National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for oils gasoline blending

  1. Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the US today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations.

  2. Improving Ethanol-Gasoline Blends by Addition of Higher Alcohols |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Ethanol-Gasoline Blends by Addition of Higher Alcohols Improving Ethanol-Gasoline Blends by Addition of Higher Alcohols Mixtures of ethanol, gasoline, and higher alcohols were evaluated to determine if they offer superior performance to ethanol/gasoline blends in meeting the Renewal Fuels Standard II. deer12_ickes.pdf (1.45 MB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on

  3. Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Injection | Department of Energy Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel Injection Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel Injection Supercritical dieseline could be used in diesel engines having efficient fuel systems and combustion chamber designs that decrease fuel consumption and mitigate emissions. p-02_anitescu.pdf (339.45 KB) More Documents & Publications Preparation, Injection and Combustion of Supercritical Fluids Evaluation of

  4. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  5. The Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2008-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the United States today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations (10%, 15% and 20% of the total U.S. gasoline consumption).

  6. Investigation of Knock limited Compression Ratio of Ethanol Gasoline Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P; Youngquist, Adam D; Wagner, Robert M; Moore, Wayne; Foster, Matthew; Confer, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol offers significant potential for increasing the compression ratio of SI engines resulting from its high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. A study was conducted to determine the knock limited compression ratio of ethanol gasoline blends to identify the potential for improved operating efficiency. To operate an SI engine in a flex fuel vehicle requires operating strategies that allow operation on a broad range of fuels from gasoline to E85. Since gasoline or low ethanol blend operation is inherently limited by knock at high loads, strategies must be identified which allow operation on these fuels with minimal fuel economy or power density tradeoffs. A single cylinder direct injection spark ignited engine with fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is operated at WOT conditions to determine the knock limited compression ratio (CR) of ethanol fuel blends. The geometric compression ratio is varied by changing pistons, producing CR from 9.2 to 13.66. The effective CR is varied using an electro-hydraulic valvetrain that changed the effective trapped displacement using both Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC). The EIVC and LIVC strategies result in effective CR being reduced while maintaining the geometric expansion ratio. It was found that at substantially similar engine conditions, increasing the ethanol content of the fuel results in higher engine efficiency and higher engine power. These can be partially attributed to a charge cooling effect and a higher heating valve of a stoichiometric mixture for ethanol blends (per unit mass of air). Additional thermodynamic effects on and a mole multiplier are also explored. It was also found that high CR can increase the efficiency of ethanol fuel blends, and as a result, the fuel economy penalty associated with the lower energy content of E85 can be reduced by about a third. Such operation necessitates that the engine be operated in a de-rated manner for

  7. Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Szybist, James P; Thomas, John F; Barone, Teresa L; Eibl, Mary A; Nafziger, Eric J; Kaul, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

  8. Blender Net Production of Finished Motor Gasoline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Greater than Ed55 Conventional Other Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O.,

  9. Crude Oil and Gasoline Price Monitoring

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Product Price Formation September 7, 2016 | Washington, DC An analysis of the factors that influence product prices, with chart data updated monthly, quarterly and annually Gasoline spot prices 2 Sources: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Bloomberg L.P. September 7, 2016 dollars per gallon Chicago CBOB New York Harbor Conventional gasoline Gulf Coast Conventional gasoline Los Angeles CARBOB Northwest Europe gasoline Singapore gasoline 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

  10. Methanol/ethanol/gasoline blend-fuels demonstration with stratified-charge-engine vehicles: Consultant report. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pefley, R.; Adelman, H.; Suga, T.

    1980-03-01

    Four 1978 Honda CVCC vehicles have been in regular use by California Energy Commission staff in Sacramento for 12 months. Three of the unmodified vehicles were fueled with alcohol/gasoline blends (5% methanol, 10% methanol, and 10% ethanol) with the fourth remaining on gasoline as a control. The operators did not know which fuels were in the vehicles. At 90-day intervals the cars were returned to the Univerity of Santa Clara for servicing and for emissions and fuel economy testing in accordance with the Federal Test Procedures. The demonstration and testing have established the following: (1) the tested blends cause no significant degradation in exhaust emissions, fuel economy, and driveability; (2) the tested blends cause significant increases in evaporative emissions; (3) analysis of periodic oil samples shows no evidence of accelerated metal wear; and (4) higher than 10% alcohols will require substantial modification to most existing California motor vehicles for acceptable emissions, performance, and fuel economy. Many aspects of using methanol and ethanol fuels, both straight and in blends, in various engine technologies are discussed.

  11. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A; Szybist, James P

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  12. Higher crude oil prices contribute to higher summer gasoline prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Higher crude oil prices contribute to higher summer gasoline prices The recent rise in crude oil prices will be passed on to consumers in the form of higher gasoline prices this summer but drivers will still find lower prices at the pump compared to what they paid last year. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the retail price for regular-grade gasoline will average $2.27 per gallon this summer. That's 6 cents higher than previously forecast but still

  13. Crude Oil Domestic Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Crude Oil Domestic Production Refinery Crude Oil Inputs Refinery Gross Inputs Refinery Operable Capacity (Calendar Day) Refinery Percent Operable Utilization Net Inputs of Motor Gasoline Blending Components Net Inputs of RBOB Blending Components Net Inputs of CBOB Blending Components Net Inputs of GTAB Blending Components Net Inputs of All Other Blending Components Net Inputs of Fuel Ethanol Net Production - Finished Motor Gasoline Net Production - Finished Motor Gasoline (Excl.

  14. Lower crude oil prices to help push down gasoline pricesLower...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lower crude oil prices to help push down gasoline prices Falling crude oil prices should lead to lower U.S. retail gasoline prices this year compared to last year. The U.S. Energy ...

  15. Tough Blends of Polylactide and Castor Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Megan L.; Paxton, Jessica M.; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2012-10-10

    Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a renewable resource polymer derived from plant sugars with several commercial applications. Broader implementation of the material is limited due to its inherent brittleness. We show that the addition of 5 wt % castor oil to PLLA significantly enhances the overall tensile toughness with minimal reductions in the modulus and no plasticization of the PLLA matrix. In addition, we used poly(ricinoleic acid)-PLLA diblock copolymers, synthesized entirely from renewable resources, as compatibilizers for the PLLA/castor oil blends. Ricinoleic acid, the majority fatty acid comprising castor oil, was polymerized through a lipase-catalyzed condensation reaction. The resulting polymers contained a hydroxyl end-group that was subsequently used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide. The binary PLLA/castor oil blend exhibited a tensile toughness seven times greater than neat PLLA. The addition of block copolymer allowed for control over the morphology of the blends, and even further improvement in the tensile toughness was realized - an order of magnitude larger than that of neat PLLA.

  16. Crude Oil and Gasoline Price Monitoring

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    What drives crude oil prices? July 12, 2016 | Washington, DC An analysis of 7 factors that influence oil markets, with chart data updated monthly and quarterly price per barrel ...

  17. Crude Oil and Gasoline Price Monitoring

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    What drives crude oil prices? September 7, 2016 | Washington, DC An analysis of 7 factors that influence oil markets, with chart data updated monthly and quarterly price per barrel (real 2010 dollars) imported refiner acquisition cost of crude oil WTI crude oil price 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 Crude oil prices react to a variety of geopolitical and economic events September 7, 2016 2 Low spare capacity Iraq invades Kuwait Saudis abandon swing

  18. Selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ethanol/gasoline blends over a silver/alumina catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; Fisher, Galen; West, Brian H

    2014-01-01

    Lean gasoline engines running on ethanol/gasoline blends and equipped with a silver/alumina catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ethanol provide a pathway to reduced petroleum consumption through both increased biofuel utilization and improved engine efficiency relative to the current stoichiometric gasoline engines that dominate the U.S. light duty vehicle fleet. A pre-commercial silver/alumina catalyst demonstrated high NOx conversions over a moderate temperature window with both neat ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol. Selectivity to NH3 increases with HC dosing and ethanol content in gasoline blends, but appears to saturate at around 45%. NO2 and acetaldehyde behave like intermediates in the ethanol SCR of NO. NH3 SCR of NOx does not appear to play a major role in the ethanol SCR reaction mechanism. Ethanol is responsible for the low temperature SCR activity observed with the ethanol/gasoline blends. The gasoline HCs do not deactivate the catalyst ethanol SCR activity, but they also do not appear to be significantly activated by the presence of ethanol.

  19. Finished Motor Gasoline Net Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Data Series: Finished Motor Gasoline Finished Motor Gasoline (Excl. Adj.) Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Blenede w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 & < Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, > Ed55 Other Conventional Gasoline Finished Motor Gasoline Adjustment Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene-Type Jet, Commercial Kerosene-Type Jet,

  20. Improved oil refinery operations and cheaper crude oil to help reduce gasoline prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Improved oil refinery operations and cheaper crude oil to help reduce gasoline prices U.S. gasoline prices are expected to fall as more oil refineries come back on line and crude oil prices decline. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects pump prices will average $3.38 a gallon during the second half of this year. That's down from the current weekly price of $3.50. A recovery in oil refinery fuel production, particularly from facilities that were temporary

  1. Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; Thomas, John F; Parks, II, James E; West, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a very effective reductant of nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environment. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the USA, lean gasoline engines equipped with an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for the catalyst performance evaluations. High NOX conversions were achieved with ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol; however, higher C1/N ratio was needed to achieve greater than 90% NOX conversion, which also resulted in significant HC slip. Temperature and HC dosing were important in controlling selectivity to NH3 and N2O. At high temperatures, NH3 and N2O yields increased with increased HC dosing. At low temperatures, NH3 yield was very low, however, N2O levels became significant. The ability to generate NH3 under lean conditions has potential for application of a dual SCR approach (HC SCR + NH3 SCR) to reduce fuel consumption needed for NOX reduction and/or increased NOX conversion, which is discussed in this work.

  2. Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Barone, Teresa L; Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P

    2012-01-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle

  3. Product Supplied for Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Finished

  4. Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallner, T.

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of

  5. Ethanol Blend Effects On Direct Injection Spark-Ignition Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Barone, Teresa L

    2010-01-01

    Direct injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected counterparts, and are now appearing increasingly in more U.S. vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged DISI engines are likely to be used in lieu of large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, to meet fuel economy standards for 2016. In addition to changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the 10% allowed by current law due to the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). In this study, we present the results of an emissions analysis of a U.S.-legal stoichiometric, turbocharged DISI vehicle, operating on ethanol blends, with an emphasis on detailed particulate matter (PM) characterization. Gaseous species, particle mass, and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. For the gaseous species and particle mass measurements, dilution was carried out using a full flow constant volume sampling system (CVS). For the particle number concentration and size distribution measurements, a micro-tunnel dilution system was employed. The vehicles were fueled by a standard test gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. During steady-state operation, the geometric mean diameter of the particle-number size

  6. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Hao; Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Tan, Eric; Biddy, Mary; Talmadge, Michael; Hartley, Damon S.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO also performs a supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA). This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. The 2017 design case for feedstock logistics demonstrated a delivered feedstock cost of $80 per dry U.S. short ton by the year 2017 (INL, 2014). The 2022 design case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015), uses the feedstock 2017 design case blend of biomass feedstocks consisting of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and construction and demolition waste (C&D) with performance properties consistent with a sole woody feedstock type (e.g., pine or poplar). The HOG SCSA case considers the 2017 feedstock design case (the blend) as well as individual feedstock cases separately as alternative scenarios when the feedstock blend ratio varies as a result of a change in feedstock availability. These scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results because of distinctive requirements for energy and chemical inputs for the production and logistics of different components of the blend feedstocks.

  7. Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Curran, Scott; Barone, Teresa L; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse; Cho, Kukwon; Wagner, Robert M; Parks, II, James E

    2010-01-01

    Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity- controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline to diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions. Engine-out emissions for aldehydes, ketones and PM were compared with emissions from conventional diesel combustion. Sampling and analysis was carried out following micro-tunnel dilution of the exhaust. Particle geometric mean diameter, number-size distribution, and total number concentration were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For the particle mass measurements, samples were collected on Teflon-coated quartz-fiber filters and analyzed gravimetrically. Gaseous aldehydes and ketones were sampled using dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid phase extraction cartridges and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) were also measured to investigate the destruction of CO, HC and formaldehydes by the catalyst.

  8. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  9. U.S. gasoline price to continue falling through December on low oil prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 U.S. gasoline price to continue falling through December on low oil prices U.S. drivers will continue to see the effects of low crude oil prices as gasoline prices are expected to decline through the rest of this year. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the monthly retail price for regular-grade gasoline is expected to drop from a monthly average of $2.64 per gallon in August to $2.03 in December. The recent drop in the price of crude oil which currently

  10. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1993-01-19

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  11. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  12. Autoignition response of n-butanol and its blend with primary reference fuel constituents of gasoline.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kumar, Kamal; Zhang, Yu; Sung, Chi -Jen; Pitz, William J.

    2015-04-13

    We study the influence of blending n-butanol on the ignition delay times of n-heptane and iso-octane, the primary reference fuels for gasoline. The ignition delay times are measured using a rapid compression machine, with an emphasis on the low-to-intermediate temperature conditions. The experiments are conducted at equivalence ratios of 0.4 and 1.0, for a compressed pressure of 20 bar, with the temperatures at the end of compression ranging from 613 K to 979 K. The effect of n-butanol addition on the development of the two-stage ignition characteristics for the two primary reference fuels is also examined. The experimental results aremore » compared to predictions obtained using a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism, which has been obtained by a systematic merger of previously reported base models for the combustion of the individual fuel constituents. In conclusion, a sensitivity analysis on the base, and the merged models, is also performed to understand the dependence of autoignition delay times on the model parameters.« less

  13. West Coast (PADD 5) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reformulated Gasoline Blend. Comp. Conventional Gasoline Blend. Comp. MTBE (Oxygenate) Other Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas

  14. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

    2011-07-01

    This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

  15. Modifications for use of methanol or methanol-gasoline blends in automotive vehicles, September 1976-January 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, D.J.; Bolt, J.A.; Cole, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    Methanol or blends of methanol and gasoline as automotive fuels may be attractive means for extending the nation's petroleum reserves. The present study was aimed at identifying potential problems and solutions for this use of methanol. Retrofitting of existing vehicles as well as future vehicle design have been considered. The use of ethanol or higher alcohols was not addressed in this study but will be included at a later date. Several potentially serious problems have been identified with methanol use. The most attractive solutions depend upon an integrated combination of vehicle modifications and fuel design. No vehicle problems were found which could not be solved with relatively minor developments of existing technology providing the methanol or blend fuel was itself engineered to ameliorate the solution. Research needs have been identified in the areas of lubrication and materials. These, while apparently solvable, must precede use of methanol or methanol-gasoline blends as motor fuels. Because of the substantial costs and complexities of a retrofitting program, use of methanol must be evaluated in relation to other petroleum-saving alternatives. Future vehicles can be designed initially to operate satisfactorily on these alternate fuels. However a specific fuel composition must be specified around which the future engines and vehicles can be designed.

  16. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-17

    This document serves as a guide for blenders, distributors, sellers, and users of E85 and other ethanol blends above E10. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of E85 and other ethanol blends and includes supporting technical and policy references.

  17. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-09-01

    This document serves as a guide for blenders, distributors, sellers, and users of E85 and other ethanol blends above E10. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of E85 and other ethanol blends and includes supporting technical and policy references.

  18. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Movements by Pipeline between PAD

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Districts Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Normal Butane/Butylene Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Renewable Fuels Renewable Diesel Fuel Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional

  19. Energy and crude oil input requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; McNutt, B.

    1993-10-01

    The energy and crude oil requirements for the production of reformulated gasoline (RFG) are estimated. The scope of the study includes both the energy and crude oil embodied in the final product and the process energy required to manufacture the RFG and its components. The effects on energy and crude oil use of employing various oxygenates to meet the minimum oxygen-content level required by the Clean Air Act Amendments are evaluated. The analysis shows that production of RFG requires more total energy, but uses less crude oil, than that of conventional gasoline. The energy and crude oil use requirements of the different RFGs vary considerably. For the same emissions performance level, RFG with ethanol requires substantially more total energy and crude oil than does RFG with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) or ethyl tertiary butyl ether. A specific proposal by the US Environmental Protection Agency, designed to allow the use of ethanol in RFG, would increase the total energy required to produce RFG by 2% and the total crude oil required by 2.0 to 2.5% over the corresponding values for the base RFG with MTBE.

  20. Energy and crude oil input requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; McNutt, B.

    1993-11-01

    The energy and crude oil requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines (RFG) are estimated. Both the energy and crude oil embodied in the final product and the process energy required to manufacture the RFG and its components are included. The effects on energy and crude oil use of using various oxygenates to meet the minimum oxygen content level required by the Clean Air Act Amendments are evaluated. The analysis illustrates that production of RFG requires more total energy than that of conventional gasoline but uses less crude oil. The energy and crude oil use requirements of the different RFGs vary considerably. For the same emissions performance level, RFG with ethanol requires substantially more total energy and crude oil than RFG with MTBE or ETBE. A specific proposal by the EPA designed to allow the use of ethanol in RFG would increase the total energy required to produce RFG by 2% and the total crude oil required by 2.0 to 2.5% over that for the base RFG with MTBE.

  1. A Study of the Use of Jatropha Oil Blends in Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, C.R.

    2010-10-01

    Executive Summary: This project investigated the combustion performance of blends of unrefined Jatropha oil and its blends in laboratory boilers. Although a very limited amount of testing blends in distillate oil, ASTM No. 2 oil or heating oil was conducted, the primary interest was in testing the performance of blends with residual ASTM No. 6 oil. The basic idea is to provide a renewable fuel option to residual oil used in space heating and in industrial applications. The intent also was to explore the use of non-edible plant oil and one that might be potentially cheaper than biodiesel. The characteristics of No. 6 oil, such as high viscosity at ambient temperature, which requires it to be kept heated, make the blending with such oils feasible. Jatropha oil is one such oil and there is currently considerable interest building up in its use as a source for making biodiesel and jet fuel. A 10% blend of Jatropha oil with heating oil was burned using a standard burner in a residential boiler. Combustion performance was shown to be comparable with that of burning heating oil by itself with some noticeable differences. Typical heating oil has about 2000 ppm of sulfur, while the Jatropha oil has about 50 ppm leading to lower levels of sulphur dioxide emissions. Stack measurements also showed that the NOx emission was lower with the blend. We have previously reported similar reductions in NOx with blends of biodiesel in heating oil as well as slight reductions in PM2.5, particulates below 2.5 microns in size. Long term tests were not part of this project and hence deleterious effects on pumps, seals etc., if any, were not measured. The majority of the work involved testing blends of Jatropha oil with residual oil in a 1.5 million Btu/hr boiler with a burner modified to burn residual oil. Blends of 20 and 60% Jatropha oil and 100% Jatropha oil were burned in the combustion performance tests. The residual oil used had a sulfur content of over 2000 ppm and hence dramatic

  2. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends (Brochure), Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    DOE/GO-102016-4854 February 2016 Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or

  3. Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, as of Dec. 31

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Districts Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Normal Butane/Butylene Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Renewable Fuels Renewable Diesel Fuel Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Intermediate Ethanol Blends Research and Testing Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends Research and Testing Ethanol can be combined with gasoline in blends ...

  5. The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion | Department of Energy The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI Combustion The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI Combustion Almost 2 dozen gasoline fuels, blending components, and surrogates were evaluated in a single-cylinder HCCI gasoline engine for combustion, emissions, and efficiency performance. p-05_bunting.pdf (495.39 KB) More Documents & Publications APBF Effects on Combustion Fuel-Borne Reductants for NOx

  6. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  7. Compatibility Study for Plastic, Elastomeric, and Metallic Fueling Infrastructure Materials Exposed to Aggressive Formulations of Ethanol-blended Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kass, Michael D; Pawel, Steven J; Theiss, Timothy J; Janke, Christopher James

    2012-07-01

    In 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory began a series of experiments to evaluate the compatibility of fueling infrastructure materials with intermediate levels of ethanol-blended gasoline. Initially, the focus was elastomers, metals, and sealants, and the test fuels were Fuel C, CE10a, CE17a and CE25a. The results of these studies were published in 2010. Follow-on studies were performed with an emphasis on plastic (thermoplastic and thermoset) materials used in underground storage and dispenser systems. These materials were exposed to test fuels of Fuel C and CE25a. Upon completion of this effort, it was felt that additional compatibility data with higher ethanol blends was needed and another round of experimentation was performed on elastomers, metals, and plastics with CE50a and CE85a test fuels. Compatibility of polymers typically relates to the solubility of the solid polymer with a solvent. It can also mean susceptibility to chemical attack, but the polymers and test fuels evaluated in this study are not considered to be chemically reactive with each other. Solubility in polymers is typically assessed by measuring the volume swell of the polymer exposed to the solvent of interest. Elastomers are a class of polymers that are predominantly used as seals, and most o-ring and seal manufacturers provide compatibility tables of their products with various solvents including ethanol, toluene, and isooctane, which are components of aggressive oxygenated gasoline as described by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1681. These tables include a ranking based on the level of volume swell in the elastomer associated with exposure to a particular solvent. Swell is usually accompanied by a decrease in hardness (softening) that also affects performance. For seal applications, shrinkage of the elastomer upon drying is also a critical parameter since a contraction of volume can conceivably enable leakage to occur. Shrinkage is also indicative of the removal of one or more

  8. Biorenewable tough blends of polylactide and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil compatibilized by a polylactide star polymer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mauck, Sheli C.; Wang, Shu; Ding, Wenyue; Rohde, Brian J.; Fortune, C. Karen; Yang, Guozhen; Robertson, Megan L.; Ahn, Suk -Kyun

    2016-02-26

    Polylactide (PLA), a commercially available thermoplastic derived from plant sugars, finds applications in consumer products, disposable packaging, and textiles, among others. The widespread application of this material is limited by its brittleness, as evidenced by low tensile elongation at break, impact strength, and fracture toughness. Herein, a multifunctional vegetable oil, acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO), was investigated as a biodegradable, renewable additive to improve the toughness of PLA. AESO was found to be a highly reactive oil, providing a dispersed phase with tunable properties in which the acrylate groups underwent cross-linking at the elevated temperatures required for processing the blends.more » Additionally, the presence of hydroxyl groups on AESO provided two routes for compatibilization of PLA/AESO blends: (1) reactive compatibilization through the transesterification of AESO and PLA and (2) synthesis of a PLA star polymer with an AESO core. The morphological, thermal, and mechanical behaviors of PLA/oil blends were investigated, in which the dispersed oil phase consisted of AESO, soybean oil (SYBO), or a 50/50 mixture of AESO/SYBO. The oil additives were found to toughen the PLA matrix, with significant enhancements in the elongation at break and tensile toughness values, while maintaining the glass transition temperature of neat PLA. Specifically, the blend containing PLA, AESO, SYBO, and the PLA star polymer was found to exhibit a uniform oil droplet size distribution with small average droplet size and interparticle distance, resulting in the greatest enhancements of PLA tensile properties with no observable plasticization.« less

  9. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Movements by Tanker and Barge between PAD

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Districts Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Liquefied Petroleum Gases Propane/Propylene Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blending Components MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Ether* MGBC - Reformulated GTAB* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Renewable Fuels Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Finished Motor

  10. East Coast (PADD 1) Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Net Receipts by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail Product: Total Crude Oil and Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Ether* MGBC - Reformulated GTAB* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other

  11. In-Cylinder Fuel Blending of Gasoline/Diesel for Improved Efficiency and Lowest Possible Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Wagner, Robert M; Parks, II, James E; Cho, Kukwon; Sluder, Scott; Kokjohn, Sage; Reitz, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    In-cylinder fuel blending of gasoline/diesel fuel is investigated on a multi-cylinder light-duty diesel engine as a potential strategy to control in-cylinder fuel reactivity for improved efficiency and lowest possible emissions. This approach was developed and demonstrated at the University of Wisconsin through modeling and single-cylinder engine experiments. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential and challenges of this method on a multi-cylinder engine. More specifically, the effect of cylinder-to-cylinder imbalances, heat rejection, and in-cylinder charge motion as well as the potential limitations imposed by real-world turbo-machinery were investigated on a 1.9-liter four-cylinder engine. This investigation focused on one engine condition, 2300 rpm, 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). Gasoline was introduced with a port-fuel-injection system. Parameter sweeps included gasoline-to-diesel fuel ratio, intake air mixture temperature, in-cylinder swirl number, and diesel start-of-injection phasing. In addition, engine parameters were trimmed for each cylinder to balance the combustion process for maximum efficiency and lowest emissions. An important observation was the strong influence of intake charge temperature on cylinder pressure rise rate. Experiments were able to show increased thermal efficiency along with dramatic decreases in oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). However, indicated thermal efficiency for the multi-cylinder experiments were less than expected based on modeling and single-cylinder results. The lower indicated thermal efficiency is believed to be due increased heat transfer as compared to the model predictions and suggest a need for improved cylinder-to-cylinder control and increased heat transfer control.

  12. MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline Contents * Introduction * Federal gasoline product quality regulations * What are oxygenates? * Who gets gasoline with oxygenates? * Which areas get MTBE? * How much has been invested in MTBE production capacity? * What does new Ethanol capacity cost? * What would an MTBE ban cost? * On-line information resources * Endnotes * Summary of revisions to this analysis Introduction The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased

  13. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  14. Biomass to Gasoline and DIesel Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marker, Terry; Roberts, Michael; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Wangerow, Jim; Tan, Eric; Gephart, John; Shonnard, David

    2013-01-02

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The DOE funding enabled rapid development of the IH2 technology from initial proof-of-principle experiments through continuous testing in a 50 kg/day pilot plant. As part of this project, engineering work on IH2 has also been completed to design a 1 ton/day demonstration unit and a commercial-scale 2000 ton/day IH2 unit. These studies show when using IH2 technology, biomass can be converted directly to transportation quality fuel blending components for the same capital cost required for pyrolysis alone, and a fraction of the cost of pyrolysis plus upgrading of pyrolysis oil. Technoeconomic work for IH2 and lifecycle analysis (LCA) work has also been completed as part of this DOE study and shows IH2 technology can convert biomass to gasoline and diesel blending components for less than $2.00/gallon with greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the work completed in this DOE project, a joint development agreement was reached with CRI Catalyst Company to license the IH2 technology. Further larger-scale, continuous testing of IH2 will be required to fully demonstrate the technology, and funding for this is recommended. The IH2 biomass conversion technology would reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil, reduce the price of transportation fuels, and significantly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is a breakthrough for the widespread conversion of biomass to transportation fuels.

  15. Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

  16. Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-01

    The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

  17. Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced aerosol analysis methods were used to examine particulates from single cylinder test engines running on gasoline and ethanol blends.

  18. Microsoft Word - Summer 2004 Motor Gasoline Outlook.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    April 2004 Summer 2004 Motor Gasoline Outlook Summary * Gasoline markets are tight as the 2004 driving season begins and conditions are likely to remain volatile through the summer. High crude oil costs, strong gasoline demand growth, low gasoline inventories, uncertainty about the availability of gasoline imports, high transportation costs, and changes in gasoline specifications have added to current and expected gasoline costs and pump prices. * For the upcoming summer driving season (April to

  19. Motor gasolines, summer 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickson, C.L.; Woodward, P.W.

    1986-06-01

    Samples for this report were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, chemical companies, and research institutes. Analytical data for the 1571 motor gasoline and 206 motor gasoline/alcohol blend samples were submitted to the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER), Bartlesville, Oklahoma, for reporting. This work is jointly funded by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Bartlesville Project Office (DOE cooperative agreement No. FC22-83FE60149). The data are representative of the products of 62 marketers, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. They are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map shows the marketing areas, districts, and sampling locations. The report includes trend charts of selected properties of motor fuels over the last twenty-five years. Twelve octane distribution graphs for leaded and unleaded grades of gasoline are presented for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4. The average antiknock (octane) index (R + M)/2 of gasoline sold in the United States during June, July, and August 1985 was 87.4 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.7 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 88.8 for leaded below 93.0 grades of gasoline. Analyses of motor gasoline containing various alcohols are reported in separate tables beginning with this report. The average antiknock (octane) index (R + M)/2 of gasoline containing alcohols was 88.6 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.4 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 90.2 for leaded below 93.0 grades of gasoline. 16 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels, Phase 2: Evaluations of Field Samples and Laboratory Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; LaViolette, M.

    2010-04-01

    Study to measure the flammability of gasoline/ethanol fuel vapors at low ambient temperatures and develop a mathematical model to predict temperatures at which flammable vapors were likely to form.

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends Research and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing | Department of Energy Intermediate Ethanol Blends Research and Testing Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends Research and Testing Ethanol can be combined with gasoline in blends ranging from E10 (10% or less ethanol, 90% gasoline) up to E85 (up to 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline), with those in-between being called "intermediate blends." The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Renewable Fuels Standard (under the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and the Energy

  2. Methyl aryl ethers from coal liquids as gasoline extenders and octane improvers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singerman, G.M.

    1980-11-01

    A mixture of methyl aryl ethers derived from the phenols present in direct liquefaction coal liquids shows considerable promise as a gasoline blending agent and octane improver. The mixture of methyl aryl ethers was blended at five volume percent with a commercial, unleaded gasoline. The properties and performance of the blend in a variety of laboratory and automotive tests is reported. The tests show that the mixture of methyl aryl ethers improves gasoline octane without degrading other gasoline properties.

  3. Emissions with butane/propane blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    This article reports on various aspects of exhaust emissions from a light-duty car converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas and equipped with an electrically heated catalyst. Butane and butane/propane blends have recently received attention as potentially useful alternative fuels. Butane has a road octane number of 92, a high blending vapor pressure, and has been used to upgrade octane levels of gasoline blends and improve winter cold starts. Due to reformulated gasoline requirements for fuel vapor pressure, however, industry has had to remove increasing amounts of butane form the gasoline pool. Paradoxically, butane is one of the cleanest burning components of gasoline.

  4. Fact Sheet: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact Sheet: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends Fact Sheet: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends October 7, 2008 - 4:14pm Addthis In August 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to assess the potential impacts of higher intermediate ethanol blends on conventional vehicles and other engines that rely on gasoline. The test program focuses specifically on the effects of intermediate blends of E15 and E20-gasoline blended with 15 and 20 percent ethanol,

  5. East Coast (PADD 1) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    MTBE (Oxygenate) Other Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Other Renewable Fuels Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31%

  6. Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    MTBE (Oxygenate) Other Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31

  7. Midwest (PADD 2) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Other Renewable Fuels Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31 to 1% Sulfur

  8. Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Conventional Gasoline Blend. Comp. Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31 to 1% Sulfur Residual F.O., Greater than 1% Sulfur Naphtha

  9. Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    MTBE (Oxygenate) Other Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31

  10. Midwest (PADD 2) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Other Renewable Fuels Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31 to 1% Sulfur

  11. Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Conventional Gasoline Blend. Comp. Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31 to 1% Sulfur Residual F.O., Greater than 1% Sulfur Naphtha

  12. Motor Gasoline Market Spring 2007 and Implications for Spring 2008

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on the major factors that drove the widening difference between wholesale gasoline and crude oil prices in 2007 and explores how those factors might impact gasoline prices in 2008.

  13. MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

  14. Summer 2003 Motor Gasoline Outlook.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook April 2003 Summer 2003 Motor Gasoline Outlook Summary For the upcoming summer season (April to September 2003), high crude oil costs and other factors are expected to yield average retail motor gasoline prices higher than those of last year. Current crude oil prices reflect a substantial uncertainty premium due to concerns about the current conflict in the Persian Gulf, lingering questions about whether Venezuelan oil production will recover to near pre-strike

  15. STEO January 2013 - average gasoline prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    drivers to see lower average gasoline prices in 2013 and 2014 U.S. retail gasoline prices are expected to decline over the next two years. The average pump price for regular unleaded gasoline was $3.63 a gallon during 2012. That is expected to fall to $3.44 this year and then drop to $3.34 in 2014, according to the new forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Expected lower crude oil prices.....which accounted for about two-thirds of the price of gasoline in 2012....will

  16. Could Cheaper Gasoline be "in the Cards"? | U.S. DOE Office of...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    More recently, they expanded their activities in efficiently transforming biomass and oil ... Every drop of gasoline we use needs a catalyst to change the oil molecules into usable ...

  17. Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    A review of the market implications resulting from the rapid change from methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to ethanol-blended reformulated gasoline (RFG) on the East Coast and in Texas. Strains in ethanol supply and distribution will increase the potential for price volatility in these regions this summer.

  18. Investigation of the Potential for Biofuel Blends in Residual Oil-Fired Power Generation Units as an Emissions Reduction Strategy for New York State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, C.R.; McDonald, R.

    2009-05-01

    There is a significant amount of oil, about 12.6 million barrels per year, used for power generation in New York State. The majority of it is residual oil. The primary reason for using residual oil probably is economic, as these fuels are cheaper than distillates. However, the stack emissions from the use of such fuels, especially in densely populated urban areas, can be a cause for concern. The emissions of concern include sulfur and nitrogen oxides and particulates, particularly PM 2.5. Blending with distillate (ASTM No.2) fuels may not reduce some or all of these emissions. Hence, a case can be made for blending with biofuels, such as biodiesel, as they tend to have very little fuel bound sulfur and nitrogen and have been shown in prior work at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to reduce NOx emissions as well in small boilers. Some of the research carried out at CANMET in Canada has shown potential reductions in PM with blending of biodiesel in distillate oil. There is also the benefit obtaining from the renewable nature of biofuels in reducing the net carbon dioxide emitted thus contributing to the reduction of green house gases that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere. The present project was conceived to examine the potential for such benefits of blending biofuels with residual oil. A collaboration was developed with personnel at the New York City Poletti Power Plant of the New York Power Authority. Their interest arose from an 800 MW power plant that was using residual oil and which was mandated to be shut down in 2010 because of environmental concerns. A blend of 20% biodiesel in residual oil had also been tested for a short period of about two days in that boiler a couple of years back. In this project, emission measurements including particulate measurements of PM2.5 were made in the commercial boiler test facility at BNL described below. Baseline tests were done using biodiesel as the blending biofuel. Biodiesel is currently and probably in

  19. The Impact of Ethanol Production on U.S. and Regional Gasoline Prices and on the Profitability of the U.S. Oil Refinery Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Xiaodong; Hayes, Dermot J.

    2008-04-01

    This report details pooled regional time-series data and panel data estimation used to quantify the impact of monthly ethanol production on monthly retail regular gasoline prices.

  20. U.S. Motor Gasoline Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Formulation Grade: Gasoline, Average Regular Gasoline Midgrade Gasoline Premium Gasoline Conventional, Average Conventional Regular Conventional Midgrade Conventional Premium ...

  1. Stocks of Motor Gasoline Blending Components

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    194,259 203,187 212,640 217,489 220,765 226,935 1983-2016 PADD 1 51,306 53,633 57,200 56,763 58,920 62,421 2004-2016 PADD 2 43,744 46,809 50,163 51,441 51,859 54,773 2004-2016 PADD...

  2. Word Pro - S3

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil a Distillate Fuel Oil f Jet Fuel g LPG b Motor Gasoline i Residual Fuel Oil ... finished motor gasoline and motor gasoline blending components; excludes oxygenates. ...

  3. Biofuel Facts for the Road: The Energy Department and Your Gasoline Pump |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Biofuel Facts for the Road: The Energy Department and Your Gasoline Pump Biofuel Facts for the Road: The Energy Department and Your Gasoline Pump November 24, 2015 - 11:05am Addthis Biofuel Facts for the Road: The Energy Department and Your Gasoline Pump The “Contains 10% ethanol” label means that ethanol has been blended into the petroleum gasoline—10% ethanol and 90% petroleum gasoline. The "Contains 10% ethanol" label means that ethanol has

  4. Assessment of Summer 1997 motor gasoline price increase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-05-01

    Gasoline markets in 1996 and 1997 provided several spectacular examples of petroleum market dynamics. The first occurred in spring 1996, when tight markets, following a long winter of high demand, resulted in rising crude oil prices just when gasoline prices exhibit their normal spring rise ahead of the summer driving season. Rising crude oil prices again pushed gasoline prices up at the end of 1996, but a warm winter and growing supplies weakened world crude oil markets, pushing down crude oil and gasoline prices during spring 1997. The 1996 and 1997 spring markets provided good examples of how crude oil prices can move gasoline prices both up and down, regardless of the state of the gasoline market in the United States. Both of these spring events were covered in prior Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports. As the summer of 1997 was coming to a close, consumers experienced yet another surge in gasoline prices. Unlike the previous increase in spring 1996, crude oil was not a factor. The late summer 1997 price increase was brought about by the supply/demand fundamentals in the gasoline markets, rather than the crude oil markets. The nature of the summer 1997 gasoline price increase raised questions regarding production and imports. Given very strong demand in July and August, the seemingly limited supply response required examination. In addition, the price increase that occurred on the West Coast during late summer exhibited behavior different than the increase east of the Rocky Mountains. Thus, the Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) 5 region needed additional analysis (Appendix A). This report is a study of this late summer gasoline market and some of the important issues surrounding that event.

  5. Gasoline Biodesulfurization Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This petroleum industry fact sheet describes how biodesulfurization can yield lower sulfur gasoline at lower production costs.

  6. DOE's Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2004_deer_lawson.pdf (275.38 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE's Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study DOE's Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) Project

  7. Long Term Processing Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis plus Hydroconversion (IH2) for the Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marker, Terry; Roberts, Michael; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Wangerow, Jim; McLeod, Celeste; Del Paggio, Alan; Gephart, John; Starr, Jack; Hahn, John

    2013-06-09

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of a new, economical, technology named integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The life cycle analysis (LCA) shows that the use of the IH2 process to convert wood to gasoline and diesel results in a greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emission compared to that found with fossil derived fuels. The technoeconomic analysis showed the conversion of wood using the IH2 process can produce gasoline and diesel at less than $2.00/gallon. In this project, the previously reported semi-continuous small scale IH2 test results were confirmed in a continuous 50 kg/day pilot plant. The continuous IH2 pilot plant used in this project was operated round the clock for over 750 hours and showed good pilot plant operability while consistently producing 26-28 wt % yields of high quality gasoline and diesel product. The IH2 catalyst showed good stability, although more work on catalyst stability is recommended. Additional work is needed to commercialize the IH2 technology including running large particle size biomass, modeling the hydropyrolysis step, studying the effects of process variables and building and operating a 1-50 ton/day demonstration scale plant. The IH2 is a true game changing technology by utilizing U.S. domestic renewable biomass resources to create transportation fuels, sufficient in quantity and quality to substantially reduce our reliance on foreign crude oil. Thus, the IH2 technology offers a path to genuine energy independence for the U. S., along with the creation of a significant number of new U.S. jobs to plant, grow, harvest, and process biomass crops into fungible

  8. Note on the structural stability of gasoline demand and the welfare economics of gasoline taxation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwast, M.L.

    1980-04-01

    A partial adjustment model is used to investigate how the 1973 to 1974 oil embargo affected the structural stability of gasoline demand and to compute the welfare effects of higher gasoline taxes. A variety of statistical tests are used to demonstrate the structural stability of gasoline demand in spite of higher prices. A case study demonstrates only modest price elasticity in response to increased taxes. Higher excise taxes are felt to be justified, however, as an efficient source of revenue even though their effect on demand is limited. 17 references, 4 tables. (DCK)

  9. Lower gasoline prices ahead

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lower gasoline prices ahead U.S. retail gasoline prices are expected to continue falling through the end of 2016, even though gasoline demand is projected to remain strong. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the average monthly price for regular-grade gasoline is expected to decline to $1.92 a gallon by December the lowest for the month in eight years. Lower motor fuel prices are expected in the coming months, despite gasoline demand this year that is on

  10. Biodiesel Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-04-01

    A 2-page fact sheet discussing general biodiesel blends and the improvement in engine performance and emissions.

  11. The potential for low petroleum gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Webb, G.M.; Clauson, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace at least 30 percent of the projected consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. The Act also requires the Secretary to determine the greenhouse gas implications of the use of replacement fuels. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including certain alcohols, ethers, and other components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the cost and refinery impacts for production of {open_quotes}low petroleum{close_quotes} gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and a major contributor to cost increase is investment in processes to produce and etherify light olefins. High oxygenation can also increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon of gasoline, and with greenhouse gas emissions changes between a 3 percent increase and a 16 percent decrease. Crude oil reduction, with decreased dependence on foreign sources, is a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program. For year-round gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components, crude oil use is reduced by 10 to 12 percent, at a cost $48 to $89 per barrel. Depending upon resolution of uncertainties about extrapolation of the Environmental Protection Agency Complex Model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues, costs could be lower or higher.

  12. Oil Refund Decisions | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    During the period 1973 through 1981, the Federal government imposed price and allocation controls of crude oil and refined petroleum products, such as gasoline and heating oil. ...

  13. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    February 16, 2016 Reformulated Gasoline States in each PADD Region Procedures & Methodology Gasoline Data collection procedures Sampling methodology Coefficient of variation...

  14. Simulation: Gasoline Compression Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-04-13

    The Mira supercomputer at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility helped Argonne researchers model what happens inside an engine when you use gasoline in a diesel engine. Engineers are exploring this type of combustion as a sustainable transportation option because it may be more efficient than traditional gasoline combustion engines but produce less soot than diesel.

  15. U.S. monthly gasoline price in December on track to be lowest...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of higher crude oil prices....EIA expects there will be downward pressure on gasoline prices for the rest of this month as several oil refineries come back online after maintenance

  16. Motor gasolines, summer 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, E.M.

    1980-02-01

    Analytical data for 2401 samples of motor gasoline, from service stations throughout the country, were collected and analyzed under agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center and the American Petroleum Institute. The samples represent the products of 48 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing areas and districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1949. Twelve octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded, regular, and premium grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index ((R + M)/2) averages of gasoline sold in this country were 88.6, 89.3, and 93.7 unleaded, regular, and premium grades of gasolines, respectively.

  17. Hige Compression Ratio Turbo Gasoline Engine Operation Using Alcohol Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heywood, John; Jo, Young Suk; Lewis, Raymond; Bromberg, Leslie; Heywood, John

    2015-10-31

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the potential for improving the performance and efficiency of gasoline engine technology by use of alcohols to suppress knock. Knock-free operation is obtained by direct injection of a second “anti-knock” fuel such as ethanol, which suppresses knock when, with gasoline fuel, knock would occur. Suppressing knock enables increased turbocharging, engine downsizing, and use of higher compression ratios throughout the engine’s operating map. This project combined engine testing and simulation to define knock onset conditions, with different mixtures of gasoline and alcohol, and with this information quantify the potential for improving the efficiency of turbocharged gasoline spark-ignition engines, and the on-vehicle fuel consumption reductions that could then be realized. The more focused objectives of this project were therefore to: Determine engine efficiency with aggressive turbocharging and downsizing and high compression ratio (up to a compression ratio of 13.5:1) over the engine’s operating range; Determine the knock limits of a turbocharged and downsized engine as a function of engine speed and load; Determine the amount of the knock-suppressing alcohol fuel consumed, through the use of various alcohol-gasoline and alcohol-water gasoline blends, for different driving cycles, relative to the gasoline consumed; Determine implications of using alcohol-boosted engines, with their higher efficiency operation, in both light-duty and medium-duty vehicle sectors.

  18. EIA Report 9/10/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Markets 0, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/10/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/3/2008 Year Ago 9/10/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 102.58 115.46 -12.88 109.35 77.49 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 266.16 285.42 -19.26 276.68 197.86 Heating Oil (c/gal) 290.24 319.19 -28.95 307.88 217.16 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.39 7.94 -0.55 7.26 5.89 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline

  19. EIA Report 9/11/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Markets 1, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/11/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/4/2008 Year Ago 9/11/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 100.87 115.46 -14.59 107.89 78.23 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 274.88 285.42 -10.54 274.04 198.11 Heating Oil (c/gal) 291.55 319.19 -27.64 302.37 218.27 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.25 7.94 -0.69 7.32 5.93 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline

  20. EIA Report 9/12/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Markets 2, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/12/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/5/2008 Year Ago 9/12/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 101.18 115.46 -14.28 106.23 79.91 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 276.96 285.42 -8.46 268.61 201.60 Heating Oil (c/gal) 293.91 319.19 -25.28 298.28 221.91 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.37 7.94 -0.57 7.45 6.44 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline

  1. EIA Report 9/15/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Markets 15, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/15/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/8/2008 Year Ago 9/14/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 95.71 115.46 -19.75 106.34 79.10 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 256.14 285.42 -29.28 275.03 203.64 Heating Oil (c/gal) 279.12 319.19 -40.07 301.31 220.78 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.37 7.94 -0.57 7.53 6.28 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline

  2. EIA Report 9/17/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Markets 7, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/17/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/10/2008 Year Ago 9/17/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 97.16 115.46 -18.30 102.58 80.57 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 246.30 285.42 -39.12 266.16 204.42 Heating Oil (c/gal) 282.47 319.19 -36.72 290.24 222.87 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.91 7.94 -0.03 7.39 6.65 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline

  3. EIA Report 9/18/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Markets 18, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/18/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/11/2008 Year Ago 9/18/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 97.88 115.46 -17.58 100.87 81.51 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 248.24 285.42 -37.18 274.88 206.03 Heating Oil (c/gal) 278.24 319.19 -40.95 291.55 224.23 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.62 7.94 -0.32 7.25 6.57 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline

  4. EIA Report 9/19/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Markets 19, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/19/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/12/2008 Year Ago 9/18/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 104.55 115.46 -10.91 101.18 81.93 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 259.97 285.42 -25.45 276.96 209.34 Heating Oil (c/gal) 289.78 319.19 -29.41 293.91 224.53 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.53 7.94 -0.41 7.37 6.18 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline

  5. EIA Report 9/22/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Markets 22, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/22/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/15/2008 Year Ago 9/21/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 120.92 115.46 5.46 95.71 81.62 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 270.38 285.42 -15.04 256.14 211.45 Heating Oil (c/gal) 304.30 319.19 -14.89 279.12 225.62 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.66 7.94 -0.28 7.37 6.08 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline

  6. EIA Report 9/23/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Markets 3, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/23/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/16/2008 Year Ago 9/21/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 106.61 115.46 -8.85 91.15 81.62 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 259.50 285.42 -25.92 240.08 211.45 Heating Oil (c/gal) 299.63 319.19 -19.56 271.97 225.62 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.93 7.94 -0.01 7.28 6.08 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline

  7. EIA Report 9/24/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Markets 4, 4:00 pm U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/24/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/17/2008 Year Ago 9/24/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 105.73 115.46 -9.73 91.16 80.95 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 259.47 285.42 -25.95 246.30 208.34 Heating Oil (c/gal) 301.33 319.19 -17.86 282.47 223.06 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.68 7.94 -0.26 7.91 6.37 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that needs to

  8. EIA Report 9/25/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Markets 25, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/25/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/18/2008 Year Ago 9/25/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 108.02 115.46 -7.44 97.88 79.53 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 269.73 285.42 -15.69 248.24 203.79 Heating Oil (c/gal) 302.58 319.19 -16.61 278.24 218.13 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.64 7.94 -0.30 7.62 6.36 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline

  9. EIA Report 9/26/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Markets 26, 4:00 pm U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/26/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/19/2008 Year Ago 9/26/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 108.89 115.46 -8.57 104.55 80.30 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 266.51 285.42 -18.91 259.97 202.74 Heating Oil (c/gal) 299.49 319.19 -19.70 289.78 218.26 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.47 7.94 -0.47 7.53 6.40 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that needs

  10. EIA Report 9/3/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Markets 3, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/3/2008 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 8/27/2008 Year Ago 9/4/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 109.35 115.46 -6.11 118.15 75.08 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 276.68 285.42 -8.74 291.72 199.10 Heating Oil (c/gal) 307.88 319.19 -11.31 328.15 207.95 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.26 7.94 -0.68 8.61 5.63 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that needs to

  11. EIA Report 9/4/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Markets 4, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/4/2008 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 8/28/2008 Year Ago 9/4/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 107.89 115.46 -7.57 115.59 75.08 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 274.04 285.42 -11.38 286.44 199.10 Heating Oil (c/gal) 302.37 319.19 -16.82 320.21 207.95 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.32 7.94 -0.62 8.05 5.63 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that needs to

  12. EIA Report 9/5/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Markets 5, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/5/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 8/29/2008 Year Ago 9/5/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 106.23 115.46 -9.23 115.46 75.73 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 268.61 285.42 -16.81 285.42 199.65 Heating Oil (c/gal) 298.28 319.19 -20.91 319.19 209.99 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.45 7.94 -0.49 7.94 5.81 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline

  13. EIA Report 9/8/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Markets 8, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/8/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/2/2008 Year Ago 9/7/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 106.34 115.46 -9.12 109.71 76.70 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 275.03 285.42 -10.39 273.37 198.64 Heating Oil (c/gal) 301.31 319.19 -17.88 307.36 214.32 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.53 7.94 -0.41 7.26 5.50 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline that

  14. EIA Report 9/9/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Markets 9, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/9/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/2/2008 Year Ago 9/10/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 103.26 115.46 -12.20 109.71 77.49 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 265.26 285.42 -20.16 273.37 197.86 Heating Oil (c/gal) 292.47 319.19 -26.72 307.36 217.16 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.54 7.94 -0.40 7.26 5.89 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB), the base gasoline

  15. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Detailed Price and CV Report Motor Gasoline Prices & Coefficients of Variation Spreadsheet

  16. Annual Energy Review 2003 - September 2004

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    3 (Million Barrels per Day) Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Review 2003 121 a Unfinished oils, motor gasoline blending components, aviation gasoline blending...

  17. Price changes in the gasoline market: Are Midwestern gasoline prices downward sticky?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-03-01

    This report examines a recurring question about gasoline markets: why, especially in times of high price volatility, do retail gasoline prices seem to rise quickly but fall back more slowly? Do gasoline prices actually rise faster than they fall, or does this just appear to be the case because people tend to pay more attention to prices when they`re rising? This question is more complex than it might appear to be initially, and it has been addressed by numerous analysts in government, academia and industry. The question is very important, because perceived problems with retail gasoline pricing have been used in arguments for government regulation of prices. The phenomenon of prices at different market levels tending to move differently relative to each other depending on direction is known as price asymmetry. This report summarizes the previous work on gasoline price asymmetry and provides a method for testing for asymmetry in a wide variety of situations. The major finding of this paper is that there is some amount of asymmetry and pattern asymmetry, especially at the retail level, in the Midwestern states that are the focus of the analysis. Nevertheless, both the amount asymmetry and pattern asymmetry are relatively small. In addition, much of the pattern asymmetry detected in this and previous studies could be a statistical artifact caused by the time lags between price changes at different points in the gasoline distribution system. In other words, retail gasoline prices do sometimes rise faster than they fall, but this is largely a lagged market response to an upward shock in the underlying wholesale gasoline or crude oil prices, followed by a return toward the previous baseline. After consistent time lags are factored out, most apparent asymmetry disappears.

  18. Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Northeast region of the U.S. is particularly vulnerable to gasoline disruptions as a result of hurricanes and other natural events. Hurricane Sandy in 2012 caused widespread issues related to...

  19. Fact #809: December 23, 2013 What Do We Pay for in a Gallon of Gasoline? |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 9: December 23, 2013 What Do We Pay for in a Gallon of Gasoline? Fact #809: December 23, 2013 What Do We Pay for in a Gallon of Gasoline? The figure below shows how the shares of component costs have changed for a gallon of regular gasoline over the ten-year period from September 2003 to September 2013. In 2003, crude oil accounted for 38.3% of the retail price of a gallon of regular gasoline. By 2013, the share for crude oil nearly doubled to 70.8% of the price. While

  20. Price of Motor Gasoline Through Retail Outlets

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    & Stocks by State (Dollars per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Data Series: Retail Price - Motor Gasoline Retail Price - Regular Gasoline Retail Price - Midgrade Gasoline Retail Price...

  1. Improved oil production using economical biopolymer-surfactant blends for profile modification and mobility control. Final report, November 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabitto, J.; Barrufet, M.A.; Burnett, D.B.

    1998-12-01

    In the past, starch hydrocolloids have not been effective alternates to partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides, copolymers, and xanthan gum polymers as water shutoff agents in fractures and in matrix flow configurations. Poor injectivity and questionable stability have usually prevented their use in profile control applications. However, in recent years, the demands of the oil and gas drilling industry have led to the development of new drilling, drill-in, and completion fluids with improved functionality. New types of modified starches have contributed to these new drill in fluid (DIF) products. It was felt that the properties of the new products would lend themselves to applications in improved recovery. The objective of this project has been to evaluate the use of agricultural starch biopolymers for gelled and polymer applications in oil recovery processes. The authors believe that there is great potential for finding new functional starch products because of their chemical and structural flexibility, low cost, and wide availability. The goals of this project have been, therefore, to systematically investigate how the physical properties and chemical composition of relatively inexpensive agricultural starch products will influence their use as effective selective permeability control agents or as gels for water shut-off.

  2. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline Pump Components History WHAT WE PAY FOR IN A GALLON OF REGULAR GASOLINE Mon-yr Retail Price (Dollars per gallon) Refining (percentage) Distribution & Marketing (percentage) Taxes (percentage) Crude Oil (percentage) Jan-00 1.289 7.8 13.0 32.1 47.1 Feb-00 1.377 17.9 7.5 30.1 44.6 Mar-00 1.517 15.4 12.8 27.3 44.6 Apr-00 1.465 10.1 20.2 28.3 41.4 May-00 1.485 20.2 9.2 27.9 42.7 Jun-00 1.633 22.2 8.8 25.8 43.1 Jul-00 1.551 13.2 15.8 27.2 43.8 Aug-00 1.465 15.8 7.5 28.8 47.8 Sep-00 1.550

  3. Motor gasolines, summer 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, E.M.

    1984-02-01

    The samples were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, chemical companies, and research institutes. The analytical data for 1583 samples of motor gasoline, were submitted to the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, Oklahoma for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). They represent the products of 48 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1959. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 90.0 and above, and leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 93.0 grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R+M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.5 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.4 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 89.0 for leaded below 93.0 grades of gasoline. 16 figures, 5 tables.

  4. Motor gasolines, summer 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, E.M.

    1981-02-01

    Analytical data for 2062 samples of motor gasoline were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The data were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The samples represent the products of 48 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1949. Twelve octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded, regular, and premium grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The anitknock (octane) index ((R + M)/2) averages of gasolines sold in this country were 87.8 for the unleaded below 90.0, 91.6 for the unleaded 90.0 and above, 88.9 for the regular, and 92.8 for the premium grades of gasoline.

  5. Motor gasolines, Summer 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, E.M.

    1983-03-01

    The samples were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The analytical data for 796 samples of motor gasoline, were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). They represent the products of 22 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1959. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 90.0 and above, leaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 below 93.0, and leaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 93.0 and above grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R + M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.3 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.7 for unleaded 90.0 and above, 89.0 for leaded below 93.0, and no data in this report for 93.0 and above grades of leaded gasoline.

  6. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) ...

  7. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline Sampling Methodology The sample for the Motor Gasoline Price Survey was drawn from a frame of approximately 115,000 retail gasoline outlets. The gasoline outlet frame was constructed by combining information purchased from a private commercial source with information contained on existing EIA petroleum product frames and surveys. Outlet names, and zip codes were obtained from the private commercial data source. Additional information was obtained directly from companies selling retail

  8. Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules Contents * Introduction o Table 1. History of Foreign Refiner Regulations * Foreign Refinery Baseline * Monitoring Imported Conventional Gasoline * Endnotes Related EIA Short-Term Forecast Analysis Products * Areas Participating in the Reformulated Gasoline Program * Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations * Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model * Refiners Switch to Reformulated

  9. Prices of Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product/ Sales Type: Gasoline, All Grades - Sales to End Users (U.S. only) Gasoline, All Grades - Through Retail Outlets Gasoline, All Grades - Other End Users Gasoline, All Grades - Sales for Resale Gasoline, All Grades - DTW (U.S. only) Gasoline, All Grades - Rack (U.S. only) Gasoline, All Grades - Bulk (U.S. only) Regular Gasoline - Sales to End Users (U.S. only) Regular Gasoline - Through Retail Outlets Regular Gasoline - Other End Users Regular Gasoline - Sales for Resale Regular Gasoline -

  10. Summer gasoline price forecast slightly higher, but drivers still pay less than last year

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Summer gasoline price forecast slightly higher, but drivers still pay less than last year Rising crude oil prices are likely to be passed on to consumers at the pump, but U.S. drivers are still expected to pay the lowest summer gasoline prices since 2004, and for all of 2016 the average household will spend $900 less on gasoline than it did two years ago." In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the retail price for regular grade gasoline will average

  11. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1929-2015 | Department of Energy 915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week When adjusted for inflation, the average annual price of gasoline has fluctuated greatly, and has recently experienced sharp increases and decreases. The effect of the U.S. embargo of oil from Iran can be seen in the early 1980's with the price of gasoline peaking in

  12. Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 859 February 9, 2015 Excess Supply is the Most Recent Event to Affect Crude Oil Prices - Dataset Fact 889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for ...

  13. Total Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Imports - Total Imports - Crude Oil Imports - Crude Oil, Commercial Imports - by SPR Imports - into SPR by Others Imports - Total Products Imports - Total Motor Gasoline Imports - Finished Motor Gasoline Imports - Reformulated Gasoline Imports - Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Imports - Other Reformulated Gasoline Imports - Conventional Gasoline Imports - Conv. Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Imports - Conv. Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 & < Imports -

  14. Oil

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department works to ensure domestic and global oil supplies are environmentally sustainable and invests in research and technology to make oil drilling cleaner and more efficient.

  15. EIS-0039: Motor Gasoline Deregulation and the Gasoline Tilt

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Economic Regulatory Administration developed this EIS to evaluate the environmental impacts, including social and economic impacts, that may result from either of two proposed regulatory changes: (1) the exemption of motor gasoline from the Department of Energy's Mandatory Petroleum Price and Allocation Regulations, and (2) the adoption of the gasoline tilt, a proposed regulation that would allow refiners to recover an additional amount of their total increased costs on gasoline.

  16. SRC residual fuel oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.; Foster, E.P.

    1985-10-15

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  17. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  18. California Gasoline Price Study, 2003

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    This is the final report to Congressman Ose describing the factors driving California's spring 2003 gasoline price spike and the subsequent price increases in June and August.

  19. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    from the gasoline outlet frame within those counties within each sampling cell1. Every county in the United States was assigned to the corresponding sampling cell as defined. ...

  20. Motor Gasoline Assessment, Spring 1997

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes the factors causing the run up of motor gasoline prices during spring 1996 and the different market conditions during spring 1997 that caused prices to decline.

  1. Refinery Net Input of Motor Gasoline Blending Components (Net)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    -224,415 -196,460 -205,085 -201,403 -213,659 -206,750 2005-2016 PADD 1 -17,942 -14,705 -15,325 -15,088 -16,507 -15,534 2005-2016 East Coast -17,889 -14,746 -15,326 -15,154 -16,492 -15,493 2005-2016 Appalachian No. 1 -53 41 1 66 -15 -41 2005-2016 PADD 2 -56,553 -48,250 -48,728 -44,224 -48,504 -47,699 2005-2016 Ind., Ill. and Ky. -36,491 -32,814 -31,456 -27,909 -31,097 -30,704 2005-2016 Minn., Wis., N. Dak., S. Dak. -7,599 -5,879 -6,476 -5,086 -5,818 -5,937 2005-2016 Okla., Kans., Mo. -12,463

  2. Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Preparation, Injection and Combustion of Supercritical Fluids Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced ...

  3. Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from a Barrel of Oil | Department of Energy 6: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline from a Barrel of Oil Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline from a Barrel of Oil A standard U.S. barrel contains 42 gallons of crude oil which yields about 44 gallons of petroleum products. The additional 2 gallons of petroleum products come from refiner gains which result in an additional 6% of product. As shown in the figure below, a little more

  4. Dispensing Equipment Testing with Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyce, K.; Chapin, J. T.

    2010-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Nonpetroleum-Based Fuel Task addresses the hurdles to commercialization of biomass-derived fuels and fuel blends. One such hurdle is the unknown compatibility of new fuels with current infrastructure, such as the equipment used at service stations to dispense fuel into automobiles. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technology Program and the Biomass Program have engaged in a joint project to evaluate the potential for blending ethanol into gasoline at levels higher than nominal 10 volume percent. This project was established to help DOE and NREL better understand any potentially adverse impacts caused by a lack of knowledge about the compatibility of the dispensing equipment with ethanol blends higher than what the equipment was designed to dispense. This report provides data about the impact of introducing a gasoline with a higher volumetric ethanol content into service station dispensing equipment from a safety and a performance perspective.

  5. Refractometric determination of content of aromatic hydrocarbons in AI-93 gasolines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuznetsova, L.M.; Ioffe, B.V.; Mikheeva, E.G.

    1982-11-01

    Investigates the possibility of extending the use of the dispersometric method to the control of aromatic hydrocarbon content in AI-93 gasolines. Uses 4 model blends with aromatics content of 20-40% by weight. Finds that the dispersometric method can be used in analyzing both unleaded and leaded AI-93 gasolines, since the addition of ethyl fluid and dye in formulating the leaded gasolines does not affect the accuracy in determining the aromatic hydrocarbon content. Concludes that the dispersometric method can be used to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon content in AI-93 gasolines to within + or - 1.0% by weight, both in the laboratory (IRF-23M refractometer) and under commercial conditions (in ''Nafta-74'' unit).

  6. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  7. Topsoe integrated gasoline synthesis (TIGAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, H.K.; Joensen, F.

    1987-01-01

    Integration of Haldor Topsoe's oxygenate (MeOH, DME) synthesis and the MTG process into one single synthesis loop provides a new low investment route to gasoline from natural gas. The integrated process has been demonstrated in an industrial pilot with a capacity of 1 MTPD gasoline since 1984. The pilot has operated successfully for more than 10,000 hours.

  8. Gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  9. Gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.67 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  10. Gasoline prices increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    gasoline prices increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.69 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  11. Effects of gasoline reactivity and ethanol content on boosted premixed and partially stratified low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dec, John E.; Yang, Yi; Ji, Chunsheng; Dernotte, Jeremie

    2015-04-14

    Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC), based on the compression ignition of a premixed or partially premixed dilute charge, can provide thermal efficiencies (TE) and maximum loads comparable to those of turbo-charged diesel engines, and ultra-low NOx and particulate emissions. Intake boosting is key to achieving high loads with dilute combustion, and it also enhances the fuel's autoignition reactivity, reducing the required intake heating or hot residuals. These effects have the advantages of increasing TE and charge density, allowing greater timing retard with good stability, and making the fuel Φ- sensitive so that partial fuel stratification (PFS) can be applied for higher loads and further TE improvements. However, at high boost the autoignition reactivity enhancement can become excessive, and substantial amounts of EGR are required to prevent overly advanced combustion. Accordingly, an experimental investigation has been conducted to determine how the tradeoff between the effects of intake boost varies with fuel-type and its impact on load range and TE. Five fuels are investigated: a conventional AKI=87 petroleum-based gasoline (E0), and blends of 10 and 20% ethanol with this gasoline to reduce its reactivity enhancement with boost (E10 and E20). Furthermore, a second zero-ethanol gasoline with AKI=93 (matching that of E20) was also investigated (CF-E0), and some neat ethanol data are also reported.

  12. Effects of gasoline reactivity and ethanol content on boosted premixed and partially stratified low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dec, John E.; Yang, Yi; Ji, Chunsheng; Dernotte, Jeremie

    2015-04-14

    Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC), based on the compression ignition of a premixed or partially premixed dilute charge, can provide thermal efficiencies (TE) and maximum loads comparable to those of turbo-charged diesel engines, and ultra-low NOx and particulate emissions. Intake boosting is key to achieving high loads with dilute combustion, and it also enhances the fuel's autoignition reactivity, reducing the required intake heating or hot residuals. These effects have the advantages of increasing TE and charge density, allowing greater timing retard with good stability, and making the fuel Φ- sensitive so that partial fuel stratification (PFS) can be applied for highermore » loads and further TE improvements. However, at high boost the autoignition reactivity enhancement can become excessive, and substantial amounts of EGR are required to prevent overly advanced combustion. Accordingly, an experimental investigation has been conducted to determine how the tradeoff between the effects of intake boost varies with fuel-type and its impact on load range and TE. Five fuels are investigated: a conventional AKI=87 petroleum-based gasoline (E0), and blends of 10 and 20% ethanol with this gasoline to reduce its reactivity enhancement with boost (E10 and E20). Furthermore, a second zero-ethanol gasoline with AKI=93 (matching that of E20) was also investigated (CF-E0), and some neat ethanol data are also reported.« less

  13. Effects of gasoline reactivity and ethanol content on boosted premixed and partially stratified low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dec, John E.; Yang, Yi; Ji, Chunsheng; Dernotte, Jeremie

    2015-04-14

    Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC), based on the compression ignition of a premixed or partially premixed dilute charge, can provide thermal efficiencies (TE) and maximum loads comparable to those of turbo-charged diesel engines, and ultra-low NOx and particulate emissions. Intake boosting is key to achieving high loads with dilute combustion, and it also enhances the fuel's autoignition reactivity, reducing the required intake heating or hot residuals. These effects have the advantages of increasing TE and charge density, allowing greater timing retard with good stability, and making the fuel ?- sensitive so that partial fuel stratification (PFS) can be applied for higher loads and further TE improvements. However, at high boost the autoignition reactivity enhancement can become excessive, and substantial amounts of EGR are required to prevent overly advanced combustion. Accordingly, an experimental investigation has been conducted to determine how the tradeoff between the effects of intake boost varies with fuel-type and its impact on load range and TE. Five fuels are investigated: a conventional AKI=87 petroleum-based gasoline (E0), and blends of 10 and 20% ethanol with this gasoline to reduce its reactivity enhancement with boost (E10 and E20). Furthermore, a second zero-ethanol gasoline with AKI=93 (matching that of E20) was also investigated (CF-E0), and some neat ethanol data are also reported.

  14. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline Price Data Collection Procedures Every Monday, retail prices for all three grades of gasoline are collected by telephone from a sample of approximately 800 retail gasoline outlets. The prices are published around 5:00 p.m. ET Monday, except on government holidays, when the data are released on Tuesday (but still represent Monday's price). The reported price includes all taxes and is the pump price paid by a consumer as of 8:00 A.M. Monday. This price represents the self-serve price

  15. U.S. gasoline price expected to average less than $2 a gallon both this year and next

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. gasoline price expected to average less than $2 a gallon both this year and next U.S. drivers are now expected to see back-to-back years of annual average gasoline prices below $2 per gallon for the first time in more than a decade. In its latest monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said low oil prices will keep the average annual price for a gallon of regular-grade gasoline at $1.89 this year and at $1.97 in 2017. The last time gasoline averaged less than $2 for two

  16. EIA Report 9/13/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Markets Saturday, September 13, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/12/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/5/2008 Year Ago 9/12/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 101.18 115.46 -14.28 106.23 79.91 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 276.96 285.42 -8.46 268.61 201.60 Heating Oil (c/gal) 293.91 319.19 -25.28 298.28 221.91 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.37 7.94 -0.57 7.45 6.44 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB),

  17. EIA Report 9/14/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Markets Sunday, September 14, 3:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 2:30pm 9/14/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/5/2008 Year Ago 9/12/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 99.17 115.46 -16.29 106.23 79.91 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 264.65 285.42 -20.77 268.61 201.60 Heating Oil (c/gal) 284.80 319.19 -34.39 298.28 221.91 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.43 7.94 -0.51 7.45 6.44 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending

  18. EIA Report 9/16/08 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Markets Tuesday, September 16, 4:00 pm See current U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Market Impacts Prices NYMEX Futures Prices (for October delivery) 9/16/2008 Pre-Gustav 8/29/2008 change Week Ago 9/9/2008 Year Ago 9/17/2007 WTI Crude Oil ($/Bbl) 91.15 115.46 -24.31 103.26 80.57 Gasoline RBOB* (c/gal) 240.08 285.42 -45.34 265.26 204.42 Heating Oil (c/gal) 271.97 319.19 -47.22 292.47 222.87 Natural Gas ($/MMBtu) 7.28 7.94 -0.66 7.54 6.65 *RBOB = Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB),

  19. Oil-futures markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prast, W.G.; Lax, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    This book on oil futures trading takes a look at a market and its various hedging strategies. Growing interest in trading of commodity futures has spread to petroleum, including crude oil, and key refined products such as gasoline and heating oil. This book describes how the international petroleum trade is structured, examines the working of oil futures markets in the United States and the United Kingdom, and assesses the possible courses of further developments.

  20. Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL) Nonpetroleum-Based Fuel Task addresses the hurdles to commercialization of biomass-derived fuels and fuel blends. One such hurdle is the unknown compatibility of new fuels with current infrastructure, such as the equipment used at service stations to dispense fuel into automobiles. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Vehicle Technology Program and the Biomass Program have engaged in a joint project to evaluate the potential for blending ethanol into gasoline at levels higher than nominal 10 volume percent. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is considering a waiver application for 15% by volume ethanol blended into gasoline (E15). Should the waiver be granted, service stations may be able to use their current equipment to dispense the new fuel. This project was established to help DOE and NREL better understand any potentially adverse impacts caused by a lack of knowledge about the compatibility of the dispensing equipment with ethanol blends higher than what the equipment was designed to dispense. This report provides data about the impact of introducing a gasoline with a higher volumetric ethanol content into service station dispensing equipment from a safety and a performance perspective.

  1. Gasoline Price Pass-through

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    differences, whereas stationary series can be estimated in level form. The unit root test could not reject the hypothesis that the retail and spot gasoline price series have a...

  2. Annual Energy Review 2008 - Released June 2009

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Administration Annual Energy Review 2008 127 1 Unfinished oils, other hydrocarbonshydrogen, and motor gasoline and aviation gasoline blending components. 2 Net imports (1.51)...

  3. Word Pro - S5.lwp

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2 (Million Barrels per Day) 1 Unfinished oils, hydrogenoxygenatesrenewablesother hydrocarbons, and motor gasoline and aviation gasoline blending components. 2 Renewable fuels...

  4. Annual Energy Review - July 2006

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Administration Annual Energy Review 2005 125 a Unfinished oils, other hydrocarbonshydrogen, and motor gasoline and aviation gasoline blending components. b Net Imports (1.04),...

  5. Annual Energy Review 2006 - June 2007

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Administration Annual Energy Review 2006 123 a Unfinished oils, other hydrocarbonshydrogen, and motor gasoline and aviation gasoline blending components. b Net imports (1.34)...

  6. Word Pro - S5

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    3 (Million Barrels per Day) 1 Unfinished oils, hydrogenoxygenatesrenewablesother hydrocarbons, and motor gasoline and aviation gasoline blending components. 2 Renewable fuels...

  7. Annual Energy Review 2007 - June 2008

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Administration Annual Energy Review 2007 123 a Unfinished oils, other hydrocarbonshydrogen, and motor gasoline and aviation gasoline blending components. b Net imports (1.41)...

  8. Average U.S. household to spend $710 less on gasoline during 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    drivers to see big savings at the gasoline pump this summer U.S. consumers are expected to pay the lowest average price for gasoline in six years during this summer's driving season, mostly because of lower crude oil costs. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the price for regular gasoline should average $2.45 per gallon this summer. That's down more than a dollar from the $3.59 per gallon seen last summer, and the cheapest average summer pump price since 2009.

  9. U.S. drivers continue to see low gasoline prices in December

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nationwide average gasoline price to fall below $2 a gallon in January The national average price of regular gasoline is expected to drop below $2 per gallon this month and hover near the $2 level through most of this year, as lower crude oil prices translate into more savings for consumers at the pump. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the retail price for regular-grade gasoline averages $1.90 per gallon in February. That's the lowest level in seven

  10. Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Advanced Distillation Curve Method | Department of Energy Supercritical transesterification processing permits efficient fuel system and combustion chamber designs to optimize fuel utilization in diesel engines., p-01_anitescu.pdf (408.75 KB) More Documents & Publications Preparation, Injection and Combustion of Supercritical Fluids Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel Injection Algae Biofuels Technology Energy

    This research effort is a part of the

  11. Gasoline Days of Supply

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    All Petrolem Reports Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales With Data for 2014 | Release Date: December 22, 2015 | Next Release Date: November 2016 Previous Issues Year: 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 Go EIA is considering changes to the survey Form EIA-821, "Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report," such as deleting kerosene and adding propane. If you would like to participate in a discussion on these proposed changes contact

  12. Reformulated gasoline quality issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, R.G.; Felch, D.E.; Edgar, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    One year ago, a panel of industry experts were interviewed in the November/December 1994 issue of Fuel Reformulation (Vol. 4, No. 6). With the focus then and now on refinery investments, the panelists were asked to forecast which refining processes would grow in importance. It is apparent from their response, and from other articles and discussions throughout the year, that hydroprocessing and catalytic conversion processes are synergistic in the overall refinery design, with flexibility and process objectives varying on a unit-by-unit case. To an extent, future refinery investments in downstream petrochemicals, such as for paraxylene production, are based on available catalytic reforming feedstock. Just a importantly, hydroprocessing units (hydrotreating, hydrocracking) needed for clean fuel production (gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel), are heavily dependent on hydrogen production from the catalytic reformer. Catalytic reforming`s significant influence in the refinery hydrogen balance, as well as its status as a significant naphtha conversion route to higher-quality fuels, make this unit a high-priority issue for engineers and planners striving for flexibility.

  13. This Week In Petroleum Gasoline Section

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Regular gasoline retail prices (dollars per gallon) U.S. Average Conventional Reformulated U.S. retail regular gasoline prices graph Retail average regular gasoline prices graph Retail conventional regular gasoline prices graph Retail reformulated regular gasoline prices graph Retail average regular gasoline prices (dollars per gallon) more price data › Year ago Most recent 08/31/15 08/29/16 08/22/16 08/15/16 08/08/16 08/01/16 07/25/16 07/18/16 U.S. 2.510 2.237 2.193 2.149 2.150 2.159 2.182

  14. What Drives U.S. Gasoline Prices? - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    What Drives U.S. Gasoline Prices? Release date: October 30, 2014 Preface U.S. oil production has grown rapidly in recent years. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) data, which reflect combined production of crude oil and lease condensate, show a rise from 5.6 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in 2011 to 7.4 million bbl/d in 2013. EIA's Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) projects continuing rapid production growth in 2014 and 2015, with forecast production in 2015 averaging 9.5 million

  15. Process for preparing lubricating oil from used waste lubricating oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Reynolds, James W.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A re-refining process is described by which high-quality finished lubricating oils are prepared from used waste lubricating and crankcase oils. The used oils are stripped of water and low-boiling contaminants by vacuum distillation and then dissolved in a solvent of 1-butanol, 2-propanol and methylethyl ketone, which precipitates a sludge containing most of the solid and liquid contaminants, unspent additives, and oxidation products present in the used oil. After separating the purified oil-solvent mixture from the sludge and recovering the solvent for recycling, the purified oil is preferably fractional vacuum-distilled, forming lubricating oil distillate fractions which are then decolorized and deodorized to prepare blending stocks. The blending stocks are blended to obtain a lubricating oil base of appropriate viscosity before being mixed with an appropriate additive package to form the finished lubricating oil product.

  16. ,"U.S. Motor Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Motor Gasoline Prices",6,"Monthly","42016","1... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Motor Gasoline Prices" "Sourcekey","EMAEPM0PTA...

  17. EIA lowers forecast for summer gasoline prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    EIA lowers forecast for summer gasoline prices U.S. gasoline prices are expected to be ... according to the new monthly forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. ...

  18. ,"New York Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Gasoline and Diesel Retail ... 4:27:01 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices" ...

  19. Price Changes in the Gasoline Market - Are Midwestern Gasoline Prices Downward Sticky?

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    The report concentrates on regional gasoline prices in the Midwest from October 1992 through June 1998.

  20. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices decrease (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.70 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 4.01 a gallon, down 4.2 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at 3.47 a gallon, remaining unchanged from last week

  1. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2014 Gasoline prices decrease (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 4.06 a gallon, down 1.8 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.47 a gallon, down 2.6 cents.This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  2. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine ...

  3. Gasoline prices - January 7, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline showed little movement from last week. Prices remained flat at $3.30 a gallon on Monday, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington. For more information, contact Amerine Woodyard on

  4. Gasoline prices decrease (Short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  5. Gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.63 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  6. Vegetable oils for tractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moroney, M.

    1981-11-14

    Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

  7. Report - Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, S. B.; Valkenburg, C.; Walton, C. W.; Elliott, D. C.; Holladay, J. E.; Stevens, D. J.; Kinchin, C.; Czernik, S.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this design case study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels.

  8. JV Task 112-Optimal Ethanol Blend-Level Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Shockey; Ted Aulich; Bruce Jones; Gary Mead; Paul Steevens

    2008-01-31

    Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET) and Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) tests were conducted on four 2007 model vehicles; a Chevrolet Impala flex-fuel and three non-flex-fuel vehicles: a Ford Fusion, a Toyota Camry, and a Chevrolet Impala. This investigation utilized a range of undenatured ethanol/Tier II gasoline blend levels from 0% to 85%. HWFET testing on ethanol blend levels of E20 in the flex fuel Chevrolet Impala and E30 in the non-flex-fuel Ford Fusion and Toyota Camry resulted in miles-per-gallon (mpg) fuel economy greater than Tier 2 gasoline, while E40 in the non-flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala resulted in an optimum mpg based on per-gallon fuel Btu content. Exhaust emission values for non-methane organic gases (NMOG), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) obtained from both the FTP-75 and the HWFET driving cycles were at or below EPA Tier II, Light-Duty Vehicles, Bin 5 levels for all vehicles tested with one exception. The flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala exceeded the NMOG standard for the FTP-75 on E-20 and Tier II gasoline.

  9. U.S. average gasoline and diesel fuel prices expected to be slightly lower in 2013 than in 2012

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    average gasoline and diesel fuel prices expected to be slightly lower in 2013 than in 2012 Despite the recent run-up in gasoline prices, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects falling crude oil prices will lead to a small decline in average motor fuel costs this year compared with last year. The price for regular gasoline is expected to average $3.55 a gallon in 2013 and $3.39 next year, according to EIA's new Short-Term Energy Outlook. That's down from $3.63 a gallon in 2012. For

  10. A study of the spray injection Reynolds number effects on gasoline yields of an FCC riser reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, B. J.; Zhou, C. Q.; Chang, S. L.; Lottes, S. A.

    2000-04-03

    A computational analysis of the combined effects of feed oil injection parameters in a commercial-scale fluidized catalytic cracking riser reactor was performed using a three-phase, multiple species kinetic cracking computer code. The analysis showed that the injection operating parameters (droplet diameter and injection velocity) had strong impacts on the gasoline yields of the FCC unit. A spray injection Reynolds number combining the two parameters was defined. A correlation between the spray injection Reynolds number and the gasoline product yields for various feed injection conditions was developed. A range of spray injection Reynolds number for the maximum gasoline yield was identified.

  11. Commercialization potential of the china lake trash-to-gasoline process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diebold, J.; Smith, G.

    1980-01-01

    The title process involves a series of noncatalytic petrochemical processes to convert organic wastes to a synthetic crude oil containing approximately 90% high-octane gasoline and 10% fuel and lubricating oils. By-product char and gases are consumed for process energy. The key features of the process, the relative confidence of the commercial scale-up and the projected economics based on an independent 3rd-party evaluation are discussed.

  12. Areas Participating in the Reformulated Gasoline Program

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reformulated Gasoline Program Contents * Introduction * Mandated RFG Program Areas o Table 1. Mandated RFG Program Areas * RFG Program Opt-In Areas o Table 2. RFG Program Opt-In Areas * RFG Program Opt-Out Procedures and Areas o Table 3. History of EPA Rulemaking on Opt-Out Procedures o Table 4. RFG Program Opt-Out Areas * State Programs o Table 5. State Reformulated Gasoline Programs * Endnotes Spreadsheets Referenced in this Article * Reformulated Gasoline Control Area Populations Related EIA

  13. Microsoft Word - Gasoline_2008 Supplement.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 1 April 2008 Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Motor Gasoline Consumption 2008 A Historical Perspective and Short-Term Projections 1 Highlights * Income growth rates have less of an impact on recent trends in gasoline consumption than in the past, but short-run effects are still significant. * High gasoline prices are once again motivating drivers to conserve by driving less and purchasing more fuel-efficient transportation. * The increasing share of lower-Btu-content ethanol has

  14. California Gasoline Price Study, 2003 Preliminary Findings

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    This is the preliminary report to Congressman Ose describing the factors driving California's spring 2003 gasoline price spike and the subsequent price increases in June and August.

  15. Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    in 2006. Companies' decisions to eliminate MTBE have been driven by State bans due to water contamination concerns, continuing liability exposure from adding MTBE to gasoline,...

  16. Diesel vs Gasoline Production | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "swing" between diesel and gasoline production deer08leister.pdf (217.54 KB) More Documents & Publications Marathon Sees Diesel Fuel in Future ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy ...

  17. ,"Motor Gasoline Sales Through Retail Outlets Prices "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Motor Gasoline Sales Through Retail Outlets Prices ",60,"Annual",2014,"6301984" ,"Release...

  18. Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans Tancred Lidderdale Contents 1. Summary 2. MTBE Supply and Demand 3. Ethanol Supply 4. Gasoline Supply 5. Gasoline Prices A. Long-Term Equilibrium Price Analysis B. Short-Term Price Volatility 6. Conclusion 7. Appendix A. Estimating MTBE Consumption by State 8. Appendix B. MTBE Imports and Exports 9. Appendix C. Glossary of Terms 10. End Notes 11. References 1. Summary The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories

  19. Gasoline prices - January 7, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline showed little movement from last week. Prices remained flat at $3.30 a gallon on Monday, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the New England and Central Atlantic regions, at 3.52 a gallon, up around 2 cents in both regions from a week ago. For the second week in a row, prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at 2.94 a gallon, down 8.1 cents. This is

  20. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.93 a gallon, down 1.9 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast States at 3.37 a gallon, down 2.6 cents

  1. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.63 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.89 a gallon, up a penny from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast States at 3.38 a gallon, down 3.9 cents

  2. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on Ethanol Engine Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P; West, Brian H

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol is a very attractive fuel from an end-use perspective because it has a high chemical octane number and a high latent heat of vaporization. When an engine is optimized to take advantage of these fuel properties, both efficiency and power can be increased through higher compression ratio, direct fuel injection, higher levels of boost, and a reduced need for enrichment to mitigate knock or protect the engine and aftertreatment system from overheating. The ASTM D5798 specification for high level ethanol blends, commonly called E85, underwent a major revision in 2011. The minimum ethanol content was revised downward from 68 vol% to 51 vol%, which combined with the use of low octane blending streams such as natural gasoline introduces the possibility of a lower octane E85 fuel. While this fuel is suitable for current ethanol tolerant flex fuel vehicles, this study experimentally examines whether engines can still be aggressively optimized for the resultant fuel from the revised ASTM D5798 specification. The performance of six ethanol fuel blends, ranging from 51-85% ethanol, is compared to a premium-grade certification gasoline (UTG-96) in a single-cylinder direct-injection (DI) engine with a compression ratio of 12.9:1 at knock-prone engine conditions. UTG-96 (RON = 96.1), light straight run gasoline (RON = 63.6), and n-heptane (RON = 0) are used as the hydrocarbon blending streams for the ethanol-containing fuels in an effort to establish a broad range of knock resistance for high ethanol fuels. Results show that nearly all ethanol-containing fuels are more resistant to engine knock than UTG-96 (the only exception being the ethanol blend with 49% n-heptane). This knock resistance allows ethanol blends made with 33 and 49% light straight run gasoline, and 33% n-heptane to be operated at significantly more advanced combustion phasing for higher efficiency, as well as at higher engine loads. While experimental results show that the octane number of the hydrocarbon

  3. Oxidation characteristics of gasoline direct-injection (GDI)...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    characteristics of gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine soot: Catalytic effects of ash and modified kinetic correlation Title Oxidation characteristics of gasoline...

  4. Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods ...

  5. Fact #890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in Refinery Output File fotw890web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact 858 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 ...

  6. High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies ...

  7. ,"Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and ... "Date","U.S. Finished Motor Gasoline Stocks at Refineries, Bulk ...

  8. ,"U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" ...

  9. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update - Energy Information Administration

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    petroleum reports Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update Gasoline Release Date: August 8, 2016 | Next Release Date: August 15, 2016 Diesel Fuel Release Date: August 8, 2016 | Next ...

  10. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, ...

  11. Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level EthanolGasoline Test Fluid Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level EthanolGasoline Test Fluid The National Renewable Energy ...

  12. Gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.29 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  13. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.44 a gallon on Monday. That's up 6.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  14. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.48 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3 ½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  15. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.51 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  16. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.55 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  17. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's up 5½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  18. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  19. Gasoline prices continue to rise (Short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices continue to rise (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.67 a gallon on Monday. That's up 7 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  20. HCCI experiments with gasoline surrogate fuels modeled by a semidetailed chemical kinetic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrae, J.C.G.; Head, R.A.

    2009-04-15

    Experiments in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine have been conducted with four gasoline surrogate fuel blends. The pure components in the surrogate fuels consisted of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene, ethanol and diisobutylene and fuel sensitivities (RON-MON) in the fuel blends ranged from two to nine. The operating conditions for the engine were p{sub in}=0.1 and 0.2 MPa, T{sub in}=80 and 250 C, {phi}=0.25 in air and engine speed 1200 rpm. A semidetailed chemical kinetic model (142 species and 672 reactions) for gasoline surrogate fuels, validated against ignition data from experiments conducted in shock tubes for gasoline surrogate fuel blends at 1.0{<=} p{<=}5.0MPa, 700{<=} T{<=}1200 K and {phi}=1.0, was successfully used to qualitatively predict the HCCI experiments using a single zone modeling approach. The fuel blends that had higher fuel sensitivity were more resistant to autoignition for low intake temperature and high intake pressure and less resistant to autoignition for high intake temperature and low intake pressure. A sensitivity analysis shows that at high intake temperature the chemistry of the fuels ethanol, toluene and diisobutylene helps to advance ignition. This is consistent with the trend that fuels with the least Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC) behavior show the highest octane sensitivity, and become less resistant to autoignition at high intake temperatures. For high intake pressure the sensitivity analysis shows that fuels in the fuel blend with no NTC behavior consume OH radicals and acts as a radical scavenger for the fuels with NTC behavior. This is consistent with the observed trend of an increase in RON and fuel sensitivity. With data from shock tube experiments in the literature and HCCI modeling in this work, a correlation between the reciprocal pressure exponent on the ignition delay to the fuel sensitivity and volume percentage of single-stage ignition fuel in the fuel blend was found. Higher fuel

  1. Volume, cost and energy for the production of gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cortes-Islas, E.M.; Ramirez-Garcia, P.F. )

    1988-06-01

    The relationship between the growth of the petrochemical industry and increasing standards of living is well known. However, a detailed analysis of the lower energy consumption that characterizes oil-based products when compared to the equivalent traditional products, used, for instance, in the automobile, textile and construction industries, has not yet been carried out. This paper models the chemical processing industries. The information obtained with this approach permits the structuring of a technical data bank in such a way that the decision maker is able to choose between new processes or the development of existing ones. The model is illustrated with the processes involved in the production of gasoline obtained from crude oil remarking volume, cost and consumption of energy.

  2. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: High-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend, Ford F-150 -- Operating Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Karner; Francfort, James Edward

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service’s Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents the results of 4,695 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 50% hydrogen–50% CNG fuel.

  3. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Low-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend, Ford F-150 -- Operating Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karner, D.; Francfort, James Edward

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service’s Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of 16,942 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 30% hydrogen/70% CNG fuel.

  4. Gasoline allies. [increasing control of regional markets by major petroleum companies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenna, D.

    1993-05-01

    This article concerns recent maneuvers of the major oil companies to control certain gasoline markets. In recent years they have abandoned, or severely reduced their operation in, certain markets to concentrate in others. This has left some regions with only two or three major suppliers of gasoline. Independent operators no longer have the flexibility to shop around for the cheapest gasoline, and are being slowly driven out of business by company-owned stores which sell at artificially low prices. The are several lawsuits in the courts challenging these practices as in violation of the anti-trust laws. The author claims that regional marketing activites of the major companies need closer monitoring by the Federal government.

  5. Prompt-Month Energy Futures

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Finished

  6. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimization | Department of Energy The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization deer12_szybist.pdf (3.46 MB) More Documents & Publications High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced

  7. The potential for alcohols and related ethers to displace conventional gasoline components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; McNutt, B.D.

    1996-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy is required by law to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace 30 percent of the projected United States consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including alcohols, natural gas and certain other components. A linear program has been used to study refinery impacts for production of ``low petroleum`` gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and major contributors to cost increase can include investment in processes to produce olefins for etherification with alcohols. High oxygenation can increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon, with substantial decreases in greenhouse gas emissions in some cases. Cost estimates are sensitive to assumptions about extrapolation of a national model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues. Reduction in crude oil use, a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program, is 10 to 17 percent in the analysis.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Blends to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Blends E15

  9. Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update Discusses hardware and system development activities to achieve in-vehicle fuel economy and emissions performance improvements compared to a production baseline vehicle. deer12_confer.pdf (1.38 MB) More Documents & Publications Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle

  10. Assessment of Summer 1997 Motor Gasoline Price Increase

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    Assesses the 1997 late summer gasoline market and some of the important issues surrounding that event.

  11. DOE's Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study DOE's Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_fujita.pdf (187.6 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE's Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study DOE's Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study Weekend/Weekday Ozone Study in the South Coast Air Basin

  12. Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson III, George R. ); Edwards, Tim; Corporan, Edwin ); Freerks, Robert L. )

    2013-01-15

    Aviation turbine engine fuel specifications are governed by ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, and the British Ministry of Defence (MOD). ASTM D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels and MOD Defence Standard 91-91 are the guiding specifications for this fuel throughout most of the world. Both of these documents rely heavily on the vast amount of experience in production and use of turbine engine fuels from conventional sources, such as crude oil, natural gas condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. Turbine engine fuel derived from these resources and meeting the above specifications has properties that are generally considered acceptable for fuels to be used in turbine engines. Alternative and synthetic fuel components are approved for use to blend with conventional turbine engine fuels after considerable testing. ASTM has established a specification for fuels containing synthesized hydrocarbons under D7566, and the MOD has included additional requirements for fuels containing synthetic components under Annex D of DS91-91. New turbine engine fuel additives and blend components need to be evaluated using ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. This paper discusses these specifications and testing requirements in light of recent literature claiming that some biomass-derived blend components, which have been used to blend in conventional aviation fuel, meet the requirements for aviation turbine fuels as specified by ASTM and the MOD. The 'Table 1' requirements listed in both D1655 and DS91-91 are predicated on the assumption that the feedstocks used to make fuels meeting these requirements are from approved sources. Recent papers have implied that commercial jet fuel can be blended with renewable components that are not hydrocarbons (such as fatty acid methyl esters). These are not allowed blend

  13. TABLE19.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Annual 1998, Volume 2 a Based on crude oil input and net reruns of unfinished oils. b Based on total finished motor gasoline output minus net input of motor gasoline blending ...

  14. Insights into Spring 2008 Gasoline Prices

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    Gasoline prices rose rapidly in spring 2007 due a variety of factors, including refinery outages and lower than expected imports. This report explores those factors and looks at the implications for 2008.

  15. Inquiry into August 2003 Gasoline Price Spike

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham requested that the Energy Information Administration conduct an inquiry into the causes of the price increases of gasoline in July and August of 2003.

  16. Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently, 1995

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the costs of producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate.

  17. Gasoline prices show sharp increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline saw its sharpest increase this year at 3.54 a gallon on Monday. That's up 18.1 cents from a week ago, based on ...

  18. Gasoline prices show sharp increase (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline saw its sharpest increase this year at 3.54 a gallon on Monday. That's up 18.1 cents from a week ago, based on the ...

  19. CSV File Documentation: Consumption

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Total Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Greater than Ed55 Conventional Other Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O.,

  20. Trends in motor gasolines: 1942-1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, E M; Whisman, M L; Woodward, P W

    1982-06-01

    Trends in motor gasolines for the years of 1942 through 1981 have been evaluated based upon data contained in surveys that have been prepared and published by the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC). These surveys have been published twice annually since 1935 describing the properties of motor gasolines from throughout the country. The surveys have been conducted in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute (API) since 1948. Various companies from throughout the country obtain samples from retail outlets, analyze the samples by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures, and report data to the Bartlesville center for compilation, tabulation, calculation, analysis and publication. A typical motor gasoline report covers 2400 samples from service stations throughout the country representing some 48 companies that manufacture and supply gasoline. The reports include trend charts, octane plots, and tables of test results from about a dozen different tests. From these data in 77 semiannual surveys, a summary report has thus been assembled that shows trends in motor gasolines throughout the entire era of winter 1942 to 1943 to the present. Trends of physical properties including octane numbers, antiknock ratings, distillation temperatures, Reid vapor pressure, sulfur and lead content are tabulated, plotted and discussed in the current report. Also included are trend effects of technological advances and the interactions of engine design, societal and political events and prices upon motor gasoline evolution during the 40 year period.

  1. Chemistry Impacts in Gasoline HCCI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P; Bunting, Bruce G

    2006-09-01

    The use of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in internal combustion engines is of interest because it has the potential to produce low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions while providing diesel-like efficiency. In HCCI combustion, a premixed charge of fuel and air auto-ignites at multiple points in the cylinder near top dead center (TDC), resulting in rapid combustion with very little flame propagation. In order to prevent excessive knocking during HCCI combustion, it must take place in a dilute environment, resulting from either operating fuel lean or providing high levels of either internal or external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Operating the engine in a dilute environment can substantially reduce the pumping losses, thus providing the main efficiency advantage compared to spark-ignition (SI) engines. Low NOx and PM emissions have been reported by virtually all researchers for operation under HCCI conditions. The precise emissions can vary depending on how well mixed the intake charge is, the fuel used, and the phasing of the HCCI combustion event; but it is common for there to be no measurable PM emissions and NOx emissions <10 ppm. Much of the early HCCI work was done on 2-stroke engines, and in these studies the CO and hydrocarbon emissions were reported to decrease [1]. However, in modern 4-stroke engines, the CO and hydrocarbon emissions from HCCI usually represent a marked increase compared with conventional SI combustion. This literature review does not report on HCCI emissions because the trends mentioned above are well established in the literature. The main focus of this literature review is the auto-ignition performance of gasoline-type fuels. It follows that this discussion relies heavily on the extensive information available about gasoline auto-ignition from studying knock in SI engines. Section 2 discusses hydrocarbon auto-ignition, the octane number scale, the chemistry behind it, its

  2. U.S. average gasoline prices falling to near $2 in December

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said high gasoline production, cheaper winter-grade gasoline, and lower gasoline demand following this summer's peak ...

  3. Combined process for heavy oil, upgrading and synthetic fuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polomski, R.E.

    1984-06-05

    A process for upgrading heavy oil to fuel products comprises deasphalting the heavy oil with an oxygenated solvent and simultaneously converting the oxygenated solvent and deasphalted oil over a ZSM-5 type catalyst to produce gasoline and distillate boiling range hydrocarbons.

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Blends to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blends on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biodiesel Basics

  5. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Products Supply Module

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01

    The Petroleum Products Supply Module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model provides forecasts of petroleum refinery inputs (crude oil, unfinished oils, pentanes plus, liquefied petroleum gas, motor gasoline blending components, and aviation gasoline blending components) and refinery outputs (motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuel, residual fuel, liquefied petroleum gas, and other petroleum products).

  6. Ethanol-blended Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ethanol-Blended Fuels A Study Guide and Overview of: * Ethanol's History in the U.S. and Worldwide * Ethanol Science and Technology * Engine Performance * Environmental Effects * Economics and Energy Security The Curriculum This curriculum on ethanol and its use as a fuel was developed by the Clean Fuels Development Coalition in cooperation with the Nebraska Ethanol Board. This material was developed in response to the need for instructional materials on ethanol and its effects on vehicle

  7. Motor gasolines, winter 1981-1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, E M

    1982-07-01

    Analytical data for 905 samples of motor gasoline, were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The data were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The samples represent the products of 30 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since winter 1959-1960 survey for the leaded gasolines, and since winter 1979-1980 survey for the unleaded gasolines. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 90.0 and above, leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 93.0, and leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R+M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.4 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.7 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 88.9 for leaded below 93.0. Only one sample was reported as 93.0 for leaded gasolines with an antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above.

  8. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Low-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend Ford F-150 Operating Summary - January 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karner, D.; Francfort, J.E.

    2003-01-22

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended hydrogen fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents results of 16,942 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 30% hydrogen/70% CNG fuel.

  9. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: High-Percentage Hydrogen/CNG Blend Ford F-150 Operating Summary - January 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karner, D.; Francfort, J.E.

    2003-01-22

    Over the past two years, Arizona Public Service, a subsidiary of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, tested four gaseous fuel vehicles as part of its alternative fueled vehicle fleet. One vehicle operated initially using compressed natural gas (CNG) and later a blend of CNG and hydrogen. Of the other three vehicles, one was fueled with pure hydrogen and two were fueled with a blend of CNG and hydrogen. The three blended-fuel vehicles were originally equipped with either factory CNG engines or factory gasoline engines that were converted to run CNG fuel. The vehicles were variously modified to operate on blended fuel and were tested using 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen (by volume). The pure-hydrogen-fueled vehicle was converted from gasoline fuel to operate on 100% hydrogen. All vehicles were fueled from the Arizona Public Service's Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which was developed to dispense gaseous fuels, including CNG, blends of CNG and hydrogen, and pure hydrogen with up to 99.9999% purity. The primary objective of the test was to evaluate the safety and reliability of operating vehicles on hydrogen and blended fuel, and the interface between the vehicles and the hydrogen fueling infrastructure. A secondary objective was to quantify vehicle emissions, cost, and performance. Over a total of 40,000 fleet test miles, no safety issues were found. Also, significant reductions in emissions were achieved by adding hydrogen to the fuel. This report presents the results of 4,695 miles of testing for one of the blended fuel vehicles, a Ford F-150 pickup truck, operating on up to 50% hydrogen-50% CNG fuel.

  10. Fuel-blending stocks from the hydrotreatment of a distillate formed by direct coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andile B. Mzinyati

    2007-09-15

    The direct liquefaction of coal in the iron-catalyzed Suplex process was evaluated as a technology complementary to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A distinguishing feature of the Suplex process, from other direct liquefaction processes, is the use of a combination of light- and heavy-oil fractions as the slurrying solvent. This results in a product slate with a small residue fraction, a distillate/naphtha mass ratio of 6, and a 65.8 mass % yield of liquid fuel product on a dry, ash-free coal basis. The densities of the resulting naphtha (C{sub 5}-200{sup o}C) and distillate (200-400{sup o}C) fractions from the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction were high (0.86 and 1.04 kg/L, respectively). The aromaticity of the distillate fraction was found to be typical of coal liquefaction liquids, at 60-65%, with a Ramsbottom carbon residue content of 0.38 mass %. Hydrotreatment of the distillate fraction under severe conditions (200{sup o}C, 20.3 MPa, and 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1}) with a NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst gave a product with a phenol content of {lt}1 ppm, a nitrogen content {lt}200 ppm, and a sulfur content {lt}25 ppm. The temperature was found to be the main factor affecting diesel fraction selectivity when operating at conditions of WHSV = 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1} and PH{sub 2} = 20.3 MPa, with excessively high temperatures (T {gt} 420{sup o}C) leading to a decrease in diesel selectivity. The fuels produced by the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction have properties that make them desirable as blending components, with the diesel fraction having a cetane number of 48 and a density of 0.90 kg/L. The gasoline fraction was found to have a research octane number (RON) of 66 and (N + 2A) value of 100, making it ideal as a feedstock for catalytic reforming and further blending with Fischer-Tropsch liquids. 44 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.