes the results of the evaluations of retrofits to four generic distillation processes. In addition, the bases of the evaluation programs and the results of several peripheral tasks are described briefly.

Harris, G. E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Heat integrated distillation in a plate-packing HIDiC.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Distillation is an energy intensive separation method. To improve the exergetic efficiency of a distillation column, it can be designed as a heat integrated distillation… (more)

Krikken, T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Energy Conservation Options in Distillation Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the results of a survey of energy conservation options applicable to distillation processes. Over twenty such options were identified, and eight of these were selected for detailed presentation. These options were chosen on the basis of good economics, applicability to retrofit situations, and/or the use of novel technology.

Harris, G. E.; Hearn, W. R.; Blythe, G. M.; Stuart, J. M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 300,889: 274,739: 263,252: 232,429: 230,287: 254,322: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 275,489: ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oline distillates residuals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

California Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 309,249: 232,151: 190,082: 225,123: 257,297: 241,967: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 101,932: ...

142

Rocky Mountain (PADD4) Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 262,644: 222,054: 212,571: 228,200: 245,446: 214,160: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 27: 26: 19: ...

143

Kentucky Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 170,042: 94,124: 48,002: 42,101: 67,347: 61,840: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 91,516: 104,387: ...

144

Pennsylvania Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 118,670: 113,851: 90,800: 124,258: 146,291: 140,663: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 25,735: ...

145

Georgia Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 78,927: 69,710: 62,072: 63,770: 71,374: 63,902: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 14,016: 10,831: ...

146

Illinois Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 40,116: 51,287: 55,322: 72,188: 58,526: 63,808: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 71,805: 101,851: ...

147

Ohio Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 333,069: 316,926: 206,134: 179,048: 203,135: 175,258: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 12,122: ...

148

Weekly U.S. Exports of Total Distillate (Thousand Barrels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly U.S. Exports of Total Distillate (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 ... Exports of Distillate Fuel Oil ; U.S. Imports ...

149

U.S. Distillate Stocks - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Slide 5 of 27. Distillate Stocks. This slide shows the average U.S. distillate stock pattern -- building in the summer and fall, then being drawn down through the ...

150

Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) Geographic Area Month Kerosene No. 1 Distillate No. 2...

151

Distillate in Depth – The Supply, Demand, and Price Picture  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Distillate in Depth – The Supply, Demand, and Price Picture John Hackworth Joanne Shore Energy Information Administration ... In Response to Price, ...

152

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook. Sources: History: EIA; Projections: Short-Term Energy Outlook, January 2001.

153

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook. Sources: History: EIA; Projections: Short-Term Energy Outlook, December 2000

154

Distilling one-qubit magic states into Toffoli states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For certain quantum architectures and algorithms, most of the required resources are consumed during the distillation of one-qubit magic states for use in performing Toffoli gates. I show that the overhead for magic-state distillation can be reduced by merging distillation with the implementation of Toffoli gates. The resulting routine distills 8 one-qubit magic states directly to a Toffoli state, which can be used without further magic to perform a Toffoli gate.

Bryan Eastin

2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

155

East Coast (PADD 1) Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast (PADD 1) Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

156

Puerto Rico Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Puerto Rico Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

157

Interpolation of recurrence and hashing entanglement distillation protocols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct new entanglement distillation protocols by interpolating between the recurrence and hashing protocols. This leads to asymptotic two-way distillation protocols, resulting in an improvement of the distillation rate for all mixed Bell diagonal entangled states, even for the ones with very high fidelity. We also present a method how entanglement-assisted distillation protocols can be converted into non-entanglement-assisted protocols with the same yield.

Karl Gerd H. Vollbrecht; Frank Verstraete

2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

158

U.S. Refinery Operating Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Operating Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

159

U.S. Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

160

U.S. Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oline distillates residuals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Interpolation of recurrence and hashing entanglement distillation protocols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We construct interesting entanglement distillation protocols by interpolating between the recurrence and hashing protocols. This leads to asymptotic two-way distillation protocols, resulting in an improvement of the distillation rate for all mixed Bell diagonal entangled states, even for the ones with very high fidelity. We also present a method for how entanglement-assisted distillation protocol can be converted into nonentanglement-assisted protocols with the same yield.

Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Verstraete, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

162

Multiple copy distillation and purification of phase diffused squeezed states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We provide a detailed theoretical analysis of multiple copy purification and distillation protocols for phase diffused squeezed states of light. The standard iterative distillation protocol is generalized to a collective purification of an arbitrary number of N copies. We also derive a semi-analytical expression for the asymptotic limit of the iterative distillation and purification protocol and discuss its properties.

Petr Marek; Jaromir Fiurasek; Boris Hage; Alexander Franzen; James DiGugliemo; Roman Schnabel

2007-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

163

Control of binary distillation column using fuzzy PI controllers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the automatic control of a binary distillation column is described. This control is done with fuzzy logic controllers. After a short explanation of the function and dynamic of a binary distillation column, it's operating and control strategies ... Keywords: binary distillation column, fuzzy inference system, simulation

Shahram Javadi; Jabber Hosseini

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Application for testing control configurations of binary distillation columns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper addresses the problem of testing various control configurations for binary distillation columns. Analyzing from plantwide control point of view the place of distillation column within the plant, the result will be the best control configuration. ... Keywords: composition control, distillation columns, dynamic simulations, plantwide control

Sanda Mihalache; Marian Popescu

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Distillate Stocks Expected to Remain Low  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: When EIA's demand forecast is combined with its outlook for production and net imports, distillate stocks are projected to remain low for the rest of the year. - Stocks are beginning at very low levels. The September 1 distillate fuel stock level (112 million barrels) is nearly 20% less than last year, and about 15% below the 10 year average for end of August levels. - But stocks on the East Coast, at 39.8 million barrels, are 39% behind year-ago levels, and about a similar percentage below end-of-August 10-year average levels. Over the last 10 years, the average stock build from the end of August through the end of November has been about 10 million barrels. We are forecasting about a 12 million barrel build, which does not reach the normal band. Forecast stocks peak at the end of November at 127 million

166

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1984-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

168

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1985-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

170

Iterative entanglement distillation for finite resources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss a specific entanglement distillation scheme under the constraint of finite samples of entangled qubit pairs. It is shown that an iterative process can be explicitly formulated. The average fidelity of this process can be enhanced by introducing conditional storing of entangled qubit pairs in each step of the iteration. We investigate the corresponding limitations on the size and the initial fidelity of the sample.

Stefan Probst-Schendzielorz; Thorsten Bschorr; Matthias Freyberger

2005-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

171

Distillation of vacuum entanglement to EPR pairs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is shown that by means of local interactions between a quantized relativistic field and a pair of non-entangled atoms, entanglement can be extracted from the vacuum and delivered to the atoms. The resulting mixed state of the atoms can be further distilled to EPR pairs. Therefore, in principle, teleportation and other entanglement assisted quantum communication tasks can rely on the vacuum alone as a resource for entanglement.

Benni Reznik

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

Bae, Joonwoo [School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

Joonwoo Bae

2008-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

174

The attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a recent paper it has been shown that for double extremal static spherically symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of GHZ-type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a GHZ state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macroscopic black hole entropy. A systematic study of such attractor states shows that their properties reflect the structure of the fake superpotential. We also demonstrate that when starting with the very special values for the moduli corresponding to flat directions the uniform structure at the horizon deteriorates due to errors generalizing the usual bit flips acting on the qubits of the attractor states.

Péter Lévay; Szilárd Szalay

2010-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

175

Absorptive Recycle of Distillation Waste Heat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When the heat source available to a distillation process is at a significantly higher temperature than the reboiler temperature, there is unused availability (ability to perform work) in the heat supplied to the reboiler. Similarly, if the reflux condenser operates above ambient temperature, the rejected heat also contains unused availability. By incorporating an absorption heat pump (AHP) into the distillation process, these sources of unused availability can be tapped so as to recycle (and hence, conserve) up to 50% of the required distillation energy. In contrast to compressor driven heat pumps, this savings is accomplished without need for a separate substantial input of mechanical power. A different AHP configuration is used depending on whether the excess availability is in the source heat or reject heat. In the excessive source temperature case, the higher temperature source heat is applied to the AHP, which then supplies the total reboiler requirement and recycles half the reject heat, with the remainder being rejected conventionally. In the excessive reject temperature case, all the reject heat is supplied to a reverse absorption heat pump (HAHP) which recycles half to reboiler temperature while reducing the remainder to ambient temperature.

Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a recent paper it was shown that for double extremal static spherical symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges, the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macroscopic black hole entropy. A systematic study of such attractor states shows that their properties reflect the structure of the fake superpotential. We also demonstrate that when starting with the very special values for the moduli corresponding to flat directions the uniform structure at the horizon deteriorates due to errors generalizing the usual bit flips acting on the qubits of the attractor states.

Levay, Peter; Szalay, Szilard [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

177

Fuel-blending stocks from the hydrotreatment of a distillate formed by direct coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

The direct liquefaction of coal in the iron-catalyzed Suplex process was evaluated as a technology complementary to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A distinguishing feature of the Suplex process, from other direct liquefaction processes, is the use of a combination of light- and heavy-oil fractions as the slurrying solvent. This results in a product slate with a small residue fraction, a distillate/naphtha mass ratio of 6, and a 65.8 mass % yield of liquid fuel product on a dry, ash-free coal basis. The densities of the resulting naphtha (C{sub 5}-200{sup o}C) and distillate (200-400{sup o}C) fractions from the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction were high (0.86 and 1.04 kg/L, respectively). The aromaticity of the distillate fraction was found to be typical of coal liquefaction liquids, at 60-65%, with a Ramsbottom carbon residue content of 0.38 mass %. Hydrotreatment of the distillate fraction under severe conditions (200{sup o}C, 20.3 MPa, and 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1}) with a NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst gave a product with a phenol content of {lt}1 ppm, a nitrogen content {lt}200 ppm, and a sulfur content {lt}25 ppm. The temperature was found to be the main factor affecting diesel fraction selectivity when operating at conditions of WHSV = 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1} and PH{sub 2} = 20.3 MPa, with excessively high temperatures (T {gt} 420{sup o}C) leading to a decrease in diesel selectivity. The fuels produced by the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction have properties that make them desirable as blending components, with the diesel fraction having a cetane number of 48 and a density of 0.90 kg/L. The gasoline fraction was found to have a research octane number (RON) of 66 and (N + 2A) value of 100, making it ideal as a feedstock for catalytic reforming and further blending with Fischer-Tropsch liquids. 44 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

Andile B. Mzinyati [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

Crude oil steam distillation in steam flooding. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields indicates that the maximum yields of a crude oil may be obtained at 200 psig. At a steam distillation correlation factor (V/sub w//V/sub oi/) of 15, the determined steam distillation yields range from 12 to 56% of initial oil volume for the sixteen crude oils with gravity ranging from 12 to 40/sup 0/API. Regression analysis of experimental steam distillation yields shows that the boiling temperature (simulated distillation temperature) at 20% simulated distillation yield can predict the steam distillation yields reasonably well: the standard error ranges from 2.8 to 3.5% (in yield) for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ < 5 and from 3.5 to 4.5% for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ > 5. The oil viscosity (cs) at 100/sup 0/F can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 3.1 to 4.3%. The API gravity can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 4.4 to 5.7%. Characterization factor is an unsatisfactory correlation independent variable for correlation purpose.

Wu, C.H.; Elder, R.B.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

180

Unifying classical and quantum key distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assume that two distant parties, Alice and Bob, as well as an adversary, Eve, have access to (quantum) systems prepared jointly according to a tripartite state. In addition, Alice and Bob can use local operations and authenticated public classical communication. Their goal is to establish a key which is unknown to Eve. We initiate the study of this scenario as a unification of two standard scenarios: (i) key distillation (agreement) from classical correlations and (ii) key distillation from pure tripartite quantum states. Firstly, we obtain generalisations of fundamental results related to scenarios (i) and (ii), including upper bounds on the key rate. Moreover, based on an embedding of classical distributions into quantum states, we are able to find new connections between protocols and quantities in the standard scenarios (i) and (ii). Secondly, we study specific properties of key distillation protocols. In particular, we show that every protocol that makes use of pre-shared key can be transformed into an equally efficient protocol which needs no pre-shared key. This result is of practical significance as it applies to quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, but it also implies that the key rate cannot be locked with information on Eve's side. Finally, we exhibit an arbitrarily large separation between the key rate in the standard setting where Eve is equipped with quantum memory and the key rate in a setting where Eve is only given classical memory. This shows that assumptions on the nature of Eve's memory are important in order to determine the correct security threshold in QKD.

Matthias Christandl; Artur Ekert; Michal Horodecki; Pawel Horodecki; Jonathan Oppenheim; Renato Renner

2006-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

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181

Unifying classical and quantum key distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assume that two distant parties, Alice and Bob, as well as an adversary, Eve, have access to (quantum) systems prepared jointly according to a tripartite state ?ABE. In addition, Alice and Bob can use local operations and authenticated public classical communication. Their goal is to establish a key which is unknown to Eve. We initiate the study of this scenario as a unification of two standard scenarios: (i) key distillation (agreement) from classical correlations and (ii) key distillation from pure tripartite quantum states. Firstly, we obtain generalisations of fundamental results related to scenarios (i) and (ii), including upper bounds on the key rate, i.e., the number of key bits that can be extracted per copy of ?ABE. Moreover, based on an embedding of classical distributions into quantum states, we are able to find new connections between protocols and quantities in the standard scenarios (i) and (ii). Secondly, we study specific properties of key distillation protocols. In particular, we show that every protocol that makes use of pre-shared key can be transformed into an equally efficient protocol which needs no pre-shared key. This result is of practical significance as it applies to quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, but it also implies that the key rate cannot be locked with information on Eve’s side. Finally, we exhibit an arbitrarily large separation between the key rate in the standard setting where Eve is equipped with quantum memory and the key rate in a setting where Eve is only given classical memory. This shows that assumptions on the nature of Eve’s memory are important in order to determine the correct security threshold in QKD. 1

Matthias Christ; Renato Renner

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we look at the challenges that improvements in energy efficiency of distillation systems presents the heat exchanger designer. We examine each type of exchanger in turn. Heat exchanger size is minimized if the temperature driving force is maximized. The design should therefore seek to minimize the temperature changes during phase change. So, streams that are being condensed are kept as hot as possible. Streams that are being vaporized are kept as cool as possible. With one noted exception, this also leads to maximization of the thermodynamic efficiency and maximizes the scope for use of these streams in integrated systems.

Polley, G. T.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Distillation by repeated measurements: Continuous spectrum case  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Repeated measurements on one part of a bipartite system strongly affect the other part that is not measured, the dynamics of which is regulated by an effective contracted evolution operator. When the spectrum of this operator is discrete, the nonmeasured system is driven into a pure state, irrespective of the initial state, provided that the spectrum satisfies certain conditions. We show here that, even in the case of continuous spectrum, an effective distillation can occur under rather general conditions. We confirm it by applying our formalism to a simple model.

Bellomo, Bruno; Compagno, Giuseppe [CNISM and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ed Astronomiche, Universita di Palermo, via Archirafi 36, IT-90123 Palermo (Italy); Nakazato, Hiromichi [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Yuasa, Kazuya [Waseda Institute for Advanced Study, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

184

Low Distillate Stocks Set Stage for Price Volatility  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Along with the recent rise in crude oil prices, low stocks of Along with the recent rise in crude oil prices, low stocks of distillate fuels left markets in a vulnerable position. As we went into our two biggest distillate demand months, January and February, U.S. distillate stocks were very low -- particularly on the East and Gulf Coasts. The East Coast is the primary heating oil region, and it depends heavily on production from the Gulf Coast as well. Distillate stocks in the U.S. and Europe were in surplus supply as recently as October, but distillate stocks did not build as they usually do during the late fall, and declined more sharply than usual in December. December stocks closed well below the normal range. The unusual drawdown, in contrast to the more normal building pattern, resulted in distillate inventory levels about 3 million barrels lower than the very low

185

Surface code implementation of block code state distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states |A>=(|0>+e^{i\\pi/4}|1>)/\\sqrt{2} produced a single improved |A> state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A> states given 3k+8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three.

Austin G. Fowler; Simon J. Devitt; Cody Jones

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

186

Tritium Isotope Separation Using Adsorption-Distillation Column  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to miniaturize the height of a distillation tower for the detritiation of waste water from fusion reactors, two experiments were conducted: (1) liquid frontal chromatography of tritium water eluting through an adsorption column and (2) water distillation using a column packed with adsorbent particles. The height of the distillation tower depends on the height equivalent to a theoretical plate, HETP, and the equilibrium isotope separation factor, {alpha}{sub H-T}{sup equi}. The adsorption action improved not only HETP but also {alpha}{sub H-T}{sup equi}. Since the adsorption-distillation method proposed here can shorten the tower height with keeping advantages of the distillation, it may bring an excellent way for miniaturizing the distillation tower to detritiate a large amount of waste water from fusion reactors.

Fukada, Satoshi [Kyushu University (Japan)

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Iterative Entanglement Distillation: Approaching full Elimination of Decoherence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The distribution and processing of quantum entanglement form the basis of quantum communication and quantum computing. The realization of the two is difficult because quantum information inherently has a high susceptibility to decoherence, i.e. to uncontrollable information loss to the environment. For entanglement distribution, a proposed solution to this problem is capable of fully eliminating decoherence; namely iterative entanglement distillation. This approach builds on a large number of distillation steps each of which extracts a number of weakly decohered entangled states from a larger number of strongly decohered states. Here, for the first time, we experimentally demonstrate iterative distillation of entanglement. Already distilled entangled states were further improved in a second distillation step and also made available for subsequent steps.Our experiment displays the realization of the building blocks required for an entanglement distillation scheme that can fully eliminate decoherence.

Boris Hage; Aiko Samblowski; James DiGuglielmo; Jaromír Fiurášek; Roman Schnabel

2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

188

Characterization of distillability of entanglement in terms of positive maps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A necessary and sufficient condition for 1-distillability is formulated in terms of decomposable positive maps. As an application we provide insight into why all states violating the reduction criterion map are distillable and demonstrate how to construct such maps in a systematic way. We establish a connection between a number of existing results, which leads to an elementary proof for the characterisation of distillability in terms of 2-positive maps.

Lieven Clarisse

2004-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

189

Quantum states representing perfectly secure bits are always distillable  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is proven that recently introduced states with perfectly secure bits of cryptographic key (private states representing secure bit) [K. Horodecki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 160502 (2005)] as well as its multipartite and higher dimension generalizations always represent distillable entanglement. The corresponding lower bounds on distillable entanglement are provided. We also present a simple alternative proof that for any bipartite quantum state entanglement cost is an upper bound on distillable cryptographic key in bipartite scenario.

Pawel Horodecki; Remigiusz Augusiak

2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

190

W-like bound entangled states and secure key distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct multipartite entangled states with underlying W-type structure satisfying positive partial transpose (PPT) condition under any (N-1)|1 partition. Then we show how to distill N-partite secure key form the states using two different methods: direct application of local filtering and novel random key distillation scheme in which we adopt the idea form recent results on entanglement distillation. Open problems and possible implications are also discussed.

Remigiusz Augusiak; Pawel Horodecki

2008-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

191

Key distillation from Gaussian states by Gaussian operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the secrecy properties of Gaussian states under Gaussian operations. Although such operations are useless for quantum distillation, we prove that it is possible to distill a secret key secure against any attack from sufficiently entangled Gaussian states with non-positive partial transposition. Moreover, all such states allow for key distillation, when Eve is assumed to perform finite-size coherent attacks before the reconciliation process.

M. Navascues; J. Bae; J. I. Cirac; M. Lewenstein; A. Sanpera; A. Acin

2004-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

192

,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.9;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","...

193

,,"Distillate Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.8;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","...

194

New Jersey No 1 Distillate Wholesale/Resale Volume by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Referring Pages: New Jersey No. 1 Distillate Refiner Sales Volumes; New Jersey Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, ...

195

Distillate in Depth - The Supply, Demand, and Price Picture  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The presentation provides background on distillate supply and demand, and then focuses on how hurricanes Katrina and Rita impact on refining capacity might affect winter fuels.

Information Center

2005-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

196

DiSTiL: a Transformation Library for Data Structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DiSTiL is a software generator that implements a declarative domain-specific language (DSL) for container data structures. DiSTiL is a representative of a new approach to domain-specific language implementation. Instead of being the usual one-of-a-kind standalone compiler, DiSTiL is an extension library for the Intentional Programming (IP) transformation system (currently under development by Microsoft Research). DiSTiL relies on several reusable, general-purpose infrastructure tools offered by IP that substantially simplify DSL implementation.

Yannis Smaragdakis; Don Batory

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Combination process for the conversion of heavy distillates to LPG  

SciTech Connect

Maximum conversion of heavy distillates to LPG is achieved through a combination process involving two-stage hydrocracking. 9 claims, no drawings.

Hilfman, L.

1976-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

198

Vacuum distillation is a key part of the petroleum refining ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

EIA Survey Forms › Facebook Twitter ... To increase the production of high-value petroleum products, these bottoms are run through a vacuum distillation column to ...

199

Distillation of GHZ states by selective information manipulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methods for distilling maximally entangled tripartite (GHZ) states from arbitrary entangled tripartite pure states are described. These techniques work for virtually any input state. Each technique has two stages which we call primary and secondary distillation. Primary distillation produces a GHZ state with some probability, so that when applied to an ensemble of systems, a certain percentage is discarded. Secondary distillation produces further GHZs from the discarded systems. These protocols are developed with the help of an approach to quantum information theory based on absolutely selective information, which has other potential applications.

Oliver Cohen; Todd A. Brun

2000-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

200

Tomographic Quantum Cryptography: Equivalence of Quantum and Classical Key Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. For an important class of protocols, which exploit tomographically complete measurements on entangled pairs of any dimension, we show that the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation is identical with the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation. As a consequence, the two distillation procedures are equivalent: neither offers a security advantage over the other.

Dagmar Bruss; Matthias Christandl; Artur Ekert; Berthold-Georg Englert; Dagomir Kaszlikowski; Chiara Macchiavello

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oline distillates residuals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We find that such an enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries can be obtained even when the initially shared Gaussian entangled states are mixed, as, for instance, after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.

Zhang Shengli; Loock, Peter van [Optical Quantum Information Theory Group, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1/Bau 26, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institute of Theoretical Physics I, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 7/B2, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

202

Catalytic distillation for the synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Catalytic Distillation for the synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) is investigated in this thesis. The solvent, ethylene glycol, is proposed as a means of… (more)

Safinski, Tomasz

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Table 40. Refiners’ Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 40. Refiners’ Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1, 1997 Refiner Barrels per Calendar Day Refiner Barrels per

204

Development of an energy efficient direct contact membrane distillation system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was investigated for its performance abilities and capability to concentrate aqueous solutions with high solid contents at low temperatures. The… (more)

Bui, Anh

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Midwest Gasoline and Distillate Fuel Near-Term Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Additionally, the August shutdown of the crude oil distillation unit at the Citgo refinery in Lemont, Illinois due to fire has reduced local production capacity, ...

206

Vacuum Distillation of Aluminum and Silicon via Carbothermal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Vacuum Distillation of Aluminum and Silicon via Carbothermal Reduction of Their Oxides with Concentrated Solar Energy. Author(s), Peter G.

207

Model predictive control of a Kaibel distillation column.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Model predictive control (MPC) of a Kaibel distillation column is the main focus of this thesis. A model description together with a model extension… (more)

Kvernland, Martin Krister

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Barometric distillation and the problem of non-condensable gases.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Barometric distillation is an alternative method of producing fresh water by desalination. This proposed process evaporates saline water at low pressure and consequently low temperature;… (more)

Martinson, Eiki.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Engineering-Scale Distillation of Cadmium for Actinide Recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the recovery of actinide products from spent nuclear fuel, cadmium is separated from the actinide products by a distillation process. Distillation occurs in an induction-heated furnace called a cathode processor capable of processing kilogram quantities of cadmium. Operating parameters have been established for sufficient recovery of the cadmium based on mass balance and product purity. A cadmium distillation rate similar to previous investigators has also been determined. The development of cadmium distillation for spent fuel treatment enhances the capabilities for actinide recovery processes.

J.C. Price; D. Vaden; R.W. Benedict

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations, both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We derive the optimal enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries, which can be obtained even in the most natural scenario when Gaussian mixed entangled states are shared after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.

ShengLi Zhang; Peter van Loock

2011-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

211

Ethanol production by vapor compression distillation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate a one gallon per hour vapor compression distillation unit for fuel ethanol production that can be profitably manufactured and economically operated by individual family units. Vapor compression distillation is already an industrially accepted process and this project's goal is to demonstrate that it can be done economically on a small scale. Theoretically, the process is independent of absolute pressure. It is only necessary that the condenser be at higher pressure than the evaporator. By reducing the entire process to a pressure of approximately 0.1 atmosphere, the evaporation and condensation can occur at near ambient temperature. Even though this approach requires a vacuum pump, and thus will not represent the final cost effective design, it does not require preheaters, high temperature materials, or as much insulation as if it were to operate a near ambient pressure. Therefore, the operation of the ambient temperature unit constitutes the first phase of this project. Presently, the ambient temperature unit is fully assembled and has begun testing. So far it has successfully separated ethanol from a nine to one diluted input solution. However the production rate has been very low.

Ellis, G.S.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0.9 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.9;" 0.9 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.9;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Residual",,,"and" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Consumed(d)","Switchable","Switchable","Receipts(e)","Gas","Fuel Oil","Coal","LPG","Breeze","Other(f)" ,,"Total United States" 311,"Food",8,15,9,21,19,18,0,27,0,41 311221," Wet Corn Milling",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0

213

Desalination Using Vapor-Compression Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ability to produce potable water economically is the primary purpose of seawater desalination research. Reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash (MSF) cost more than potable water produced from fresh water resources. As an alternative to RO and MSF, this research investigates a high-efficiency mechanical vapor-compression distillation system that employs an improved water flow arrangement. The incoming salt concentration was 0.15% salt for brackish water and 3.5% salt for seawater, whereas the outgoing salt concentration was 1.5% and 7%, respectively. Distillation was performed at 439 K (331oF) and 722 kPa (105 psia) for both brackish water feed and seawater feed. Water costs of the various conditions were calculated for brackish water and seawater feeds using optimum conditions considered as 25 and 20 stages, respectively. For brackish water at a temperature difference of 0.96 K (1.73oF), the energy requirement is 2.0 kWh/m3 (7.53 kWh/kgal). At this condition, the estimated water cost is $0.39/m3 ($1.48/kgal) achieved with 10,000,000 gal/day distillate, 30-year bond, 5% interest rate, and $0.05/kWh electricity. For seawater at a temperature difference of 0.44 K (0.80oF), the energy requirement is 3.97 kWh/m3 (15.0 kWh/kgal) and the estimated water cost is $0.61/m3 ($2.31/kgal). Greater efficiency of the vapor compression system is achieved by connecting multiple evaporators in series, rather than the traditional parallel arrangement. The efficiency results from the gradual increase of salinity in each stage of the series arrangement in comparison to parallel. Calculations using various temperature differences between boiling brine and condensing steam show the series arrangement has the greatest improvement at lower temperature differences. The following table shows the improvement of a series flow arrangement compared to parallel: ?T (K) Improvement (%)*1.111 2.222 3.333 15.21 10.80 8.37 * Incoming salt concentration: 3.5% Outgoing salt concentration: 7% Temperature: 450 K (350oF) Pressure: 928 kPa (120 psig) Stages: 4

Lubis, Mirna R.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Process control interface system for a distillation plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the development of a process control interface system (PCIS) for a distillation pilot plant that is based on the communication protocol called MODBUS. MODBUS communicates the computer (used as a control unit) with the process because ... Keywords: Communication protocol, Distillation column, Interface system, Process control

A. Téllez-Anguiano; F. Rivas-Cruz; C. -M. Astorga-Zaragoza; E. Alcorta-García; D. Juárez-Romero

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Web Information Organization Using Keyword Distillation Based Clustering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a system that conducts search result clustering for several thousands of Web pages, and elaborates cluster labels through keyword distillation. Keyword distillation is a method that properly handles spelling variations, transliterations, ... Keywords: clustering, open search engine, keyword unification

Tomohide Shibata; Yasuo Bamba; Keiji Shinzato; Sadao Kurohashi

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Distillation purification and radon assay of liquid xenon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We succeeded to reduce the Kr contamination in liquid xenon by a factor of 1/1000 with a distillation system in Kamioka mine. Then, the remaining radioactivities (Radon and Kr) in purified liquid xenon were measured with the XMASS prototype detector. In this talk, the distillation system and the remaining internal radioactivity levels are reported.

Takeuchi, Yasuo [Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, Univ. of Tokyo, Kamioka-cho, Hida-shi, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan)

2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

217

Crude Distillation Unit Heat Recovery Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Baytown's Pipe Still 3 is a 95,000 barrel per day crude distillation unit. A comprehensive heat recovery and energy utilization study was done on Pipe Still 3 after a preliminary cursory study had indicated that an overall look at the total picture could produce much better results than a series of improvements done piecemeal. The study did meet its objective by identifying the maximum heat recovery that is technically and economically feasible. It showed a potential for dramatic improvement - a 39 percent reduction in fuel, plus a 43 percent increase in the quantity of process steam generated, equivalent to a 48 percent reduction in net energy consumed. Techniques employed included a Source/Sink Profile (which is described later); a combining of oil heating, steam generation, and air preheat to best advantage; and a computer program to design the required heat exchanger trains.

John, P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Improved magic states distillation for quantum universality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Given stabilizer operations and the ability to repeatedly prepare a single-qubit mixed state rho, can we do universal quantum computation? As motivation for this question, "magic state" distillation procedures can reduce the general fault-tolerance problem to that of performing fault-tolerant stabilizer circuits. We improve the procedures of Bravyi and Kitaev in the Hadamard "magic" direction of the Bloch sphere to achieve a sharp threshold between those rho allowing universal quantum computation, and those for which any calculation can be efficiently classically simulated. As a corollary, the ability to repeatedly prepare any pure state which is not a stabilizer state (e.g., any single-qubit pure state which is not a Pauli eigenstate), together with stabilizer operations, gives quantum universality. It remains open whether there is also a tight separation in the so-called T direction.

Reichardt, B W

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Improved magic states distillation for quantum universality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Given stabilizer operations and the ability to repeatedly prepare a single-qubit mixed state rho, can we do universal quantum computation? As motivation for this question, "magic state" distillation procedures can reduce the general fault-tolerance problem to that of performing fault-tolerant stabilizer circuits. We improve the procedures of Bravyi and Kitaev in the Hadamard "magic" direction of the Bloch sphere to achieve a sharp threshold between those rho allowing universal quantum computation, and those for which any calculation can be efficiently classically simulated. As a corollary, the ability to repeatedly prepare any pure state which is not a stabilizer state (e.g., any single-qubit pure state which is not a Pauli eigenstate), together with stabilizer operations, gives quantum universality. It remains open whether there is also a tight separation in the so-called T direction.

Ben W. Reichardt

2004-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

220

Non-Gaussian entanglement distillation for continuous variables  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Entanglement distillation is an essential ingredient for long distance quantum communications. In the continuous variable setting, Gaussian states play major roles in quantum teleportation, quantum cloning and quantum cryptography. However, entanglement distillation from Gaussian states has not yet been demonstrated. It is made difficult by the no-go theorem stating that no Gaussian operation can distill Gaussian states. Here we demonstrate the entanglement distillation from Gaussian states by using measurement-induced non-Gaussian operations, circumventing the fundamental restriction of the no-go theorem. We observed a gain of entanglement as a result of conditional local subtraction of a single photon or two photons from a two-mode Gaussian state. Furthermore we confirmed that two-photon subtraction also improves Gaussian-like entanglement as specified by the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlation. This distilled entanglement can be further employed to downstream applications such as high fidelity quantum teleportation and a loophole-free Bell test.

Hiroki Takahashi; Jonas S. Neergaard-Nielsen; Makoto Takeuchi; Masahiro Takeoka; Kazuhiro Hayasaka; Akira Furusawa; Masahide Sasaki

2009-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oline distillates residuals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Many copies may be required for entanglement distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A mixed quantum state ? shared between two parties is said to be distillable if, by means of a protocol involving only local quantum operations and classical communication, the two parties can transform some number of copies of ? into a single shared pair of qubits having high fidelity with the maximally entangled state |? + ? = (|00 ? + |11?) / ? 2. In this paper it is proved that there exist states that are distillable, but for which an arbitrarily large number of copies is required before any distillation procedure can produce a shared pair of qubits with even a small amount of entanglement. Specifically, for every positive integer n there exists a state ? that is distillable, but given n or fewer copies of ? every distillation procedure outputting a single shared pair of qubits will output those qubits in a separable (i.e., unentangled) state. Essentially all previous examples of states proved to be distillable were such that some distillation procedure could output an entangled pair of qubits given a single copy of the state in question. 1

John Watrous

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Many copies may be required for entanglement distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A mixed quantum state shared between two parties is said to be distillable if, by means of a protocol involving only local quantum operations and classical communication, the two parties can transform some number of copies of that state into a single shared pair of qubits having high fidelity with a maximally entangled state state. In this paper it is proved that there exist states that are distillable, but for which an arbitrarily large number of copies is required before any distillation procedure can produce a shared pair of qubits with even a small amount of entanglement. Specifically, for every positive integer n there exists a state that is distillable, but given n or fewer copies of that state every distillation procedure outputting a single shared pair of qubits will output those qubits in a separable state. Essentially all previous examples of states proved to be distillable were such that some distillation procedure could output an entangled pair of qubits given a single copy of the state in question.

John Watrous

2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

223

Multilevel distillation of magic states for quantum computing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop a procedure for distilling magic states used in universal quantum computing that requires substantially fewer initial resources than prior schemes. Our distillation circuit is based on a family of concatenated quantum codes that possess a transversal Hadamard operation, enabling each of these codes to distill the eigenstate of the Hadamard operator. A crucial result of this design is that low-fidelity magic states can be consumed to purify other high-fidelity magic states to even higher fidelity, which we call "multilevel distillation." When distilling in the asymptotic regime of infidelity $\\epsilon \\rightarrow 0$ for each input magic state, the number of input magic states consumed on average to yield an output state with infidelity $O(\\epsilon^{2^r})$ approaches $2^r+1$, which comes close to saturating the conjectured bound in [Phys. Rev. A 86, 052329]. We show numerically that there exist multilevel protocols such that the average number of magic states consumed to distill from error rate $\\epsilon_{\\mathrm{in}} = 0.01$ to $\\epsilon_{\\mathrm{out}}$ in the range $10^{-5}$ to $10^{-40}$ is about $14\\log_{10}(1/\\epsilon_{\\mathrm{out}}) - 40$; the efficiency of multilevel distillation dominates all other reported protocols when distilling Hadamard magic states from initial infidelity 0.01 to any final infidelity below $10^{-7}$. These methods are an important advance for magic-state distillation circuits in high-performance quantum computing, and they provide insight into the limitations of nearly resource-optimal quantum error correction.

Cody Jones

2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

224

Spot Distillate & Crude Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

mid-January, 2000. WTI crude oil price rose about $17 per mid-January, 2000. WTI crude oil price rose about $17 per barrel or 40 cents per gallon from its low point in mid February 1999 to January 17, 2000. Over this same time period, New York Harbor spot heating oil had risen about 42 cents per gallon, reflecting both the crude price rise and the beginning of a return to a more usual seasonal spread over the price of crude oil. The week ending January 21, distillate spot prices in the Northeast spiked dramatically to record levels, closing on Friday at $1.26 per gallon -- up 50 cents from the prior week. Gulf Coast prices were not spiking, but were probably pulled higher as the New York Harbor market began to draw on product from other areas. They closed at 83 cents per gallon, an increase of 11 cents from the prior Friday. Crude oil had risen about 4 cents from

225

Reducing Energy Usage in Extractive Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Butadiene 1:3 is separated from other C4-hydrocarbons by extractive distillation in a sieve plate tower. Prior to the development work to be described, the pressure in the extraction tower was controlled at a fixed value. The tower pressure-boilup control loop did not behave satisfactorily in the presence of non-condensables which entered with the feed. The capacity of the flooded reflux drum condenser for the tower was limiting production during summer months. The tower pressure control loop was put on manual. The pressure was allowed to drop to its lowest attainable value for the existing conditions of boilup and condenser cooling capability. This manner of operation is known as floating pressure control. By taking advantage of the higher relative volatility at the lower tower pressure, energy usage was reduced and there was an increase in production capacity. The tower operation at a lower temperature reduced tower and reboiler fouling. Substantial savings have resulted from these improvements. The annual energy consumption has been reduced by 25% and maximum productive capacity is higher by 15%. The rate of tower and reboiler fouling has not been fully quantified but is greatly reduced. A more stable tower operation has also contributed to higher productivity and reduced energy usage. Venting of non-condensables does not affect tower stability and the operators have adapted well to the new control strategy.

Saxena, A. C.; Bhandari, V. A.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Distillate Supply/Demand Balance Reflected in Spreads  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Notes: The price spike that initiated the flood of distillate imports last winter can be easily seen in this chart. The distillate supply/demand balance influences the spread between spot distillate and spot crude oil prices. For example, when stocks are higher than normal, the spread will be lower than usual. This spread is the price incentive that encourages or discourages changes in supply. The January/February 2000 price spike was shorter than the one last winter, largely due to the timing. Since last winter's price spike occurred early in the season, it took some time before prices receded substantially. Currently, the distillate fuel refining spread (the difference between the spot heating oil price and the WTI price) is more "typical". But as was

227

Connecticut Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 314,674: 301,591: 272,255: 271,852: 274,578: 274,507: 1984-2012: ...

228

South Carolina Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 751,994: 695,077: 654,296: 726,647: 725,148: 655,638: 1984-2012: ...

229

Maryland Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 606,247: 548,583: 540,590: 579,203: 540,843: 531,683: 1984-2012: ...

230

Nebraska Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 446,825: 433,745: 461,938: 639,618: 603,268: 584,362: 1984-2012: ...

231

Massachusetts Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 487,861: 463,886: 443,620: 445,626: 460,154: 444,532: 1984-2012: ...

232

Michigan Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 970,806: 891,487: 819,086: 864,049: 854,644: 877,692: 1984-2012: ...

233

Minnesota Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 804,699: 761,187: 633,806: 665,652: 704,971: 746,974: 1984-2012: ...

234

Minnesota Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 817,786: 767,218: 640,572: 678,530: 713,572: 763,303: 1984-2012: ...

235

New Jersey Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 1,088,505: 978,515: 760,035: 831,955: 952,930: 837,191: 1984-2012: ...

236

Wisconsin Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 788,665: 798,348: 703,583: 738,953: 719,417: 780,145: 1984-2012: ...

237

Connecticut Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 314,309: 300,255: 272,598: 271,767: 274,640: 273,827: 1984-2012: ...

238

Kansas Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 581,898: 610,088: 588,362: 554,334: 548,183: 573,992: 1984-2012: ...

239

Michigan Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 964,966: 888,432: 814,460: 855,592: 850,681: 871,756: 1984-2012: ...

240

Nebraska Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 448,098: 435,444: 472,303: 689,579: 627,110: 613,232: 1984-2012: ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oline distillates residuals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Utah Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 525,714: 470,714: 420,706: 426,584: 508,266: 486,456: 1984-2012: ...

242

Colorado Total Distillate Adj Sales/Deliveries to Military ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Colorado Total Distillate Adj Sales/Deliveries to Military Consumers (Thousand Gallons) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 ...

243

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1985: 7,172 ...

244

Unlike particle correlations and the strange quark matter distillation process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new technique for observing the strange quark matter distillation process based on unlike particle correlations. A simulation is presented based on the scenario of a two-phase thermodynamical evolution model.

D. Ardouin; Sven Soff; C. Spieles; S. A. Bass; H. Stocker; D. Gourio; S. Schramm; C. Greiner; R. Lednicky; V. L. Lyuboshits; J. P. Coffin; C. Kuhn

2002-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

245

U. S. Operating Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U. S. Operating Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1985: 14,361: 14,293: 14,268: 14,605 ...

246

U. S. Operating Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U. S. Operating Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Day) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's ...

247

Magic-state distillation with the four-qubit code  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The distillation of magic states is an often-cited technique for enabling universal quantum computing once the error probability for a special subset of gates has been made negligible by other means. We present a routine for magic-state distillation that reduces the required overhead for a range of parameters of practical interest. Each iteration of the routine uses a four-qubit error-detecting code to distill the +1 eigenstate of the Hadamard gate at a cost of ten input states per two improved output states. Use of this routine in combination with the 15-to-1 distillation routine described by Bravyi and Kitaev allows for further improvements in overhead.

Adam M. Meier; Bryan Eastin; Emanuel Knill

2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

248

Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

249

The essence of steam technology and its link to distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The essence of steam technology, as Simon Schaffer explains in Faraday’s laboratory, is to understand the behaviour of fire, water and steam. The role of glass in manipulating these is absolutely fundamental, as is the role of distilling....

Dugan, David

2004-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

250

U. S. Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U. S. Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1985: 15,659: 15,559: 15,582 ...

251

Kinetic Method for Hydrogen-Deuterium-Tritium Mixture Distillation Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulation of hydrogen distillation plants requires mathematical procedures suitable for multicomponent systems. In most of the present-day simulation methods a distillation column is assumed to be composed of theoretical stages, or plates. However, in the case of a multicomponent mixture theoretical plate does not exist.An alternative kinetic method of simulation is depicted in the work. According to this method a system of mass-transfer differential equations is solved numerically. Mass-transfer coefficients are estimated with using experimental results and empirical equations.Developed method allows calculating the steady state of a distillation column as well as its any non-steady state when initial conditions are given. The results for steady states are compared with ones obtained via Thiele-Geddes theoretical stage technique and the necessity of using kinetic method is demonstrated. Examples of a column startup period and periodic distillation simulations are shown as well.

Sazonov, A.B.; Kagramanov, Z.G.; Magomedbekov, E.P. [Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (Russian Federation)

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

252

Interferometric distillation and determination of unknown two-qubit entanglement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a scheme for both distilling and quantifying entanglement, applicable to individual copies of an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state. It is realized in a usual two-qubit interferometry with local filtering. Proper filtering operation for the maximal distillation of the state is achieved by erasing single-qubit interference, and then the concurrence of the state is determined directly from the visibilities of two-qubit interference. We compare the scheme with full state tomography.

Lee, S.-S. B.; Sim, H.-S. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A significant reduction in distillation tower energy requirements can be achieved by mechanical vapor recompression. Three design approaches for heating a distillation tower reboiler by mechanical vapor recompression are presented. The advantages of using a screw compressor are discussed in detail. An example of a xylene extraction tower is sited, illustrating the economic attractiveness in which a simple payback period of less than two years is achievable.

Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Distillation is a big consumer of energy in process plant operations. A first step to energy cost savings is the use of high efficiency structured packing in place of trays or dumped packings in conventionally operated distillation columns. Larger savings, as much as 80%, may be obtained by using a direct vapor recompression (VRC) heat pump instead of the conventional column operation with a steam heated reboiler. A main criterion of the suitability of a distillation for VRC is a low temperature difference across the column. VRC uses hot compressed overhead vapors, instead of steam, to heat the reboiler. Cost savings are highest when the pressure ratio for the compressor is low. The pressure ratio depends on the boiling point difference of top and bottom products, the reboiler-condenser driving force temperature and the column pressure drop. Structured packing has a low pressure drop; thus increasing the savings obtained with VRC - for retrofits or new columns - and increasing the range of applications where VRC is suitable for distillations. For low pressure distillation application, a column with a small pressure drop is especially important. An example of a vacuum distillation which is made suitable for VRC with use of structured packing is separation of styrene and ethyl benzene. "

Hill, J.H.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

75.1 71.9 64.4 60.6 W W 43.5 41.6 1998 ... 55.7 55.2 51.2 44.2 W W 32.9 30.5 1999 ... 54.9 54.6 60.8 49.5 W...

256

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM LIGHT ELEMENT VALUES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for removing light element impurities from plutonium. It has been found that plutonium contaminated with impurities may be purified by converting the plutonium to a halide and purifying the halide by a fractional distillation whereby impurities may be distilled from the plutonium halide. A particularly effective method includes the step of forming a lower halide such as the trior tetrahalide and distilling the halide under conditions such that no decomposition of the halide occurs. Molecular distillation methods are particularly suitable for this process. The apparatus may comprise an evaporation plate with means for heating it and a condenser surface with means for cooling it. The condenser surface is placed at a distance from the evaporating surface less than the mean free path of molecular travel of the material being distilled at the pressure and temperature used. The entire evaporating system is evacuated until the pressure is about 10/sup -4/ millimeters of mercury. A high temperuture method is presented for sealing porous materials such as carbon or graphite that may be used as a support or a moderator in a nuclear reactor. The carbon body is subjected to two surface heats simultaneously in an inert atmosphere; the surface to be sealed is heated to 1500 degrees centigrade; and another surface is heated to 300 degrees centigrade, whereupon the carbon vaporizes and flows to the cooler surface where it is deposited to seal that surface. This method may be used to seal a nuclear fuel in the carbon structure.

Cunningham, B.B.

1957-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

257

Non-Locality Distillation is Impossible for Isotropic Quantum Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Non-locality is a powerful resource for various communication and information theoretic tasks, e.g., to establish a secret key between two parties, or to reduce the communication complexity of distributed computing. Typically, the more non-local a system is, the more useful it is as a resource for such tasks. We address the issue of non-locality distillation, i.e., whether it is possible to create a strongly non-local system by local operations on several weakly non-local ones. More specifically, we consider a setting where non-local systems can be realized via measurements on underlying shared quantum states. The hardest instances for non-locality distillation are the isotropic quantum systems: if a certain isotropic system can be distilled, then all systems of the same non-locality can be distilled as well. The main result of this paper is that non-locality cannot be distilled from such isotropic quantum systems. Our results are based on the theory of cross norms defined over the tensor product of certain Banach spaces. In particular, we introduce a single-parameter family of cross norms, which is used to construct a hierarchy of convex sets that are closed under local operations. This hierarchy interpolates between the set of local systems and an approximation to the set of quantum systems.

Dejan D. Dukaric

2011-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

258

ICME for Residual Stress  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 8, 2012 ... Application of ICME to Weld Process Innovations and Residual Stress ... Incorporation of Residual Stresses into Design of Ni-Base Superalloy ...

259

Distillate Imports Surged to Meet Supply/Demand Imbalance  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

receded when weather moderated and new supply began to receded when weather moderated and new supply began to arrive. Imports were the largest source of new supply that arrived to relieve the imbalance that was behind the price spike. This graph shows the dramatic increase on a calendar monthly average basis. During the three weeks ending February 25, distillate fuel oil imports averaged 566 thousand barrels per day. During the prior four weeks, imports only averaged 162 thousand barrels per day. Refinery production on the East Coast also increased. For the three weeks ending February 25, East Coast distillate production averaged 478 thousand barrels per day, which was an increase of about 91 thousand barrels per day or 24% over the prior four weeks. (During the same time period, national distillate production only rose 7 percent.)

260

Extraction of tocopherols from deodorizer distillates: laboratory-scale evaluations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The tocopherols are valuable components of deodorizer distillate. Due to the limitations in the existing extraction methods, it is imperative that new processing parameters for extraction and concentration of tocopherols from deodorizer distillate be developed. For this purpose, an analytical method for the determination of both tocopherols and tocopherol succinates simultaneously was developed. Crystallization, flat-sheet membrane separation, and a combined process were evaluated. Individual steps of the combined process were defined. They were: 1). Crystallization of deodorizer distillate; 2). Succination; 3). Membrane separation; and 4). Second stage membrane separation. The succination process converted over 90% of the tocopherols to tocopherol succinates. Crystallization and flat-sheet membrane separations increased tocopherols concentration about 2% and 6%, respectively. The final tocopherols concentration in the combined process was twice that of the original tocopherol sample.

Zhang, Xiaoyan

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oline distillates residuals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Energy Use in Distillation Operation: Nonlinear Economic Effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Distillation operations are major consumers of energy, by some estimates comprising forty percent of the energy usage in the refining and chemicals industry. Obtaining the maximum energy efficiency from this unit operation is obviously very important. For many distillation columns there is a tradeoff in operation between energy usage and product recovery and setting the proper usage target involves a calculation of the economic tradeoff between these two factors. However, distillation is a non-linear process and normal economic evaluations add more non-linearities to the economic objective functions. In addition, the normal product quality variability observed leads to requirements for statistical evaluation. Hence, calculation of the correct target can be complicated. In this paper, these non-linear economic effects are reviewed and techniques to calculate the correct usage targets presented.

White, D. C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Hydrogen isotope distillation for the Tritium Systems Test Assembly  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A system of four, interlinked, cryogenic fractional distillation columns has been designed as a prototype for fuel processing for fusion power reactors. The distillation system will continuously separate a feedstream of 360 g moles/day of roughly 50-50 deuterium-tritium containing approximately 1% H into four product streams: (1) a tritium-free stream of HD for waste disposal; (2) a stream of high-purity D/sub 2/ for simulated neutral beam injection; (3) a stream of DT for simulated reactor refueling; and (4) a stream of high purity T/sub 2/ for refueling and studies on properties of tritium and effects of tritium on materials.

Bartlit, J.R.; Denton, W.H.; Sherman, R.H.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Human versus machine in the topic distillation task  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper reports on and discusses a set of user experiments using the TREC 2003 Web interactive track protocol. The focus is on comparing humans and machine algorithms in terms of performance in a topic distillation task. We also investigated the effect of the search results layout in supporting the users ’ effort. We have demonstrated that machines can perform nearly as well as people on the topic distillation task. Given a system tailored to the task there is significant performance improvement and finally, given a presentation that supports the task, there is strong user satisfaction.

Mingfang Wu; Gheorghe Muresan; Alistair Mclean; Muh-chyun (morris Tang; Ross Wilkinson; Yuelin Li; Hyuk-jin Lee; Nichloas J. Belkin

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Two-particle Correlation Functions with Distilled Propagators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Correlation functions of the simplest multi-particle state will be presented using distilled quark propagators. The I=2 pi-pi state can be simulated without computing disconnected diagrams and thus is the simplest two-particle state that can be studied with quark sources placed on a single time-slice. We study the quality of the signals of this pi-pi correlation function using the quark-smearing guided distillation method. Results will be presented for pi-pi correlation functions computed on dynamical, anisotropic lattices.

Bulava, J; Morningstar, C J; Peardon, M J; Wong, C H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Two-particle Correlation Functions with Distilled Propagators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Correlation functions of the simplest multi-particle state will be presented using distilled quark propagators. The I=2 pi-pi state can be simulated without computing disconnected diagrams and thus is the simplest two-particle state that can be studied with quark sources placed on a single time-slice. We study the quality of the signals of this pi-pi correlation function using the quark-smearing guided distillation method. Results will be presented for pi-pi correlation functions computed on dynamical, anisotropic lattices.

J. Bulava; K. J. Juge; C. J. Morningstar; M. J. Peardon; C. H. Wong

2009-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

266

Alcohol production with solar distillation. Final report, March 31, 1982-June 30, 1982  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to determine it an absorber in a solar distillation unit that would provide a more efficient and effective way to produce fuel grade ethanol. Four tests of distilling ethanol were made. Numerous other tests were conducted distiling water, drying an assortment at materials, cooking food, and heating various liquids. The absorber in the solar distillation unit creates much heat on the glazing. The mixture in the solar distillation unit, does not have to reach temperatures that boil water to produce distillate.

Wuestenberg, D.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Palm fatty acid distillate biodiesel: Next-generation palm biodiesel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The promise of alternative low-cost non-food feedstocks such as jatropha has yet to materialize, and there seems to be, at the current moment, no light at the end of the tunnel in the search for low-cost feedstock alternatives. Palm fatty acid distillate b

268

Conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to convert carboxylate salts (e.g. calcium acetate, propionate, and butyrate) into carboxylic acids (e.g., acetic, propionic, and butyric acids). The carboxylate salts can be produced from wastes, such as paper fines, municipal solid wastes, sewage sludge, and industrial biosludge. Using a proprietary technology owned by Texas A&M University the wastes are first treated with lime to enhance reactivity. Then they are converted to calcium carboxylate salts using a mixed culture of microorganisms derived from cattle rumen or anaerobic waste treatment facilities. The paper fines and municipal solid waste provide energy, whereas the industrial biosludge and sewage sludge provide nutrients for the microorganisms. The calcium carboxylate salts are concentrated and reacted with a low-molecular-weight tertiary amine and carbon dioxide to precipitate calcium carbonate. In a distillation column, the low-molecular-weight amine carboxylate reacts with a high-molecular-weight tertiary amine allowing the low-molecular-weight amine to be recovered from the top of the column. The resulting high-molecular-weight amine carboxylate is converted to amine and carboxylic acid in a reactive distillation column. This project focuses on the conversion of the carboxylate salts produced via fermentation into their corresponding acids via reactive distillation. The primary objective is to determine the optimal operating conditions of the distillation. A secondary objective is to optimize the precipitation step in the recovery process.

Williamson, Shelly Ann

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Complex Fluid Analysis with the Advanced Distillation Curve Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the flask. Heaters are controlled by a model predictive proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllerComplex Fluid Analysis with the Advanced Distillation Curve Approach Thomas J. Bruno, Lisa S. Ott of petroleomics, as asserted by Marshall and Rodgers, include quantitation of species, modeling, and informatics

270

Integrated Thermal and Hydraulic Analysis of Distillation Columns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper outlines the implementation of column thermal and hydraulic analysis in a simulation environment. The methodology is described using a separations example. Column Thermal Analysis has been discussed in the literature extensively. The paper outlines how bringing together the column thermal and hydraulics analysis provides significant additional insights to help screen the options for distillation column revamps.

Samant, K.; Sinclair, I.; Keady, G.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Optimal distillation of three-qubit W states  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some of the asymmetric three-qubit W states are used for perfect teleportation, superdense coding, and quantum-information splitting. We present the protocols for the optimal distillation of the asymmetric as well as the symmetric W states from a single copy of any three-qubit W class pure state.

Yildiz, Ali [Department of Physics, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

272

Subsite Retrieval: A Novel Concept for Topic Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. Topic distillation is one of the main information needs when users search the Web. In previous approaches to topic distillation, the single page was treated as the basic searching unit. This strategy is inherited from general information retrieval, which has not fully utilized the structure information of the Web. In this paper, we propose a novel concept for topic distillation, named subsite retrieval, in which the basic searching unit is the subsite instead of the single page. As indicated by the name, the subsite is a subset of website, consisting of a structural collection of pages. The key of subsite retrieval is to extract effective features to represent a subsite by utilizing both the content in each page and the structural information in the subsite. Specifically, we propose a so-called PI algorithm for this purpose, which is based on the modeling of website growth. Testing on the topic distillation task of TREC 2003 and TREC 2004, subsite retrieval gets significant improvement of retrieval performance over the previous single page based methods. 1

Tao Qin; Tie-yan Liu; Xu-dong Zhang; Guang Feng

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Optimal distillation of three-qubit W states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Some of the asymmetric three qubit $W$ states are used for perfect teleportation, superdense coding and quantum information splitting. We present the protocols for the optimal distillation of the asymmetric as well as the symmetric $W$ states from a single copy of any three qubit $W$ class pure state.

Ali Yildiz

2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

274

Unlike Particle Correlations and the Strange Quark Matter Distillation Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new technique for observing the strange quark matter distillation process based on unlike particle correlations. A simulation is presented based on the scenario of a two-phase thermodynamical evolution model. on leave from University of Nantes, U.M.R. Subatech

D. Ardouin; Sven Soff; C. Spieles; S. A. Bass; H. Stöcker; D. Gourio; S. Schramm; C. Greiner; R. Lednicky; V. L. Lyuboshitz; J. -p. Coffin; C. Kuhn

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 699,882: 631,796: 542,036: 573,037: 694,053: 729,109: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 613,864: ...

276

New York Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 63,226: 44,510: 35,307: 33,709: 42,254: 35,237: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 12,339: 10,814: ...

277

Florida Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 71,962: 55,219: 35,537: 41,430: 47,283: 61,059: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 140,493: 153,438: ...

278

West Virginia Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 15,766: 15,416: 10,143: 11,650: 12,711: 10,456: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 45,429: 28,568: 99: ...

279

Second Price Component: Spread Impacted by Distillate Supply/Demand Balance  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Notes: While crude oil prices will be a major factor impacting distillate prices this winter, another important factor is the U.S. distillate supply/demand balance, as measured by distillate stocks. The distillate supply/demand balance influences the spread between spot distillate and spot crude oil prices. For example, when stocks are higher than normal, the spread will be lower than usual. This spread is the price incentive that encourages or discourages changes in supply. While high stocks in the distillate market are good news for consumers, an excess is bad news for refiners. Distillate spreads during the winter of 1998-99 and throughout most of 1999 were well below average. Distillate stocks were very high during this period, partially as a result of warm weather keeping demand down.

280

Nutritionally Enhanced Edible Oil and Oilseed ProcessingChapter 10 Vacuum Distillation of Edible Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nutritionally Enhanced Edible Oil and Oilseed Processing Chapter 10 Vacuum Distillation of Edible Oils Processing eChapters Processing Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 10 Vacuum Distillation of Edible Oils from t

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oline distillates residuals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Modelling and optimisation of batch distillation involving esterification and hydrolysis reaction systems. Modelling and optimisation of conventional and unconventional batch distillation process: Application to esterification of methanol and ethanol using acetic acid and hydrolysis of methyl lactate system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Batch distillation with chemical reaction when takes place in the same unit is referred to as batch reactive distillation process. The combination reduces the capital… (more)

Edreder, Elmahboub A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Multiple-copy distillation and purification of phase-diffused squeezed states  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We provide a detailed theoretical analysis of multiple-copy purification and distillation protocols for phase-diffused squeezed states of light. The standard iterative distillation protocol is generalized to a collective purification of an arbitrary number of N copies. We also derive a semianalytical expression for the asymptotic limit of the iterative distillation and purification protocol and discuss its properties.

Marek, Petr [School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen's University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Fiurasek, Jaromir [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 50, 77200 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Hage, Boris; Franzen, Alexander; DiGugliemo, James; Schnabel, Roman [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) and Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

283

Adapting to Network and Client Variability via On-Demand Dynamic Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

distillation curve (ADC), is a significant improvement, featuring (1) a composition-explicit data channel to the comparison of the distillation curve data grid of two aviation turbine fuels, JP-8 and S-8.10,18-20 JP-8 classifications to the data grid, the distillation curve becomes more information rich. In Figure 3, we present

Brewer, Eric A.

284

Etude du comportement de mousse céramique comme contacteur Gaz/Liquide à contre courant : application à la distillation et à la distillation réactive.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ces travaux de thèse abordent la problématique du développement d'internes destinés à la distillation réactive. La méthodologie à suivre est appliquée dans le cas des… (more)

Lévêque, Julien

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Distillate Fuel Oil Assessment for Winter 1995-1996  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

U.S. Refining Capacity Utilization U.S. Refining Capacity Utilization by Tancred Lidderdale, Nancy Masterson, and Nicholas Dazzo* U.S. crude oil refinery utilization rates have steadily increased since oil price and allocation decontrol in 1981. The annual average atmospheric distillation utilization rate has increased from 68.6 percent of operable capacity in 1981 to 92.6 percent in 1994. The distillation utilization rate reached a peak of 96.4 percent in August 1994, the highest one-month average rate in over 20 years. This dramatic increase in refining capacity utilization has stimulated a growing interest in the ability of U.S. refineries to supply domestic requirements for finished petroleum products. This article briefly reviews recent trends in domestic refining capacity utilization and examines in detail the differences in

286

Both Distillate Supply and Demand Reached Extraordinary Levels This Winter  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: This chart shows some critical differences in distillate supply and demand during this winter heating season, in comparison to the past two winters. Typically, distillate demand peaks during the winter months, but "new supply" (refinery production and net imports) cannot increase as much, so the remaining supply needed is drawn from inventories. This pattern is evident in each of the past two winter heating seasons. This winter, however, the pattern was very different, for several reasons: With inventories entering the season at extremely low levels, a "typical" winter stockdraw would have been nearly impossible, particularly in the Northeast, the region most dependent on heating oil. Demand reached near-record levels in December, as colder-than-normal

287

Distillate Stocks are Low - Especially on the East Coast  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Notes: Distillate stocks are normally built during the summer for use during the winter as shown by the normal band. Currently, stocks are very low for this time of year. This graph shows East Coast inventories, which at the end of August, were well below the normal band (over 9 million barrels or 19% below the low end of the band). The East Coast is about 31% lower than its 10-year average level for this time of year. We focus on the East Coast (PADD 1 ) because this a region in which heating oil is a major winter fuel. Furthermore, the East Coast consumes almost 2/3 of the nation's heating oil (high sulfur distillate). December 1999 was the turning point. Stocks were well within the normal range through November 1999, but in December, they dropped below the

288

Distillation and purification of symmetric entangled Gaussian states  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose an entanglement distillation and purification scheme for symmetric two-mode entangled Gaussian states that allows to asymptotically extract a pure entangled Gaussian state from any input entangled symmetric Gaussian state. The proposed scheme is a modified and extended version of the entanglement distillation protocol originally developed by Browne et al. [Phys. Rev. A 67, 062320 (2003)]. A key feature of the present protocol is that it utilizes a two-copy degaussification procedure that involves a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with single-mode non-Gaussian filters inserted in its two arms. The required non-Gaussian filtering operations can be implemented by coherently combining two sequences of single-photon addition and subtraction operations.

Fiurasek, Jaromir [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 12, CZ-77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

289

Distillability and PPT entanglement of low-rank quantum states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is known that he bipartite quantum states, with rank strictly smaller than the maximum of the ranks of its two reduced states, are distillable by local operations and classical communication. Our first main result is that this is also true for NPT states with rank equal to this maximum. (A state is PPT if the partial transpose of its density matrix is positive semidefinite, and otherwise it is NPT.) This was conjectured first in 1999 in the special case when the two local ranks are equal. Our second main result provides a complete solution of the separability problem for bipartite states of rank 4. Namely, we show that such a state is separable if and only if it is PPT and its range contains at least one product state. We also prove that the so called checkerboard states are distillable if and only if they are NPT.

Lin Chen; Dragomir Z. Djokovic

2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

290

Continuous variable entanglement distillation of Non-Gaussian Mixed States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many different quantum information communication protocols such as teleportation, dense coding and entanglement based quantum key distribution are based on the faithful transmission of entanglement between distant location in an optical network. The distribution of entanglement in such a network is however hampered by loss and noise that is inherent in all practical quantum channels. Thus, to enable faithful transmission one must resort to the protocol of entanglement distillation. In this paper we present a detailed theoretical analysis and an experimental realization of continuous variable entanglement distillation in a channel that is inflicted by different kinds of non-Gaussian noise. The continuous variable entangled states are generated by exploiting the third order non-linearity in optical fibers, and the states are sent through a free-space laboratory channel in which the losses are altered to simulate a free-space atmospheric channel with varying losses. We use linear optical components, homodyne mea...

Dong, Ruifang; Heersink, Joel; Marquardt, Christoph; Filip, Radim; Leuchs, Gerd; Andersen, Ulrik L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Collocation Methods for Distillation Design I: Model Description and Testing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fast and accurate distillation design requires a model that significantly reduces the problem size while accurately approximating a full order distillation column model. Variable number of trays and variable feed tray location make optimization possible. This collocation model builds on the concepts of past collocation models for design of complex real-world separation systems. Two variable transformations make this method unique. Polynomials cannot accurately fit trajectories which flatten out. In columns, flat sections occur in the middle of large column sections, or where concentrations go to zero or one. With an exponential transformation of the tray number which maps zero to an infinite number of trays onto the range zero to one, two collocation trays can accurately simulate a large column section. With a hyperbolic tangent transformation of the mole fractions, the model can simulate columns which reach high purities. Furthermore, this model uses multiple collocation elements for ...

Robert S. Huss; Arthur W. Westerberg

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Entanglement cost and distillable entanglement of symmetric states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute entanglement cost and distillable entanglement of states supported on symmetric subspace. Not only giving general formula, we apply them to the output states of optimal cloning machines. Surprisingly, under some settings, the optimal n to m clone and true m copies are the same in entanglement measures. However, they differ in the error exponent of entanglement dilution. We also presented a general theory of entanglement dilution which is applicable to any non-i.i.d sequence of states.

Keiji Matsumoto

2007-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

293

Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

294

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that the HD gas is purified up to $\\sim$99.99%. The distillation system has a cryogenic pot (17$\\sim$21 K) containing many small stainless steel cells called Heli-pack. Commercial HD gas with an amount of 5.2 mol is fed into the pot. We carried out three distillation runs by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed by using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. The HD gas of 1 mol with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained. The effective NTS (Number of Theoretical Stages), which is an indicator of the distillator performances, is obtained as 37.2$\\pm$0.6. This value is in reasonable agreement with a designed value of 37.9. The HD target is expected to be efficiently polarized under a well-controlled condition by doping an optimal amount of ortho-H$_2$ to the purified HD gas.

T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J. -P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouill'; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

295

U.S. Distillate Market Testimony for New York Assembly Hearing  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Market Testimony for New York Assembly Hearing Market Testimony for New York Assembly Hearing 2/4/2000 Click here to start Table of Contents U.S. Distillate Market Testimony for New York Assembly Hearing U.S. Residential Heating Oil Prices Regional Residential Heating Oil Prices Selected State Residential Heating Oil Prices Spot Distillate & Crude Oil Prices (Prices thru Jan 31, 2000) Low Distillate Stocks Set Stage for Price Volatility PADD 1 (East Coast) Heating Oil Stocks Low New England & Mid-Atlantic Weekly Total Distillate Stocks Low World Crude Production Not Keeping Pace with Demand OECD Stocks Reflect S/D Imbalance Distillate Stocks Are Important Part of Northeast Winter Supply Distillate Problem Likely to be Resolved Soon, But Recurrence Possible East Coast Distillate Production

296

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that the HD gas is purified up to $\\sim$99.99%. The distillation system has a cryogenic pot (17$\\sim$21 K) containing many small stainless steel cells called Heli-pack. Commercial HD gas with an amount of 5.2 mol is fed into the pot. We carried out three distillation runs by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed by using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. The HD gas of 1 mol with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained. The effective NTS (Number of Theoretical Stages), which is...

Ohta, T; Didelez, J -P; Fujiwara, M; Fukuda, K; Kohri, H; Kunimatsu, T; Morisaki, C; Ono, S; Rouill', G; Tanaka, M; Ueda, K; Uraki, M; Utsuro, M; Wang, S Y; Yosoi, M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Continuous variable entanglement distillation of Non-Gaussian Mixed States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many different quantum information communication protocols such as teleportation, dense coding and entanglement based quantum key distribution are based on the faithful transmission of entanglement between distant location in an optical network. The distribution of entanglement in such a network is however hampered by loss and noise that is inherent in all practical quantum channels. Thus, to enable faithful transmission one must resort to the protocol of entanglement distillation. In this paper we present a detailed theoretical analysis and an experimental realization of continuous variable entanglement distillation in a channel that is inflicted by different kinds of non-Gaussian noise. The continuous variable entangled states are generated by exploiting the third order non-linearity in optical fibers, and the states are sent through a free-space laboratory channel in which the losses are altered to simulate a free-space atmospheric channel with varying losses. We use linear optical components, homodyne measurements and classical communication to distill the entanglement, and we find that by using this method the entanglement can be probabilistically increased for some specific non-Gaussian noise channels.

Ruifang Dong; Mikael Lassen; Joel Heersink; Christoph Marquardt; Radim Filip; Gerd Leuchs; Ulrik L. Andersen

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Optimization of reactive distillation processes with simulated annealing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simulated annealing-based algorithm (MSIMPSA) suitable for the optimization of mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) problems was applied to the synthesis of a non-equilibrium reactive distillation column. A simulation model based on an extension of conventional distillation is proposed for the simulation step of the optimization problem. In the case of ideal vapor}liquid equilibrium, the simulation results are similar to those obtained by Ciric and Gu (1994, AIChE Journal, 40(9), 1479) using the GAMS environment and to those obtained with the AspenPlus modular simulator. The optimization results are also similar to those previously reported and similar to those using an adaptive random search algorithm (MSGA). The optimizations were also performed with non-ideal vapor}liquid equilibrium, considering either distributed feed and reaction trays or single feed and reaction tray. The results show that the optimized objective function values are very similar, and mostly independent of the number of trays and of the reaction distribution. It is shown that the proposed simulation/optimization equation-oriented environments are capable of providing optimized solutions which are close to the global optimum, and reveal its adequacy for the optimization of reactive distillation

M. F. Cardoso; R. L. Salcedo; S. Feyo De Azevedo; D. Barbosa

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Unification of methods for determining distillation curve of oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the determination of the distillation curve of oils, various types of flask are recommended by industry-branch standards (OST) and specifications (TU). For example, TU 6-02-1072-86 for PEF fluid and TU 6-02-921-74 for the chlorofluorocarbon oil UF specify a Claisen flask (GOST 25336-82); the standard OST 38.01402-86 for mineral-base vacuum oils specifies a specially designed flask; TU 6-01-26-54-85 for Alkarene type vacuum oils specifies a Bogdanov flask. The latter two flasks are not included in any State (GOST) standards for chemical laboratory ware and hence are not in regular production. The accuracy in determining the distillation curve depends on the separating ability of the flask. Flasks designed as shown do not allow return of part of the condensate to the still section, so that it is impossible to regulate the reflux rate and hence impossible to obtain any reliable data on the fractional composition of the product and the distillation temperature. The Claisen and Bogdanov flasks, which have a developed surface, are more suitable for fractionation of oils.

Khitrik, A.A.; Vagapova, N.Kh.; Shagiakhmetov, R.A.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Catalytic hydroprocessing of shale oil to produce distillate fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results are presented of a Chevron Research Company study sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) to demonstrate the feasibility of converting whole shale oil to a synthetic crude resembling a typical petroleum distillate. The synthetic crude thus produced can then be processed, in conventional petroleum-refining facilities, to transportation fuels such as high octane gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. The raw shale oil feed used is a typical Colorado shale oil produced in a surface retort in the so-called indirectly heated mode. It is shown that whole shale oil can be catalytically hydrodenitrified to reduce the nitrogen to levels as low as one part per million in a single catalytic stage. However, for economic reasons, it appears preferable to denitrify to about 0.05 wt % nitrogen. The resulting synthetic crude resembles a petroleum distillate that can be fractionated and further processed as necessary in conventional petroleum refining facilities. Shale oil contains about 0.6% sulfur. Sulfur is more easily removed by hydrofining than is nitrogen; therefore, only a few parts per million of sulfur remain at a product nitrogen of 0.05 wt %. Oxygen contained in the shale oil is also reduced to low levels during hydrodenitrification. The shale oil contains appreciable quantities of iron and arsenic which are also potential catalyst poisons. These metals are removed by a guard bed placed upstream from the hydrofining catalyst. Based on correlations, the naphthas from the shale oil hydrofiner can readily be upgraded to high octane gasolines by catalytic reforming. The middle distillate fractions may require some additional hydrofining to produce salable diesel or jet fuel. The technology is available, and pilot plant studies are scheduled to verify diesel hydrofiner performance.

Sullivan, R.F.; Stangeland, B.E.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oline distillates residuals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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301

Distilling single-photon entanglement from photon loss and decoherence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single-photon entanglement may be the simplest type of entanglement but it is of vice importance in quantum communication. Here we present a practical protocol for distilling the single-photon entanglement from both photon loss and decoherence. With the help of some local single photons, the probability of single photon loss can be decreased and the less-entangled state can also be recovered to maximally entangled state simultaneously. It only requires some linear optical elements which makes it feasible in current experiment condition. This protocol might find applications in current quantum communications based on the quantum repeaters.

Yu-Bo Sheng; Lan Zhou

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

302

Energy Efficiency in Cryogenic Fractionation Through Distributive Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Advanced Recovery System (ARS) is a patented process that uses the principle of distributed distillation to achieve energy efficiency in the olefins process. This paper describes the concept of ARS and how, by integrating the chill-down and cryogenic fractionation steps, the technology can significantly reduce refrigeration power requirements. ARS technology can be applied to revamps of existing plants as well as new plant designs. Additional applications are now being considered in the integration of refinery off-gas streams with other olefins process.

Carradine, C. R.; McCue, R. H.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Distilling quantum entanglement via mode-matched filtering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose an avenue toward distillation of quantum entanglement that is implemented by directly passing the entangled qubits through a mode-matched filter. This approach can be applied to a common class of entanglement impurities appearing in photonic systems, where the impurities inherently occupy different spatiotemporal modes than the entangled qubits. As a specific application, we show that our method can be used to significantly purify the telecom-band entanglement generated via the Kerr nonlinearity in single-mode fibers where a substantial amount of Raman-scattering noise is concomitantly produced.

Huang Yuping; Kumar, Prem [Center for Photonic Communication and Computing, EECS Department, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3118 (United States)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

Distillation Protocols for Mixed States of Multilevel Qubits and the Quantum Renormalization Group  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study several properties of distillation protocols to purify multilevel qubit states (qudits) when applied to a certain family of initial mixed bipartite states. We find that it is possible to use qudits states to increase the stability region obtained with the flow equations to distill qubits. In particular, for qutrits we get the phase diagram of the distillation process with a rich structure of fixed points. We investigate the large-$D$ limit of qudits protocols and find an analytical solution in the continuum limit. The general solution of the distillation recursion relations is presented in an appendix. We stress the notion of weight amplification for distillation protocols as opposed to the quantum amplitude amplification that appears in the Grover algorithm. Likewise, we investigate the relations between quantum distillation and quantum renormalization processes.

M. A. Martin-Delgado; M. Navascues

2003-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

305

Bound States for Magic State Distillation in Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Magic state distillation is an important primitive in fault-tolerant quantum computation. The magic states are pure non-stabilizer states which can be distilled from certain mixed non-stabilizer states via Clifford group operations alone. Because of the Gottesman-Knill theorem, mixtures of Pauli eigenstates are not expected to be magic state distillable, but it has been an open question whether all mixed states outside this set may be distilled. In this Letter we show that, when resources are finitely limited, non-distillable states exist outside the stabilizer octahedron. In analogy with the bound entangled states, which arise in entanglement theory, we call such states bound states for magic state distillation.

Earl T. Campbell; Dan E. Browne

2009-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

306

April 2012 sets U.S. monthly record for distillate net exports ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The lower demand combined with higher distillate production led to significantly reduced levels of imports, which through April 2012 were down 41% year-over-year.

307

Utah Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Sulfur Stocks ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Utah Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Sulfur Stocks at Refineries, Bulk Terminals, and Natural Gas Plants (Thousand Barrels)

308

April 2012 sets U.S. monthly record for distillate net exports ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

In response to global demand growth, wholesale prices for distillate fuels have generally been high in recent years compared to prices for other fuels.

309

Table 4. Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use, 1999 and 2000 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration 13 Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 2000 Table 4. Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use, 1999 and 2000 (Thousand Gallons)

310

Petroleum Gasoline & Distillate Needs Including the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) Impacts  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This presentation describes the projections for petroleum-based gasoline and distillate in the Update AEO 2008, which includes the impacts of the Energy Independence and Security Act.

Information Center

2008-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

311

Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam-with-propane distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simulation study has shown oil production is accelerated when propane is used as an additive during steam injection. To better understand this phenomenon, distillation experiments were performed using San Ardo crude oil (12oAPI). For comparison purposes, three distillation processes were investigated: dry-, steam-, and steam-propanedistillation, the latter at the propane-to-steam mass ratio of 0.05 at steam injection rate 0.5 g/min. Two sets of the distillation experiments were carried out. In the first set of experiments, the distillation temperatures ranged from 115ºC to 300ºC. Distillation pressures ranged from 0 psig to 998 psig for steam- and steam-propane distillation. The temperature-pressure combination used represented 15ºC superheated steam conditions. In the second set of experiments, the distillation temperatures ranged from 220oC to 300oC at 260 psig. The temperature pressure combination used represented field conditions for crude oil. For both conditions, the cell was kept at each temperature plateau (cut) until no increase occurs in distillation yields. Distillation yields were collected at each cut, and the volume and weight of water and hydrocarbon measured. Based on these experiments, a thermodynamic modeling framework was developed that describes distillation effect and oil production for steam distillation experiments. The model is based on composition of crude oil, molecular weight of heavy fraction. The analytical model results are compared against the experimental data for synthetic crude and crude oil to verify the validity of the model. Main results of the study may be summarized as follows. The yields for steam distillation for saturated conditions of Tsat+15 o C and Psat is 10 % and with addition of 5% of propane to steam no significant increase occurs in distillation yields. The yields for steam distillation for field conditions of 260 psig and temperature range (220 ~300oC) is 18 % and with addition of 5% of propane to steam no significant increase in distillation yields. The results indicate that propane has minimal distillation effect on the heavy oil. This occurs possibly because of lesser amount of light fractions in the heavy oil that enhance the separation of components in the oil caused by the concentration gradient.

Jaiswal, Namit

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Microchannel Distillation of JP-8 Jet Fuel for Sulfur Content Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In microchannel based distillation processes, thin vapor and liquid films are contacted in small channels where mass transfer is diffusion-limited. The microchannel architecture enables improvements in distillation processes. A shorter height equivalent of a theoretical plate (HETP) and therefore a more compact distillation unit can be achieved. A microchannel distillation unit was used to produce a light fraction of JP-8 fuel with reduced sulfur content for use as feed to produce fuel-cell grade hydrogen. The HETP of the microchannel unit is discussed, as well as the effects of process conditions such as feed temperature, flow rate, and reflux ratio.

Zheng, Feng; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Huang, Xiwen; King, David L.

2006-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

313

Development of a Fuzzy Logic Controller for a Distillation Column using Rockwell Software.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this thesis, an alternative control method based on Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) is proposed to keep the product composition of a distillation column constant.… (more)

Nizami, Muhammad

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Copper-Based Multi-Component Alloys by Vacuum Distillation to ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The result of experiment indicated the practicability of vacuum distillation dealing with copper base complex multi-component alloy to separating lead and silver, ...

315

Generation and distillation of non-Gaussian entanglement from nonclassical photon statistics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With a product state of the form $${{\\rho}_{\\rm ... Keywords: Beam splitter, Distillation of entanglement, Non-Gaussian entanglement, Partial transpose, Photon number distribution

J. Solomon Ivan; N. Mukunda; R. Simon

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Development of a bench-scale metal distillation furnace  

SciTech Connect

Design of an inductively heated bench-scale distillation furnace (retort) capable of processing actinides is described. The apparatus consists of a vacuum/inert gas bell jar, a bell-jar lift, a nonwater-cooled induction coil, the induction tank circuit, and a series of components designed to contain the metal melts and vapors. The apparatus is located within a nitrogen glovebox and is designed to process plutonium-containing feeds. The electrical parameters of the induction coil and tank circuit necessary for design were determined by two different methods; one is based solely on calculated impedance values, and the other used high-frequency impedance measurements on a mock-up of the induction coil/susceptor arrangement. During the design state, the two methods of determining electrical parameters gave similar results. With the as-built system, the impedance meter did detect some efficiency loss to the metal bell jar and coil support that the calculational method did not predict. These losses were not significant enough to cause operating problems, and thus, both methods were shown to be adequate for the intended purpose. Zinc and magnesium were distilled, and uranium was melted in a successful series of shake-down runs.

Vest, M.A.; Lewandowski, E.F.; Pierce, R.D.; Smith, J.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Investigation related to hydrogen isotopes separation by cryogenic distillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research conducted in the last fifty years has shown that one of the most efficient techniques of removing tritium from the heavy water used as moderator and coolant in CANDU reactors (as that operated at Cernavoda (Romania)) is hydrogen cryogenic distillation. Designing and implementing the concept of cryogenic distillation columns require experiments to be conducted as well as computer simulations. Particularly, computer simulations are of great importance when designing and evaluating the performances of a column or a series of columns. Experimental data collected from laboratory work will be used as input for computer simulations run at larger scale (for The Pilot Plant for Tritium and Deuterium Separation) in order to increase the confidence in the simulated results. Studies carried out were focused on the following: - Quantitative analyses of important parameters such as the number of theoretical plates, inlet area, reflux flow, flow-rates extraction, working pressure, etc. - Columns connected in series in such a way to fulfil the separation requirements. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory-scale installation to investigate the performance of contact elements with continuous packing. The packing was manufactured in our institute. (authors)

Bornea, A.; Zamfirache, M.; Stefanescu, I.; Preda, A.; Balteanu, O.; Stefan, I. [INC-DTCI-ICSI Rm. Valcea, str.Uzinei, Nr.4, 240050 (Romania)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

318

Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam with propane-distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent experimental and simulation studies -conducted at the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Texas A&M University - confirm oil production is accelerated when propane is used as an additive during steam injection. To better understand this phenomenon, distillation experiments were performed using seven-component synthetic oil consisting of equal weights of the following alkanes: n-C5, n-C6, n-C7, n-C8, n-C9, nC10, and n-C15. For comparison purposes, three distillation processes were investigated: dry-, steam-, and steam-propane-distillation, the latter at a propane:steam mass ratio of 0.05. The injection rate of nitrogen during dry-and steam-distillation was the same as that of propane during steam-propane distillation, 0.025 g/min, with steam injection rate kept at 0.5 g/min. The distillation temperatures ranged from 115°C to 300°C and were increased in steps of 10°C. The cell was kept at each temperature plateau (cut) for 30 minutes. Distillation pressures ranged from 0 psig for dry distillation to 998 psig for steam-and steam-propane distillation. The temperature-pressure combination used represented 15°C superheated steam conditions. Distillate samples were collected at each cut, and the volume and weight of water and hydrocarbon measured. In addition, the composition of the hydrocarbon distillate was measured using a gas chromatograph. Main results of the study may be summarized as follows. First, the hydrocarbon yield at 125°C is highest with steam-propane distillation (74 wt%) compared to steam distillation (58 wt%), and lowest with dry distillation (36 wt%). This explains in part the oil production acceleration observed in steam-propane displacement experiments. Second, the final hydrocarbon yield at 300°C however is the same for the three distillation processes. This observation is in line with the fact that oil recoveries were very similar in steam- and steam-propane displacement experiments. Third, based on the yields of individual hydrocarbon components, steam-propane distillation lowers the apparent boiling points of the hydrocarbons significantly. This phenomenon may be the most fundamental effect of propane on hydrocarbon distillation, which results in a higher yield during steam-propane distillation and oil production acceleration during steam-propane displacement. Fourth, experimental K-values are higher in distillations with steam-propane for the components n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, and n-nonane. Fifth, vapor fugacity coefficients for each component are higher in distillations with steam-propane than with steam. Finally, Gibbs excess energy is overall lower in distillations with steam-propane than with steam. The experimental results clearly indicate the importance of distillation on oil recovery during steam-or steam-propane injection. The experimental procedure and method of analysis developed in this study (for synthetic oil) will be beneficial to future researchers in understanding the effect of propane as steam additive on actual crude oils.

Ramirez Garnica, Marco Antonio

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Effects of Ruminally Degradable Nitrogen in Diets Containing Wet Distiller’s Grains with Solubles and Steam-flaked Corn on Feedlot Cattle Performance and Carcass Characteristics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wet distiller’s grains with solubles are the most common feedstuff generated by the ethanol industry, and this feedstuff has been utilized by the feedlot industry. Exploration of the effect of dietary distiller’s inclusion on the form and quantity of protein or nitrogen (N) has received little attention. Assessment of degradable N needs in diets containing wet distiller’s grains with solubles (WDGS) is needed to aid the cattle feeding industry in managing feed costs and potential environmental issues. In Exp. 1, 525 yearling steers (initial weight = 373 ±13 kg) received treatments in a 2 × 3 1 factorial. Factors included corn WDGS (15 or 30 percent of DM) and non-protein N (NPN; 0, 1.5, or 3.0 percent of DM) from urea. The control diet without corn WDGS contained 3.0 percent NPN (1.06 percent urea) and cottonseed meal. Overall gain efficiency among steers fed 15 percent corn WDGS was greatest for 1.5 percent NPN and least for 0 percent NPN (P = 0.07, quadratic), whereas gain efficiency decreased linearly (P 0.15). Dietary NPN concentration did not influence growth performance (P > 0.21). Results suggest that optimum performance for cattle fed 15 percent WDGS occurred when the diet contained between 1.5 percent and 2.25 percent NPN. However, removing all supplemental NPN was necessary to support optimum performance in diets containing 30 percent WCDG.

Ponce, Christian

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

The Effect of Temperature on the Absolute Permeability to Distilled Water of Unconsolidated Sand Cores  

SciTech Connect

The work presented herein is a study of the effect of temperature on the absolute permeability to distilled water of unconsolidated sandstones at one confining pressure. The absolute permeability to distilled water of Ottawa silica sand was not dependent on the temperature level.

Sageev, A.; Gobran, B.D.; Brigham, W.E.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.

1980-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oline distillates residuals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Analysis of Heat Exchanger Network in Atmosphere-Vacuum Distillation of Crude Oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat exchanger network (HEN) is constructed by hot streams which need cooling and some cold streams which need heating in the atmosphere-vacuum distillation process of crude oil. HEN synthesis technology of atmosphere-vacuum distillation of crude oil ... Keywords: energy saving, heat exchanger network, synthesis

Ge Yu-lin; Wang Ping; Shen Sheng-qiang

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Topic Exploration and Distillation for Web Search by a Similarity-Based Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Topic distillation is the process of finding representative pages relevant to a given query. Well-known topic distillation approaches such as the HITS algorithm have shown to be useful in identifying high quality pages. In this paper, we attempt to revisit ...

Xiaoyu Wang; Zhiguo Lu; Aoying Zhou

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Distillate Stocks Are Important Part of East Coast Winter Supply  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: Stocks are important in the Northeast because they are the nearest source of supply when anything unexpected occurs, and they supply a significant portion of demand during the peak heating season. Stocks are normally an important part of East Coast winter distillate supply. Over the last 10 years, they provided about 15% of supply during the peak winter months of January and February. One of the biggest stock draws we have seen was in January 1994, when a prolonged severe cold spell required 666,000 barrels per day of stocks, covering almost 36% of demand for that month. On average, stocks supply the East Coast with about 260,000 barrels per day on average in January and 280,000 barrels per day in February. Those supplies represent draws of about 8 million barrels in one month.

324

Distillate Stocks Are Important Part of East Coast Winter Supply  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Notes: Why do stocks matter in the Northeast? They are the nearest source of supply when anything unexpected occurs, and they supply a significant portion of demand during the peak heating season. Stocks are normally an important part of PADD 1 winter distillate supply. Over the last 10 years, they provided about 15% of supply during the peak winter months of January and February. One of the biggest stock draws we have seen was in January 1994, when a prolonged severe cold spell required 666 MB/D of stocks, covering almost 36% of demand for that month. Stocks supply the East Coast with about 260 MB/D on average in January and 280 MB/D in February. Those supplies represent draws of about 8 million barrels in one month. PADD 1 refineries meet about 25% of demand during January and

325

Distillate Stocks Are Important Part of Northeast Winter Supply  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The weather alone was not enough to cause the price spike. The low The weather alone was not enough to cause the price spike. The low stocks left the area vulnerable to sudden changes in the market, such as the weather change. Why do stocks matter in the Northeast? Stocks are normally an important part of PADD 1 winter distillate supply. Over the last 5 years, PADD 1 stocks provided about 15% of supply during the peak winter months of January and February. They are the closest source of supply to the consumer. PADD 1 depends on about 60% of its supply from distant sources such as the Gulf Coast or imports, which can take several weeks to travel to the Northeast. Even product from East Coast refineries, if capacity is available, may take a week before it is produced and delivered to the regions needing new supply. Thus, stocks must be able

326

Distillate Problem Likely to be Resolved Soon, But Recurrence Possible  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 of 15 2 of 15 Notes: The current high prices in the Northeast should prompt increased production. Regional stocks will shift to areas of highest need, production from East Coast and Gulf Coast refineries will increase (capacity is available as the utilization indicates), and if the problem persists, imports from Europe might be drawn to U.S. But there are several caveats as to the quickness of the price response: Colder weather would quickly use up additional supply moving into the area, postponing relief for the price spike Further refinery problems and/or long delays in current East Coast refinery recoveries would slow new supply from arriving. As of January 31, distillate spot prices had dropped back to 82 cents, which still provides attractive refinery margins, but illustrates

327

Distillate Stocks Are Important Part of East Coast Winter Supply  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Stocks are normally an important part of East Coast winter Stocks are normally an important part of East Coast winter distillate supply, since they are the nearest source when anything unexpected occurs, and they supply a significant portion of demand during the peak heating season. Over the last 10 years, stocks have provided about 15% of supply during the peak winter months of January and February. On average, stocks supply the East Coast with about 260 thousand barrels per day in January and 280 in February. Those supplies represent draws of about 8 million barrels in one month. In addition, East Coast refineries meet about 25% of demand during January and February, and other regions -- mostly the Gulf Coast -- supply 40-50% of the region's needs. Imports generally supply about as much as stocks during the peak

328

Distillate Stocks Are Important Part of East Coast Winter Supply  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 Notes: Stocks are normally an important part of East Coast winter distillate supply, since they are the nearest source when anything unexpected occurs, and they supply a significant portion of demand during the peak heating season. Over the last 10 years, stocks have provided about 15% of supply during the peak winter months of January and February. On average, stocks supply the East Coast with about 260 MB/D in January and 280 MB/D in February. Those supplies represent draws of about 8 million barrels in one month. In addition, East Coast refineries meet about 25% of demand during January and February, and other regions -- mostly the Gulf Coast -- supply 40-50% of the region's needs. Imports generally supply about as much as stocks during the peak months,

329

Distillate Fuel Oil Assessment for Winter 1996-1997  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

following Energy Information Administration sources: Weekly following Energy Information Administration sources: Weekly Petroleum Status Report, DOE/EIA-0208(96-39); Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1996, DOE/EIA-0109(96/09); Petroleum Supply Annual 1995, DOE/EIA-0340(95); Petroleum Marketing Monthly, September 1996, DOE/EIA-0380(96/09); Short-Term Energy Outlook, DOE/EIA-0202(96/4Q) and 4th Quarter 1996 Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System; and an address by EIA Administrator Jay E. Hakes on the Fall 1996 Heating Fuel Assessment before the National Association of State Energy Officials, September 16, 1996. Table FE1. Distillate Fuel Oil Demand and Supply Factors, Winter (October - March) 1993-94 Through 1996-97 History STEO Mid Case Factor Winter Winter Winter Winter 1993-94

330

Distillate Stocks Are Important Part of East Coast Winter Supply  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: Stocks are normally an important part of East Coast winter distillate supply, since they are the nearest source when anything unexpected occurs, and they supply a significant portion of demand during the peak heating season. Over the last 10 years, stocks have provided about 15% of supply during the peak winter months of January and February. On average, stocks supply the East Coast with about 260 thousand barrels per day in January and 280 in February. Those supplies represent draws of about 8 million barrels in one month. In addition, East Coast refineries meet about 25% of demand during January and February, and other regions -- mostly the Gulf Coast -- supply 40-50% of the region's needs. Imports generally supply about as much as stocks during the peak

331

Distillate Fuel Oil Imports Could Be Available - For A Price  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Notes: So it wasn't demand and production explains only part of the reason we got through last winter with enough stocks. The mystery is solved when you look at net imports of distillate fuel last winter. As we found out, while imports are a small contributor to supply, they are sometimes crucial. Last winter, imports were the main source of supply increase following the price spike. Previous record levels were shattered as imports came pouring into the country. The fact that Europe was enjoying a warmer-than-normal winter also encouraged exports to the United States. It was massive amounts of imports, particularly from Russia, that helped us get through last winter in as good a shape as we did. Imports are expected to be relatively normal this winter. Added imports

332

Distillate Stocks Are Important Part of Northeast Winter Supply  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 of 15 1 of 15 Notes: Why do stocks matter in the Northeast? Stocks are normally an important part of PADD 1 winter distillate supply. Over the last 5 years, they provided about 15% of supply during the peak winter months of January and February. One of the biggest stock draws we have seen was in January 1994, when a prolonged severe cold spell required 666 MB/D of stocks, covering almost 36% of demand for that month. PADD 1 refineries meet about 25% of demand during January and February, and other PADDs -- mostly PADD 3 -- supply 45-50% of the regionÂ’s needs. Imports generally supply about as much as stocks during the peak months, with most of the product coming from Canada, the Virgin Islands and Venezuela. Percentages do not tell the whole story. Stocks supply close to 300

333

Synthesis and design of optimal thermal membrane distillation networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal membrane distillation is one of the novel separation methods in the process industry. It involves the simultaneous heat and mass transfer through a hydrophobic semipermeable membrane through the use of thermal energy to bring about the separation of a feed mixture into two streams- a permeate and a retentate stream. Traditionally, studies on this technology have focused on the performance of individual modules as a function of material of the membrane and also configuration of the membrane. However, an investigation into the performance of a network of these modules has not been conducted in the past. A hierarchical parametric programming technique for synthesis of an optimal network of these modules is presented. A global mass allocation representation involving sources and sinks was used to solve the problem and derive criteria for optimality in specific regions of the parametric space. Two case studies have been presented to illustrate the applicability of the presented methodology.

Nyapathi Seshu, Madhav

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Canonical Strangeness and Distillation Effects in Hadron Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Strangeness canonical ensemble for Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics is reconsidered for excited nuclear systems with non-vanishing net strangeness. A new recurrence relation method is applied to find the partition function. The method is first generalized to the case of quantum strangeness canonical ensemble. Uncertainties in calculation of the K+/pi+ excitation function are discussed. A new scenario based on the strangeness distillation effect is put forward for a possible explanation of anomalous strangeness production observed at the bombarding energy near 30 AGeV. The peaked maximum in the K+/pi+ ratio is considered as a sign of the critical end-point reached in evolution of the system rather than a latent heat jump emerging from the onset of the first order deconfinement phase transition.

V. D. Toneev; A. S. Parvan

2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

335

Distillate Stocks Are Important Part of East Coast Winter Supply  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 Notes: Stocks are normally an important part of East Coast winter distillate supply, since they are the nearest source when anything unexpected occurs, and they supply a significant portion of demand during the peak heating season. Over the last 10 years, stocks have provided about 15% of supply during the peak winter months of January and February. On average, stocks supply the East Coast with about 260 thousand barrels per day in January and 280 in February. Those supplies represent draws of about 8 million barrels in one month. In addition, East Coast refineries meet about 25% of demand during January and February, and other regions -- mostly the Gulf Coast -- supply 40-50% of the region's needs. Imports generally supply about as much as stocks during the peak

336

Materials - Recycling - Shredder Residue  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Recovering Materials from Shredder Residue Recovering Materials from Shredder Residue Obsolete automobiles, home appliances and other metal-containing scrap are shredded for the recovery of metals. More than 50% of the material shredded is automobiles. In the United States, shredders generate about 5 million tons of shredder residue every year. Similar amounts are produced in Europe and in the Pacific Rim. Because recycling shredder waste has not been profitable, most of it ends up in landfills; smaller amounts are incinerated. Argonne researchers have developed and tested a process to recover polymers and metals from shredder residue. A 2-ton/hr pilot plant, consisting of a mechanical separation facility and a six-stage wet density/froth flotation plant, was built at Argonne. In the mechanical part of the plant, the shredder waste was separated into five primary components: a polymer fraction (about 45% by weight), a residual metals concentrate (about 10% by weight), a polyurethane foam portion (about 5% by weight), an organic-rich fraction (about 25% by weight) and a metal oxides fraction (about 15% by weight). The polymer fraction was then separated further in the wet density/froth flotation system to recover individual plastic types or compatible families of polymers.

337

Agriculture Residues Recycling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Saudi Arabia, as well as other countries in the Near East region, is characterized by erratic weather conditions, limited area of fertile arable lands, and with acute water shortage. Although agricultural residues (AGR) production in the region is huge (more than 440 million tons), most of these residues are either burned in the field or utilized in an inefficient way. Utilization of AGR as compost may contribute to expansion of arable lands through its use for reclamation of soil and reduce irrigation requirements. This study was conducted at Al Khalidiah farm, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to assess compost production at large commercial scale using several types of agricultural and animal by-products with addition of a BZT®Compost Activator (based mainly on microorganism, enzymes and yeast). In this study, two types of compost piles were made at the farm. The first pile of compost was made of different agriculture residues, namely: animal wastes (quail, goat and sheep manure), brownian agricultural wastes (windbreaks residues, date trees, citrus and olive trees pruning) and green landscape grasses (50%, 25 % and 25%, respectively) and was treated with a tested compost activator. The same agriculture residues combination was also made for the second pile as traditional compost

M. W. Sadik; H. M. El Shaer; H. M. Yakot

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

The evaluation of sorghum dried distiller's grains with solubles in nursery pig diets, on finishing pig performance and meat quality, and on lactating sow performance.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Five experiments were conducted to determine the effects of sorghum dried distiller’s grains with solubles (DDGS) on nursery pig performance, finishing pig performance and meat… (more)

Sotak, Kelly Marie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Effects of petroleum distillate on viscosity, density and surface tension of intermediate and heavy crude oils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental and analytical studies have been carried out to better understand the effects of additives on viscosity, density and surface tension of intermediate and heavy crude oils. The studies have been conducted for the following oil samples: San Francisco oil from Columbia with specific gravity of 28o-29o API, Duri oil with gravity of 19o-21o API, Jobo oil with gravity of 8o-9o API and San Ardo oil gravity of 11o-13o API. The additive used in all of the experiments is petroleum distillate. The experiments consist of using petroleum distillate as an additive for different samples of heavy crude oils. The experiments include making a mixture by adding petroleum distillate to oil samples and measuring surface tension, viscosity and density of pure oil samples and mixtures at different temperatures. The petroleum distillate/oil ratios are the following ratios: 1:100, 2:100, 3:100, 4:100 and 5:100. Experimental results showed that use of petroleum distillate as an additive increases API gravity and leads to reduction in viscosity and surface tension for all the samples. Results showed for all petroleum distillate/oil ratios viscosity and interfacial tension decreases with temperature. As petroleum distillate/oil ratio increases, oil viscosity and surface tension decrease more significantly at lower temperatures than at higher temperatures. After all experiments were completed an analytical correlation was done based on the experiment results to develop “mixing rules”. Using this correlation viscosity, density and surface tension of different petroleum distillate/oil mixtures were obtained (output).These had properties of pure oil and petroleum distillate, mixture ratios and temperatures at which measurement is supposed to be done (output). Using this correlation a good match was achieved. For all of the cases (viscosity, density and surface tension), correlation coefficient (R²) was more than 0.9 which proved to be optimum for a really good match.

Abdullayev, Azer

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Chemical and biological effects of heavy distillate recycle in the SRC-II process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent work from the Merriam Laboratory continuous coal liquefaction units shows that heavy distillate from the SRC-II process can be recycled to extinction, and hence a distillate product boiling entirely below 310/sup 0/C (590/sup 0/F) (or other selected boiling points) is feasible. In these runs distillate yield was not reduced; gas make was unaffected; and hydrogen consumption was increased only slightly, in keeping with the generally higher hydrogen content of lighter end products. Total distillate yield (C/sub 5/-590/sup 0/F) was 56 wt %, MAF coal in runs with subbituminous coal from the Amax Belle Ayr mine. Product endpoint is well below 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), the temperature above which coal distillates appear to become genotoxic; and the product was shown to be free of mutagenic activity in the Ames test. Chemical analyses showed both the < 270/sup 0/C (< 518/sup 0/F) and the < 310/sup 0/C (< 590/sup 0/F) distillates to be essentially devoid of several reference polycyclic compounds known to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Tests for tumorigenic or carcinogenic activity were not carried out on these materials. However, a comparison of chemical data from the Merriam heavy distillate samples with data on the other SRC-II distillates where carcinogenesis or tumorigenesis data is available leads to the expectation that < 371/sup 0/C (< 700/sup 0/F) materials from the Merriam Laboratory will have greatly reduced tumorigenic and carcinogenic activity in skin painting tests. Other studies suggest the product should be more readily upgraded than full-range (C/sub 5/-900/sup 0/F) distillate.

Wilson, B.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Anderson, R.P.; Freel, J.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oline distillates residuals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Effects of Feeding Insect-Protected Corn and Corn Residue to Cattle, and Evaluation of Distillers Grains Storage when Mixed with Crop Residue on Cattle Performance.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Research has been conducted on genetically modified corn fed to livestock since the introduction of insect resistant hybrids. While the overwhelming conclusion of these trials… (more)

Weber, Barry

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Quantum repeaters and quantum key distribution: the impact of entanglement distillation on the secret key rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate quantum repeaters in the context of quantum key distribution. We optimize the secret key rate per memory per second with respect to different distillation protocols and distillation strategies. For this purpose, we also derive an analytical expression for the average number of entangled pairs created by the quantum repeater, including classical communication times for entanglement swapping and entanglement distillation. We investigate the impact of this classical communication time on the secret key rate. We finally study the effect of the detector efficiency on the secret key rate.

Sylvia Bratzik; Silvestre Abruzzo; Hermann Kampermann; Dagmar Bruß

2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

343

On the distillation and purification of phase-diffused squeezed states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently it was discovered that non-Gaussian decoherence processes, such as phase-diffusion, can be counteracted by purification and distillation protocols that are solely built on Gaussian operations. Here, we make use of this experimentally highly accessible regime, and provide a detailed experimental and theoretical analysis of several strategies for purification/distillation protocols on phase-diffused squeezed states. Our results provide valuable information for the optimization of such protocols with respect to the choice of the trigger quadrature, the trigger threshold value and the probability of generating a distilled state.

B. Hage; A. Franzen; J. DiGuglielmo; P. Marek; J. Fiurášek; R. Schnabel

2007-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

344

Lower bound on concurrence and distillation for arbitrary-dimensional bipartite quantum states  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a lower bound of concurrence for arbitrary-dimensional bipartite quantum states. This lower bound may be used to improve all the known lower bounds of concurrence. Moreover, the lower bound gives rise to an operational sufficient criterion of distillability of quantum entanglement. The significance of our result is illustrated by quantitative evaluation of entanglement for entangled states that fail to be identified by the usual concurrence estimation method and by showing the distillability of mixed states that cannot be recognized by other distillability criteria.

Zhao, Ming-Jing; Li-Jost, Xianqing [Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Zhu, Xue-Na [Department of Mathematics, School of Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Fei, Shao-Ming [Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); School of Mathematical Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

345

Lower Bound of Concurrence and Distillation for Arbitrary Dimensional Bipartite Quantum States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a lower bound of concurrence for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum states. This lower bound may be used to improve all the known lower bounds of concurrence. Moreover, the lower bound gives rise to an operational sufficient criterion of distillability of quantum entanglement. The significance of our result is illustrated by quantitative evaluation of entanglement for entangled states that fail to be identified by the usual concurrence estimation method, and by showing the distillability of mixed states that can not be recognized by other distillability criteria.

Ming-Jing Zhao; Xue-Na Zhu; Shao-Ming Fei; Xianqing Li-Jost

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

346

An Adaptive Entanglement Distillation Scheme Using Quantum Low Density Parity Check Codes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum low density parity check (QLDPC) codes are useful primitives for quantum information processing because they can be encoded and decoded efficiently. Besides, the error correcting capability of a few QLDPC codes exceeds the quantum Gilbert-Varshamov bound. Here, we report a numerical performance analysis of an adaptive entanglement distillation scheme using QLDPC codes. In particular, we find that the expected yield of our adaptive distillation scheme to combat depolarization errors exceed that of Leung and Shor whenever the error probability is less than about 0.07 or greater than about 0.28. This finding illustrates the effectiveness of using QLDPC codes in entanglement distillation.

K. H. Ho; H. F. Chau

2008-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

347

Stable Isotope Enrichment by Thermal Diffusion, Chemical Exchange, and Distillation  

SciTech Connect

Applications of stable isotopes in medicine are becoming more widespread. This has resulted from the increased availability and reduced cost of these isotopes and the improved reliability and sensitivity of detection techniques such as carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance. Isotopes are used in compounds labeled with either the stable isotope itself, such as carbon-13 and oxygen-18, or with the radioactive isotope that can be produced by irradiating the stable isotope, such as the irradiation of xenon-124 to produce iodine-125. As the demand for stable isotopes increases, larger scale production facilities will be justifiable. The increased size of production facilities should result in yet lower unit selling prices. A large number of methods has been suggested for the separation of stable isotopes. This paper concerns itself with four methods which have proven extremely useful for the separation of the isotopes of low and medium atomic weight elements. The four processes discussed are gas phase thermal diffusion, liquid phase thermal diffusion, chemical exchange, and distillation.

Schwind, Dr. Roger A.; Rutherford, Dr. William M.

1973-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Former Corporation/Refiner Total Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Former Corporation/Refiner Former Corporation/Refiner Total Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (bbl/cd) New Corporation/Refiner Date of Sale Table 12. Refinery Sales During 2012 Antelope Refining LLC Garco Energy LLC 3/12 Douglas, WY 3,800 Delta Air Lines/Monroe Energy LLC ConocoPhillips Company 4/12 Trainer, PA 185,000 Phillips 66 Company ConocoPhillips Company 5/12 Belle Chasse, LA 252,000 Billings, MT 59,000 Ferndale, WA 101,000 Linden, NJ 238,000 Ponca City, OK 198,400 Rodeo, CA 120,200 Sweeny, TX 247,000 Westlake, LA 239,400 Wilmington, CA 139,000 Nustar Asphalt LLC (50% Nustar Energy LP and 50% Lindsay Goldberg LLC) Nustar Energy LP/Nustar Asphalt Refining LLC 9/12 Paulsboro, NJ 70,000 Savannah, GA 28,000 Carlyle Group/Philadelphia Energy Solutions Refining and Marketing LLC Sunoco Inc./Sunoco Inc. R&M

349

Refiner/marketer targets production of transportation fuels and distillates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Citgo Petroleum Corp., the wholly owned subsidiary of Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA), the Venezuelan national oil company, owns two gasoline producing refineries, a 305,000-b/d system in Lake Charles, La., and a 130,000-b/d facility in Corpus Christi, Texas. Each is considered a deep conversion facility capable of converting heavy, sour crudes into a high percentage of transportation fuels and distillates. Two smaller refineries, one in Paulsboro, N.J., and one in Savannah, GA., have the capacity to process 40,000 b/d and 28,000 b/d of crude, respectively, for asphalt products. In the past two years, Citgo`s light oils refineries operated safely and reliably with a minimum of unscheduled shutdowns. An ongoing emphasis to increase reliability has resulted in extended run lengths at the refineries. Citgo has invested $314 million at its facilities in 1995, much of this toward environmental and regulatory projects, such as the new waste water treatment unit at the Lake Charles refinery. Over the next few years, Citgo expects to complete $1.5 billion in capital spending for major processing units such as a 60,000-b/d FCC feed hydrotreater unit at the Lake Charles refinery and crude expansion at the Corpus Christi refinery. Product exchanges and expanded transport agreements are allowing Citgo to extend its marketing reach.

Thompson, J.E.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Model predictive control of a Kaibel distillation column  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Kaibel distillation column separates a feed into four products with significant lower energy consumption than a conventional sequence of binary columns. Optimal operation and control of such systems is an important task in order to obtain the potential energy savings. A laboratory column has been built at NTNU, Department of Chemical Engineering. At the time of the diploma work the laboratory column has unfortunately not been available for MPC experiments. In practical operation a control structure based on temperature measurements is chosen for the given case. This structure gives a four-by-four multivariable system. The candidate shall base his work on a model developed by Jens Strandberg. Tasks: 1. Describe the model and extend it to include an efficiency parameter describing insufficient mixing at stages 2. Describe a general linear MPC approach for the system 3. Analyze sensitivity of model errors 4. Evaluate alternative MPC approaches 5. Implement the MPC in MATLAB and illustrate the performance by simulations 6. Prepare a setup for connecting the MPC to the actual laboratory column

Martin Krister Kvernland; Supervisor Ole; Morten Aamo; Co-supervisor Ivar Halvorsen; Sigurd Skogestad Ikp; Jim Morrison Vii

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Alabama Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 979,566: 854,244: 791,004: 859,486: 917,892: 871,796: 1984-2012: ...

352

Arizona Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 877,174: 799,123: 746,952: 751,025: 767,565: 761,995: 1984-2012: ...

353

South Carolina Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 752,984: 699,864: 653,641: 726,889: 724,974: 656,396: 1984-2012: ...

354

Utah Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 512,415: 464,448: 420,807: 427,293: 507,559: 486,956: 1984-2012: ...

355

New Jersey Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 1,091,896: 991,981: 755,753: 832,806: 951,803: 842,035: 1984-2012: ...

356

U.S. Product Supplied of Distillate Fuel Oil (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

View History: Monthly Annual : Download Data (XLS File) U.S. Product Supplied of Distillate Fuel Oil (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov

357

,"U.S. Total Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

358

Increasing Distillate Production at U.S. Refineries Â… Past Changes and Future Potential  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Increasing Distillate Production at U.S. Refineries - Past Changes and Future Increasing Distillate Production at U.S. Refineries - Past Changes and Future Potential U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Petroleum, Gas, and Biofuels Analysis Department of Energy Office of Policy and International Affairs October 2010 Summary World consumption growth for middle distillate fuels (diesel fuel, heating oil, kerosene, and jet fuel) has exceeded the consumption growth for gasoline for some time, and the United States is no exception. Although the decrease in the ratio of total gasoline consumption to consumption for middle distillate fuels has been small in the United States, recent legislation requiring increased use of renewable fuels has resulted in forecasts that project a decline in consumption for petroleum-based gasoline from refineries, which would accelerate the decline in the

359

,"U.S. Total Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

SalesDeliveries to Vessel Bunker Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","U.S. No 2 Diesel Adj SalesDeliveries to On-Highway Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","U.S. Total Distillate Adj...

360

Distillate Stocks Expected to Remain Low - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

When EIA’s demand forecast is combined with its outlook for production and net imports, distillate stocks are projected to remain low for the rest of the year.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oline distillates residuals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

U.S. distillate fuel exports continue to grow - Today in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. exports of distillate fuel (which includes diesel) reached a record 656,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) in 2010 and have grown every year since 2003.

362

,"U.S. Total Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Total Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use",13,"Annual",2012,"6301984"...

363

A Low Temperature Distillation System for Separating Mixtures of Protium, Deuterium, and Tritium Isotopes  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature (24 K) distillation system for separating mixtures of hydrogen isotopes has been designed, fabricated, and delivered for use as the main component of the Hydrogen Isotope Separation System (HISS) at Mound. The HISS will handle feed mixtures of all six isotopic species of hydrogen (H2, HD, HT, D2, DT, T2) and will enrich the tritium while producing a stackable raffinate. Arther D. Little, Inc. (ADL) was the prime contractor for the distillation system. The design and fabrication techniques used for the HISS distillation system are similar to those used for previous stills which were also designed and built by ADL. The distillation system was tested with mixtures of protium and deuterium at the ADL shop. This system, as well as the feed, product, and raffinate handling systems are presently being installed at Mound where integrated testing is scheduled next calendar year.

Embury, Michael, C.; Watkins, Reed A.; Hinckley, Richard; Post, Jr., Arthur H.

1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

364

Etude de la distillation réactive dans une colonne avec un bac intermédiaire avec des réactions consécutives.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??La distillation réactive est l’un des procédés chimiques intensifiés les plus reconnus, qui intègre la séparation et la réaction au sein d’un même appareil. Les… (more)

Lukacs, Timea

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Water distillation using waste engine heat from an internal combustion engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To meet the needs of forward deployed soldiers and disaster relief personnel, a mobile water distillation system was designed and tested. This system uses waste engine heat from the exhaust flow of an internal combustion ...

Mears, Kevin S

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Soft Sensing Based on LS-SVM and Its Application to a Distillation Column  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dry point of aviation kerosene in the atmospheric distillation column is a very important process value for quality controlling. But unfortunately few on-line hardware sensors are available to this value or such sensors are difficult to maintain. This ...

Yafen Li; Qi Li; Huijuan Wang; Ningsheng Ma

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

U. S. Idle Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Day)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U. S. Idle Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1985: 1,298: 1,266: 1,314: 1,035: 1,320 ...

368

Optimisation énergétique des procédés : application à la distillation atmosphérique du pétrole.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??L'objectif de cette étude consiste à développer une approche permettant d'économiser de l'énergie de haut niveau thermique dans le procédé de la distillation atmosphérique du… (more)

Benali, Tahar

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Distillation of Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bose-Einstein condensates of sodium atoms, prepared in an optical dipole trap, were distilled into a second empty dipole trap adjacent to the first one. The distillation was driven by thermal atoms spilling over the potential barrier separating the two wells and then forming a new condensate. This process serves as a model system for metastability in condensates, provides a test for quantum kinetic theories of condensate formation, and also represents a novel technique for creating or replenishing condensates in new locations.

Y. Shin; M. Saba; A. Schirotzek; T. A. Pasquini; A. E. Leanhardt; D. E. Pritchard; W. Ketterle

2003-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

370

PILOT-SCALE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS USING VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000{deg}C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition.

Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

371

Optimal design and operation of multivessel batch distillation with fixed product demand. Modelling, simulation and optimisation of design and operation parameters in multivessel batch distillation under fixed product demand scenario and strict product specifications using simple dynamic model in gPROMS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Increased interest in unconventional batch distillation column configurations offers new opportunities for increasing the flexibility and energy efficiency of batch distillation. One configuration of particular… (more)

Mahmud, Mohamed Taher Mustafa

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Residual Stresses and Numerical Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 28, 2013 ... Advances in Hydroelectric Turbine Manufacturing and Repair: Residual Stresses and Numerical Simulation Sponsored by: Metallurgical ...

373

On the evolution of morphology of zirconium sponge during reduction and distillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High purity zirconium metal is produced by magnesio-thermic reduction of zirconium tetrachloride followed by vacuum distillation. The reduction process is carried out in a batch giving metal sponge and magnesium chloride in the reduced mass. The sponge is purified to using by vacuum distillation. The morphology of the sponge formed during the reduction and its influence on further processing has significant importance. In the present study, a detailed investigation involving evolution of the morphology of sponge particles and its implication during the vacuum distillation was carried out. The study of the microstructure was done using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It is observed that the nascent sponge formed is highly unstable which transforms to a needle-like morphology almost immediately, which further transforms to rounded and finally to a bulk shape. Faceting of the surface and needle-shape formation were observed in these particles, this is probably due to anisotropy in the surface energy. The morphology of the sponge formed during the reduction influences the distillation process. The fine needle-like shape sponge morphology leads to particle ejection, which is explained to be due to curvature effect. This is responsible for the formation of unwanted mass during distillation. XRD line broadening analysis indicates that the individual sponge particles are free from structural defects (dislocation) and are nearly single crystalline in nature.

Kapoor, K. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad, 500 062 (India)], E-mail: kapoork@nfc.ernet.in; Padmaprabu, C.; Nandi, D. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad, 500 062 (India)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

374

Two-Phase Hydraulics State Identification using linear and non-linear time series analysis: Distillation Column Flooding Sensor.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A novel sensor to detect and predict hydraulic flooding in the distillation column was developed in this research. High speed (1000 Hz) differential pressure data… (more)

Patel, Alok Maheshbhai

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Distillate Stocks on the East Coast Were Very Low Entering Last Winter  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Notes: So, what happened last winter? At last year's SHOPP conference, my renowned colleague, Joanne Shore, warned of the potential for high prices. At this time last year, distillate stocks were very low. This graph shows East Coast inventories, which at the end of July 2000, were well below the normal band. We focus on the East Coast (PADD 1) because this is a region in which heating oil is a major winter fuel. Furthermore, the East Coast consumes almost 2/3 of the nation's heating oil (high sulfur distillate). East Coast stocks were well below normal last year from July through December, but then actually increased in January, when they typically decline. In fact, the increase was only the 2nd time East Coast distillate stocks have increased in January since EIA has kept PADD level data (1981)!

376

Source book for planning nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants  

SciTech Connect

A source book on nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants was prepared to assist government and other planners in preparing broad evaluations of proposed applications of dual-purpose plants. The document is divided into five major sections. Section 1 presents general discussions relating to the benefits of dual-purpose plants, and spectrum for water-to-power ratios. Section 2 presents information on commercial nuclear plants manufactured by US manufacturers. Section 3 gives information on distillation desalting processes and equipment. Section 4 presents a discussion on feedwater pretreatment and scale control. Section 5 deals with methods for coupling the distillation and electrical generating plants to operate in the dual mode.

Reed, S.A.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Distillability and positivity of partial transposes in general quantum field systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Criteria for distillability, and the property of having a positive partial transpose, are introduced for states of general bipartite quantum systems. The framework is sufficiently general to include systems with an infinite number of degrees of freedom, including quantum fields. We show that a large number of states in relativistic quantum field theory, including the vacuum state and thermal equilibrium states, are distillable over subsystems separated by arbitrary spacelike distances. These results apply to any quantum field model. It will also be shown that these results can be generalized to quantum fields in curved spacetime, leading to the conclusion that there is a large number of quantum field states which are distillable over subsystems separated by an event horizon.

Rainer Verch; Reinhard F. Werner

2004-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

378

Distillation: Energy Savings and Other Benefits From the Use of High Efficiency Packings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A great deal of attention has been focused lately on the use of high-efficiency packings for distillation applications. This paper discusses benefits that can be derived from the use of these devices. In particular, the reduction in energy requirements for a given separation is addressed for both new and retrofit applications. Pressure loss and product decomposition are also considered, and the basis for an alternative analysis is established. An example is shown in which an existing distillation tray column is retrofitted with a high-efficiency packing. The process advantages achieved, including energy savings, are discussed, as well as the factors governing the selection of the packing. The current limitations on design models for high-efficiency packings with respect to mass transfer efficiency, pressure drop, and capacity in distillation are mentioned briefly. Finally, the applications of these devices to alternative technologies such as liquid-liquid extraction are discussed.

Bravo, J. L.; Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Distillation of mixed-state continuous-variable entanglement by photon subtraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a detailed theoretical analysis for the distillation of one copy of a mixed two-mode continuous-variable entangled state using beam splitters and coherent photon-detection techniques, including conventional on-off detectors and photon-number-resolving detectors. The initial Gaussian mixed-entangled states are generated by transmitting a two-mode squeezed state through a lossy bosonic channel, corresponding to the primary source of errors in current approaches to optical quantum communication. We provide explicit formulas to calculate the entanglement in terms of logarithmic negativity before and after distillation, including losses in the channel and the photon detection, and show that one-copy distillation is still possible even for losses near the typical fiber channel attenuation length. A lower bound for the transmission coefficient of the photon-subtraction beam splitter is derived, representing the minimal value that still allows to enhance the entanglement.

Zhang Shengli; Loock, Peter van [Optical Quantum Information Theory Group, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1/Bau 26, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany) and Institute of Theoretical Physics I, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudstr. 7/B2, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

380

Ensiling wet distillers grains with other feeds. SDSU Extension Extra 4029  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the last century, livestock producers have relied heavily on highly valued crops to feed their cattle. Corn grain and silage, alfalfa hay and silage as well as other highly productive crops have been used extensively. Changes in oil prices have sparked interest into renewable energy alternatives. Ethanol production from corn has gained popularity in the Midwest resulting in increased availability of corn distillers grains. Corn distillers grains are an excellent feed for ruminants. They can usually be purchased as wet (40-70 % moisture) or dry. They supply approximately 10 % more energy than corn grain, and approximately 30 % protein, 10 % fat and 1 % phosphorus. These are highly priced nutrients and thus desirable in a feed, although they might pose a challenge when formulating diets. When distillers grains

A. D. Garcia; K. F. Kalscheur

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oline distillates residuals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

First Commissioning of a Cryogenic Distillation Column for Low Radioactivity Underground Argon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the performance and commissioning of a cryogenic distillation column for low radioactivity underground argon at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The distillation column is designed to accept a mixture of argon, helium, and nitrogen and return pure argon with a nitrogen contamination less than 10 ppm. In the first commissioning, we were able to run the distillation column in a continuous mode and produce argon that is 99.9% pure. After running in a batch mode, the argon purity was increased to 99.95%, with 500 ppm of nitrogen remaining. The efficiency of collecting the argon from the gas mixture was between 70% and 81%, at an argon production rate of 0.84-0.98 kg/day.

H. O. Back; T. Alexander; A. Alton; C. Condon; E. de Haas; C. Galbiati; A. Goretti; T. Hohmann; An. Ianni; C. Kendziora; B. Loer; D. Montanari; P. Mosteiro; S. Pordes

2012-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

382

BT8 Residual Stress Diffractometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 5) T. Gnaupel-Herold, HJ Prask, AV Clark, CS Hehman, TN Nguyen, A Comparison of Neutron and Ultrasonic Determinations of Residual Stress ...

383

BT8 Residual Stress Diffractometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Residual Stresses and Mechanical Damage in Gas Pipelines. ... Pressure in a pipeline superimposes a stress on ... are exceeded in pipelines with low ...

384

Techniques for Measuring Residual Stresses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Classification of techniques for measuring residual stress...stress A-1 Stress-relaxation techniques using electric

385

Techniques for Measuring Residual Stresses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Classification of techniques for measuring residual stress...stress A-1 Stress relaxation techniques using electric

386

New Design Methods And Algorithms For High Energy-Efficient And Low-cost Distillation Processes  

SciTech Connect

This project sought and successfully answered two big challenges facing the creation of low-energy, cost-effective, zeotropic multi-component distillation processes: first, identification of an efficient search space that includes all the useful distillation configurations and no undesired configurations; second, development of an algorithm to search the space efficiently and generate an array of low-energy options for industrial multi-component mixtures. Such mixtures are found in large-scale chemical and petroleum plants. Commercialization of our results was addressed by building a user interface allowing practical application of our methods for industrial problems by anyone with basic knowledge of distillation for a given problem. We also provided our algorithm to a major U.S. Chemical Company for use by the practitioners. The successful execution of this program has provided methods and algorithms at the disposal of process engineers to readily generate low-energy solutions for a large class of multicomponent distillation problems in a typical chemical and petrochemical plant. In a petrochemical complex, the distillation trains within crude oil processing, hydrotreating units containing alkylation, isomerization, reformer, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and NGL (natural gas liquids) processing units can benefit from our results. Effluents from naphtha crackers and ethane-propane crackers typically contain mixtures of methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, butane and heavier hydrocarbons. We have shown that our systematic search method with a more complete search space, along with the optimization algorithm, has a potential to yield low-energy distillation configurations for all such applications with energy savings up to 50%.

Agrawal, Rakesh

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

387

Process for converting heavy oil deposited on coal to distillable oil in a low severity process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing oil from coal fines that have been agglomerated or blended with heavy oil comprises the steps of heating the coal fines to temperatures over 350.degree. C. up to 450.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere, such as steam or nitrogen, to convert some of the heavy oil to lighter, and distilling and collecting the lighter oils. The pressure at which the process is carried out can be from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. A hydrogen donor can be added to the oil prior to deposition on the coal surface to increase the yield of distillable oil.

Ignasiak, Teresa (417 Heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Strausz, Otto (13119 Grand View Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (417 heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Janiak, Jerzy (17820 - 76 Ave., Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (3046 - 11465 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Szymocha, Kazimierz (3125 - 109 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Systems and methods for reactive distillation with recirculation of light components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Systems and methods for producing gas-to-liquids products using reactive distillation are provided. The method for producing gas-to-liquids products can include reacting a feedstock in a column having a distillation zone and a reaction zone to provide a bottoms stream and an overhead stream. A first portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the top of the reaction zone and second portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the bottom of the reaction zone.

Stickney, Michael J. (Nassau Bay, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

389

High Efficient Secret Key Distillation for Long Distance Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The continuous variable quantum key distribution is expected to provide high secret key rate without single photon source and detector, but the lack of the secure and effective key distillation method makes it unpractical. Here, we present a secure single-bit-reverse-reconciliation protocol combined with secret information concentration and post-selection, which can distill the secret key with high efficiency and low computational complexity. The simulation results show that this protocol can provide high secret key rate even when the transmission fiber is longer than 150km, which may make the continuous variable scheme to outvie the single photon one.

Yi-bo Zhao; Zheng-fu Han; Jin-jian Chen; You-zhen Gui; Guang-can Guo

2006-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

390

Hanford Tank Waste Residuals  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hanford Hanford Tank Waste Residuals DOE HLW Corporate Board November 6, 2008 Chris Kemp, DOE ORP Bill Hewitt, YAHSGS LLC Hanford Tanks & Tank Waste * Single-Shell Tanks (SSTs) - ~27 million gallons of waste* - 149 SSTs located in 12 SST Farms - Grouped into 7 Waste Management Areas (WMAs) for RCRA closure purposes: 200 West Area S/SX T TX/TY U 200 East Area A/AX B/BX/BY C * Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) - ~26 million gallons of waste* - 28 DSTs located in 6 DST Farms (1 West/5 East) * 17 Misc Underground Storage Tanks (MUST) * 43 Inactive MUST (IMUST) 200 East Area A/AX B/BX/BY C * Volumes fluctuate as SST retrievals and 242-A Evaporator runs occur. Major Regulatory Drivers * Radioactive Tank Waste Materials - Atomic Energy Act - DOE M 435.1-1, Ch II, HLW - Other DOE Orders * Hazardous/Dangerous Tank Wastes - Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (TPA) - Retrieval/Closure under State's implementation

391

T-534: Vulnerability in the PDF distiller of the BlackBerry Attachment  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4: Vulnerability in the PDF distiller of the BlackBerry 4: Vulnerability in the PDF distiller of the BlackBerry Attachment Service for the BlackBerry Enterprise Server T-534: Vulnerability in the PDF distiller of the BlackBerry Attachment Service for the BlackBerry Enterprise Server January 13, 2011 - 2:30pm Addthis PROBLEM: Vulnerability in the PDF distiller of the BlackBerry Attachment Service for the BlackBerry Enterprise Server. PLATFORM: * BlackBerry Enterprise Server Express version 5.0.1 and 5.0.2 for Microsoft Exchange * BlackBerry Enterprise Server Express version 5.0.2 for IBM Lotus Domino * BlackBerry Enterprise Server versions 4.1.3 through 5.0.2 for Microsoft Exchange and IBM Lotus Domino * BlackBerry Enterprise Server versions 4.1.3 through 5.0.1 for Novell GroupWise * BlackBerry Professional Software version 4.1.4 for Microsoft Exchange and

392

Optimal Allocation of Heat Exchanger Inventory in a Serial Type Diabatic Distillation Column  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal Allocation of Heat Exchanger Inventory in a Serial Type Diabatic Distillation Column Edward the column . We have previously shown (Jimenez et al. 2003) that optimaloperation of serial heat exchangers total heat exchanger area in different trays and calculate the optimal allocation of a given heat

Salamon, Peter

393

CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF SYMPTOM COMPLAINTS IN OFFICE BUILDINGS: DISTILLING THE EXPERIENCE OF INDOOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF SYMPTOM COMPLAINTS IN OFFICE BUILDINGS: DISTILLING THE EXPERIENCE Environmental Engineering; 6 Environmental Building Sciences, Inc.; 7 National Institute for Occupational Safety building-related symptoms in office buildings, for owners and managers. Ideas from six experienced building

Diamond, Richard

394

Grey Prediction of Corrosion on the First Oil Atmospheric Distillation Unite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Corrosion is a serious problem on the first atmospheric distillation unit when the plant refines high-acid crude oil from Shengli Oil Field. To measure and predict the corrosion and related factors is significant tasks in refinery. The GM(1,1) model ... Keywords: grey system theory, DGM model, Verhulst model

Zhengfang Wang; Shuling Liu; Hui Qi; Shiwei Li

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

342.8 W W 123.0 412.7 W 839.2 135.0 1,251.9 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy...

396

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

116.7 W W W W 379.0 W 1,039.3 132.9 1,418.3 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy...

397

Effect of Narrow Cut Oil Shale Distillates on HCCI Engine Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this investigation, oil shale crude obtained from the Green River Formation in Colorado using Paraho Direct retorting was mildly hydrotreated and distilled to produce 7 narrow boiling point fuels of equal volumes. The resulting derived cetane numbers ranged between 38.3 and 43.9. Fuel chemistry and bulk properties strongly correlated with boiling point.

Eaton, Scott J [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Fairbridge, Craig [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Canada

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Entanglement Distillation; A Discourse on Bound Entanglement in Quantum Information Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PhD thesis (University of York). The thesis covers in a unified way the material presented in quant-ph/0403073, quant-ph/0502040, quant-ph/0504160, quant-ph/0510035, quant-ph/0512012 and quant-ph/0603283. It includes two large review chapters on entanglement and distillation.

Lieven Clarisse

2006-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

399

The setup of an extraction system coupled to a hydrogen isotopes distillation column  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Among the most difficult problems of cryogenic distillation one stands apart: the extraction of the heavy fraction. By an optimal design of the cycle scheme, this problem could be avoided. A 'worst case scenario' is usually occurring when the extracted fraction consists of one prevalent isotope such as hydrogen and small amounts of the other two hydrogen isotopes (deuterium and/or tritium). This situation is further complicated by two parameters of the distillation column: the extraction flow rate and the hold-up. The present work proposes the conceptual design of an extraction system associated to the cryogenic distillation column used in hydrogen separation processes. During this process, the heavy fraction (DT, T{sub 2}) is separated, its concentration being the highest at the bottom of the distillation column. From this place the extraction of the gaseous phase can now begin. Being filled with adsorbent, the extraction system is used to temporarily store the heavy fraction. Also the extraction system provides samples for the gas Chromatograph. The research work is focused on the existent pilot plant for tritium and deuterium separation from our institute to validate the experiments carried out until now. (authors)

Zamfirache, M.; Bornea, A.; Stefanescu, I.; Bidica, N.; Balteanu, O.; Bucur, C. [INC-DTCI, ICSIRm. Valcea, Uzinei Street 4, Rm. Valcea (Romania)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

400

Brief paper: Self-tuning regulator applied to a binary distillation column  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilization of a self-tuning regulator (STR) for control of top product composition of a binary distillation column has been investigated. Results from simulation studies and experimental evaluation of the STR on a pilot scale column are compared with ... Keywords: Adaptive control, chemical variables control, computer control, control engineering computer applications, petro-chemical control, self-adjusting systems, stochastic control

V. A. Sastry; D. E. Seborg; R. K. Wood

1977-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oline distillates residuals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Healthful LipidsChapter 7 Short-Path Distillation for Lipid Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Healthful Lipids Chapter 7 Short-Path Distillation for Lipid Processing Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AOCS Press 017D794DE078F80C846E2EEE3C255C82 AOCS Press Downloadabl

402

Methods for assessing the stability and compatibility of residual fuel oils  

SciTech Connect

The declining quality of residual fuel oil is of significant concern to residual fuel oil users in the electric utility industry. This project was concerned with the specific problems of instability (sediment formation or viscosity increases) and incompatibility (formation of sediment on blending with another fuel or cutter stock) which can adversely affect the fuel storage and handling systems. These problems became more severe in the late 70's and early 80's with the decline in quality of refinery feedstocks and an increase in severity of processing for conversion of resid to distillate products. Current specifications and quality control tests are inadequate to prevent or even predict problems due to instability or incompatibility. The objective of this project was to evaluate/develop rapid simple tests which utilities can use to anticipate and prevent problems from instability/incompatibility. 22 refs., 23 figs., 23 tabs.

Anderson, R.P.; Reynolds, J.W. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (USA))

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

The robustness of magic state distillation against errors in Clifford gates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum error correction and fault-tolerance have provided the possibility for large scale quantum computations without a detrimental loss of quantum information. A very natural class of gates for fault-tolerant quantum computation is the Clifford gate set and as such their usefulness for universal quantum computation is of great interest. Clifford group gates augmented by magic state preparation give the possibility of simulating universal quantum computation. However, experimentally one cannot expect to perfectly prepare magic states. Nonetheless, it has been shown that by repeatedly applying operations from the Clifford group and measurements in the Pauli basis, the fidelity of noisy prepared magic states can be increased arbitrarily close to a pure magic state [1]. We investigate the robustness of magic state distillation to perturbations of the initial states to arbitrary locations in the Bloch sphere due to noise. Additionally, we consider a depolarizing noise model on the quantum gates in the decoding section of the distillation protocol and demonstrate its effect on the convergence rate and threshold value. Finally, we establish that faulty magic state distillation is more efficient than fault-tolerance-assisted magic state distillation at low error rates due to the large overhead in the number of quantum gates and qubits required in a fault-tolerance architecture. The ability to perform magic state distillation with noisy gates leads us to conclude that this could be a realistic scheme for future small-scale quantum computing devices as fault-tolerance need only be used in the final steps of the protocol.

Tomas Jochym-O'Connor; Yafei Yu; Bassam Helou; Raymond Laflamme

2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

404

An expert system design for a crude oil distillation column with the neural networks model and the process optimization using genetic algorithm framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study an expert system of a crude oil distillation column is designed to predict the unknown values of required product flow and temperature in required input feed characteristics. The system is also capable to optimize the distillation process ... Keywords: Distillation column, Expert system, Genetic algorithms, Neural networks model

S. Motlaghi; F. Jalali; M. Nili Ahmadabadi

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Residual Circulation and Tropopause Structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of large-scale dynamics as represented by the residual mean meridional circulation in the transformed Eulerian sense, in particular its stratospheric part, on lower stratospheric static stability and tropopause structure is studied ...

Thomas Birner

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Crop residues as feedstock for renewable fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nutrient removal and net costs weigh on decisions to use crop residues as biofuel feedstocks. Crop residues as feedstock for renewable fuels Inform Magazine Biofuels and Bioproducts and Biodiesel Inform Archives Crop residues as feedstock for rene

407

Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation  

SciTech Connect

Olefin and paraffin are the largest chemical commodities. Furthermore, they are major building blocks for the petrochemical industry. Each year, petroleum refining, consumes 4,500 TBtu/yr in separation energy, making it one of the most energy-intensive industries in the United States). Just considering liquefied petroleum gas (ethane/propane/butane) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) alone, the distillation energy consumption is about 400 TBtu/yr in the US. Since petroleum distillation is a mature technology, incremental improvements in column/tray design will only provide a few percent improvements in the performance. However, each percent saving in net energy use amounts to savings of 10 TBtu/yr and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 0.2 MTon/yr. In practice, distillation columns require 100 to 200 trays to achieve the desired separation. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) of conventional packings is typical in the range of 36-60 inch. Since 2006, we had explored using several non-selective membranes as the structured packings to replace the conventional packing materials used in propane and propylene distillation. We obtained the lowest HTU of < 8 inch for the hollow fiber column, which was >5 times shorter than that of the conventional packing materials. In 2008, we also investigated this type of packing materials in iso-/n-butane distillation. Because of a slightly larger relative volatility of iso-/n-butane than that of propane/propylene, a wider and a more stable operational range was obtained for the iso-/n-butane pair. However, all of the experiments were conducted on a small scale with flowrate of < 25 gram/min. Recently, we demonstrated this technology on a larger scale (<250 gram/min). Within the loading range of F-factor < 2.2 Pa{sup 0.5}, a pressure drop on the vapor side is below 50 mbar/m, which suggests that the pressure drop of hollow fibers packings is not an engineering barrier for the applications in distillations. The thermal stability study suggests that polypropylene hollow fibers are stable after a long time exposure to C{sub 2} - C{sub 4} mixtures. The effects of packing density on the separation efficiency will be discussed.

Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Orler, Bruce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tornga, Stephanie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Welch, Cindy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

408

APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum distillation of chloride salts from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) and simulant PuO{sub 2} has been previously demonstrated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites using kilogram quantities of chloride salt. The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated using a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attained, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile materials in the feed boat. The application of vacuum salt distillation (VSD) is of interest to the HB-Line Facility and the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Both facilities are involved in efforts to disposition excess fissile materials. Many of these materials contain chloride and fluoride salt concentrations which make them unsuitable for dissolution without prior removal of the chloride and fluoride salts. Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. Subsequent efforts are attempting to adapt the technology for the removal of fluoride. Fluoride salts of interest are less-volatile than the corresponding chloride salts. Consequently, an alternate approach is required for the removal of fluoride without significantly increasing the operating temperature. HB-Line Engineering requested SRNL to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of an alternate approach using both non-radioactive simulants and plutonium-bearing materials. Whereas the earlier developments targeted the removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl), the current activities are concerned with the removal of the halide ions associated with plutonium trifluoride (PuF{sub 3}), plutonium tetrafluoride (PuF{sub 4}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). This report discusses non-radioactive testing of small-scale and pilot-scale systems and radioactive testing of a small-scale system. Experiments focused on demonstrating the chemistry for halide removal and addressing the primary engineering questions associated with a change in the process chemistry.

Pierce, R.; Pak, D.

2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

409

Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Olefin and paraffin are the largest chemical commodities. Furthermore, they are major building blocks for the petrochemical industry. Each year, petroleum refining, consumes 4,500 TBtu/yr in separation energy, making it one of the most energy-intensive industries in the United States). Just considering liquefied petroleum gas (ethane/propane/butane) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) alone, the distillation energy consumption is about 400 TBtu/yr in the US. Since petroleum distillation is a mature technology, incremental improvements in column/tray design will only provide a few percent improvements in the performance. However, each percent saving in net energy use amounts to savings of 10 TBtu/yr and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 0.2 MTon/yr. In practice, distillation columns require 100 to 200 trays to achieve the desired separation. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) of conventional packings is typical in the range of 36-60 inch. Since 2006, we had explored using several non-selective membranes as the structured packings to replace the conventional packing materials used in propane and propylene distillation. We obtained the lowest HTU of 5 times shorter than that of the conventional packing materials. In 2008, we also investigated this type of packing materials in iso-/n-butane distillation. Because of a slightly larger relative volatility of iso-/n-butane than that of propane/propylene, a wider and a more stable operational range was obtained for the iso-/n-butane pair. However, all of the experiments were conducted on a small scale with flowrate of < 25 gram/min. Recently, we demonstrated this technology on a larger scale (<250 gram/min). Within the loading range of F-factor < 2.2 Pa{sup 0.5}, a pressure drop on the vapor side is below 50 mbar/m, which suggests that the pressure drop of hollow fibers packings is not an engineering barrier for the applications in distillations. The thermal stability study suggests that polypropylene hollow fibers are stable after a long time exposure to C{sub 2} - C{sub 4} mixtures. The effects of packing density on the separation efficiency will be discussed.

Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Orler, Bruce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tornga, Stephanie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Welch, Cindy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

410

DISSOLUTION OF NEPTUNIUM OXIDE RESIDUES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the development of a dissolution flowsheet for neptunium (Np) oxide (NpO{sub 2}) residues (i.e., various NpO{sub 2} sources, HB-Line glovebox sweepings, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) thermogravimetric analysis samples). Samples of each type of materials proposed for processing were dissolved in a closed laboratory apparatus and the rate and total quantity of off-gas were measured. Samples of the off-gas were also analyzed. The quantity and type of solids remaining (when visible) were determined after post-dissolution filtration of the solution. Recommended conditions for dissolution of the NpO{sub 2} residues are: Solution Matrix and Loading: {approx}50 g Np/L (750 g Np in 15 L of dissolver solution), using 8 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 0.025 M potassium fluoride (KF) at greater than 100 C for at least 3 hours. Off-gas: Analysis of the off-gas indicated nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) as the only identified components. No hydrogen (H{sub 2}) was detected. The molar ratio of off-gas produced per mole of Np dissolved ranged from 0.25 to 0.4 moles of gas per mole of Np dissolved. A peak off-gas rate of {approx}0.1 scfm/kg bulk oxide was observed. Residual Solids: Pure NpO{sub 2} dissolved with little or no residue with the proposed flowsheet but the NpCo and both sweepings samples left visible solid residue after dissolution. For the NpCo and Part II Sweepings samples the residue amounted to {approx}1% of the initial material, but for the Part I Sweepings sample, the residue amounted to {approx}8 % of the initial material. These residues contained primarily aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) compounds that did not completely dissolve under the flowsheet conditions. The residues from both sweepings samples contained minor amounts of plutonium (Pu) particles. Overall, the undissolved Np and Pu particles in the residues were a very small fraction of the total solids.

Kyser, E

2009-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

411

Spinodal instabilities and the distillation effect in nuclear matter under strong magnetic fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the effect of strong magnetic fields, of the order of $10^{18}$-$10^{19}$ G, on the instability region of nuclear matter at subsaturation densities. Relativistic nuclear models both with constant couplings and with density dependent parameters are considered. It is shown that a strong magnetic field can have large effects on the instability regions giving rise to bands of instability and wider unstable regions. As a consequence we predict larger transition densities at the inner edge of the crust of compact stars with strong magnetic field. The direction of instability gives rise to a very strong distillation effect if the last Landau level is only partially filled. However, for almost completed Landau levels an anti-distillation effect may occur.

A. Rabhi; C. Providencia; J. Da Providencia

2008-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

412

High Performance Trays and Heat Exchangers in Heat Pumped Distillation Columns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vapor recompression of distillation columns overheads, followed by subsequent condensation in the reboiler results in substantial operating cost savings compared to conventional steam driven reboiler systems. The use of high performance heat exchangers and distillation trays permits additional energy savings by lower reboiler temperature differences, and reduced reflux requirements for a fixed column height, due to closer tray spacings. This paper surveys the heat pump systems currently in operation using high performance UCC MD trays and High Flux tubing. Design considerations for high or low pressure level towers, with single or dual stage compression equipment are discussed, along with the various control methods. Factors affecting startup, part load, and off design operation of the equipment are also reviewed.

Wisz, M. W.; Antonelli, R.; Ragi, E. G.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Evaluation of potential food applications of dried distillers spent grain (DSG). Final research report  

SciTech Connect

Results from experimental test bakes indicate that dried distillers spent grain (DSG) can be used to replace up to 15% of the flour for the production of an acceptable variety bread, provided that the DSG is processed under optimum conditions for a satisfactory flavor and color development. The raw materials used for the mash bill may also affect the taste of the finished product. (MHR)

Not Available

1981-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

414

PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE OF THE COST OF PRODUCING ENRICHED OXYGEN-18 WATER BY DISTILLATION  

SciTech Connect

An order of magnitude estimate was made a determine the cost of producing oxygen-18 enriched water by the equilibrium distillation of water. Three isotopic purities and two production rates were considered. Costs varied from per gram for 3% oxygen-18 enriched water produced at a rate of 100 grams per day to 5 per gram for 99% oxygen-18 water produced at a rate of one gram per day. (auth)

Drury, J.S.; Klima, B.B.

1958-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

415

Randomly distilling W-class states into general configurations of two-party entanglement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article we obtain results for the task of converting a single N-qubit W-class state (of the form {radical}(x{sub 0})|00...0>+{radical}(x{sub 1})|10...0>+{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}+{radical}(x{sub N})|00...1>) into maximum entanglement shared between two random parties. Previous studies in random distillation have not considered how the particular choice of target pairs affects the transformation, and here we develop a strategy for distilling into general configurations of target pairs. We completely solve the problem of determining the optimal distillation probability for all three-qubit configurations and most four-qubit configurations when x{sub 0}=0. Our proof involves deriving new entanglement monotones defined on the set of four-qubit W-class states. As an additional application of our results, we present new upper bounds for converting a generic W-class state into the standard W state |W{sub N}>={radical}((1/N))(|10...0>+{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}+|00...1>).

Cui, W.; Chitambar, E.; Lo, H. K. [Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Control (CQIQC), Department of Physics and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

Continuous-variable entanglement distillation of non-Gaussian mixed states  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many different quantum-information communication protocols such as teleportation, dense coding, and entanglement-based quantum key distribution are based on the faithful transmission of entanglement between distant location in an optical network. The distribution of entanglement in such a network is, however, hampered by loss and noise that is inherent in all practical quantum channels. Thus, to enable faithful transmission one must resort to the protocol of entanglement distillation. In this paper we present a detailed theoretical analysis and an experimental realization of continuous variable entanglement distillation in a channel that is inflicted by different kinds of non-Gaussian noise. The continuous variable entangled states are generated by exploiting the third order nonlinearity in optical fibers, and the states are sent through a free-space laboratory channel in which the losses are altered to simulate a free-space atmospheric channel with varying losses. We use linear optical components, homodyne measurements, and classical communication to distill the entanglement, and we find that by using this method the entanglement can be probabilistically increased for some specific non-Gaussian noise channels.

Dong Ruifang; Lassen, Mikael [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1/Bau 24, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Building 309, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Heersink, Joel; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1/Bau 24, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institute of Optics, Information and Photonics, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Str. 7/B2, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Filip, Radim [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17 Listopadu 50, CZ-77200 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Andersen, Ulrik L. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Building 309, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

417

X:\Data_Publication\Pma\current\ventura\pma00.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Marketing Annual 2000 iii Preface The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides infor- mation and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consum- ers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first pur- chase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Re- fined petroleum product sales data include motor gas- oline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the pub- lished data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual.

418

X:\Data_Publication\Pma\current\ventura\pma00.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Marketing Annual 2000 Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Marketing Annual 2000 iii Preface The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides infor- mation and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consum- ers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first pur- chase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Re- fined petroleum product sales data include motor gas- oline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the pub- lished data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual.

419

Chemistry of combined residual chlorination  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The decay of the combined chlorine residual was investigated in this work. Recent concerns about the formation of undesirable compounds such as chloroform with free residual chlorination have focused attention on the alternative use of combined residual chlorination. This work investigates the applicability of reactions proposed to describe the transformations and decay of the combined residual with time. Sodium hypochlorite was added to buffered solutions of ammonia with the chlorine residual being monitored over periods extending up to 10 days. The reaction was studied at four initial concentrations of hypochlorite of 100, 50, 25 and 10 mg/L as Cl/sub 2/ with molar application ratios of chlorine to ammonia, defined herein as M ratios, of 0.90, 0.50, 0.25 and 0.05 at each hypochlorite dose. Sixty-eight experiments were conducted at the pH of 6.6 and 7.2. The conclusions are: (1) in the absence of free chlorine, the concentration of NH/sub 3/ does not seem to affect the rate of disappearance of the residual other than through the formation of NHCl/sub 2/ by NH/sub 2/Cl hydrolysis; (2) the reaction between NHCl/sub 2/ and NH/sub 4//sup +/ to form NH/sub 2/Cl is either much slower than reported by Gray et. al. or the mechanism is different with a rate limiting step not involving NH/sub 3/ or NH/sub 4//sup +/; (3) a redox reaction in addition to the first-order decomposition of NHCl/sub 2/ appears necessary. Model simulation results indicated that a reaction of the type NH/sub 2/Cl + NHCl/sub 2/ ..-->.. P added to the first-order NHCl/sub 2/ decomposition can explain the results observed except at the higher chlorine doses.

Leao, S.F.; Selleck, R.E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Composition-explicit distillation curves of aviation fuel JP-8 and a coal-based jet fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have recently introduced several important improvements in the measurement of distillation curves for complex fluids. The modifications to the classical measurement provide for (1) a composition explicit data channel for each distillate fraction (for both qualitative and quantitative analysis); (2) temperature measurements that are true thermodynamic state points; (3) temperature, volume, and pressure measurements of low uncertainty suitable for an equation of state development; (4) consistency with a century of historical data; (5) an assessment of the energy content of each distillate fraction; (6) a trace chemical analysis of each distillate fraction; and (7) a corrosivity assessment of each distillate fraction. The most significant modification is achieved with a new sampling approach that allows precise qualitative as well as quantitative analyses of each fraction, on the fly. We have applied the new method to the measurement of rocket propellant, gasoline, and jet fuels. In this paper, we present the application of the technique to representative batches of the military aviation fuel JP-8, and also to a coal-derived fuel developed as a potential substitute. We present not only the distillation curves but also a chemical characterization of each fraction and discuss the contrasts between the two fluids. 26 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

Beverly L. Smith; Thomas J. Bruno [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States). Physical and Chemical Properties Division

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oline distillates residuals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Vacuum Distillation  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

422

DISTILLED SPIRITS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

section 23007, which contains 0.5 percent or more alcohol by volume derived from flavors or other ingredients

unknown authors

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Vitrification of NAC process residue  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vitrification tests have been performed with simulated waste compositions formulated to represent the residue which would be obtained from the treatment of low-level, nitrate wastes from Hanford and Oak Ridge by the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process. The tests were designed to demonstrate the feasibility of vitrifying NAC residue and to quantify the impact of the NAC process on the volume of vitrified waste. The residue from NAC treatment of low-level nitrate wastes consists primarily of oxides of aluminum and sodium. High alumina glasses were formulated to maximize the waste loading of the NAC product. Transparent glasses with up to 35 wt% alumina, and even higher contents in opaque glasses, were obtained at melting temperatures of 1200{degrees}C to 1400{degrees}C. A modified TCLP leach test showed the high alumina glasses to have good chemical durability, leaching significantly less than either the ARM-1 or the DWPF-EA high-level waste reference glasses. A significant increase in the final waste volume would be a major result of the NAC process on LLW vitrification. For Hanford wastes, NAC-treatment of nitrate wastes followed by vitrification of the residue will increase the final volume of vitrified waste by 50% to 90%; for Melton Valley waste from Oak Ridge, the increase in final glass volume will be 260% to 280%. The increase in volume is relative to direct vitrification of the waste in a 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O glass formulation. The increase in waste volume directly affects not only disposal costs, but also operating and/or capital costs. Larger plant size, longer operating time, and additional energy and additive costs are direct results of increases in waste volume. Such increases may be balanced by beneficial impacts on the vitrification process; however, those effects are outside the scope of this report.

Merrill, R.A.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Middle distillate price monitoring system. Interim validation report. [No. 2 heating oil  

SciTech Connect

The Middle Distillate Price Monitoring System collects data on prices and gross margins for No. 2 heating oil from a sample of refiners, resellers, and retailers. The data is used to evaluate the level of competition and the reasonableness of prices in the heating oil market. It is concluded that the data does not provide a basis for determining whether a market is competitive, and that there is serious doubt as to the accuracy of the information collected by the system. Some recommendations are given for improving the quality of the information. (DLC)

Hopelain, D.G.; Freedman, D.; Rice, T.H.; Veitch, J.G.; Finlay, A.

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Effect of particle size on the carrier-distillation analysis of PuO$sub 2$  

SciTech Connect

A study was made to determine the effect of particle size on the carrier- distillation analysis of PuO/sub 2/ and to explain how to avoid the difficulties caused by large PuO/sub 2/ particles. The relative intensity of five elements was determined for three particle sizes and it was shown that it increases as the particle size becomes smaller. Further the line intensity of the added internal standard Co also increased with decreasing particle size. Accurate spectrochemical results were obtained when the PuO/sub 2/ particle size was reduced to 45 mu m or less. (JSR)

Martell, C.J.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Separation of heavy water by vapor-phase thermal diffusion coupled with distillation and condensation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study on the enrichment of heavy water in a vapor-phase thermal-diffusion column has been conducted. With the combination of the effects of distillation, vapor-phase thermal diffusion, and partial condensation, considerable improvement in the degree of enrichment has been achieved in a vapor-phase column rather than in a liquid-phase column. It was also found that even the part of enrichment contributed only by vapor-phase thermal-diffusion effect is much higher than that obtained by liquid-phase thermal diffusion.

Yeh, H.M. [Tamkang Univ., Taiwan (China); Chang, S.M. [Cheng Kung Univ., Taiwan (China)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Distillation of free entanglement from bound entangled states using weak measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a scheme for distillation of free bipartite entanglement from bipartite bound-entangled states. The crucial element of our scheme is an ancillary system that is coupled to the initial bound-entangled state via appropriate weak measurements. We show that in this protocol free entanglement can be always generated with nonzero probability by using a single copy of the bound-entangled state. We also derive a lower bound on the entanglement cost of the protocol, and conclude that, on average, applying weaker measurements results in relatively higher values of free entanglement as well as lower costs.

S. Baghbanzadeh; A. T. Rezakhani

2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

428

Isospin distillation with radial flow: A test of the nuclear symmetry energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We discuss mechanisms related to isospin transport in central collisions between neutron-rich systems at Fermi energies to gain information on the nuclear symmetry energy at and below saturation. A fully consistent study of the isospin distillation and expansion dynamics in two-component systems is presented in the framework of a stochastic transport theory. We analyze correlations between fragment observables, focusing on the study of the fragment asymmetry N/Z as a function of their kinetic energy. We find that the relation between these observables allows us to better characterize the fragmentation path and to access new information on the low-density behavior of the symmetry energy.

Colonna, M. [LNS-INFN, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Baran, V. [NIPNE-HH, Bucharest, and Bucharest University, Bucharest (Romania); Toro, M. Di [LNS-INFN, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Wolter, H. H. [LNS-INFN, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Fakultaet fuer Physik, University of Munich, Garching (Germany)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

429

Isospin Distillation with Radial Flow: a Test of the Nuclear Symmetry Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss mechanisms related to isospin transport in central collisions between neutron-rich systems at Fermi energies. A fully consistent study of the isospin distillation and expansion dynamics in two-component systems is presented in the framework of a stochastic transport theory. We analyze correlations between fragment observables, focusing on the study of the average N/Z of fragments, as a function of their kinetic energy. We identify an EOS-dependent relation between these observables, allowing to better characterize the fragmentation path and to access new information on the low density behavior of the symmetry energy.

M. Colonna; V. Baran; M. Di Toro; H. H. Wolter

2007-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

430

Transforms for prediction residuals in video coding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Typically the same transform, the 2-D Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), is used to compress both image intensities in image coding and prediction residuals in video coding. Major prediction residuals include the motion ...

Kam??l?, Fatih

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Généralisation d'une approche de conception de procédés de distillation réactive : application à la production d'hydrogène par le cycle thermochimique I-S.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??La distillation réactive constitue une voie de production prometteuse pour améliorer les procédés conventionnels. Cependant les méthodes, outils et applications proposés dans la littérature se… (more)

Belaissaoui, Bouchra

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Advanced Multi-Effect Distillation System for Desalination Using Waste Heat fromGas Brayton Cycles  

SciTech Connect

Generation IV high temperature reactor systems use closed gas Brayton Cycles to realize high thermal efficiency in the range of 40% to 60%. The waste heat is removed through coolers by water at substantially greater average temperature than in conventional Rankine steam cycles. This paper introduces an innovative Advanced Multi-Effect Distillation (AMED) design that can enable the production of substantial quantities of low-cost desalinated water using waste heat from closed gas Brayton cycles. A reference AMED design configuration, optimization models, and simplified economics analysis are presented. By using an AMED distillation system the waste heat from closed gas Brayton cycles can be fully utilized to desalinate brackish water and seawater without affecting the cycle thermal efficiency. Analysis shows that cogeneration of electricity and desalinated water can increase net revenues for several Brayton cycles while generating large quantities of potable water. The AMED combining with closed gas Brayton cycles could significantly improve the sustainability and economics of Generation IV high temperature reactors.

Haihua Zhao; Per F. Peterson

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Characterization of a Middle Distillate Oil from a Coal hydroliquefaction Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article, a middle distillate oil obtained from a coal hydroliquefaction pilot plant was characterized by modern analytical instruments. First, using {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance, the distribution of hydrogen and carbon atoms were obtained, and the presence of configurations such as long aliphatic carbon chains, alkyl-substituted aromatic ring, and partially hydrogenated aromatics in the middle distillate oil was found. Then the oil was separated into three fractions: saturates, aromatics, and polars by neutral silica gel liquid chromatography, and the detailed compositions of saturates and aromatics were respectively analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that the aromatics fraction is the most abundant one in this oil, but they are not normal aromatics and mainly consist of dicyclic-, tricyclic-, and tetracyclic-partially hydrogenated aromatics with carbon atom numbers from C10-C21, such as tetralin, alkyl-substituted tetralin, hydrophenanthrene, hydroanthracene, hydropyrene, and so on. Saturates mainly comprise n-C12-C27 alkanes. These results are of significance for the further processing and marketing of this oil.

Lin, H.; Zhang, D.; Yang, L.; Pan, T.; Gao, J. [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Aggregate Models based on Improved Group Methods for Simulation and Optimization of Distillation Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This note deals with aggregate models for complex distillation systems in largescale flowsheets. Group methods were originally devised for simple absorber and stripper calculations with no major extensions for handling distillation. In this work, group methods are systematically analyzed and further improved by modifying some of the previously proposed approximations. As a result, the improved group method exhibits accurate predictions and this is demonstrated using simulation and optimization case studies for a variety of chemical systems and operating conditions. It is observed that the prediction of output variables is in close agreement with that of the rigorous equilibrium stage model. In case of optimization problems, the optimal number of trays and feed locations differ by only one or two trays. The aggregate model can be applied in a sequence of steps in order to improve the reliability and robustness of the solution procedure. A rounding heuristic is also proposed which can provide near-optimal solutions with a significant reduction in computational time. ?To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Ravindra S. Kamath; Ignacio E. Grossmann; Lorenz T. Biegler

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

The Scaleup of Structured Packing from Distillation Pilot Plant Testing to Commercial Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Structured packing is being utilized more and more in the process industry for increased efficiency, greater capacity, and energy savings in distillation columns. Pilot plant testing of the actual chemical system using commercially available structured packing is invaluable, but years of experience in pilot plant testing have shown that scaleup to successful commercial designs is a complicated process. In this paper an actual case history is cited as an example of the problems and benefits of conducting pilot plant tests which set the commercial design bases for a distillation train. The actual pilot plant testing involved a different structured packing type and blocked out operations to simulate a large number of theoretical stages. The pilot plant results verified the thermodynamic data to a high confidence level. As a result, the initial commercial installation of structured packing was started immediately. The actual installation and the startup are covered with a discussion of the energy savings and quality improvement which were obtained by replacing trays with the packing. Another case of retrofit testing in the new Koch Development Pilot Plant is discussed indicating other areas for attention to detail.

Berven, O. J.; Ulowetz, M. A.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

,"U.S. Total Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use" Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Residential",4,"Annual",2012,"6/30/1984" ,"Data 2","Commercial",10,"Annual",2012,"6/30/1984" ,"Data 3","Industrial",9,"Annual",2012,"6/30/1984" ,"Data 4","Farm",4,"Annual",2012,"6/30/1984" ,"Data 5","Electric Power",2,"Annual",2012,"6/30/1984" ,"Data 6","Oil Company",2,"Annual",2012,"6/30/1984"

437

Experimental results of hydrogen distillation at the low power cryogenic column for the production of deuterium depleted hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Deuterium Removal Unit (DRU) has been designed and built at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst. (PNPI) to produce isotopically pure hydrogen with deuterium content less than 1 ppm. The cryogenic distillation column of 2.2 cm inner diameter and 155 cm packing height is the main element of the DRU. Column performances at different hydrogen distillation operating modes have been measured. The height equivalent to theoretical plate (HETP) for the column is 2.2 cm and almost constant over a wide range of vapour flow rates. Deuterium depleted hydrogen with a deuterium content of less than 0.1 ppm was produced in required quantity. (authors)

Alekseev, I.; Fedorchenko, O.; Kravtsov, P.; Vasilyev, A.; Vznuzdaev, M. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Leningrad district, Gatchina, 188300 (Russian Federation)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

438

RESIDUAL STRESSES IN 3013 CONTAINERS  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

439

U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Sulfur < 1% Residual F.O., Sulfur > 1% No. 4 Fuel Oil Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes...

440

,"No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refoth_a_epd2_vtr_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refoth_a_epd2_vtr_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oline distillates residuals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Development of dynamic models of reactive distillation columns for simulation and determination of control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamic models of a reactive distillation column have been developed and implemented in this work. A model describing the steady state behavior of the system has been built in a first step. The results from this steady state model have been compared to data provided from an industrial collaborator and the reconciled model formed the basis for the development of a dynamic model. Four controlled and four manipulated variables have been determined in a subsequent step and step tests for the manipulated variables were simulated. The data generated by the step responses was used for fitting transfer functions between the manipulated and the controlled variables. RGA analysis was performed to find the optimal pairing for controller design. Feedback controllers of PID type were designed between the paired variables found from RGA and the controllers were implemented on the column model. Both servo and regulatory problems have been considered and tested.

Chakrabarty, Arnab

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

On the Development of a Distillation Process for the Electrometallurgical Treatment of Irradiated Spent Nuclear Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the spent fuel treatment program at the Idaho National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of actinide products following an electrorefining process. Separation of the actinide products from a molten salt electrolyte and cadmium is achieved by a batch operation called cathode processing. A cathode processor has been designed and developed to efficiently remove the process chemicals and consolidate the actinide products for further processing. This paper describes the fundamentals of cathode processing, the evolution of the equipment design, the operation and efficiency of the equipment, and recent developments at the cathode processor. In addition, challenges encountered during the processing of irradiated spent nuclear fuel in the cathode processor will be discussed.

B.R. Westphal; K.C. Marsden; J.C. Price; D.V. Laug

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Spinodal instabilities and the distillation effect in nuclear matter under strong magnetic fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the effect of strong magnetic fields, of the order of 10{sup 18}-10{sup 19} G, on the instability region of nuclear matter at subsaturation densities. Relativistic nuclear models both with constant couplings and with density-dependent parameters are considered. It is shown that a strong magnetic field can have large effects on the instability regions giving rise to bands of instability and wider unstable regions. As a consequence, we predict larger transition densities at the inner edge of the crust of compact stars with strong magnetic fields. The direction of instability gives rise to a very strong distillation effect if the last Landau level is only partially filled. However, for almost completed Landau levels, an antidistillation effect may occur.

Rabhi, A. [Centro de Fisica Computacional, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, Le Belvedere-1060 (Tunisia); Providencia, C.; Providencia, J. Da [Centro de Fisica Computacional, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

444

A PROCESS FOR SEPARATING AZEOTROPIC MIXTURES BY EXTRACTIVE AND CONVECTIVE DISTILLATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for separating an azeotrope of carbon tetrachloride and 1,1,2,2-tetrafluorodinitroethane boiling at 60 deg C. The ndethod comnprises, specifically, feeding azeotrope vapors admixed with a non- reactive gas into an extractive distillation column heated to a temperature preferably somewhat above the boiling point of the constant boiling mixture. A solvent, di-n-butylphthalate, is metered into the column above the gas inlet and permitted to flow downward, earrying with it the higher bomling fraction, while the constituent having the lower boiling point passes out of the top of the column with the non-reactive gas and is collected in a nitrogen cold trap. Other solvents which alter the vapor pressure relationship may be substituted. The method is generally applicable to azeotropic mixtures. A number of specific mixtures whicb may be separated are disclosed. (AEC)

Frazer, J.W.

1961-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

445

The robustness of magic state distillation against errors in Clifford gates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum error correction and fault-tolerance have provided the possibility for large scale quantum computations without a detrimental loss of quantum information. A very natural class of gates for fault-tolerant quantum computation is the Clifford gate set and as such their usefulness for universal quantum computation is of great interest. Clifford group gates augmented by magic state preparation give the possibility of simulating universal quantum computation. However, experimentally one cannot expect to perfectly prepare magic states. Nonetheless, it has been shown that by repeatedly applying operations from the Clifford group and measurements in the Pauli basis, the fidelity of noisy prepared magic states can be increased arbitrarily close to a pure magic state [1]. We investigate the robustness of magic state distillation to perturbations of the initial states to arbitrary locations in the Bloch sphere due to noise. Additionally, we consider a depolarizing noise model on the quantum gates in the decoding ...

Jochym-O'Connor, Tomas; Helou, Bassam; Laflamme, Raymond

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Savannah River Tank Waste Residuals  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Savannah Savannah River Savannah River Tank Waste Residuals HLW Corporate Board November 6, 2008 1 November 6, 2008 Presentation By Sherri R. Ross Department of Energy Savannah River Operations Office The Issue * How clean is clean? * Ultimate Challenge - Justify highly radioactive radionuclides have been removed to the maximum extent practical? 2 removed to the maximum extent practical? - Building compelling regulatory documentation that will withstand intense scrutiny §3116 Requirements 1. Does not require disposal in deep geological repository 2. Highly radioactive radionuclides removed to the maximum extent practical 3. Meet the performance objectives in 10 CFR Part 3 3. Meet the performance objectives in 10 CFR Part 61, Subpart C 4. Waste disposed pursuant to a State-approved closure plan or permit Note: If it is anticipated that Class C disposal limits will be exceeded, additional

447

Simulation Studies on a Multi-stage Distillation with Slope-Plate Falling Film Evaporation Desalination System Using Solar Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An innovative, multi-stage solar distillation with slope-plate falling film system for seawater desalination is investigated. The system consists of a solar heater (flat plate solar collector) and one evaporation-condensation set that is composed of ... Keywords: solar energy, falling film, desalination

Penghui Gao; Guoqing Zhou; Henglin Lv

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE FROM LEGACY FISSILE MATERIALS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) HB-Line Facility designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a production-scale system for the distillation of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Subsequent efforts adapted the vacuum salt distillation (VSD) technology for the removal of chloride and fluoride from less-volatile halide salts at the same process temperature and vacuum. Calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and plutonium fluoride (PuF{sub 3}) were of particular concern. To enable the use of the same operating conditions for the distillation process, SRNL employed in situ exchange reactions to convert the less-volatile halide salts to compounds that facilitated the distillation of halide without removal of plutonium. SRNL demonstrated the removal of halide from CaCl{sub 2}, CaF{sub 2} and PuF{sub 3} below 1000 C using VSD technology.

Pierce, R.; Peters, T.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Methods of separating particulate residue streams  

SciTech Connect

A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Christopher T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

450

Residual stresses in IN 718 Turbine Disks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

the thermally induced residual stresses in plate-like components during cooling. The plate is. 527 ... cooled down symmetrically with respect to its middle plane.

451

,,,"Residual Fuel Oil(b)",,,," Alternative...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.5;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,"Residual Fuel Oil(b)",,,," Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","...

452

A Benchmark Study on Casting Residual Stress  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stringent regulatory requirements, such as Tier IV norms, have pushed the cast iron for automotive applications to its limit. The castings need to be designed with closer tolerances by incorporating hitherto unknowns, such as residual stresses arising due to thermal gradients, phase and microstructural changes during solidification phenomenon. Residual stresses were earlier neglected in the casting designs by incorporating large factors of safety. Experimental measurement of residual stress in a casting through neutron or X-ray diffraction, sectioning or hole drilling, magnetic, electric or photoelastic measurements is very difficult and time consuming exercise. A detailed multi-physics model, incorporating thermo-mechanical and phase transformation phenomenon, provides an attractive alternative to assess the residual stresses generated during casting. However, before relying on the simulation methodology, it is important to rigorously validate the prediction capability by comparing it to experimental measurements. In the present work, a benchmark study was undertaken for casting residual stress measurements through neutron diffraction, which was subsequently used to validate the accuracy of simulation prediction. The stress lattice specimen geometry was designed such that subsequent castings would generate adequate residual stresses during solidification and cooling, without any cracks. The residual stresses in the cast specimen were measured using neutron diffraction. Considering the difficulty in accessing the neutron diffraction facility, these measurements can be considered as benchmark for casting simulation validations. Simulations were performed using the identical specimen geometry and casting conditions for predictions of residual stresses. The simulation predictions were found to agree well with the experimentally measured residual stresses. The experimentally validated model can be subsequently used to predict residual stresses in different cast components. This enables incorporation of the residual stresses at the design phase along with external loads for accurate predictions of fatigue and fracture performance of the cast components.

Johnson, Eric M. [John Deere -- Moline Tech Center; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Schmidlin, Joshua E [ORNL; Dutler, S. A. [MAGMA Foundry Technologies, Inc.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Characterization Report on Sand, Slag, and Crucible Residues and on Fluoride Residues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on the chemical characterization of the sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C) residues and the fluoride residues that may be shipped from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) to Savannah River Site (SRS).

Murray, A.M.

1999-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

454

Summer Research Seminar Series All Presentations/Workshops are in Olin 115 unless otherwise noted.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mathematical modeling of history). 1 Introduction Many large-scale combinatorial optimisation problems cannot is the unicost SCP (Grossman and Wool, 1997). The cardinality of any P1 solution, x, is the number of xj = 1 be small enough to warrant a unicost model. Grossman and Wool (1997) explore the performance of nine

Koopmann, Rebecca A.

455

Summer Research Seminar Series All Presentations are in Olin 115 unless otherwise noted.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Building a System For Testing Aerogels as Three-Way Catalysts Thursday, July 11 Moderator, Mechanical Engineering) Construction and Debugging of the Union College Aerogel Lab's Second of Vanadia -Titania Aerogels #12;Tuesday, July 30 Moderator: Joanne Kehlbeck 12:15PM Zach Spencer (Prof

Koopmann, Rebecca A.

456

RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES FROM RESIDUES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the recovery of uranium from insoluble oxide residues resistant to repeated leaching with mineral acids. The residue is treated with gaseous hydrogen fluoride, then with hydrogen and again with hydrogen fluoride, preferably at 500 to 700 deg C, prior to the mineral acid leaching.

Schaap, W.B.

1959-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

457

Costing forest residue recovery through simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The search for alternative energy sources has renewed interest in the energy potential of wood. Supplies of wood residue seem to be a likely source of material and the greatest volumes of residue are located in the forest. Methods are needed to more ...

Leonard R. Johnson; Edward L. Fisher

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Process for treatment of residual gas  

SciTech Connect

A process is disclosed for the treatment of the residual gases which are produced when hydrogen sulfide is reduced, by combustion, to elementary sulfur by the Claus process. The residual gases are fed through a heated conduit and gas scrubber, wherein the temperature of those residual gases are maintained above the melting point of sulfur. A portion of the raw coke oven gas condensate is admitted to the gas scrubber to be returned to the coke oven battery main from the flushing liquid separator as flushing liquor. The residual gases are then conducted through the coke oven gas purification process equipment along with the raw coke oven gas where the residual gases are intermixed with the raw coke oven gas prior to tar separation.

Nolden, K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) for biofuel production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) was investigated to determine the effects of pyrolytic conditions on the yields of bio-oil, syngas, and biochar. Pyrolysis process variables included reaction temperature, time, and power input. Microwave pyrolysis of DDGS was analyzed using response surface methodology to ?nd out the effect of process variables on the biofuel (bio-oil and syn- gas) conversion yield and establish prediction models. Bio-oil recovery was in the range of 26.5–50.3 wt.% of the biomass. Biochar yields were 23.5–62.2% depending on the pyrolysis conditions. The energy con- tent of DDGS bio-oils was 28 MJ/kg obtained at the 650 oC and 8 min, which was about 66.7% of the heat- ing value of gasoline. GC/MS analysis indicated that the biooil contained a series of important and useful chemical compounds: aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. At least 13% of DDGS bio-oil was the same hydrocarbon compounds found in regular unleaded gasoline.

Lei, Hanwu; Ren, Shoujie; Wang, Lu; Bu, Quan; Julson, James; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Ruan, Roger

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume II. Literature review  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). This first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 references and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2.

Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oline distillates residuals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

1 DISTILLERS BY-PRODUCTS AND CORN STOVER AS FUELS FOR ETHANOL PLANTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. Dry-grind ethanol plants have the potential to reduce their operating costs and improve their net energy balances by using biomass as the source of process heat and electricity. We utilized ASPEN PLUS software to model various technology bundles of equipment, fuels and operating activities that are capable of supplying energy and satisfying emissions requirements for dry-grind ethanol plants of 50 and 100 million gallons per year capacity using corn stover, distillers dried grains and solubles (DDGS), or a mixture of corn stover and “syrup ” (the solubles portion of DDGS). In addition to their own requirements, plants producing 50 and 100 million gallons of ethanol are capable of supplying 5-7 or 10-14 MegaWatts of electricity to the grid, respectively. Economic analysis showed favorable rates of return for biomass alternatives compared to conventional plants using natural gas and purchased electricity over a range of conditions. The mixture of corn stover and syrup provided the highest rates of return in general. Factors favoring biomass included a higher premium for low carbon footprint ethanol, higher natural gas prices, lower DDGS prices, lower ethanol

Douglas G. Tiffany; R. Vance Morey; Matt De Kam; Douglas G. Tiffany; R. Vance Morey; Matt De Kam

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Some problems of dynamic distributional planning for petroleum distillates in Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This dissertation focuses on the development of mathematical models that may aid in the strategic planning of distributional operations of petroleum distillates in countries such as Mexico, where these operations are very complex involving multiple time periods, multiple commodities, several means of transportation, and uncertain demands. A new mathematical instrument for policy analysis of the west coast tanker distributional operations of Pemex regarding gasoline and diesel fuels is developed in terms of goal-interval programming formulations. Taking advantage of the special structure of these multiperiod-multicommodity formulations that would otherwise be mixed-integer programming problems, new special linear programming structures are devised which achieve integrality at extreme point solutions. This permits assessment of incremental policy changes in terms of the usual dual variables, a significant advantage. The extension of policy planning to other regions of the country, a secondary problem, is begun with a framework of modeling which comprehends inter-regional transfers. Future research will develop the corresponding intra-regional policy tools.

Gomez Lopez, J.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Generalized distillability conjecture and generalizations of Cauchy-Bunyakovsky-Schwarz inequality and Lagrange identity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Let rho_k, k=1,2,...,m, be the critical Werner state in a bipartite d_k by d_k quantum system, i.e., the one that separates the 1-distillable Werner states from those that are 1-indistillable. We propose a new conjecture (GDC) asserting that the tensor product of rho_k is 1-indistillable. This is much stronger than the familiar conjecture saying that a single critical Werner state is indistillable. We prove that GDC is true for arbitrary m provided that d_k is bigger than 2 for at most one index k. We reformulate GDC as an intriguing inequality for four arbitrary complex hypermatrices of type d_1 x ... x d_m. This hypermatrix inequality is just the special case n=2 of a more general conjecture (CBS conjecture) for 2n arbitrary complex hypermatrices of the same type. Surprisingly, the case n=1 turns out to be quite interesting as it provides hypermatrix generalization of the classical Lagrange identity. We also formulate the integral version of the CBS conjecture and derive the integral version of the hypermatrix Lagrange identity.

Dragomir Z. Djokovic

2010-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

464

DYNAMIC MODELING AND CONTROL OF REACTIVE DISTILLATION FOR HYDROGENATION OF BENZENE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work presents a modeling and control study of a reactive distillation column used for hydrogenation of benzene. A steady state and a dynamic model have been developed to investigate control structures for the column. The most important aspects of this control problem are that the purity of the product streams regarding benzene need to be met. At the same time as little toluene as possible should be converted. The former is a constraint imposed by EPA regulations while the latter is tied to process economics due to the high octane number of toluene. It is required to satisfy both of these objectives even under the influence of disturbances, as the feed composition changes on a regular basis. The dynamic model is used for developing transfer function models of two potential control structures. Pairing of inputs and outputs is performed based upon the Relative Gain Array (RGA) and PI controllers were designed for each control structure. The controller performance was then compared in simulation studies. From our results, control structure 2 performed better than control structure 1. The main advantage of CS2 over CS1 is noticed in the simulation of feed composition disturbance rejection, where CS2 returns all variables back to steady state within 3 hrs while it take CS1 more than 20 hrs to return the temperature variables back to steady state.

Aluko, Obanifemi

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Demonstration of ``regulatory`` process controls on the TSTA cryogenic distillation system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Due to the nature of its fusion reaction, most of the DT used to fuel the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will exit unreacted. This effluent will be purified by the fuel cleanup system so that the isotope separation system (ISS) will be fed only hydrogen isotopes and possibly some helium. The ISS will separate this feed into streams nominally composed of He/H2/HD, D2, DT, and T2. These products will be recycled through appropriate fueling systems back to the fusion reactor or returned to storage. The ISS will have to respond properly to feed conditions which change rapidly. Feed changes will propagate quickly through the entire cascade. It is apparent that an automatic control system will be required to respond to these changes and maintain product quality. It is convenient to divide such a distillation control system into `regulatory` controls and composition controls. The `regulatory` controls include liquid levels, flowrates, reboiler heats, and pressure. A system of regulatory controls has been devised and installed on the four-column cascade of cryogenic columns at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This tritium-compatible ISS is designed for approximately 1/10 the ITER flowrate and is dedicated to fusion fuel studies. Details of the TSTA ISS have been published previously.

Willms, R.S.; Sherman, R.H.; Cole, S.P.; Riggs, J.B.; Okuno, K.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Modeling heat and mass transport phenomena at higher temperatures in solar distillation systems - The Chilton-Colburn analogy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present investigation efforts have been devoted towards developing an analysis suitable for heat and mass transfer processes modeling in solar distillation systems, when they are operating at higher temperatures. For this purpose the use of Lewis relation is not new although its validity is based on the assumptions of identical boundary layer concentration and temperature distributions, as well as low mass flux conditions, which are not usually met in solar distillation systems operating at higher temperatures associated with considerable mass transfer rates. The present analysis, taking into consideration these conditions and the temperature dependence of all pertinent thermophysical properties of the saturated binary mixture of water vapor and dry air, leads to the development of an improved predictive accuracy model. This model, having undergone successful first order validation against earlier reported measurements from the literature, appears to offer more accurate predictions of the transport processes and mass flow rate yield of solar stills when operated at elevated temperatures. (author)

Tsilingiris, P.T. [Department of Energy Engineering, Heat Transfer Laboratory, Technological Education Institution of Athens, A. Spyridonos Street, GR 122 10 Egaleo, Athens (Greece)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

467

Conversion to Dual Fuel Capability in Combustion Turbine Plants: Addition of Distillate Oil Firing for Combined Cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During development of combined cycle projects, key assumptions and estimates regarding markets and technology on which the project is based may change. With fuel costs of combined cycle plants representing over 90 percent of annual operating cost, sudden changes in fuel pricing demand attention and re-evaluation. Conversion from natural gas fuel only to dual fuel capability with the addition of distillate oil firing systems is a technical response to market conditions that may have long-term as well as s...

2001-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

468

Application of multi-layer recurrent neural network in chaotic time series prediction: a real case study of crude oil distillation capacity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A full customised case-oriented Multi-Layered Recurrent Neural Network (MLRNN) has been proposed to predict the Capacity of Crude Oil Distillation in OPEC Member Countries. Recurrent neural networks use feedback connections and have the potential to ...

Kaveh Khalili-Damghani; Soheil Sadi-Nezhad

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

SAR impulse response with residual chirps.  

SciTech Connect

A Linear Frequency-Modulated (LFM) chirp is a function with unit amplitude and quadratic phase characteristic. In a focused Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image, a residual chirp is undesired for targets of interest, as it coarsens the manifested resolution. However, for undesired spurious signals, a residual chirp is often advantageous because it spreads the energy and thereby diminishes its peak value. In either case, a good understanding of the effects of a residual LFM chirp on a SAR Impulse Response (IPR) is required to facilitate system analysis and design. This report presents an analysis of the effects of a residual chirp on the IPR. As reference, there is a rich body of publications on various aspects of LFM chirps. A quick search reveals a plethora of articles, going back to the early 1950s. We mention here purely as trivia one of the earlier analysis papers on this waveform by Klauder, et al.

Doerry, Armin Walter

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Gasification of in-Forest Biomass Residues.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Described is a laboratory-scale continuous-feed supercritical water gasification (SCWG) system. The system is operated using real-world Ponderosa Pine sawmill residues at high biomass loadings, short… (more)

Faires, Kenneth B.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Update of distillers grains displacement ratios for corn ethanol life-cycle analysis.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following coproducts: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these coproducts, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol coproducts including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds, including Prof. Klopfenstein (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Prof. Berger (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Mr. Madson (Rapheal Katzen International Associates, Inc.), and Prof. Trenkle (Iowa State University) (Wang 1999). Table 1 presents current dry milling coproduct displacement ratios being used in the GREET model. The current effort focuses on updating displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol coproducts used in the animal feed industry. Because of the increased availability and use of these coproducts as animal feeds, more information is available on how these coproducts replace conventional animal feeds. To glean this information, it is also important to understand how industry selects feed. Because of the wide variety of available feeds, animal nutritionists use commercial software (such as Brill Formulation{trademark}) for feed formulation. The software recommends feed for the animal on the basis of the nutritional characteristics, availability, and price of various animal feeds, as well as on the nutritional requirements of the animal (Corn Refiners Association 2006). Therefore, feed formulation considers both the economic and the nutritional characteristics of feed products.

Arora, S.; Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Decay of rho and a1 mesons on the lattice using distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We extract the P-wave pi-pi phase shift for five values of pion relative momenta, which gives information on the rho resonance. The Breit-Wigner formula describes the pi-pi phase shift dependence nicely and we extract m(rho)=792(7)(8) MeV and the coupling g_{\\rho\\pi\\pi}=5.13(20) at our mpi=266 MeV. We extract the P-wave scattering length a_{l=1}^{\\pi\\pi}=0.082(10)(3) fm^3 from the state with the lowest pion relative momenta. We also determine the S-wave rho-pi phase shift for two values of relative momenta, which provides parameters of the lowest axial resonance a1(1260). Using the Breit-Wigner fit we extract m(a1)=1.44(4) GeV and the coupling g_{a_1\\rho\\pi}=1.1(3) GeV. From the lowest state we also extract the rho-pi scattering length a_{l=0}^{\\rho\\pi}=0.23(12) fm for our mpi. The simulation is performed using one Nf=2 ensemble of gauge configurations with clover-improved Wilson quarks. The phase shifts are determined from the lowest two energy-levels, which are obtained by the variational analysis with a number of quark-antiquark and meson-meson interpolators. The correlation functions are calculated using the distillation method with the Laplacian Heaviside (LapH) smearing of quarks.

S. Prelovsek; C. B. Lang; D. Mohler; M. Vidmar

2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

473

Residual Circulations Due to Bottom Roughness Variability under Tidal Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tidal flows over irregular bathymetry are known to produce residual circulation flows due to nonlinear interaction with gradients of depth. Using the depth-averaged vorticity equations, the generation of residual vorticity and residual flows due ...

Thomas F. Gross; Francisco E. Werner

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Sulfur < 1% Residual F.O., Sulfur > 1% No. 4 Fuel Oil Period-Unit: Monthly - Thousand Gallons per Day Annual - Thousand Gallons per Day...

475

The Neutron Residual Stress Mapping Facility at HFIR | ORNL Neutron...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Neutron Residual Stress Mapping Facility at HFIR Neutron Residual Stress Mapping Facility (HB-2B) Neutron Residual Stress Mapping Facility (HB-2B). The HB-2B beam port is optimized...

476

EA-1120: Solid Residues Treatment, Repackaging and Storage at...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0: Solid Residues Treatment, Repackaging and Storage at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado EA-1120: Solid Residues Treatment, Repackaging and Storage...

477

EIS-0277: Management of Certain Plutonium Residues and Scrub...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

77: Management of Certain Plutonium Residues and Scrub Alloy Stored at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site EIS-0277: Management of Certain Plutonium Residues and Scrub...

478

Animal Performance and Diet Quality While Grazing Corn Residue.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Grazing cattle on corn residue as a winter feed source has become an integral part of many Nebraska producers’ management plans. Utilizing corn residues extends… (more)

Gigax, Jennifer A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Potential for biogas production fromslaughter houses residues in Bolivia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Residues from slaughter houses offer an abundant resource in Bolivia. The residues can beused for biogas production with biofertilizer as a bi-product. These resources… (more)

Tesfaye Tefera, Tadious

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Disposal of Rocky Flats residues as waste  

SciTech Connect

Work is underway at the Rocky Flats Plant to evaluate alternatives for the removal of a large inventory of plutonium-contaminated residues from the plant. One alternative under consideration is to package the residues as transuranic wastes for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Current waste acceptance criteria and transportation regulations require that approximately 1000 cubic yards of residues be repackaged to produce over 20,000 cubic yards of WIPP certified waste. The major regulatory drivers leading to this increase in waste volume are the fissile gram equivalent, surface radiation dose rate, and thermal power limits. In the interest of waste minimization, analyses have been conducted to determine, for each residue type, the controlling criterion leading to the volume increase, the impact of relaxing that criterion on subsequent waste volume, and the means by which rules changes may be implemented. The results of this study have identified the most appropriate changes to be proposed in regulatory requirements in order to minimize the costs of disposing of Rocky Flats residues as transuranic wastes.

Dustin, D.F.; Sendelweck, V.S. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Plant; Rivera, M.A. [Lamb Associates, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "oline distillates residuals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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481

Reclamation of plutonium from pyrochemical processing residues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have jointly developed a process to recover plutonium from molten salt extraction residues. These NaCl, KCL, and MgCl/sub 2/ residues, which are generated in the pyrochemical extraction of /sup 241/Am from aged plutonium metal, contain up to 25 wt % dissolved plutonium and up to 2 wt % americium. The overall objective was to develop a process to convert these residues to a pure plutonium metal product and discardable waste. To meet this objective a combination of pyrochemical and aqueous unit operations was used. The first step was to scrub the salt residue with a molten metal (aluminum and magnesium) to form a heterogeneous ''scrub alloy'' containing nominally 25 wt % plutonium. This unit operation, performed at RFP, effectively separated the actinides from the bulk of the chloride salts. After packaging in aluminum cans, the ''scrub alloy'' was then dissolved in a nitric acid - hydrofluoric acid - mercuric nitrate solution at SRP. Residual chloride was separated from the dissolver solution by precipitation with Hg/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ followed by centrifuging. Plutonium was then separated from the aluminum, americium and magnesium using the Purex solvent extraction system. The /sup 241/Am was diverted to the waste tank farm, but could be recovered if desired.

Gray, L.W.; Gray, J.H.; Holcomb, H.P.; Chostner, D.F.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Analysis of Oxygenated Compounds in Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil Distillate Fractions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three hydrotreated bio-oils with different oxygen contents (8.2, 4.9, and 0.4 w/w) were distilled to produce Light, Naphtha, Jet, Diesel, and Gasoil boiling range fractions that were characterized for oxygen containing species by a variety of analytical methods. The bio-oils were originally generated from lignocellulosic biomass in an entrained-flow fast pyrolysis reactor. Analyses included elemental composition, carbon type distribution by {sup 13}C NMR, acid number, GC-MS, volatile organic acids by LC, and carbonyl compounds by DNPH derivatization and LC. Acid number titrations employed an improved titrant-electrode combination with faster response that allowed detection of multiple endpoints in many samples and for acid values attributable to carboxylic acids and to phenols to be distinguished. Results of these analyses showed that the highest oxygen content bio-oil fractions contained oxygen as carboxylic acids, carbonyls, aryl ethers, phenols, and alcohols. Carboxylic acids and carbonyl compounds detected in this sample were concentrated in the Light, Naphtha, and Jet fractions (oil or refinery intermediate streams may exist for the Diesel and Gasoil fractions. The 4.9 % oxygen sample contained almost exclusively phenolic compounds found to be present throughout the boiling range of this sample, but imparting measurable acidity primarily in the Light, Naphtha and Jet fractions. Additional study is required to understand what levels of the weakly acidic phenols could be tolerated in a refinery feedstock. The Diesel and Gasoil fractions from this upgraded oil had low acidity but still contained 3 to 4 wt% oxygen present as phenols that could not be specifically identified. These materials appear to have excellent potential as refinery feedstocks and some potential for blending into finished fuels. Fractions from the lowest oxygen content oil exhibited some phenolic acidity, but generally contained very low levels of oxygen functional groups. These materials would likely be suitable as refinery feedstocks and potentially as fuel blend components. PIONA analysis of the Light and Naphtha fractions shows benzene content of 0.5 and 0.4 vol%, and predicted (RON + MON)/2 of 63 and 70, respectively.

Christensen, Earl D.; Chupka, Gina; Luecke, Jon; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Alleman, Teresa L.; Iisa, Kristiina; Franz, James A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; McCormick, Robert L.

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

483

Investigation of the Potential for Biofuel Blends in Residual Oil-Fired Power Generation Units as an Emissions Reduction Strategy for New York State  

SciTech Connect

There is a significant amount of oil, about 12.6 million barrels per year, used for power generation in New York State. The majority of it is residual oil. The primary reason for using residual oil probably is economic, as these fuels are cheaper than distillates. However, the stack emissions from the use of such fuels, especially in densely populated urban areas, can be a cause for concern. The emissions of concern include sulfur and nitrogen oxides and particulates, particularly PM 2.5. Blending with distillate (ASTM No.2) fuels may not reduce some or all of these emissions. Hence, a case can be made for blending with biofuels, such as biodiesel, as they tend to have very little fuel bound sulfur and nitrogen and have been shown in prior work at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to reduce NOx emissions as well in small boilers. Some of the research carried out at CANMET in Canada has shown potential reductions in PM with blending of biodiesel in distillate oil. There is also the benefit obtaining from the renewable nature of biofuels in reducing the net carbon dioxide emitted thus contributing to the reduction of green house gases that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere. The present project was conceived to examine the potential for such benefits of blending biofuels with residual oil. A collaboration was developed with personnel at the New York City Poletti Power Plant of the New York Power Authority. Their interest arose from an 800 MW power plant that was using residual oil and which was mandated to be shut down in 2010 because of environmental concerns. A blend of 20% biodiesel in residual oil had also been tested for a short period of about two days in that boiler a couple of years back. In this project, emission measurements including particulate measurements of PM2.5 were made in the commercial boiler test facility at BNL described below. Baseline tests were done using biodiesel as the blending biofuel. Biodiesel is currently and probably in the foreseeable future more expensive than residual fuel. So, another task was to explore potential alternative biofuels that might confer emission benefits similar to those of biodiesel, while being potentially significantly cheaper. Of course, for power plant use, availability in the required quantities is also a significant criterion. A subsidiary study to determine the effect of the temperature of the filter used to collect and measure the PM 2.5 emissions was conducted. This was done for reasons of accuracy in a residential boiler using distillate fuel blends. The present report details the results obtained in these tests with the baseline ASTM No. 6 fuel and blends of biodiesel with it as well as the results of the filter temperature study. The search for the alternative 'cheaper' biofuel identified a potential candidate, but difficulties encountered with the equipment during the testing prevented testing of the alternative biofuel.

Krishna, C.R.; McDonald, R.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Investigation of the Potential for Biofuel Blends in Residual Oil-Fired Power Generation Units as an Emissions Reduction Strategy for New York State  

SciTech Connect

There is a significant amount of oil, about 12.6 million barrels per year, used for power generation in New York State. The majority of it is residual oil. The primary reason for using residual oil probably is economic, as these fuels are cheaper than distillates. However, the stack emissions from the use of such fuels, especially in densely populated urban areas, can be a cause for concern. The emissions of concern include sulfur and nitrogen oxides and particulates, particularly PM 2.5. Blending with distillate (ASTM No.2) fuels may not reduce some or all of these emissions. Hence, a case can be made for blending with biofuels, such as biodiesel, as they tend to have very little fuel bound sulfur and nitrogen and have been shown in prior work at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to reduce NOx emissions as well in small boilers. Some of the research carried out at CANMET in Canada has shown potential reductions in PM with blending of biodiesel in distillate oil. There is also the benefit obtaining from the renewable nature of biofuels in reducing the net carbon dioxide emitted thus contributing to the reduction of green house gases that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere. The present project was conceived to examine the potential for such benefits of blending biofuels with residual oil. A collaboration was developed with personnel at the New York City Poletti Power Plant of the New York Power Authority. Their interest arose from an 800 MW power plant that was using residual oil and which was mandated to be shut down in 2010 because of environmental concerns. A blend of 20% biodiesel in residual oil had also been tested for a short period of about two days in that boiler a couple of years back. In this project, emission measurements including particulate measurements of PM2.5 were made in the commercial boiler test facility at BNL described below. Baseline tests were done using biodiesel as the blending biofuel. Biodiesel is currently and probably in the foreseeable future more expensive than residual fuel. So, another task was to explore potential alternative biofuels that might confer emission benefits similar to those of biodiesel, while being potentially significantly cheaper. Of course, for power plant use, availability in the required quantities is also a significant criterion. A subsidiary study to determine the effect of the temperature of the filter used to collect and measure the PM 2.5 emissions was conducted. This was done for reasons of accuracy in a residential boiler using distillate fuel blends. The present report details the results obtained in these tests with the baseline ASTM No. 6 fuel and blends of biodiesel with it as well as the results of the filter temperature study. The search for the alternative 'cheaper' biofuel identified a potential candidate, but difficulties encountered with the equipment during the testing prevented testing of the alternative biofuel.

Krishna, C.R.; McDonald, R.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

DEVELOPMENT OF A SUPPLEMENTAL RESIDUAL CONTAMINATION GUIDELINE  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

DEVELOPMENT OF A SUPPLEMENTAL RESIDUAL CONTAMINATION GUIDELINE DEVELOPMENT OF A SUPPLEMENTAL RESIDUAL CONTAMINATION GUIDELINE FOR THE NFSS CENTRAL DRAINAGE DITCH DECEMBER 1986 Prepared for UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OAK RIDGE OPERATIONS OFFICE Under Contract No. DE-AC05-81OR20722 By Bechtel National, Inc. Oak Ridge, Tennessee Bechtel Job No. 14501 I 1.0 INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY 1.1 OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE The objective of this report is to describe the methodology used for establishing a supplemental residual contamination guideline for the NFSS vicinity property known as the Central Drainage Ditch (CDD). Supplemental guidelines may exceed authorized guidelines if the resultant dose will not exceed the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem/yr (Ref. 1). This evaluation is based on realistic exposure pathways that were

486

System and method for measuring residual stress  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method and system for determining the residual stress within an elastic object. In the method, an elastic object is cut along a path having a known configuration. The cut creates a portion of the object having a new free surface. The free surface then deforms to a contour which is different from the path. Next, the contour is measured to determine how much deformation has occurred across the new free surface. Points defining the contour are collected in an empirical data set. The portion of the object is then modeled in a computer simulator. The points in the empirical data set are entered into the computer simulator. The computer simulator then calculates the residual stress along the path which caused the points within the object to move to the positions measured in the empirical data set. The calculated residual stress is then presented in a useful format to an analyst.

Prime, Michael B. (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Quantum distillation: Dynamical generation of low-entropy states of strongly correlated fermions in an optical lattice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Correlations between particles can lead to subtle and sometimes counterintuitive phenomena. We analyze one such case, occurring during the sudden expansion of fermions in a lattice when the initial state has a strong admixture of double occupancies. We promote the notion of quantum distillation: during the expansion and in the case of strongly repulsive interactions, doublons group together, forming a nearly ideal band insulator, which is metastable with low entropy. We propose that this effect could be used for cooling purposes in experiments with two-component Fermi gases.

Heidrich-Meisner, F. [Institut fur Physikalische Chemie der RWTH; Manmana, S. R. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland; Rigol, M. [Georgetown University; Muramatsu, A. [Universitat Stuttgart, Institute fur Plasmaforschung, Germany; Feiguin, A. E. [University of Maryland; Dagotto, Elbio R [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Study on Residual Current Protective Strategy Based on Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Residual current protective devices play an important role in electrical safety engineering. When dangerous residual current occurs, automatic disconnection of power supply can prevent dangerous residual currents which may cause burns, fires and electrocution. ... Keywords: residual current device, discrimination protection, fieldbus, protective strategy

Yue Dawei; Li Kui; Wang Yao; Wang Jibo

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

A critical review of residual stress technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current technology for evaluating residual in materials has been critically reviewed from the perspective of LLNL needs. The primary technique available continues to be x-ray diffraction (XRD). Substantial analytical and experimental refinements have been made in the past decade. An especially promising development in XRD is the use of energy dispersive spectroscopy for evaluating triaxial stress. This would provide an alternative to neutron diffraction, a technique limited to a relatively small number of outside laboratories. Recent research in residual stress measurement using ultrasonics have concentrated on shear wave techniques. Substantial progress has been made in the use of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT's), surface waves, corrections for texture, and, of special interest to LLNL, the ability to characterize interfacial stress. Strain gages and related technologies continue to be actively used in field measurements of residual stress, although there is generally some destructive nature to those techniques. An increased use of multiple technique approaches to residual stress evaluation is occurring for the purposes of both verification and complementary measurements. Among a number of miscellaneous techniques found in the recent literature are several involving the use of stress-sensitive magnetic properties and an especially promising use of the thermoelastic effect for noncontact stress mapping. Recommendations for LLNL activity include energy dispersive XRD, ultrasonics characterization of anisotropy and interfacial stress, and investigation of the thermoelastic effect. 57 refs.

Shackelford, J.F.; Brown, B.D.

1987-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

490

Immobilization of Rocky Flats Graphite Fines Residues  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is developing an immobilization process for graphite fines residues generated during nuclear materials production activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats). The continued storage of this material has been identified as an item of concern. The residue was generated during the cleaning of graphite casting molds and potentially contains reactive plutonium metal. The average residue composition is 73 wt percent graphite, 15 wt percent calcium fluoride (CaF2), and 12 wt percent plutonium oxide (PuO2). Approximately 950 kilograms of this material are currently stored at Rocky Flats. The strategy of the immobilization process is to microencapsulate the residue by mixing with a sodium borosilicate (NBS) glass frit and heating at nominally 700 degrees C. The resulting waste form would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Since the PuO2 concentration in the residue averages 12 wt percent, the immobilization process was required to meet the intent of safeguards termination criteria by limiting plutonium recoverability based on a test developed by Rocky Flats. The test required a plutonium recovery of less than 4 g/kg of waste form when a sample was leached using a nitric acid/CaF2 dissolution flowsheet. Immobilization experiments were performed using simulated graphite fines with cerium oxide (CeO2) as a surrogate for PuO2 and with actual graphite fines residues. Small-scale surrogate experiments demonstrated that a 4:1 frit to residue ratio was adequate to prevent recovery of greater than 4 g/kg of cerium from simulated waste forms. Additional experiments investigated the impact of varying concentrations of CaF2 and the temperature/heating time cycle on the cerium recovery. Optimal processing conditions developed during these experiments were subsequently demonstrated at full-scale with surrogate materials and on a smaller scale using actual graphite fines.In general, the recovery of cerium from the full-scale waste forms was higher than for smaller scale experiments. The presence of CaF2 also caused a dramatic increase in cerium recovery not seen in the small-scale experiments. However, the results from experiments with actual graphite fines were encouraging. A 4:1 frit to residue ratio, a temperature of 700 degrees C, and a 2 hr heating time produced waste forms with plutonium recoveries of 4 plus/minus 1 g/kg. With an increase in the frit to residue ratio, waste forms fabricated at this scale should meet the Rocky Flats product specification. The scale-up of the waste form fabrication process to nominally 3 kg is expected to require a 5:1 to 6:1 frit to residue ratio and maintaining the waste form centerline temperature at 700 degrees C for 2 hr.

Rudisill, T. S.

1998-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

491

Middle distillate hydrotreatment zeolite catalysts containing Pt/Pd or Ni  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A study on middle distillate hydrotreatment zeolite catalysts containing Pt/Pd and/or Ni was performed. The effect of the addition of the corresponding CoMo, CoMoPd, CoMoPtPd and CoMoNi in PdNiPt-zeolite, Pt-zeolite, Ni-zeolite, and PdPt-zeolite was studied. The catalysts were characterized physically and chemically by methods and techniques such as Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Barret-Joyner-Hallenda (BJH), and neutron activation analysis. The structures of the Ni and Pt containing zeolite were studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). An experimental apparatus was constructed to investigate the activity of the experimental catalysts. The catalysts activity measured in terms of conversion of dibenzothiophene (DBT), substituted dibenzothiophenes (sDBT) and phenanthrene as well as molar-averaged conversion was evaluated in a continuous flow Robinson Mahoney reactor with stationary basket in the hydrodesulfurization and hydrogenation of heavy gas oil which contains sulphur refractory compounds such as 4- methyldibenzotiophene (4-MDBT) and 4,6- dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT). DBT, 4-MDBT, 3-MDBT, 1-EDBT, 3-EDBT, 4,6-DMDBT, 3,6-DMDBT, 2,8- DMDBT and 4-methylnaphtho[2,1-b]thiophene were selected to calculate the molaraveraged conversion. The conversions of the sulfur containing compounds and phenanthrene were determined as a function of the operating variables: space time (W/Fo DBT), temperature, H2/HC mol ratio and pressure. The Conversions of DBT and 4,6-DMDBT into their reaction products such as Biphenyl (BPH), Cyclohexylbenzene (CHB), Bicyclohexyl (BCH) and 3,4-Dimethylbiyphenyl (3,4-DMBPH) were determined only as a function of space time in the interval of 4000-6000 kgcath/kmol. The results of this work showed that Pt-HY and PdPt-HY are good noble metals catalysts for the hydrodesulfurization of heavy gas oil. Moreover, this study showed that CoMoPd/Pt-HY and CoMoNi/PdPt-HY catalysts are good candidates for deep HDS and hydrogenation of heavy gas oil. It was found that the conversions of sulfur compounds were higher than the conversions provided by the conventional CoMo/Al2O3 catalyst. Also higher hydrogenation of phenanthrene was observed. Deactivation of the catalysts was not observed during the operation. Finally, the study not only contributed to define the technical bases for the preparation of the noble metal catalysts for hydrodesulfurization of heavy gas oil at pilot scale, but also provided technical information for developing the kinetic modeling of the hydrodesulfurization of heavy gas oil with the noble metal catalysts.

Marin-Rosas, Celia

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Fractionally distilled SRC-I, SRC-II, EDS, H-Coal and ITSL direct coal liquefaction process materials: a comparative summary of chemical analysis and biological testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document reports and compares the results compiled from chemical analyses and biological testing of coal liquefaction process materials which were fractionally distilled, after production, into various comparable boiling-point range cuts. Comparative analyses were performed on solvent refined coal (SRC)-I, SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS an integrated two-stage liquefaction (ITSL) distillate materials. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity assays were conducted in conjunction with chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses to provide detailed, comparative, chemical and biological assessments. Where possible, results obtained from the distillate cuts are compared to those from coal liquefaction materials with limited boiling ranges. Work reported here was conducted by investigators in the Biology and Chemistry Department at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Richland, WA. 38 refs., 16 figs., 27 tabs.

Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.; Dauble, D.D.; Wilson, B.W.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

,"U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates" Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates",11,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refoth_d_nus_vtr_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refoth_d_nus_vtr_mgalpd_m.htm"

494

,"U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates" Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates",11,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refoth_d_nus_vwr_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refoth_d_nus_vwr_mgalpd_m.htm"

495

Waste Heat Recovery and Recycling in Thermal Separation Processes: Distillation, Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE) and Crystallization Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evaporation and crystallization are key thermal separation processes for concentrating and purifying inorganic and organic products with energy consumption over 1,000 trillion Btu/yr. This project focused on a challenging task of recovering low-temperature latent heat that can have a paradigm shift in the way thermal process units will be designed and operated to achieve high-energy efficiency and significantly reduce the carbon footprint as well as water footprint. Moreover, this project has evaluated the technical merits of waste-heat powered thermal heat pumps for recovery of latent heat from distillation, multi-effect evaporation (MEE), and crystallization processes and recycling into the process. The Project Team has estimated the potential energy, economics and environmental benefits with the focus on reduction in CO2 emissions that can be realized by 2020, assuming successful development and commercialization of the technology being developed. Specifically, with aggressive industry-wide applications of heat recovery and recycling with absorption heat pumps, energy savings of about 26.7 trillion Btu/yr have been estimated for distillation process. The direct environmental benefits of this project are the reduced emissions of combustible products. The estimated major reduction in environmental pollutants in the distillation processes is in CO2 emission equivalent to 3.5 billion lbs/year. Energy consumption associated with water supply and treatments can vary between 1,900 kWh and 23,700 kWh per million-gallon water depending on sources of natural waters [US DOE, 2006]. Successful implementation of this technology would significantly reduce the demand for cooling-tower waters, and thereby the use and discharge of water treatment chemicals. The Project Team has also identified and characterized working fluid pairs for the moderate-temperature heat pump. For an MEE process, the two promising fluids are LiNO3+KNO3+NANO3 (53:28:19 ) and LiNO3+KNO3+NANO2(53:35:12). And for an H2O2 distillation process, the two promising fluids are Trifluoroethanol (TFE) + Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl ether (DMETEG) and Ammonia+ Water. Thermo-physical properties calculated by Aspen+ are reasonably accurate. Documentation of the installation of pilot-plants or full commercial units were not found in the literature for validating thermo-physical properties in an operating unit. Therefore, it is essential to install a pilot-scale unit to verify thermo-physical properties of working fluid pairs and validate the overall efficiency of the thermal heat pump at temperatures typical of distillation processes. For an HO2 process, the ammonia-water heat pump system is more compact and preferable than the TFE-DMETEG heat pump. The ammonia-water heat pump is therefore recommended for the H2O2 process. Based on the complex nature of the heat recovery system, we anticipated that capital costs could make investments financially unattractive where steam costs are low, especially where co-generation is involved. We believe that the enhanced heat transfer equipment has the potential to significantly improve the performance of TEE crystallizers, independent of the absorption heat-pump recovery system. Where steam costs are high, more detailed design/cost engineering will be required to verify the economic viability of the technology. Due to the long payback period estimated for the TEE open system, further studies on the TEE system are not warranted unless there are significant future improvements to heat pump technology. For the H2O2 distillation cycle heat pump waste heat recovery system, there were no significant process constraints and the estimated 5 years payback period is encouraging. We therefore recommend further developments of application of the thermal heat pump in the H2O2 distillation process with the focus on the technical and economic viability of heat exchangers equipped with the state-of-the-art enhancements. This will require additional funding for a prototype unit to validate enhanced thermal performances of heat transfer equipment, evaluat

Emmanuel A. Dada; Chandrakant B. Panchal; Luke K. Achenie; Aaron Reichl; Chris C. Thomas

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

496

Recovery of recyclable materials from shredder residue  

SciTech Connect

Each year, about 11 million tons of metals (ferrous and nonferrous) are recovered in the US from about 10 million discarded automobiles. The recovered metals account for about 75% of the total weight of the discarded vehicles. The balance of the material or shredder residue, which amounts to about 3 million tons annually, is currently landfilled. The residue contains a diversity of potentially recyclable materials, including polyurethane foams, iron oxides, and certain thermoplastics. This paper discusses a process under development at Argonne National Laboratory to separate and recover the recyclable materials from this waste stream. The process consists essentially of two-stages. First, a physical separation is used to recover the foams and the metal oxides, followed by a chemical process to extract certain thermoplastics. Status of the technology is discussed and process economics reviewed.

Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Brockmeier, N.F.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Residual stress determination using strain gage measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A strain gage technique, which relates the prior residual stress state in a material to the strain data obtained by fixing a strain gage on one surface and grinding off the other, has been proposed previously. In the current work, a generalized solution for obtaining an arbitrary residual stress profile from strain gage data is presented. Numerical analysis using the solution indicates that the formulation is insensitive to random errors of 10% or less in the experimental data. Based on the results of the analysis, a procedure for determining stress profiles from strain gage data is outlined. Experimental data for tempered glass was analyzed using the technique proposed. The stress profiles predicted are in good agreement with independent observations using indentation and strength data.

Tandon, R.; Green, D.J. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (US))

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z