National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for oils animal fats

  1. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A.; Kraiem, T.; Naoui, S.; Belayouni, H.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Produced bio-fuels (bio-oil and bio-char) from some animal fatty wastes. • Investigated the effects of main parameters on pyrolysis products distribution. • Determined the suitable conditions for the production of the maximum of bio-oil. • Characterized bio-oils and bio-chars obtained from several animal fatty wastes. - Abstract: Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC–MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds…etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,…etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy.

  2. A method to estimate the fractional fat volume within a ROI of a breast biopsy for WAXS applications: Animal tissue evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Robert Y.; McDonald, Nancy Laamanen, Curtis; LeClair, Robert J.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to estimate the mean fractional volume of fat (?{sup }{sub fat}) within a region of interest (ROI) of a tissue sample for wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) applications. A scatter signal from the ROI was obtained and use of ?{sup }{sub fat} in a WAXS fat subtraction model provided a way to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficient ?{sub s} of the remaining fatless tissue. Methods: The efficacy of the method was tested using animal tissue from a local butcher shop. Formalin fixed samples, 5 mm in diameter 4 mm thick, were prepared. The two main tissue types were fat and meat (fibrous). Pure as well as composite samples consisting of a mixture of the two tissue types were analyzed. For the latter samples, ?{sub fat} for the tissue columns of interest were extracted from corresponding pixels in CCD digital x-ray images using a calibration curve. The means ?{sup }{sub fat} were then calculated for use in a WAXS fat subtraction model. For the WAXS measurements, the samples were interrogated with a 2.7 mm diameter 50 kV beam and the 6 scattered photons were detected with a CdTe detector subtending a solid angle of 7.75 10{sup ?5} sr. Using the scatter spectrum, an estimate of the incident spectrum, and a scatter model, ?{sub s} was determined for the tissue in the ROI. For the composite samples, a WAXS fat subtraction model was used to estimate the ?{sub s} of the fibrous tissue in the ROI. This signal was compared to ?{sub s} of fibrous tissue obtained using a pure fibrous sample. Results: For chicken and beef composites, ?{sup }{sub fat}=0.330.05 and 0.32 0.05, respectively. The subtractions of these fat components from the WAXS composite signals provided estimates of ?{sub s} for chicken and beef fibrous tissue. The differences between the estimates and ?{sub s} of fibrous obtained with a pure sample were calculated as a function of the momentum transfer x. A t-test showed that the mean of the differences did not vary

  3. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge and fat, oil and grease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan Caixia; Zhou Quancheng; Fu Guiming

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) with fat, oil and grease (FOG). > Co-digestion of TWAS and FOG at 64% VS increased biogas production by 137%. > FOG addition ratio at 74% of total VS caused inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process. > Micronutrients addition did not significantly improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. - Abstract: Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and fat, oil and grease (FOG) was conducted semi-continuously under mesophilic conditions. The results showed that daily methane yield at the steady state was 598 L/kg VS{sub added} when TWAS and FOG (64% of total VS) were co-digested, which was 137% higher than that obtained from digestion of TWAS alone. The biogas composition was stabilized at a CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} content of 66.8% and 29.5%, respectively. Micronutrients added to co-digestion did not improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. With a higher addition of FOG (74% of total VS), the digester initially failed but was slowly self-recovered; however, the methane yield was only about 50% of a healthy reactor with the same organic loading rate.

  4. Animations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The animations shown on this page are designed and meant to help understand basic geothermal concepts, and are not meant as exhaustive and detailed depictions of technical principles. Rather, they...

  5. Effect of dietary fat on plasma glutathione peroxidase levels and intestinal absorption of /sup 75/Se-labeled sodium selenite in chicks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mutanen, M.L.; Mykkaenen, H.M.

    1984-05-01

    The effect of dietary fat on the availability of selenium was investigated in chicks fed either 4 or 20% butter, olive oil, rape oil, corn oil or sunflower oil in the diet for 3 weeks after hatching. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was used as an indicator of the body selenium status. In addition, the intestinal absorption of sodium selenite (/sup 75/Se-labeled) was determined by using both the in vivo ligated loop procedure and oral administration of the isotope. The plasma GSH-Px levels increased with increasing proportion of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. Increasing the amount of fat from 4 to 20% significantly enhanced the GSH-Px activity in the groups receiving butter or olive oil, but had no effect in animals fed the unsaturated fats. The absorption of (/sup 75/Se)selenite from the ligated duodenal loops tended to be reduced in chicks fed corn oil or sunflower oil as compared to the animals receiving butter in their diet. On the other hand, the type of dietary fat did not appear to affect the absorption of the orally administered selenite. The present study demonstrates that the type of dietary fat can affect the plasma GSH-Px levels in chicks without altering the intestinal absorption of selenite. However, the results on the absorption of the intraduodenally injected sodium selenite suggest that dietary fat plays some role in the intestinal transport of selenium.

  6. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

  7. Oil

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department works to ensure domestic and global oil supplies are environmentally sustainable and invests in research and technology to make oil drilling cleaner and more efficient.

  8. Animation Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Animations include dynamic elements such as interactive images and games. For developing animations, follow these design and coding requirements.

  9. Refinery Upgrading of Hydropyrolysis Oil From Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Michael; Marker, Terry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Wangerow, Jim; Swanson, Dan; McLeod, Celeste; Del Paggio, Alan; Urade, Vikrant; Rao, Madhusudhan; Narasimhan, Laxmi; Gephart, John; Starr, Jack; Hahn, John; Stover, Daniel; Parrish, Martin; Maxey, Carl; Shonnard, David; Handler, Robert; Fan, Jiquig

    2015-08-31

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be converted to bio-oils containing less than 10% oxygen by a hydropyrolysis process. Hydropyrolysis is the first step in Gas Technology Institute’s (GTI) integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion IH2®. These intermediate bio-oils can then be converted to drop-in hydrocarbon fuels using existing refinery hydrotreating equipment to make hydrocarbon blending components, which are fully compatible with existing fuels. Alternatively, cellulosic or woody biomass can directly be converted into drop-in hydrocarbon fuels containing less than 0.4% oxygen using the IH2 process located adjacent to a refinery or ethanol production facility. Many US oil refineries are actually located near biomass resources and are a logical location for a biomass to transportation fuel conversion process. The goal of this project was to work directly with an oil refinery partner, to determine the most attractive route and location for conversion of biorenewables to drop in fuels in their refinery and ethanol production network. Valero Energy Company, through its subsidiaries, has 12 US oil refineries and 11 ethanol production facilities, making them an ideal partner for this analysis. Valero is also part of a 50- 50 joint venture with Darling Ingredients called Diamond Green Diesel. Diamond Green Diesel’s production capacity is approximately 11,000 barrels per day of renewable diesel. The plant is located adjacent to Valero’s St Charles, Louisiana Refinery and converts recycled animal fats, used cooking oil, and waste corn oil into renewable diesel. This is the largest renewable diesel plant in the U.S. and has successfully operated for over 2 years For this project, 25 liters of hydropyrolysis oil from wood and 25 liters of hydropyrolysis oils from corn stover were produced. The hydropyrolysis oil produced had 4-10% oxygen. Metallurgical testing of hydropyrolysis liquids was completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratories (Oak Ridge) and showed the

  10. Plants & Animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    products from animals (e.g., milk, honey, and eggs) Small and big game animals (e.g., rabbits, deer, and elk) on neighboring properties around LANL Deer and elk that are killed by...

  11. Vegetable oil fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew, D.

    1981-04-01

    In this article, the future role of renewable agricultural resources in providing fuel is discussed. it was only during this century that U.S. farmers began to use petroleum as a fuel for tractors as opposed to forage crop as fuel for work animals. Now farmers may again turn to crops as fuel for agricultural production - the possible use of sunflower oil, soybean oil and rapeseed oil as substitutes for diesel fuel is discussed.

  12. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-09-03

    An animal litter composition that includes geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. This geopolymerization reaction may occur within a pelletizer. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it may be dried and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates may be used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter or other absorbing material. Aluminum sulfate, clinoptilolite, silica gel, sodium alginate and mineral oil may be added as additional ingredients.

  13. Fat to muscle ratio measurements with dual energy x-ray absorbtiometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, A.; Luo, J.; Wang, A.; Broadbent, C.; Zhong, J.; Dilmanian, F. A.; Zafonte, F.; Zhong, Z.

    2015-03-14

    Accurate measurement of the fat-to-muscle ratio in animal model is important for obesity research. In addition, an efficient way to measure the fat to muscle ratio in animal model using dual-energy absorptiometry is presented in this paper. A radioactive source exciting x-ray fluorescence from a target material is used to provide the two x-ray energies needed. The x-rays, after transmitting through the sample, are measured with an energy-sensitive Ge detector. Phantoms and specimens were measured. The results showed that the method was sensitive to the fat to muscle ratios with good linearity. A standard deviation of a few percent inmore » the fat to muscle ratio could be observed with the x-ray dose of 0.001 mGy.« less

  14. Fat Man Dropped on Nagasaki | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Fat Man Dropped on Nagasaki August 09, 1945 Fat Man Dropped on Nagasaki Nagasaki, Japan The implosion model plutonium bomb, called Fat Man, is dropped on Nagasaki, Japan....

  15. Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspac...

  16. World oil trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, A. )

    1991-01-01

    This book provides data on many facets of the world oil industry topics include; oil consumption; oils share of energy consumption; crude oil production; natural gas production; oil reserves; prices of oil; world refining capacity; and oil tankers.

  17. Fat Spaniel Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: Fat Spaniel Technologies Address: 2 W. Santa Clara Street Place: San Jose, California Zip: 95113 Region: Bay Area Sector:...

  18. Fat Spaniel Technologies FST | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FST Jump to: navigation, search Name: Fat Spaniel Technologies (FST) Place: San Jose, California Zip: 95113 1824 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Provides software and...

  19. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil)...

  20. Venezuelan oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, A.R. )

    1989-01-01

    Oil reserves have been known to exist in Venezuela since early historical records, however, it was not until the 20th century that the extensive search for new reserves began. The 1950's marked the height of oil exploration when 200 new oil fields were discovered, as well as over 60{percent} of proven reserves. Venezuela now produces one tone in seven of crude oil consumption and the country's abundant reserves such as the Bolivar Coastal field in the West of the country and the Orinoco Belt field in the East, will ensure it's continuing importance as an oil producer well into the 21st century. This book charts the historical development of Venezuela oil and provides a chronology of all the significant events which have shaped the oil industry of today. It covers all the technical, legal, economic and political factors which have contributed to the evolution of the industry and also gives information on current oil resources and production. Those events significant to the development of the industry, those which were influential in shaping future policy and those which precipitated further action are included. The book provides a source of reference to oil companies, oil economists and petroleum geologists.

  1. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot...

  2. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities, 1999" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot (gallons)","per Worker...

  3. Crude Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barrels) Product: Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases Distillate Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Oil Still Gas Petroleum Coke Marketable Petroleum Coke Catalyst Petroleum Coke Other Petroleum Products Natural Gas Coal Purchased Electricity Purchased Steam Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History U.S. 0 0 0 0 0 0 1986-2015 East Coast (PADD 1) 0 0 0 0

  4. Plants & Animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plants & Animals Plants & Animals Plant and animal monitoring is performed to determine whether Laboratory operations are impacting human health via the food chain. February 2, 2015 A rabbit on LANL land. A rabbit on Los Alamos National Laboratory land. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email We sample many plants and animals, including wild and domestic crops, game animals, fish, and food products from

  5. Comparative dermotoxicity of shale oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holland, L.M.; Wilson, J.S.; Foreman, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    When shale oils are applied at higher dose levels the standard observation of tumor production and latency are often obscured by a severe inflammatory response leading to epidermal degeneration. The two experiments reported here are still in progress, however the interim results are useful in assessing both the phlogistic and tumorigenic properties of three shale oils. Three shale oils were tested in these experiments. The first crude oil (OCSO No. 6) was produced in a modified in situ report at Occidental Oil Company's Logan Wash site near Debeque, Colorado. The second crude oil (PCSO II) was produced in the above ground Paraho vertical-kiln retort located at Anvil Points near Rifle, Colorado and the third oil was the hydrotreated daughter product of the Paraho crude (PCSO-UP). Experiment I was designed to determine the highest dose level at which tumor latency could be measured without interference from epidermal degeneration. Experiment II was designed to determine the effect of application frequency on both tumor response and inflammatory phenomena. Complete epidermal degeneration was used as the only measure of severe inflammation. Relative tumorigenicity was based on the number of tumor bearing mice without regard to multiple tumors on individual animals. In both experiments, tumor occurrence was confirmed one week after initial appearance. The sex-related difference in inflammatory response is striking and certanly has significance for experimental design. An increased phlogistic sensitivity expressed in male mice could affect the meaning of an experiment where only one sex was used.

  6. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per...

  7. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  8. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per...

  9. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  10. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per Square Foot"...

  11. Chronic subhepatotoxic exposure to arsenic enhances hepatic injury caused by high fat diet in mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Min; Schmidt, Robin H.; Beier, Juliane I.; Department of Medicine, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 ; Watson, Walter H.; University of Louisville Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 ; Zhong, Hai; University of Louisville Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 ; States, J. Christopher; Arteel, Gavin E.

    2011-12-15

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous contaminant in drinking water. Whereas arsenic can be directly hepatotoxic, the concentrations/doses required are generally higher than present in the US water supply. However, physiological/biochemical changes that are alone pathologically inert can enhance the hepatotoxic response to a subsequent stimulus. Such a '2-hit' paradigm is best exemplified in chronic fatty liver diseases. Here, the hypothesis that low arsenic exposure sensitizes liver to hepatotoxicity in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was tested. Accordingly, male C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to low fat diet (LFD; 13% calories as fat) or high fat diet (HFD; 42% calories as fat) and tap water or arsenic (4.9 ppm as sodium arsenite) for ten weeks. Biochemical and histologic indices of liver damage were determined. High fat diet ({+-} arsenic) significantly increased body weight gain in mice compared with low-fat controls. HFD significantly increased liver to body weight ratios; this variable was unaffected by arsenic exposure. HFD caused steatohepatitis, as indicated by histological assessment and by increases in plasma ALT and AST. Although arsenic exposure had no effect on indices of liver damage in LFD-fed animals, it significantly increased the liver damage caused by HFD. This effect of arsenic correlated with enhanced inflammation and fibrin extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. These data indicate that subhepatotoxic arsenic exposure enhances the toxicity of HFD. These results also suggest that arsenic exposure might be a risk factor for the development of fatty liver disease in human populations. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterizes a mouse model of arsenic enhanced NAFLD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic synergistically enhances experimental fatty liver disease at concentrations that cause no overt hepatotoxicity alone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This effect is associated with increased inflammation.

  12. Beware of migrating animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Now that daylight is growing shorter and nights and evenings are cooler, large game animals have begun their seasonal migrations and are more likely to travel during...

  13. Free-Electron Laser Targets Fat | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free-Electron Laser Targets Fat Free-Electron Laser Targets Fat April 10, 2006 Free-Electron Laser Scientists Rox Anderson, right, and Free-Electron Laser Scientist Steve Benson, ...

  14. Tasty fat: X-rays finding the blueprint of why fat is yummy ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The basic molecules making up edible fats are triglycerides (TAGs), or three hydrocarbon chains known as fatty acids and a sweet-tasting glycerol molecule. The good news is that ...

  15. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  16. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) (3.31 MB) More Documents & Publications PIA - WEB Physical ...

  17. FCC Pilot Plant Results with Vegetable Oil and Pyrolysis Oil...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FCC Pilot Plant Results with Vegetable Oil and Pyrolysis Oil Feeds FCC Pilot Plant Results with Vegetable Oil and Pyrolysis Oil Feeds Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons ...

  18. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  19. Biodiesel fuel from animal fat. Ancillary studies on transesterification of beef tallow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, F.; Clements, L.D.; Hanna, M.A.

    1998-09-01

    Transesterification of beef tallow was investigated. The solubility of ethanol in beef tallow was much higher than that of methanol. At 100 C the solubility of methanol was 19% (w/w). The solubility of ethanol in beef tallow reached 100% (w/w) at about 68 C. For the distribution of methanol between beef tallow methyl esters (BTME) and glycerol, the percentage of total methanol in the glycerol phase was higher than that in the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) phase in a simulated system at room temperature. At 65--80 C, however, the percentage of total methanol in FAME (60% (w/w)) was higher than that in glycerol (40% (w/w)) in a 90:10 (w/w) blend of FAME and glycerol. This coincided with the methanol distribution in the transesterified product. The process for making beef tallow methyl esters should recover methanol using vacuum distillation, separate the ester and glycerol phases, and then wash the beef tallow methyl esters with warm water. At neutral pH, the separation of ester and glycerol and water washing was easier because it reduced emulsion formation.

  20. Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures for All Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  1. Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings* Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  2. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL WATERING DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Finkel, M.P.

    1964-04-01

    A device for watering experimental animals confined in a battery of individual plastic enclosures is described. It consists of a rectangular plastic enclosure having a plurality of fluid-tight compartments, each with a drinking hole near the bottom and a filling hole on the top. The enclosure is immersed in water until filled, its drinking holes sealed with a strip of tape, and it is then placed in the battery. The tape sealing prevents the flow of water from the device, but permits animals to drink by licking the drinking holes. (AEC)

  3. Animation Requirements for the Web

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Animations include dynamic elements such as interactive images and games. For developing animations, follow the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE's) design and coding requirements.

  4. Oil & Gas Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil & Gas Research Unconventional Resources NETL's onsite research in unconventional ... quantify potential risks associated with oil and gas resources in shale reservoirs that ...

  5. Oil and Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil and Gas Oil and Gas R&D focus on the use of conventional and unconventional fossil fuels, including associated environmental challenges Contact thumbnail of Business ...

  6. Oil Security Metrics Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L.; Leiby, Paul N.

    2005-03-06

    A presentation to the IWG GPRA USDOE, March 6, 2005, Washington, DC. OSMM estimates oil security benefits of changes in the U.S. oil market.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MAINTENANCE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Finkel, M.P.

    1962-01-22

    A method of housing experimental animals such as mice in individual tube- like plastic enclosures is described. Contrary to experience, when this was tried with metal the mice did not become panicky. Group housing, with its attendant difficulties, may thus be dispensed with. (AEC)

  8. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1994-03-29

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

  9. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  10. Oil Production

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-07-01

    A horizontal and slanted well model was developed and incorporated into BOAST, a black oil simulator, to predict the potential production rates for such wells. The HORIZONTAL/SLANTED WELL MODEL can be used to calculate the productivity index, based on the length and location of the wellbore within the block, for each reservoir grid block penetrated by the horizontal/slanted wellbore. The well model can be run under either pressure or rate constraints in which wellbore pressuresmore » can be calculated as an option of infinite-conductivity. The model can simulate the performance of multiple horizontal/slanted wells in any geometric combination within reservoirs.« less

  11. Structural Basis for the Interaction between Pyk2-FAT Domain...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structural Basis for the Interaction between Pyk2-FAT Domain and Leupaxin LD Repeats Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural Basis for the Interaction between ...

  12. Eco Oil 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett Earl; Brenda Clark

    2009-10-26

    This article describes the processes, challenges, and achievements of researching and developing a biobased motor oil.

  13. World Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    World Crude Oil Prices (Dollars per Barrel) The data on this page are no longer available.

  14. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (Btu) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity (thousand Btu...

  15. Going Global: Tight Oil Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    GOING GLOBAL: TIGHT OIL PRODUCTION Leaping out of North America and onto the World Stage JULY 2014 GOING GLOBAL: TIGHT OIL PRODUCTION Jamie Webster, Senior Director Global Oil ...

  16. Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

    1984-02-14

    An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

  17. Crude Oil Characteristics Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SAE Plan June 29, 2015 Page 1 Crude Oil Characteristics Research Sampling, Analysis and Experiment (SAE) Plan The U.S. is experiencing a renaissance in oil and gas production. The Energy Information Administration projects that U.S. oil production will reach 9.3 million barrels per day in 2015 - the highest annual average level of oil production since 1972. This domestic energy boom is due primarily to new unconventional production of light sweet crude oil from tight-oil formations like the

  18. Fuel Oil Use in Manufacturing

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    logo Return to: Manufacturing Home Page Fuel Oil Facts Oil Price Effect Fuel Switching Actual Fuel Switching Storage Capacity Fuel Oil Use in Manufacturing Why Look at Fuel Oil?...

  19. Sound Oil Company

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Ward Oil Co., 24 DOE 81,002 (1994); see also Belcher Oil Co., 15 DOE 81,018 (1987) ... months relief because of flood); Utilities Bd. of Citronelle-Gas, 4 DOE 81,205 (1979) ...

  20. South American oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    GAO reviewed the petroleum industries of the following eight South American Countries that produce petroleum but are not major exporters: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. This report discusses the amount of crude oil the United States imports from the eight countries, expected crude oil production for these countries through the year 2010, and investment reforms that these countries have recently made in their petroleum industries. In general, although the United States imports some oil from these countries, as a group, the eight countries are currently net oil importers because combined domestic oil consumption exceeds oil production. Furthermore, the net oil imports are expected to continue to increase through the year 2010, making it unlikely that the United States will obtain increased oil shipments from these countries.

  1. Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhanced Oil Recovery As much as two-thirds of conventional crude oil discovered in U.S. fields remains unproduced, left behind due to the physics of fluid flow. In addition, ...

  2. US Crude oil exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2014 EIA Energy Conference U.S. Crude Oil Exports July 14, 2014 By Lynn D. Westfall U.S. Energy Information Administration U.S. crude oil production has grown by almost 50% since ...

  3. Crude Oil Characteristics Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SAE Plan June 29, 2015 Page 1 Crude Oil Characteristics Research Sampling, Analysis and Experiment (SAE) Plan The U.S. is experiencing a renaissance in oil and gas production. The ...

  4. SRC residual fuel oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.; Foster, E.P.

    1985-10-15

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  5. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  6. Vegetable oils for tractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moroney, M.

    1981-11-14

    Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

  7. Oil-futures markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prast, W.G.; Lax, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    This book on oil futures trading takes a look at a market and its various hedging strategies. Growing interest in trading of commodity futures has spread to petroleum, including crude oil, and key refined products such as gasoline and heating oil. This book describes how the international petroleum trade is structured, examines the working of oil futures markets in the United States and the United Kingdom, and assesses the possible courses of further developments.

  8. Biodiesel Offers a Renewable Alternative

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel made of vegetable oils or animal fats. It can be produced from new oils such as soy or used vegetable oils like restaurant grease.

  9. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

  10. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

  11. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  12. Copper is Key in Burning Fat, New Study Finds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Copper is Key in Burning Fat, New Study Finds A new study led by a Berkeley Lab scientist ... Researchers want to explore if a copper deficiency is linked to obesity and obesity ...

  13. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  14. Albabio SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Albabio SL Place: Almeria, Spain Product: Biodiesel producer using used vegetable oils and animal fat as raw material Coordinates:...

  15. Shale oil dearsenation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brickman, F.E.; Degnan, T.F.; Weiss, C.S.

    1984-10-29

    This invention relates to processing shale oil and in particular to processing shale oil to reduce the arsenic content. Specifically, the invention relates to treating shale oil by a combination of processes - coking and water washing. Many shale oils produced by conventional retorting processes contain inorganic materials, such as arsenic, which interfere with subsequent refining or catalytic hydroprocessing operations. Examples of these hydroprocessing operations are hydrogenation, denitrogenation, and desulfurization. From an environmental standpoint, removal of such contaminants may be desirable even if the shale oil is to be used directly as a fuel. Hence, it is desirable that contaminants such as arsenic be removed, or reduced to low levels, prior to further processing of the shale oil or prior to its use as a fuel.

  16. Hot Oiling Spreadsheet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-10-22

    One of the most common oil-field treatments is hot oiling to remove paraffin from wells. Even though the practice is common, the thermal effectiveness of the process is not commonly understood. In order for producers to easily understand the thermodynamics of hot oiling, a simple tool is needed for estimating downhole temperatures. Such a tool has been developed that can be distributed as a compiled spreadsheet.

  17. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.6 cents from a week ago to $2.97 per gallon. That's down $1.05 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.94 per gallon, down 6.7 cents from last week, and down $1.07

  18. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 6.3 cents from a week ago to $2.91 per gallon. That's down $1.10 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.88 per gallon, down 6.8 cents from last week, and down $1.13

  19. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.5 cents from a week ago to $2.84 per gallon. That's down $1.22 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.80 per gallon, down 7.4 cents from last week, and down $1.23

  20. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 4.1 cents from a week ago to $2.89 per gallon, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.84 per gallon, down 5.4 cents from last week

  1. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.6 cents from a week ago to $3.04 per gallon. That's down 99.4 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.01 per gallon, down 3.6 cents from last week, and down $1.01

  2. Lower oil prices also cutting winter heating oil and propane...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    see even lower natural gas and heating oil bills this winter than previously expected ... said the average household heating with oil will experience a 41% drop in heating oil ...

  3. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 2001 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  4. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  5. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  6. Upgrading heavy gas oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, S.; Reese, D.D.

    1986-05-20

    A method is described of neutralizing the organic acidity in heavy gas oils to produce a neutralization number less than 1.0 whereby they are rendered suitable as lube oil feed stocks which consists essentially of treating the heavy gas oils with a neutralizing amount of monoethanolamine to form an amine salt with the organic acids and then heating the thus-neutralized heavy gas oil at a temperature at least about 25/sup 0/F greater than the boiling point of water and for a time sufficient to convert the amine salts to amides.

  7. Enclosure for small animals during awake animal imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goddard, Jr., James S

    2013-11-26

    An enclosure or burrow restrains an awake animal during an imaging procedure. A tubular body, made from a radiolucent material that does not attenuate x-rays or gamma rays, accepts an awake animal. A proximal end of the body includes an attachment surface that corresponds to an attachment surface of an optically transparent and optically uniform window. An anti-reflective coating may be applied to an inner surface, an outer surface, or both surfaces of the window. Since the window is a separate element of the enclosure and it is not integrally formed as part of the body, it can be made with optically uniform thickness properties for improved motion tracking of markers on the animal with a camera during the imaging procedure. The motion tracking information is then used to compensate for animal movement in the image.

  8. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2012-08-28

    An animal litter composition including geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control is accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  9. Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development Robert Keiter; John Ruple...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah: Implications for Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development Robert Keiter; John Ruple; Heather Tanana; Rebecca Holt 29 ENERGY...

  10. STEO September 2012 - oil production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    EIA analyst Sam Gorgen explains: "Higher oil supplies, especially from North Dakota and Texas, boosted U.S. oil production. The number of on-shore drilling rigs targeting oil ...

  11. Oil shale technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. (Akron Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale is undoubtedly an excellent energy source that has great abundance and world-wide distribution. Oil shale industries have seen ups and downs over more than 100 years, depending on the availability and price of conventional petroleum crudes. Market forces as well as environmental factors will greatly affect the interest in development of oil shale. Besides competing with conventional crude oil and natural gas, shale oil will have to compete favorably with coal-derived fuels for similar markets. Crude shale oil is obtained from oil shale by a relatively simple process called retorting. However, the process economics are greatly affected by the thermal efficiencies, the richness of shale, the mass transfer effectiveness, the conversion efficiency, the design of retort, the environmental post-treatment, etc. A great many process ideas and patents related to the oil shale pyrolysis have been developed; however, relatively few field and engineering data have been published. Due to the vast heterogeneity of oil shale and to the complexities of physicochemical process mechanisms, scientific or technological generalization of oil shale retorting is difficult to achieve. Dwindling supplied of worldwide petroleum reserves, as well as the unprecedented appetite of mankind for clean liquid fuel, has made the public concern for future energy market grow rapidly. the clean coal technology and the alternate fuel technology are currently of great significance not only to policy makers, but also to process and chemical researchers. In this book, efforts have been made to make a comprehensive text for the science and technology of oil shale utilization. Therefore, subjects dealing with the terminological definitions, geology and petrology, chemistry, characterization, process engineering, mathematical modeling, chemical reaction engineering, experimental methods, and statistical experimental design, etc. are covered in detail.

  12. Estimate Radiological Dose for Animals

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-12-18

    Estimate Radiological dose for animals in ecological environment using open literature values for parameters such as body weight, plant and soil ingestion rate, rad. halflife, absorbed energy, biological halflife, gamma energy per decay, soil-to-plant transfer factor, ...etc

  13. Vegetable oil as fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    A review is presented of various experiments undertaken over the past few years in the U.S. to test the performance of vegetable oils in diesel engines, mainly with a view to on-farm energy self-sufficiency. The USDA Northern Regional Research Center in Peoria, Illinois, is screening native U.S. plant species as potential fuel oil sources.

  14. Balancing oil and environment... responsibly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, Walter C.; Teske, Lisa

    2007-01-25

    Balancing Oil and Environment…Responsibly As the price of oil continues to skyrocket and global oil production nears the brink, pursuing unconventional oil supplies, such as oil shale, oil sands, heavy oils, and oils from biomass and coal has become increasingly attractive. Of particular significance to the American way is that our continent has significant quantities of these resources. Tapping into these new resources, however, requires cutting-edge technologies for identification, production, processing and environmental management. This job needs a super hero or two for a job of this size and proportion…

  15. Corrosivity Of Pyrolysis Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R; Bestor, Michael A; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oils from several sources have been analyzed and used in corrosion studies which have consisted of exposing corrosion coupons and stress corrosion cracking U-bend samples. The chemical analyses have identified the carboxylic acid compounds as well as the other organic components which are primarily aromatic hydrocarbons. The corrosion studies have shown that raw pyrolysis oil is very corrosive to carbon steel and other alloys with relatively low chromium content. Stress corrosion cracking samples of carbon steel and several low alloy steels developed through-wall cracks after a few hundred hours of exposure at 50 C. Thermochemical processing of biomass can produce solid, liquid and/or gaseous products depending on the temperature and exposure time used for processing. The liquid product, known as pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, as produced contains a significant amount of oxygen, primarily as components of water, carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones and aldehydes. As a result of these constituents, these oils are generally quite acidic with a Total Acid Number (TAN) that can be around 100. Because of this acidity, bio-oil is reported to be corrosive to many common structural materials. Despite this corrosive nature, these oils have the potential to replace some imported petroleum. If the more acidic components can be removed from this bio-oil, it is expected that the oil could be blended with crude oil and then processed in existing petroleum refineries. The refinery products could be transported using customary routes - pipelines, barges, tanker trucks and rail cars - without a need for modification of existing hardware or construction of new infrastructure components - a feature not shared by ethanol.

  16. Process Optimization for Solid Extraction, Flavor Improvement and Fat Removal in the Production of Soymilk From Full Fat Soy Flakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanley Prawiradjaja

    2003-05-31

    Traditionally soymilk has been made with whole soybeans; however, there are other alternative raw ingredients for making soymilk, such as soy flour or full-fat soy flakes. US markets prefer soymilk with little or no beany flavor. modifying the process or using lipoxygenase-free soybeans can be used to achieve this. Unlike the dairy industry, fat reduction in soymilk has been done through formula modification instead of by conventional fat removal (skimming). This project reports the process optimization for solids and protein extraction, flavor improvement and fat removal in the production of 5, 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix soymilk from full fat soy flakes and whole soybeans using the Takai soymilk machine. Proximate analyses, and color measurement were conducted in 5, 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix soymilk. Descriptive analyses with trained panelists (n = 9) were conducted using 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix lipoxygenase-free and high protein blend soy flake soymilks. Rehydration of soy flakes is necessary to prevent agglomeration during processing and increase extractability. As the rehydration temperature increases from 15 to 50 to 85 C, the hexanal concentration was reduced. Enzyme inactivation in soy flakes milk production (measured by hexanal levels) is similar to previous reports with whole soybeans milk production; however, shorter rehydration times can be achieved with soy flakes (5 to 10 minutes) compared to whole beans (8 to 12 hours). Optimum rehydration conditions for a 5, 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix soymilk are 50 C for 5 minutes, 85 C for 5 minutes and 85 C for 10 minutes, respectively. In the flavor improvement study of soymilk, the hexanal date showed differences between undeodorized HPSF in contrast to triple null soymilk and no differences between deodorized HPSF in contrast to deodorized triple null. The panelists could not differentiate between the beany, cereal, and painty flavors. However, the panelists responded that the overall aroma of deodorized 8 {sup o}Brix triple null

  17. China shows increasing interest in heavy oil and oil sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    China and Canadian and US groups are cooperating in several areas to develop the heavy oil, asphalt, and oil sand deposits of China. The agreements dealing with exploration and upgrading are briefly described. The majority of the paper describes the occurrences of heavy oil, asphalt, and oil sands in China. 1 figure.

  18. Hydroprocessing hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, H.D.; Borgens, P.B.

    1990-07-10

    This patent describes a catalytic hydroprocess of a hydrocarbon oil containing nitrogen or sulfur. It comprises: contacting a catalytic composition with the hydrocarbon oil under hydroprocessing conditions so as to produce a product hydrocarbon oil containing less nitrogen or sulfur than the hydrocarbon oil, the catalytic composition prepared by the method comprising the steps of impregnating porous refractory support particles with an aqueous impregnating solution comprising one or more Group VIB metal components, one or more phosphorus components and citric acid, the citric acid in a mole ratio to the Group VIB metal components calculated as the Group VIB metal trioxide of less than 1 to 1. The solution has a pH less than 1.0 and calcining the impregnated support particles to produce a catalytic composition containing a Group VIB metal component and a phosphorous component on the porous refractory oxide support.

  19. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    20.86 20.67 20.47 20.24 20.32 19.57 See footnotes at end of table. 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual...

  20. Oil & Natural Gas Technology

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    IN SITU THERMAL PROCESSING OF OIL SHALESANDS Authors: Michal Hradisky and Philip J. Smith DOE Award No.: DE-FE0001243 Reporting Period: October 1, 2009 - September 30, 2011 ...

  1. oil1987.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... Average Fuel OilKerosene Consumption Expenditures Below Poverty Line 100 Percent 2.0 1.4 ... for 1987. (3) Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  2. Oil Market Assessment

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    Based on Energy Information Administration (EIA) contacts and trade press reports, overall U.S. and global oil supplies appear to have been minimally impacted by yesterday's terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.

  3. Oil shale research in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianqiu, W.; Jialin, Q. (Beijing Graduate School, Petroleum Univ., Beijing (CN))

    1989-01-01

    There have been continued efforts and new emergence in oil shale research in Chine since 1980. In this paper, the studies carried out in universities, academic, research and industrial laboratories in recent years are summarized. The research areas cover the chemical structure of kerogen; thermal behavior of oil shale; drying, pyrolysis and combustion of oil shale; shale oil upgrading; chemical utilization of oil shale; retorting waste water treatment and economic assessment.

  4. NETL: Oil & Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil & Gas Efficient recovery of our nation's fossil fuel resources in an environmentally safe manner requires the development and application of new technologies that address the unique nature and challenging locations of many of our remaining oil and natural gas accumulations. The National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) research projects are designed to help catalyze the development of these new technologies, provide objective data to help quantify the environmental and safety risks

  5. Crude Oil Domestic Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Crude Oil Domestic Production Refinery Crude Oil Inputs Refinery Gross Inputs Refinery Operable Capacity (Calendar Day) Refinery Percent Operable Utilization Net Inputs of Motor Gasoline Blending Components Net Inputs of RBOB Blending Components Net Inputs of CBOB Blending Components Net Inputs of GTAB Blending Components Net Inputs of All Other Blending Components Net Inputs of Fuel Ethanol Net Production - Finished Motor Gasoline Net Production - Finished Motor Gasoline (Excl.

  6. Exposure standard for fog oil. Technical report, Dec 89-Nov 90

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, W.G.

    1990-11-15

    Effects of mineral oils in animals and humans are evaluated and serve as the basis for the development of an exposure standard for fog oil. Considered are health hazards associated with fog oil purchased before and after the Military Specification was amended in April 1986 to exclude carcinogens. While repeated exposure to conventionally-refined mineral oils may cause pulmonary disease as well as severe dermatoses and cancer of the skin and scrotum, lipoid pneumonia is the major health hazard associated with highly refined mineral oils such as fog oils purchased after April 1986. While the course of lipoid pneumonia can be asymptomatic in some individuals, in others its symptoms can range from occasional cough to severe, debilitating dyspnea and pulmonary illness, occasionally ending in death.

  7. Process for preparing lubricating oil from used waste lubricating oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Reynolds, James W.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A re-refining process is described by which high-quality finished lubricating oils are prepared from used waste lubricating and crankcase oils. The used oils are stripped of water and low-boiling contaminants by vacuum distillation and then dissolved in a solvent of 1-butanol, 2-propanol and methylethyl ketone, which precipitates a sludge containing most of the solid and liquid contaminants, unspent additives, and oxidation products present in the used oil. After separating the purified oil-solvent mixture from the sludge and recovering the solvent for recycling, the purified oil is preferably fractional vacuum-distilled, forming lubricating oil distillate fractions which are then decolorized and deodorized to prepare blending stocks. The blending stocks are blended to obtain a lubricating oil base of appropriate viscosity before being mixed with an appropriate additive package to form the finished lubricating oil product.

  8. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henning, Carl D.

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

  9. United Oil Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oil Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: United Oil Company Place: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Product: Vegetable-Oil producer Biodiesel producer based in Pittsburgh, PA...

  10. Microsoft Word - Heating Oil Season.docx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    4-2015 Heating Oil Season Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve Trigger Mechanism (Cents per Gallon, Except Where Noted) Week Residential Heating Oil Price Average Brent Spot Price ...

  11. Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources The United States has significant natural gas and oil reserves. But many of these resources are increasingly harder to ...

  12. Heating Oil Reserve History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating Oil Reserve History Heating Oil Reserve History Creation of an emergency reserve of heating oil was directed by President Clinton on July 10, 2000, when he directed ...

  13. Finding Hidden Oil and Gas Reserves

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Finding Hidden Oil and Gas Reserves Finding Hidden Oil and Gas Reserves Key Challenges: Seismic imaging methods, vital in our continuing search for deep offshore oil and gas...

  14. Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources The United States has significant natural gas and oil reserves. But many of these resources are increasingly harder to...

  15. Fuel Cell Animation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Animation Fuel Cell Animation This fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles emit approximately the same amount of water per mile as conventional vehicles powered by internal combustion engines. Learn more about water emissions from fuel cell vehicles. View text version of animation.

  16. Method and apparatus for determining fat content of tissue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weber, Thomas M.; Spletzer, Barry L.; Bryan, Jon R.; Dickey, Fred M.; Shagam, Richard N.; Gooris, Luc

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining characteristics of tissue is disclosed. The method comprises supplying optical energy to a tissue and detecting at a plurality of locations consequent energy scattered by the tissue. Analysis of the scattered energy as taught herein provides information concerning the properties of the tissue, specifically information related to the fat and lean content and thickness of the tissue. The apparatus comprises a light source adapted to deliver optical energy to a tissue. A plurality of detectors can be mounted at different positions relative to the source to detect energy scattered by the tissue. A signal processor as taught herein can determine characteristics of the tissue from the signals from the detectors and locations of the detectors, specifically information related to the fat and lean content and thickness of the tissue.

  17. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  18. BIOMASS TO BIO-OIL BY LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Huamin; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-10

    Significant efforts have been devoted to develop processes for the conversion of biomass, an abundant and sustainable source of energy, to liquid fuels and chemicals, in order to replace diminishing fossil fuels and mitigate global warming. Thermochemical and biochemical methods have attracted the most attention. Among the thermochemical processes, pyrolysis and liquefaction are the two major technologies for the direct conversion of biomass to produce a liquid product, often called bio-oil. This chapter focuses on the liquefaction, a medium-temperature and high-pressure thermochemical process for the conversion of biomass to bio-oil. Water has been most commonly used as a solvent and the process is known as hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Fundamentals of HTL process, key factors determining HTL behavior, role of catalyst in HTL, properties of produced bio-oil, and the current status of the technology are summarized. The liquefaction of biomass by using organic solvents, a process called solvolysis, is also discussed. A wide range of biomass feedstocks have been tested for liquefaction including wood, crop residues, algae, food processing waste, and animal manure.

  19. International Oil and Gas Board International Oil and Gas Board...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Petroleum Company Syrian Petroleum Company Damascus Syria Syria http www spc sy com en production activities1 en php Yemen Ministry of Oil and Minerals Yemen Ministry of Oil and...

  20. Enhanced Oil Recovery to Fuel Future Oil Demands | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhanced Oil Recovery to Fuel Future Oil Demands Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) ...

  1. History of western oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    The history of oil shale in the United States since the early 1900's is detailed. Research on western oil shale probably began with the work of Robert Catlin in 1915. During the next 15 years there was considerable interest in the oil shales, and oil shale claims were located, and a few recovery plants were erected in Colorado, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, and Montana. Little shale soil was produced, however, and the major oil companies showed little interest in producing shale oil. The early boom in shale oil saw less than 15 plants produce a total of less than 15,000 barrels of shale oil, all but about 500 barrels of which was produced by the Catlin Operation in Nevada and by the US Bureau of Mines Rulison, Colorado operation. Between 1930 and 1944 plentiful petroleum supplies at reasonable prices prevent any significant interest in shale oil, but oil shortages during World War II caused a resurgence of interest in oil shale. Between 1940 and 1969, the first large-scale mining and retorting operations in soil shale, and the first attempts at true in situ recovery of shale oil began. Only 75,000 barrels of shale oil were produced, but major advancements were made in developing mine designs and technology, and in retort design and technology. The oil embargo of 1973 together with a new offering of oil shale leases by the Government in 1974 resulted in the most concentrated efforts for shale oil production to date. These efforts and the future prospects for shale oil as an energy source in the US are discussed.

  2. Too early to tell on $100 oil

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Confidential Presentation to: April 7, 2008 Middle East oil demand and Lehman Brothers oil price outlook Adam Robinson Middle East oil demand u Three pillars of Middle East oil ...

  3. Oil and Gas

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    RD&D Leases in the United States Oil Shale RD&D Leases in the United States This paper describes the original plans, progress and accomplishments, and future plans for nine oil shale research, development and demonstration (RD&D) projects on six existing RD&D leases awarded in 2006 and 2007 by the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to Shell, Chevron, EGL (now AMSO), and OSEC (now Enefit American, respectively); as well as three pending

  4. STEO December 2012 - oil production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rise in 2012 U.S. oil production largest since 1859, output in 2013 seen topping 7 million bpd U.S. crude oil production is now expected to rise by about 760,000 barrels per day in ...

  5. Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming R. Evans, S. Czernik, R. French, M. Ratcliff National ... GAS 7 BIOMASS BIO-OIL CHAR For reactor or export Gas recycle For fluidization or export ...

  6. Assessment of heavy oil conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleim, W.T.K.

    1983-08-01

    Removal of benzene insoluble asphaltene components greatly facilitates and improves the subsequent upgrading of residual oils, the desulfurization in particular. For the upgrading of Venezualean oils, the Aurobon process is still the only feasible solution.

  7. Western Hemisphere Oil Products Balance

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Western Hemisphere Oil Products Balance Ramn Espinasa, Ph.D. Lead Specialist July 2014 ... non-commercial purposes. 4 United States Oil Products Balance 5 Energy Matrix - USA 6 ...

  8. Research Portfolio Report Unconventional Oil & Gas Resources...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unconventional Oil & Gas Resources: Subsurface Geology and Engineering DOENETL-20151691 ... Research Portfolio Report: Unconventional Oil & Gas Resources Executive Summary S ...

  9. Nineteenth oil shale symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 23 selections. Some of the titles are: Effects of maturation on hydrocarbon recoveries from Canadian oil shale deposits; Dust and pressure generated during commercial oil shale mine blasting: Part II; The petrosix project in Brazil - An update; Pathway of some trace elements during fluidized-bed combustion of Israeli Oil Shale; and Decommissioning of the U.S. Department of Energy Anvil Points Oil Shale Research Facility.

  10. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Maps of states participating in Winter Fuels Survey Residential propane PADD map Residential heating oil PADD map

  11. Residential heating oil prices available

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices available The average retail price for home heating oil is $2.41 per gallon, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region currently average $2.35 per gallon. This is Marcela Rourk with EIA, in Washington.

  12. Oil shale: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    This report documents the status of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oil Shale Program as of the end of FY 86. The report consists of (1) a status of oil shale development, (2) a description of the DOE Oil Shale Program, (3) an FY 86 oil shale research summary, and (4) a summary of FY 86 accomplishments. Discoveries were made in FY 86 about the physical and chemical properties and behavior of oil shales, process chemistry and kinetics, in situ retorting, advanced processes, and the environmental behavior and fate of wastes. The DOE Oil Shale Program shows an increasing emphasis on eastern US oil shales and in the development of advanced oil shale processing concepts. With the award to Foster Wheeler for the design of oil shale conceptual plants, the first step in the development of a systems analysis capability for the complete oil shale process has been taken. Unocal's Parachute Creek project, the only commercial oil shale plant operating in the United States, is operating at about 4000 bbl/day. The shale oil is upgraded at Parachute Creek for input to a conventional refinery. 67 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  14. Dying for oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachs, A.

    1996-05-01

    This article discusses the fight and execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa, the Ogoni leader who defended his people`s land on the Niger delta against oil development encouraged by the government and persued by the Royal/Dutch Shell Co. Political reprocussions and heightened vigilance of environmental activists are discussed at length.

  15. World Oil Transit Chokepoints

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2012-01-01

    Chokepoints are narrow channels along widely used global sea routes, some so narrow that restrictions are placed on the size of vessel that can navigate through them. They are a critical part of global energy security due to the high volume of oil traded through their narrow straits.

  16. Salinity, temperature, oil composition, and oil recovery by waterflooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, G.Q.; Morrow, N.R.

    1997-11-01

    The effect of aging and displacement temperatures and brine and oil composition on wettability and the recovery of crude oil by spontaneous imbibition and waterflooding has been investigated. This study is based on displacement tests in Berea sandstone with three crude oils and three reservoir brines (RB`s). Salinity was varied by changing the concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS`s) of the synthetic brine in proportion. Salinity of the connate and invading brines can have a major influence on wettability and oil recovery at reservoir temperature. Oil recovery increased over that for the RB with dilution of both the initial (connate) and invading brine or dilution of either. Aging and displacement temperatures were varied independently. For all crude oils, water wetness and oil recovery increased with increase in displacement temperature. Removal of light components from the crude oil resulted in increased water wetness. Addition of alkanes to the crude oil reduced the water wetness, and increased oil recovery. Relationships between waterflood recovery and rate and extent of oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition are summarized.

  17. Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freese, V, Charles Edwin

    2000-05-09

    An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

  18. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Plants and Animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plants & Animals NNSANFO Language Options U.S. DOENNSA - Nevada Field Office Click to subscribe to NNSS News Plants and Animals Wild Horses at the NNSS Because of its physical ...

  19. Smart Grid Animation | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Smart Grid Animation Smart Grid Animation Addthis An error occurred. Try watching this video on www.youtube.com, or enable JavaScript if it is disabled in your browser....

  20. Process for upgrading heavy oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LePage, J.F.; Marlino, G.

    1983-07-05

    The viscosity of heavy oils is reduced in order to facilitate pipe line transportation thereof. A fraction of the heavy oil is deasphalted in the presence of C/sub 5/-C/sub 7/ hydrocarbons, a portion of the separated asphalt is converted to synthesis gas, at least a portion of said gas is used to manufacture an alcohol mixture including methanol and C/sub 2/ to C/sub 10/ alcohols, which mixture is admixed with the heavy oil before transportation thereof. This procedure is more beneficial to the transported heavy oil than the prior processes which do not comprise the conversion of the asphalt fraction of the heavy oil.

  1. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  2. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T.; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R.; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  3. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-09-15

    World oil use is projected to grow to 98 million b/d in 2015 and 118 million b/d in 2030. Total world natural gas consumption is projected to rise to 134 Tcf in 2015 and 182 Tcf in 2030. In an era of declining production and increasing demand, economically producing oil and gas from unconventional sources is a key challenge to maintaining global economic growth. Some unconventional hydrocarbon sources are already being developed, including gas shales, tight gas sands, heavy oil, oil sands, and coal bed methane. Roughly 20 years ago, gas production from tight sands, shales, and coals was considered uneconomic. Today, these resources provide 25% of the U.S. gas supply and that number is likely to increase. Venezuela has over 300 billion barrels of unproven extra-heavy oil reserves which would give it the largest reserves of any country in the world. It is currently producing over 550,000 b/d of heavy oil. Unconventional oil is also being produced in Canada from the Athabasca oil sands. 1.6 trillion barrels of oil are locked in the sands of which 175 billion barrels are proven reserves that can be recovered using current technology. Production from 29 companies now operating there exceeds 1 million barrels per day. The report provides an overview of continuous petroleum sources and gives a concise overview of the current status of varying types of unconventional oil and gas resources. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of the history of Oil and Natural Gas; an analysis of the Oil and Natural Gas industries, including current and future production, consumption, and reserves; a detailed description of the different types of unconventional oil and gas resources; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in unconventional resources; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the development of unconventional resources; profiles of key producing regions; and, profiles of key unconventional oil and gas producers.

  4. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Adam A.; Mast, Earl L.; Greaves, Melvin J.

    1990-01-01

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  5. Shale oil recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zerga, Daniel P.

    1980-01-01

    A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

  6. Enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, W.G.

    1982-01-01

    The principal enhanced recovery technique is waterflooding, because water generally is inexpensive to obtain and inject into the reservoir and it works. With the shortage of conventional oil in Canada there is greater emphasis being placed on other recovery schemes in addition to or in place of waterflooding. Tertiary recovery is applicable to many of the existing projects and engineers must recognize those fields that are candidates for tertiary recovery applications. The application of tertiary recovery techniques to a specific reservoir requires consideration of all methods developed to select the one most suitable. A thorough understanding of waterflooding and the factors that affect recovery is necessary before a tertiary process is considered. Factors that affect oil recovery under waterflooding are areal and vertical sweep efficiency, contact factor and displacement efficiency.

  7. Retrofitting heavy oil processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, G.L.; Fitzgerald, M.; D'Amico, V.

    1986-01-01

    Refiners, faced with the need to process the bottom end of the heavy high sulfur crude oil barrel in today's uncertain economic environment, are reluctant to commit large amounts of money to expensive upgrading processes. In order to conserve scarce capital while improving operating margins, additional valuable products can be produced by retrofits such as conversion of an idle crude unit to visbreaking, delayed coking or deasphalting service, or conversion of hydrodesulfurizers to mild hydrocracking.

  8. Oil Price Volatility

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Speculation and Oil Price Volatility Robert J. Weiner Robert J. Weiner Professor of International Business, Public Policy & Professor of International Business, Public Policy & Public Administration, and International Affairs Public Administration, and International Affairs George Washington University; George Washington University; Membre Associ Membre Associ é é , GREEN, Universit , GREEN, Universit é é Laval Laval EIA Annual Conference Washington Washington 7 April 2009 7 April

  9. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  10. Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could Mean More Oil and Less CO2 Emissions Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could Mean More Oil ...

  11. Strategic Significance of Americas Oil Shale Resource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Early products de- rived from shale oil included kerosene and lamp oil, paraffin, fuel oil, lubricating oil and grease, naphtha, illuminating gas, and ammonium sulfate fertilizer. ...

  12. Louisiana - North Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Louisiana - North Crude Oil ... Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, as of Dec. 31 North Louisiana Crude Oil ...

  13. Crude Oil Prices Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  14. U.S. oil imports to decline with rising oil production through...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oil imports to decline with rising oil production through 2014 The United States will need fewer oil imports over the next two years because of rising U.S. oil production. The new ...

  15. U.S. crude oil production expected to exceed oil imports later...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    crude oil production expected to exceed oil imports later this year U.S. crude oil production is expected to surpass U.S. crude oil imports by the fourth quarter of this year. That ...

  16. High oil production continues to cut U.S. oil imports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High oil production continues to cut U.S. oil imports High U.S. crude oil production will help further reduce America's reliance on oil imports during the next two years. In its ...

  17. DOE to Purchase Heating Oil for the Northeast Home Heating Oil...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Purchase Heating Oil for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve DOE to Purchase Heating Oil for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve June 23, 2008 - 1:29pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC ...

  18. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  19. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  20. Method of operating an oil shale kiln

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-05-23

    Continuously determining the bulk density of raw and retorted oil shale, the specific gravity of the raw oil shale and the richness of the raw oil shale provides accurate means to control process variables of the retorting of oil shale, predicting oil production, determining mining strategy, and aids in controlling shale placement in the kiln for the retorting.

  1. The twentieth oil shale symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: The technical contributions of John Ward Smith in oil shale research; Oil shale rubble fires: ignition and extinguishment; Fragmentation of eastern oil shale for in situ recovery; A study of thermal properties of Chinese oil shale; and Natural invasion of native plants on retorted oil shale.

  2. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 6-tenths of a cent from a week ago to $2.18 per gallon. That's down 79 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.13 per gallon, unchanged from last week, and down 88

  3. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.9 cents from a week ago to $2.16 per gallon. That's down 75 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.11 per gallon, down 2.8 cents from last week, and down 77

  4. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 5.1 cents from a week ago to $2.11 per gallon. That's down 72 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.05 per gallon, down 5.3 cents from last week, and down 75

  5. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 5 cents from a week ago to $2.06 per gallon. That's down 75 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.01 per gallon, down 4.1 cents from last week, and down 78

  6. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.8 cents from a week ago to $2.82 per gallon. That's down $1.36 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.79 per gallon, down 1.5 cents from last week, and down $1.34

  7. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1.8 cents from a week ago to $2.08 per gallon. That's down 72 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.02 per gallon, up 3-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 76

  8. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.9 cents from a week ago to $2.80 per gallon. That's down $1.44 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.78 per gallon, down 1.2 cents from last week, and down $1.40

  9. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1 cent from a week ago to $2.09 per gallon. That's down 82 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.02 per gallon, up 8-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 85

  10. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1.1 cents from a week ago to $2.10 per gallon. That's down 94 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.04 per gallon, up 2.3 cents from last week, and down 95

  11. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 9-tenths of a cent from a week ago to $2.09 per gallon. That's down $1.09 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.04 per gallon, down 1-tenth of a cent from last week, and down $1.11

  12. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 5-tenths of a cent from a week ago to $2.09 per gallon. That's down $1.20 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.03 per gallon, down 9-tenths of a cent from last week, and down $1.22

  13. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 6-tenths of a cent from a week ago to $2.10 per gallon. That's down $1.11 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.04 per gallon, up 5-tenths of a cent from last week, and down $1.14

  14. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 2.6 cents from a week ago to $2.12 per gallon. That's down 91 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.06 per gallon, up 2.1 cents from last week, and down 94

  15. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1 cent from a week ago to $2.13 per gallon. That's down 80 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.07 per gallon, up 9-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 83

  16. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 10.5 cents from a week ago to $2.93 per gallon, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.90 per gallon, down 10.4 cents from last week. This is Marcela Rourk

  17. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 2.3 cents from a week ago to $2.38 per gallon. That's down 99 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.32 per gallon, down 3.1 cents from last week, and down $1.00

  18. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.5 cents from a week ago to $2.36 per gallon. That's down 97 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.31 per gallon, down 2-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 96

  19. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3 cents from a week ago to $2.33 per gallon. That's down 89 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.28 per gallon, down 3.5 cents from last week, and down 9

  20. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.6 cents from a week ago to $2.26 per gallon. That's down 89 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.19 per gallon, down 8.9 cents from last week, and down 92

  1. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 4.5 cents from a week ago to $2.21 per gallon. That's down 87 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.15 per gallon, down 3.6 cents from last week, and down 89

  2. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.5 cents from a week ago to $2.18 per gallon. That's down 87 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.13 per gallon, down 2.2 cents from last week, and down 88

  3. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.9 cents from a week ago to $3.43 per gallon. That's down 39 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.38 per gallon, down 2.6 cents from last week, and down 38.7

  4. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.8 cents from a week ago to $3.14 per gallon. That's down 81.1 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.12 per gallon, down 6.5 cents from last week, and down 79.9

  5. Residential heating oil prices available

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices available The average retail price for home heating oil is $3.52 per gallon. That's down 32.7 cents from a year ago, based on the U.S. Energy Information Administration's weekly residential heating fuel price survey. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $3.48 per gallon, down 29.1 cents from a year ago. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington

  6. Residential heating oil prices decline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 2 cents from a week ago to $3.36 per gallon. That's down 52.5 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.31 per gallon, down 1.3 cents from last week, and down 52.6

  7. Residential heating oil prices decline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 6.3 cents from a week ago to $3.08 per gallon. That's down 90.3 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.05 per gallon, down 6.8 cents from last week, and down 91.6

  8. Residential heating oil prices decline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2, 2014 Residential heating oil prices decline The average retail price for home heating oil is $3.48 per gallon. That's down 4.5 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $3.43 per gallon, down 5.7 cents from last week. This is Amerine Woodyard

  9. Residential heating oil prices decrease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices decrease The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.7 cents from a week ago to $4.02 per gallon. That's up 1.7 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to 4.01 per gallon, down 6-tenths of a cent from last week, and up 5.8

  10. Residential heating oil prices decrease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 2.9 cents from a week ago to $3.45 per gallon. That's down 36.6 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.41 per gallon, down 3 cents from last week, and down 35

  11. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 5.4 cents from a week ago to $4.04 per gallon. That's up 4.9 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to 4.02 per gallon, up 5.6 cents from last week, and up 8

  12. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3, 2014 Residential heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 4.4 cents from a week ago to $4.06 per gallon. That's up 4.1 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to 4.03 per gallon, up 2.5 cents from last week, and up 6

  13. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 12 cents from a week ago to $4.18 per gallon. That's up 13 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to 4.13 per gallon, up 9.8 cents from last week, and up 12.9 cents from a

  14. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 3.9 cents last week to $3.96 per gallon. That's down 2.6 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The price for heating oil in the New England region averaged 3.92 per gallon, up 5.2 cents from last week, and 1.7

  15. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 2.9 cents from a week ago to $3.98 per gallon. That's up 6-tenths of a penny from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose to 3.96 per gallon, up 4.1 cents from last week, and up 4.8

  16. Oil market outlook and drivers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Oil inventories in industrialized countries to reach record high at end of 2015 The amount of year-end oil inventories held in industrialized countries is expected to be the highest on record in 2015. In its monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said it expects commercial oil inventories in the United States and other industrialized countries to total 2.83 billion barrels at the end of this year almost 90 million barrels more than at the end of 2014. Global oil production

  17. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, William A.; Young, Robert R.

    1985-01-01

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

  18. Solar retorting of oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

  19. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  20. Brushing up on oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, J.

    1995-12-01

    To be prepared for a range of oil spills, emergency response organizations must have an arsenal of powerful and adaptable equipment. Around the coastal United States, a network of oil spill cooperatives and emergency response organizations stand ready with the technology and the know-how to respond to the first sign of an oil spill. When the telephone rings, they may be required to mop up 200 gallons of oil that leaked off the deck of a ship or to contain and skim 2,000 gallons of oil from a broken hose at a loading terminal. In a few cases each year, they may find themselves responding to a major pollution incident, one that involves hundreds of people and tons of equipment. To clean an oil spill at a New Jersey marine terminal, the local cooperative used the Lundin Oil Recovery Inc. (LORI) skimming system to separate the oil and water and the lift the oil out of the river. The LORI skimming technology is based on sound principles of fluid management - using the natural movement of water instead of trying to fight against it. A natural feeding mechanism delivers oily water through the separation process, and a simple mechanical separation and recovery device - a brush conveyor - removes the pollutants from the water.

  1. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The Federal forms below are required for State Energy Officials participating in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) to execute their cooperative agreements with the ...

  2. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Holiday Release Schedule The Heating Oil and Propane Update is produced during the winter heating season, which extends from October through March of each year. The standard ...

  3. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Animals NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Animals Coyotes, kit foxes, pronghorn antelope, desert tortoises, sidewinder snakes, bald eagles, kangaroo rats and peregrine falcons are just a few of the more than 1,500 animal species found on the Nevada National Security Site. Instructions: Click the document THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details. Click the Category, Number, or Date table header links to sort the information. Thumbnail Category Number

  4. Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Safety Systems Animation | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Safety Systems Animation Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Safety Systems Animation This animation demonstrates the multiple safety systems in hydrogen-fueled ...

  5. Video, Animation, and Audio Requirements for the Web | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Video, Animation, and Audio Requirements for the Web Video, Animation, and Audio Requirements for the Web When producing videos, animations, and audio for the Web, consider the ...

  6. Quality Assurance Checklists for Video, Animations, and Audio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Videos, Animations, & Audio Quality Assurance Checklists for Video, Animations, and Audio Web Requirements Quality Assurance Checklists for Video, Animations, and Audio Web ...

  7. Video, Audio, and Animation Text Versions for Web Accessibility...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Videos, Animations, & Audio Video, Audio, and Animation Text Versions for Web Accessibility Video, Audio, and Animation Text Versions for Web Accessibility For accessibility, ...

  8. Fuel Cell Animation- Chemical Process (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts.

  9. Upgrading residual oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angevine, P.J.; Stein, T.R.

    1982-04-13

    Residual oil fractions are upgraded in that Conradson Carbon Residue (CCR) is selectively removed without undue hydrogen consumption by hydroprocessing with a catalyst comprising a single metal such as molybdenum, tungsten, nickel, iron or palladium or multimetallic combination of such metals, excluding, however, active desulfurization compositions such as nickel molybdenum and nickel-tungsten. Said catalyst is characterized as having greater than about 50% of its pore volume contribution in pores having diameters in the range of between about 100 and 200 angstroms. The product of such hydroprocessing is a particularly preferable feedstock for coking to give more liquid yield and less coke make.

  10. Iran Oil and Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Iran Oil and Gas Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Iran Oil and Gas Name: Iran Oil and Gas Address: Unit 16, 3rd Fl., Bldg. No. 2, 9th Narenjestan St., North Pasdaran Ave. Place:...

  11. This Week In Petroleum Crude Oil Section

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crude oil futures and estimated contract prices (dollars per barrel) Contract 1 Contract 2 Contract 3 Contract 4 Crude oil futures price contract 1 graph Crude oil futures price ...

  12. Oman Oil Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oil Company (S.A.O.C.) Name: Oman Oil Company (S.A.O.C.) Place: Muscat, Oman Product: Oil exploration and production Year Founded: 1966 Phone Number: + 968 - 2457 3100 Website:...

  13. heavy_oil | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Much of America's heavy oil is produced via a costly steam injection enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method to produce a crude oil grade that is lower in quality and thus sells for ...

  14. ,"U.S. Crude Oil Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Imports from Oman of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels per Day)","U.S. Imports from Papua New Guinea of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels per Day)","U.S. Imports from Peru of Crude Oil ...

  15. ,"U.S. Crude Oil Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Imports from Oman of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from Papua New Guinea of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from Peru of Crude Oil (Thousand ...

  16. Compare All CBECS Activities: Fuel Oil Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Fuel Oil Use Compare Activities by ... Fuel Oil Use Total Fuel Oil Consumption by Building Type Commercial buildings in the U.S. used a total of approximately 1.3 billion gallons...

  17. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate the potential of storing carbon dioxide in depleted oil fields while simultaneously maximizing oil production. January 8, 2014 Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery.

  18. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate the potential of storing carbon dioxide in depleted oil fields while simultaneously maximizing oil production. January 8, 2014 Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery.

  19. Enhanced Oil Recovery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhanced Oil Recovery Enhanced Oil Recovery Cross-section illustrating how carbon dioxide and water can be used to flush residual oil from a subsurface rock formation between wells. Cross-section illustrating how carbon dioxide and water can be used to flush residual oil from a subsurface rock formation between wells. Crude oil development and production in U.S. oil reservoirs can include up to three distinct phases: primary, secondary, and tertiary (or enhanced) recovery. During primary

  20. Conversion of heavy hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, N.Y.; Pelrine, B.P.; Yan, T.Y.

    1982-12-14

    This invention provides a process for upgrading a heavy hydrocarbon oil to motor fuel products. The heavy hydrocarbon oil is admixed with a metal halide catalyst and a solvent component under supercritical conditions to form (1) a dense-gas solvent phase which contains refined hydrocarbon crackate, and which is substantially free of metal halide catalyst content; and (2) a residual asphaltic phase.

  1. Measuring Dependence on Imported Oil

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    U.S. dependence on imported oil can be measured in at least two ways. The differences hinge largely on whether oil imports are defined as net imports (total imports minus exports) or as total imports. EIA introduces a revised table that expresses dependence on imports in terms of both measures.

  2. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate ...

  3. Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs.

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs Transportation fuel Heat or electricity * Data are from literature, except heating oil is adjusted from 2011 winter average * ...

  4. SciTech Connect: "oil shale"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    oil shale" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "oil shale" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator ...

  5. Oil and Gas Gateway | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    States, oil and gas boards and commissions are the place for finding data related to oil and gas activities. These activities include well records, permitting, and production...

  6. Oil Refund Decisions | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    During the period 1973 through 1981, the Federal government imposed price and allocation controls of crude oil and refined petroleum products, such as gasoline and heating oil. ...

  7. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use Product: Residential - Distillate Fuel Oil Residential - No. 1 Residential - No. 2 Residential - Kerosene Commercial - Distillate Fuel Oil Commercial - No. 1 Distillate ...

  8. Enhanced Oil Recovery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhanced Oil Recovery Enhanced Oil Recovery Thanks in part to innovations supported by the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory over the past 30 years, ...

  9. U.S. Crude Oil Export Policy

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Crude Oil Export Policy EIA Energy Conference Jason Bordoff July 14, 2014 Washington, DC ... Cook Inlet. * Heavy California crude oil. * Exports connected to refining or ...

  10. Oil and Gas Research| GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil & Gas We're balancing the increasing demand for finite resources with technology that ensures access to energy for generations to come. Home > Innovation > Oil & Gas ...

  11. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

  12. ,"Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ... "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports" ...

  13. heavy_oil | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heavy Oil Heavy oil is a vast U.S. oil resource that is underexploited because its highly viscous nature renders it difficult to produce and to refine. As higher-gravity crudes (lighter oil) become increasingly scarce in the U.S., American operators are looking more and more to low-gravity crudes (heavy oil) to prop up the Nation's declining oil output. Heavy oil generally is defined as having an API (American Petroleum Institute) gravity of 10-20 degrees. Oil sources with even lower gravities,

  14. Process for oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, John B.; Kunchal, S. Kumar

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  15. Heavy oil transportation by pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerez, J.M.; Pick, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    Worldwide there are a number of pipelines used to transport heavy crude oils. The operations are facilitated in a variety of ways. For example, the Alyeska pipeline is an insulated pipeline transporting warm oil over 800 miles. This 48-inch line experiences limited heat loss due to the insulation, volume of oil contained, and heat gain due to friction and pumping. Some European trunk lines periodically handle heavy and waxy crudes. This is achieved by proper sizing of batches, following waxy crudes with non-waxy crudes, and increased use of scrapers. In a former Soviet republic, the transportation of heavy crude oil by pipeline has been facilitated by blending with a lighter Siberian crude. The paper describes the pipeline transport of heavy crudes by Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc. The paper describes enhancing heavy oil transportation by emulsion formation, droplet suspension, dilution, drag reducing agents, and heating.

  16. Fuel oil quality task force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laisy, J.; Turk, V.

    1997-09-01

    In April, 1996, the R.W. Beckett Corporation became aware of a series of apparently unrelated symptoms that made the leadership of the company concerned that there could be a fuel oil quality problem. A task force of company employees and industry consultants was convened to address the topic of current No. 2 heating oil quality and its effect on burner performance. The task force studied changes in fuel oil specifications and trends in properties that have occurred over the past few years. Experiments were performed at Beckett and Brookhaven National Laboratory to understand the effect of changes in some fuel oil properties. Studies by other groups were reviewed, and field installations were inspected to gain information about the performance of fuel oil that is currently being used in the U.S. and Canada. There was a special concern about the use of red dye in heating oils and the impact of sulfur levels due to the October, 1993 requirement of low sulfur (<0.05%) for on-highway diesel fuel. The results of the task force`s efforts were published in July, 1996. The primary conclusion of the task force was that there is not a crisis or widespread general problem with fuel oil quality. Localized problems that were seen may have been related to refinery practices and/or non-traditional fuel sources. System cleanliness is very important and the cause of many oil burner system problems. Finally, heating oil quality should get ongoing careful attention by Beckett engineering personnel and heating oil industry groups.

  17. Phosphorylation at tyrosine 114 of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is required for adipogenesis in response to high fat diet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo, Yuan-Hung; Ho, Po-Chun; Chen, Min-Shan; Hugo, Eric; Ben-Jonathan, Nira; Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3223 Eden Avenue, Kettering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056 ; Wang, Shao-Chun; Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3223 Eden Avenue, Kettering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is phosphorylated at Y114. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phospho-Y114 of PCNA is not required for cell proliferation for normal growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MCE during adipogenesis is abolished in the lack of the phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homozygous Y114F mice are resistant to high fat diet induced obesity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results shed light on the interface between proliferation and differentiation. -- Abstract: Clonal proliferation is an obligatory component of adipogenesis. Although several cell cycle regulators are known to participate in the transition between pre-adipocyte proliferation and terminal adipocyte differentiation, how the core DNA synthesis machinery is coordinately regulated in adipogenesis remains elusive. PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen) is an indispensable component for DNA synthesis during proliferation. Here we show that PCNA is subject to phosphorylation at the highly conserved tyrosine residue 114 (Y114). Replacing the Y114 residue with phenylalanine (Y114F), which is structurally similar to tyrosine but cannot be phosphorylated, does not affect normal animal development. However, when challenged with high fat diet, mice carrying homozygous Y114F alleles (PCNA{sup F/F}) are resistant to adipose tissue enlargement in comparison to wild-type (WT) mice. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) harboring WT or Y114F mutant PCNA proliferate at similar rates. However, when subjected to adipogenesis induction in culture, PCNA{sup F/F} MEFs are not able to re-enter the cell cycle and fail to form mature adipocytes, while WT MEFs undergo mitotic clonal expansion in response to the adipogenic stimulation, accompanied by enhanced Y114 phosphorylation of PCNA, and differentiate to mature adipocytes. Consistent with the function of Y114 phosphorylation in clonal proliferation in adipogenesis, fat tissues isolated from WT

  18. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  19. Oil Stop Valve : Oil Spill Containment Research and Development Project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourn, Robert D.

    1982-07-01

    This report summarizes the research and development project conducted by the Civil Engineering Section, Division of Substation and Control Engineering, to determine the effectiveness of the oil stop valve for use in the Bonneville Power Administration's Oil Spill Containment and Countermeasure Program. The most attractive alternative to lagoons and separator tanks was found in the oil stop valve manufactured by AFL/Clark Industries of Riviera Beach, Florida. This small, direct-acting and relatively inexpensive valve requires little maintenance and can either be employed independently, using existing drain lines for effluent storage, or in conjunction with oil separator tanks and lagoon systems. The AFL/Clark valve requires no power and has only one moving part, a ballasted float having a specific gravity between that of oil and water. In water, the float rides above the throat of the discharge pipe allowing water to flow out. When oil enters the water the float begins losing its relative bouyancy and sinks until it seats itself over the throat of the outlet, closing the valve. Usually installed in a manhole within a typical storm drainage system, the valve backs spilled oil into drainways and contains it for temporary storage within the switchyard.

  20. DOE - Fossil Energy: Squeezing Oil Out of Rock

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2-Squeezing Out Oil An Energy Lesson Looking Down an Oil Well Looking Down an Oil Well Squeezing Oil out of Rocks Imagine trying to force oil through a rock. Can't be done, you ...

  1. Ecological effects of a major oil spill on Panamanian coastal marine communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, J.B.C.; Cubit, J.D.; Keller, B.D.; Batista, V.; Burns, K.; Caffey, H.M.; Caldwell, R.L.; Garrity, S.D.; Getter, C.D.; Gonzalez, C.; Guzman, H.M.; Kaufmann, K.W.; Knap, A.H.; Levings, S.C.; Marshall, M.J.; Steger, R.; Thompson, R.C.; Weil, E. )

    1989-01-06

    In 1986 more than 8 million liters of crude oil spilled into a complex region of mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs just east of the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal. This was the largest recorded spill into coastal habitats in the tropical Americas. Many populations of plants and animals in both oiled and unoiled sites had been studied previously, thereby providing an unprecedented measure of ecological variation before the spill. Documentation of the spread of oil and its biological effects begun immediately. Intertidal mangroves, seagrasses, algae, and associated invertebrates were covered by oil and died soon after. More surprisingly, there was also extensive mortality of shallow subtidal reef corals and infauna of seagrass beds. After 1.5 years only some organisms in areas exposed to the open sea have recovered.

  2. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  3. Oil field management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-09-23

    Oil field management systems and methods for managing operation of one or more wells producing a high void fraction multiphase flow. The system includes a differential pressure flow meter which samples pressure readings at various points of interest throughout the system and uses pressure differentials derived from the pressure readings to determine gas and liquid phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flow. One or both of the gas and liquid phase mass flow rates are then compared with predetermined criteria. In the event such mass flow rates satisfy the predetermined criteria, a well control system implements a correlating adjustment action respecting the multiphase flow. In this way, various parameters regarding the high void fraction multiphase flow are used as control inputs to the well control system and thus facilitate management of well operations.

  4. Enhanced oil recovery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsberry, Fred L.

    1989-01-01

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  5. Oil shale combustion/retorting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) conducted a number of feasibility studies on the combustion and retorting of five oil shales: Celina (Tennessee), Colorado, Israeli, Moroccan, and Sunbury (Kentucky). These studies generated technical data primarily on (1) the effects of retorting conditions, (2) the combustion characteristics applicable to developing an optimum process design technology, and (3) establishing a data base applicable to oil shales worldwide. During the research program, METC applied the versatile fluidized-bed process to combustion and retorting of various low-grade oil shales. Based on METC's research findings and other published information, fluidized-bed processes were found to offer highly attractive methods to maximize the heat recovery and yield of quality oil from oil shale. The principal reasons are the fluidized-bed's capacity for (1) high in-bed heat transfer rates, (2) large solid throughput, and (3) selectivity in aromatic-hydrocarbon formation. The METC research program showed that shale-oil yields were affected by the process parameters of retorting temperature, residence time, shale particle size, fluidization gas velocity, and gas composition. (Preferred values of yields, of course, may differ among major oil shales.) 12 references, 15 figures, 8 tables.

  6. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    in this table do not include enclosed malls and strip malls. In the 1999 CBECS, total fuel oil consumption in malls was not statistically significant. (*)Value rounds to zero...

  7. Upgrading Orinoco belt heavy oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alcantara, J.; Castillo, O.

    1982-09-01

    The Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt of Venezuela is a subsurface geological formation of petroleum-bearing sands that is approximately 700 km long and between 60 and 80 km wide. The results of recent explorations have shown the area to contain over one trillion barrels of oil in-place, ranging from 8/sup 0/ API to 14/sup 0/ APE gravity. In an effort to develop these resources, Petroleos de Venezuela has undertaken a program to evaluate and develop this heavy oil belt. The objectives of this program are discussed along with the process technology selection, pilot plants, and environmental protection measures. (JMT)

  8. Upgrading Orinoco Belt heavy oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliantara, J.; Castillo, O.

    1982-05-01

    Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA), in an effort to develop new oil resources, has undertaken a program to evaluate and develop the Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt, in the eastern part of Venezuela. Lagoven, S.A., a subsidiary of PDVSA, has been assigned the responsibility for developing and upgrading part of the Orinoco belt. This paper describes the most relevant aspects of Lagoven's first upgrading module, a facility that will convert Orinoco oil into a premium crude with a very high yield of products of great market demand.

  9. AEO Early Release 2013 - oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Growing U.S. oil output and rising vehicle fuel economy to cut U.S. reliance on foreign oil The United States is expected to continue cutting its dependence on petroleum and liquid fuels imports over the rest of this decade because of growing domestic crude oil production and more fuel-efficient vehicles on America's highways. The new long-term outlook from the U.S. Energy Information Administration shows America's dependence on imported petroleum and liquid fuels will decline from 45 percent of

  10. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.; Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.