National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for oled integrated substrate

  1. Integrated Plastic Substrates for OLED Lighting | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Plastic Substrates for OLED Lighting Integrated Plastic Substrates for OLED Lighting Lead Performer: Sinovia Technologies - Foster City, CA Partners: - Eastman Kodak Company - Rochester, NY - Vitriflex - San Jose, CA - Solvay, USA Inc. - Houston, TX DOE Total Funding: $1,211,240 Cost Share: $1,249,430 Project Term: 8/1/15 - 3/1/17 Funding Opportunity: SSL R&D Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) (DE-FOA-0001171) Project Objective This project will combine a barrier film technology with a

  2. R2R Production of Low-Cost Integrated OLED Substrate with Improved...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    R2R Production of Low-Cost Integrated OLED Substrate with Improved Transparent Conductor and Enhanced Light Outcoupling R2R Production of Low-Cost Integrated OLED Substrate with ...

  3. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Benton; Abhinav Bhandari

    2012-09-30

    PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPGâ??s program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using PPGâ??s high transmission Solarphire® float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve organic lightemitting diode (OLED) devices with good performance and high yields. Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic lightemitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for 2.0mm substrates which are at par with the standard diffuser sheets used by OLED manufacturers. For an internal extraction layer (IEL), PPG tested two concepts combining nanoparticles either in a solgel coating inserted between the anode and OLED or anode and glass interface, or incorporated into the internal surface of the glass. Efficacy enhancements of 1.31x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for the IEL by itself and factors of 1.73x were attained for an IEL in combination of thick acrylic block as an EEL. Recent offline measurements indicate that, with further optimization, factors over 2.0x could be achieved through an IEL alone.

  4. PPG Industries Develops a Low-Cost Integrated OLED Substrate | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy Research & Development » R&D Highlights » PPG Industries Develops a Low-Cost Integrated OLED Substrate PPG Industries Develops a Low-Cost Integrated OLED Substrate With the help of DOE funding, PPG Industries, Inc., has developed a low-cost OLED substrate, using inexpensive soda-lime "float" glass that the company manufactures at high volume for the architectural industry. Float glass is thin sheet glass and is much less expensive than the borosilicate or

  5. R2R Production of Low-Cost Integrated OLED Substrate with Improved

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transparent Conductor and Enhanced Light Outcoupling | Department of Energy R2R Production of Low-Cost Integrated OLED Substrate with Improved Transparent Conductor and Enhanced Light Outcoupling R2R Production of Low-Cost Integrated OLED Substrate with Improved Transparent Conductor and Enhanced Light Outcoupling Lead Performer: MicroContinuum, Inc. - Cambridge, MA DOE Total Funding: $1,149,037 Project Term: April 6, 2015 - April 5, 2017 Funding Opportunity: FY2015 Phase II Release 1 SBIR

  6. ITO-free white OLEDs on Flexible Substrates with Enhanced Light...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ITO-free white OLEDs on Flexible Substrates with Enhanced Light Outcoupling ITO-free white OLEDs on Flexible Substrates with Enhanced Light Outcoupling Lead Performer: Princeton ...

  7. ITO-free white OLEDs on Flexible Substrates with Enhanced Light Outcoupling

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    | Department of Energy ITO-free white OLEDs on Flexible Substrates with Enhanced Light Outcoupling ITO-free white OLEDs on Flexible Substrates with Enhanced Light Outcoupling Lead Performer: Princeton University - Princeton, NJ DOE Total Funding: $1,021,241 Cost Share: $255,661 Project Term: 9/10/2014 - 9/9/2016 Funding Opportunity: SSL R&D Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) (DE-FOA-0000973) Project Objective This project will integrate multiple aspects of outcoupling enhancement

  8. OLED Luminaire with Panel Integrated Drivers and Advanced Controls...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DC current drivers integrated with each panel, and a base station that interfaces with ... More Documents & Publications High-Performance OLED Panel and Luminaire Luminaires for ...

  9. OLED Luminaire with Panel Integrated Drivers and Advanced Controls |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy OLED Luminaire with Panel Integrated Drivers and Advanced Controls OLED Luminaire with Panel Integrated Drivers and Advanced Controls Lead Performer: Acuity Brands Lighting - Berkeley, CA Partners: OLEDWorks - Rochester, NY DOE Total Funding: $337,505 Cost Share: $112,502 Project Term: 7/1/15 - 6/30/16 Funding Opportunity: SSL R&D Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) (DE-FOA-0001171) Project Objective This project plans to develop an OLED luminaire that features DC

  10. Integrated fuses for OLED lighting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pschenitzka, Florian

    2007-07-10

    An embodiment of the present invention pertains to an electroluminescent lighting device for area illumination. The lighting device is fault tolerant due, in part, to the patterning of one or both of the electrodes into strips, and each of one or more of these strips has a fuse formed on it. The fuses are integrated on the substrate. By using the integrated fuses, the number of external contacts that are used is minimized. The fuse material is deposited using one of the deposition techniques that is used to deposit the thin layers of the electroluminescent lighting device.

  11. Manufacturing Process for OLED Integrated Substrate | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Pittsburgh, PA - Universal Display Corporation - Ewing, NJ DOE Total Funding: ... PPG will partner with Universal Display Corporation (UDC) to fabricate and characterize ...

  12. Manufacturing Process for OLED Integrated Substrate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1214 2. Low cost sputtered anode, 415 3. IEL, EEL, IELEEL evaluation, 715 4. Process optimization, 716 Budget: Total DOE to date: 841,351 Total future DOE : 1,504,287 ...

  13. High Efficancy Integrated Under-Cabinet Phosphorescent OLED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Hack

    2001-10-31

    In this two year program Universal Display Corporation (UDC) together with the University of Michigan, Teknokon, developed and delivered an energy efficient phosphorescent OLED under cabinet illumination system. Specifically the UDC team goal was in 2011 to deliver five (5) Beta level OLED under cabinet lighting fixtures each consisting of five 6-inch x 6-inch OLED lighting panels, delivering over 420 lumens, at an overall system efficacy of >60 lm/W, a CRI of >85, and a projected lifetime to 70% of initial luminance to exceed 20,000 hours. During the course of this program, the Team pursued the commercialization of these OLED based under cabinet lighting fixtures, to enable the launch of commercial OLED lighting products. The UDC team was ideally suited to develop these novel and efficient solid state lighting fixtures, having both the technical experience and commercial distribution mechanisms to leverage work performed under this contract. UDC's business strategy is to non-exclusively license its PHOLED technology to lighting manufacturers, and also supply them with our proprietary PHOLED materials. UDC is currently working with several licensees who are manufacturing OLED lighting panels using our technology. During this 2 year program, we further developed our high efficiency white Phosphorescent OLEDs from the first milestone, achieving a 80 lm/W single pixel to the final milestone, achieving an under-cabinet PHOLED lighting system that operates at 56 lm/W at 420 lumens. Each luminaire was comprised of ten 15cm x 7.5cm lighting modules mounted in outcoupling enhancement lenses and a control module. The lamps modules are connected together using either plugs or wires with plugs on each end, allowing for unlimited configurations. The lamps are driven by an OLED driver mounted in an enclosure which includes the AC plug. As a result of advancements gained under this program, the path to move OLED lighting panels from development into manufacturing has been further realized. We have found that under-cabinet lighting is an ideal first entry product opportunity to launch OLED lighting for residential applications. From the studies that we have performed, our PHOLED under-cabinet lighting system performance is very similar to many of the current commercially available LED under-cabinet luminaires. We also found that the projected cost of PHOLED luminaire should be comparable to the LED luminaire by 2015. With the additional benefits of PHOLED lighting, no glare, better uniformity and low operating temperature, it can be easily seen how the PHOLED under-cabinet luminaire could be preferred over the LED competition. Although the metrics we set for this program were extremely aggressive, the performance we achieved and reported, represents a very significant advancement in the OLED lighting industry.

  14. OLED panel with fuses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levermore, Levermore; Pang, Huiqing; Rajan, Kamala

    2014-09-16

    Embodiments may provide a first device that may comprise a substrate, a plurality of conductive bus lines disposed over the substrate, and a plurality of OLED circuit elements disposed on the substrate, where each of the OLED circuit elements comprises one and only one pixel electrically connected in series with a fuse. Each pixel may further comprise a first electrode, a second electrode, and an organic electroluminescent (EL) material disposed between the first and the second electrodes. The fuse of each of the plurality of OLED circuit elements may electrically connect each of the OLED circuit elements to at least one of the plurality of bus lines. Each of the plurality of bus lines may be electrically connected to a plurality of OLED circuit elements that are commonly addressable and at least two of the bus lines may be separately addressable.

  15. Enhanced performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and OLED-based photoluminescent sensing platforms by novel microstructures and device architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Rui

    2012-08-01

    After a general introduction to OLEDs and OLED-based PL sensors, the transient emission mechanism of guest-host OLEDs is described both experimentally and theoretically. A monolithic and easy-to-apply process is demonstrated for fabricating multicolor microcavity OLEDs (that improve the sensor platform). The outcoupling issues of OLEDs at the substrate/air interface are addressed by using a microstructured polymer film resulting from a PS and polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixture. Based on the understanding of OLEDs and their improvement, research was done in order to realize integrated all organic-based O{sub 2} and pH sensors with improved signal intensity and sensitivity. The sensor design modification and optimization are summarized

  16. Structurally Integrated Photoluminescence-Based Lactate Sensor Using Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLEDs) as the Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chengliang Qian

    2006-08-09

    Multianalyte bio(chemical) sensors are extensively researched for monitoring analytes in complex systems, such as blood serum. As a step towards developing such multianalyte sensors, we studied a novel, structurally integrated, organic light emitting device (OLED)-based sensing platform for detection of lactate. Lactate biosensors have attracted numerous research efforts, due to their wide applications in clinical diagnosis, athletic training and food industry. The OLED-based sensor is based on monitoring the oxidation reaction of lactate, which is catalyzed by the lactate oxidase (LOX) enzyme. The sensing component is based on an oxygen-sensitive dye, Platinum octaethyl porphyrin (PtOEP), whose photoluminescence (PL) lifetime {tau} decreases as the oxygen level increases. The PtOEP dye was embedded in a thin film polystyrene (PS) matrix; the LOX was dissolved in solution or immobilized in a sol-gel matrix. {tau} was measured as a function of the lactate concentration; as the lactate concentration increases, {tau} increases due to increased oxygen consumption. The sensors performance is discussed in terms of the detection sensitivity, dynamic range, and response time. A response time of {approx}32 sec was achieved when the LOX was dissolved in solution and kept in a closed cell. Steps towards development of a multianalyte sensor array using an array of individually addressable OLED pixels were also presented.

  17. Using prismatic microstructured films for image blending in OLEDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haenichen, Lukas; Pschenitzka, Florian

    2009-09-08

    An apparatus such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a microstructured film disposed on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The microstructured film contains features which diffuse light emitted by said OLED device and increase the luminance of the device.

  18. Princeton University Improves Outcoupling Efficiency Of Thin-film Oleds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the desire to shift OLED lighting to flexible substrates come additional challenges that are associated with scattering trapped light, because flexible substrates have higher refractive...

  19. OLED area illumination source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foust, Donald Franklin; Duggal, Anil Raj; Shiang, Joseph John; Nealon, William Francis; Bortscheller, Jacob Charles

    2008-03-25

    The present invention relates to an area illumination light source comprising a plurality of individual OLED panels. The individual OLED panels are configured in a physically modular fashion. Each OLED panel comprising a plurality of OLED devices. Each OLED panel comprises a first electrode and a second electrode such that the power being supplied to each individual OLED panel may be varied independently. A power supply unit capable of delivering varying levels of voltage simultaneously to the first and second electrodes of each of the individual OLED panels is also provided. The area illumination light source also comprises a mount within which the OLED panels are arrayed.

  20. OLED devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapochak, Linda Susan [Arlington, VA; Burrows, Paul Edward [Kennewick, WA; Bimalchandra, Asanga [Richland, WA

    2011-02-22

    An OLED device having an emission layer formed of an ambipolar phosphine oxide host material and a dopant, a hole transport layer in electrical communication with an anode, an electron transport layer in communication with a cathode, wherein the HOMO energy of the hole transport layer is substantially the same as the HOMO energy of the ambipolar host in the emission layer, and the LUMO energy of the electron transport layer is substantially the same as the LUMO energy of the ambipolar host in the emission layer.

  1. OLED Stakeholder Meeting Report | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    OLED Stakeholder Meeting Report OLED Stakeholder Meeting Report PDF icon OLED Stakeholder Meeting Report.pdf More Documents & Publications OLED Stakeholder Report 2015 Project...

  2. OLED Stakeholder Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OLED Stakeholder Report OLED Stakeholder Report PDF icon 2015 OLED Stakeholder Meeting Report.pdf More Documents & Publications OLED Stakeholder Meeting Report 2015 Project...

  3. OLED Stakeholder Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report OLED Stakeholder Report PDF icon 2015 OLED Stakeholder Meeting Report.pdf More Documents & Publications OLED Stakeholder Meeting Report 2016 Project Portfolio 2015

  4. OLED Stakeholder Meeting Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Meeting Report OLED Stakeholder Meeting Report PDF icon OLED Stakeholder Meeting Report.pdf More Documents & Publications OLED Stakeholder Report 2016 SSL R&D WORKSHOP ...

  5. OLED Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SSL Basics » OLED Basics OLED Basics OLEDs are organic LEDs, which means that their key building blocks are organic (i.e., carbon-based) materials. Unlike LEDs, which are small-point light sources, OLEDs are made in sheets that are diffuse-area light sources. OLED technology is developing rapidly, and there are a handful of product offerings with efficacy, lifetime, and color quality specs that are comparable to their LED counterparts. However, OLEDs are still some years away from widespread

  6. Where Do OLEDs Fit In?

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Where Do OLEDs Fit In? DOE SSL Workshop Portland, OR Giana M. Phelan Where do OLEDs fit in? A solid-state lighting solution that complements LED With the SSL advantages...

  7. High-Performance OLED Panel and Luminaire | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    OLED Panel and Luminaire High-Performance OLED Panel and Luminaire Lead Performer: OLEDWorks, LLC - Rochester, NY Partners: Acuity Brands Lighting - Berkeley, CA DOE Total Funding: $1,376,999 Cost Share: $458,999 Project Term: 10/1/2014 - 3/31/2016 Funding Opportunity: SSL R&D Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) (DE-FOA-0000973) Project Objective This project seeks to develop and integrate the cost effective manufacturing technologies necessary to achieve the DOE performance and cost

  8. OLED T Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OLED T Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: OLED-T Ltd. Place: Enfield, United Kingdom Zip: EN3 7XH Product: OLED-T is a VCPE backed R&D company focused on the development and...

  9. High Efficiency, Illumination Quality OLEDs for Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Shiang; James Cella; Kelly Chichak; Anil Duggal; Kevin Janora; Chris Heller; Gautam Parthasarathy; Jeffery Youmans; Joseph Shiang

    2008-03-31

    The goal of the program was to demonstrate a 45 lumen per watt white light device based upon the use of multiple emission colors through the use of solution processing. This performance level is a dramatic extension of the team's previous 15 LPW large area illumination device. The fundamental material system was based upon commercial polymer materials. The team was largely able to achieve these goals, and was able to deliver to DOE a 90 lumen illumination source that had an average performance of 34 LPW a 1000 cd/m{sup 2} with peak performances near 40LPW. The average color temperature is 3200K and the calculated CRI 85. The device operated at a brightness of approximately 1000cd/m{sup 2}. The use of multiple emission colors particularly red and blue, provided additional degrees of design flexibility in achieving white light, but also required the use of a multilayered structure to separate the different recombination zones and prevent interconversion of blue emission to red emission. The use of commercial materials had the advantage that improvements by the chemical manufacturers in charge transport efficiency, operating life and material purity could be rapidly incorporated without the expenditure of additional effort. The program was designed to take maximum advantage of the known characteristics of these material and proceeded in seven steps. (1) Identify the most promising materials, (2) assemble them into multi-layer structures to control excitation and transport within the OLED, (3) identify materials development needs that would optimize performance within multilayer structures, (4) build a prototype that demonstrates the potential entitlement of the novel multilayer OLED architecture (5) integrate all of the developments to find the single best materials set to implement the novel multilayer architecture, (6) further optimize the best materials set, (7) make a large area high illumination quality white OLED. A photo of the final deliverable is shown. In 2003, a large area, OLED based illumination source was demonstrated that could provide light with a quality, quantity, and efficiency on par with what can be achieved with traditional light sources. The demonstration source was made by tiling together 16 separate 6-inch x 6-inch blue-emitting OLEDs. The efficiency, total lumen output, and lifetime of the OLED based illumination source were the same as what would be achieved with an 80 watt incandescent bulb. The devices had an average efficacy of 15 LPW and used solution-processed OLEDs. The individual 6-inch x 6-inch devices incorporated three technology strategies developed specifically for OLED lighting -- downconversion for white light generation, scattering for outcoupling efficiency enhancement, and a scalable monolithic series architecture to enable large area devices. The downconversion approach consists of optically coupling a blue-emitting OLED to a set of luminescent layers. The layers are chosen to absorb the blue OLED emission and then luminescence with high efficiency at longer wavelengths. The composition and number of layers are chosen so that the unabsorbed blue emission and the longer wavelength re-emission combine to make white light. A downconversion approach has the advantage of allowing a wide variety of colors to be made from a limited set of blue emitters. In addition, one does not have to carefully tune the emission wavelength of the individual electro-luminescent species within the OLED device in order to achieve white light. The downconversion architecture used to develop the 15LPW large area light source consisted of a polymer-based blue-emitting OLED and three downconversion layers. Two of the layers utilized perylene based dyes from BASF AG of Germany with high quantum efficiency (>98%) and one of the layers consisted of inorganic phosphor particles (Y(Gd)AG:Ce) with a quantum efficiency of {approx}85%. By independently varying the optical density of the downconversion layers, the overall emission spectrum could be adjusted to maximize performance for lighting (e.g. blackbody temperature, color rendering and luminous efficacy) while keeping the properties of the underlying blue OLED constant. The success of the downconversion approach is ultimately based upon the ability to produce efficient emission in the blue. Table 1 presents a comparison of the current performance of the conjugated polymer, dye-doped polymer, and dendrimer approaches to making a solution-processed blue OLED as 2006. Also given is the published state of the art performance of a vapor-deposited blue OLED. One can see that all the approaches to a blue OLED give approximately the same external quantum efficiency at 500 cd/m{sup 2}. However, due to its low operating voltage, the fluorescent conjugated polymer approach yields a superior power efficiency at the same brightness.

  10. UDC Demonstrates Phosphorescent OLED Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Universal Display Corporation (UDC), along with project partners Armstrong World Industries and the universities of Michigan and Southern California, have successfully demonstrated two phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED™) luminaire systems, the first of their kind in the U.S. This achievement marks a critical step in the development of practical OLED lighting in a complete luminaire system, including decorative housing, power supply, mounting, and maintenance provisions. Each luminaire has overall dimensions of approximately 15x60 cm and is comprised of four 15x15 cm phosphorescent OLED panels. With a combined power supply and lamp efficacy of 51 lm/W, the prototype luminaire is about twice as efficient as the market-leading halogen-based systems. In addition, the prototype OLED lighting system snaps into Armstrong's TechZone™ Ceiling System, which is commercially available in the U.S.x

  11. 2015 OLED Stakeholder Meeting Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... fixture market is hot, and most fixture designers and fabricators are focused on LED right now. Additionally, current OLED designs use high-price panels in high-price luminaires. ...

  12. OLED Testing Call for Sources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OLED Testing Call for Sources OLED Testing Call for Sources PDF icon OLED Testing Call for Sources - November 2015 More Documents & Publications CX-010821: Categorical Exclusion ...

  13. OLED Testing Opportunity | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Testing Opportunity OLED Testing Opportunity Ongoing discussions with the OLED lighting community have identified the need for a collaborative R&D framework to accelerate developments in OLED lighting technology and manufacturing. DOE has implemented a new testing opportunity to enable component makers to incorporate various R&D-stage components into a baseline state-of-the art (SOTA) OLED device. The results of the testing will lead to the identification of high-performing components

  14. Purification and Characterization of OleA from Xanthomonas campestris and Demonstration of a Non-decarboxylative Claisen Condensation Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frias, JA; Richman, JE; Erickson, JS; Wackett, LP

    2011-03-25

    OleA catalyzes the condensation of fatty acyl groups in the first step of bacterial long-chain olefin biosynthesis, but the mechanism of the condensation reaction is controversial. In this study, OleA from Xanthomonas campestris was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein was shown to be active with fatty acyl-CoA substrates that ranged from C(8) to C(16) in length. With limiting myristoyl-CoA (C(14)), 1 mol of the free coenzyme A was released/mol of myristoyl-CoA consumed. Using [(14)C] myristoyl-CoA, the other products were identified as myristic acid, 2-myristoylmyristic acid, and 14-heptacosanone. 2-Myristoylmyristic acid was indicated to be the physiologically relevant product of OleA in several ways. First, 2-myristoylmyristic acid was the major condensed product in short incubations, but over time, it decreased with the concomitant increase of 14-heptacosanone. Second, synthetic 2-myristoylmyristic acid showed similar decarboxylation kinetics in the absence of OleA. Third, 2-myristoylmyristic acid was shown to be reactive with purified OleC and OleD to generate the olefin 14-heptacosene, a product seen in previous in vivo studies. The decarboxylation product, 14-heptacosanone, did not react with OleC and OleD to produce any demonstrable product. Substantial hydrolysis of fatty acyl-CoA substrates to the corresponding fatty acids was observed, but it is currently unclear if this occurs in vivo. In total, these data are consistent with OleA catalyzing a non-decarboxylative Claisen condensation reaction in the first step of the olefin biosynthetic pathway previously found to be present in at least 70 different bacterial strains.

  15. High Quantum Efficiency OLED Lighting Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiang, Joseph [General Electric (GE) Global Research, Fairfield, CT (United States)

    2011-09-30

    The overall goal of the program was to apply improvements in light outcoupling technology to a practical large area plastic luminaire, and thus enable the product vision of an extremely thin form factor high efficiency large area light source. The target substrate was plastic and the baseline device was operating at 35 LPW at the start of the program. The target LPW of the program was a >2x improvement in the LPW efficacy and the overall amount of light to be delivered was relatively high 900 lumens. Despite the extremely difficult challenges associated with scaling up a wet solution process on plastic substrates, the program was able to make substantial progress. A small molecule wet solution process was successfully implemented on plastic substrates with almost no loss in efficiency in transitioning from the laboratory scale glass to large area plastic substrates. By transitioning to a small molecule based process, the LPW entitlement increased from 35 LPW to 60 LPW. A further 10% improvement in outcoupling efficiency was demonstrated via the use of a highly reflecting cathode, which reduced absorptive loss in the OLED device. The calculated potential improvement in some cases is even larger, ~30%, and thus there is considerable room for optimism in improving the net light coupling efficacy, provided absorptive loss mechanisms are eliminated. Further improvements are possible if scattering schemes such as the silver nanowire based hard coat structure are fully developed. The wet coating processes were successfully scaled to large area plastic substrate and resulted in the construction of a 900 lumens luminaire device.

  16. Series connected OLED structure and fabrication method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foust, Donald Franklin; Balch, Ernest Wayne; Duggal, Anil Raj; Heller, Christian Maria; Guida, Renato; Nealon, William Francis; Faircloth, Tami Janene

    2006-05-23

    A light emitting device comprises a plurality of organic light emitting diode (OLED) modules. The OLED modules are arranged into a series group where the individual OLED modules are electrically connected in series. The device is configured to be coupled to a power supply. A display is also provided. The display includes a plurality of OLED modules arranged to depict a shape selected from the group consisting of at least one letter, at least one number, at least one image, and a combination thereof.

  17. The Approach to Low-Cost High-Efficiency OLED Lighting | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy The Approach to Low-Cost High-Efficiency OLED Lighting The Approach to Low-Cost High-Efficiency OLED Lighting Lead Performer: University of California - Los Angeles - Los Angeles, CA Partners: Polyradiant Corp. - Calabasas, CA DOE Total Funding: $612,733 Cost Share: $153,183 Project Term: September 4, 2014 - August 31, 2016 Funding Opportunity: SSL R&D Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) (DE-FOA-0000973) Project Objective This project will develop an integrated plastic

  18. LED Watch: The Outlook for OLEDs | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Watch: The Outlook for OLEDs LED Watch: The Outlook for OLEDs PDF icon LED Watch: December 2014 More Documents & Publications 2015 ARTICLES What's Next for Solid-State Lighting - February 2015 OLED Stakeholder Report

  19. Challenges in OLED Research and Development | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    OLED Research and Development Challenges in OLED Research and Development View the video about OLED technology's advantages and what is needed to move it fully into the lighting market

  20. Novel Low Cost Organic Vapor Jet Printing of Striped High Efficiency Phosphorescent OLEDs for White Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Hack

    2008-12-31

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation and University of Michigan proposed to integrate three innovative concepts to meet the DOE's Solid State Lighting (SSL) goals: (1) high-efficiency phosphorescent organic light emitting device (PHOLED{trademark}) technology, (2) a white lighting design that is based on a series of red, green and blue OLED stripes, and (3) the use of a novel cost-effective, high rate, mask-less deposition process called organic vapor jet printing (OVJP). Our PHOLED technology offers up to four-times higher power efficiency than other OLED approaches for general lighting. We believe that one of the most promising approaches to maximizing the efficiency of OLED lighting sources is to produce stripes of the three primary colors at such a pitch (200-500 {mu}m) that they appear as a uniform white light to an observer greater than 1 meter (m) away from the illumination source. Earlier work from a SBIR Phase 1 entitled 'White Illumination Sources Using Striped Phosphorescent OLEDs' suggests that stripe widths of less than 500 {mu}m appear uniform from a distance of 1m without the need for an external diffuser. In this program, we intend to combine continued advances in this PHOLED technology with the striped RGB lighting design to demonstrate a high-efficiency, white lighting source. Using this background technology, the team has focused on developing and demonstrating the novel cost-effective OVJP process to fabricate these high-efficiency white PHOLED light sources. Because this groundbreaking OVJP process is a direct printing approach that enables the OLED stripes to be printed without a shadow mask, OVJP offers very high material utilization and high throughput without the costs and wastage associated with a shadow mask (i.e. the waste of material that deposits on the shadow mask itself). As a direct printing technique, OVJP also has the potential to offer ultra-high deposition rates (> 1,000 Angstroms/second) for any size or shaped features. As a result, we believe that this work will lead to the development of a cost-effective manufacturing solution to produce very-high efficiency OLEDs. By comparison to more common ink-jet printing (IJP), OVJP can also produce well-defined patterns without the need to pattern the substrate with ink wells or to dry/anneal the ink. In addition, the material set is not limited by viscosity and solvent solubility. During the program we successfully demonstrated a 6-inch x 6-inch PHOLED lighting panel consisting of fine-featured red, green and blue (R-G-B) stripes (1mm width) using an OVJP deposition system that was designed, procured and installed into UDC's cleanroom as part of this program. This project will significantly accelerate the DOE's ability to meet its 2015 DOE SSL targets of 70-150 lumens/Watt and less than $10 per 1,000 lumens for high CRI lighting index (76-90). Coupled with a low cost manufacturing path through OVJP, we expect that this achievement will enable the DOE to achieve its 2015 performance goals by the year 2013, two years ahead of schedule. As shown by the technical work performed under this program, we believe that OVJP is a very promising technology to produce low cost, high efficacy, color tunable light sources. While we have made significant progress to develop OVJP technology and build a pilot line tool to study basic aspects of the technology and demonstrate a lighting panel prototype, further work needs to be performed before its full potential and commercial viability can be fully assessed.

  1. Method and system for evaluating integrity of adherence of a conductor bond to a mating surface of a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Telschow, K.L.; Siu, B.K.

    1996-07-09

    A method of evaluating integrity of adherence of a conductor bond to a substrate includes: (a) impinging a plurality of light sources onto a substrate; (b) detecting optical reflective signatures emanating from the substrate from the impinged light; (c) determining location of a selected conductor bond on the substrate from the detected reflective signatures; (d) determining a target site on the selected conductor bond from the detected reflective signatures; (e) optically imparting an elastic wave at the target site through the selected conductor bond and into the substrate; (f) optically detecting an elastic wave signature emanating from the substrate resulting from the optically imparting step; and (g) determining integrity of adherence of the selected conductor bond to the substrate from the detected elastic wave signature emanating from the substrate. A system is disclosed which is capable of conducting the method. 13 figs.

  2. Method and system for evaluating integrity of adherence of a conductor bond to a mating surface of a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Telschow, Kenneth L.; Siu, Bernard K.

    1996-01-01

    A method of evaluating integrity of adherence of a conductor bond to a substrate includes: a) impinging a plurality of light sources onto a substrate; b) detecting optical reflective signatures emanating from the substrate from the impinged light; c) determining location of a selected conductor bond on the substrate from the detected reflective signatures; d) determining a target site on the selected conductor bond from the detected reflective signatures; e) optically imparting an elastic wave at the target site through the selected conductor bond and into the substrate; f) optically detecting an elastic wave signature emanating from the substrate resulting from the optically imparting step; and g) determining integrity of adherence of the selected conductor bond to the substrate from the detected elastic wave signature emanating from the substrate. A system is disclosed which is capable of conducting the method.

  3. Text-Alternative Version: Challenges in OLED Research and Development |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy OLED Research and Development Text-Alternative Version: Challenges in OLED Research and Development Narrator: Organic light-emitting diodes, OLEDs, are made using organic carbon-based materials. Unlike LEDs, which are small point light sources, OLEDs are made in sheets that create diffuse area lighting. As a result, the OLED offers a range of qualities beyond the scope of the LED - qualities that could revolutionize both commercial and residential lighting. James

  4. Creation of a U.S. Phosphorescent OLED Lighting Panel Manufacturing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hack, Michael

    2013-09-30

    Universal Display Corporation (UDC) has pioneered high efficacy phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED™) technology to enable the realization of an exciting new form of high quality, energy saving solid-date lighting. In laboratory test devices, we have demonstrated greater than 100 lm/W conversion efficacy. In this program, Universal Display will demonstrate the scalability of its proprietary UniversalPHOLED technology and materials for the manufacture of white OLED lighting panels that meet commercial lighting targets. Moser Baer Technologies will design and build a U.S.- based pilot facility. The objective of this project is to establish a pilot phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED) manufacturing line in the U.S. Our goal is that at the end of the project, prototype lighting panels could be provided to U.S. luminaire manufacturers for incorporation into products to facilitate the testing of design concepts and to gauge customer acceptance, so as to facilitate the growth of the embryonic U.S. OLED lighting industry. In addition, the team will provide a cost of ownership analysis to quantify production costs including OLED performance metrics which relate to OLED cost such as yield, materials usage, cycle time, substrate area, and capital depreciation. This project was part of a new DOE initiative designed to help establish and maintain U.S. leadership in this program will support key DOE objectives by showing a path to meet Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap cost targets, as well as meeting its efficiency targets by demonstrating the energy saving potential of our technology through the realization of greater than 76 lm/W OLED lighting panels by 2012.

  5. Host compounds for red phosphorescent OLEDs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xia, Chuanjun; Cheon, Kwang -Ohk

    2015-08-25

    Novel compounds containing a triphenylene moiety linked to an .alpha..beta. connected binaphthyl ring system are provided. These compounds have surprisingly good solubility in organic solvents and are useful as host compounds in red phosphorescent OLEDs.

  6. OLED Fundamentals: Materials, Devices, and Processing of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blochwitz-Nimoth, Jan; Bhandari, Abhinav; Boesch, Damien; Fincher, Curtis R.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Gotthold, David W.; Greiner, Mark T.; Kido, Junji; Kondakov, Denis; Korotkov, Roman; Krylova, Valentina A.; Loeser, Falk; Lu, Min-Hao; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Lussem, Bjorn; Moro, Lorenza; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Rostovtsev, Vsevolod V.; Sasabe, Hisahiro; Silverman, Gary; Thompson, Mark E.; Tietze, Max; Tyan, Yuan-Sheng; Weaver, Michael; Xin , Xu; Zeng, Xianghui

    2015-05-26

    What is an organic light emitting diode (OLED)? Why should we care? What are they made of? How are they made? What are the challenges in seeing these devices enter the marketplace in various applications? These are the questions we hope to answer in this book, at a level suitable for knowledgeable non-experts, graduate students and scientists and engineers working in the field who want to understand the broader context of their work. At the most basic level, an OLED is a promising new technology composed of some organic material sandwiched between two electrodes. When current is passed through the device, light is emitted. The stack of layers can be very thin and has many variations, including flexible and/or transparent. The organic material can be polymeric or composed small molecules, and may include inorganic components. The electrodes may consist of metals, metal oxides, carbon nanomaterials, or other species, though of course for light to be emitted, one electrode must be transparent. OLEDs may be fabricated on glass, metal foils, or polymer sheets (though polymeric substrates must be modified to protect the organic material from moisture or oxygen). In any event, the organic material must be protected from moisture during storage and operation. A control circuit, the exact nature of which depends on the application, drives the OLED. Nevertheless, the control circuit should have very stable current control to generate uniform light emission. OLEDs can be designed to emit a single color of light, white light, or even tunable colors. The devices can be switched on and off very rapidly, which makes them suitable for displays or for general lighting. Given the amazing complexity of the technical and design challenges for practical OLED applications, it is not surprising that applications are still somewhat limited. Although organic electroluminescence is more than 50 years old, the modern OLED field is really only about half that age – with the first high-efficiency OLED demonstrated in 1987. Thus, we expect to see exciting advances in the science, technology and commercialization in the coming years. We hope that this book helps to advance the field in some small way. Contributors to this monograph are experts from top academic institutions, industry and national laboratories who provide comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of the rapidly evolving field of OLEDs. Furthermore, this monograph collects in one place, for the first time, key topics across the field of OLEDs, from fundamental chemistry and physics, to practical materials science and engineering topics, to aspects of design and manufacturing. The monograph synthesizes and puts into context information scattered throughout the literature for easy review in one book. The scope of the monograph reflects the necessity to focus on new technological challenges brought about by the transition to manufacturing. In the Section 1, all materials of construction of the OLED device are covered, from substrate to encapsulation. In Section 2, for the first time, additional challenges in devices and processing are addressed. This book is geared towards a broad audience, including materials scientists, device physicists, synthetic chemists and electrical engineers. Furthermore, this book makes a great introduction to scientists in industry and academia, as well as graduate students interested in applied aspects of photophysics and electrochemistry in organic thin films. This book is a comprehensive source for OLED R&D professionals from all backgrounds and institutions.

  7. Outdoor OLED Luminaire Using Solar Energy for Lighting Pedestrian Areas |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Outdoor OLED Luminaire Using Solar Energy for Lighting Pedestrian Areas Outdoor OLED Luminaire Using Solar Energy for Lighting Pedestrian Areas Lead Performer: OLEDWorks LLC - Rochester, NY DOE Total Funding: $148,368 Project Term: June 8, 2015 - March 8, 2016 Funding Opportunity: FY2015 Phase I Release 2 SBIR Awards PROJECT OBJECTIVE The recipient, currently the only commercial OLED lighting panel manufacturer in the U.S., will develop a concept for an outdoor OLED

  8. OLED devices with internal outcoupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jie Jerry; Sista, Srinivas Prasad; Shi, Xiaolei; Zhao, Ri-An; Chichak, Kelly Scott; Youmans, Jeffrey Michael; Janora, Kevin Henry; Turner, Larry Gene

    2015-03-03

    Optoelectronic devices that have enhanced internal outcoupling are disclosed. The devices include a substrate, an anode, a cathode, an electroluminescent layer, and a hole injecting layer. The hole injecting layer includes inorganic nanoparticles that have a bimodal particle size distribution and which are dispersed in an organic matrix.

  9. Low Voltage White Phosphorescent OLED Achievements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Universal Display Corporation (UDC) and its research partners at Princeton University and the University of Southern California have succeeded in developing a white phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED™) that achieved a record efficiency of 20 lumens per watt. This achievement is the result of the team's collaborative efforts to increase the efficiency of PHOLED lighting by focusing on two critical factors: lowering the drive voltages and increasing the amount of light extracted.

  10. Record External Quantum Efficiency in Blue OLED Device

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have created a blue organic light emitting diode (OLED) with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 11% at 800 cd/m2, exceeding their previous record EQE of 8%. The EQE of blue OLEDs is a major challenge in OLED technology development. This achievement is particularly notable since it was accomplished at a much lower operating voltage (6.2V) than previous demonstrations using similar structures, revealing the potential for much higher power efficiencies.

  11. Advanced Light Extraction Material for OLED Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Extraction Material for OLED Lighting Advanced Light Extraction Material for OLED Lighting Lead Performer: Pixelligent Technologies LLC - Baltimore, MD Partners: OLEDWorks LLC DOE Total Funding: $1,000,000 Project Term: April 6, 2015 - April 5, 2017 Funding Opportunity: FY2015 Phase II Release 1 SBIR Awards PROJECT OBJECTIVE The primary goal of this Phase II project is to develop a viable commercial process to manufacture an internal light extraction (ILE) layer to be supplied to OLED

  12. Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin Bluhm; James Coffey; Roman Korotkov; Craig Polsz; Alexandre Salemi; Robert Smith; Ryan Smith; Jeff Stricker; Chen Xu; Jasmine Shirazi; George Papakonstantopulous; Steve Carson; Claudia Goldman; Soren Hartmann; Frank Jessen; Bianca Krogmann; Christoph Rickers; Manfred Ruske; Holger Schwab; Dietrich Bertram

    2011-01-02

    Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exacerbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectronic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availability of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology. The primary objective of this project was to develop a commercially viable process for 'Substrates' (Substrate/ undercoat/ TCO topcoat) to be used in production of OLED devices (lamps/luminaries/modules). This project focused on using Arkema's recently developed doped ZnO technology for the Fenestration industry and applying the technology to the OLED lighting industry. The secondary objective was the use of undercoat technology to improve light extraction from the OLED device. In optical fields and window applications, technology has been developed to mitigate reflection losses by selecting appropriate thicknesses and refractive indices of coatings applied either below or above the functional layer of interest. This technology has been proven and implemented in the fenestration industry for more than 15 years. Successful completion of this project would provide doped ZnO coated on inexpensive soda lime glass resulting in a significantly lower cost relative to the current ITO coated Flat Panel Display Glass substrates. Additional benefits will be a more consistent TCO that does not need an activation step with better optical performance. Clearly, this will serve to enhance penetration of OLED technologies into the lighting market.

  13. Stable and Efficient White OLEDs Based on a Single Emissive Material...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Stable and Efficient White OLEDs Based on a Single Emissive Material Stable and Efficient White OLEDs Based on a Single Emissive Material Lead Performer: Arizona State University - ...

  14. World Record White OLED Performance Exceeds 100 lm/W

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Universal Display Corporation (UDC) has successfully demonstrated a record-breaking white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) with a power efficacy of 102 lm/W at 1000 cd/m2 using its proprietary, high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED technology. This achievement represents a significant milestone for OLED technology, demonstrating performance that surpasses the power efficacy of incandescent bulbs with less than 15 lm/W and fluorescent lamps at 60-90 lm/W. Funded in part by DOE, UDC's achievement is a major step toward DOE's roadmap goal of a 150 lm/W commercial OLED light source by 2015.

  15. High Performance OLEDs with Air-stable Nanostructured Electrodes - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search High Performance OLEDs with Air-stable Nanostructured Electrodes Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryScientists at Berkeley Lab have modified the cathode-organic layer of an OLED device to significantly enhance electron injection efficiency and reduce the sensitivity of the cathode to environmental degradation by water

  16. Advanced Light Extraction Structure for OLED Lighting | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Light Extraction Structure for OLED Lighting Advanced Light Extraction Structure for OLED Lighting Lead Performer: Pixelligent Technologies, LLC - Baltimore, MD Partners: OLEDWorks, LLC - Rochester, NY DOE Total Funding: $1,000,000 Cost Share: $250,000 Project Term: 9/10/2014 - 8/31/2016 Funding Opportunity: SSL R&D Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) (DE-FOA-0000973) Project Objective This project will develop a novel internal light extraction (ILE) design to improve the light

  17. New Efficiency Record Achieved for White OLED Device

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Osram Opto-Semiconductors, Inc. has successfully demonstrated a white organic light emitting diode (OLED) with a record efficiency of 25 lumens per watt, the highest known efficiency achieved to date for a polymer-based white OLED. The 25 LPW cool-white-emitting device was produced by applying a standard external inorganic phosphor to Osram's record-breaking blue-emitting phosphorescent polymer device with a peak luminous efficacy of 14 LPW.

  18. Crystal Structures of Xanthomonas campestris OleA Reveal Features That Promote Head-to-Head Condensation of Two Long-Chain Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goblirsch, BR; Frias, JA; Wackett, LP; Wilmot, CM

    2012-05-22

    OleA is a thiolase superfamily enzyme that has been shown to catalyze the condensation of two long-chain fatty acylcoenzyme A (CoA) substrates. The enzyme is part of a larger gene cluster responsible for generating long-chain olefin products, a potential biofuel precursor. In thiolase superfamily enzymes, catalysis is achieved via a ping-pong mechanism. The first substrate forms a covalent intermediate with an active site cysteine that is followed by reaction with the second substrate. For OleA, this conjugation proceeds by a nondecarboxylative Claisen condensation. The OleA from Xanthomonas campestris has been crystallized and its structure determined, along with inhibitor-bound and xenon-derivatized structures, to improve our understanding of substrate positioning in the context of enzyme turnover. OleA is the first characterized thiolase superfamily member that has two long-chain alkyl substrates that need to be bound simultaneously and therefore uniquely requires an additional alkyl binding channel. The location of the fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitor, cerulenin, that possesses an alkyl chain length in the range of known OleA substrates, in conjunction with a single xenon binding site, leads to the putative assignment of this novel alkyl binding channel. Structural overlays between the OleA homologues, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase and the fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme FabH, allow assignment of the two remaining channels: one for the thioester-containing pantetheinate arm and the second for the alkyl group of one substrate. A short beta-hairpin region is ordered in only one of the crystal forms, and that may suggest open and closed states relevant for substrate binding. Cys143 is the conserved catalytic cysteine within the superfamily, and the site of alkylation by cerulenin. The alkylated structure suggests that a glutamic acid residue (Glu117 beta) likely promotes Claisen condensation by acting as the catalytic base. Unexpectedly, Glu117 beta comes from the other monomer of the physiological dimer.

  19. Crystal Structures of Xanthomonas campestris OleA Reveal Features That Promote Head-to-Head Condensation of Two Long-Chain Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Frias, Janice A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2012-10-25

    OleA is a thiolase superfamily enzyme that has been shown to catalyze the condensation of two long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) substrates. The enzyme is part of a larger gene cluster responsible for generating long-chain olefin products, a potential biofuel precursor. In thiolase superfamily enzymes, catalysis is achieved via a ping-pong mechanism. The first substrate forms a covalent intermediate with an active site cysteine that is followed by reaction with the second substrate. For OleA, this conjugation proceeds by a nondecarboxylative Claisen condensation. The OleA from Xanthomonas campestris has been crystallized and its structure determined, along with inhibitor-bound and xenon-derivatized structures, to improve our understanding of substrate positioning in the context of enzyme turnover. OleA is the first characterized thiolase superfamily member that has two long-chain alkyl substrates that need to be bound simultaneously and therefore uniquely requires an additional alkyl binding channel. The location of the fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitor, cerulenin, that possesses an alkyl chain length in the range of known OleA substrates, in conjunction with a single xenon binding site, leads to the putative assignment of this novel alkyl binding channel. Structural overlays between the OleA homologues, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase and the fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme FabH, allow assignment of the two remaining channels: one for the thioester-containing pantetheinate arm and the second for the alkyl group of one substrate. A short {beta}-hairpin region is ordered in only one of the crystal forms, and that may suggest open and closed states relevant for substrate binding. Cys143 is the conserved catalytic cysteine within the superfamily, and the site of alkylation by cerulenin. The alkylated structure suggests that a glutamic acid residue (Glu117{beta}) likely promotes Claisen condensation by acting as the catalytic base. Unexpectedly, Glu117{beta} comes from the other monomer of the physiological dimer.

  20. OLEDWORKS DEVELOPS INNOVATIVE HIGH-PERFORMANCE DEPOSITION TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MANUFACTURING COST OF OLED LIGHTING

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The high manufacturing cost of OLED lighting is a major barrier to the growth of the emerging OLED lighting industry. OLEDWorks is developing high-performance deposition technology that addresses...

  1. Materials and architectures for efficient harvesting of singlet and triplet excitons for white light emitting OLEDs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mark E; Forrest, Stephen

    2015-02-03

    The present invention relates to organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), and more specifically to OLEDS that emit light using a combination of fluorescent emitters and phosphorescent emitters for the efficient utilization of all of the electrically generated excitons.

  2. DOE Publishes GATEWAY Report on OLED Lighting in an Office Setting |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy GATEWAY Report on OLED Lighting in an Office Setting DOE Publishes GATEWAY Report on OLED Lighting in an Office Setting April 26, 2016 - 11:50am Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy has released a report on the first GATEWAY demonstration involving OLED lighting. Aurora Lighting Design, Inc., in Grayslake, IL, installed Acuity Brands' Trilia(tm) OLED lighting system in September 2014. The new report recounts the experiences of this pioneering project and provides

  3. High Performance OLEDs with Air-stable Nanostructured Electrodes

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2010-07-28

    Scientists at Berkeley Lab have modified the cathode-organic layer of an OLED device to significantly enhance electron injection efficiency and reduce the sensitivity of the cathode to environmental degradation by water and oxygen. Two approaches are used:1. An ordered arrangement of nanostructures (top-down processing) or2. A nanomaterial interfacial layer (bottom-up processing)....

  4. UDC Develops Prototype High-Efficiency OLED Undercabinet Luminaire

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Universal Display Corporation (UDC) has demonstrated the real-world application of a novel lighting technology by developing two pre-prototype OLED undercabinet lighting systems that exceed 420 total lumens at an efficacy of more than 55 lm/W, with an estimated lifetime (LT70) in excess of 10,000 hours, and a color rendering index (CRI) greater than 85.

  5. Methods of preparing flexible photovoltaic devices using epitaxial liftoff, and preserving the integrity of growth substrates used in epitaxial growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Lee, Kyusang; Shiu, Kuen-Ting

    2015-01-06

    There is disclosed methods of making photosensitive devices, such as flexible photovoltaic (PV) devices, through the use of epitaxial liftoff. Also described herein are methods of preparing flexible PV devices comprising a structure having a growth substrate, wherein the selective etching of protective layers yields a smooth growth substrate that us suitable for reuse.

  6. Methods of preparing flexible photovoltaic devices using epitaxial liftoff, and preserving the integrity of growth substrates used in epitaxial growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Lee, Kyusang; Shiu, Kuen-Ting

    2013-02-19

    There is disclosed methods of making photosensitive devices, such as flexible photovoltaic (PV) devices, through the use of epitaxial liftoff. Also described herein are methods of preparing flexible PV devices comprising a structure having a growth substrate, wherein the selective etching of protective layers yields a smooth growth substrate that us suitable for reuse.

  7. Low Power, Red, Green and Blue Carbon Nanotube Enabled Vertical Organic Light Emitting Transistors for Active Matrix OLED Displays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M. A. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Liu, B. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Donoghue, E. P. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL; Kim, D. Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville; So, Franky [University of Florida, Gainesville; Rinzler, A. G. [University of Florida, Gainesville

    2011-01-01

    Organic semiconductors are potential alternatives to polycrystalline silicon as the semiconductor used in the backplane of active matrix organic light emitting diode displays. Demonstrated here is a light-emitting transistor with an organic channel, operating with low power dissipation at low voltage, and high aperture ratio, in three colors: red, green and blue. The single-wall carbon nanotube network source electrode is responsible for the high level of performance demonstrated. A major benefit enabled by this architecture is the integration of the drive transistor, storage capacitor and light emitter into a single device. Performance comparable to commercialized polycrystalline-silicon TFT driven OLEDs is demonstrated.

  8. Organic Light-Emitting Devices (OLEDS) and Their Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gang Li

    2003-12-12

    Organic Light-Emitting Devices (OLEDs), both small molecular and polymeric have been studied extensively since the first efficient small molecule OLED was reported by Tang and VanSlyke in 1987. Burroughes' report on conjugated polymer-based OLEDs led to another track in OLED development. These developments have resulted in full color, highly efficient (up to {approx} 20% external efficiency 60 lm/W power efficiency for green emitters), and highly bright (> 140,000 Cd/m{sup 2} DC, {approx}2,000,000 Cd/m{sup 2} AC), stable (>40,000 hr at 5 mA/cm{sup 2}) devices. OLEDs are Lambertian emitters, which intrinsically eliminates the view angle problem of liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Thus OLEDs are beginning to compete with the current dominant LCDs in information display. Numerous companies are now active in this field, including large companies such as Pioneer, Toyota, Estman Kodak, Philipps, DuPont, Samsung, Sony, Toshiba, and Osram, and small companies like Cambridge Display Technology (CDT), Universal Display Corporation (UDC), and eMagin. The first small molecular display for vehicular stereos was introduced in 1998, and polymer OLED displays have begun to appear in commercial products. Although displays are the major application for OLEDs at present, they are also candidates for nest generation solid-state lighting. In this case the light source needs to be white in most cases. Organic transistors, organic solar cells, etc. are also being developed vigorously.

  9. Stacked white OLED having separate red, green and blue sub-elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen; Qi, Xiangfei; Slootsky, Michael

    2015-06-23

    The present invention relates to efficient organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). More specifically, the present invention relates to white-emitting OLEDs, or WOLEDs. The devices of the present invention employ three emissive sub-elements, typically emitting red, green and blue, to sufficiently cover the visible spectrum. The sub-elements are separated by charge generating layers.

  10. Towards large size substrates for III-V co-integration made by direct wafer bonding on Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daix, N. Uccelli, E.; Czornomaz, L.; Caimi, D.; Rossel, C.; Sousa, M.; Siegwart, H.; Marchiori, C.; Fompeyrine, J.; Hartmann, J. M.; Shiu, K.-T.; Cheng, C.-W.; Krishnan, M.; Lofaro, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Sadana, D.

    2014-08-01

    We report the first demonstration of 200 mm InGaAs-on-insulator (InGaAs-o-I) fabricated by the direct wafer bonding technique with a donor wafer made of III-V heteroepitaxial structure grown on 200 mm silicon wafer. The measured threading dislocation density of the In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As (InGaAs) active layer is equal to 3.5 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup ?2}, and it does not degrade after the bonding and the layer transfer steps. The surface roughness of the InGaAs layer can be improved by chemical-mechanical-polishing step, reaching values as low as 0.4 nm root-mean-square. The electron Hall mobility in 450 nm thick InGaAs-o-I layer reaches values of up to 6000 cm{sup 2}/Vs, and working pseudo-MOS transistors are demonstrated with an extracted electron mobility in the range of 2000–3000 cm{sup 2}/Vs. Finally, the fabrication of an InGaAs-o-I substrate with the active layer as thin as 90 nm is achieved with a Buried Oxide of 50 nm. These results open the way to very large scale production of III-V-o-I advanced substrates for future CMOS technology nodes.

  11. Method of forming through substrate vias (TSVs) and singulating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The integrated circuit substrate includes a device layer having semiconductor devices. The method also includes etching through-substrate via (TSV) openings through the integrated ...

  12. Electroluminescence property of organic light emitting diode (OLED)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Özdemir, Orhan; Kavak, Pelin; Saatci, A. Evrim; Gökdemir, F. P?nar; Menda, U. Deneb; Can, Nursel; Kutlu, Kubilay; Tekin, Emine; Pravadal?, Selin

    2013-12-16

    Transport properties of electrons and holes were investigated not only in a anthracene-containing poly(p-phenylene-ethynylene)- alt - poly(p-phenylene-vinylene) (PPE-PPV) polymer (AnE-PVstat) light emitting diodes (OLED) but also in an ITO/Ag/polymer/Ag electron and ITO/PEDOT:PSS/polymer/Au hole only devices. Mobility of injected carriers followed the Poole-Frenkel type conduction mechanism and distinguished in the frequency range due to the difference of transit times in admittance measurement. Beginning of light output took place at the turn-on voltage (or flat band voltage), 1.8 V, which was the difference of energy band gap of polymer and two barrier offsets between metals and polymer.

  13. Next Generation Hole Injection/Transport Nano-Composites for High Efficiency OLED Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King Wang

    2009-07-31

    The objective of this program is to use a novel nano-composite material system for the OLED anode coating/hole transport layer. The novel anode coating is intended to significantly increase not only hole injection/transport efficiency, but the device energy efficiency as well. Another goal of the Core Technologies Program is the optimization and scale-up of air-stable and cross-linkable novel HTL nano-composite materials synthesis and the development of low-cost, large-scale mist deposition processes for polymer OLED fabrication. This proposed technology holds the promise to substantially improve OLED energy efficiency and lifetime.

  14. Achieving Record Efficiency for Blue OLEDs by Controlling the Charge Balance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Researchers at the University of Florida (UF) have demonstrated a blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with a peak power efficiency of 50 lm/W and an external quantum efficiency exceeding 20 percent at a luminance of 1,000 cd/m2, using no external light extraction techniques. This accomplishment is believed to be the world record in blue OLED efficiency.

  15. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) and Optically-Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR) studies on organic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Min

    2011-11-30

    Organic semiconductors have evolved rapidly over the last decades and currently are considered as the next-generation technology for many applications, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in flat-panel displays (FPDs) and solid state lighting (SSL), and organic solar cells (OSCs) in clean renewable energy. This dissertation focuses mainly on OLEDs. Although the commercialization of the OLED technology in FPDs is growing and appears to be just around the corner for SSL, there are still several key issues that need to be addressed: (1) the cost of OLEDs is very high, largely due to the costly current manufacturing process; (2) the efficiency of OLEDs needs to be improved. This is vital to the success of OLEDs in the FPD and SSL industries; (3) the lifetime of OLEDs, especially blue OLEDs, is the biggest technical challenge. All these issues raise the demand for new organic materials, new device structures, and continued lower-cost fabrication methods. In an attempt to address these issues, we used solution-processing methods to fabricate highly efficient small molecule OLEDs (SMOLEDs); this approach is costeffective in comparison to the more common thermal vacuum evaporation. We also successfully made efficient indium tin oxide (ITO)-free SMOLEDs to further improve the efficiency of the OLEDs. We employed the spin-dependent optically-detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) technique to study the luminescence quenching processes in OLEDs and organic materials in order to understand the intrinsic degradation mechanisms. We also fabricated polymer LEDs (PLEDs) based on a new electron-accepting blue-emitting polymer and studied the effect of molecular weight on the efficiency of PLEDs. All these studies helped us to better understand the underlying relationship between the organic semiconductor materials and the OLEDs’ performance, and will subsequently assist in further enhancing the efficiency of OLEDs. With strongly improved device performance (in addition to other OLEDs' attributes such as mechanical flexibility and potential low cost), the OLED technology is promising to successfully compete with current technologies, such as LCDs and inorganic LEDs.

  16. Permanent polarization and charge distribution in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs): Insights from near-infrared charge-modulation spectroscopy of an operating OLED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchetti, Alfred P.; Haskins, Terri L.; Young, Ralph H.; Rothberg, Lewis J.

    2014-03-21

    Vapor-deposited Alq{sub 3} layers typically possess a strong permanent electrical polarization, whereas NPB layers do not. (Alq{sub 3} is tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminum(III); NPB is 4,4?-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino]biphenyl.) The cause is a net orientation of the Alq{sub 3} molecules with their large dipole moments. Here we report on consequences for an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with an NPB hole-transport layer and Alq{sub 3} electron-transport layer. The discontinuous polarization at the NPB|Alq{sub 3} interface has the same effect as a sheet of immobile negative charge there. It is more than compensated by a large concentration of injected holes (NPB{sup +}) when the OLED is running. We discuss the implications and consequences for the quantum efficiency and the drive voltage of this OLED and others. We also speculate on possible consequences of permanent polarization in organic photovoltaic devices. The concentration of NPB{sup +} was measured by charge-modulation spectroscopy (CMS) in the near infrared, where the NPB{sup +} has a strong absorption band, supplemented by differential-capacitance and current-voltage measurements. Unlike CMS in the visible, this method avoids complications from modulation of the electroluminescence and electroabsorption.

  17. Outdoor OLED Luminaire Using Solar Energy for Lighting Pedestrian...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    electrical wires and reducing operating costs by integrating advanced operational controls that, today, are simply not available in commercial luminaires designed for this market. ...

  18. Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Silverman; Bluhm, Martin; Coffey, James; Korotkov, Roman; Polsz, Craig; Salemi, Alexandre; Smith, Robert; Smith, Ryan; Stricker, Jeff; Xu,Chen; Shirazi, Jasmine; Papakonstantopulous, George; Carson, Steve Philips Lighting GmbH Goldman, Claudia; Hartmann, Sören; Jessen, Frank; Krogmann, Bianca; Rickers, Christoph; Ruske, Manfred, Schwab, Holger; Bertram, Dietrich

    2011-01-02

    Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exaserbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectonic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availablility of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology.

  19. Thermal Design and Characterization of Heterogeneously Integrated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with integrated thermal management on wide-bandgap AlN substrates followed by GaAs substrate removal are demonstrated. Without thermal management, substrate removal after ...

  20. Solution-Procesed Small-Molecule OLED Luminaire for Interior Illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Ian

    2012-02-29

    Prototype lighting panels and luminaires were fabricated using DuPont Displays solution-processed small-molecule OLED technology. These lighting panels were based on a spatially-patterned, 3-color design, similar in concept to an OLED display panel, with materials chosen to maximize device efficacy. The majority of the processing steps take place in air (rather than high vacuum). Optimization of device architecture, processing and construction was undertaken, with a final prototype design of 50 cm{sup 2} being fabricated and tested. Performance of these panels reached 35 lm/W at illuminant-A. A unique feature of this technology is the ability to color tune the emission, and color temperatures ranging from 2700 to > 6,500K were attained in the final build. Significant attention was paid to low-cost fabrication techniques.

  1. Stacked white OLED having separate red, green and blue sub-elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen; Qi, Xiangfei; Slootsky, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The present invention relates to efficient organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). The devices employ three emissive sub-elements, typically emitting red, green and blue, to sufficiently cover the visible spectrum. Thus, the devices may be white-emitting OLEDs, or WOLEDs. Each sub-element comprises at least one organic layer which is an emissive layer--i.e., the layer is capable of emitting light when a voltage is applied across the stacked device. The sub-elements are vertically stacked and are separated by charge generating layers. The charge-generating layers are layers that inject charge carriers into the adjacent layer(s) but do not have a direct external connection.

  2. Method of forming through substrate vias (TSVs) and singulating and releasing die having the TSVs from a mechanical support substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N

    2014-12-09

    Accessing a workpiece object in semiconductor processing is disclosed. The workpiece object includes a mechanical support substrate, a release layer over the mechanical support substrate, and an integrated circuit substrate coupled over the release layer. The integrated circuit substrate includes a device layer having semiconductor devices. The method also includes etching through-substrate via (TSV) openings through the integrated circuit substrate that have buried ends at or within the release layer including using the release layer as an etch stop. TSVs are formed by introducing one or more conductive materials into the TSV openings. A die singulation trench is etched at least substantially through the integrated circuit substrate around a perimeter of an integrated circuit die. The integrated circuit die is at least substantially released from the mechanical support substrate.

  3. DuPont Displays Develops Low-Cost Method of Printing OLED Panels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DuPont Displays Inc. (DDI) has developed a novel way of printing color-tunable OLED lighting panels that keeps manufacturing costs low. The method involves processing the organic layers from solution, with most of the process steps taking place under atmospheric conditions rather than in a high vacuum. Industry-standard slot-coating methods are used in conjunction with nozzle printing—in which the solutions of organic materials are continuously jetted through an array of nozzles moving at high speed—allowing the light-emitting materials to be spatially patterned.

  4. Power electronics substrate for direct substrate cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Le, Khiet (Mission Viejo, CA); Ward, Terence G. (Redondo Beach, CA); Mann, Brooks S. (Redondo Beach, CA); Yankoski, Edward P. (Corona, CA); Smith, Gregory S. (Woodland Hills, CA)

    2012-05-01

    Systems and apparatus are provided for power electronics substrates adapted for direct substrate cooling. A power electronics substrate comprises a first surface configured to have electrical circuitry disposed thereon, a second surface, and a plurality of physical features on the second surface. The physical features are configured to promote a turbulent boundary layer in a coolant impinged upon the second surface.

  5. Towards the Integration of Dark- and Photo-Fermentative Waste Treatment. 4. Repeated Batch Sequential Dark- and Photofermentation using Starch as Substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurinavichene, T. V.; Belokopytov, B. F.; Laurinavichius, K. S.; Khusnutdinova, A. N.; Seibert, M.; Tsygankov, A. A.

    2012-05-01

    In this study we demonstrated the technical feasibility of a prolonged, sequential two-stage integrated process under a repeated batch mode of starch fermentation. In this durable scheme, the photobioreactor with purple bacteria in the second stage was fed directly with dark culture from the first stage without centrifugation, filtration, or sterilization (not demonstrated previously). After preliminary optimization, both the dark- and the photo-stages were performed under repeated batch modes with different process parameters. Continuous H{sub 2} production in this system was observed at a H{sub 2} yield of up to 1.4 and 3.9 mole mole{sup -1} hexose during the dark- and photo-stage, respectively (for a total of 5.3 mole mole{sup -1} hexose), and rates of 0.9 and 0.5 L L{sup -1} d{sup -1}, respectively. Prolonged repeated batch H{sub 2} production was maintained for up to 90 days in each stage and was rather stable under non-aseptic conditions. Potential for improvements in these results are discussed.

  6. Hybrid stretchable circuits on silicone substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, A., E-mail: adam.1.robinson@nokia.com; Aziz, A., E-mail: a.aziz1@lancaster.ac.uk [Nanoscience Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB01FF (United Kingdom); Liu, Q.; Suo, Z. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Kavli Institute for Bionano Science and Technology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Lacour, S. P., E-mail: stephanie.lacour@epfl.ch [Centre for Neuroprosthetics and Laboratory for Soft Bioelectronics Interfaces, School of Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland)

    2014-04-14

    When rigid and stretchable components are integrated onto a single elastic carrier substrate, large strain heterogeneities appear in the vicinity of the deformable-non-deformable interfaces. In this paper, we report on a generic approach to manufacture hybrid stretchable circuits where commercial electronic components can be mounted on a stretchable circuit board. Similar to printed circuit board development, the components are electrically bonded on the elastic substrate and interconnected with stretchable electrical traces. The substrate—a silicone matrix carrying concentric rigid disks—ensures both the circuit elasticity and the mechanical integrity of the most fragile materials.

  7. Coated substrates and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chu, Wei-kan; Childs, Charles B.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a coated substrate and a process for forming films on substrates and for providing a particularly smooth film on a substrate. The method of this invention involves subjecting a surface of a substrate to contact with a stream of ions of an inert gas having sufficient force and energy to substantially change the surface characteristics of said substrate, and then exposing a film-forming material to a stream of ions of an inert gas having sufficient energy to vaporize the atoms of said film-forming material and to transmit the vaporized atoms to the substrate surface with sufficient force to form a film bonded to the substrate. This process is particularly useful commercially because it forms strong bonds at room temperature. This invention is particularly useful for adhering a gold film to diamond and forming ohmic electrodes on diamond, but also can be used to bond other films to substrates.

  8. Ribbed electrode substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Breault, Richard D.; Goller, Glen J.

    1983-01-01

    A ribbed substrate for an electrochemical cell electrode is made from a mixture of carbon fibers and carbonizable resin and has a mean pore size in the ribs which is 60-75% of the mean pore size of the web portions of the substrate which interconnect the ribs. Preferably the mean pore size of the web portion is 25-45 microns; and, if the substrate includes edge seals parallel to the ribs, the edge seals preferably have a mean pore size no greater than about ten microns. Most preferably the substrate has the same ratio of carbon fibers to polymeric carbon in all areas, including the ribs, webs, and edge seals. A substrate according to the present invention will have better overall performance than prior art substrates and minimizes the substrate thickness required for the substrate to perform all its functions well.

  9. Polished polymide substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farah, John; Sudarshanam, Venkatapuram S.

    2003-05-13

    Polymer substrates, in particular polyimide substrates, and polymer laminates for optical applications are described. Polyimide substrates are polished on one or both sides depending on their thickness, and single-layer or multi-layer waveguide structures are deposited on the polished polyimide substrates. Optical waveguide devices are machined by laser ablation using a combination of IR and UV lasers. A waveguide-fiber coupler with a laser-machined groove for retaining the fiber is also disclosed.

  10. Fabrication and Characterization of New Hybrid Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED): Europium-picrate-triethylene oxide Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarjidan, M. A. Mohd; Abu Zakaria, N. Z. A.; Abd. Majid, W. H. [Solid State Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Kusrini, Eny; Saleh, M. I. [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-07-07

    Thin-film light emitting devices based on organic materials have attracted vast interest in applications such as light emitting diode (LED) and flat-panel display. The organic material can be attached with inorganic material to enhance the performance of the light emitting device. A hybrid OLED based on a new complex of europium picrate (Eu-pic) with triethylene oxide (EO3) ligand is fabricated. The OLED is fabricated by using spin coating technique with acetone as the solvent and aluminum as the top electrode. The optical, photoluminescence (PL) and electrical properties of the sample are carried out by UV-Vis spectroscopy (Jasco V-750), luminescence spectroscopy (Perkin Elmer LS-500) and source measure unit (SMU)(Keithly), respectively.

  11. Modifying the organic/electrode interface in Organic Solar Cells (OSCs) and improving the efficiency of solution-processed phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Teng

    2012-04-27

    Organic semiconductors devices, such as, organic solar cells (OSCs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have drawn increasing interest in recent decades. As organic materials are flexible, light weight, and potentially low-cost, organic semiconductor devices are considered to be an alternative to their inorganic counterparts. This dissertation will focus mainly on OSCs and OLEDs. As a clean and renewable energy source, the development of OSCs is very promising. Cells with 9.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) were reported this year, compared to < 8% two years ago. OSCs belong to the so-called third generation solar cells and are still under development. While OLEDs are a more mature and better studied field, with commercial products already launched in the market, there are still several key issues: (1) the cost of OSCs/OLEDs is still high, largely due to the costly manufacturing processes; (2) the efficiency of OSCs/OLEDs needs to be improved; (3) the lifetime of OSCs/OLEDs is not sufficient compared to their inorganic counterparts; (4) the physics models of the behavior of the devices are not satisfactory. All these limitations invoke the demand for new organic materials, improved device architectures, low-cost fabrication methods, and better understanding of device physics. For OSCs, we attempted to improve the PCE by modifying the interlayer between active layer/metal. We found that ethylene glycol (EG) treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) improves hole collection at the metal/polymer interface, furthermore it also affects the growth of the poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends, making the phase segregation more favorable for charge collection. We then studied organic/inorganic tandem cells. We also investigated the effect of a thin LiF layer on the hole-collection of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C70-based small molecular OSCs. A thin LiF layer serves typically as the electron injection layer in OLEDs and electron collection interlayer in the OSCs. However, several reports showed that it can also assist in holeinjection in OLEDs. Here we first demonstrate that it assists hole-collection in OSCs, which is more obvious after air-plasma treatment, and explore this intriguing dual role. For OLEDs, we focus on solution processing methods to fabricate highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs. First, we investigated OLEDs with a polymer host matrix, and enhanced charge injection by adding hole- and electron-transport materials into the system. We also applied a hole-blocking and electron-transport material to prevent luminescence quenching by the cathode. Finally, we substituted the polymer host by a small molecule, to achieve more efficient solution processed small molecular OLEDs (SMOLEDs); this approach is cost-effective in comparison to the more common vacuum thermal evaporation. All these studies help us to better understand the underlying relationship between the organic semiconductor materials and the OSCs and OLEDs’ performance and will subsequently assist in further enhancing the efficiencies of OSCs and OLEDs. With better efficiency and longer lifetime, the OSCs and OLEDs will be competitive with their inorganic counterparts.

  12. EGF-receptor specificity for phosphotyrosine-primed substrates provides

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    signal integration with Src (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: EGF-receptor specificity for phosphotyrosine-primed substrates provides signal integration with Src Citation Details In-Document Search Title: EGF-receptor specificity for phosphotyrosine-primed substrates provides signal integration with Src Authors: Begley, Michael J. ; Yun, Cai-hong ; Gewinner, Christina A. ; Asara, John M ; Johnson, Jared L ; Coyle, Anthony J. ; Eck, Michael J.

  13. Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    integrated directly on flexible substrates for high power solid-state batteries. ... on flexible substrates for high power solid-state batteries. Abstract not provided. ...

  14. Method of producing an electronic unit having a polydimethylsiloxane substrate and circuit lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James Courtney; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Maghribi, Mariam N.; Benett, William J.; Hamilton, Julie K.; Tovar, Armando R.

    2012-06-19

    A system of metalization in an integrated polymer microsystem. A flexible polymer substrate is provided and conductive ink is applied to the substrate. In one embodiment the flexible polymer substrate is silicone. In another embodiment the flexible polymer substrate comprises poly(dimethylsiloxane).

  15. Bonded semiconductor substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atwater, Jr.; Harry A. , Zahler; James M.

    2010-07-13

    Ge/Si and other nonsilicon film heterostructures are formed by hydrogen-induced exfoliation of the Ge film which is wafer bonded to a cheaper substrate, such as Si. A thin, single-crystal layer of Ge is transferred to Si substrate. The bond at the interface of the Ge/Si heterostructures is covalent to ensure good thermal contact, mechanical strength, and to enable the formation of an ohmic contact between the Si substrate and Ge layers. To accomplish this type of bond, hydrophobic wafer bonding is used, because as the invention demonstrates the hydrogen-surface-terminating species that facilitate van der Waals bonding evolves at temperatures above 600.degree. C. into covalent bonding in hydrophobically bound Ge/Si layer transferred systems.

  16. Biaxially textured composite substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groves, James R.; Foltyn, Stephen R.; Arendt, Paul N.

    2005-04-26

    An article including a substrate, a layer of a metal phosphate material such as an aluminum phosphate material upon the surface of the substrate, and a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the metal phosphate material layer is provided together with additional layers such as a HTS top-layer of YBCO directly upon a layer of a buffer material such as a SrTi.sub.x Ru.sub.1-x O.sub.3 layer.

  17. Nanomechanics of hard films on compliant substrates.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Emerson, John Allen; Bahr, David F.; Moody, Neville Reid; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Hales, Lucas; Adams, David Price; Yeager,John; Nyugen, Thao D.; Corona, Edmundo; Kennedy, Marian S.; Cordill, Megan J.

    2009-09-01

    Development of flexible thin film systems for biomedical, homeland security and environmental sensing applications has increased dramatically in recent years [1,2,3,4]. These systems typically combine traditional semiconductor technology with new flexible substrates, allowing for both the high electron mobility of semiconductors and the flexibility of polymers. The devices have the ability to be easily integrated into components and show promise for advanced design concepts, ranging from innovative microelectronics to MEMS and NEMS devices. These devices often contain layers of thin polymer, ceramic and metallic films where differing properties can lead to large residual stresses [5]. As long as the films remain substrate-bonded, they may deform far beyond their freestanding counterpart. Once debonded, substrate constraint disappears leading to film failure where compressive stresses can lead to wrinkling, delamination, and buckling [6,7,8] while tensile stresses can lead to film fracture and decohesion [9,10,11]. In all cases, performance depends on film adhesion. Experimentally it is difficult to measure adhesion. It is often studied using tape [12], pull off [13,14,15], and peel tests [16,17]. More recent techniques for measuring adhesion include scratch testing [18,19,20,21], four point bending [22,23,24], indentation [25,26,27], spontaneous blisters [28,29] and stressed overlayers [7,26,30,31,32,33]. Nevertheless, sample design and test techniques must be tailored for each system. There is a large body of elastic thin film fracture and elastic contact mechanics solutions for elastic films on rigid substrates in the published literature [5,7,34,35,36]. More recent work has extended these solutions to films on compliant substrates and show that increasing compliance markedly changes fracture energies compared with rigid elastic solution results [37,38]. However, the introduction of inelastic substrate response significantly complicates the problem [10,39,40]. As a result, our understanding of the critical relationship between adhesion, properties, and fracture for hard films on compliant substrates is limited. To address this issue, we integrated nanomechanical testing and mechanics-based modeling in a program to define the critical relationship between deformation and fracture of nanoscale films on compliant substrates. The approach involved designing model film systems and employing nano-scale experimental characterization techniques to isolate effects of compliance, viscoelasticity, and plasticity on deformation and fracture of thin hard films on substrates that spanned more than two orders of compliance magnitude exhibit different interface structures, have different adhesion strengths, and function differently under stress. The results of this work are described in six chapters. Chapter 1 provides the motivation for this work. Chapter 2 presents experimental results covering film system design, sample preparation, indentation response, and fracture including discussion on the effects of substrate compliance on fracture energies and buckle formation from existing models. Chapter 3 describes the use of analytical and finite element simulations to define the role of substrate compliance and film geometry on the indentation response of thin hard films on compliant substrates. Chapter 4 describes the development and application of cohesive zone model based finite element simulations to determine how substrate compliance affects debond growth. Chapter 5 describes the use of molecular dynamics simulations to define the effects of substrate compliance on interfacial fracture of thin hard tungsten films on silicon substrates. Chapter 6 describes the Workshops sponsored through this program to advance understanding of material and system behavior.

  18. OLED Lighting in the Offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc. | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) | Department of Energy study was composed of several smaller studies done in cooperation with other local entities and experts, all of which are summarized in this report. PDF icon 48632.pdf More Documents & Publications Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

  19. Maintainable substrate carrier for electroplating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Chen-An; Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor; Ma; Diana Xiaobing

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are placed and conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of conductive clip attachment parts are attached in a permanent manner to the conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. A plurality of contact clips are attached in a removable manner to the clip attachment parts. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and conductively connecting the substrates with the conductive lines. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  20. CX-010821: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manufacturing Process for Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) Integrated Substrate CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 07/30/2013 Location(s): Pennsylvania Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  1. CX-010822: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manufacturing Process for Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) Integrated Substrate CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 07/30/2013 Location(s): Illinois Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  2. CX-010824: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manufacturing Process for Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) Integrated Substrate CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 07/30/2013 Location(s): New Jersey Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  3. CX-010823: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manufacturing Process for Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) Integrated Substrate CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 07/30/2013 Location(s): Pennsylvania Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  4. CX-013320: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manufacturing Process for OLED Integrated Substrate CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6Date: 01/27/2015 Location(s): Multiple LocationsOffices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  5. CX-013842: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Integrated Plastic Substrates for OLED Lighting CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6Date: 06/25/2015 Location(s): CaliforniaOffices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  6. Smart substrates: Making multi-chip modules smarter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wunsch, T.F.; Treece, R.K.

    1995-05-01

    A novel multi-chip module (MCM) design and manufacturing methodology which utilizes active CMOS circuits in what is normally a passive substrate realizes the `smart substrate` for use in highly testable, high reliability MCMS. The active devices are used to test the bare substrate, diagnose assembly errors or integrated circuit (IC) failures that require rework, and improve the testability of the final MCM assembly. A static random access memory (SRAM) MCM has been designed and fabricated in Sandia Microelectronics Development Laboratory in order to demonstrate the technical feasibility of this concept and to examine design and manufacturing issues which will ultimately determine the economic viability of this approach. The smart substrate memory MCM represents a first in MCM packaging. At the time the first modules were fabricated, no other company or MCM vendor had incorporated active devices in the substrate to improve manufacturability and testability, and thereby improve MCM reliability and reduce cost.

  7. March 2, 2016, FY2016 1Q, Quarterly Report on Federal Technical Capability

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Manufacturing Process for OLED Integrated Substrate Manufacturing Process for OLED Integrated Substrate Lead Performer: PPG Industries - Cheswick, PA Partners: - Plextronics - Pittsburgh, PA - Universal Display Corporation - Ewing, NJ DOE Total Funding: $2,345,638 Cost Share: $2,345,638 Project Term: 8/1/2013 - 7/31/2016 Funding Opportunity: SSL Manufacturing R&D Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-FOA-000079 Project Objective This project plans to develop manufacturing processes to

  8. PLZT capacitor on glass substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fairchild, M. Ray; Taylor, Ralph S.; Berlin, Carl W.; Wong, Celine W. K.; Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2016-01-05

    A lead-lanthanum-zirconium-titanate (PLZT) capacitor on a substrate formed of glass. The first metallization layer is deposited on a top side of the substrate to form a first electrode. The dielectric layer of PLZT is deposited over the first metallization layer. The second metallization layer deposited over the dielectric layer to form a second electrode. The glass substrate is advantageous as glass is compatible with an annealing process used to form the capacitor.

  9. PLZT capacitor on glass substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fairchild, Manuel Ray; Taylor, Ralph S.; Berlin, Carl W.; Wong, Celine Wk; Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2016-03-29

    A lead-lanthanum-zirconium-titanate (PLZT) capacitor on a substrate formed of glass. The first metallization layer is deposited on a top side of the substrate to form a first electrode. The dielectric layer of PLZT is deposited over the first metallization layer. The second metallization layer deposited over the dielectric layer to form a second electrode. The glass substrate is advantageous as glass is compatible with an annealing process used to form the capacitor.

  10. Pedestal substrate for coated optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hale, Layton C.; Malsbury, Terry N.; Patterson, Steven R.

    2001-01-01

    A pedestal optical substrate that simultaneously provides high substrate dynamic stiffness, provides low surface figure sensitivity to mechanical mounting hardware inputs, and constrains surface figure changes caused by optical coatings to be primarily spherical in nature. The pedestal optical substrate includes a disk-like optic or substrate section having a top surface that is coated, a disk-like base section that provides location at which the substrate can be mounted, and a connecting cylindrical section between the base and optics or substrate sections. The connecting cylindrical section may be attached via three spaced legs or members. However, the pedestal optical substrate can be manufactured from a solid piece of material to form a monolith, thus avoiding joints between the sections, or the disk-like base can be formed separately and connected to the connecting section. By way of example, the pedestal optical substrate may be utilized in the fabrication of optics for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography imaging system, or in any optical system requiring coated optics and substrates with reduced sensitivity to mechanical mounts.

  11. Sealed substrate carrier for electroplating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava

    2012-07-17

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier includes a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are held, and conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body. A conductive bus bar is embedded into a top side of the carrier body and is conductively coupled to the conductive lines. A thermoplastic overmold covers a portion of the bus bar, and there is a plastic-to-plastic bond between the thermoplastic overmold and the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  12. Conductive inks for metalization in integrated polymer microsystems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James Courtney; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Maghribi, Mariam N.; Benett, William J.; Hamilton, Julie K.; Tovar, Armando R.

    2006-02-28

    A system of metalization in an integrated polymer microsystem. A flexible polymer substrate is provided and conductive ink is applied to the substrate. In one embodiment the flexible polymer substrate is silicone. In another embodiment the flexible polymer substrate comprises poly(dimethylsiloxane).

  13. Carbon nanotubes on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gao, Yufei [Kennewick, WA; Liu, Jun [West Richland, WA

    2002-03-26

    The present invention includes carbon nanotubes whose hollow cores are 100% filled with conductive filler. The carbon nanotubes are in uniform arrays on a conductive substrate and are well-aligned and can be densely packed. The uniformity of the carbon nanotube arrays is indicated by the uniform length and diameter of the carbon nanotubes, both which vary from nanotube to nanotube on a given array by no more than about 5%. The alignment of the carbon nanotubes is indicated by the perpendicular growth of the nanotubes from the substrates which is achieved in part by the simultaneous growth of the conductive filler within the hollow core of the nanotube and the densely packed growth of the nanotubes. The present invention provides a densely packed carbon nanotube growth where each nanotube is in contact with at least one nearest-neighbor nanotube. The substrate is a conductive substrate coated with a growth catalyst, and the conductive filler can be single crystals of carbide formed by a solid state reaction between the substrate material and the growth catalyst. The present invention further provides a method for making the filled carbon nanotubes on the conductive substrates. The method includes the steps of depositing a growth catalyst onto the conductive substrate as a prepared substrate, creating a vacuum within a vessel which contains the prepared substrate, flowing H2/inert (e.g. Ar) gas within the vessel to increase and maintain the pressure within the vessel, increasing the temperature of the prepared substrate, and changing the H2/Ar gas to ethylene gas such that the ethylene gas flows within the vessel. Additionally, varying the density and separation of the catalyst particles on the conductive substrate can be used to control the diameter of the nanotubes.

  14. Photoresist substrate having robust adhesion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dentinger, Paul M.

    2005-07-26

    A substrate material for LIGA applications w hose general composition is Ti/Cu/Ti/SiO.sub.2. The SiO.sub.2 is preferably applied to the Ti/Cu/Ti wafer as a sputtered coating, typically about 100 nm thick. This substrate composition provides improved adhesion for epoxy-based photoresist materials, and particularly the photoresist material SU-8.

  15. Composite substrate for bipolar electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tekkanat, B.; Bolstad, J.J.

    1992-12-22

    Substrates for electrode systems, particularly those to be used for bipolar electrodes in zinc-bromine batteries, are disclosed. The substrates preferably include carbon-black as a conductive filler in a polymeric matrix, with reinforcing materials such as glass fibers. Warpage of the zinc-bromine electrodes which was experienced in the prior art and which was believed to be caused by physical expansion of the electrodes due to bromine absorption by the carbon-black, is substantially eliminated when new substrate fabrication techniques are employed. In the present invention, substrates are prepared using a lamination process known as glass mat reinforced thermoplastics technology or, in an alternate embodiment, the substrate is made using a slurry process. 4 figs.

  16. Composite substrate for bipolar electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tekkanat, Bora; Bolstad, James J.

    1992-12-22

    Substrates for electrode systems, particularly those to be used for bipolar electrodes in zinc-bromine batteries, are disclosed. The substrates preferably include carbon-black as a conductive filler in a polymeric matrix, with reinforcing materials such as glass fibers. Warpage of the zinc-bromine electrodes which was experienced in the prior art and which was believed to be caused by physical expansion of the electrodes due to bromine absorption by the carbon-black, is substantially eliminated when new substrate fabrication techniques are employed. In the pesent invention, substrates are prepared using a lamination process known as glass mat reinforced thermoplastics technology or, in an alternate embodiment, the substrate is made using a slurry process.

  17. Method of processing a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babayan, Steven E. (Huntington Beach, CA); Hicks, Robert F. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2008-02-12

    The invention is embodied in a plasma flow device or reactor having a housing that contains conductive electrodes with openings to allow gas to flow through or around them, where one or more of the electrodes are powered by an RF source and one or more are grounded, and a substrate or work piece is placed in the gas flow downstream of the electrodes, such that said substrate or work piece is substantially uniformly contacted across a large surface area with the reactive gases emanating therefrom. The invention is also embodied in a plasma flow device or reactor having a housing that contains conductive electrodes with openings to allow gas to flow through or around them, where one or more of the electrodes are powered by an RF source and one or more are grounded, and one of the grounded electrodes contains a means of mixing in other chemical precursors to combine with the plasma stream, and a substrate or work piece placed in the gas flow downstream of the electrodes, such that said substrate or work piece is contacted by the reactive gases emanating therefrom. In one embodiment, the plasma flow device removes organic materials from a substrate or work piece, and is a stripping or cleaning device. In another embodiment, the plasma flow device kills biological microorganisms on a substrate or work piece, and is a sterilization device. In another embodiment, the plasma flow device activates the surface of a substrate or work piece, and is a surface activation device. In another embodiment, the plasma flow device etches materials from a substrate or work piece, and is a plasma etcher. In another embodiment, the plasma flow device deposits thin films onto a substrate or work piece, and is a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition device or reactor.

  18. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W. [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T. [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  19. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, Richard K.; Bystroff, Roman I.; Miller, Dale E.

    1987-01-01

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  20. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, R.K.; Bystroff, R.I.; Miller, D.E.

    1986-08-27

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  1. Multilayer capacitor suitable for substrate integration and multimegahertz filtering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ngo, Khai D. T.

    1990-01-01

    A multilayer capacitor comprises stacked, spaced-apart electrodes of sheet form, dielectric layers between the electrodes, and first and second groups of spaced-apart conductive vias extending transversely of the sheet-form electrodes and through aligned holes in the dielectric layers. Alternate electrodes are instantaneously positive, and the remaining electrodes are instantaneously negative. Each via of the first group is electrically connected to the positive electrodes and passes insulatingly through the negative electrodes. Similarly, each via of the second group is electrically connected to the negative electrodes and passes insulatingly through the positive electrodes. Each via has, in the plane of the electrodes, a cross-sectional form in the shape of an elongated rib of greater length than width. The elongated ribs of the first group are disposed in a first plurality of rows with their lengths in spaced-apart, aligned relationship, and the ribs of the second group are disposed in a second plurality of rows with their lengths in spaced-apart, aligned relationship. The first plurality of rows is disposed substantially orthogonally with respect to the second plurality of rows.

  2. Substrate Recognition Strategy for Botulinum Neurotoxin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate Recognition Strategy for Botulinum Neurotoxin Substrate Recognition Strategy for Botulinum Neurotoxin Print Wednesday, 25 May 2005 00:00 Clostridal neurotoxins (CNTs) are...

  3. Composite Biaxially Textured Substrates Using Ultrasonic Consolidation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Composite Biaxially Textured Substrates Using ... Marketing SummaryA novel method of manufacturing single crystal substrates for the ...

  4. Colloidal quantum dot solar cells on curved and flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Illan J.; Moreno-Bautista, Gabriel; Minor, James C.; Kopilovic, Damir; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-10-20

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals synthesized with, processed in, and deposited from the solution phase, potentially enabling low-cost, facile manufacture of solar cells. Unfortunately, CQD solar cell reports, until now, have only explored batch-processing methods—such as spin-coating—that offer limited capacity for scaling. Spray-coating could offer a means of producing uniform colloidal quantum dot films that yield high-quality devices. Here, we explore the versatility of the spray-coating method by producing CQD solar cells in a variety of previously unexplored substrate arrangements. The potential transferability of the spray-coating method to a roll-to-roll manufacturing process was tested by spray-coating the CQD active layer onto six substrates mounted on a rapidly rotating drum, yielding devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 6.7%. We further tested the manufacturability of the process by endeavoring to spray onto flexible substrates, only to find that spraying while the substrate was flexed was crucial to achieving champion performance of 7.2% without compromise to open-circuit voltage. Having deposited onto a substrate with one axis of curvature, we then built our CQD solar cells onto a spherical lens substrate having two axes of curvature resulting in a 5% efficient device. These results show that CQDs deposited using our spraying method can be integrated to large-area manufacturing processes and can be used to make solar cells on unconventional shapes.

  5. Coatings on reflective mask substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tong, William Man-Wai; Taylor, John S.; Hector, Scott D.; Mangat, Pawitter J. S.; Stivers, Alan R.; Kofron, Patrick G.; Thompson, Matthew A.

    2002-01-01

    A process for creating a mask substrate involving depositing: 1) a coating on one or both sides of a low thermal expansion material EUVL mask substrate to improve defect inspection, surface finishing, and defect levels; and 2) a high dielectric coating, on the backside to facilitate electrostatic chucking and to correct for any bowing caused by the stress imbalance imparted by either other deposited coatings or the multilayer coating of the mask substrate. An film, such as TaSi, may be deposited on the front side and/or back of the low thermal expansion material before the material coating to balance the stress. The low thermal expansion material with a silicon overlayer and a silicon and/or other conductive underlayer enables improved defect inspection and stress balancing.

  6. Porous substrates filled with nanomaterials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Stadermann, Michael

    2014-08-19

    A composition comprising: at least one porous carbon monolith, such as a carbon aerogel, comprising internal pores, and at least one nanomaterial, such as carbon nanotubes, disposed uniformly throughout the internal pores. The nanomaterial can be disposed in the middle of the monolith. In addition, a method for making a monolithic solid with both high surface area and good bulk electrical conductivity is provided. A porous substrate having a thickness of 100 microns or more and comprising macropores throughout its thickness is prepared. At least one catalyst is deposited inside the porous substrate. Subsequently, chemical vapor deposition is used to uniformly deposit a nanomaterial in the macropores throughout the thickness of the porous substrate. Applications include electrical energy storage, such as batteries and capacitors, and hydrogen storage.

  7. Semiconductor films on flexible iridium substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit

    2005-03-29

    A laminate semiconductor article includes a flexible substrate, an optional biaxially textured oxide buffer system on the flexible substrate, a biaxially textured Ir-based buffer layer on the substrate or the buffer system, and an epitaxial layer of a semiconductor. Ir can serve as a substrate with an epitaxial layer of a semiconductor thereon.

  8. Substrate for thin silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciszek, Theodore F.

    1998-01-01

    A substrate for a photovoltaic device wherein the substrate is the base upon which photosensitive material is to be grown and the substrate comprises an alloy having boron in a range from 0.1 atomic % of the alloy to 1.3 atomic % of the alloy and the substrate has a resistivity less than 3.times.10.sup.-3 ohm-cm.

  9. Synthetic substrates for enzyme analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissell, E.R.; Mitchell, A.R.; Pearson, K.W.; Smith, R.E.

    1983-06-14

    Synthetic substrates are provided which may be represented as A-D. The A moiety includes an amino acid, polypeptide, or derivative. The D moiety includes 7-amino coumarin derivatives having an electron withdrawing substituent group at the 3 position carbon or fused between the 3 and 4 position carbons. No Drawings

  10. Synthetic substrates for enzyme analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissell, Eugene R.; Mitchell, Alexander R.; Pearson, Karen W.; Smith, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Synthetic substrates are provided which may be represented as A-D. The A moiety thereof includes an amino acid, polypeptide, or derivative thereof. The D moiety thereof includes 7-amino coumarin derivatives having an electron withdrawing substituent group at the 3 position carbon or fused between the 3 and 4 position carbons.

  11. Method for forming metallic silicide films on silicon substrates by ion beam deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuhr, Raymond A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Holland, Orin W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01

    Metallic silicide films are formed on silicon substrates by contacting the substrates with a low-energy ion beam of metal ions while moderately heating the substrate. The heating of the substrate provides for the diffusion of silicon atoms through the film as it is being formed to the surface of the film for interaction with the metal ions as they contact the diffused silicon. The metallic silicide films provided by the present invention are contaminant free, of uniform stoichiometry, large grain size, and exhibit low resistivity values which are of particular usefulness for integrated circuit production.

  12. Graphene folding on flat substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yadong; Ke, Changhong; Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao

    2014-10-28

    We present a combined experimental-theoretical study of graphene folding on flat substrates. The structure and deformation of the folded graphene sheet are experimentally characterized by atomic force microscopy. The local graphene folding behaviors are interpreted based on nonlinear continuum mechanics modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Our study on self-folding of a trilayer graphene sheet reports a bending stiffness of about 6.57?eV, which is about four times the reported values for monolayer graphene. Our results reveal that an intriguing free sliding phenomenon occurs at the interlayer van der Waals interfaces during the graphene folding process. This work demonstrates that it is a plausible venue to quantify the bending stiffness of graphene based on its self-folding conformation on flat substrates. The findings reported in this work are useful to a better understanding of the mechanical properties of graphene and in the pursuit of its applications.

  13. Preparing reflective substrate surfaces for laser treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flick, F.F.

    1984-11-21

    A coating of either copper oxide or felt tip pen ink is used on reflective copper or gold substrates to enhance laser beam coupling when the substrates are cut or welded with a laser.

  14. Patterned substrates and methods for nerve regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Heath, Carole; Shanks, Howard; Miller, Cheryl A.; Jeftinija, Srdija

    2004-01-13

    Micropatterned substrates and methods for fabrication of artificial nerve regeneration conduits and methods for regenerating nerves are provided. Guidance compounds or cells are seeded in grooves formed on the patterned substrate. The substrates may also be provided with electrodes to provide electrical guidance cues to the regenerating nerve. The micropatterned substrates give physical, chemical, cellular and/or electrical guidance cues to promote nerve regeneration at the cellular level.

  15. Substrate for thin silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciszek, T.F.

    1998-07-28

    A substrate is described for a photovoltaic device wherein the substrate is the base upon which photosensitive material is to be grown and the substrate comprises an alloy having boron in a range from 0.1 atomic % of the alloy to 1.3 atomic % of the alloy and the substrate has a resistivity less than 3{times}10{sup {minus}3} ohm-cm. 4 figs.

  16. Combined plasma/liquid cleaning of substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S.; Henins, Ivars

    2003-04-15

    Apparatus and method for cleaning substrates. A substrate is held and rotated by a chuck and an atmospheric pressure plasma jet places a plasma onto predetermined areas of the substrate. Subsequently liquid rinse is sprayed onto the predetermined areas. In one embodiment, a nozzle sprays a gas onto the predetermined areas to assist in drying the predetermined areas when needed.

  17. Textured substrate tape and devices thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit

    2006-08-08

    A method for forming a sharply biaxially textured substrate, such as a single crystal substrate, includes the steps of providing a deformed metal substrate, followed by heating above the secondary recrystallization temperature of the deformed substrate, and controlling the secondary recrystallization texture by either using thermal gradients and/or seeding. The seed is selected to shave a stable texture below a predetermined temperature. The sharply biaxially textured substrate can be formed as a tape having a length of 1 km, or more. Epitaxial articles can be formed from the tapes to include an epitaxial electromagnetically active layer. The electromagnetically active layer can be a superconducting layer.

  18. Phonon scattering in graphene over substrate steps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sevinçli, H.; Brandbyge, M.

    2014-10-13

    We calculate the effect on phonon transport of substrate-induced bends in graphene. We consider bending induced by an abrupt kink in the substrate, and provide results for different step-heights and substrate interaction strengths. We find that individual substrate steps reduce thermal conductance in the range between 5% and 47%. We also consider the transmission across linear kinks formed by adsorption of atomic hydrogen at the bends and find that individual kinks suppress thermal conduction substantially, especially at high temperatures. Our analysis show that substrate irregularities can be detrimental for thermal conduction even for small step heights.

  19. Automated cassette-to-cassette substrate handling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraus, Joseph Arthur; Boyer, Jeremy James; Mack, Joseph; DeChellis, Michael; Koo, Michael

    2014-03-18

    An automated cassette-to-cassette substrate handling system includes a cassette storage module for storing a plurality of substrates in cassettes before and after processing. A substrate carrier storage module stores a plurality of substrate carriers. A substrate carrier loading/unloading module loads substrates from the cassette storage module onto the plurality of substrate carriers and unloads substrates from the plurality of substrate carriers to the cassette storage module. A transport mechanism transports the plurality of substrates between the cassette storage module and the plurality of substrate carriers and transports the plurality of substrate carriers between the substrate carrier loading/unloading module and a processing chamber. A vision system recognizes recesses in the plurality of substrate carriers corresponding to empty substrate positions in the substrate carrier. A processor receives data from the vision system and instructs the transport mechanism to transport substrates to positions on the substrate carrier in response to the received data.

  20. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    structurally integrated optical sensors Cai, Yuankun General introduction to OLED basics and OLED-based structurally integrated sensors was provided in chapter 1 and chapter...

  1. Substrate heater for thin film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, Steve R. (111 Beryl St., Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1996-01-01

    A substrate heater for thin film deposition of metallic oxides upon a target substrate configured as a disk including means for supporting in a predetermined location a target substrate configured as a disk, means for rotating the target substrate within the support means, means for heating the target substrate within the support means, the heating means about the support means and including a pair of heating elements with one heater element situated on each side of the predetermined location for the target substrate, with one heater element defining an opening through which desired coating material can enter for thin film deposition and with the heating means including an opening slot through which the target substrate can be entered into the support means, and, optionally a means for thermal shielding of the heating means from surrounding environment is disclosed.

  2. BTO Awards Small Business Grants for Lighting, Building-Integrated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OLEDWorks LLC (Phase I)-Pedestrian-Friendly OLED Luminaire Architectural ... SBIR Recipient: OLEDWorks LLC Title: Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Light with Solar Panel ...

  3. Integrated optical XY coupler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G.A.; Hadley, G.R.

    1997-05-06

    An integrated optical XY coupler having two converging input waveguide arms meeting in a central section and a central output waveguide arm and two diverging flanking output waveguide arms emanating from the central section. In-phase light from the input arms constructively interferes in the central section to produce a single mode output in the central output arm with the rest of the light being collected in the flanking output arms. Crosstalk between devices on a substrate is minimized by this collection of the out-of-phase light by the flanking output arms of the XY coupler. 9 figs.

  4. Integrated optical XY coupler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G. Allen; Hadley, G. Ronald

    1997-01-01

    An integrated optical XY coupler having two converging input waveguide arms meeting in a central section and a central output waveguide arm and two diverging flanking output waveguide arms emanating from the central section. In-phase light from the input arms constructively interfers in the central section to produce a single mode output in the central output arm with the rest of the light being collected in the flanking output arms. Crosstalk between devices on a substrate is minimized by this collection of the out-of-phase light by the flanking output arms of the XY coupler.

  5. Non-permeable substrate carrier for electroplating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Chen, Chen-an; Ma, Diana Xiaobing; Ganti, Kalyana; Divino, Edmundo Anida; Ermita, Jake Randal G.; Capulong, Jose Francisco S.; Castillo, Arnold Villamor

    2015-12-29

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier comprises a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are to be held. Electrically-conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body, and a plurality of contact clips are coupled to the electrically-conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and electrically couple the substrates to the electrically-conductive lines. The non-conductive carrier body is continuous so as to be impermeable to flow of electroplating solution through the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  6. Non-permeable substrate carrier for electroplating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abas, Emmanuel Chua; Chen, Chen-An; Ma, Diana Xiaobing; Ganti, Kalyana Bhargava

    2012-11-27

    One embodiment relates to a substrate carrier for use in electroplating a plurality of substrates. The substrate carrier comprises a non-conductive carrier body on which the substrates are to be held. Electrically-conductive lines are embedded within the carrier body, and a plurality of contact clips are coupled to the electrically-conductive lines embedded within the carrier body. The contact clips hold the substrates in place and electrically couple the substrates to the electrically-conductive lines. The non-conductive carrier body is continuous so as to be impermeable to flow of electroplating solution through the non-conductive carrier body. Other embodiments, aspects and features are also disclosed.

  7. High quality oxide films on substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M.; Gao, Y.L.

    1994-02-01

    A method is described for providing an oxide film of a material on the surface of a substrate using a reactive deposition of the material onto the substrate surface in the presence of a solid or liquid layer of an oxidizing gas. The oxidizing gas is provided on the substrate surface in an amount sufficient to dissipate the latent heat of condensation occurring during deposition as well as creating a favorable oxidizing environment for the material. 4 figures.

  8. High quality oxide films on substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruckman, Mark W.; Strongin, Myron; Gao, Yong L.

    1994-01-01

    A method for providing an oxide film of a material on the surface of a substrate using a reactive deposition of the material onto the substrate surface in the presence of a solid or liquid layer of an oxidizing gas. The oxidizing gas is provided on the substrate surface in an amount sufficient to dissipate the latent heat of condensation occurring during deposition as well as creating a favorable oxidizing environment for the material.

  9. Substrate for thin silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciszek, Theodore F. (Evergreen, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A photovoltaic device for converting solar energy into electrical signals comprises a substrate, a layer of photoconductive semiconductor material grown on said substrate, wherein the substrate comprises an alloy of boron and silicon, the boron being present in a range of from 0.1 to 1.3 atomic percent, the alloy having a lattice constant substantially matched to that of the photoconductive semiconductor material and a resistivity of less than 1.times.10.sup.-3 ohm-cm.

  10. Substrate for thin silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciszek, T.F.

    1995-03-28

    A photovoltaic device for converting solar energy into electrical signals comprises a substrate, a layer of photoconductive semiconductor material grown on said substrate, wherein the substrate comprises an alloy of boron and silicon, the boron being present in a range of from 0.1 to 1.3 atomic percent, the alloy having a lattice constant substantially matched to that of the photoconductive semiconductor material and a resistivity of less than 1{times}10{sup {minus}3} ohm-cm. 4 figures.

  11. Substrate interactions with suspended and supported monolayer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and supported monolayer MoS2: Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy Title: Substrate interactions with suspended and supported monolayer MoS2: Angle-resolved ...

  12. Tailored Acicular Mullite Substrates for Multifunctional Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tailored Acicular Mullite Substrates for Multifunctional Diesel Particulate Filters SEM analysis showed that ACM DPF can be coated with relatively high catalyst washcoat without ...

  13. Mechanism and Substrate Recognition of 2-Hydroxyethylphosphonate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Mechanism and Substrate Recognition of ... Publication Date: 2011-09-20 OSTI Identifier: 1024499 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  14. Substrate Recognition Strategy for Botulinum Neurotoxin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate Recognition Strategy for Botulinum Neurotoxin Print Clostridal neurotoxins (CNTs) are the causative agents of the neuroparalytic diseases botulism and tetanus. By...

  15. Grid Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its grid integration subprogram.

  16. Buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoup, Shara S. (Woodstock, GA); Paranthamam, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN); Beach, David B. (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A method is disclosed for forming a biaxially textured buffer layer on a biaxially oriented metal substrate by using a sol-gel coating technique followed by pyrolyzing/annealing in a reducing atmosphere. This method is advantageous for providing substrates for depositing electronically active materials thereon.

  17. Biaxially textured metal substrate with palladium layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robbins, William B.

    2002-12-31

    Described is an article comprising a biaxially textured metal substrate and a layer of palladium deposited on at least one major surface of the metal substrate; wherein the palladium layer has desired in-plane and out-of-plane crystallographic orientations, which allow subsequent layers that are applied on the article to also have the desired orientations.

  18. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1989-05-09

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  19. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drummond, Timothy J.; Ginley, David S.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  20. Thin Film Transistors On Plastic Substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Sigmon, Thomas W.; Aceves, Randy C.

    2004-01-20

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The silicon based thin film transistor produced by the process includes a low temperature substrate incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures greater than about 250.degree. C., an insulating layer on the substrate, a layer of silicon on the insulating layer having sections of doped silicon, undoped silicon, and poly-silicon, a gate dielectric layer on the layer of silicon, a layer of gate metal on the dielectric layer, a layer of oxide on sections of the layer of silicon and the layer of gate metal, and metal contacts on sections of the layer of silicon and layer of gate metal defining source, gate, and drain contacts, and interconnects.

  1. Passive hybrid sensing tag with flexible substrate saw device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skinner, Jack L.; Chu, Eric Y.; Ho, Harvey

    2012-12-25

    The integration of surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters, microfabricated transmission lines, and sensors onto polymer substrates in order to enable a passive wireless sensor platform is described herein. Incident microwave pulses on an integrated antenna are converted to an acoustic wave via a SAW filter and transmitted to an impedance based sensor, which for this work is a photodiode. Changes in the sensor state induce a corresponding change in the impedance of the sensor resulting in a reflectance profile. Data collected at a calibrated receiver is used to infer the state of the sensor. Based on this principal, light levels were passively and wirelessly demonstrated to be sensed at distances of up to about 12 feet.

  2. Interfacial Shear Strength of Oxide Scale and SS 441 Substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-05-01

    Recent developments on decreasing the operating temperature for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) have enabled the use of high temperature ferritic alloys as interconnect materials. Oxide scale will inevitably grow on the ferritic interconnects in a high temperature oxidation environment of SOFCs. The growth of the oxide scale induces growth stresses in the scale layer and on the scale/substrate interface. These growth stresses combined with the thermal stresses induced upon stacking cooling by the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the oxide scale and the substrate may lead to scale delamination/buckling and eventual spallation, which may lead to serious cell performance degradation. Hence the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the substrate is crucial to the reliability and durability of the metallic interconnect in SOFC operating environments. In this paper, we applied an integrated experimental/modeling methodology to quantify the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the SS 441 metallic interconnect. The predicted interfacial strength is discussed in details.

  3. Methods for integrating a functional component into a microfluidic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, Blake; Domeier, Linda; Woo, Noble; Shepodd, Timothy; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2014-08-19

    Injection molding is used to form microfluidic devices with integrated functional components. One or more functional components are placed in a mold cavity, which is then closed. Molten thermoplastic resin is injected into the mold and then cooled, thereby forming a solid substrate including the functional component(s). The solid substrate including the functional component(s) is then bonded to a second substrate, which may include microchannels or other features.

  4. Method of forming fluorine-bearing diamond layer on substrates, including tool substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, R. P. H. (Glenview, IL); Grannen, Kevin J. (Evanston, IL)

    2002-01-01

    A method of forming a fluorine-bearing diamond layer on non-diamond substrates, especially on tool substrates comprising a metal matrix and hard particles, such as tungsten carbide particles, in the metal matrix. The substrate and a fluorine-bearing plasma or other gas are then contacted under temperature and pressure conditions effective to nucleate fluorine-bearing diamond on the substrate. A tool insert substrate is treated prior to the diamond nucleation and growth operation by etching both the metal matrix and the hard particles using suitable etchants.

  5. Flexible cadmium telluride thin films grown on electron-beam-irradiated graphene/thin glass substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Won-Oh; Kim, Jihyun, E-mail: hyunhyun7@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Yong Hwan; Kim, Byungnam; Lee, Byung Cheol [Radiation Integrated System Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Donghwan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-25

    We demonstrate the close-spaced sublimation growth of polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films on a flexible graphene electrode/thin glass substrate structure. Prior to the growth of CdTe films, chemical-vapor-deposited graphene was transferred onto a flexible glass substrate and subjected to electron-beam irradiation at an energy of 0.2?MeV in order to intentionally introduce the defects into it in a controlled manner. Micro-Raman spectroscopy and sheet resistance measurements were employed to monitor the damage and disorder in the electron-beam irradiated graphene layers. The morphology and optical properties of the CdTe thin films deposited on a graphene/flexible glass substrate were systematically characterized. The integration of the defective graphene layers with a flexible glass substrate can be a useful platform to grow various thin-film structures for flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  6. Metallic coatings on silicon substrates, and methods of forming metallic coatings on silicon substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Hyde, Timothy A.; Fincke, James R.

    2008-03-11

    The invention includes methods of forming a metallic coating on a substrate which contains silicon. A metallic glass layer is formed over a silicon surface of the substrate. The invention includes methods of protecting a silicon substrate. The substrate is provided within a deposition chamber along with a deposition target. Material from the deposition target is deposited over at least a portion of the silicon substrate to form a protective layer or structure which contains metallic glass. The metallic glass comprises iron and one or more of B, Si, P and C. The invention includes structures which have a substrate containing silicon and a metallic layer over the substrate. The metallic layer contains less than or equal to about 2 weight % carbon and has a hardness of at least 9.2 GPa. The metallic layer can have an amorphous microstructure or can be devitrified to have a nanocrystalline microstructure.

  7. Integration of planar transformer and/or planar inductor with power switches in power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Kanghua; Ahmed, Sayeed; Zhu, Lizhi

    2007-10-30

    A power converter integrates at least one planar transformer comprising a multi-layer transformer substrate and/or at least one planar inductor comprising a multi-layer inductor substrate with a number of power semiconductor switches physically and thermally coupled to a heat sink via one or more multi-layer switch substrates.

  8. Screening method for selecting semiconductor substrates having defects below a predetermined level in an oxide layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, William L.; Vanheusden, Karel J. R.; Schwank, James R.; Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Winokur, Peter S.; Devine, Roderick A. B.

    1998-01-01

    A method for screening or qualifying semiconductor substrates for integrated circuit fabrication. The method comprises the steps of annealing at least one semiconductor substrate at a first temperature in a defect-activating ambient (e.g. hydrogen, forming gas, or ammonia) for sufficient time for activating any defects within on oxide layer of the substrate; measuring a defect-revealing electrical characteristic of at least a portion of the oxide layer for determining a quantity of activated defects therein; and selecting substrates for which the quantity of activated defects is below a predetermined level. The defect-revealing electrical characteristic may be a capacitance-versus-voltage (C-V) characteristic or a current-versus-voltage (I-V) characteristic that is dependent on an electrical charge in the oxide layer generated by the activated defects. Embodiments of the present invention may be applied for screening any type of semiconductor substrate or wafer having an oxide layer formed thereon or therein. This includes silicon-on-insulator substrates formed by a separation by the implantation of oxygen (SIMOX) process or the bond and etch back silicon-on-insulator (BESOI) process, as well as silicon substrates having a thermal oxide layer or a deposited oxide layer.

  9. Screening method for selecting semiconductor substrates having defects below a predetermined level in an oxide layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, W.L.; Vanheusden, K.J.R.; Schwank, J.R.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Devine, R.A.B.

    1998-07-28

    A method is disclosed for screening or qualifying semiconductor substrates for integrated circuit fabrication. The method comprises the steps of annealing at least one semiconductor substrate at a first temperature in a defect-activating ambient (e.g. hydrogen, forming gas, or ammonia) for sufficient time for activating any defects within on oxide layer of the substrate; measuring a defect-revealing electrical characteristic of at least a portion of the oxide layer for determining a quantity of activated defects therein; and selecting substrates for which the quantity of activated defects is below a predetermined level. The defect-revealing electrical characteristic may be a capacitance-versus voltage (C-V) characteristic or a current-versus-voltage (I-V) characteristic that is dependent on an electrical charge in the oxide layer generated by the activated defects. Embodiments of the present invention may be applied for screening any type of semiconductor substrate or wafer having an oxide layer formed thereon or therein. This includes silicon-on-insulator substrates formed by a separation by the implantation of oxygen (SIMOX) process or the bond and etch back silicon-on-insulator (BESOI) process, as well as silicon substrates having a thermal oxide layer or a deposited oxide layer. 5 figs.

  10. Integrated circuit with dissipative layer for photogenerated carriers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myers, D.R.

    1988-04-20

    The sensitivity of an integrated circuit to single-event upsets is decreased by providing a dissipative layer of silicon nitride between a silicon substrate and the active device. Free carriers generated in the substrate are dissipated by the layer before they can build up charge on the active device. 1 fig.

  11. Procurement Integrity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ------------------------------Chapter 3.1 (Dec 2015) 1 Procurement Integrity [Reference: 41 U.S.C. 423, FAR 3.104, DEAR 903.104] Overview This section discusses the requirements of the Procurement Integrity Act and its impact on Federal employees. Background The Department of Energy (DOE), like most federal agencies, purchases many products and services from the private sector. To preserve the integrity of the Federal procurement process and assure fair treatment of bidders, offerors and

  12. Rolling process for producing biaxially textured substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit

    2004-05-25

    A method of preparing a biaxially textured article includes the steps of: rolling a metal preform while applying shear force thereto to form as-rolled biaxially textured substrate having an a rotated cube texture wherein a (100) cube face thereof is parallel to a surface of said substrate, and wherein a [100] direction thereof is at an angle of at least 30.degree. relative to the rolling direction; and depositing onto the surface of the biaxially textured substrate at least one epitaxial layer of another material to form a biaxially textured article.

  13. Implantable biomedical devices on bioresorbable substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Kaplan, David L; Litt, Brian; Viventi, Jonathan; Huang, Yonggang; Amsden, Jason

    2014-03-04

    Provided herein are implantable biomedical devices, methods of administering implantable biomedical devices, methods of making implantable biomedical devices, and methods of using implantable biomedical devices to actuate a target tissue or sense a parameter associated with the target tissue in a biological environment. Each implantable biomedical device comprises a bioresorbable substrate, an electronic device having a plurality of inorganic semiconductor components supported by the bioresorbable substrate, and a barrier layer encapsulating at least a portion of the inorganic semiconductor components. Upon contact with a biological environment the bioresorbable substrate is at least partially resorbed, thereby establishing conformal contact between the implantable biomedical device and the target tissue in the biological environment.

  14. Procurement Integrity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    To preserve the integrity of the Federal procurement process and assure fair treatment of bidders, offerors and contractors, laws govern the procurement process and the manner in ...

  15. Insolation integrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, John J.; Rudge, George T.

    1980-01-01

    An electric signal representative of the rate of insolation is integrated to determine if it is adequate for operation of a solar energy collection system.

  16. Wafer bonded virtual substrate and method for forming the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atwater, Jr., Harry A.; Zahler, James M.; Morral, Anna Fontcuberta i

    2007-07-03

    A method of forming a virtual substrate comprised of an optoelectronic device substrate and handle substrate comprises the steps of initiating bonding of the device substrate to the handle substrate, improving or increasing the mechanical strength of the device and handle substrates, and thinning the device substrate to leave a single-crystal film on the virtual substrate such as by exfoliation of a device film from the device substrate. The handle substrate is typically Si or other inexpensive common substrate material, while the optoelectronic device substrate is formed of more expensive and specialized electro-optic material. Using the methodology of the invention a wide variety of thin film electro-optic materials of high quality can be bonded to inexpensive substrates which serve as the mechanical support for an optoelectronic device layer fabricated in the thin film electro-optic material.

  17. Off-axis silicon carbide substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edgar, James; Dudley, Michael; Kuball, Martin; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Guan; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Yu

    2014-09-02

    A method of epitaxial growth of a material on a crystalline substrate includes selecting a substrate having a crystal plane that includes a plurality of terraces with step risers that join adjacent terraces. Each terrace of the plurality or terraces presents a lattice constant that substantially matches a lattice constant of the material, and each step riser presents a step height and offset that is consistent with portions of the material nucleating on adjacent terraces being in substantial crystalline match at the step riser. The method also includes preparing a substrate by exposing the crystal plane; and epitaxially growing the material on the substrate such that the portions of the material nucleating on adjacent terraces merge into a single crystal lattice without defects at the step risers.

  18. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1987-10-23

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In molecular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating. 1 tab.

  19. Substrates and method for determining enzymes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, R.E.; Bissell, E.R.

    1981-10-13

    A method is disclosed for determining the presence of an enzyme in a biological fluid, which includes the steps of contacting the fluid with a synthetic chromogenic substrate, which is an amino acid derivative of 7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin; incubating the substrate-containing fluid to effect enzymatic hydrolysis; and fluorometrically determining the presence of the free 7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin chromophore in the hydrolyzate. No Drawings

  20. Biaxially oriented film on flexible polymeric substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Finkikoglu, Alp T.; Matias, Vladimir

    2009-10-13

    A flexible polymer-based template having a biaxially oriented film grown on the surface of a polymeric substrate. The template having the biaxially oriented film can be used for further epitaxial growth of films of interest for applications such as photovoltaic cells, light emitting diodes, and the like. Methods of forming such a flexible template and providing the polymeric substrate with a biaxially oriented film deposited thereon are also described.

  1. Substrates and method for determining enzymes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Robert E. (574 Escondido Cir., Livermore, CA 94550); Bissell, Eugene R. (101 Via Lucia, Alamo, CA 94507)

    1981-01-01

    A method is disclosed for determining the presence of an enzyme in a biological fluid, which includes the steps of contacting the fluid with a synthetic chromogenic substrate, which is an amino acid derivative of 7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin; incubating the substrate-containing fluid to effect enzymatic hydrolysis; and fluorometrically determining the presence of the free 7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin chromophore in the hydrolyzate.

  2. Superconducting thin films on potassium tantalate substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Roeland; Boatner, Lynn A.

    1992-01-01

    A superconductive system for the lossless transmission of electrical current comprising a thin film of superconducting material Y.sub.1 Ba.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x epitaxially deposited upon a KTaO.sub.3 substrate. The KTaO.sub.3 is an improved substrate over those of the prior art since the it exhibits small lattice constant mismatch and does not chemically react with the superconducting film.

  3. Substrate Recognition Strategy for Botulinum Neurotoxin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate Recognition Strategy for Botulinum Neurotoxin Substrate Recognition Strategy for Botulinum Neurotoxin Print Wednesday, 25 May 2005 00:00 Clostridal neurotoxins (CNTs) are the causative agents of the neuroparalytic diseases botulism and tetanus. By inhibiting release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, for example, the neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum interferes with nerve impulses and causes a paralysis of respiratory and skeletal muscles that can cause

  4. Mechanism and Substrate Recognition of 2-Hydroxyethylphosphonate

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dioxygenase (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Mechanism and Substrate Recognition of 2-Hydroxyethylphosphonate Dioxygenase Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanism and Substrate Recognition of 2-Hydroxyethylphosphonate Dioxygenase HEPD belongs to the superfamily of 2-His-1-carboxylate non-heme iron-dependent dioxygenases. It converts 2-hydroxyethylphosphonate (2-HEP) to hydroxymethylphosphonate (HMP) and formate. Previously

  5. Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated directly on

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    flexible substrates for high power solid-state batteries. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated directly on flexible substrates for high power solid-state batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated directly on flexible substrates for high power solid-state batteries. Abstract not provided. Authors: Ihlefeld, Jon F. ; Clem, Paul Gilbert ; Doyle, Barney Lee ;

  6. Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creighton, J.R.; Dominguez, F.; Johnson, A.W.; Omstead, T.R.

    1997-09-02

    A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten. 2 figs.

  7. Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creighton, J. Randall; Dominguez, Frank; Johnson, A. Wayne; Omstead, Thomas R.

    1997-01-01

    A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten.

  8. Procurement Integrity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ---...Chapter 3.1 (Dec 2015) 1 Procurement Integrity Reference: 41 U.S.C. 423, FAR 3.104, DEAR 903.104 Overview This section discusses the requirements ...

  9. Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrate Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrate Presenter: Arpan Chakraborty, Soraa Inc. This ...

  10. Wiremesh Substrates for Enhanced Particulate Oxidation and Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wiremesh Substrates for Enhanced Particulate Oxidation and Efficient Urea SCR NOx Reduction Wiremesh Substrates for Enhanced Particulate Oxidation and Efficient Urea SCR NOx ...

  11. Structural basis for substrate specificity in the Escherichia...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structural basis for substrate specificity in the Escherichia coli maltose transport system Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural basis for substrate specificity in ...

  12. Buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substrates (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    oriented metal substrate by using a sol-gel coating technique followed by pyrolyzing... biaxially; oriented; metal; substrate; sol-gel; coating; technique; followed; pyrolyzing; ...

  13. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, E.H.; Tuckerman, D.B.

    1991-09-10

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required. 1 figure.

  14. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, Edward H.; Tuckerman, David B.

    1991-01-01

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required.

  15. Integrated field emission array for ion desorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Resnick, Paul J; Hertz, Kristin L; Holland, Christopher; Chichester, David; Schwoebel, Paul

    2013-09-17

    An integrated field emission array for ion desorption includes an electrically conductive substrate; a dielectric layer lying over the electrically conductive substrate comprising a plurality of laterally separated cavities extending through the dielectric layer; a like plurality of conically-shaped emitter tips on posts, each emitter tip/post disposed concentrically within a laterally separated cavity and electrically contacting the substrate; and a gate electrode structure lying over the dielectric layer, including a like plurality of circular gate apertures, each gate aperture disposed concentrically above an emitter tip/post to provide a like plurality of annular gate electrodes and wherein the lower edge of each annular gate electrode proximate the like emitter tip/post is rounded. Also disclosed herein are methods for fabricating an integrated field emission array.

  16. Silica substrate or portion formed from oxidation of monocrystalline silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matzke, Carolyn M.; Rieger, Dennis J.; Ellis, Robert V.

    2003-07-15

    A method is disclosed for forming an inclusion-free silica substrate using a monocrystalline silicon substrate as the starting material and oxidizing the silicon substrate to convert it entirely to silica. The oxidation process is performed from both major surfaces of the silicon substrate using a conventional high-pressure oxidation system. The resulting product is an amorphous silica substrate which is expected to have superior etching characteristics for microfabrication than conventional fused silica substrates. The present invention can also be used to convert only a portion of a monocrystalline silicon substrate to silica by masking the silicon substrate and locally thinning a portion the silicon substrate prior to converting the silicon portion entirely to silica. In this case, the silica formed by oxidizing the thinned portion of the silicon substrate can be used, for example, as a window to provide optical access through the silicon substrate.

  17. Passivation coating for flexible substrate mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

    1990-01-01

    A protective diffusion barrier for metalized mirror structures is provided by a layer or coating of silicon nitride which is a very dense, transparent, dielectric material that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack the metal layers of mirrors and cause degradation of the mirrors' reflectivity. The silicon nitride layer can be deposited on the substrate before metal deposition thereon to stabilize the metal/substrate interface, and it can be deposited over the metal to encapsulate it and protect the metal from corrosion or other degradation. Mirrors coated with silicon nitride according to this invention can also be used as front surface mirrors. Also, the silver or other reflective metal layer on mirrors comprising thin, lightweight, flexible substrates of metal or polymer sheets coated with glassy layers can be protected with silicon nitride according to this invention.

  18. Methods of selectively incorporating metals onto substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst; Richard D. , Eyring; Edward M. , Turpin; Gregory C. , Dunn; Brian C.

    2008-09-30

    A method for forming multi-metallic sites on a substrate is disclosed and described. A substrate including active groups such as hydroxyl can be reacted with a pretarget metal complex. The target metal attached to the active group can then be reacted with a secondary metal complex such that an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction occurs to form a multi-metallic species. The substrate can be a highly porous material such as aerogels, xerogels, zeolites, and similar materials. Additional metal complexes can be reacted to increase catalyst loading or control co-catalyst content. The resulting compounds can be oxidized to form oxides or reduced to form metals in the ground state which are suitable for practical use.

  19. Methods for patterned deposition on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rye, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Ricco, Antonio J. (Albuquerque, NM); Hampden-Smith, M. J. (Albuquerque, NM); Kodas, T. T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for patterned depositions of a material onto a substrate. A surface of a polymeric substrate is first etched so as to form an etched layer having enhanced adhesions characteristics and then selected portions of the etched layer are removed so as to define a pattern having enhanced and diminished adhesion characteristics for the deposition of a conductor onto the remaining etched layer. In one embodiment, a surface of a PTFE substrate is chemically etched so as to improve the adhesion of copper thereto. Thereafter, selected portions of the etched surface are irradiated with a laser beam so as to remove the etched selected portions of the etched surface and form patterns of enhanced and diminished adhesion of copper thereto.

  20. Methods for patterned deposition on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rye, R.R.; Ricco, A.J.; Hampden-Smith, M.J.; Kodas, T.T.

    1995-01-10

    A method is described for patterned depositions of a material onto a substrate. A surface of a polymeric substrate is first etched so as to form an etched layer having enhanced adhesions characteristics and then selected portions of the etched layer are removed so as to define a pattern having enhanced and diminished adhesion characteristics for the deposition of a conductor onto the remaining etched layer. In one embodiment, a surface of a PTFE substrate is chemically etched so as to improve the adhesion of copper thereto. Thereafter, selected portions of the etched surface are irradiated with a laser beam so as to remove the etched selected portions of the etched surface and form patterns of enhanced and diminished adhesion of copper thereto. 5 figures.

  1. Cleaning process for EUV optical substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weber, Frank J.; Spiller, Eberhard A.

    1999-01-01

    A cleaning process for surfaces with very demanding cleanliness requirements, such as extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) optical substrates. Proper cleaning of optical substrates prior to applying reflective coatings thereon is very critical in the fabrication of the reflective optics used in EUV lithographic systems, for example. The cleaning process involves ultrasonic cleaning in acetone, methanol, and a pH neutral soap, such as FL-70, followed by rinsing in de-ionized water and drying with dry filtered nitrogen in conjunction with a spin-rinse.

  2. Thin film photovoltaic device with multilayer substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, Anthony W.; Bhushan, Manjul

    1984-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic device which utilizes at least one compound semiconductor layer chosen from Groups IIB and VA of the Periodic Table is formed on a multilayer substrate The substrate includes a lowermost support layer on which all of the other layers of the device are formed. Additionally, an uppermost carbide or silicon layer is adjacent to the semiconductor layer. Below the carbide or silicon layer is a metal layer of high conductivity and expansion coefficient equal to or slightly greater than that of the semiconductor layer.

  3. Method of applying coatings to substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D.

    1991-01-01

    A method for applying novel coatings to substrates is provided. The ends of multiplicity of rods of different materials are melted by focused beams of laser light. Individual electric fields are applied to each of the molten rod ends, thereby ejecting charged particles that include droplets, atomic clusters, molecules, and atoms. The charged particles are separately transported, by the accelerations provided by electric potentials produced by an electrode structure, to substrates where they combine and form the coatings. Layered and thickness graded coatings comprised of hithereto unavailable compositions, are provided.

  4. 2014 OLED Stakeholder Meeting Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... you want to model, specify the device architecture, modify default settings, select labor ... that it is not and work remains, particularly on sustainability and device structure. ...

  5. Inverter power module with distributed support for direct substrate cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Harold; Korich, Mark D.; Ward, Terence G.; Mann, Brooks S.

    2012-08-21

    Systems and/or methods are provided for an inverter power module with distributed support for direct substrate cooling. An inverter module comprises a power electronic substrate. A first support frame is adapted to house the power electronic substrate and has a first region adapted to allow direct cooling of the power electronic substrate. A gasket is interposed between the power electronic substrate and the first support frame. The gasket is configured to provide a seal between the first region and the power electronic substrate. A second support frame is adapted to house the power electronic substrate and joined to the first support frame to form the seal.

  6. Determination of Interfacial Adhesion Strength between Oxide Scale and Substrate for Metallic SOFC Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning N.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-01-21

    The interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the substrate is crucial to the reliability and durability of metallic interconnects in SOFC operating environments. It is necessary, therefore, to establish a methodology to quantify the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the metallic interconnect substrate, and furthermore to design and optimize the interconnect material as well as the coating materials to meet the design life of an SOFC system. In this paper, we present an integrated experimental/analytical methodology for quantifying the interfacial adhesion strength between oxide scale and a ferritic stainless steel interconnect. Stair-stepping indentation tests are used in conjunction with subsequent finite element analyses to predict the interfacial strength between the oxide scale and Crofer 22 APU substrate.

  7. CX-001308: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Low-Cost Integrated Substrate for Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) Lighting (Allison Park)CX(s) Applied: A2, A9Date: 03/19/2010Location(s): Allison Park, PennsylvaniaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  8. CX-001310: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Low-Cost Integrated Substrate for Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) Lighting (Ewing)CX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 03/19/2010Location(s): Ewing, New JerseyOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  9. CX-001309: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Low-Cost Integrated Substrate for Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) Lighting (Monroeville)CX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 03/19/2010Location(s): Monroeville, PennsylvaniaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  10. CX-001307: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Low-Cost Integrated Substrate for Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) Lighting (Harmar)CX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 03/19/2010Location(s): Harmar, PennsylvaniaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  11. ZnO buffer layer for metal films on silicon substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ihlefeld, Jon

    2014-09-16

    Dramatic improvements in metallization integrity and electroceramic thin film performance can be achieved by the use of the ZnO buffer layer to minimize interfacial energy between metallization and adhesion layers. In particular, the invention provides a substrate metallization method utilizing a ZnO adhesion layer that has a high work of adhesion, which in turn enables processing under thermal budgets typically reserved for more exotic ceramic, single-crystal, or metal foil substrates. Embodiments of the present invention can be used in a broad range of applications beyond ferroelectric capacitors, including microelectromechanical systems, micro-printed heaters and sensors, and electrochemical energy storage, where integrity of metallized silicon to high temperatures is necessary.

  12. CMOS Integrated Carbon Nanotube Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, M. S.; Lerner, B.; Boselli, A.; Lamagna, A.; Obregon, P. D. Pareja; Julian, P. M.; Mandolesi, P. S.; Buffa, F. A.

    2009-05-23

    Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been gaining their importance as sensors for gases, temperature and chemicals. Advances in fabrication processes simplify the formation of CNT sensor on silicon substrate. We have integrated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with complementary metal oxide semiconductor process (CMOS) to produce a chip sensor system. The sensor prototype was designed and fabricated using a 0.30 um CMOS process. The main advantage is that the device has a voltage amplifier so the electrical measure can be taken and amplified inside the sensor. When the conductance of the SWCNTs varies in response to media changes, this is observed as a variation in the output tension accordingly.

  13. RADIATION INTEGRATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, F.M.; Wilson, H.N.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation detecting and measuring systems, particularly a compact, integrating, background monitor, are discussed. One of the principal features of the system is the use of an electrometer tube where the input of the tube is directly connected to an electrode of the radiation detector and a capacitor is coupled to the tube input. When a predetermined quantity of radiation has been integrated, a trigger signal is fed to a recorder and a charge is delivered to the capacitor to render the tube inoperative. The capacitor is then recharged for the next period of operation. With this arrangement there is a substantial reduction in lead lengths and the principal components may be enclosed and hermetically sealed to insure low leakage.

  14. Carbon nanotube substrates and catalyzed hot stamp for polishing and patterning the substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuhuang; Hauge, Robert H.; Schmidt, Howard K.; Kim, Myung Jong; Kittrell, W. Carter

    2009-09-08

    The present invention is generally directed to catalyzed hot stamp methods for polishing and/or patterning carbon nanotube-containing substrates. In some embodiments, the substrate, as a carbon nanotube fiber end, is brought into contact with a hot stamp (typically at 200-800.degree. C.), and is kept in contact with the hot stamp until the morphology/patterns on the hot stamp have been transferred to the substrate. In some embodiments, the hot stamp is made of material comprising one or more transition metals (Fe, Ni, Co, Pt, Ag, Au, etc.), which can catalyze the etching reaction of carbon with H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O, and/or O.sub.2. Such methods can (1) polish the carbon nanotube-containing substrate with a microscopically smooth finish, and/or (2) transfer pre-defined patterns from the hot stamp to the substrate. Such polished or patterned carbon nanotube substrates can find application as carbon nanotube electrodes, field emitters, and field emitter arrays for displays and electron sources.

  15. Substrate Recognition Strategy for Botulinum Neurotoxin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate Recognition Strategy for Botulinum Neurotoxin Print Clostridal neurotoxins (CNTs) are the causative agents of the neuroparalytic diseases botulism and tetanus. By inhibiting release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, for example, the neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum interferes with nerve impulses and causes a paralysis of respiratory and skeletal muscles that can cause death. Researchers from Stanford University have now determined the first structure of a

  16. Substrate Recognition Strategy for Botulinum Neurotoxin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate Recognition Strategy for Botulinum Neurotoxin Print Clostridal neurotoxins (CNTs) are the causative agents of the neuroparalytic diseases botulism and tetanus. By inhibiting release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, for example, the neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum interferes with nerve impulses and causes a paralysis of respiratory and skeletal muscles that can cause death. Researchers from Stanford University have now determined the first structure of a

  17. Substrate Recognition Strategy for Botulinum Neurotoxin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate Recognition Strategy for Botulinum Neurotoxin Print Clostridal neurotoxins (CNTs) are the causative agents of the neuroparalytic diseases botulism and tetanus. By inhibiting release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, for example, the neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum interferes with nerve impulses and causes a paralysis of respiratory and skeletal muscles that can cause death. Researchers from Stanford University have now determined the first structure of a

  18. Thick crystalline films on foreign substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Henry I.; Atwater, Harry A.; Geis, Michael W.

    1986-01-01

    To achieve a uniform texture, large crystalline grains or, in some cases, a single crystalline orientation in a thick (>1 .mu.m) film on a foreign substrate, the film is formed so as to be thin (<1 .mu.m) in a certain section. Zone-melting recrystallization is initiated in the thin section and then extended into the thick section. The method may employ planar constriction patterns of orientation filter patterns.

  19. Substrate Recognition Strategy for Botulinum Neurotoxin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate Recognition Strategy for Botulinum Neurotoxin Print Clostridal neurotoxins (CNTs) are the causative agents of the neuroparalytic diseases botulism and tetanus. By inhibiting release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, for example, the neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum interferes with nerve impulses and causes a paralysis of respiratory and skeletal muscles that can cause death. Researchers from Stanford University have now determined the first structure of a

  20. Thick crystalline films on foreign substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, H.I.; Atwater, H.A.; Geis, M.W.

    1986-03-18

    To achieve a uniform texture, large crystalline grains or, in some cases, a single crystalline orientation in a thick (>1 [mu]m) film on a foreign substrate, the film is formed so as to be thin (<1 [mu]m) in a certain section. Zone-melting recrystallization is initiated in the thin section and then extended into the thick section. The method may employ planar constriction patterns of orientation filter patterns. 2 figs.

  1. Laminate articles on biaxially textured metal substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, David B.; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chirayil, Thomas; Specht, Eliot D.; Goyal, Amit

    2003-12-16

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sup.1.sub.x RE.sup.2.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.3 buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  2. High G MEMS integrated accelerometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, B.R.; Barron, C.C.; Montague, S.; Smith, J.H.; Murray, J.R.; Christenson, T.R.; Bateman, V.I.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a surface micromachined accelerometer for measuring very high levels of acceleration (up to 50,000 G). Both the mechanical and electronic portions of the sensor were integrated on a single substrate using a process developed at Sandia National Laboratories. In this process, the mechanical components of the sensor were first fabricated at the bottom of a trench etched into the water substrate. The trench was then filled with oxide and sealed to protect the mechanical components during subsequent microelectronics processing. The wafer surface was then planarized in preparation for CMOS processing using Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP). Next, the CMOS electronics were fabricated on areas of the wafer adjacent to the embedded structures. Finally, the mechanical structures were released and the sensor tested. The mechanical structure of the sensor consisted of two polysilicon plate masses suspended by multiple springs (cantilevered beam structures) over corresponding polysilicon plates fixed to the substrate to form two parallel plate capacitors. The first polysilicon plate mass was suspended using compliant springs (cantilever beams) and acted as a variable capacitor during sensor acceleration. The second polysilicon plate mass was suspended using very stiff springs and acted as a fixed capacitor during acceleration. Acceleration was measured by comparing the capacitance of the variable capacitor (compliant suspension) with the fixed capacitance (stiff suspension).

  3. ACCELERATION INTEGRATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pope, K.E.

    1958-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved acceleration integrator and more particularly to apparatus of this nature which is gyrostabilized. The device may be used to sense the attainment by an airborne vehicle of a predetermined velocitv or distance along a given vector path. In its broad aspects, the acceleration integrator utilizes a magnetized element rotatable driven by a synchronous motor and having a cylin drical flux gap and a restrained eddy- current drag cap deposed to move into the gap. The angular velocity imparted to the rotatable cap shaft is transmitted in a positive manner to the magnetized element through a servo feedback loop. The resultant angular velocity of tae cap is proportional to the acceleration of the housing in this manner and means may be used to measure the velocity and operate switches at a pre-set magnitude. To make the above-described dcvice sensitive to acceleration in only one direction the magnetized element forms the spinning inertia element of a free gyroscope, and the outer housing functions as a gimbal of a gyroscope.

  4. Surface control alloy substrates and methods of manufacture therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritzemeier, Leslie G.; Li, Qi; Rupich, Martin W.; Thompson, Elliott D.; Siegal, Edward J.; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans; Annavarapu, Suresh; Arendt, Paul N.; Foltyn, Stephen R.

    2004-05-04

    Methods and articles for controlling the surface of an alloy substrate for deposition of an epitaxial layer. The invention includes the use of an intermediate layer to stabilize the substrate surface against oxidation for subsequent deposition of an epitaxial layer.

  5. Metallic substrates for high temperature superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Truchan, Thomas G.; Miller, Dean J.; Goretta, Kenneth C.; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Foley, Robert

    2002-01-01

    A biaxially textured face-centered cubic metal article having grain boundaries with misorientation angles greater than about 8.degree. limited to less than about 1%. A laminate article is also disclosed having a metal substrate first rolled to at least about 95% thickness reduction followed by a first annealing at a temperature less than about 375.degree. C. Then a second rolling operation of not greater than about 6% thickness reduction is provided, followed by a second annealing at a temperature greater than about 400.degree. C. A method of forming the metal and laminate articles is also disclosed.

  6. Graphene-on-semiconductor substrates for analog electronics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagally, Max G.; Cavallo, Francesca; Rojas-Delgado, Richard

    2016-04-26

    Electrically conductive material structures, analog electronic devices incorporating the structures and methods for making the structures are provided. The structures include a layer of graphene on a semiconductor substrate. The graphene layer and the substrate are separated by an interfacial region that promotes transfer of charge carriers from the surface of the substrate to the graphene.

  7. NREL: Energy Systems Integration - Systems Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-level system integration New distribution scenarios such as household DC systems and residential-scale generation and storage integrated with home energy management systems. ...

  8. Commercial Buildings Integration (CBI)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Arah Schuur Program Manager Commercial Buildings Integration (CBI) April 22, 2014 Commercial Buildings Integration (CBI) 2 Commercial Buildings Integration (CBI) Mission...

  9. Universal Common Communication Substrate (UCCS) Specification; Universal Common Communication Substrate (UCCS) Implementation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-08-22

    Universal Common Communication Substrate (UCCS) is a low-level communication substrate that exposes high-performance communication primitives, while providing network interoperability. It is intended to support multiple upper layer protocol (ULPs) or programming models including SHMEM,UPC,Titanium,Co-Array Fortran,Global Arrays,MPI,GASNet, and File I/O. it provides various communication operations including one-sided and two-sided point-to-point, collectives, and remote atomic operations. In addition to operations for ULPs, it provides an out-of-band communication channel required typically required to wire-up communication libraries.

  10. Microfluidic structures and methods for integrating a functional component into a microfluidic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, Blake; Domeier, Linda; Woo, Noble; Shepodd, Timothy; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2008-04-01

    Injection molding is used to form microfluidic devices with integrated functional components. One or more functional components are placed in a mold cavity which is then closed. Molten thermoplastic resin is injected into the mold and then cooled, thereby forming a solid substrate including the functional component(s). The solid substrate including the functional component(s) is then bonded to a second substrate which may include microchannels or other features.

  11. Method for removing semiconductor layers from salt substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuskus, Alexander J.; Cowher, Melvyn E.

    1985-08-27

    A method is described for removing a CVD semiconductor layer from an alkali halide salt substrate following the deposition of the semiconductor layer. The semiconductor-substrate combination is supported on a material such as tungsten which is readily wet by the molten alkali halide. The temperature of the semiconductor-substrate combination is raised to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the substrate but less than the temperature of the semiconductor and the substrate is melted and removed from the semiconductor by capillary action of the wettable support.

  12. NREL: Process Development and Integration Laboratory - Integrated

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurements and Characterization Capabilities Integrated Measurements and Characterization Capabilities The Integrated Measurements and Characterization cluster tool in the Process Development and Integration Laboratory offers powerful capabilities with integrated tools for measuring and characterizing photovoltaic materials and devices. Contact Pete Sheldon for more details on these capabilities. Basic Cluster Tool Capabilities Sample Handling Ultra-high-vacuum robot Transport pod: allows

  13. Oxygen Incorporation During Fabrication of Substrate CdTe Photovoltaic Devices: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duenow, J. N.; Dhere, R. G.; Kuciauskas, D.; Li, J. V.; Pankow, J. W.; DeHart, C. M.; Gessert, T. A.

    2012-06-01

    Recently, CdTe photovoltaic (PV) devices fabricated in the nonstandard substrate configuration have attracted increasing interest because of their potential compatibility with flexible substrates such as metal foils and polymer films. This compatibility could lead to the suitability of CdTe for roll-to-roll processing and building-integrated PV. Currently, however, the efficiencies of substrate CdTe devices reported in the literature are significantly lower ({approx}6%-8%) than those of high-performance superstrate devices ({approx}17%) because of significantly lower open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF). In our recent device development efforts, we have found that processing parameters required to fabricate high-efficiency substrate CdTe PV devices differ from those necessary for traditional superstrate CdTe devices. Here, we investigate how oxygen incorporation in the CdTe deposition, CdCl2 heat treatment, CdS deposition, and post-deposition heat treatment affect device characteristics through their effects on the junction. By adjusting whether oxygen is incorporated during these processing steps, we have achieved Voc values greater than 860 mV and efficiencies greater than 10%.

  14. Residential Buildings Integration Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    April 2, 2013 Residential Buildings Integration Program Building Technologies Office ... Overview of the Residential Integration Program Research Implementation tools ...

  15. Light emitting device having peripheral emissive region

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-05-28

    Light emitting devices are provided that include one or more OLEDs disposed only on a peripheral region of the substrate. An OLED may be disposed only on a peripheral region of a substantially transparent substrate and configured to emit light into the substrate. Another surface of the substrate may be roughened or include other features to outcouple light from the substrate. The edges of the substrate may be beveled and/or reflective. The area of the OLED(s) may be relatively small compared to the substrate surface area through which light is emitted from the device. One or more OLEDs also or alternatively may be disposed on an edge of the substrate about perpendicular to the surface of the substrate through which light is emitted, such that they emit light into the substrate. A mode expanding region may be included between each such OLED and the substrate.

  16. Vitreous carbon mask substrate for X-ray lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aigeldinger, Georg; Skala, Dawn M.; Griffiths, Stewart K.; Talin, Albert Alec; Losey, Matthew W.; Yang, Chu-Yeu Peter

    2009-10-27

    The present invention is directed to the use of vitreous carbon as a substrate material for providing masks for X-ray lithography. The new substrate also enables a small thickness of the mask absorber used to pattern the resist, and this enables improved mask accuracy. An alternative embodiment comprised the use of vitreous carbon as a LIGA substrate wherein the VC wafer blank is etched in a reactive ion plasma after which an X-ray resist is bonded. This surface treatment provides a surface enabling good adhesion of the X-ray photoresist and subsequent nucleation and adhesion of the electrodeposited metal for LIGA mold-making while the VC substrate practically eliminates secondary radiation effects that lead to delamination of the X-ray resist form the substrate, the loss of isolated resist features, and the formation of a resist layer adjacent to the substrate that is insoluble in the developer.

  17. Substrate structures for InP-based devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W.; Sheldon, Peter

    1990-01-01

    A substrate structure for an InP-based semiconductor device having an InP based film is disclosed. The substrate structure includes a substrate region having a lightweight bulk substrate and an upper GaAs layer. An interconnecting region is disposed between the substrate region and the InP-based device. The interconnecting region includes a compositionally graded intermediate layer substantially lattice-matched at one end to the GaAs layer and substantially lattice-matched at the opposite end to the InP-based film. The interconnecting region further includes a dislocation mechanism disposed between the GaAs layer and the InP-based film in cooperation with the graded intermediate layer, the buffer mechanism blocking and inhibiting propagation of threading dislocations between the substrate region, and the InP-based device.

  18. Medium scale carbon nanotube thin film integrated circuits on flexible plastic substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A; Cao, Qing; Alam, Muhammad; Pimparkar, Ninad

    2015-02-03

    The present invention provides device components geometries and fabrication strategies for enhancing the electronic performance of electronic devices based on thin films of randomly oriented or partially aligned semiconducting nanotubes. In certain aspects, devices and methods of the present invention incorporate a patterned layer of randomly oriented or partially aligned carbon nanotubes, such as one or more interconnected SWNT networks, providing a semiconductor channel exhibiting improved electronic properties relative to conventional nanotubes-based electronic systems.

  19. Method for producing high quality thin layer films on substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strongin, M.; Ruckman, M.; Strongin, D.

    1994-04-26

    A method for producing high quality, thin layer films of inorganic compounds upon the surface of a substrate is disclosed. The method involves condensing a mixture of preselected molecular precursors on the surface of a substrate and subsequently inducing the formation of reactive species using high energy photon or charged particle irradiation. The reactive species react with one another to produce a film of the desired compound upon the surface of the substrate. 4 figures.

  20. Method for producing high quality thin layer films on substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strongin, Myron; Ruckman, Mark; Strongin, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    A method for producing high quality, thin layer films of inorganic compounds upon the surface of a substrate is disclosed. The method involves condensing a mixture of preselected molecular precursors on the surface of a substrate and subsequently inducing the formation of reactive species using high energy photon or charged particle irradiation. The reactive species react with one another to produce a film of the desired compound upon the surface of the substrate.

  1. Method for producing high quality oxide films on substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruckman, Mark W.; Strongin, Myron; Gao, Yong L.

    1993-01-01

    A method for providing an oxide film of a material on the surface of a substrate using a reactive deposition of the material onto the substrate surface in the presence of a solid or liquid layer of an oxidizing gas. The oxidizing gas is provided on the substrate surface in an amount sufficient to dissipate the latent heat of condensation occurring during deposition as well as creating a favorable oxidizing environment for the material.

  2. Method for producing high quality oxide films on substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M.; Gao, Y.L.

    1993-11-23

    A method is described for providing an oxide film of a material on the surface of a substrate using a reactive deposition of the material onto the substrate surface in the presence of a solid or liquid layer of an oxidizing gas. The oxidizing gas is provided on the substrate surface in an amount sufficient to dissipate the latent heat of condensation occurring during deposition as well as creating a favorable oxidizing environment for the material. 4 figures.

  3. Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project is producing high-efficiency semipolar light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on low-defect bulk gallium nitride (GaN) substrates.

  4. Method of depositing buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substrates

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Patent) | SciTech Connect Method of depositing buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method of depositing buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substrates A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sup.1.sub.x RE.sup.2.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.3 buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0 Authors: Beach, David B. [1] ; Morrell, Jonathan S. [1] ; Paranthaman, Mariappan [1] ; Chirayil, Thomas [1] ; Specht,

  5. Design Potential of Metal Foil Substrates for Optimized DOC Performanc...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Potential of Metal Foil Substrates for Optimized DOC Performance Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 ...

  6. Structure of the enzyme-acyl carrier protein (ACP) substrate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    complex required for biotin synthesis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structure of the enzyme-acyl carrier protein (ACP) substrate gatekeeper complex required ...

  7. Apparatus for thermally evolving chemical analytes from a removable substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L.; Hannum, David W.

    2003-06-03

    Method and apparatus suited to convenient field use for heating a porous metallic substrate swiped on the surface of an article possibly bearing residue of contraband or other target chemical substances. The preferred embodiment of the device includes means for holding the swiped substrate between electrodes bearing opposite electrical charges, thereby completing an electrical circuit in which current can flow through the porous metallic substrate. Resistance causes the substrate to heat, thus driving adherent target chemicals, if present, into a space from which they are carried via gas flow into a detector such as a portable IMS for analysis.

  8. Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene Print Prospective challengers to silicon, the long-reigning king of semiconductors for computer chips and other electronic...

  9. Spatial atomic layer deposition on flexible substrates using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spatial atomic layer deposition on flexible substrates using a modular rotating cylinder reactor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spatial atomic layer deposition on...

  10. Method For Making Selected Regions Of A Substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fusaro, Jr., Robert Anthony; Bethel, Timothy Francis

    2003-07-15

    Described herein is a method for providing a clean edge at the interface of a portion of a substrate coated with a coating system and an adjacent portion of the substrate which is uncoated. The method includes the step of forming a zone of non-adherence on the substrate portion which is to be uncoated, prior to application of the coating system. The zone of non-adherence is adjacent the interface, so that the coating system will not adhere to the zone of non-adherence, but will adhere to the portion of the substrate which is to be coated with the coating system.

  11. Method for masking selected regions of a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fusaro, Jr., Robert Anthony; Bethel, Timothy Francis

    2010-05-04

    Described herein is a method for providing a clean edge at the interface of a portion of a substrate coated with a coating system and an adjacent portion of the substrate which is uncoated. The method includes the step of forming a zone of non-adherence on the substrate portion which is to be uncoated, prior to application of the coating system. The zone of non-adherence is adjacent the interface, so that the coating system will not adhere to the zone of non-adherence, but will adhere to the portion of the substrate which is to be coated with the coating system.

  12. Transverse-longitudinal integrated resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, Donald P. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, Marcus L. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, John T. (Knoxville, TN)

    2003-03-11

    A transverse-longitudinal integrated optical resonator (TLIR) is disclosed which includes a waveguide, a first and a second subwavelength resonant grating in the waveguide, and at least one photonic band gap resonant structure (PBG) in the waveguide. The PBG is positioned between the first and second subwavelength resonant gratings. An electro-optic waveguide material may be used to permit tuning the TLIR and to permit the TLIR to perform signal modulation and switching. The TLIR may be positioned on a bulk substrate die with one or more electronic and optical devices and may be communicably connected to the same. A method for fabricating a TLIR including fabricating a broadband reflective grating is disclosed. A method for tuning the TLIR's transmission resonance wavelength is also disclosed.

  13. NREL: Energy Systems Integration Facility - Systems Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systems Integration Systems integration considers the relationships among electricity, thermal, and fuel systems and data and information networks to ensure optimal interoperability across the energy spectrum. The Energy Systems Integration Facility's suite of systems integration laboratories provides advanced capabilities for research, development, and demonstration of key components of future energy systems. Photo of a man and a power quality meter system in a laboratory. The Energy Systems

  14. Method of making carbon nanotubes on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gao, Yufei; Liu, Jun

    2006-03-14

    The present invention includes carbon nanotubes whose hollow cores are 100% filled with conductive filler. The carbon nanotubes are in uniform arrays on a conductive substrate and are well-aligned and can be densely packed. The uniformity of the carbon nanotube arrays is indicated by the uniform length and diameter of the carbon nanotubes, both which vary from nanotube to nanotube on a given array by no more than about 5%. The alignment of the carbon nanotubes is indicated by the perpendicular growth of the nanotubes from the substrates which is achieved in part by the simultaneous growth of the conductive filler within the hollow core of the nanotube and the densely packed growth of the nanotubes. The present invention provides a densely packed carbon nanotube growth where each nanotube is in contact with at least one nearest-neighbor nanotube. The substrate is a conductive substrate coated with a growth catalyst, and the conductive filler can be single crystals of carbide formed by a solid state reaction between the substrate material and the growth catalyst. The present invention further provides a method for making the filled carbon nanotubes on the conductive substrates. The method includes the steps of depositing a growth catalyst onto the conductive substrate as a prepared substrate, creating a vacuum within a vessel which contains the prepared substrate, flowing H2/inert (e.g. Ar) gas within the vessel to increase and maintain the pressure within the vessel, increasing the temperature of the prepared substrate, and changing the H2/Ar gas to ethylene gas such that the ethylene gas flows within the vessel. Additionally, varying the density and separation of the catalyst particles on the conductive substrate can be used to control the diameter of the nanotubes.

  15. Integrated Safety Management Policy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Integrated Safety Management (ISM) System Description (ISMSD) defines how the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) integrates environment, safety, and health...

  16. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  17. Integrating Environmental Stewardship

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    stewardship Many Laboratory functions are integrated with environmental stewardship. This Strategy cannot be effective without systematic integration with other related Laboratory...

  18. Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Systems Integration team funds distribution grid integration research and development (R&D) activities to address the technical issues that surround distribution grid planning,...

  19. Residential Buildings Integration (RBI)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    David Lee Program Manager Residential Buildings Integration (RBI) April 22, 2014 Residential Buildings Integration (RBI) MissionVision The Residential Buildings ...

  20. Commercial Buildings Integration Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings Integration Program Arah Schuur Program Manager arah.schuur@ee.doe.gov April 2, ... Commercial Buildings Integration Program Mission Accelerate voluntary uptake of ...

  1. Energy Systems Integration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems Integration Ben Kroposki, PhD, PE Director, Energy Systems Integration National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2 Reducing investment risk and optimizing systems in a rapidly ...

  2. Reactive ion etched substrates and methods of making and using

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rucker, Victor C.; Shediac, Rene; Simmons, Blake A.; Havenstrite, Karen L.

    2007-08-07

    Disclosed herein are substrates comprising reactive ion etched surfaces and specific binding agents immobilized thereon. The substrates may be used in methods and devices for assaying or isolating analytes in a sample. Also disclosed are methods of making the reactive ion etched surfaces.

  3. Thin film with oriented cracks on a flexible substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Bao; McGilvray, Andrew; Shi, Bo

    2010-07-27

    A thermoelectric film is disclosed. The thermoelectric film includes a substrate that is substantially electrically non-conductive and flexible and a thermoelectric material that is deposited on at least one surface of the substrate. The thermoelectric film also includes multiple cracks oriented in a predetermined direction.

  4. Substrate comprising a nanometer-scale projection array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi; Zhu, Jia; Hsu, Ching-Mei; Connor, Stephen T; Yu, Zongfu; Fan, Shanhui; Burkhard, George

    2012-11-27

    A method for forming a substrate comprising nanometer-scale pillars or cones that project from the surface of the substrate is disclosed. The method enables control over physical characteristics of the projections including diameter, sidewall angle, and tip shape. The method further enables control over the arrangement of the projections including characteristics such as center-to-center spacing and separation distance.

  5. Substrate effects on surface plasmons in single nanoholes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuford, K. L.; Gray, S. K.; Ratner, M. A.; Schatz, G. C.; Chemistry; ORNL; Northwestern Univ.

    2007-01-01

    Light transmission and electric field enhancement are calculated for a cylindrical aperture in a silver slab resting on a glass substrate. We find that these properties are influenced significantly by the presence of the substrate. The results suggest that variations in the local dielectric alter the properties of localized surface plasmons that drive the field enhancement and transmission.

  6. Method of deposition of silicon carbide layers on substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angelini, P.; DeVore, C.E.; Lackey, W.J.; Blanco, R.E.; Stinton, D.P.

    1982-03-19

    A method for direct chemical vapor deposition of silicon carbide to substrates, especially nuclear waste particles, is provided by the thermal decomposition of methylsilane at 800 to 1050/sup 0/C when the substrates have been confined within a suitable coating environment.

  7. Method for fabricating a substrate having spaced apart microcapillaries thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jarvis, E.E.

    1995-01-24

    Methods are disclosed for manufacturing a self-supporting substrate having a plurality of spaced-apart needles (spikes or microcapillaries) projecting upwardly from a major surface of the substrate. In a preferred method, metal is deposited onto a porous membrane such that the metal extends into the pores, after which the membrane is dissolved. 9 figures.

  8. Method for forming a nano-textured substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jeong, Sangmoo; Hu, Liangbing; Cui, Yi

    2015-04-07

    A method for forming a nano-textured surface on a substrate is disclosed. An illustrative embodiment of the present invention comprises dispensing of a nanoparticle ink of nanoparticles and solvent onto the surface of a substrate, distributing the ink to form substantially uniform, liquid nascent layer of the ink, and enabling the solvent to evaporate from the nanoparticle ink thereby inducing the nanoparticles to assemble into an texture layer. Methods in accordance with the present invention enable rapid formation of large-area substrates having a nano-textured surface. Embodiments of the present invention are well suited for texturing substrates using high-speed, large scale, roll-to-roll coating equipment, such as that used in office product, film coating, and flexible packaging applications. Further, embodiments of the present invention are well suited for use with rigid or flexible substrates.

  9. SURFACE PREPARATION OF STEEL SUBSTRATES USING GRIT-BLASTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen; D. J. Varacalle, Jr.; D. Deason; W. Rhodaberger; E. Sampson

    2005-05-01

    The primary purpose of grit blasting for thermal spray applications is to ensure a strong mechanical bond between the substrate and the coating by the enhanced roughening of the substrate material. This study presents statistically designed experiments that were accomplished to investigate the effect of abrasives on roughness for A36/1020 steel. The experiments were conducted using a Box statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. Three grit blasting parameters and their effect on the resultant substrate roughness were investigated. These include blast media, blast pressure, and working distance. The substrates were characterized for roughness using surface profilometry. These attributes were correlated with the changes in operating parameters. Twin-Wire Electric Arc (TWEA) coatings of aluminum and zinc/aluminum were deposited on the grit-blasted substrates. These coatings were then tested for bond strength. Bond strength studies were conducted utilizing a portable adhesion tester following ASTM standard D4541.

  10. Influence of Substrate on Crystallization in Polythiophene/fullerene Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C He; D Germack; J Kline; D Delongchamp; D Fischer; C Snyder; M Toney; J Kushmerick; L Richter

    2011-12-31

    The nanoscale morphology of the active layer in organic, bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is crucial to device performance. Often a combination of casting conditions and post deposition thermal treatment is used to optimize the morphology. In general, the development of microscopic crystals is deleterious, as the exciton diffusion length is {approx}10 nm. We find that the microscopic crystallization behavior in polythiophene/fullerene blends is strongly influenced by the substrate on which the BHJ is cast. With a silicon oxide substrate, the crystal nucleation density is high and significant crystallization occurs at a temperature of 140 C. On more hydrophobic substrates, significantly higher temperatures are required for observable crystallization. This difference is attributed to the interfacial segregation of the PCBM, controlled by the substrate surface energy. The substrate dependence of crystallization has significant implications on the fullerene crystal growth mechanisms and practical implications for device studies.

  11. Static atomic displacements in a CdTe epitaxial layer on a GaAs substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horning, R.D.; Staudenmann, J.

    1987-05-25

    A (001)CdTe epitaxial layer on a (001)GaAs substrate was studied by x-ray diffraction between 10 and 360 K. The CdTe growth took place at 380 /sup 0/C in a vertical gas flow metalorganic chemical vapor deposition reactor. Lattice parameters and integrated intensities of both the substrate and the epitaxial layer using the (00l) and (hhh) Bragg reflections reveal three important features. Firstly, the GaAs substrate does not exhibit severe strain after deposition and it is as perfect as a bulk GaAs. Secondly, the CdTe unit cell distorts tetragonally with a/sub perpendicular/>a/sub parallel/ below 300 K. The decay of the (00l) reflection intensities as a function of the temperature yields a Debye temperature of 142 K, the same value as for bulk CdTe. Thirdly, a temperature-dependent isotropic static displacement of the Cd and the Te atoms is introduced to account for the anomalous behavior of the (hhh) intensities.

  12. Sandia Energy - Transmission Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transmission Grid Integration Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Grid Integration Transmission Grid Integration Transmission Grid...

  13. Sandia Energy - Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distribution Grid Integration Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Grid Integration Distribution Grid Integration Distribution Grid...

  14. Combination & Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    focused on optimizing SCR washcoat within the DPF substrate, and maximizing the capacity for passive soot oxidation exhibited in the system PDF icon deer12_rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Combination and Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies Combination & Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies

  15. Residential Buildings Integration Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Residential Buildings Integration Program Presentation for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review

  16. Procurement Integrity Brochure What is Procurement Integrity?

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Procurement Integrity Brochure What is Procurement Integrity? The Department of Energy, like most federal agencies, purchases many products and services from the private sector. To preserve the integrity of the Federal procurement process and assure fair treatment of bidders, offerors, and contractors, laws govern the procurement process and the manner in which federal and contractor personnel conduct business with each other. One of these statutes is Section 27 of the Office of Federal

  17. A lithium electrode with a zinc substrate for secondary batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuda, Y.; Katsuma, H.; Morita, M.

    1983-03-01

    The development of a lithium secondary battery using an organic electrolyte has been actively pursued in recent years. An efficient Li electrode is required to realize such rechargeable batteries. Some Li negatives with metal substrates have been proposed in order to obtain good efficiency of chargedischarge cycling. Especially, it is worth noting that high coulombic efficiency was achieved with an Al substrate, which forms an alloy with deposited Li during the charging period. Previously, the authors pointed out the importance of the correlation between the alloy formation of the substrate metal and the charge-discharge efficiency on the substrate. It was also found that Zn, as well as Al, is a promising substrate for secondary lithium electrodes. This paper shows the charge-discharge characteristics of the Li electrode with a Zn substrate in propylene carbonate solution containing lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF/sub 4/) or lithium perchlorate (LiClO/sub 4/). The results are briefly discussed by comparing the characteristics with those for the Al substrate.

  18. Fabrication of Conductive Paths on a Fused Deposition Modeling Substrate using Inkjet Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Wenchao; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Duty, Chad E.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2015-01-15

    Inkjet deposition is one of the most attractive fabrication techniques for producing cost efficient and lightweight electronic devices on various substrates with low environmental impact. Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is one of the most used and reliable additive manufacturing processes by extrusion of wire-shaped thermoplastic materials, which provides an opportunity for embedding printed electronics into mechanical structures during the building process and enables the design of compact smart structures that can sense and adapt to their own state and the environment. This paper represents one of the first explorations of integrating inkjet deposition of silver nanoparticle inks with the FDM process for making compact electro-mechanical structures. Three challenges have been identified and investigated, including the discontinuity of the printed lines resulting from the irregular surface of the FDM substrate, the non-conductivity of the printed lines due to the particle segregation during the droplet drying process, and the slow drying process caused by the skinning effect . Two different techniques are developed in this paper to address the issue of continuity of the printed lines, including surface ironing and a novel thermal plow technique that plows a channel in the FDM substrate to seal off the pores in the substrate and contain the deposited inks. Two solutions are also found for obtaining conductivity from the continuous printed lines, including porous surface coating and using a more viscous ink with larger nanoparticle size. Then the effects of the printing and post-processing parameters on the conductivity are examined. It is found that post-processing is a dominant factor in determining the conductivity of the printed lines.

  19. Fabrication of Conductive Paths on a Fused Deposition Modeling Substrate using Inkjet Deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Wenchao; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Duty, Chad E.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2015-01-15

    Inkjet deposition is one of the most attractive fabrication techniques for producing cost efficient and lightweight electronic devices on various substrates with low environmental impact. Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is one of the most used and reliable additive manufacturing processes by extrusion of wire-shaped thermoplastic materials, which provides an opportunity for embedding printed electronics into mechanical structures during the building process and enables the design of compact smart structures that can sense and adapt to their own state and the environment. This paper represents one of the first explorations of integrating inkjet deposition of silver nanoparticle inks with the FDMmore » process for making compact electro-mechanical structures. Three challenges have been identified and investigated, including the discontinuity of the printed lines resulting from the irregular surface of the FDM substrate, the non-conductivity of the printed lines due to the particle segregation during the droplet drying process, and the slow drying process caused by the skinning effect . Two different techniques are developed in this paper to address the issue of continuity of the printed lines, including surface ironing and a novel thermal plow technique that plows a channel in the FDM substrate to seal off the pores in the substrate and contain the deposited inks. Two solutions are also found for obtaining conductivity from the continuous printed lines, including porous surface coating and using a more viscous ink with larger nanoparticle size. Then the effects of the printing and post-processing parameters on the conductivity are examined. It is found that post-processing is a dominant factor in determining the conductivity of the printed lines.« less

  20. Coupling effects in inductive discharges with radio frequency substrate biasing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulze, J.; Schuengel, E.; Czarnetzki, U.

    2012-01-09

    Low pressure inductively coupled plasmas (ICP) operated in neon at 27.12 MHz with capacitive substrate biasing (CCP) at 13.56 MHz are investigated by phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy, voltage, and current measurements. Three coupling mechanisms are found potentially limiting the separate control of ion energy and flux: (i) Sheath heating due to the substrate biasing affects the electron dynamics even at high ratios of ICP to CCP power. At fixed CCP power, (ii) the substrate sheath voltage and (iii) the amplitude as well as frequency of plasma series resonance oscillations of the RF current are affected by the ICP power.

  1. Recovery of Mo/Si multilayer coated optical substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, S.L.; Vernon, S.P.; Stearns, D.G.

    1997-12-16

    Mo/Si multilayers are removed from superpolished ZERODUR and fused silica substrates with a dry etching process that, under suitable processing conditions, produces negligible change in either the substrate surface figure or surface roughness. The two step dry etching process removes SiO{sub 2} overlayer with a fluroine-containing gas and then moves molybdenum and silicon multilayers with a chlorine-containing gas. Full recovery of the initial normal incidence extreme ultra-violet (EUV) reflectance response has been demonstrated on reprocessed substrates. 5 figs.

  2. Recovery of Mo/Si multilayer coated optical substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Sherry L.; Vernon, Stephen P.; Stearns, Daniel G.

    1997-12-16

    Mo/Si multilayers are removed from superpolished ZERODUR and fused silica substrates with a dry etching process that, under suitable processing conditions, produces negligible change in either the substrate surface figure or surface roughness. The two step dry etching process removes SiO.sub.2 overlayer with a fluroine-containing gas and then moves molybdenum and silicon multilayers with a chlorine-containing gas. Full recovery of the initial normal incidence extreme ultra-violet (EUV) reflectance response has been demonstrated on reprocessed substrates.

  3. Process for radiation grafting hydrogels onto organic polymeric substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ratner, Buddy D.; Hoffman, Allan S.

    1976-01-01

    An improved process for radiation grafting of hydrogels onto organic polymeric substrates is provided comprising the steps of incorporating an effective amount of cupric or ferric ions in an aqueous graft solution consisting of N-vinyl-2 - pyrrolidone or mixture of N-vinyl-2 - pyrrolidone and other monomers, e.g., 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, propylene glycol acrylate, acrylamide, methacrylic acid and methacrylamide, immersing an organic polymeric substrate in the aqueous graft solution and thereafter subjecting the contacted substrate with ionizing radiation.

  4. Method and apparatus for laser scribing glass sheet substrate coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borgeson, Frank A.; Hanak, Joseph J.; Harju, Ricky S.; Harju, Karen M.; Helman, Norman L.; Hecht, Kenneth R.

    2005-07-19

    A method and apparatus (42) for laser scribing coatings on glass sheet substrates by conveying the substrate adjacent a laser source (83) that provides a pulsed laser beam (84) with a wavelength at a near-infrared fundamental frequency and having a frequency in the range of 50 to 100 kilohertz and a pulse duration in the range of 8 to 70 nanoseconds, and by reflecting the beam by an XYZ galvanometer controlled mirror system (90) toward an uncoated surface of the substrate for passage therethrough to the coating on the other surface to provide overlapping ablations through the coating and scribing at a speed of at least 1000 millimeters per second.

  5. Method and apparatus for laser scribing glass sheet substrate coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borgeson, Frank A.; Hanak, Joseph J.; Harju, Ricky S.; Helman, Norman L.; Hecht, Kenneth R.

    2003-05-06

    A method and apparatus (42) for laser scribing coatings on glass sheet substrates by conveying the substrate adjacent a laser source (83) that provides a pulsed laser beam (84) with a wavelength at a near-infrared fundamental frequency and having a frequency in the range of 50 to 100 kilohertz and a pulse duration in the range of 8 to 70 nanoseconds, and by reflecting the beam by an XYZ galvanometer controlled mirror system (90) toward an uncoated surface of the substrate for passage therethrough to the coating on the other surface to provide overlapping ablations through the coating and scribing at a speed of at least 1000 millimeters per second.

  6. Reel-to-reel substrate tape polishing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selvamanickam, Venkat; Gardner, Michael T.; Judd, Raymond D.; Weloth, Martin; Qiao, Yunfei

    2005-06-21

    Disclosed is a reel-to-reel single-pass mechanical polishing system (100) suitable for polishing long lengths of metal substrate tape (124) used in the manufacture of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) coated tape, including multiple instantiations of a polishing station (114) in combination with a subsequent rinsing station (116) arranged along the axis of the metal substrate tape (124) that is translating between a payout spool (110a) and a take-up spool (110b). The metal substrate tape obtains a surface smoothness that is suitable for the subsequent deposition of a buffer layer.

  7. Charge-free method of forming nanostructures on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffbauer; Mark , Akhadov; Elshan

    2010-07-20

    A charge-free method of forming a nanostructure at low temperatures on a substrate. A substrate that is reactive with one of atomic oxygen and nitrogen is provided. A flux of neutral atoms of least one of oxygen and nitrogen is generated within a laser-sustained-discharge plasma source and a collimated beam of energetic neutral atoms and molecules is directed from the plasma source onto a surface of the substrate to form the nanostructure. The energetic neutral atoms and molecules in the beam have an average kinetic energy in a range from about 1 eV to about 5 eV.

  8. Lattice matched semiconductor growth on crystalline metallic substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, Andrew G; Ptak, Aaron J; McMahon, William E

    2013-11-05

    Methods of fabricating a semiconductor layer or device and said devices are disclosed. The methods include but are not limited to providing a metal or metal alloy substrate having a crystalline surface with a known lattice parameter (a). The methods further include growing a crystalline semiconductor alloy layer on the crystalline substrate surface by coincident site lattice matched epitaxy. The semiconductor layer may be grown without any buffer layer between the alloy and the crystalline surface of the substrate. The semiconductor alloy may be prepared to have a lattice parameter (a') that is related to the lattice parameter (a). The semiconductor alloy may further be prepared to have a selected band gap.

  9. Method for integrating microelectromechanical devices with electronic circuitry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montague, S.; Smith, J.H.; Sniegowski, J.J.; McWhorter, P.J.

    1998-08-25

    A method is disclosed for integrating one or more microelectromechanical (MEM) devices with electronic circuitry. The method comprises the steps of forming each MEM device within a cavity below a device surface of the substrate; encapsulating the MEM device prior to forming electronic circuitry on the substrate; and releasing the MEM device for operation after fabrication of the electronic circuitry. Planarization of the encapsulated MEM device prior to formation of the electronic circuitry allows the use of standard processing steps for fabrication of the electronic circuitry. 13 figs.

  10. Method for integrating microelectromechanical devices with electronic circuitry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montague, Stephen (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, James H. (Albuquerque, NM); Sniegowski, Jeffry J. (Albuquerque, NM); McWhorter, Paul J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A method for integrating one or more microelectromechanical (MEM) devices with electronic circuitry. The method comprises the steps of forming each MEM device within a cavity below a device surface of the substrate; encapsulating the MEM device prior to forming electronic circuitry on the substrate; and releasing the MEM device for operation after fabrication of the electronic circuitry. Planarization of the encapsulated MEM device prior to formation of the electronic circuitry allows the use of standard processing steps for fabrication of the electronic circuitry.

  11. Buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substrates (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A method is disclosed for forming a biaxially textured buffer layer on a biaxially oriented metal substrate by using a sol-gel coating technique followed by pyrolyzingannealing in ...

  12. Mitigation of substrate defects in reticles using multilayer buffer layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirkarimi, Paul B.; Bajt, Sasa; Stearns, Daniel G.

    2001-01-01

    A multilayer film is used as a buffer layer to minimize the size of defects on a reticle substrate prior to deposition of a reflective coating on the substrate. The multilayer buffer layer deposited intermediate the reticle substrate and the reflective coating produces a smoothing of small particles and other defects on the reticle substrate. The reduction in defect size is controlled by surface relaxation during the buffer layer growth process and by the degree of intermixing and volume contraction of the materials at the multilayer interfaces. The buffer layers are deposited at near-normal incidence via a low particulate ion beam sputtering process. The growth surface of the buffer layer may also be heated by a secondary ion source to increase the degree of intermixing and improve the mitigation of defects.

  13. Method for adhering a coating to a substrate structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taxacher, Glenn Curtis; Crespo, Andres Garcia; Roberts, III, Herbert Chidsey

    2015-02-17

    A method for adhering a coating to a substrate structure comprises selecting a substrate structure having an outer surface oriented substantially parallel to a direction of radial stress, modifying the outer surface to provide a textured region having steps to adhere a coating thereto, and applying a coating to extend over at least a portion of the textured region, wherein the steps are oriented substantially perpendicular to the direction of radial stress to resist deformation of the coating relative to the substrate structure. A rotating component comprises a substrate structure having an outer surface oriented substantially parallel to a direction of radial stress. The outer surface defines a textured region having steps to adhere a coating thereto, and a coating extends over at least a portion of the textured region. The steps are oriented substantially perpendicular to the direction of radial stress to resist creep.

  14. Control of Substrate Access to the Active Site and Catalytic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Control of Substrate Access to the Active Site and Catalytic Mechanism of Methane and Toluene Monooxygenases Friday, June 22, 2012 - 3:30pm SSRL Main Conference Room 137-322 Prof....

  15. Method for formation of thin film transistors on plastic substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Sigmon, Thomas W.; Aceves, Randy C.

    1998-10-06

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The process relies on techniques for depositing semiconductors, dielectrics, and metals at low temperatures; crystallizing and doping semiconductor layers in the TFT with a pulsed energy source; and creating top-gate self-aligned as well as back-gate TFT structures. The process enables the fabrication of amorphous and polycrystalline channel silicon TFTs at temperatures sufficiently low to prevent damage to plastic substrates. The process has use in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics.

  16. Method for formation of thin film transistors on plastic substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, P.G.; Smith, P.M.; Sigmon, T.W.; Aceves, R.C.

    1998-10-06

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The process relies on techniques for depositing semiconductors, dielectrics, and metals at low temperatures; crystallizing and doping semiconductor layers in the TFT with a pulsed energy source; and creating top-gate self-aligned as well as back-gate TFT structures. The process enables the fabrication of amorphous and polycrystalline channel silicon TFTs at temperatures sufficiently low to prevent damage to plastic substrates. The process has use in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics. 5 figs.

  17. Growth Mode and Substrate Symmetry Dependent Strain in Epitaxial Graphene.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Growth Mode and Substrate Symmetry Dependent Strain in Epitaxial Graphene. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Growth Mode and Substrate Symmetry Dependent Strain in Epitaxial Graphene. Abstract not provided. Authors: Ohta, Taisuke ; Biedermann, Laura Butler ; Beechem Iii, Thomas Edwin ; Howell, Stephen Wayne ; Schmidt, Diedrich A. Publication Date: 2010-06-01 OSTI Identifier: 1123545 Report Number(s): SAND2010-3581J 492436 DOE Contract Number:

  18. Method of depositing buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substrates

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Patent) | SciTech Connect Method of depositing buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method of depositing buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substrates Ă— You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy

  19. Structure, Activity, and Substrate Selectivity of the Orf6 Thioesterase

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from Photobacterium profundum (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Structure, Activity, and Substrate Selectivity of the Orf6 Thioesterase from Photobacterium profundum Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structure, Activity, and Substrate Selectivity of the Orf6 Thioesterase from Photobacterium profundum Authors: RodrĂ­guez-Guilbe, MarĂ­a ; Oyola-Robles, Delise ; Schreiter, Eric R. ; Baerga-Ortiz, Abel [1] ; HHMI) [2] + Show Author Affiliations (Puerto Rico) ( Publication Date:

  20. Formation of thin-film resistors on silicon substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schnable, George L.; Wu, Chung P.

    1988-11-01

    The formation of thin-film resistors by the ion implantation of a metallic conductive layer in the surface of a layer of phosphosilicate glass or borophosphosilicate glass which is deposited on a silicon substrate. The metallic conductive layer materials comprise one of the group consisting of tantalum, ruthenium, rhodium, platinum and chromium silicide. The resistor is formed and annealed prior to deposition of metal, e.g. aluminum, on the substrate.

  1. Piezoelectric biosensor with a ladder polymer substrate coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renschler, Clifford L.; White, Christine A.; Carter, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    A piezoelectric biosensor substrate useful for immobilizing biomolecules in an oriented manner on the surface of a piezoelectric sensor has a ladder polymer of polyacrylonitrile. To make the substrate, a solution of an organic polymer, preferably polyacrylonitrile, is applied to the surface of a piezoelectric sensor. The organic polymer is modifying by heating the polymer in a controlled fashion in air such that a ladder polymer is produced which, in turn, forms the attachment point for the biomolecules comprising the piezoelectric biosensor.

  2. Structural basis for substrate specificity in the Escherichia coli maltose

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transport system (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Structural basis for substrate specificity in the Escherichia coli maltose transport system Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural basis for substrate specificity in the Escherichia coli maltose transport system Authors: Oldham, Michael L. ; Chen, Shanshuang ; Chen, Jue [1] ; HHMI) [2] + Show Author Affiliations (Purdue) [Purdue ( Publication Date: 2013-11-11 OSTI Identifier: 1105053 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource

  3. Substrates suitable for deposition of superconducting thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Roeland; Boatner, Lynn A.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting system for the lossless transmission of electrical current comprising a thin film of superconducting material Y.sub.1 Ba.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x epitaxially deposited upon a KTaO.sub.3 substrate. The KTaO.sub.3 is an improved substrate over those of the prior art since the it exhibits small lattice constant mismatch and does not chemically react with the superconducting film.

  4. Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene Print Wednesday, 26 March 2008 00:00 Prospective challengers to silicon, the long-reigning king of semiconductors for computer chips and other electronic devices, have to overcome silicon's superb collection of materials properties as well as sophisticated fabrication technologies refined by six decades of effort by materials scientists and engineers. Graphene, one of the latest

  5. Atomic substitution reveals the structural basis for substrate adenine

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    recognition and removal by adenine DNA glycosylase (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Atomic substitution reveals the structural basis for substrate adenine recognition and removal by adenine DNA glycosylase Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atomic substitution reveals the structural basis for substrate adenine recognition and removal by adenine DNA glycosylase Adenine DNA glycosylase catalyzes the glycolytic removal of adenine from the promutagenic A {center_dot} oxoG base pair in

  6. System Configured For Applying Multiple Modifying Agents To A Substrate.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Propp, W. Alan; Argyle, Mark D.; Janikowski, Stuart K.; Fox, Robert V.; Toth, William J.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Allen, Charles A.; Miller, David L.

    2005-11-08

    The present invention is related to the modifying of substrates with multiple modifying agents in a single continuous system. At least two processing chambers are configured for modifying the substrate in a continuous feed system. The processing chambers can be substantially isolated from one another by interstitial seals. Additionally, the two processing chambers can be substantially isolated from the surrounding atmosphere by end seals. Optionally, expansion chambers can be used to separate the seals from the processing chambers.

  7. System configured for applying multiple modifying agents to a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Propp, W. Alan; Argyle, Mark D.; Janikowski, Stuart K.; Fox, Robert V.; Toth, William J.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Allen, Charles A.; Miller, David L.

    2003-11-25

    The present invention is related to the modifying of substrates with multiple modifying agents in a single continuous system. At least two processing chambers are configured for modifying the substrate in a continuous feed system. The processing chambers can be substantially isolated from one another by interstitial seals. Additionally, the two processing chambers can be substantially isolated from the surrounding atmosphere by end seals. Optionally, expansion chambers can be used to separate the seals from the processing chambers.

  8. Apparatus and method for depositing coating onto porous substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, A.O.; Zymboly, G.E.

    1986-09-02

    Disclosed is an apparatus for forming a chemically vapor deposited coating on a porous substrate where oxygen from a first gaseous reactant containing a source of oxygen permeates through the pores of the substrate to react with a second gaseous reactant that is present on the other side of the substrate. The apparatus includes means for controlling the pressure and flow rate of each gaseous reactant, a manometer for measuring the difference in pressure between the gaseous reactants on each side of the substrate, and means for changing the difference in pressure between the gaseous reactants. Also disclosed is a method of detecting and closing cracks in the coating by reducing the pressure difference between the two gaseous reactants whenever the pressure difference falls suddenly after gradually rising, then again increasing the pressure difference on the two gases. The attack by the by-products of the reaction on the substrate are reduced by maintaining the flow rate of the first reactant through the pores of the substrate. 1 fig.

  9. Apparatus and method for depositing coating onto porous substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Zymboly, Gregory E.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for forming a chemically vapor deposited coating on a porous substrate where oxygen from a first gaseous reactant containing a source of oxygen permeates through the pores of the substrate to react with a second gaseous reactant that is present on the other side of the substrate. The apparatus includes means for controlling the pressure and flow rate of each gaseous reactant, a manometer for measuring the difference in pressure between the gaseous reactants on each side of the substrate, and means for changing the difference in pressure between the gaseous reactants. Also disclosed is a method of detecting and closing cracks in the coating by reducing the pressure difference between the two gaseous reactants whenever the pressure difference falls suddenly after gradually rising, then again increasing the pressure difference on the two gases. The attack by the by-products of the reaction on the substrate are reduced by maintaining the flow rate of the first reactant through the pores of the substrate.

  10. Plated lamination structures for integrated magnetic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Bucknell C.

    2014-06-17

    Semiconductor integrated magnetic devices such as inductors, transformers, etc., having laminated magnetic-insulator stack structures are provided, wherein the laminated magnetic-insulator stack structures are formed using electroplating techniques. For example, an integrated laminated magnetic device includes a multilayer stack structure having alternating magnetic and insulating layers formed on a substrate, wherein each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure is separated from another magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure by an insulating layer, and a local shorting structure to electrically connect each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure to an underlying magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure to facilitate electroplating of the magnetic layers using an underlying conductive layer (magnetic or seed layer) in the stack as an electrical cathode/anode for each electroplated magnetic layer in the stack structure.

  11. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Wind Integration Datasets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Integration Datasets The datasets below provide energy professionals with a consistent set of wind profiles for the United States. Eastern and Western Wind Datasets The Eastern and Western Wind Datasets provide 10-minute time-series wind data for 2004, 2005, and 2006. These datasets were designed to help energy professionals perform wind integration studies and estimate power production from hypothetical wind plants. For the Eastern dataset, more than 1,326 simulated wind plant data points

  12. Process for metallization of a substrate by curing a catalyst applied thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Ken S.; Morgan, William P.; Zich, John L.

    2002-10-08

    An improved additive process for metallization of substrates is described whereby a catalyst solution is applied to a surface of a substrate. Metallic catalytic clusters can be formed in the catalyst solution on the substrate surface by heating the substrate. Electroless plating can then deposit metal onto the portion of the substrate surface coated with catalyst solution. Additional metallization thickness can be obtained by electrolytically plating the substrate surface after the electroless plating step.

  13. Process for metallization of a substrate by irradiative curing of a catalyst applied thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Ken S.; Morgan, William P.; Zich, John L.

    1999-01-01

    An improved additive process for metallization of substrates is described whereby a catalyst solution is applied to a surface of a substrate. Metallic catalytic clusters can be formed in the catalyst solution on the substrate surface by irradiating the substrate. Electroless plating can then deposit metal onto the portion of the substrate surface having metallic clusters. Additional metallization thickness can be obtained by electrolytically plating the substrate surface after the electroless plating step.

  14. Electroluminescent apparatus having a structured luminescence conversion layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krummacher, Benjamin Claus

    2008-09-02

    An apparatus such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer disposed on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains color-changing and non-color-changing regions arranged in a particular pattern.

  15. Integrated rural energy planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Mahgary, Y.; Biswas, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on integrated community energy systems in developing countries. Topics considered include an integrated rural energy system in Sri Lanka, rural energy systems in Indonesia, integrated rural food-energy systems and technology diffusion in India, bringing energy to the rural sector in the Philippines, the development of a new energy village in China, the Niaga Wolof experimental rural energy center, designing a model rural energy system for Nigeria, the Basaisa village integrated field project, a rural energy project in Tanzania, rural energy development in Columbia, and guidelines for the planning, development and operation of integrated rural energy projects.

  16. Elastic buckling of AlN ribbons on elastomeric substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, H.-C.; Petrov, Ivan; Jeong, Hyejin; Chapman, Patrick; Kim, Kyekyoon

    2009-03-02

    For optoelectronic applications requiring unconventional substrates, use of flexible forms of semiconductors may be inevitable. We have fabricated a flexible form of single crystalline AlN ribbons with periodic and wavelike structures on an elastomeric substrate. Single crystalline AlN films were grown on Si (111) substrate using high vacuum unbalanced magnetron sputtering. Crystallinity of the AlN films was confirmed with x-ray diffraction and pole figure. The AlN ribbons were transferred to a prestrained (3.1%) elastomeric substrate and the resulting ''wavy'' ribbons on the substrate were flexible up to 30% strain without any crack formation on the surface. As the film thickness changed from 300 to 900 nm, the periods of the waves varied from 95 to 277 {mu}m, which were within a 10% error of the calculated values. When we applied more than 30% strain, mechanical instability, such as the failure of AlN ribbons due to the cracks on the surface and the merged ribbons, was observed.

  17. Separating semiconductor devices from substrate by etching graded composition release layer disposed between semiconductor devices and substrate including forming protuberances that reduce stiction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Nielson, Gregory N; Cederberg, Jeffrey G; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2015-05-12

    A method includes etching a release layer that is coupled between a plurality of semiconductor devices and a substrate with an etch. The etching includes etching the release layer between the semiconductor devices and the substrate until the semiconductor devices are at least substantially released from the substrate. The etching also includes etching a protuberance in the release layer between each of the semiconductor devices and the substrate. The etch is stopped while the protuberances remain between each of the semiconductor devices and the substrate. The method also includes separating the semiconductor devices from the substrate. Other methods and apparatus are also disclosed.

  18. Monolithic integration of a MOSFET with a MEMS device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Reid; Draper, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    An integrated microelectromechanical system comprises at least one MOSFET interconnected to at least one MEMS device on a common substrate. A method for integrating the MOSFET with the MEMS device comprises fabricating the MOSFET and MEMS device monolithically on the common substrate. Conveniently, the gate insulator, gate electrode, and electrical contacts for the gate, source, and drain can be formed simultaneously with the MEMS device structure, thereby eliminating many process steps and materials. In particular, the gate electrode and electrical contacts of the MOSFET and the structural layers of the MEMS device can be doped polysilicon. Dopant diffusion from the electrical contacts is used to form the source and drain regions of the MOSFET. The thermal diffusion step for forming the source and drain of the MOSFET can comprise one or more of the thermal anneal steps to relieve stress in the structural layers of the MEMS device.

  19. Process for forming a metal compound coating on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, Donald J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Wright, Steven A.

    1991-01-01

    A method of coating a substrate with a thin layer of a metal compound by forming a dispersion of an electrophoretically active organic colloid and a precursor of the metal compound in an electrolytic cell in which the substrate is an electrode. Upon application of an electric potential, the electrode is coated with a mixture of the organic colloid and the precursor to the metal compound, and the coated substrate is then heated in the presence of an atmosphere or vacuum to decompose the organic colloid and form a coating of either a combination of metal compound and carbon, or optionally forming a porous metal compound coating by heating to a temperature high enough to chemically react the carbon.

  20. Process for forming a metal compound coating on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, D.J.; Vernon, M.E.; Wright, S.A.

    1988-06-29

    A method of coating a substrate with a thin layer of a metal compound by forming a dispersion of an electrophoretically active organic colloid and a precursor of the metal compound in an electrolytic cell in which the substrate is an electrode. Upon application of an electric potential, the electrode is coated with a mixture of the organic colloid and the precursor to the metal compound, and the coated substrate is then heated in the presence of an atmosphere or vacuum to decompose the organic colloid and form a coating of either a combination of metal compound and carbon, or optionally forming a porous metal compound coating by heating to a temperature high enough to chemically react the carbon.

  1. System and method for floating-substrate passive voltage contrast

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jenkins, Mark W.; Cole, Jr., Edward I.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Soden, Jerry M.; Walraven, Jeremy A.; Pimentel, Alejandro A.

    2009-04-28

    A passive voltage contrast (PVC) system and method are disclosed for analyzing ICs to locate defects and failure mechanisms. During analysis a device side of a semiconductor die containing the IC is maintained in an electrically-floating condition without any ground electrical connection while a charged particle beam is scanned over the device side. Secondary particle emission from the device side of the IC is detected to form an image of device features, including electrical vias connected to transistor gates or to other structures in the IC. A difference in image contrast allows the defects or failure mechanisms be pinpointed. Varying the scan rate can, in some instances, produce an image reversal to facilitate precisely locating the defects or failure mechanisms in the IC. The system and method are useful for failure analysis of ICs formed on substrates (e.g. bulk semiconductor substrates and SOI substrates) and other types of structures.

  2. Influence of substrate temperature and deposition rate on the structure of erbium films deposited on glass and a -C substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savaloni, H.; Player, M.A.; Gu, E.; Marr, G.V. )

    1992-01-01

    The structure of erbium films of 600 nm thickness deposited onto carbon ({ital a}-C) and glass substrates at 0.55 and 2.5 nm/s deposition rates for varying substrate temperatures is investigated. The cross section and surface structures are examined by electron microscope. Energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction is utilized for the structure analysis of these films. Results are compared with the results presented in H. Savaloni, M. A. Player, E. Gu, and G. V. Marr (to be published), for erbium films on molybdenum substrates. It is found that to produce films with strong preferred orientation on glass substrates low deposition rate (0.55 nm/s) is favorable. This is opposite to erbium on molybdenum substrates. The grain size of erbium films produced at higher deposition rate is much larger than those at lower deposition rate. The structure of thin films has implications for performance of multilayer reflectors, and preferred orientation may have other applications to x-ray instrumentation.

  3. Conductive and robust nitride buffer layers on biaxially textured substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sankar, Sambasivan [Chicago, IL; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Barnett, Scott A [Evanston, IL; Kim, Ilwon [Skokie, IL; Kroeger, Donald M [Knoxville, TN

    2009-03-31

    The present invention relates to epitaxial, electrically conducting and mechanically robust, cubic nitride buffer layers deposited epitaxially on biaxially textured substrates such as metals and alloys. The invention comprises of a biaxially textured substrate with epitaxial layers of nitrides. The invention also discloses a method to form such epitaxial layers using a high rate deposition method as well as without the use of forming gases. The invention further comprises epitaxial layers of oxides on the biaxially textured nitride layer. In some embodiments the article further comprises electromagnetic devices which may have superconducting properties.

  4. Conductive and robust nitride buffer layers on biaxially textured substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sankar, Sambasivan; Goyal, Amit; Barnett, Scott A.; Kim, Ilwon; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2004-08-31

    The present invention relates to epitaxial, electrically conducting and mechanically robust, cubic nitride buffer layers deposited epitaxially on biaxially textured substrates such as metal and alloys. The invention comprises of a biaxially textured substrate with epitaxial layers of nitrides. The invention also discloses a method to form such epitaxial layers using a high rate deposition method as well as without the use of forming gases. The invention further comprises epitaxial layers of oxides on the biaxially textured nitride layers. In some embodiments the article further comprises electromagnetic devices which may be super conducting properties.

  5. Piezoelectric biosensor with a ladder polymer substrate coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renschler, C.L.; White, C.A.; Carter, R.M.

    1998-09-29

    A piezoelectric biosensor substrate useful for immobilizing biomolecules in an oriented manner on the surface of a piezoelectric sensor has a ladder polymer of polyacrylonitrile. To make the substrate, a solution of an organic polymer, preferably polyacrylonitrile, is applied to the surface of a piezoelectric sensor. The organic polymer is modifying by heating the polymer in a controlled fashion in air such that a ladder polymer is produced which, in turn, forms the attachment point for the biomolecules comprising the piezoelectric biosensor. 3 figs.

  6. System and process for aluminization of metal-containing substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W

    2015-11-03

    A system and method are detailed for aluminizing surfaces of metallic substrates, parts, and components with a protective alumina layer in-situ. Aluminum (Al) foil sandwiched between the metallic components and a refractory material when heated in an oxidizing gas under a compression load at a selected temperature forms the protective alumina coating on the surface of the metallic components. The alumina coating minimizes evaporation of volatile metals from the metallic substrates, parts, and components in assembled devices during operation at high temperature that can degrade performance.

  7. Molecular dynamics investigation of the substrate binding mechanism in carboxylesterase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Qi; Luan, Zheng-Jiao; Cheng, Xiaolin; Xu, Jian-he

    2015-01-01

    A recombinant carboxylesterase, cloned from Pseudomonas putida and designated as rPPE, is capable of catalyzing the bioresolution of racemic 2-acetoxy-2-(2 -chlorophenyl)acetate (rac-AcO-CPA) with excellent (S)-enantioselectivity. Semi-rational design of the enzyme showed that the W187H variant could increase the activity by ~100-fold compared to the wild type (WT) enzyme. In this study, we performed all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of both apo-rPPE and rPPE in complex with (S)-AcO-CPA to gain insights into the origin of the increased catalysis in the W187H mutant. Our results show differential binding of (S)-AcO-CPA in the WT and W187H enzymes, especially the interactions of the substrate with the two active site residues Ser159 and His286. The replacement of Trp187 by His leads to considerable structural rearrangement in the active site of W187H. Unlike in the WT rPPE, the cap domain in the W187 mutant shows an open conformation in the simulations of both apo and substrate-bound enzymes. This open conformation exposes the catalytic triad to the solvent through a water accessible channel, which may facilitate the entry of the substrate and/or the exit of the product. Binding free energy calculations confirmed that the substrate binds more strongly in W187H than in WT. Based on these computational results, we further predicted that the mutations W187Y and D287G might also be able to increase the substrate binding, thus improve the enzyme s catalytic efficiency. Experimental binding and kinetic assays on W187Y and D287G show improved catalytic efficiency over WT, but not W187H. Contrary to our prediction, W187Y shows slightly decreased substrate binding coupled with a 100 fold increase in turn-over rate, while in D287G the substrate binding is 8 times stronger but with a slightly reduced turn-over rate. Our work provides important molecular-level insights into the binding of the (S)-AcO-CPA substrate to carboxylesterase rPPEs, which will help guide future development of more efficient rPPE variants.

  8. Electrodeposition of biaxially textured layers on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N; Phok, Sovannary; Spagnol, Priscila; Chaudhuri, Tapas

    2013-11-19

    Methods of producing one or more biaxially textured layer on a substrate, and articles produced by the methods, are disclosed. An exemplary method may comprise electrodepositing on the substrate a precursor material selected from the group consisting of rare earths, transition metals, actinide, lanthanides, and oxides thereof. An exemplary article (150) may comprise a biaxially textured base material (130), and at least one biaxially textured layer (110) selected from the group consisting of rare earths, transition metals, actinides, lanthanides, and oxides thereof. The at least one biaxially textured layer (110) is formed by electrodeposition on the biaxially textured base material (130).

  9. Nanopowder molding method for creating implantable high-aspect-ratio electrodes on thin flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Zhiyu [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

    2006-03-01

    Metal nanoparticles and a nanopowder molding process were used to fabricate 2D and 3D patternable structures having a height-to-width ratio of up to 10:1. By means of this process, an entire neural stimulation circuit, including stimulating electrode, connection trace, and contact pad, can be fused into one continuous, integrated structure where different sections can have different heights, widths, and shapes. The technique is suitable for mass production, and the fabricated electrode is robust and very flexible. More importantly for biomedical applications, the entire fabricated structure can be packed at room temperature onto a biocompatible flexible substrate, such as polydimethylsiloxane, parylene, and polyimide as well as other temperature-sensitive or vacuum-sensitive materials. The electrodes and wires have about the same electrical resistivities as bulk materials and desirable electrochemical properties, including low impedance.

  10. Thin-film chip-to-substrate interconnect and methods for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, D.B.

    1988-06-06

    Integrated circuit chips are electrically connected to a silicon wafer interconnection substrate. Thin film wiring is fabricated down bevelled edges of the chips. A subtractive wire fabrication method uses a series of masks and etching steps to form wires in a metal layer. An additive method direct laser writes or deposits very thin lines which can then be plated up to form wires. A quasi-additive or subtractive/additive method forms a pattern of trenches to expose a metal surface which can nucleate subsequent electrolytic deposition of wires. Low inductance interconnections on a 25 micron pitch (1600 wires on a 1 cm square chip) can be produced. The thin film hybrid interconnect eliminates solder joints or welds, and minimizes the levels of metallization. Advantages include good electrical properties, very high wiring density, excellent backside contact, compactness, and high thermal and mechanical reliability. 6 figs.

  11. Thin-film chip-to-substrate interconnect and methods for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, David B.

    1991-01-01

    Integrated circuit chips are electrically connected to a silica wafer interconnection substrate. Thin film wiring is fabricated down bevelled edges of the chips. A subtractive wire fabrication method uses a series of masks and etching steps to form wires in a metal layer. An additive method direct laser writes or deposits very thin metal lines which can then be plated up to form wires. A quasi-additive or subtractive/additive method forms a pattern of trenches to expose a metal surface which can nucleate subsequent electrolytic deposition of wires. Low inductance interconnections on a 25 micron pitch (1600 wires on a 1 cm square chip) can be produced. The thin film hybrid interconnect eliminates solder joints or welds, and minimizes the levels of metallization. Advantages include good electrical properties, very high wiring density, excellent backside contact, compactness, and high thermal and mechanical reliability.

  12. Ultrabright fluorescent OLEDS using triplet sinks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yifan; Forrest, Stephen R; Thompson, Mark

    2013-06-04

    A first device is provided. The first device further comprises an organic light emitting device. The organic light emitting device further comprises an anode, a cathode, and an emissive layer disposed between the anode and the cathode. The emissive layer further comprises an organic host compound, an organic emitting compound capable of fluorescent emission at room temperature, and an organic dopant compound. The triplet energy of the dopant compound is lower than the triplet energy of the host compound. The dopant compound does not strongly absorb the fluorescent emission of the emitting compound.

  13. OLED Deposition Technology - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact PNNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryLow-cost processing methods will be required if the small organic molecule materials currently under development...

  14. Integrating Environmental Stewardship

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Energy Integrated Waste Management and Consent-Based Siting Booklet Integrated Waste Management and Consent-Based Siting Booklet This booklet provides an overview of issues involved in the Department's vision of an integrated waste management system and its consent-based approach to siting the facilities needed to manage nuclear waste. It briefly discusses the history of waste management efforts in the United States, key features of a consent-based approach, siting efforts in other

  15. Wind Energy Integration: Slides

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    information about integrating wind energy into the electricity grid. Wind Energy Integration Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL 25907 Wind energy currently contributes significant power to energy portfolios around the world. *U.S. Department of Energy. (August 2015). 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report. Wind Energy Integration In 2014, Denmark led the way with wind power supplying roughly 39% of the country's electricity demand. Ireland, Portugal, and Spain provided more than 20% of their

  16. Integrated Project Team RM

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DOE-STD-1189-2008, Integration of Safety into the Design Process, and EM's internal business management practices. The SRP follows the Critical Decision (CD) process and...

  17. Commercial Buildings Integration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings Integration Images courtesy CREE, True Manufacturing, A.O. Smith, Bernstein Associates, Cambridge Engineering, Alliance Laundry Systems, NREL 2 Strategic Fit within ...

  18. Sandia Energy - Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Sandia's larger portfolio of renewable energy technology programs (Wind, Solar Power, Geothermal, and Energy Systems Analysis). Transmission Grid Integration The goal of...

  19. Renewables and Grid Integration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Workshop Renewables and Grid Integration February 28, 2014 Kevin Harrison National Renewable Energy Laboratory This presentation does not contain any proprietary, ...

  20. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publications Want updates about future transmission grid integration webinars and publications? Join our mailing list. NREL has an extensive collection of publications related to transmission integration research. Explore the resources below to learn more. Selected Project Publications Read selected publications related to these transmission integration projects: Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study

  1. High Tc YBCO superconductor deposited on biaxially textured Ni substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Budai, John D.; Christen, David K.; Goyal, Amit; He, Qing; Kroeger, Donald M.; Lee, Dominic F.; List, III, Frederick A.; Norton, David P.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Sales, Brian C.; Specht, Eliot D.

    1999-01-01

    A superconducting article includes a biaxially-textured Ni substrate, and epitaxial buffer layers of Pd (optional), CeO.sub.2 and YSZ, and a top layer of in-plane aligned, c-axis oriented YBCO having a critical current density (J.sub.c) in the range of at least 100,000 A/cm.sup.2 at 77 K.

  2. Method of depositing epitaxial layers on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit

    2003-12-30

    An epitaxial article and method for forming the same includes a substrate having a textured surface, and an electrochemically deposited substantially single orientation epitaxial layer disposed on and in contact with the textured surface. The epitaxial article can include an electromagnetically active layer and an epitaxial buffer layer. The electromagnetically active layer and epitaxial buffer layer can also be deposited electrochemically.

  3. Lattice matched crystalline substrates for cubic nitride semiconductor growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, Andrew G; Ptak, Aaron J; McMahon, William E

    2015-02-24

    Disclosed embodiments include methods of fabricating a semiconductor layer or device and devices fabricated thereby. The methods include, but are not limited to, providing a substrate having a cubic crystalline surface with a known lattice parameter and growing a cubic crystalline group III-nitride alloy layer on the cubic crystalline substrate by coincident site lattice matched epitaxy. The cubic crystalline group III-nitride alloy may be prepared to have a lattice parameter (a') that is related to the lattice parameter of the substrate (a). The group III-nitride alloy may be a cubic crystalline In.sub.xGa.sub.yAl.sub.1-x-yN alloy. The lattice parameter of the In.sub.xGa.sub.yAl.sub.1-x-yN or other group III-nitride alloy may be related to the substrate lattice parameter by (a')= 2(a) or (a')=(a)/ 2. The semiconductor alloy may be prepared to have a selected band gap.

  4. Direct Cooled Power Electronics Substrate | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    9 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon apep_09_wiles.pdf More Documents & Publications Direct Water-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Packaging Environmental Effects on Power Electronic Devices Environmental Effects on Power Electronic Devices

  5. Molecular dynamics investigation of the substrate binding mechanism in carboxylesterase

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Qi; Luan, Zheng-Jiao; Cheng, Xiaolin; Xu, Jian-he

    2015-01-01

    A recombinant carboxylesterase, cloned from Pseudomonas putida and designated as rPPE, is capable of catalyzing the bioresolution of racemic 2-acetoxy-2-(2 -chlorophenyl)acetate (rac-AcO-CPA) with excellent (S)-enantioselectivity. Semi-rational design of the enzyme showed that the W187H variant could increase the activity by ~100-fold compared to the wild type (WT) enzyme. In this study, we performed all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of both apo-rPPE and rPPE in complex with (S)-AcO-CPA to gain insights into the origin of the increased catalysis in the W187H mutant. Our results show differential binding of (S)-AcO-CPA in the WT and W187H enzymes, especially the interactions of the substratemore » with the two active site residues Ser159 and His286. The replacement of Trp187 by His leads to considerable structural rearrangement in the active site of W187H. Unlike in the WT rPPE, the cap domain in the W187 mutant shows an open conformation in the simulations of both apo and substrate-bound enzymes. This open conformation exposes the catalytic triad to the solvent through a water accessible channel, which may facilitate the entry of the substrate and/or the exit of the product. Binding free energy calculations confirmed that the substrate binds more strongly in W187H than in WT. Based on these computational results, we further predicted that the mutations W187Y and D287G might also be able to increase the substrate binding, thus improve the enzyme s catalytic efficiency. Experimental binding and kinetic assays on W187Y and D287G show improved catalytic efficiency over WT, but not W187H. Contrary to our prediction, W187Y shows slightly decreased substrate binding coupled with a 100 fold increase in turn-over rate, while in D287G the substrate binding is 8 times stronger but with a slightly reduced turn-over rate. Our work provides important molecular-level insights into the binding of the (S)-AcO-CPA substrate to carboxylesterase rPPEs, which will help guide future development of more efficient rPPE variants.« less

  6. Thermal Design and Characterization of Heterogeneously Integrated InGaP/GaAs HBTs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Choi, Sukwon; Peake, Gregory M.; Keeler, Gordon A.; Geib, Kent M.; Briggs, Ronald D.; Beechem, Thomas E.; Shaffer, Ryan A.; Clevenger, Jascinda; Patrizi, Gary A.; Klem, John F.; et al

    2016-04-21

    Flip-chip heterogeneously integrated n-p-n InGaP/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) with integrated thermal management on wide-bandgap AlN substrates followed by GaAs substrate removal are demonstrated. Without thermal management, substrate removal after integration significantly aggravates self-heating effects, causing poor I–V characteristics due to excessive device self-heating. An electrothermal codesign scheme is demonstrated that involves simulation (design), thermal characterization, fabrication, and evaluation. Thermoreflectance thermal imaging, electrical-temperature sensitive parameter-based thermometry, and infrared thermography were utilized to assess the junction temperature rise in HBTs under diverse configurations. In order to reduce the thermal resistance of integrated devices, passive cooling schemes assisted by structural modification, i.e.,more » positioning indium bump heat sinks between the devices and the carrier, were employed. By implementing thermal heat sinks in close proximity to the active region of flip-chip integrated HBTs, the junction-to-baseplate thermal resistance was reduced over a factor of two, as revealed by junction temperature measurements and improvement of electrical performance. In conclusion, the suggested heterogeneous integration method accounts for not only electrical but also thermal requirements providing insight into realization of advanced and robust III–V/Si heterogeneously integrated electronics.« less

  7. Insights into substrate specificity of NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases containing bacterial SH3 domains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Qingping; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Liu, Xueqian W.; Patin, Delphine; Farr, Carol L.; Grant, Joanna C.; Chiu, Hsiu -Ju; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W.; Godzik, Adam; et al

    2015-09-15

    Bacterial SH3 (SH3b) domains are commonly fused with papain-like Nlp/P60 cell wall hydrolase domains. To understand how the modular architecture of SH3b and NlpC/P60 affects the activity of the catalytic domain, three putative NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases were biochemically and structurally characterized. In addition, these enzymes all have γ-d-Glu-A2pm (A2pm is diaminopimelic acid) cysteine amidase (ordl-endopeptidase) activities but with different substrate specificities. One enzyme is a cell wall lysin that cleaves peptidoglycan (PG), while the other two are cell wall recycling enzymes that only cleave stem peptides with an N-terminall-Ala. Their crystal structures revealed a highly conserved structure consisting ofmore » two SH3b domains and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 catalytic domain, despite very low sequence identity. Interestingly, loops from the first SH3b domain dock into the ends of the active site groove of the catalytic domain, remodel the substrate binding site, and modulate substrate specificity. Two amino acid differences at the domain interface alter the substrate binding specificity in favor of stem peptides in recycling enzymes, whereas the SH3b domain may extend the peptidoglycan binding surface in the cell wall lysins. Remarkably, the cell wall lysin can be converted into a recycling enzyme with a single mutation.Peptidoglycan is a meshlike polymer that envelops the bacterial plasma membrane and bestows structural integrity. Cell wall lysins and recycling enzymes are part of a set of lytic enzymes that target covalent bonds connecting the amino acid and amino sugar building blocks of the PG network. These hydrolases are involved in processes such as cell growth and division, autolysis, invasion, and PG turnover and recycling. To avoid cleavage of unintended substrates, these enzymes have very selective substrate specificities. Our biochemical and structural analysis of three modular NlpC/P60 hydrolases, one lysin, and two recycling enzymes, show that they may have evolved from a common molecular architecture, where the substrate preference is modulated by local changes. These results also suggest that new pathways for recycling PG turnover products, such as tracheal cytotoxin, may have evolved in bacteria in the human gut microbiome that involve NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases.« less

  8. Insights into substrate specificity of NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases containing bacterial SH3 domains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Qingping; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Liu, Xueqian W.; Patin, Delphine; Farr, Carol L.; Grant, Joanna C.; Chiu, Hsiu -Ju; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Elsliger, Marc -André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2015-09-15

    Bacterial SH3 (SH3b) domains are commonly fused with papain-like Nlp/P60 cell wall hydrolase domains. To understand how the modular architecture of SH3b and NlpC/P60 affects the activity of the catalytic domain, three putative NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases were biochemically and structurally characterized. In addition, these enzymes all have Îł-d-Glu-A2pm (A2pm is diaminopimelic acid) cysteine amidase (ordl-endopeptidase) activities but with different substrate specificities. One enzyme is a cell wall lysin that cleaves peptidoglycan (PG), while the other two are cell wall recycling enzymes that only cleave stem peptides with an N-terminall-Ala. Their crystal structures revealed a highly conserved structure consisting of two SH3b domains and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 catalytic domain, despite very low sequence identity. Interestingly, loops from the first SH3b domain dock into the ends of the active site groove of the catalytic domain, remodel the substrate binding site, and modulate substrate specificity. Two amino acid differences at the domain interface alter the substrate binding specificity in favor of stem peptides in recycling enzymes, whereas the SH3b domain may extend the peptidoglycan binding surface in the cell wall lysins. Remarkably, the cell wall lysin can be converted into a recycling enzyme with a single mutation.

    Peptidoglycan is a meshlike polymer that envelops the bacterial plasma membrane and bestows structural integrity. Cell wall lysins and recycling enzymes are part of a set of lytic enzymes that target covalent bonds connecting the amino acid and amino sugar building blocks of the PG network. These hydrolases are involved in processes such as cell growth and division, autolysis, invasion, and PG turnover and recycling. To avoid cleavage of unintended substrates, these enzymes have very selective substrate specificities. Our biochemical and structural analysis of three modular NlpC/P60 hydrolases, one lysin, and two recycling enzymes, show that they may have evolved from a common molecular architecture, where the substrate preference is modulated by local changes. These results also suggest that new pathways for recycling PG turnover products, such as tracheal cytotoxin, may have evolved in bacteria in the human gut microbiome that involve NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases.

  9. Systems Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    The Systems Integration (SI) subprogram works closely with industry, universities, and the national laboratories to overcome technical barriers to the large-scale deployment of solar technologies. To support these goals, the subprogram invests primarily in four areas: grid integration, technology validation, solar resource assessment, and balance of system development.

  10. Systems Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    The Systems Integration (SI) subprogram works closely with industry, universities, and the national laboratories to overcome technical barriers to the large-scale deployment of solar technologies. To support these goals, the subprogram invests primarily in four areas: grid integration, technology validation, solar resource assessment, and balance of system development.

  11. Integrating Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Provides an overview of the complete National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) model, and includes brief descriptions of the modules with which the Integrating Module interacts. The emphasis and focus, however, is on the structure and function of the Integrating Module of NEMS.

  12. NREL: Energy Systems Integration - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Stay up-to-date with the latest energy systems integration news from NREL with the following resources. Energy Systems Integration Newsletter Read a monthly recap of NREL's energy systems integration news and subscribe to our mailing list. NREL Energy Systems Integration News Stories See the most recent energy systems integration news and announcements from NREL. Energy Systems Integration Research Highlights Learn about NREL's latest research in energy systems integration. Printable

  13. Integrated assessment briefs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    Integrated assessment can be used to evaluate and clarify resource management policy options and outcomes for decision makers. The defining characteristics of integrated assessment are (1) focus on providing information and analysis that can be understood and used by decision makers rather than for merely advancing understanding and (2) its multidisciplinary approach, using methods, styles of study, and considerations from a broader variety of technical areas than would typically characterize studies produced from a single disciplinary standpoint. Integrated assessment may combine scientific, social, economic, health, and environmental data and models. Integrated assessment requires bridging the gap between science and policy considerations. Because not everything can be valued using a single metric, such as a dollar value, the integrated assessment process also involves evaluating trade-offs among dissimilar attributes. Scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) recognized the importance and value of multidisciplinary approaches to solving environmental problems early on and have pioneered the development of tools and methods for integrated assessment over the past three decades. Major examples of ORNL`s experience in the development of its capabilities for integrated assessment are given.

  14. Development and Industrialization of InGaN/GaN LEDs on Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Low Cost Emitter Architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flemish, Joseph; Soer, Wouter

    2015-11-30

    Patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) technology has proven to be an effective approach to improve efficacy and reduce cost of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The volume emission from the transparent substrate leads to high package efficiency, while the simple and robust architecture of PSS-based LEDs enables low cost. PSS substrates have gained wide use in mid-power LEDs over the past years. In this project, Lumileds has developed and industrialized PSS and epitaxy technology for high- power flip-chip LEDs to bring these benefits to a broader range of applications and accelerate the adoption of energy-efficient solid-state lighting (SSL). PSS geometries were designed for highly efficient light extraction in a flip-chip architecture and high-volume manufacturability, and corresponding sapphire patterning and epitaxy manufacturing processes were integrally developed. Concurrently, device and package architectures were developed to take advantage of the PSS flip-chip die in different types of products that meet application needs. The developed PSS and epitaxy technology has been fully implemented in manufacturing at Lumileds’ San Jose, CA location, and incorporated in illumination-grade LED products that have been successfully introduced to the market, including LUXEON Q and LUXEON FlipChip White.

  15. Carbon nanostructures on silicon substrates suitable for nanolithography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdi, Y.; Mohajerzadeh, S.; Hoseinzadegan, H.; Koohsorkhi, J.

    2006-01-30

    We report the application of vertically grown carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for submicron and nanolithography. The growth of CNTs is performed on silicon substrates using a nickel-seeded plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method at a temperature of 650 deg. C and with a mixture of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. The grown CNTs are encapsulated by a titanium-dioxide film and then mechanically polished to expose the buried nanotubes, and a plasma ashing step finalizes the process. The emission of electrons from the encapsulated nanotubes is used to write patterns on a resist-coated substrate placed opposite to the main CNT holding one. Scanning electron microscope has been used to investigate the nanotubes and the formation of nano-metric lines. Also a novel approach is presented to create isolated nanotubes from a previously patterned cluster growth.

  16. Recyclable organic solar cells on substrates comprising cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kippelen, Bernard; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Zhou, Yinhua; Moon, Robert; Youngblood, Jeffrey P

    2015-12-01

    Recyclable organic solar cells are disclosed herein. Systems and methods are further disclosed for producing, improving performance, and for recycling the solar cells. In certain example embodiments, the recyclable organic solar cells disclosed herein include: a first electrode; a second electrode; a photoactive layer disposed between the first electrode and the second electrode; an interlayer comprising a Lewis basic oligomer or polymer disposed between the photoactive layer and at least a portion of the first electrode or the second electrode; and a substrate disposed adjacent to the first electrode or the second electrode. The interlayer reduces the work function associated with the first or second electrode. In certain example embodiments, the substrate comprises cellulose nanocrystals that can be recycled. In certain example embodiments, one or more of the first electrode, the photoactive layer, and the second electrode may be applied by a film transfer lamination method.

  17. Method of forming biaxially textured alloy substrates and devices thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Specht, Eliot D. (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); Paranthaman, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    Specific alloys, in particular Ni-based alloys, that can be biaxially textured, with a well-developed, single component texture are disclosed. These alloys have a significantly reduced Curie point, which is very desirable from the point of view of superconductivity applications. The biaxially textured alloy substrates also possess greatly enhanced mechanical properties (yield strength, ultimate tensile strength) which are essential for most applications, in particular, superconductors. A method is disclosed for producing complex multicomponent alloys which have the ideal physical properties for specific applications, such as lattice parameter, degree of magnetism and mechanical strength, and which cannot be fabricated in textured form. In addition, a method for making ultra thin biaxially textured substrates with complex compositions is disclosed.

  18. Thick, low-stress films, and coated substrates formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henager, Jr., Charles H.; Knoll, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    Stress-induced deformation, and the damage resulting therefrom, increases with film thickness. The overcoming of excessive stress by the use of the film material of the present invention, permits the formation of thick films that are necessary for certain of the above described applications. The most likely use for the subject film materials, other than their specialized views as an optical film, is for microelectronic packaging of components on silicon substrates. In general, the subject Si-Al-O-N films have excellent adherence to the underlying substrate, a high degree of hardness and durability, and are excellent insulators. Prior art elevated temperature deposition processes cannot meet the microelectronic packaging temperature formation constraints. The process of the present invention is conducted under non-elevated temperature conditions, typically 500# C. or less.

  19. Method of forming biaxially textured alloy substrates and devices thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Specht, Eliot D.; Kroeger, Donald M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan

    2000-01-01

    Specific alloys, in particular Ni-based alloys, that can be biaxially textured, with a well-developed, single component texture are disclosed. These alloys have a significantly reduced Curie point, which is very desirable from the point of view of superconductivity applications. The biaxially textured alloy substrates also possess greatly enhanced mechanical properties (yield strength, ultimate tensile strength) which are essential for most applications, in particular, superconductors. A method is disclosed for producing complex multicomponent alloys which have the ideal physical properties for specific applications, such as lattice parameter, degree of magnetism and mechanical strength, and which cannot be in textured form. In addition, a method for making ultra thin biaxially textured substrates with complex compositions is disclosed.

  20. PATCHY SILICA-COATED SILVER NANOWIRES AS SERS SUBSTRATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murph, S.; Murphy, C.

    2013-03-29

    We report a class of core-shell nanomaterials that can be used as efficient surface-enhancement Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. The core consists of silver nanowires, prepared through a chemical reduction process, that are used to capture 4- mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA), a model analyte. The shell was prepared through a modified Stöber method and consists of patchy or full silica coats. The formation of silica coats was monitored via transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy and phase-analysis light scattering for measuring effective surface charge. Surprisingly, the patchy silica coated silver nanowires are better SERS substrate than silver nanowires; nanomolar concentration of 4-MBA can be detected. In addition, “nano-matryoshka” configurations were used to quantitate/explore the effect of the electromagnetic field at the tips of the nanowire (“hot spots”) in the Raman scattering experiment.

  1. Method for forming silicon on a glass substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1995-01-01

    A method by which single-crystal silicon microelectronics may be fabricated on glass substrates at unconventionally low temperatures. This is achieved by fabricating a thin film of silicon on glass and subsequently forming the doped components by a short wavelength (excimer) laser doping procedure and conventional patterning techniques. This method may include introducing a heavily boron doped etch stop layer on a silicon wafer using an excimer laser, which permits good control of the etch stop layer removal process. This method additionally includes dramatically reducing the remaining surface roughness of the silicon thin films after etching in the fabrication of silicon on insulator wafers by scanning an excimer laser across the surface of the silicon thin film causing surface melting, whereby the surface tension of the melt causes smoothing of the surface during recrystallization. Applications for this method include those requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, such as display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard and high temperature electronics.

  2. Buffer layers on metal alloy substrates for superconducting tapes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jia, Quanxi; Foltyn, Stephen R.; Arendt, Paul N.; Groves, James R.

    2004-10-05

    An article including a substrate, at least one intermediate layer upon the surface of the substrate, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the at least one intermediate layer, and a layer of a SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer is provided together with additional layers such as a HTS top-layer of YBCO directly upon the layer of a SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material layer. With a HTS top-layer of YBCO upon at least one layer of the SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material in such an article, J.sub.c 's of up to 1.3.times.10.sup.6 A/cm.sup.2 have been demonstrated with projected I.sub.c 's of over 200 Amperes across a sample 1 cm wide.

  3. Process for fabricating ribbed electrode substrates and other articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goller, Glen J.; Breault, Richard D.; Smith, J. Harold

    1984-01-01

    A process for fabricating a resin bonded carbon fiber article, and in particular electrochemical cell electrode substrates and the like requiring different mean pore sizes in different areas, involves simultaneously heating and compacting different mixtures of carbon fibers and resin in different areas of an article forming mold, wherein the carbon fibers in each of the different mixtures have different, known bulk densities. The different bulk densities of the carbon fibers in the mixtures are chosen to yield the desired mean pore sizes and other properties in the article after heating and compacting the mixtures. Preferably, the different bulk densities are obtained using different carbon fiber lengths in the molding mixtures. The process is well suited to forming ribbed electrode substrates with preselected optimum mean pore sizes, porosities, and densities in the ribs, the webs connecting the ribs, and in the edge seals.

  4. Substrate dielectric effects on graphene field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Zhaoying; Prasad Sinha, Dhiraj; Ung Lee, Ji, E-mail: jlee1@albany.edu; Liehr, Michael [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, The State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2014-05-21

    Graphene is emerging as a promising material for future electronics and optoelectronics applications due to its unique electronic structure. Understanding the graphene-dielectric interaction is of vital importance for the development of graphene field effect transistors (FETs) and other novel graphene devices. Here, we extend the exploration of substrate dielectrics from conventionally used thermally grown SiO{sub 2} and hexagonal boron nitride films to technologically relevant deposited dielectrics used in semiconductor industry. A systematic analysis of morphology and optical and electrical properties was performed to study the effects of different substrates (SiO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-oxide, and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) on the carrier transport of chemical vapor deposition-derived graphene FET devices. As baseline, we use graphene FETs fabricated on thermal SiO{sub 2} with a relatively high carrier mobility of 10?000 cm{sup 2}/(V s). Among the deposited dielectrics studied, silicon nitride showed the highest mobility, comparable to the properties of graphene fabricated on thermal SiO{sub 2}. We conclude that this result comes from lower long range scattering and short range scattering rates in the nitride compared those in the other deposited films. The carrier fluctuation caused by substrates, however, seems to be the main contributing factor for mobility degradation, as a universal mobility-disorder density product is observed for all the dielectrics examined. The extrinsic doping trend is further confirmed by Raman spectra. We also provide, for the first time, correlation between the intensity ratio of G peak and 2D peak in the Raman spectra to the carrier mobility of graphene for different substrates.

  5. Substrate CdTe Efficiency Improvements - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate CdTe Efficiency Improvements National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 11-28PCT Application as-published (984 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Thin film solar cells have been the focus of many research facilities in recent years that are working to decrease manufacturing costs and increase cell efficiency. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) has been well recognized as a promising photovoltaic material for thin film solar cells

  6. Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene Print Prospective challengers to silicon, the long-reigning king of semiconductors for computer chips and other electronic devices, have to overcome silicon's superb collection of materials properties as well as sophisticated fabrication technologies refined by six decades of effort by materials scientists and engineers. Graphene, one of the latest contenders, has a rather impressive list of features of its own but has lacked a key

  7. Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene Print Prospective challengers to silicon, the long-reigning king of semiconductors for computer chips and other electronic devices, have to overcome silicon's superb collection of materials properties as well as sophisticated fabrication technologies refined by six decades of effort by materials scientists and engineers. Graphene, one of the latest contenders, has a rather impressive list of features of its own but has lacked a key

  8. Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene Print Prospective challengers to silicon, the long-reigning king of semiconductors for computer chips and other electronic devices, have to overcome silicon's superb collection of materials properties as well as sophisticated fabrication technologies refined by six decades of effort by materials scientists and engineers. Graphene, one of the latest contenders, has a rather impressive list of features of its own but has lacked a key

  9. Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene Print Prospective challengers to silicon, the long-reigning king of semiconductors for computer chips and other electronic devices, have to overcome silicon's superb collection of materials properties as well as sophisticated fabrication technologies refined by six decades of effort by materials scientists and engineers. Graphene, one of the latest contenders, has a rather impressive list of features of its own but has lacked a key

  10. Reliable, High Performance Transistors on Flexible Substrates - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Reliable, High Performance Transistors on Flexible Substrates Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Backplanes for Conformal Electronics and Sensors, "Nano Lett., 2011, 11, 5408-5413 (924 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Researchers at Berkeley Lab have produced uniform, high performance transistors on mechanically

  11. Method for forming a hardened surface on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J. (Iona, ID)

    2008-01-29

    The invention encompasses a method of forming a metallic coating. A metallic glass coating is formed over a metallic substrate. After formation of the coating, at least a portion of the metallic glass can be converted into a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size. The invention also encompasses metallic coatings comprising metallic glass. Additionally, the invention encompasses metallic coatings comprising crystalline metallic material, with at least some of the crystalline metallic material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  12. Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene Print Prospective challengers to silicon, the long-reigning king of semiconductors for computer chips and other electronic devices, have to overcome silicon's superb collection of materials properties as well as sophisticated fabrication technologies refined by six decades of effort by materials scientists and engineers. Graphene, one of the latest contenders, has a rather impressive list of features of its own but has lacked a key

  13. Integrated Project Team RM

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Integrated Project Team (IPT) is an essential element of the Department’s acquisition process and will be utilized during all phases of a project life cycle. The IPT is a team of professionals...

  14. Systems Integration Competitive Awards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through the SunShot Systems Integration efforts, DOE is funding a range of research and development (R&D) projects to advance technology in four broad, inter-related areas: Grid Performance and...

  15. Systems Integration Competitive Awards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through the SunShot Systems Integration efforts, DOE is funding a range of research and development (R&D) projects to advance balance of system hardware technologies, such as racking systems...

  16. ELECTRONIC INTEGRATING CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Englemann, R.H.

    1963-08-20

    An electronic integrating circuit using a transistor with a capacitor connected between the emitter and collector through which the capacitor discharges at a rate proportional to the input current at the base is described. Means are provided for biasing the base with an operating bias and for applying a voltage pulse to the capacitor for charging to an initial voltage. A current dividing diode is connected between the base and emitter of the transistor, and signal input terminal means are coupled to the juncture of the capacitor and emitter and to the base of the transistor. At the end of the integration period, the residual voltage on said capacitor is less by an amount proportional to the integral of the input signal. Either continuous or intermittent periods of integration are provided. (AEC)

  17. Wellbore Integrity Network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, James W.; Bachu, Stefan

    2012-06-21

    In this presentation, we review the current state of knowledge on wellbore integrity as developed in the IEA Greenhouse Gas Programme's Wellbore Integrity Network. Wells are one of the primary risks to the successful implementation of CO{sub 2} storage programs. Experimental studies show that wellbore materials react with CO{sub 2} (carbonation of cement and corrosion of steel) but the impact on zonal isolation is unclear. Field studies of wells in CO{sub 2}-bearing fields show that CO{sub 2} does migrate external to casing. However, rates and amounts of CO{sub 2} have not been quantified. At the decade time scale, wellbore integrity is driven by construction quality and geomechanical processes. Over longer time-scales (> 100 years), chemical processes (cement degradation and corrosion) become more important, but competing geomechanical processes may preserve wellbore integrity.

  18. NREL: Energy Systems Integration - Events

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Events Through seminars, tours, and other educational opportunities, NREL hosts events that promote understanding and collaboration on energy systems integration. Energy Systems Integration Events See our full listing of upcoming energy systems integration events. Seminar Series Learn about energy systems integration in our seminar series archive. Printable Version Energy Systems Integration Home Capabilities Research & Development Facilities Working with Us Publications News Events Energy

  19. PEV Integration with Renewables (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, T.

    2014-06-18

    This presentation discusses current research at NREL on integrating plug-in electric vehicles with the grid and using renewable energy to charge the grid. The Electric Vehicle Grid Integration (EVGI) and Integrated Network Testbed for Energy Grid Research and Technology Experimentation (INTEGRATE) are addressing the opportunities and technical requirements for vehicle grid integration that will increase marketability and lead to greater petroleum reduction.

  20. Method of depositing buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, David B. (Knoxville, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN); Paranthaman, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN); Chirayil, Thomas (Knoxville, TN); Specht, Eliot D. (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-08-27

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sup.1.sub.x RE.sup.2.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.3 buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  1. Method of coating a substrate with a calcium phosphate compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gao, Yufei; Campbell, Allison A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a method of coating a substrate with a calcium phosphate compound using plasma enhanced MOCVD. The substrate is a solid material that may be porous or non-porous, including but not limited to metal, ceramic, glass and combinations thereof. The coated substrate is preferably used as an implant, including but not limited to orthopaedic, dental and combinations thereof. Calcium phosphate compound includes but is not limited to tricalcium phosphate (TCP), hydroxyapatite (HA) and combinations thereof. TCP is preferred on a titanium implant when implant resorbability is desired. HA is preferred when the bone bonding of new bone tissue into the structure of the implant is desired. Either or both of TCP and/or HA coated implants may be placed into a solution with an agent selected from the group of protein, antibiotic, antimicrobial, growth factor and combinations thereof that can be adsorbed into the coating before implantation. Once implanted, the release of TCP will also release the agent to improve growth of new bone tissues and/or to prevent infection.

  2. Rare earth zirconium oxide buffer layers on metal substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Robert K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chirayil, Thomas G.; Lee, Dominic F.; Goyal, Amit; Feenstra, Roeland

    2001-01-01

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  3. Integrating Program Component Executables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integrating Program Component Executables on Distributed Memory Architectures via MPH Chris Ding and Yun He Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA chqding@lbl.gov, yhe@lbl.gov Abstract A growing trend in developing large and complex ap- plications on today's Teraflop computers is to integrate stand-alone and/or semi-independent program components into a comprehensive simulation package. One example is the climate

  4. Integrative Genomics Building

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integrative Genomics Building Community Berkeley Global Campus Environmental Documents Tours Community Programs Friends of Berkeley Lab ⇒ Navigate Section Community Berkeley Global Campus Environmental Documents Tours Community Programs Friends of Berkeley Lab Project Description The Integrative Genomics Building (IGB) is proposed to be an approximately 77,000 gsf, four-story research and office building constructed in the former Bevatron area - a fully developed site in the geographic

  5. Integrated Biorefinery Process

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Int'l Smart Grid Action Network Int'l Smart Grid Action Network International PDF icon Int'l Smart Grid Action Network More Documents & Publications Clean Energy Ministerial Press Fact Sheet IEA: Tracking Clean Energy Progress: Energy Technology Perspectives 2012 Joint Statement by Energy Ministers of G8, The People's Republic of China, India and The Republic of Korea (June 2008) of Energy

    Integrated Biorefineries:Biofuels, Biopower, and Bioproducts Integrated Biorefineries:Biofuels,

  6. Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ADEPS » MPA » MPA-CINT Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies Nanomaterials integration is one of many approaches we take in addressing a range of challenges, from human health to national defense. Contact Us CINT Co-Director Quanxi Jia Email Deputy Group Leader (acting) Alex Lacerda Email Group Office (505) 667-9243 First in-situ images of void collapse in explosives Los Alamos researchers and collaborators demonstrated a crucial diagnostic for studying how voids affect explosives under shock

  7. Integrated and Engineered Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integrated and Engineered Systems Integrated and Engineered Systems National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. Contact thumbnail of Business Development Executive Miranda Intrator Business Development Executive Richard P. Feynmnan Center for Innovation (505) 665-8315 Email Engineers at Los Alamos create, design, and build the

  8. integrated-transportation-models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Training Archive Integrated Transportation Models Workshop at ITM 2012 April 29, 2012 Hyatt Regency Tampa Hosted by: The Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center at Argonne National Laboratory This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. The aim of the workshop was to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners to discuss recent research results that can support a wider application of integrated transportation models,

  9. IDC Integrated Master Plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, David J.; Harris, James M.

    2014-12-01

    This is the IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 project Integrated Master Plan (IMP). The IMP presents the major accomplishments planned over time to re-engineer the IDC system. The IMP and the associate Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) are used for planning, scheduling, executing, and tracking the project technical work efforts. REVISIONS Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Re- engineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  10. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Solar Power Data for Integration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power Data for Integration Studies The Solar Power Data for Integration Studies are synthetic ... 2006. The data are intended for use by energy professionals such as transmission ...

  11. DIRECTIONS AND TIPS FOR USING INTEGRITY Accessing Integrity:

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DIRECTIONS AND TIPS FOR USING INTEGRITY Accessing Integrity: The website address for Integrity is www.integrity.gov. When you get to the website, click on the yellow box labeled "Login to Integrity." Integrity is connected to the OMB MAX Central Authentication Service. Employees who have previously used OMB MAX should use their MAX user ID and password. Do not use the CIC or PIV login option. This is not enabled for DOE Integrity filers. If you used Integrity last year, you have an OMB

  12. Monolithically integrated solid state laser and waveguide using spin-on glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Hohimer, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Neal, Daniel R. (Tijeras, NM); Vawter, G. Allen (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A monolithically integrated photonic circuit combining a semiconductor source of excitation light with an optically active waveguide formed on the substrate. The optically active waveguide is preferably formed of a spin-on glass to which are added optically active materials which can enable lasing action, optical amplification, optical loss, or frequency conversion in the waveguide, depending upon the added material.

  13. Method for integrating microelectromechanical devices with electronic circuitry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barron, Carole C. (Austin, TX); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Montague, Stephen (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A method is disclosed for integrating one or more microelectromechanical (MEM) devices with electronic circuitry on a common substrate. The MEM device can be fabricated within a substrate cavity and encapsulated with a sacrificial material. This allows the MEM device to be annealed and the substrate planarized prior to forming electronic circuitry on the substrate using a series of standard processing steps. After fabrication of the electronic circuitry, the electronic circuitry can be protected by a two-ply protection layer of titanium nitride (TiN) and tungsten (W) during an etch release process whereby the MEM device is released for operation by etching away a portion of a sacrificial material (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) that encapsulates the MEM device. The etch release process is preferably performed using a mixture of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and hydrochloric acid (HCI) which reduces the time for releasing the MEM device compared to use of a buffered oxide etchant. After release of the MEM device, the TiN:W protection layer can be removed with a peroxide-based etchant without damaging the electronic circuitry.

  14. Integrated resonant micro-optical gyroscope and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G. Allen; Zubrzycki, Walter J.; Guo, Junpeng; Sullivan, Charles T.

    2006-09-12

    An integrated optic gyroscope is disclosed which is based on a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) having a bidirectional laser source, a pair of optical waveguide phase modulators and a pair of waveguide photodetectors. The PIC can be connected to a passive ring resonator formed either as a coil of optical fiber or as a coiled optical waveguide. The lasing output from each end of the bidirectional laser source is phase modulated and directed around the passive ring resonator in two counterpropagating directions, with a portion of the lasing output then being detected to determine a rotation rate for the integrated optical gyroscope. The coiled optical waveguide can be formed on a silicon, glass or quartz substrate with a silicon nitride core and a silica cladding, while the PIC includes a plurality of III V compound semiconductor layers including one or more quantum well layers which are disordered in the phase modulators and to form passive optical waveguides.

  15. Integrated electrical connector (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Integrated electrical connector Title: Integrated electrical connector An electrical ... The opening is also smaller than the diameter of an electrically conductive contact pin. ...

  16. Integrity Automotive | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: Joint venture between Kentucky businessman Randal Waldman of Integrity Manufacturing and California-based electric car maker Zap. References: Integrity Automotive1...

  17. Washington: Integrated Transportation Programs & Coordinated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrated Transportation Programs & Coordinated Regional Planning Washington: Integrated Transportation Programs & Coordinated Regional Planning November 6, 2013 - 5:42pm Addthis ...

  18. Apparatus and method for rapid cooling of large area substrates in vacuum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barth, Kurt L.; Enzenroth, Robert A.; Sampath, Walajabad S.

    2010-09-28

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for rapid cooling of a large substrate in a vacuum environment. A first cooled plate is brought into close proximity with one surface of a flat substrate. The spatial volume between the first cooling plate and the substrate is sealed and brought to a higher pressure than the surrounding vacuum level to increase the cooling efficiency. A second cooled plate is brought into close proximity with the opposite surface of the flat substrate. A second spatial volume between the second cooling plate and the substrate is sealed and the gas pressure is equalized to the gas pressure in the first spatial volume. The equalization of the gas pressure on both sides of the flat substrate eliminates deflection of the substrate and bending stress in the substrate.

  19. Apparatus and method for rapid cooling of large area substrates in vacuum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barth, Kurt L.; Enzenroth, Robert A.; Sampath, Walajabad S.

    2012-11-06

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for rapid cooling of a large substrate in a vacuum environment. A first cooled plate is brought into close proximity with one surface of a flat substrate. The spatial volume between the first cooling plate and the substrate is sealed and brought to a higher pressure than the surrounding vacuum level to increase the cooling efficiency. A second cooled plate is brought into close proximity with the opposite surface of the flat substrate. A second spatial volume between the second cooling plate and the substrate is sealed and the gas pressure is equalized to the gas pressure in the first spatial volume. The equalization of the gas pressure on both sides of the flat substrate eliminates deflection of the substrate and bending stress in the substrate.

  20. XP-SiC: An Innovative Substrate for Future Applications with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    XP-SiC: An Innovative Substrate for Future Applications with Low Weight and High Porosity XP-SiC: An Innovative Substrate for Future Applications with Low Weight and High Porosity ...

  1. Growth evolution of AlN films on silicon (111) substrates by...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Growth evolution of AlN films on silicon (111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Growth evolution of AlN films on silicon (111) substrates ...

  2. Method for preparation of thermally and mechanically stable metal/porous substrate composite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Damle, Ashok S.

    2004-07-13

    A method is provided for the preparation of metal/porous substrate composite membranes by flowing a solution of metal to be plated over a first surface of a porous substrate and concurrently applying a pressure of gas on a second surface of the porous substrate, such that the porous substrate separates the solution of metal from the gas, and the use of the resulting membrane for the production of highly purified hydrogen gas.

  3. Monolayer and/or few-layer graphene on metal or metal-coated substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sutter, Peter Werner; Sutter, Eli Anguelova

    2015-04-14

    Disclosed is monolayer and/or few-layer graphene on metal or metal-coated substrates. Embodiments include graphene mirrors. In an example, a mirror includes a substrate that has a surface exhibiting a curvature operable to focus an incident beam onto a focal plane. A graphene layer conformally adheres to the substrate, and is operable to protect the substrate surface from degradation due to the incident beam and an ambient environment.

  4. Partially integrated exhaust manifold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayman, Alan W; Baker, Rodney E

    2015-01-20

    A partially integrated manifold assembly is disclosed which improves performance, reduces cost and provides efficient packaging of engine components. The partially integrated manifold assembly includes a first leg extending from a first port and terminating at a mounting flange for an exhaust gas control valve. Multiple additional legs (depending on the total number of cylinders) are integrally formed with the cylinder head assembly and extend from the ports of the associated cylinder and terminate at an exit port flange. These additional legs are longer than the first leg such that the exit port flange is spaced apart from the mounting flange. This configuration provides increased packaging space adjacent the first leg for any valving that may be required to control the direction and destination of exhaust flow in recirculation to an EGR valve or downstream to a catalytic converter.

  5. Methods for immobilizing nucleic acids on a gel substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich; Proudnikov, Dimitri Y.; Timofeev, Edward N.; Kochetkova, Svetlana V.; Florentiev, Vladimir L.; Shick, Valentine V.

    1999-01-01

    A method for labeling oligonucleotide molecules, and for immobilizing oligonucleotide and DNA molecules is provided comprising modifying the molecules to create a chemically active group, and contacting activated fluorescent dyes to the region. A method for preparing an immobilization substrate is also provided comprising modifying a gel to contain desired functional groups which covalently interact with certain moieties of the oligonucleotide molecules. A method for immobilizing biomolecules and other molecules within a gel by copolymerization of allyl-substituted oligonucleotides, DNA and proteins with acrylamide is also provided.

  6. Preparation and uses of amorphous boron carbide coated substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, Robert E.; Newkirk, Lawrence R.; Valencia, Flavio A.

    1981-09-01

    Cloth is coated at a temperature below about 1000.degree. C. with amorphous boron-carbon deposits in a process which provides a substantially uniform coating on all the filaments making up each yarn fiber bundle of the cloth. The coated cloths can be used in the as-deposited condition for example as wear surfaces where high hardness values are needed; or multiple layers of coated cloths can be hot-pressed to form billets useful for example in fusion reactor wall armor. Also provided is a method of controlling the atom ratio of B:C of boron-carbon deposits onto any of a variety of substrates, including cloths.

  7. Preparation and uses of amorphous boron carbide coated substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, R.E.; Newkirk, L.R.; Valencia, F.A.; Wallace, T.C.

    1979-12-05

    Cloth is coated at a temperature below about 1000/sup 0/C with amorphous boron-carbon deposits in a process which provides a substantially uniform coating on all the filaments making up each yarn fiber bundle of the cloth. The coated cloths can be used in the as-deposited condition for example as wear surfaces where high hardness values are needed; or multiple layers of coated cloths can be hot-pressed to form billets useful for example in fusion reactor wall armor. Also provided is a method of controlling the atom ratio of B:C of boron-carbon deposits onto any of a variety of substrates, including cloths.

  8. Design Potential of Metal Foil Substrates for Optimized DOC Performance |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_rice.pdf More Documents & Publications Components for Optimized SCR Systems Application of a Turbulent Metal Foil Substrate for a PGM optimized DOC on a U.S. HD Diesel Engine EGR Catalyst for Cooler

  9. Integrated heterodyne terahertz transceiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Mark; Wanke, Michael C.

    2009-06-23

    A heterodyne terahertz transceiver comprises a quantum cascade laser that is integrated on-chip with a Schottky diode mixer. An antenna connected to the Schottky diode receives a terahertz signal. The quantum cascade laser couples terahertz local oscillator power to the Schottky diode to mix with the received terahertz signal to provide an intermediate frequency output signal. The fully integrated transceiver optimizes power efficiency, sensitivity, compactness, and reliability. The transceiver can be used in compact, fieldable systems covering a wide variety of deployable applications not possible with existing technology.

  10. Integrated heterodyne terahertz transceiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanke, Michael C.; Lee, Mark; Nordquist, Christopher D.; Cich, Michael J.

    2012-09-25

    A heterodyne terahertz transceiver comprises a quantum cascade laser that is integrated on-chip with a Schottky diode mixer. A terahertz signal can be received by an antenna connected to the mixer, an end facet or sidewall of the laser, or through a separate active section that can amplify the incident signal. The quantum cascade laser couples terahertz local oscillator power to the Schottky diode to mix with the received terahertz signal to provide an intermediate frequency output signal. The fully integrated transceiver optimizes power efficiency, sensitivity, compactness, and reliability. The transceiver can be used in compact, fieldable systems covering a wide variety of deployable applications not possible with existing technology.

  11. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troxell, Wade

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3) Simulation of electrical power distribution system that integrates significant quantities of renewable and distributed energy resources; (4) System dynamic modeling that considers end-user behavior, economics, security and regulatory frameworks; (5) Best practices for energy management IT control solutions for effective distributed energy integration (including security with the underlying physical power systems); (6) Experimental verification of effects of various arrangements of renewable generation, distributed generation and user load types along with conventional generation and transmission. Understanding the core technologies for enabling them to be used in an integrated fashion within a distribution network remains is a benefit to the future energy paradigm and future and present energy engineers.

  12. Bayesian Integrated Microbial Forensics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarman, Kristin H.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Wunschel, David S.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Cliff, John B.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2008-06-01

    In the aftermath of the 2001 anthrax letters, researchers have been exploring ways to predict the production environment of unknown source microorganisms. Different mass spectral techniques are being developed to characterize components of a microbe’s culture medium including water, carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions added, and the presence of agar. Individually, each technique has the potential to identify one or two ingredients in a culture medium recipe. However, by integrating data from multiple mass spectral techniques, a more complete characterization is possible. We present a Bayesian statistical approach to integrated microbial forensics and illustrate its application on spores grown in different culture media.

  13. Transportation and Stationary Power Integration: Workshop Proceedings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integration: Workshop Proceedings Transportation and Stationary Power Integration: Workshop Proceedings Proceedings for the Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop ...

  14. Apparatus and method for selective area deposition of thin films on electrically biased substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuhr, Raymond A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Haynes, Tony E. (Knoxville, TN); Golanski, Andrzej (Cheylas, FR)

    1994-01-01

    An ion beam deposition process for selective area deposition on a polarized substrate uses a potential applied to the substrate which allows the ionized particles to reach into selected areas for film deposition. Areas of the substrate to be left uncoated are held at a potential that repells the ionized particles.

  15. Apparatus and method for selective area deposition of thin films on electrically biased substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuhr, R.A.; Haynes, T.E.; Golanski, A.

    1999-06-08

    An ion beam deposition process for selective area deposition on a polarized substrate uses a potential applied to the substrate which allows the ionized particles to reach into selected areas for film deposition. Areas of the substrate to be left uncoated are held at a potential that repels the ionized particles. 3 figs.

  16. Method of creating a controlled interior surface configuration of passages within a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dembowski, Peter V. (Richmond Heights, OH); Schilke, Peter W. (Scotia, NY)

    1983-01-01

    A method of creating a controlled interior surface configuration of passages within a substrate, particularly cooling passages of nozzles or buckets of a gas turbine, involves the hot isostatic pressing of a leachable passage insert whose surface carries the female image of the desired interior surface configuration inside the substrate followed by leaching of the insert from the substrate.

  17. Apparatus and method for selective area deposition of thin films on electrically biased substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuhr, Raymond A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Haynes, Tony E. (Knoxville, TN); Golanski, Andrzej (Le Cheylas, FR)

    1999-01-01

    An ion beam deposition process for selective area deposition on a polarized substrate uses a potential applied to the substrate which allows the ionized particles to reach into selected areas for film deposition. Areas of the substrate to be left uncoated are held at a potential that repells the ionized particles.

  18. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Solar Integration National Dataset

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Toolkit Integration National Dataset Toolkit The Solar Integration National Dataset (SIND) Toolkit enables researchers to perform regional solar generation integration studies by providing modeled, coherent sub-hour solar power data, information, and tools. Sub-hour solar power data are used in the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 and the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study. Graph of global horizontal irradiance for July 7, 2008. Over the course of the day,

  19. High-Voltage LED Light Engine with Integrated Driver | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Voltage LED Light Engine with Integrated Driver High-Voltage LED Light Engine with Integrated Driver Lead Performer: Lumileds, LLC - San Jose, CA DOE Total Funding: $1,499,346 Cost Share: $499,783 Project Term: 9/1/2014 - 2/29/2016 Funding Opportunity: SSL R&D Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) (DE-FOA-0000973) Project Objective This project will develop a high-voltage light engine integrating low-cost, high-power patterned sapphire substrate flip-chip (PSS-FC) architecture LEDs with

  20. Integrating Electricity Subsector

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Integrating Electricity Subsector Failure Scenarios into a Risk Assessment Methodology 3002001181 | DEC 2013 Program Leads Jason D. Christopher Technical Lead, Cyber Security Capabilities & Risk Management Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) Annabelle Lee Senior Technical Executive, Cyber Security Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) For more information on the DOE's cyber security risk management programs, please contact

  1. Biochemical Platform Processing Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this project is to facilitate deployment of enzyme-based biomass conversion technology. The immediate goal is to explore integration issues that impact process performance and to demonstrate improved performance of the lower-cost enzymes being developed by Genencor and Novozymes.

  2. Integrated Safety Management Policy

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-04-25

    The policy establishes DOE's expectation for safety, including integrated safety management that will enable the Department’s mission goals to be accomplished efficiently while ensuring safe operations at all departmental facilities and activities. Supersedes DOE P 450.4, DOE P 411.1, DOE P 441.1, DOE P 450.2A, and DOE P 450.7

  3. Integrated Safety Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-04-25

    The order ensures that DOE/NNSA, systematically integrates safety into management and work practices at all levels, so that missions are accomplished efficiently while protecting the workers, the public, and the environment. Supersedes DOE M 450.4-1 and DOE M 411.1-1C

  4. Bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Michael L.; Sayler, Gary S.; Paulus, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed are monolithic bioelectronic devices comprising a bioreporter and an OASIC. These bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuit are useful in detecting substances such as pollutants, explosives, and heavy-metals residing in inhospitable areas such as groundwater, industrial process vessels, and battlefields. Also disclosed are methods and apparatus for environmental pollutant detection, oil exploration, drug discovery, industrial process control, and hazardous chemical monitoring.

  5. Electrochemical synthesis of Nb3Sn coatings on Cu substrates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Franz, S.; Barzi, E.; Turrioni, D.; Glionna, L.; Bestetti, M.

    2015-09-11

    This study aims at contributing to the development of superconducting Nb3Sn thin films for possible applications, as for instance in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. The synthesis of Nb-Sn coatings was carried out on copper substrates by electrodeposition from 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIC) ionic liquids containing SnCl2 and NbCl5. Cyclic voltammetric curves were recorded to identify the reduction potentials of Nb and Sn ionic species. Electrodeposition was performed at 40 and 400 mA/cm2 and 130°C. The CV demonstrated that BMIC has a suitable potential window for co-deposition of Nb and Sn. The electrodeposited coatings showed a cubic Nb3Sn phase with (211)more » preferred orientation, a disordered orthorhombic NbSn2 phase and Sn-Cu phases. Film thickness was from 200 to 750 nm. These results suggest that electrodeposition of Nb-Sn coatings on copper substrates could be a suitable route to one day replace the current expensive Nb SRF cavities.« less

  6. Method for forming silicon on a glass substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1995-03-07

    A method by which single-crystal silicon microelectronics may be fabricated on glass substrates at unconventionally low temperatures. This is achieved by fabricating a thin film of silicon on glass and subsequently forming the doped components by a short wavelength (excimer) laser doping procedure and conventional patterning techniques. This method may include introducing a heavily boron doped etch stop layer on a silicon wafer using an excimer laser, which permits good control of the etch stop layer removal process. This method additionally includes dramatically reducing the remaining surface roughness of the silicon thin films after etching in the fabrication of silicon on insulator wafers by scanning an excimer laser across the surface of the silicon thin film causing surface melting, whereby the surface tension of the melt causes smoothing of the surface during recrystallization. Applications for this method include those requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, such as display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard and high temperature electronics. 15 figs.

  7. Buffer layers on metal alloy substrates for superconducting tapes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jia, Quanxi; Foltyn, Stephen R.; Arendt, Paul N.; Groves, James R.

    2004-06-29

    An article including a substrate, a layer of an inert oxide material upon the surface of the substrate, a layer of an amorphous oxide or oxynitride material upon the inert oxide material layer, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the amorphous oxide material layer, and a layer of a SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer is provided together with additional layers such as a HTS top-layer of YBCO directly upon the layer of a SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material layer. With a HTS top-layer of YBCO upon at least one layer of the SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material in such an article, J.sub.c 's of up to 1.3.times.10.sup.6 A/cm.sup.2 have been demonstrated with projected IC's of over 200 Amperes across a sample 1 cm wide.

  8. Systems Integration | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems Integration Systems Integration The breadth and complexity of the overall Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program RD&D effort, as well as the interaction of program elements, requires an integrated approach to reduce risk and maximize the potential for success. The focus of systems integration is to understand the complex interactions among program areas, components, and the tradeoffs between them. Systems Integration ensures all requirements are being addressed, tracks and measures the

  9. Reconditioning of semiconductor substrates to remove photoresist during semiconductor device fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farino, Anthony J.

    2004-01-27

    A method for reconditioning the surface of a semiconductor substrate to remove an unwanted (i.e. defective) layer of photoresist is disclosed. The method adapts a conventional automated spinner which is used to rotate the substrate at high speed while a stream of a first solvent (e.g. acetone) is used to dissolve the photoresist. A stream of a second solvent (e.g. methanol) is then used to clean the substrate at a lower speed, with the substrate being allowed to dry with continued rotation. The method of the present invention can be used within a photolithography track so that the substrates need never leave the track for reconditioning.

  10. Process for forming one or more substantially pure layers in substrate material using ion implantation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musket, Ronald G.; Brown, David W.; Munir, Zuhair A.

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a substantially pure layer of an implantable element in a substrate material by (a) selecting an implantable element and a substrate material to be implanted which, at the temperatures to be used, have limited mutual solubility in one another and do not form any intermediate phases with one another; (b) implanting a sufficient amount of the implantable element in the substrate material to permit formation of the desired substantially pure layer of the implantable element in the substrate material; and (c) annealing the implanted substrate material to form the desired layer. The annealing step may not be required if the desired layer was formed during the implantation.

  11. Thick adherent dielectric films on plastic substrates and method for depositing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickboldt, Paul; Ellingboe, Albert R.; Theiss, Steven D.; Smith, Patrick M.

    2002-01-01

    Thick adherent dielectric films deposited on plastic substrates for use as a thermal barrier layer to protect the plastic substrates from high temperatures which, for example, occur during laser annealing of layers subsequently deposited on the dielectric films. It is desirable that the barrier layer has properties including: a thickness of 1 .mu.m or greater, adheres to a plastic substrate, does not lift-off when cycled in temperature, has few or no cracks and does not crack when subjected to bending, resistant to lift-off when submersed in fluids, electrically insulating and preferably transparent. The thick barrier layer may be composed, for example, of a variety of dielectrics and certain metal oxides, and may be deposited on a variety of plastic substrates by various known deposition techniques. The key to the method of forming the thick barrier layer on the plastic substrate is maintaining the substrate cool during deposition of the barrier layer. Cooling of the substrate maybe accomplished by the use of a cooling chuck on which the plastic substrate is positioned, and by directing cooling gas, such as He, Ar and N.sub.2, between the plastic substrate and the cooling chucks. Thick adherent dielectric films up to about 5 .mu.m have been deposited on plastic substrates which include the above-referenced properties, and which enable the plastic substrates to withstand laser processing temperatures applied to materials deposited on the dielectric films.

  12. Thin-film solar cell fabricated on a flexible metallic substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, John R.; Noufi, Rommel; Hasoon, Falah S.

    2006-05-30

    A thin-film solar cell (10) is provided. The thin-film solar cell (10) comprises a flexible metallic substrate (12) having a first surface and a second surface. A back metal contact layer (16) is deposited on the first surface of the flexible metallic substrate (12). A semiconductor absorber layer (14) is deposited on the back metal contact. A photoactive film deposited on the semiconductor absorber layer (14) forms a heterojunction structure and a grid contact (24) deposited on the heterjunction structure. The flexible metal substrate (12) can be constructed of either aluminium or stainless steel. Furthermore, a method of constructing a solar cell is provided. The method comprises providing an aluminum substrate (12), depositing a semiconductor absorber layer (14) on the aluminum substrate (12), and insulating the aluminum substrate (12) from the semiconductor absorber layer (14) to inhibit reaction between the aluminum substrate (12) and the semiconductor absorber layer (14).

  13. Thin-Film Solar Cell Fabricated on a Flexible Metallic Substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, J. R.; Noufi, R.; Hasoon, F. S.

    2006-05-30

    A thin-film solar cell (10) is provided. The thin-film solar cell (10) comprises a flexible metallic substrate (12) having a first surface and a second surface. A back metal contact layer (16) is deposited on the first surface of the flexible metallic substrate (12). A semiconductor absorber layer (14) is deposited on the back metal contact. A photoactive film deposited on the semiconductor absorber layer (14) forms a heterojunction structure and a grid contact (24) deposited on the heterjunction structure. The flexible metal substrate (12) can be constructed of either aluminium or stainless steel. Furthermore, a method of constructing a solar cell is provided. The method comprises providing an aluminum substrate (12), depositing a semiconductor absorber layer (14) on the aluminum substrate (12), and insulating the aluminum substrate (12) from the semiconductor absorber layer (14) to inhibit reaction between the aluminum substrate (12) and the semiconductor absorber layer (14).

  14. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  15. Transmission Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transmission Grid Integration - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  16. Renewable Energy Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integration - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  17. Method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J.

    2010-08-31

    The invention includes a method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of B, C, Si and P. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness of greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The metal strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from two to seven additional elements including at least one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a powder, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  18. Integrative Bioengineering Institute

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddington, David; Magin,L,Richard; Hetling, John; Cho, Michael

    2009-01-09

    Microfabrication enables many exciting experimental possibilities for medicine and biology that are not attainable through traditional methods. However, in order for microfabricated devices to have an impact they must not only provide a robust solution to a current unmet need, but also be simple enough to seamlessly integrate into standard protocols. Broad dissemination of bioMEMS has been stymied by the common aim of replacing established and well accepted protocols with equally or more complex devices, methods, or materials. The marriage of a complex, difficult to fabricate bioMEMS device with a highly variable biological system is rarely successful. Instead, the design philosophy of my lab aims to leverage a beneficial microscale phenomena (e.g. fast diffusion at the microscale) within a bioMEMS device and adapt to established methods (e.g. multiwell plate cell culture) and demonstrate a new paradigm for the field (adapt instead of replace). In order for the field of bioMEMS to mature beyond novel proof-of-concept demonstrations, researchers must focus on developing systems leveraging these phenomena and integrating into standard labs, which have largely been ignored. Towards this aim, the Integrative Bioengineering Institute has been established.

  19. Growth of Quantum Wires on Step-Bunched Substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Feng

    2005-02-01

    This proposal initiates a combined theoretical and experimental multidisciplinary research effort to explore a novel approach for growing metallic and magnetic nanowires on step-bunched semiconductor and dielectric substrates, and to lay the groundwork for understanding the growth mechanisms and the electronic, electrical, and magnetic properties of metallic and magnetic nanowires. The research will focus on four topics: (1) fundamental studies of step bunching and self-organization in a strained thin film for creating step-bunched substrates. (2) Interaction between metal adatoms (Al,Cu, and Ni) and semiconductor (Si and SiGe) and dielectric (CaF2) surface steps. (3) growth and characterization of metallic and magnetic nanowires on step-bunched templates. (4) fabrication of superlattices of nanowires by growing multilayer films. We propose to attack these problems at both a microscopic and macroscopic level, using state-of-the-art theoretical and experimental techniques. Multiscale (electronic-atomic-continuum) theories will be applied to investigate growth mechanisms of nanowires: mesoscopic modeling and simulation of step flow growth of strained thin films, in particular, step bunching and self-organization will be carried out within the framework of continuum linear elastic theory; atomistic calculation of interaction between metal adatoms and semiconductor and dielectric surface steps will be done by large-scale computations using first-principles total-energy methods. In parallel, thin films and nanowires will be grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and the resultant structure and morphology will be characterized at the atomic level up to micrometer range, using a combination of different surface/interface probes, including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM, atomic resolution), atomic force microscopy (AFM, nanometer resolution), low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM, micrometer resolution), reflectance high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), and x-ray diffraction. Finally, the electronic, electrical, and magnetic properties of the thin films and nanowires will be explored by both theory and experiment.

  20. DIRECTIONS AND TIPS FOR USING INTEGRITY Accessing Integrity:

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    After creating or resetting your password, close your browser window, open a new browser window, and return to www.integrity.gov. Integrity can be accessed from your work computer ...

  1. High Efficiency Integrated Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibbetson, James

    2013-09-15

    Solid-state lighting based on LEDs has emerged as a superior alternative to inefficient conventional lighting, particularly incandescent. LED lighting can lead to 80 percent energy savings; can last 50,000 hours – 2-50 times longer than most bulbs; and contains no toxic lead or mercury. However, to enable mass adoption, particularly at the consumer level, the cost of LED luminaires must be reduced by an order of magnitude while achieving superior efficiency, light quality and lifetime. To become viable, energy-efficient replacement solutions must deliver system efficacies of ≥ 100 lumens per watt (LPW) with excellent color rendering (CRI > 85) at a cost that enables payback cycles of two years or less for commercial applications. This development will enable significant site energy savings as it targets commercial and retail lighting applications that are most sensitive to the lifetime operating costs with their extended operating hours per day. If costs are reduced substantially, dramatic energy savings can be realized by replacing incandescent lighting in the residential market as well. In light of these challenges, Cree proposed to develop a multi-chip integrated LED package with an output of > 1000 lumens of warm white light operating at an efficacy of at least 128 LPW with a CRI > 85. This product will serve as the light engine for replacement lamps and luminaires. At the end of the proposed program, this integrated package was to be used in a proof-of-concept lamp prototype to demonstrate the component’s viability in a common form factor. During this project Cree SBTC developed an efficient, compact warm-white LED package with an integrated remote color down-converter. Via a combination of intensive optical, electrical, and thermal optimization, a package design was obtained that met nearly all project goals. This package emitted 1295 lm under instant-on, room-temperature testing conditions, with an efficacy of 128.4 lm/W at a color temperature of ~2873K and 83 CRI. As such, the package’s performance exceeds DOE’s warm-white phosphor LED efficacy target for 2013. At the end of the program, we assembled an A19 sized demonstration bulb housing the integrated package which met Energy Star intensity variation requirements. With further development to reduce overall component cost, we anticipate that an integrated remote converter package such as developed during this program will find application in compact, high-efficacy LED-based lamps, particularly those requiring omnidirectional emission.

  2. NREL: Energy Systems Integration - Energy Systems Integration News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Systems Integration News Read the latest news and announcements about energy systems integration from NREL. Subscribe to the RSS feed RSS . Learn about RSS. April 28, 2016 INTEGRATE Partner Demonstrates Active Network Management of Distributed Energy Resources at NREL New York-based Smarter Grid Solutions has employed its Active Network Management system at the Energy Systems Integration Facility to manage and maintain a modeled distribution grid within normal operating limits through the

  3. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Western Wind and Solar Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study Western Wind and Solar Integration Study The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, one of the largest regional solar and wind integration studies to date, explores the question: Can we integrate large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West? Released December 2014-Phase 3 Research Report Says Western Grid Can Weather Disturbances Under High Renewable Penetrations With good system planning, sound engineering practices, and commercially available

  4. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Oahu Wind Integration and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transmission Study Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study The Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study examined the integration of renewable energy as part of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative's Energy Agreement. The agreement includes a commitment to integrate up to 400 megawatts (MW) of offshore wind energy from Molokai or Lanai and transmit it to Oahu via undersea cable systems. The Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative also includes an aggressive mandate for the state of Hawaii to

  5. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Wind Integration National Dataset

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (WIND) Toolkit Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit Obtain the WIND Toolkit Please note: the WIND Toolkit is simulated wind power data to be used in renewable integration studies. Please read the associated validation reports and use the data appropriately. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit is an update and expansion of the Eastern and Western Wind Datasets, and is intended to support the next generation of integration studies. The WIND Toolkit includes

  6. Integrated Deployment and the Energy Systems Integration Facility: Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.; Werner, M.; Spikes, A.; Komomua, C.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the workshop entitled: Integrated Deployment and the Energy Systems Integration Facility. In anticipation of the opening of the ESIF, NREL held the workshop August 21-23, 2012 and invited participants from utilities, government, industry, and academia to discuss renewable integration challenges and discover new ways to meet them by taking advantage of the ESIF's capabilities.

  7. Integrated Ceramic Membrane System for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Joseph; Lim, Hankwon; Drnevich, Raymond

    2010-08-05

    Phase I was a technoeconomic feasibility study that defined the process scheme for the integrated ceramic membrane system for hydrogen production and determined the plan for Phase II. The hydrogen production system is comprised of an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) and a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM). Two process options were evaluated: 1) Integrated OTM-HTM reactor – in this configuration, the HTM was a ceramic proton conductor operating at temperatures up to 900°C, and 2) Sequential OTM and HTM reactors – in this configuration, the HTM was assumed to be a Pd alloy operating at less than 600°C. The analysis suggested that there are no technical issues related to either system that cannot be managed. The process with the sequential reactors was found to be more efficient, less expensive, and more likely to be commercialized in a shorter time than the single reactor. Therefore, Phase II focused on the sequential reactor system, specifically, the second stage, or the HTM portion. Work on the OTM portion was conducted in a separate program. Phase IIA began in February 2003. Candidate substrate materials and alloys were identified and porous ceramic tubes were produced and coated with Pd. Much effort was made to develop porous substrates with reasonable pore sizes suitable for Pd alloy coating. The second generation of tubes showed some improvement in pore size control, but this was not enough to get a viable membrane. Further improvements were made to the porous ceramic tube manufacturing process. When a support tube was successfully coated, the membrane was tested to determine the hydrogen flux. The results from all these tests were used to update the technoeconomic analysis from Phase I to confirm that the sequential membrane reactor system can potentially be a low-cost hydrogen supply option when using an existing membrane on a larger scale. Phase IIB began in October 2004 and focused on demonstrating an integrated HTM/water gas shift (WGS) reactor to increase CO conversion and produce more hydrogen than a standard water gas shift reactor would. Substantial improvements in substrate and membrane performance were achieved in another DOE project (DE-FC26-07NT43054). These improved membranes were used for testing in a water gas shift environment in this program. The amount of net H2 generated (defined as the difference of hydrogen produced and fed) was greater than would be produced at equilibrium using conventional water gas shift reactors up to 75 psig because of the shift in equilibrium caused by continuous hydrogen removal. However, methanation happened at higher pressures, 100 and 125 psig, and resulted in less net H2 generated than would be expected by equilibrium conversion alone. An effort to avoid methanation by testing in more oxidizing conditions (by increasing CO2/CO ratio in a feed gas) was successful and net H2 generated was higher (40-60%) than a conventional reactor at equilibrium at all pressures tested (up to 125 psig). A model was developed to predict reactor performance in both cases with and without methanation. The required membrane area depends on conditions, but the required membrane area is about 10 ft2 to produce about 2000 scfh of hydrogen. The maximum amount of hydrogen that can be produced in a membrane reactor decreased significantly due to methanation from about 2600 scfh to about 2400 scfh. Therefore, it is critical to eliminate methanation to fully benefit from the use of a membrane in the reaction. Other modeling work showed that operating a membrane reactor at higher temperature provides an opportunity to make the reactor smaller and potentially provides a significant capital cost savings compared to a shift reactor/PSA combination.

  8. Enhanced off-resonance magnetoelectric response in laser annealed PZT thick film grown on magnetostrictive amorphous metal substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palneedi, Haribabu; Maurya, Deepam; Priya, Shashank; Kim, Gi-Yeop; Choi, Si-Young; Kang, Suk-Joong L.; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Ryu, Jungho

    2015-07-06

    A highly dense, 4 μm-thick Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) film is deposited on amorphous magnetostrictive Metglas foil (FeBSi) by granule spray in vacuum process at room temperature, followed by its localized annealing with a continuous-wave 560 nm ytterbium fiber laser radiation. This longer-wavelength laser radiation is able to anneal the whole of thick PZT film layer without any deteriorative effects, such as chemical reaction and/or atomic diffusion, at the interface and crystallization of amorphous Metglas substrate. Greatly enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric properties of the annealed PZT are attributed to its better crystallinity and grain growth induced by laser irradiation. As a result, a colossal off-resonance magnetoelectric (ME) voltage coefficient that is two orders of magnitude larger than previously reported output from PZT/Metglas film-composites is achieved. The present work addresses the problems involved in the fabrication of PZT/Metglas film-composites and opens up emerging possibilities in employing piezoelectric materials with low thermal budget substrates (suitable for integrated electronics) and designing laminate composites for ME based devices.

  9. NREL: Electricity Integration Research - Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facilities NREL's electricity integration research is conducted in state-of-the-art facilities. These facilities assist industry in the development of power systems and address the operational challenges of full system integration. The Energy Systems Integration Facility can be used to design, test, and analyze components and systems to enable economic, reliable integration of renewable electricity, fuel production, storage, and building efficiency technologies with the U.S. electricity delivery

  10. Sandia Energy - Transmission Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy, Energy Assurance, Energy Surety, Grid Integration, Infrastructure Security, Microgrid, News, News & Events, Renewable Energy, Systems Analysis, Systems Engineering,...

  11. Integrated Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Validation » Integrated Projects Integrated Projects To maximize overall system efficiencies, reduce costs, and optimize component development, optimized integrated hydrogen and fuel cell systems must be developed and validated. Novel new approaches such as Power Parks, which "marry" the transportation and electricity generation markets in synergistic ways, and integrated renewable hydrogen production systems, which combine electrolysis powered by wind, solar, and other

  12. NREL: Energy Systems Integration - Subscribe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Energy Systems Integration eNewsletter is a quarterly newsletter designed to keep industry partners, stakeholders, associations, and educational institutes up to date on the new Energy Systems Integration Facility and energy systems integration activities at NREL. Subscribe Please provide the following information to subscribe to the Energy Systems Integration eNewsletter. The mailing list addresses are never sold, rented, distributed, or disclosed in any way. * indicates required Email

  13. Integrated Assessment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontenttimes-integrated-assessment-model-0,h Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Technical Assistance...

  14. Multifuctional integrated sensors (MFISES).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Homeijer, Brian D.; Roozeboom, Clifton

    2015-10-01

    Many emerging IoT applications require sensing of multiple physical and environmental parameters for: completeness of information, measurement validation, unexpected demands, improved performance. For example, a typical outdoor weather station measures temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, light intensity, rainfall, wind speed and direction. Existing sensor technologies do not directly address the demand for cost, size, and power reduction in multi-paramater sensing applications. Industry sensor manufacturers have developed integrated sensor systems for inertial measurements that combine accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers, but do not address environmental sensing functionality. In existing research literature, a technology gap exists between the functionality of MEMS sensors and the real world applications of the sensors systems.

  15. Technology Integration | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Vehicle Technologies Plenary PDF icon vtpn02_smith_ti_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Technology Integration Overview Technology Integration Overview Technology Integration Overview

  16. Process for depositing I-125 onto a substrate used to manufacture I-125 sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGovern, James J.; Olynyk, Joseph M.

    1988-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for depositing I-125 on a substrate which comprises contacting a predetermined surface area of substrate with Xe-125 gas, whereby the Xe-125 decays to I-125 and the I-125 in turn deposits as a solid on the surface of the substrate, the contact being for a time sufficient to deposit at least about 1 microcurie of I-125. I-125 is thereby deposited in a relatively uniform amount over the surface area of the substrate. The substrate is then assayed to determine how much I-125 has been deposited. The substrate is then divided into pieces of measured surface area, each piece therefore containing a measured amount of deposited I-125, and each piece can then be used in the manufacture of an I-125 source.

  17. Method for improving the oxidation-resistance of metal substrates coated with thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Anthony Mark; Gray, Dennis Michael; Jackson, Melvin Robert

    2002-01-01

    A method for providing a protective coating on a metal-based substrate is disclosed. The method involves the application of an aluminum-rich mixture to the substrate to form a discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles, followed by the application of a second coating over the discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles. Aluminum diffuses from the aluminum-rich layer into the substrate, and into any bond coat layer which is subsequently applied. Related articles are also described.

  18. Environmentally-assisted technique for transferring devices onto non-conventional substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Chi-Hwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2014-08-26

    A device fabrication method includes: (1) providing a growth substrate including a base and an oxide layer disposed over the base; (2) forming a metal layer over the oxide layer; (3) forming a stack of device layers over the metal layer; (4) performing interfacial debonding of the metal layer to separate the stack of device layers and the metal layer from the growth substrate; and (5) affixing the stack of device layers to a target substrate.

  19. Thin film transistors on plastic substrates with reflective coatings for radiation protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D.; Theiss, Steven D.; Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Wickbold, Paul

    2006-09-26

    Fabrication of silicon thin film transistors (TFT) on low-temperature plastic substrates using a reflective coating so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The TFT can be used in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics such as video cameras, personal digital assistants, and cell phones.

  20. Thin film transistors on plastic substrates with reflective coatings for radiation protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D.; Theiss, Steven D.; Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Wickboldt, Paul

    2003-11-04

    Fabrication of silicon thin film transistors (TFT) on low-temperature plastic substrates using a reflective coating so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The TFT can be used in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics such as video cameras, personal digital assistants, and cell phones.

  1. Carbon nanotube network thin-film transistors on flexible/stretchable substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Takei, Kuniharu; Takahashi, Toshitake; Javey, Ali

    2016-03-29

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus for flexible thin-film transistors. In one aspect, a device includes a polymer substrate, a gate electrode disposed on the polymer substrate, a dielectric layer disposed on the gate electrode and on exposed portions of the polymer substrate, a carbon nanotube network disposed on the dielectric layer, and a source electrode and a drain electrode disposed on the carbon nanotube network.

  2. Integrating preconcentrator heat controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bouchier, Francis A.; Arakaki, Lester H.; Varley, Eric S.

    2007-10-16

    A method and apparatus for controlling the electric resistance heating of a metallic chemical preconcentrator screen, for example, used in portable trace explosives detectors. The length of the heating time-period is automatically adjusted to compensate for any changes in the voltage driving the heating current across the screen, for example, due to gradual discharge or aging of a battery. The total deposited energy in the screen is proportional to the integral over time of the square of the voltage drop across the screen. Since the net temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, of the screen, from beginning to end of the heating pulse, is proportional to the total amount of heat energy deposited in the screen during the heating pulse, then this integral can be calculated in real-time and used to terminate the heating current when a pre-set target value has been reached; thereby providing a consistent and reliable screen temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, from pulse-to-pulse.

  3. Method for applying a barrier layer to a silicon based substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eaton, Harry E.; Lawton, Thomas H.

    2002-01-01

    A method for applying a barrier layer which comprises a barium-strontium aluminosilicate to a silicon containing substrate which inhibits the formation of cracks.

  4. Method for applying a barrier layer to a silicon based substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eaton, Harry E.; Lawton, Thomas H.

    2001-01-01

    A method for applying a barrier layer which comprises a barium-strontium aluminosilicate to a silicon containing substrate which inhibits the formation of cracks.

  5. Laminate articles on biaxially textured metal substrates (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Patent: Laminate articles on biaxially textured metal substrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Laminate articles on biaxially textured metal substrates A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sup.1.sub.x RE.sup.2.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.3 buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0<x<1 and RE.sup.1 and RE.sup.2 are each selected from the group consisting of Nd, Sm, Eu, Ho, Er, Lu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Tm, and Yb. The (RE.sup.1.sub.x

  6. Lapped substrate for enhanced backsurface reflectivity in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldasaro, Paul F; Brown, Edward J; Charache, Greg W; DePoy, David M

    2000-01-01

    A method for fabricating a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion cell including a thin semiconductor wafer substrate (10) having a thickness (.beta.) calculated to decrease the free carrier absorption on a heavily doped substrate; wherein the top surface of the semiconductor wafer substrate is provided with a thermophotovoltaic device (11), a metallized grid (12) and optionally an antireflective (AR) overcoating; and, the bottom surface (10') of the semiconductor wafer substrate (10) is provided with a highly reflecting coating which may comprise a metal coating (14) or a combined dielectric/metal coating (17).

  7. Reactor design for uniform chemical vapor deposition-grown films without substrate rotation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark

    1987-01-01

    A quartz reactor vessel for growth of uniform semiconductor films includes a vertical, cylindrical reaction chamber in which a substrate-supporting pedestal provides a horizontal substrate-supporting surface spaced on its perimeter from the chamber wall. A cylindrical confinement chamber of smaller diameter is disposed coaxially above the reaction chamber and receives reaction gas injected at a tangent to the inside chamber wall, forming a helical gas stream that descends into the reaction chamber. In the reaction chamber, the edge of the substrate-supporting pedestal is a separation point for the helical flow, diverting part of the flow over the horizontal surface of the substrate in an inwardly spiraling vortex.

  8. Reactor design for uniform chemical vapor deposition-grown films without substrate rotation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, M.

    1985-02-19

    A quartz reactor vessel for growth of uniform semiconductor films includes a vertical, cylindrical reaction chamber in which a substrate-supporting pedestal provides a horizontal substrate-supporting surface spaced on its perimeter from the chamber wall. A cylindrical confinement chamber of smaller diameter is disposed coaxially above the reaction chamber and receives reaction gas injected at a tangent to the inside chamber wall, forming a helical gas stream that descends into the reaction chamber. In the reaction chamber, the edge of the substrate-supporting pedestal is a separation point for the helical flow, diverting part of the flow over the horizontal surface of the substrate in an inwardly spiraling vortex.

  9. Mitigation of substrate defects in reflective reticles using sequential coating and annealing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirkanimi, Paul B.

    2002-01-01

    A buffer-layer to minimize the size of defects on a reticle substrate prior to deposition of a reflective coating on the substrate. The buffer-layer is formed by either a multilayer deposited on the substrate or by a plurality of sequentially deposited and annealed coatings deposited on the substrate. The plurality of sequentially deposited and annealed coating may comprise multilayer and single layer coatings. The multilayer deposited and annealed buffer layer coatings may be of the same or different material than the reflecting coating thereafter deposited on the buffer-layer.

  10. Pretreatment process for forming a smooth surface diamond film on a carbon-coated substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Z.; Brewer, M.; Brown, I.; Komvopoulos, K.

    1994-05-03

    A process is disclosed for the pretreatment of a carbon-coated substrate to provide a uniform high density of nucleation sites thereon for the subsequent deposition of a continuous diamond film without the application of a bias voltage to the substrate. The process comprises exposing the carbon-coated substrate, in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system, to a mixture of hydrogen-methane gases, having a methane gas concentration of at least about 4% (as measured by partial pressure), while maintaining the substrate at a pressure of about 10 to about 30 Torr during the pretreatment. 6 figures.

  11. Pretreatment process for forming a smooth surface diamond film on a carbon-coated substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Zhu; Brewer, Marilee; Brown, Ian; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos

    1994-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the pretreatment of a carbon-coated substrate to provide a uniform high density of nucleation sites thereon for the subsequent deposition of a continuous diamond film without the application of a bias voltage to the substrate. The process comprises exposing the carbon-coated substrate, in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system, to a mixture of hydrogen-methane gases, having a methane gas concentration of at least about 4% (as measured by partial pressure), while maintaining the substrate at a pressure of about 10 to about 30 Torr during the pretreatment.

  12. XP-SiC: An Innovative Substrate for Future Applications with Low Weight and High Porosity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    4To develop a substrate with high porosity, low weight and low cost to fulfill the requirements and challenges for current and future soot emission legislations

  13. Reducing intrinsic loss in superconducting resonators by surface treatment and deep etching of silicon substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruno, A.; Lange, G. de; Asaad, S.; Enden, K. L. van der; Langford, N. K.; DiCarlo, L.

    2015-05-04

    We present microwave-frequency NbTiN resonators on silicon, systematically achieving internal quality factors above 1 M in the quantum regime. We use two techniques to reduce losses associated with two-level systems: an additional substrate surface treatment prior to NbTiN deposition to optimize the metal-substrate interface and deep reactive-ion etching of the substrate to displace the substrate-vacuum interfaces away from high electric fields. The temperature and power dependence of resonator behavior indicate that two-level systems still contribute significantly to energy dissipation, suggesting that more interface optimization could further improve performance.

  14. Lapped substrate for enhanced backsurface reflectivity in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldasaro, Paul F; Brown, Edward J; Charache, Greg W; DePoy, David M

    2000-09-05

    A method for fabricating a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion cell including a thin semiconductor wafer substrate (10) having a thickness (.beta.) calculated to decrease the free carrier absorption on a heavily doped substrate; wherein the top surface of the semiconductor wafer substrate is provided with a thermophotovoltaic device (11), a metallized grid (12) and optionally an antireflective (AR) overcoating; and, the bottom surface (10') of the semiconductor wafer substrate (10) is provided with a highly reflecting coating which may comprise a metal coating (14) or a combined dielectric/metal coating (17).

  15. Buffer layers on rolled nickel or copper as superconductor substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paranthaman, Mariappan; Lee, Dominic F.; Kroeger, Donald M.; Goyal, Amit

    2000-01-01

    Buffer layer architectures are epitaxially deposited on biaxially-textured rolled substrates of nickel and/or copper and their alloys for high current conductors, and more particularly buffer layer architectures such as Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, YSZ/Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /CeO.sub.2 /Ni, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni (RE=Rare Earth), and Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /YSZ/CeO.sub.2 /Ni, Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, YSZ/Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /CeO.sub.2 /Cu, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, and Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /YSZ/CeO.sub.2 /Cu. Deposition methods include physical vapor deposition techniques which include electron-beam evaporation, rf magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser deposition, thermal evaporation, and solution precursor approach, which includes chemical vapor deposition, combustion CVD, metal-organic decomposition, sol-gel processing, and plasma spray.

  16. Fundamentals of embossing nanoimprint lithography in polymer substrates.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; King, William P.

    2011-02-01

    The convergence of micro-/nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) and biomedical industries is creating a need for innovation and discovery around materials, particularly in miniaturized systems that use polymers as the primary substrate. Polymers are ubiquitous in the microelectronics industry and are used as sensing materials, lithography tools, replication molds, microfluidics, nanofluidics, and biomedical devices. This diverse set of operational requirements dictates that the materials employed must possess different properties in order to reduce the cost of production, decrease the scale of devices to the appropriate degree, and generate engineered devices with new functional properties at cost-competitive levels of production. Nanoscale control of polymer deformation at a massive scale would enable breakthroughs in all of the aforementioned applications, but is currently beyond the current capabilities of mass manufacturing. This project was focused on developing a fundamental understanding of how polymers behave under different loads and environments at the nanoscale in terms of performance and fidelity in order to fill the most critical gaps in our current knowledgebase on this topic.

  17. Superhydrophobic analyte concentration utilizing colloid-pillar array SERS substrates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Charlton, Jennifer J; Kirchner, Teresa B; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Datskos, Panos G; Sepaniak, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The ability to detect a few molecules present in a large sample is of great interest for the detection of trace components in medicinal and the environmental sample. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a technique that can be utilized to detect molecules at very low absolute numbers. However, detection at trace concentration levels in real samples requires properly designed delivery and detection systems. The following work involves superhydrophobic surfaces that includes silicon pillar arrays formed by lithographic and dewetting protocols. In order to generate the necessary plasmonic substrate for SERS detection, simple and flow stable Ag colloid was addedmore » to the functionalized pillar array system via soaking. The pillars are used native and with hydrophobic modification. The pillars provide a means to concentrate analyte via superhydrophobic droplet evaporation effects. A 100-fold concentration of analyte was estimated, with a limit of detection of 2.9 10-12 M for mitoxantrone dihydrochloride. Additionally, analytes were delivered to the surface via a multiplex approach in order to demonstrate an ability to control droplet size and placement for scaled-up applications in real world applications. Finally, a concentration process involving transport and sequestration based on surface treatment selective wicking is demonstrated.« less

  18. Highly textured oxypnictide superconducting thin films on metal substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iida, Kazumasa, E-mail: iida@nuap.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Kurth, Fritz; Grinenko, Vadim; Hänisch, Jens [Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Chihara, Masashi; Sumiya, Naoki; Hatano, Takafumi; Ikuta, Hiroshi [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ichinose, Ataru; Tsukada, Ichiro [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-6-1 Nagasaka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 240-0196 (Japan); Matias, Vladimir [iBeam Materials, Inc., 2778A Agua Fria Street, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87507 (United States); Holzapfel, Bernhard [Institute for Technical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann von Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-10-27

    Highly textured NdFeAs(O,F) thin films have been grown on ion beam assisted deposition-MgO/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Hastelloy substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The oxypnictide coated conductors showed a superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) of 43?K with a self-field critical current density (J{sub c}) of 7.0×10{sup 4}?A/cm{sup 2} at 5?K, more than 20 times higher than powder-in-tube processed SmFeAs(O,F) wires. Albeit higher T{sub c} as well as better crystalline quality than Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} coated conductors, in-field J{sub c} of NdFeAs(O,F) was lower than that of Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. These results suggest that grain boundaries in oxypnictides reduce J{sub c} significantly compared to that in Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and, hence biaxial texture is necessary for high J{sub c.}.

  19. Integration of optoelectronics and MEMS by free-space micro-optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WARREN,MIAL E.; SPAHN,OLGA B.; SWEATT,WILLIAM C.; SHUL,RANDY J.; WENDT,JOEL R.; VAWTER,GREGORY A.; KRYGOWSKI,TOM W.; REYES,DAVID NMN; RODGERS,M. STEVEN; SNIEGOWSKI,JEFFRY J.

    2000-06-01

    This report represents the completion of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate combining microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with optoelectronic components as a means of realizing compact optomechanical subsystems. Some examples of possible applications are laser beam scanning, switching and routing and active focusing, spectral filtering or shattering of optical sources. The two technologies use dissimilar materials with significant compatibility problems for a common process line. This project emphasized a hybrid approach to integrating optoelectronics and MEMS. Significant progress was made in developing processing capabilities for adding optical function to MEMS components, such as metal mirror coatings and through-vias in the substrate. These processes were used to demonstrate two integration examples, a MEMS discriminator driven by laser illuminated photovoltaic cells and a MEMS shutter or chopper. Another major difficulty with direct integration is providing the optical path for the MEMS components to interact with the light. The authors explored using folded optical paths in a transparent substrate to provide the interconnection route between the components of the system. The components can be surface-mounted by flip-chip bonding to the substrate. Micro-optics can be fabricated into the substrate to reflect and refocus the light so that it can propagate from one device to another and them be directed out of the substrate into free space. The MEMS components do not require the development of transparent optics and can be completely compatible with the current 5-level polysilicon process. They report progress on a MEMS-based laser scanner using these concepts.

  20. Integrated fluorescence analysis system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buican, Tudor N.; Yoshida, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    An integrated fluorescence analysis system enables a component part of a sample to be virtually sorted within a sample volume after a spectrum of the component part has been identified from a fluorescence spectrum of the entire sample in a flow cytometer. Birefringent optics enables the entire spectrum to be resolved into a set of numbers representing the intensity of spectral components of the spectrum. One or more spectral components are selected to program a scanning laser microscope, preferably a confocal microscope, whereby the spectrum from individual pixels or voxels in the sample can be compared. Individual pixels or voxels containing the selected spectral components are identified and an image may be formed to show the morphology of the sample with respect to only those components having the selected spectral components. There is no need for any physical sorting of the sample components to obtain the morphological information.

  1. Thermoalgebras and path integral

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khanna, F.C. Malbouisson, A.P.C. Malbouisson, J.M.C. Santana, A.E.

    2009-09-15

    Using a representation for Lie groups closely associated with thermal problems, we derive the algebraic rules of the real-time formalism for thermal quantum field theories, the so-called thermo-field dynamics (TFD), including the tilde conjugation rules for interacting fields. These thermo-group representations provide a unified view of different approaches for finite-temperature quantum fields in terms of a symmetry group. On these grounds, a path integral formalism is constructed, using Bogoliubov transformations, for bosons, fermions and non-abelian gauge fields. The generalization of the results for quantum fields in (S{sup 1}){sup d}xR{sup D-d} topology is addressed.

  2. Rythmos Numerical Integration Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-09-01

    Rythmos numerically integrates transient differential equations. The differential equations can be explicit or implicit ordinary differential equations ofr formulated as fully implicit differential-algebraic equations. Methods include backward Euler, forward Euler, explicit Runge-Kutta, and implicit BDF at this time. Native support for operator split methods and strict modularity are strong design goals. Forward sensitivity computations will be included in the first release with adjoint sensitivities coming in the near future. Rythmos heavily relies on Thyra formore » linear algebra and nonlinear solver interfaces to AztecOO, Amesos, IFPack, and NOX in Tilinos. Rythmos is specially suited for stiff differential equations and thos applictions where operator split methods have a big advantage, e.g. Computational fluid dynamics, convection-diffusion equations, etc.« less

  3. Integrated optical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watkins, A.D.; Smartt, H.B.; Taylor, P.L.

    1994-01-04

    An integrated optical sensor for arc welding having multifunction feedback control is described. The sensor, comprising generally a CCD camera and diode laser, is positioned behind the arc torch for measuring weld pool position and width, standoff distance, and post-weld centerline cooling rate. Computer process information from this sensor is passed to a controlling computer for use in feedback control loops to aid in the control of the welding process. Weld pool position and width are used in a feedback loop, by the weld controller, to track the weld pool relative to the weld joint. Sensor standoff distance is used in a feedback loop to control the contact tip to base metal distance during the welding process. Cooling rate information is used to determine the final metallurgical state of the weld bead and heat affected zone, thereby controlling post-weld mechanical properties. 6 figures.

  4. Integrated optical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watkins, Arthur D.; Smartt, Herschel B.; Taylor, Paul L.

    1994-01-01

    An integrated optical sensor for arc welding having multifunction feedback control. The sensor, comprising generally a CCD camera and diode laser, is positioned behind the arc torch for measuring weld pool position and width, standoff distance, and post-weld centerline cooling rate. Computer process information from this sensor is passed to a controlling computer for use in feedback control loops to aid in the control of the welding process. Weld pool position and width are used in a feedback loop, by the weld controller, to track the weld pool relative to the weld joint. Sensor standoff distance is used in a feedback loop to control the contact tip to base metal distance during the welding process. Cooling rate information is used to determine the final metallurgical state of the weld bead and heat affected zone, thereby controlling post-weld mechanical properties.

  5. Integrated Environmental Control Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-09-03

    IECM is a powerful multimedia engineering software program for simulating an integrated coal-fired power plant. It provides a capability to model various conventional and advanced processes for controlling air pollutant emissions from coal-fired power plants before, during, or after combustion. The principal purpose of the model is to calculate the performance, emissions, and cost of power plant configurations employing alternative environmental control methods. The model consists of various control technology modules, which may be integratedmore » into a complete utility plant in any desired combination. In contrast to conventional deterministic models, the IECM offers the unique capability to assign probabilistic values to all model input parameters, and to obtain probabilistic outputs in the form of cumulative distribution functions indicating the likelihood of dofferent costs and performance results. A Graphical Use Interface (GUI) facilitates the configuration of the technologies, entry of data, and retrieval of results.« less

  6. Green Integrated Design | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Integrated Design Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Green Integrated Design Name: Green Integrated Design Place: Tempe, Arizona Zip: 85283 Number of Employees: 1-10 Year Founded:...

  7. Power Integrations Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Integrations Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Power Integrations Inc Place: San Jose, California Zip: 95138 Product: Supplier of high-voltage analog integrated circuits used...

  8. ARM Data Integrator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-02-06

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Integrator (ADI) streamlines the development of scientific algorithms and analysis of time-series NetCDF data, and improves the content and consistency of the output data products produced by these algorithms. The framework automates the process of retrieving and preparing data for analysis, and allows users to design output data products through a graphical interface. It also provides a modular, flexible software development architecture that scientists can use to generate C,more » Python, and IDL source code templates that embed the pre and post processing logic allowing the scientist to focus on only their science. The input data, preprocessing, and output data specifications of algorithms are defined through a graphical interface and stored in a database. ADI implements workflow for data integration and supports user access to data through a library of software modules. Data preprocess capabilities supported include automated retrieval of data from input files, merging the retrieved data into appropriately sized chunks, and transformation of the data onto a common coordinate system grid. Through the graphical interface, users can view the details of both their data products and those in the ARM catalog and allows developers to use existing data product to build new data products. Views of the output data products include an overlay of how the design meets ARM archive’s data standards providing the user with a visual cue indicating where their output violates an archive standard. The ADI libraries access the information provided through the GUI via a Postgres database. The ADI framework and its supporting components can significantly decrease the time and cost of implementing scientific algorithms while improving the ability of scientists to disseminate their results.« less

  9. NREL: Energy Systems Integration - 2015 Energy Systems Integration Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Report Calls to Industry: Bring Us Your Challenges 2015 Energy Systems Integration Facility Annual Report Calls to Industry: Bring Us Your Challenges April 6, 2016 The 2015 Energy Systems Integration Facility Annual Report is now available for download. The Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is the nation's premier facility for research, development, and demonstration of the components and strategies needed to optimize our entire energy system. It was established in 2013 by

  10. NREL: Energy Systems Integration - Energy Systems Integration Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Systems Integration Newsletter April 2016 Read the latest energy systems integration (ESI) news from NREL. Photo of a group of people in a laboratory INTEGRATE Partner Demonstrates Active Network Management of DER New York-based Smarter Grid Solutions (SGS Inc.) has employed its Active Network Management (ANM) system at NREL to manage and maintain a modeled distribution grid within normal operating limits through the autonomous management, coordination, and control of distributed energy

  11. Synthesis of superconducting Nb3Sn coatings on Nb substrates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barzi, E.; Franz, S.; Reginato, F.; Turrioni, D.; Bestetti, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the present work the electrochemical and thermal syntheses of superconductive Nb3Sn films are investigated. The Nb3Sn phase is obtained by electrodeposition of Sn layers and Cu intermediate layers onto Nb substrates followed by high temperature diffusion in inert atmosphere. Electrodeposition was performed from aqueous solutions at current densities in the 20 to 50 mA/cm2 range and at temperatures between 40 and 50°C. Subsequent thermal treatments were realized to obtain the Nb3Sn superconductive phase. Glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) demonstrated that after thermal treatment interdiffusion of Nb and Sn occurred across a thickness of about 13 μm. Scanning Electronmore » Microscopy (SEM) allowed accurately measuring the thickness of the Nb3Sn phase, whose average for the various types of film samples was between 5.7 and 8.0 μm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the presence of a cubic Nb3Sn phase (A15 structure) having (210) preferred orientation. The maximum obtained Tc was 17.68 K and the Bc20 ranged between 22.5 T and 23.8 T. With the procedure described in the present paper, coating complex shapes cost-effectively becomes possible, which is typical of electrochemical techniques. Furthermore, this approach can be implemented in classical wire processes such as "Jelly Roll" or "Rod in Tube", or directly used for producing superconducting surfaces. In conclusion, the potential of this method for Superconducting Radiofrequency (SRF) structures is also outlined.« less

  12. Protecting integrated circuits from excessive charge accumulation during plasma cleaning of multichip modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T; Girardi, Michael

    2015-04-21

    Internal nodes of a constituent integrated circuit (IC) package of a multichip module (MCM) are protected from excessive charge during plasma cleaning of the MCM. The protected nodes are coupled to an internal common node of the IC package by respectively associated discharge paths. The common node is connected to a bond pad of the IC package. During MCM assembly, and before plasma cleaning, this bond pad receives a wire bond to a ground bond pad on the MCM substrate.

  13. Monolithically integrated solid state laser and waveguide using spin-on glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Hohimer, J.P.; Neal, D.R.; Vawter, G.A.

    1995-10-31

    A monolithically integrated photonic circuit is disclosed combining a semiconductor source of excitation light with an optically active waveguide formed on the substrate. The optically active waveguide is preferably formed of a spin-on glass to which are added optically active materials which can enable lasing action, optical amplification, optical loss, or frequency conversion in the waveguide, depending upon the added material. 4 figs.

  14. Practical substrate and apparatus for static and continuous monitoring by surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1987-01-01

    A substrate for use in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is disclosed, comprising a support, preferably flexible, coated with roughness-imparting microbodies and a metallized overcoating. Also disclosed is apparatus for using the aforesaid substrate in continuous and static SERS trace analyses, especially of organic compounds.

  15. Process Of Bonding A Metal Brush Structure To A Planar Surface Of A Metal Substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slattery, Kevin T.; Driemeyer, Daniel E.; Wille; Gerald W.

    1999-11-02

    Process for bonding a metal brush structure to a planar surface of a metal substrate in which an array of metal rods are retained and immobilized at their tips by a common retention layer formed of metal, and the brush structure is then joined to a planar surface of a metal substrate via the retention layer.

  16. Selective light sintering of Aerosol-Jet printed silver nanoparticle inks on polymer substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuetz, K. E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de Hoerber, J. E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de Franke, J. E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de

    2014-05-15

    Printing silver nanoparticle inks to generate conductive structures for electronics on polymer substrates has gained increasing relevance in recent years. In this context, the Aerosol-Jet Technology is well suited to print silver ink on 3D-Molded Interconnect Devices (MID). The deposited ink requires thermal post-treatment to obtain sufficient electrical conductivity and adhesion. However, commonly used oven sintering cannot be applied for many thermoplastic substrates due to low melting temperatures. In this study a new sintering technology, selective light sintering, is presented, based on the focused, continuous light beam of a xenon lamp. Sintering experiments were conducted with Aerosol-Jet printed structures on various polycarbonate (PC) substrates. Especially on neat, light transparent PC, silver tracks were evenly sintered with marginal impact to the substrate. Electrical conductivities significantly exceed the values obtained with conventional oven sintering. Adhesive strength is sufficient for conductive tracks. Experiments with non-transparent PC substrates led to substrate damage due to increased light absorption. Therefore a concept for a variation of light sintering was developed, using optical filters. First experiments showed significant reduction of substrate damage and good sintering qualities. The highly promising results of the conducted experiments provide a base for further investigations to increase adhesion and qualifying the technology for MID applications and a broad spectrum of thermoplastic substrates.

  17. Polycrystalline ferroelectric or multiferroic oxide articles on biaxially textured substrates and methods for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Shin, Junsoo

    2015-03-31

    A polycrystalline ferroelectric and/or multiferroic oxide article includes a substrate having a biaxially textured surface; at least one biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the substrate; and a biaxially textured ferroelectric or multiferroic oxide layer supported by the buffer layer. Methods for making polycrystalline ferroelectric and/or multiferroic oxide articles are also disclosed.

  18. Development of a Low Cost Insulated Foil Substrate for Cu(InGaSe)2 Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ERTEN ESER

    2012-01-22

    The project validated the use of stainless steel flexible substrate coated with silicone-based resin dielectric, developed by Dow Corning Corporation, for Cu(InGa)Se2 based photovoltaics. The projects driving force was the high performance of Cu(InGa)Se2 based photovoltaics coupled with potential cost reduction that could be achieved with dielectric coated SS web substrate.

  19. Method of deposition of silicon carbide layers on substrates and product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angelini, Peter; DeVore, Charles E.; Lackey, Walter J.; Blanco, Raymond E.; Stinton, David P.

    1984-01-01

    A method for direct chemical vapor deposition of silicon carbide to substrates, especially nuclear waste particles, is provided by the thermal decomposition of methylsilane at about 800.degree. C. to 1050.degree. C. when the substrates have been confined within a suitable coating environment.

  20. DOE Announces Selections for SSL Core Technology (Round 6), Product...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... Recipient: GE Global Research Title: Roll-to-Roll Solution-Processable Small-Molecule OLEDs Team Members: Dupont Displays Inc. Summary: This project seeks to integrate the ...